Theory and research in social education

Theory and research in social education

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Theory and research in social education
National Council for the Social Studies -- College and University Faculty Assembly
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Theory and Research in Social Education Volume X t Number 1 t Spring 1982 TRSE is the official journal of the College and University Faculty Assembly of the National Council for the Social Studies Published quarterly, it is a general review open to all social studies educators, social scientists, historians and philosophers A general statement of purpose, and submission, subscription and advertising information may be found at the end of the journal € 1982 by the College and University Faculty Assembly of the National Council for the Social Studies All rights reserved i


Editor : Jack Nelson Rutgers University Editorial Board : Beverly Armento Georgia State University Kenneth Carlson Rutgers University Cleo Cherryholmes Michigan State University Millard Clements New York University Catherine Cornbleth University of Pittsburgh Lee Ehman Indiana University Janet Eyler Vanderbilt University Patrick Ferguson University of Alabama Jack Fraenkel San Francisco State Henry Giroux Boston University Jean Grambs University of Maryland Carole Hahn Emory University Robin McKeown University of California, Riverside Lawrence Metcalf University of Illinois John Napier University of Georgia Murry Nelson Pennsylvania State University Thomas Popkewitz University of Wisconsin JoAnn Sweeney University of Texas Stanley Wronski Michigan State University 11 Associate Editor : Stuart Palonsky Rutgers University Book Review Editor : William Stanley Louisiana State University The College and University Faculty Assembly Executive Committee 1981-2 Chair : John Napier University of Georgia Secretary : Ann Stoddard University of North Florida Treasurer .Samuel R Bell Bradley University 1982 Program Co-Chairs : Millard Clements New York University Frinde Maher Wheaton College Ex Officio : Beverly Armento Georgia State University Ambrose Clegg Kent State University Members : Richard Diem University of Texas at San Antonio Lee Ehman Indiana University Linda C Falkenstein Portland State University Sharon Pray Muir Oklahoma State University Robert Tabachnik University of Wisconsin


The National Council for the Social Studies Officers 1981-2 President : James A Banks t Vice-President : Jean Craven University of Washington t Albuquerque Public Schools President-Elect : Carole Hahn t Executive Director : Lynne Iglitzin Emory University Reviewers For This Issue of TRSE The editors wish to express special appreciation to the following scholars who served as referees in the selection of manuscripts for publication in this issue Beverly Armento, Georgia State University Buckley Barnes, Georgia State University Kenneth Carlson, Rutgers University Millard Clements, New York University Catherine Cornbleth, University of Pittsburgh Kieran Egan, Simon Fraser University Lee Ehman, Indiana University Leah Engelhart, Mississippi State University Janet Eyler, Vanderbilt University Jack Fraenkel, San Francisco State University Judith Gillespie, Indiana University Michael Hartoonian, Wisconsin State Education Department Robert Johns, University of Arkansas, Little Rock Margaret Laughlin, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay Gerald Marker, Indiana University Peter Martorella, Temple University Robin McKeown, University of California, Riverside Fred Newmann, University of Wisconsin, Madison Richard Newton, Temple University Michael Piburn, Rutgers University Bruce Romanish, Rutgers University Katherine Scott, Florida State University Lynn Schwab, University of North Florida James Shaver, Utah State University William Stanley, Louisiana State University Mary Kay Tetreault, Lewis and Clark University Jan Tucker, Florida International University Ronald Van Sickle, University of Georgia Jane White, University of Maryland iii


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v Volume X Number 1 Spring, 1982 CONTENTS Tom Haladyna, Joan Shaughnessy and Al Redsun Correlates of Attitudes Toward Social Studies 1 A Guy Larkins and C W McKinney Two Studies of the Effects of Teacher Enthusiasm on the Social Studies Achievement of Seventh Grade Students 27 Janet Eyler A Test of a Model Relating Political Attitudes to Participation in High School Activities 43 Book Reviews Joyce Honeychurch The Nine Nations of North America 64 Cleo Cherryholmes Education, Democracy and Discussion 66 INDEX TO TRSE Volume I-IX, 1973-1981 69 Dissertations in Progress 76 Abstracts 77


From the Editors Although this is the initial issue of TRSE to appear under our editorship, it is the start of Volume 10 in the remarkable history of a publication which had hesistant and skeptical beginnings Several of us had been actively pursuing some means for communicating ideas and scholarly interests among social educators, dating from the earliest NCSS sessions of college faculty about fifteen years ago We had many discussions, and sometimes acrimonious debate, about the need, desire and likelihood of success for a journal of research and theory in the field The center of contention involved interrelated concerns : the quality of social studies research and the quantity of manuscripts available In addition there were suggestions that a journal would only be redundant in the field and in education, that it would not retain a focus on scholarly work, and that it would be divisive within NCSS Despite this faltering and questioning setting, TRSE was born with the first issue dated October, 1973, under the editorship of Cleo Cherryholmes TRSE has developed from a unknown sporadic annual publication to a respected and broadly distributed quarterly While all of the original concerns have not been resolved to the complete satisfaction of all CUFA members, there is no doubt about the ability of the field to sustain a high quality research and theory publication Social education scholars, and those of us who have the good fortune to follow in their paths, are in debt to the courageous, creative and thoughtful work of previous TRSE editors They established and developed this journal We honor them for their foresight and firm resolve to continually improve the scholarly quality of the journal and the field Cleo Cherryholmes, Michigan State University 1973-75 Lee Ehman and Judy Gillespie, Indiana University 1976-78 Tom Popkewitz and Robert Tabachnik, University of Wisconsin 1979-81 We want to add our personal thanks to Tom Popkewitz, Bob Tabachnik, Paula Bozoian, and Donna Schleicher of the University of Wisconsin for the excellent assistance, information and transfer of records for the journal from their campus to ours We are also greatly indebted to the authors of manuscripts, to the scholars who volunteer to referee manuscripts, and those who are the journal's audience We look forward to your continued support, and welcome your suggestions Jack Nelson Stuart Palonsky vi


Theory and Research in Social Education Spring, 1982 Volume 10 Number 1, pp 1-26 € by The College and University Faculty Assembly of the National Council for the Social Studies Correlates of Attitudes Toward Social Studies Tom Haladyna Joan Shaughnessy Teaching Research Division, Oregon State System of Higher Education Al Redsun Western Oregon State College Recent reviews of research on the attitudes of students toward subject matters point to a common problem, a lack of integrative findings about the determinants of these attitudes (Haladyna & Thomas, 1979b) In mathematics, Aiken (1970, 1976) suggests more programmatic efforts which emphasize multi-variate techniques of data analysis In science, Gardner (1974), Peterson and Carlson (1979) and Haladyna and Shaughnessy (1980a) have made similar observations, the latter authors concluding that despite the high number of studies reported, most deal with the relation of science attitude to gender differences or the effects of programs on science attitudes With respect to social studies attitudes, Shaughnessy, Haladyna, and Olsen (1979) report that very little research has been done Despite the paucity of studies, there is uncontestable evidence that social studies is one of the least liked subject matters in our schools The focus of this study and the model proposed is attitude toward the school subject of social studies This focus is in sharp contrast to other attitudes such as toward political participation, values toward society and the political world, and others, such as those reviewed by Ehman (1980) Sim1


ply stated, attitude toward social studies as a school subject is believed to be present when the subject is formally introduced, typically by grade four, and such attitude has been measured and observed to decline rapidly from grade four to grade eight (Haladyna and Thomas, 1979b) In a study of correlates of attitude toward the social studies, Haladyna, Shaughnessy, and Redsun (in press) identified variables which were highly related to attitude The study was based on a theoretical model which hypothesizes the relationships between social studies attitudes and variables from three major constructs : the student, the teacher, and the learning environment The results of this study provided firm support for these factors as correlates of attitudes when the unit of analysis is the student Additional data analyses revealed that class means of social studies attitude varied significantly, and it was hypothesized that these variations among classrooms may be attributable to these very same constructs The present study was planned to explore the collectivity of the student, teacher, and learning environment measures as possible correlates of classroom attitudes toward social studies The supposition is that the classroom dynamics serve to affect a group or class attitude that is not the same as an individual attitude As a background for this study, the theoretical model upon which this research is based is first presented A Model for the Study of Attitudes As a means for studying attitude toward the subject matter of social studies, as well as integrating the research findings of past and future such studies, a theoretical model was developed A fuller explication o f the model is presented in Haladyna and Shaughnessy (1982) A theory is realized when (a) constructs are defined, (b) relationships are hypothesized among constructs, (c) measures are identified which represent these constructs, and (d) research can be utilized to test these hypotheses and, subsequently, the theory From a practical standpoint, if correlates of attitude can be identified, and it is believed that attitude represents an important and desirable outcome of school programs, then programs and methods can be devised to positively affect these attitudes The essence of the organization of the theoretical model is that all variables can be classified with respect to two dimensions : content and focus Content refers to the nature of the variable : student, teacher, or learning environment All variables reported in previous studies can be classified into only one of these categories and potentially may be a determinant of social studies attitudes (e .g ., Haladyna & Shaughnessy, 1980b) Focus refers to the location of the variable with respect to the institution being studied In this frame of reference exogenous variables are those which reside outside the immediate influence of the schooling process These variables include a teacher's age, gender of student, physical condi2


tion of the school building, and socioeconomic status of the neighborhood where the school class resides Exogenous variables are "givens" in the schooling process and may not be manipulated to produce changes in attitude On the other hand, endogenous genous variables can be manipulated and may be powerful determinants of attitude change Such variables reside within the schooling process and are under the direct control of the teacher and other school personnel These variables include the attitude of the student toward school, class organization, teacher praise and reinforcement of students, among many others The strengths of relationships between these factors and social studies attitudes have not yet been determined in previous research These exogenous and endogenous categories across the dimensions of content are shown in Figure 1 The arrows hypothesize what causal relationships exist among these constructs For example, it is believed that the teacher has a direct influence on student attitudes This influence can be attributed to overall teacher quality and, more specifically, to such traits as praise and reinforcement, fairness, and respect for the student The learning environment is directly influenced by the teacher and directly influences the student's attitude toward social studies Such variables as classroom organization, goal direction, difficulty, and others may be causally related to the attitudes of students toward social studies Finally, it is believed that student endogenous variables are also causally related to social studies attitude As with learning environment variables, student variables are influenced by the teacher, and in turn, influence attitudes The first in a series of studies of these determinants was done by Haladyna, Learning Environment Teacher Student Exogenous Learning Environment T Teacher "t t Student The Schooling Process 3 Student Attitudes Toward Social Studies Endogenous Figure 1 Illustration of the roles of exogenous and endogenous variables on attitudes toward social studies


Shaughnessy, and Redsun (in press), where the model was tested using the individual as the unit of analysis The results indicated that fatalism, perceptions of the importance of social studies, and self-confidence in ability to learn where the most significant student factors relating to social studies attitudes Teacher and learning environment variables were also strongly related to social studies attitudes This study confirmed the proposition that certain student, teacher, and learning environment variables are probable influences upon individual social studies attitudes As contrasted with the earlier study, the present study deals with the relationships of these same variables to attitude toward the school subject of social studies, but now the unit of analysis is the classroom Several studies have shown (e .g ., Lawrenz, 1976a, 1976b ; Walberg, 1968) that the classroom is a potent variable in accounting for the variance of attitude measures Despite prevailing student attitudes which may result from long-term effects of schooling, a combination of the teacher and the learning environment indigenous to a particular social studies classroom may have much to do with the formation of attitudes at the classroom level If this is true, then programs of classroom intervention can be aimed at changing these variables and attitudes of numbers of students can be improved via group processes, which are more feasible to implement in a school setting than individualized programs The research questions for the present study were : 1 Which student, teacher, and learning environment variables were most highly and significantly correlated with social studies attitudes? 2 What are the respective contributions of each of these three constructs in explaining the variation of social studies attitude scores? 3 What combination of all variables seems most potent in accounting for this variation of these scores? Method Sample Students in grades four, seven, and nine participated in this study The sample sizes and exogenous variables of this sample are presented in Table 1 The sample was underrepresented with respect to minorities, and thus results are not generalizable to these groups Ehman (1980) reported in his review of political attitudes, that the strength of relationships between school and class variables and political attitude variables may be stronger for minorities than for non minorities Therefore the results reported herein should be duly recognized as not representing conditions that may be observed in minority groups The other variables reported in Table 1 represent descriptors of the sample and provides evidence of great diversity within the sample The measure of socioeconomic status was a 12-item scale based on family possessions, e .g ., number of cars at the residence that operate, possession of 25 or more 4


Table 1 : Characteristics of the Sample of Fourth, Seventh, and Ninth Grade Students 1 Sex : Boys Girls 2 Family Background a American Indian b Oriental c Black d White e Mexican-American f Mixed 3 Family Mobility (times moved since first grade) a Never moved b One c Two d Three e Four f More than four 4 Socioeconomic Status mean s .d range (12 is high) 5 Average TV Viewing a None b Less than one hour c 1-2 hours d 2-3 hours e More than 3 hours 6 Self-Reported School Absence a 0-3 days b About one week c About two weeks d About three weeks 5 Fourth t Seventh t Ninth books Most of these items were taken from the National Assessment of Educational Progress surveys The sample was drawn through a stratified, random sampling plan which controlled for size of district and size of school at each grade level and region of state The criteria for the stratification variables varied from grade level to grade level and were based on demographic information about 297 304 350 343 236 228 6 .3% 7 .5% 4 .1% 2 .0 1 .9 1 .5 0 .5 0 .3 0 .2 86 .1 87 .4 90 .9 2 .8 2 .6 3 .1 2 .3% 0 .1% 0 .0% 35 .8% 25 .8% 24 .4% 20 .5 19 .7 18 .6 15 .6 11 .7 15 .8 12 .0 12 .2 10 .6 6 .2 10 .6 8 .2 10 .0% 20 .0% 22 .2% 8 .8 9 .3 9 .9 2 .4 2 .3 2 .2 1-12 1-12 1-12 2 .2% 2 .2% 1 .9% 9 .3 8 .4 11 .6 12 .5 18 .5 21 .8 17 .1 30 .2 30 .0 58 .9% 40 .8% 34 .6% 53 .2% 44 .2% 33 .5% 21 .1 27 .6 28 .5 10 .8 14 .5 21 .4 14 .8% 13 .6% 16 .6%


schools and school districts in the State of Oregon The intent was to sample from schools that widely represented urban and rural locales, and school environments that varied widely Instruments' Two versions of an instrument were expressly designed to tap many affective components of the theoretical model A constraint was that the instrument would be administered within 30 minutes of classroom time The Inventory of Affective Aspects of Schooling (IAAS) was the result of this development The origins of items and scales of the IAAS are varied For example, attitude scales were adapted from a self-report attitude inventory (Haladyna & Thomas, 1979a) while measures of the learning environment came from the Learning Environment Inventory of LEI (Anderson & Walberg, 1976) A version appropriate for grade four, the My Class Inventory, also developed by Anderson and Walberg (1976), was modified and used at that level Some scales were obtained, with permission of the publisher, from the Classroom Environment Scales (Moos & Trickett, 1974) Many demographic items and other items were either adopted or adapted from earlier research instruments reported in the literature or taken from the National Assessment of Educational Progress' numerous item collections The version of the IAAS appropriate for grade four yielded 27 predictor variables distributed across four categories of variables : (a) exogenous student, (b) endogenous student, (c) endogenous teacher, and (4) endogenous learning environment Names of key variables, sample items and reliability estimates are given in Table 2 The IAAS was subjected to a construct validation study by Haladyna, Shaughnessy, and Olsen (1979), and further information about this instrument can be obtained from the Manual (Haladyna and Shaughnessy, 1982) Results indicated that many variables possessed high to moderate degrees of internal consistency, but there was mixed evidence as to the discriminability of some measures For example, the variable, overall teacher quality, is more explicitly defined by four variables : support for the individual, praise and reinforcement, commitment to help students learn, and fairness to students Thus, a high degree of overlap is expected in correlational studies involving all of these variables In conclusion, the IAAS appears to possess sufficient evidence to suggest its use to obtain construct valid interpretations with the populations intended, but caution should be exercised in interpreting some of the variables based on fewer items due to lower reliability and the apparent overlap of some variables A secondary source of information was a questionnaire administered to the teacher This inventory contained items tapping a wide variety of areas, 'Copies of both versions of the instrument and the manual can be obtained from Tom Haladyna, Teaching Research, Monmouth, Oregon, 97361 6


Table 2 : Variables of the Study with-Sample items and Reliability .Estimates Aspects Sample Item Four Scale Reliability Estimate Seven Nine Exogenous Student Amount of TV Viewing Parental Involvement On the average, about how much TV do you watch each day? Do your parents spend a lot of time talking with you? .64 .62 .66 Parental Concern Do your parents remind you to do your school work? .38 .54 .58 Endogenous Student Importance of Social Studies Fatalism Social studies is a worthwhile and necessary subject I'm not the type to do well in social studies .52 .67 .60 Academic Self Concept I think that I am a successful student .71 .76 .79 Amount of Homework Done Endogenous Teacher Overall Teacher Quality About how much time do you spend on homework each week? My teacher explains things very well .41 .93 .94 Enthusiasm My teacher likes social studies .55 .50 .52 Respect My teacher knows a lot about social studies .64 .68 .77 Commitment to Help Students My teacher appreciates our work .75 .76 .81 Learn Support for the Individual My teacher makes things worse when I have a .56 .65 .62 problem


Table 2 (Cont'd) Aspects Sample Item Four Scale Reliability Estimate Seven Nine Fairness My teacher is fair to me .70 .73 .75 Praise and Reinforcement My teacher tells me when I do good work .72 .80 .80 00 Endogenous Learning Environment Social Psychological Enjoyment of Classmates How much do you like the students in your class? .58 .53 .49 Satisfaction with Class Students are well satisfied with the work of the class .71 .36 .52 School Environment Kids like this school .80 .78 .81 Class Environment The students would be proud to show the classroom .51 .47 Friction in Class to a director There is a group of students that interfere with class .57 .54 .66 Apathy activities Students don't care about the future of the class as .27 .28 Cohesiveness a whole Most students know each other very well .56 .49 .56 Management-Organization Competition Students don't compete with each other here .05 .15


a when it is time for social studies? b during social studies? c when social studies is over? d if you know you would never go to social studies again? Table 2 (Cont'd) Aspects Sample Item t Four Scale Reliability Estimate Seven Nine Formality Students are asked to follow strict rules .42 .56 Attentiveness Most students in this class really pay attention to what the teacher is saying .42 .46 Speed The class has plenty of time to cover the assigned work .44 .72 Goal Direction Most students know the goals of the course . .36 .55 Disorganization The class is well organized .77 .79 "o Materials Usage We have good materials to read for this class .54 .52 Diversity Attitude Toward Social Studies How do you feel What students do in class is very different on different days .23 .23


most of which fall into the categories of exogenous and endogenous teacher variables and some learning environment variables Since there was no validation study of this instrument, it was unclear whether results would contribute substantially to our knowledge about possible determinants of social studies attitudes The instrument yielded 97 variables, and it was believed that many of these variables might provide information beyond that which could be derived from students Therefore, the results of the correlation between the teacher inventory variables and classroom social studies attitudes were also included in this study Procedures A description of the purpose of the research and written permission to conduct the study were obtained from district administrators before building principals were contacted Then, school administrators were asked to give permission before voluntary teachers at each school were identified Once teachers had been contacted and all permission to collect data had been obtained, a test administrator, trained in the use of the IAAS, visited the classroom and administered the instrument The teacher was asked to leave the classroom and complete a teacher questionnaire For grade four, items were read to all students For grades seven and nine, the IAAS was self-administered Individual assistance was offered to those who experienced difficulty in the reading of items Data were eliminated from students who chose not to participate or who completed only a part of the inventory Most students participated in the exercise and cooperated All responses were anonymous, to encourage honest responding and insure confidentiality Analysis of Data Two types of analyses were conducted First, productmoment correlations were computed between all predictor variables and the criterion of social studies attitudes, using the class mean as the unit of analysis There were 27 correlations for grade four and 37 for grades seven and nine where the student was the source of information There were 97 correlations for grades four, seven and nine where the teacher was the source of information Since the number of classes used in the analysis was rather small, ranging in sizes from 22 to 33, the criterion for rejecting the null hypothesis that the correlation was zero was 10 All statistical hypotheses were directional (one-way) as the sign of the correlation was predicted from the model The reason for the adoption of this rather high alpha level was that with the small sample sizes, some moderate-sized correlations tend not to be statistically significant Using a directional hypothesis and a higher alpha level maximizes the frequency of rejecting the null hypothesis Using this decision rule results in having some moderately sized correlations reported as significant at the increased risk of a Type I error In instances where correlations were statistically significant but unexplainable by the model, these results 1 0


are viewed either (a) refuting the model or (b) the result of a chance occurrence, a Type I error When a higher number of correlations are computed, and the alpha is set at .10, we would expect to falsely reject the null hypotheses about 10% of the time Therefore, with 125 correlations at grade four, and 142 correlations at grades seven and nine, we would expect from 12 to 14 correlations to be significant by chance alone Therefore, the binomial probability distribution was applied to estimate the probability of obtaining the observed number of significant correlations 2 If this probability is less than .05, then we can safely conclude that the preponderance of these correlations are truly indicative of relationships rather than attributed to the random variability of correlations In the second type of analysis, regression analyses were performed to determine the relative strength of association of various sets of predictors organized by the constructs of student, teacher, and learning environment For instance, all learning environment variables were entered in the regression analyses in sequential fashion with an F-test being used as the basis for accepting or rejecting the variable Again, alpha was set at .10 For each of the three constructs, a "best set" of variables was derived, and the resulting squared multiple correlation coefficient (R) represented the percentage of criterion variance accounted by this set of variables A final step involved the use of all variables to determine a "best set" that included members from all three constructs In this approach to regression analysis we weigh the importance of each construct in explaining the variance of the social studies attitude scores Results and Discussion Correlational Analyses The correlational results can be viewed in two dimensions, grade level and construct category, i .e ., student, teacher, and learning environment Of the 27 correlations where the student was the source of information, 13 were statistically significant at .10 The magnitudes of these correlations were moderate for fourth graders, ranging from .32 to .59, and much higher for seventh and ninth graders When the student is the source of data, it seems reasonable to accept these results as reflective of the true state of affairs rather than attribute these results to chance alone A test of this hypothesis using the binomial probability distribution is highly significant in favor of this conclusion (p < 0 .1) With the teacher as the source of information, significant correlations occurred with less frequency, 7 of 97 for grade four, 19 of 97 for grade seven, and 11 of 97 for grade nine Considerable doubt has to be expressed about these data where the teacher was the source of information Nonetheless, Actually the test is for the probability of obtaining the observed number of significant correl!ations or a higher number 1 1


these results are presented and the findings that bear on the veracity of the model are discussed Grade four The results of this analysis appear in Table 3 Importance of the subject matter of social studies was the most highly related to social studies attitudes Fatalism and self-confidence in ability to learn were moderately related to attitudes as was the teacher's impression of the general overall ability of the class With teacher variables, all correlations were in the low to moderate range, .32 to .42 Of all these variables, teacher enthusiasm for social studies was the most highly correlated with student attitudes Other teacher characteristics were only marginally significant and of generally low magnitudes With endogenous learning environment variables, correlations were again in low to moderate, ranging from .33 to .48 Interestingly, frequency of classroom projects or work sessions was highly related to class attitudes (r = 48), while other factors, such as enjoyment of classmates, competition, and satisfaction with accomplishments in class, were also strongly related The appearance of such factors as frequency of instruction and quality of the building principal were certainly unexpected, and we are willing to interpret these results as attributable to chance The appearance in Table 3 of school environment, friction in class, and class relations would indicate that the atmosphere of the school and class is moderately important in relation to these attitudes Grade seven The organization of the class at this grade level is generally departmentalized We would expect some different influences to be present here to affect attitudes that would be attributable to this different type of organization The results, which appear in Table 4, reveal far more statistically significant correlations than were observed in grade four The high number of significant correlations noted, with data coming from teacher and student sources, insure that most of these results can be attributed to true relationships, rather than Type I errors There are 49 entries in Table 4 Rather than discuss the import of each, we will summarize these results in relation to the model and its categories Exogenous student variables are those which are outside the immediate influence of schooling We view these variables as unimportant and hope that the correlations with social studies attitudes are negligible Unfortunately, they are not Parent involvement and concern should contribute to a student's well-being in school It is natural to expect these positive correlations, but not to the extent observed It seems reasonable to treat these results as potential Type I errors in light of the numerous other significant correlations that make more sense With endogenous student variables, classrooms where self-confidence is 1 2


Table 3 : Correlations Between Student, Teacher, and Learning Environment Variables and Attitudes Toward Social Studies at Grade Four (N = 28) 'Decimals omitted 1 3 Variable Source Correlation' with Criterion Rank in Model Per Cent of Accounted Variance Endogenous Student Importance of Social Studies S 59 1 35 .2 Fatalism S 42 Academic SelfConcept S 37 Student Ability T 37 Endogenous Teacher Enthusiasm for Soc Studies S 42 1 18 .2 Overall Teacher Quality S 34 2 27 .6 Respect for Teacher S 32 Physics Norm T 33 Fairness to Students S 32 Philosophy About Teaching Social Studies T 32 Endogenous Learning Environment Work Sessions Projects T 48 1 23 .8 Enjoyment of Classmates S 45 4 69 .9 Competition S 43 59 .8 Satisfaction with Class S 42 Frequency of Instruction T -41 School Environment S 39 2 45 .4 Quality of Principal T 39 Friction in Class S -38 Class Relations T -33


Table 4 : Correlations Between Student, Teacher, and Learning Environment Variables and Attitudes Toward Social Studies at Grade Seven (N = 33) 1 4 Variable Source Correlation' with Criterion Rank in Model Per Cent of Accounted Variance Exogenous Student Amount of TV Viewing S 39 Parental Involvement S 42 Parental Concern S 44 1 19 .2 Endogenous Student Academic SelfConcept S 53 Fatalism S 74 1 54 .1 Importance of Social Studies S 56 Amount of Homework Done S 34 Motivation of Students T 38 Student Ability (1) T 30 Student Ability (2) T 32 Concern for Grades T -14 2 61 .1 Exogenous Teacher Area of Preparation T 45 1 20 .5 Graduate Work in Social Studies T 35 Type of Certification (K-12) T 37 2 40 .2 Endogenous Teacher Overall Teacher Quality S 67 Enthusiasm for Subject S 49 Respect for Teacher S 58 Support for Individual S 72 1 51 .5 Praise and Reinforcement S 54 Commitment to Helping Students Learn S 53


Table 4 (Cont'd) 1 5 Variable Source Correlation' with Criterion Rank in Model Per Cent of Accounted Variance Fairness to Students S 63 Philosophy About Soc Studies T 43 Satisfaction of Students T 30 Experience of Principal T 33 Principal's Performance S 50 Endogenous Learning Environment School Environment S 51 Enjoyment of Classmates S 54 Cohesiveness S 32 Formality S 40 Speed S 64 1 41 .6 Environment S 62 Attentiveness S 49 Friction in Class S -42 3 69 .5 Goal Direction S 47 Competition S 30 Satisfaction S 60 Disorganization S 60 Apathy S 34 Diversity S 43 Materials Usage S 53 Projects T 52 Inservice Encouragement T 36 Environment T 51 2 60 .8 Friction in Class T -43 Satisfaction T 40 Apathy T 46 Perception of Central Adm T 48 Student Grouping for Instruction T 46


'Decimals Omitted high, fatalism is low and social studies is viewed as important are generally positive about social studies This statement should be tempered by the fact that only 11 of 33 classrooms studied had slightly positive ratings for social studies In contrast, 12 classes were very negative about social studies Nonetheless, fatalism, importance and self-confidence seem to be important classroom variables with respect to social studies attitudes Only three variables were reported in the category of exogenous teacher variables Two of these were plausible : area of preparation in teaching and graduate work in social studies We would like to think that teachers who are well prepared in social studies are more effective in developing positive attitudes in their students However, these correlations were in the low range The third variable, type of certification, is difficult to interpret and may be, again, a chance finding (Type I error) The endogenous teacher variable category yielded a large number of significantly correlated variables, with the magnitudes being quite large, ranging from .30 to .72 Those variables showing the highest correlations with social studies attitudes were : teacher support for individuals, .72 ; overall teacher quality, .67 ; fairness to students, .63 ; respect for teachers, .58 ; praise and reinforcement, .54 ; commitment to help students learn, .51 ; and enthusiasm, .49 All of these variables are plausible in terms of being highly related to social studies attitudes, keeping in mind that four of these variables are sub-aspects of the omnibus variable known as "overall teacher quality ." Several other endogenous teacher variables appearing in Table 4 involved teacher perceptions of students' satisfaction and a teacher's philosophy about teaching social studies, the latter reflecting a preference for a textbook-lecture orientation versus an activities-centered approach Student attitudes were more positive in classrooms of teachers favoring the activity orientation With learning environment variables, 24 variables appeared as statistically significant, emphasizing the importance of the learning environment in the development of social studies attitudes Correlations ranged considerably from a low of .33 to as high as .64 One way to synthesize these findings is to suggest that two dimensions of learning environment seem to exist The Table 4 (Cont'd) 1 6 CorrelaPer Cent of tion' with Rank in Accounted Variable Source Criterion Model Variance Principal's Performance T 54


first of these is a social-psychological aspect, e .g ., school environment, enjoyment of classmates, cohesiveness, environment The second of these deals with the conduct and organization of the classroom, e .g ., formality, speed, goal direction, disorganization, and satisfaction Several entries in Table 4 emanating from the teacher questionnaire reflect the role of the principal in the school These questions deal with the performance of the principal on such matters as support for the teaching staff, instructional leadership, as well as overall leadership ability It is interesting to note the consistency of results across these three principal variables, suggesting that the principal plays a small yet significant role in the school learning environment Certainly we would subscribe to such a notion, although the results of the study do not probe far enough into this possibility Grade nine By grade nine, the student has experienced social studies for at least five years, and negative attitudes are fairly prevalent Most ninth graders are in their last year of a junior high school or their first year of high school For the most part, social studies is a required course and changes its identity in grade nine, varying in content from American Studies to World Cultures In our study, we found fewer social studies classes are conducted in grade nine, and the resultant sample size of 22 is reflected in this decline in ninth grade offerings These students, when given the chance, are electing not to take social studies Since the sample size is smaller, the correlations required for statistical significance were higher For the most part, the 34 significant correlations ranged from .38 to .89, as shown in Table 5 In the endogenous student category, three variables were again significant, self-confidence, fatalism, and importance, all correlations being quite high, .70, .69, and .57, respectively These results can be viewed as a strong relationship that was initially observed in grade four and increased in strength through grades seven and nine Classes where self-confidence is high, where social studies is deemed important, and where fatalism is low tend to be more positive about social studies Two exogenous teacher variables appeared in the results, both of which were unexpected, type of certification and the type of teaching norm, whether or not a pre-algebra norm was earned These findings appear attributable to chanciness in this small sample With the endogenous teacher variables, 12 variables were significantly correlated with social studies attitudes Foremost among these 12 was overall teacher quality, r = .89 As with fourth and seventh graders, teacher quality seems to be a strong correlate of attitudes We will argue that it is also a determinant, and these correlational data offer support for this causal hypothesis Virtually all variables representing aspects of overall teacher quality were also highly related to social studies attitudes, again 1 7


Table 5 : Correlations Between Student, Teacher, and Learning Environment Variables and Attitudes Toward Social Studies at Grade Nine (N = 22) 1 8 Variable Source Correlation' with Criterion Rank in Model Per Cent of Accounted Variance Endogenous Student Self-Confidence S 70 1 49 .4 Importance of Social Studies S 57 Fatalism S 69 Exogenous Teacher Type of Certification T 47 1 22 .4 Pre Algebra Norm T 45 2 49 .8 Endogenous Teacher Overall Teacher Quality S 89 1 80 .2 Enthusiasm for Social Studies S 60 Respect for Teacher S 83 Support for Individual S 79 Praise and Reinforcement S 88 3 87 .8 Commitment to Helping Student Learn S 83 Fairness to Students S 84 Earth Science Norm T 47 Integrated Science Norm T 37 District Support for Workshop T -39 Text Orientation T -44 2 84 .8 Hours Spent Counseling T 39 Endogenous Learning Environment School Environment S 70 Enjoyment of Classmates S 68 2 78 .9 Formality S 39 3 83 .2 Speed S 46


'Decimals omitted reflecting the importance of this variable, whether we isolate components of teacher quality of simply use the global overall teacher quality measure The appearance of four low to moderately correlated variables in the endogenous teacher category again appear to be the product of some chanciness in these data While some plausible explanations may be made for these correlations, we are inclined not to discuss these results, with one exception It seems likely that orientation to text, which refers to the tendency for some teachers to rely on reading of the textbook in social studies, should be negatively correlated with social studies attitudes, as is evidenced in the data In contrast to other categories of variables, a larger proportion of endogenous learning environment variables were significantly correlated with social studies attitudes In Table 5, 19 variables are listed, and correlations ranged from .38 to .82, with most of the significant correlations being associated with data where the student was the source of information As described earlier with respect to learning environment variables, two dimensions seemd to exist, social-psychological and classroom organization With the social-psychological aspects, the variables most highly associated with social studies attitudes were as follows : school environment, .70 ; enjoyment of classmates, .68 ; class environment, .66 ; environment (teacher perception), .55 ; and class relationships, .38 The classroom organizational Table 5 (Cont'd) 1 9 Variable Source Correlation' with Criterion Rank in Model Per Cent of Accounted Variance Class Environment S 66 Attentiveness S 78 Friction in Class S 45 Goal Direction S 82 1 68 .0 Competitiveness S 55 Satisfaction S 68 Disorganization S 66 Apathy S 60 Diversity S 61 Materials Usage S 77 Environment T 55 4 86 .9 Competitiveness T 38 Class Relations T 38 Liberalness T 44


aspect of the learning environment included : goal direction, .82 ; attentiveness, .78 ; materials usage, .77 ; satisfaction, .68 ; disorganization, .66 ; diversity, .61 ; apathy, .60 ; friction, .45 ; and formality, .39 The signs of these correlations are in the directions that were hypothesized It would seem that classrooms that are positive about social studies have positive school and class environments and good classroom relationships among students Furthermore, positive attitudes are present when the classroom is well organized, and there are a variety of activities, good use of materials, definite goals, and assignments which are completed In all, this seems plausible and all of these learning environment variables are under the direct control of the teacher Regression Analyses Another way of looking at these data is through regression analysis (ordinary least-squares analysis) The procedure allows one to aggregate variables in relation to the criterion measure These regression analyses were done and entered in Tables 3, 4, and 5 for the respective grade levels The results are summarized and discussed here Percentages of accounted variances (R 2 ) were relatively small in grade four, smallest for teacher variables (27 .6) and largest for the learning environment (69 .9) Since a certain amount of collinearity exists in these data, the total percentages of variance exceed 100% Collinearity refers to instances where various predictor variables are highly interrelated The effects of this phenomenon is a less effective regression analysis The solution is to reduce the number of variables and eliminate duplicate ones Toward that end, all teacher variables can be represented by a single teacher variable, overall teacher quality Student and learning environment variables may be reconstructed similarly From the results for fourth graders, it would appear that social studies attitudes are moderately to highly correlated with these categories, the learning environment being the most highly correlated to social studies With seventh graders, R 2 increased dramatically Student fatalism was the most significant of the student variables, while teacher support for the individual was the most prominent teacher variable With both student and teacher categories, the regression models were quite limited due to the great strength of relationship of a single variable, i .e ., fatalism, .74 and teacher support for the individual, .72 With the learning environment variables, the model included three variables which accounted for 60 .8% of the variance These results are similar to the results for the fourth grade The main difference between the fourth and seventh grades was that although learning environment variables accounted for about the same amount (approximately 70%), seventh grade student and teacher variables made substantial improvements The results in the ninth grade show an increase in the importance of teacher learning environment variables and a drop in student variables What appears to be happening is a shift in emphasis for the 2 0


importance of teacher variables from grade four to grade nine In grade nine, nearly 80% of the variance of social studies attitude scores can be accounted by a single variable, overall teacher quality Learning environment variables correspondingly show an increase in emphasis as a function of grade level, reaching a zenith by grade nine A final set of analyses were conducted where all significantly correlated variables were entered into the regression analysis for each grade level to determine which set of variables, regardless of category, would maximally account for criterion variance These results are summarized in Table 6 As shown there, the fourth grade social studies attitudes are accounted by four variables, two student and two learning environment variables, all four of which have been prominent in correlational analysis At the seventh grade level, the model increases to five variables and accounts for 77 .5% of the variance This time the variable, importance of social studies, drops from the model, while fatalism remains and becomes the most important Learning environment variables comprise the rest of the variables of the model, friction appearing again and two new variables appearing, formality and attentiveness The experience of the principal was a small factor at this grade Table 6 : Regression Analyses Where All Variables Were Entered Sequentially 2 1 Grade Level and Variable Type of Variable Correlation with Social Studies Attitude Rank in Model Percentage of Accounted Variance Grade Four 1 Importance S .59 1 35 .2 2 Friction LE .38 2 56 .2 3 Work Sessions/Projects LE .48 3 62 .0 4 Fatalism S .42 4 67 .7 Grade Seven 1 Fatalism S .74 1 54 .1 2 Formality LE .40 2 64 .2 3 Friction LE .43 3 69 .9 4 Experience of Principal LE .33 4 75 .1 5 Attentiveness LE .49 5 77 .5 Grade Nine 1 Teacher Quality T .90 1 80 .2 2 Difficulty of Class LE .30 2 90 .6 3 Commitment to Help Students Learn T .83 3 93 .7 4 Goal Direction LE .82 4 95 .6 5 Enjoyment of Classmates LE .76 5 97 .1 6 Importance of Subject S .57 6 98 .2


level It is difficult to assess the importance of this variable to the model At best the principal may have some small role in terms of providing instructional leadership which, in turn, affects the teachers' development of the class learning environment which, in turn, affects attitudes More positive attitudes toward social studies appear in classrooms where building principals are reported to have more relevant experiences The principal's role in affecting attitudes is certainly a promising area for future inquiry The grade nine data include more variables in the model and account for an incredible 98 .2% of the variance This possibility of arriving at a percentage is inflated by the fact that it is based on only 22 observations Nonetheless, the size of the effect and the entry of six plausible variables provide strong evidence that teacher quality, student feelings of importance, and a team of variables that span both social-psychological and classroom organization aspects of the learning environment are most influential These analyses should be replicated with a larger sample Conclusions The results of the study suggest several conclusions about the model and the possible determinants of class social studies attitudes First, three student variables show consistent and strong correlations with social studies attitudes These are fatalism, self-confidence, and importance of the subject matter All three appear highly interrelated, as judged by correlation and regression analyses In fact we may conceptualize that all three plus attitude are part of a complex motivation factor which is important in determining progress in academic achievement In classes where confidence and feeling of importance are high and fatalism is low, class attitude toward social studies is higher We would presume that these student characteristics are attributable to some extent to experiences in school, and that teacher attempts to change these student perceptions should provide corresponding effects on attitudes toward social studies Self-confidence and fatalism may be the products of many years of accumulated experiences in social studies The teacher who can offer some degree of hope to students with high fatalism, may initiate position changes in attitudes toward social studies Student perception of the importance of social studies should be of concern to all social studies teachers, particularly since this trait is apparently associated with social studies attitudes Research efforts are needed to determine if strengthening student views about the importance of social studies may lead to substantial improvement in attitudes The consistently high relation of overall teacher quality to attitudes was strong enough to suggest that teachers do indeed make a direct difference in classroom attitudes Some of the characteristics of good teaching may be clues as to what specifically must be done in the classroom to affect these changes in attitudes These include enthusiasm for the subject, a willingness 2 2


to help students at personal level, use of praise and reinforcement, fairness to student, and a commitment to help students learn These teacher traits, in turn, earn respect for the teacher, which, in turn, contributes to the nurturing of a positive attitude toward the subject matter being taught With respect to the learning environment, the two factors discussed earlier were both prominently represented These two factors provide greater conceptual clarity to the idea of learning environments because the former, social-psychological, refers to a purely emotional perception of the class and the school, involving both the physical characteristics and the social relationships among peers ; while the latter, management-organization, is a manifestation of the teacher's direct influence over the class and the way instruction is conducted While the second factor has more variables, both seem equally strong in their relationship to social studies attitudes in this study The second research question dealt with the relative importance of student, teacher, and learning environment categories of variables The results clearly indicate that the learning environment plays a larger role in accounting for the variance of class social studies attitude scores across the three grade levels studied Student variables seem differentially related to attitudes across the grades, and teacher variables become more important and established in grades seven and nine In fact, the impact of teacher variables show increases from grade four to grade seven resulting in cumulative percentages of accounted variance that nearly equal that of the learning environment variables The third research question dealt with the best set of variables across the dimensions of student, teacher, and learning environment If a team of variables could be listed that would maximally account for social studies attitudes across all grade levels, it would have to include the following : Student t Teacher t Learning Environment Fatalism t Overall Teacher A Social-Psychological Self-Confidence t Quality t Enjoyment of ClassImportance of Social t mates Studies t B Classroom Organization and Conduct Friction Classroom Activities Formality Attentiveness Goal Direction With this set, among others which were found to be highly correlated with social studies attitudes, we can see that the teacher alone has direct control over most of these variables and indirect control of student variables 2 3


Implications The present study, as well as an earlier one (Haladyna, Shaughnessy, & Redsun, in press), have presented evidence in support of a theoretical model which explains potential determinants of attitudes toward subject matters such as social studies The principal gain as a result of this research has been to simplify the constellation of variables needed to study possible determinants of social studies attitudes within each construct A natural next step would be to engage in research where some of these variables are intentionally manipulated in an effort to positively change social studies attitudes Given that social studies attitudes are an important aspect of school life, and given that students with negative attitudes toward social studies will not elect courses and programs in that field, programs of intervention in the form of experiments should be undertaken to reveal the actual effects of changing these endogenous variables on social studies attitudes Second, in striving to develop positive attitudes toward the social studies, we must consider what teachers and teacher trainers can do with respect to the student and the learning environment As presented in this model, teacher quality is a central factor, which, we have argued, directly affects social studies attitudes as well as indirectly affects them through the student and through the learning environment A teacher must not only possess academic skills that allow for good organization and conduct of instruction, including such things as goal direction, rules, consistent discipline, good materials usage, diversity of activities, and reasonable assignments, but the teacher must deal with the building of the class's feelings that social studies is an important subject At the individual level, students with high levels of fatalism and low levels of self-confidence in ability to learn must be made to feel that the class offers them a chance to be successful In contrast to an earlier study (Haladyna, Shaughnessy, & Redsun, in press), this study has shown that group affects are more powerful, which supports the contention that collectivity of class dynamics influences groups more than individuals Third, in their book, Models of Teaching, Joyce and Weil (1980) state that there are many kinds of "good" teaching, but if the teacher cares about the student attitudes, then the teacher must be aware of how the learning environment, teacher and student interact to affect the class Depending upon the affective state of that class, the content and methods of instruction must vary accordingly We would suggest that different strategies would produce predictable results based on the class composition with respect to learning environment, teacher, and student variables This line of thinking is consonant with Bloom's (1976) approach in his model for school learning, where cognitive and affective entry characteristics interact with quality of instruction to produce change in the learner In short, instructional quality is critical 2 4


An initial proposition that motivated the present research was that there were few findings in the research literature relating to correlates of social studies attitudes The present study contributes to a growing body of knowledge about attitude and its formation and change However, experimental studies which examine programs of intervention are needed to verify what we now hypothesize about social studies attitudes Such programs offer hope to social studies educators that the status of attitude toward social studies may be improved through carefully planned and executed programs of intervention Our research suggests that these programs be designed to promote changes in teacher behavior that can affect the student and the learning environment, and, ultimately, attitudes toward social studies endnotes Support for this research was obtained through a grant from the National Science Foundation SED78-17367 Any opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation References Aiken, L R ., Jr Attitudes toward mathematics Review of Educational Research, 1970, 40(9), 551-596 Aiken, L R ., Jr Update on attitudes and other affective variables in learning mathematics Review of Educational Research, 1976, 46(2), 293-311 Anderson, G J ., & Walberg, H J The assessment of learning environments : A manual for the learning environment inventory and the my class inventory Chicago, Illinois : University of Illinois, 1976 Bloom, B S Human characteristics and school learning New York : McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1976 Ehman, L H ., The American school in the political socialization process Review of Educational Research, 1980, 50, 99-120 Gardner, P L Research on teacher effects : Critique of a traditional paradigm ; British Journal of Educational Psychology, 1974, 44(2), 123-130 Haladyna, T ., & Shaughnessy, J Attitudes toward science : A quantitative synthesis In press Haladyna, T ., & Shaughnessy, J A manual for the inventory of affective aspects of schooling Monmouth OR : Teaching Research, 1982 t ` Haladyna, T ., Shaughnessy, J ., & Olsen, R Correlates of attitudes towcrd social studies Paper presented gt the annual meeting of the National Coupcil for the Social Studies, Portland, Qfegon, November, 1979 Haladyna, T ., Shaughnessy, J ., & Redsun, A Relations of student, teacher, and learning environment vgrjgiles to attitudes toward social studies In press 2 5


Haladyna, T ., & Thomas, G The affective reporting system Journal of Educational Measurement, 1979, 16(1), 49-54 (a) Haladyna, T ., & Thomas, G The attitudes of elementary school children toward school and subject matters The Journal of Experimental Education, 1979, 48(1), 18-23 (b) Joyce, B ., & Weil, M Models of teaching Englewood Cliffs, N .J : Prentice-Hall, 1980 Lawrenz, F The prediction of student attitude toward science from student perception of the classroom learning environment Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 1976, 13(6), 509-515 (a) Lawrenz, F Student perception of the classroom learning environment in biology, chemistry, and physics courses Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 1976, 13(3), 315-323 (b) Moos, R H ., & Trickett, E J Classroom environment scale : Manual and Form R Palo Alto, CA : Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc ., 1974 Peterson, R W ., & Carlson, G R A summary of research in science education1977 Science Education, 1979, 63, 497-500 Walberg, H J Structural and affective aspects of classroom climate Psychology in Schools, 1968, 5, 247-253 2 6


Theory and Research in Social Education Spring, 1982 Volume 10 Number 1, pp 27-41 € by The College and University Faculty Assembly of the National Council for the Social Studies Two Studies of the Effects of Teacher Enthusiasm on the Social Studies Achievement -of Seventh Grade Students A G Larkins University of Georgia C W McKinney University of Southern Mississippi Introduction This paper is a report of a series of studies of the effects of teacher enthusiasm on social studies achievement of middle-school students Two studies conducted by graduate students at the University of Georgia, under Larkins' direction, are summarized briefly (Sneed, 1977 ; Malcolm, 1977) and two experiments conducted by the authors of this paper are reported in greater detail First, the research problem is set in the context of the literature It is often assumed that enthusiastic teachers are more effective than unenthusiastic teachers Fifty years ago Barr (1929) claimed that enthusiasm distinguished good teachers from poor ones More recently Rosenshine (1970) concluded that pupil achievement is higher when teachers exhibit behaviors described as "energetic," "mobile," "enthusiastic," and "animated" than when teachers are lethargic And several studies indicate that students give enthusiastic teachers higher evaluations than lethargic teachers even when enthusiastic lectures contain little substantive content (Meir and Feldhusen, 1979 ; Ware and Williams, 1975 & 1977 ; Williams and 2 7


Ware, 1976 & 1977) There have been few published reports, however, in which the effects of teacher enthusiasm on pupil achievement were manipulated experimentally Furthermore, two experiments which are most relevant to the research reported in this paper produced inconsistent results : Mastin (1963) found students in 19 of 20 middle-grade classes learned more in social studies when taught with enthusiasm than when taught with indifference, but Bettencourt (1979) reported no significant difference in pupil achievement between middle-grades classes taught by teachers trained to exhibit enthusiasm versus classes taught by untrained teachers Prior Studies at Georgia The ETOI Until recently, research on the effects of teacher enthusiasm has been hampered in part because the construct of enthusiasm was not adequately defined and instruments that use low inference descriptors had not been developed (Rosenshine, 1970 ; Collins, 1978 ; Rolidor, 1979) In response to that need, Oldham and Larkins (1976) developed the Enthusiastic Teaching Observation Instrument In two small-scale construct validation studies, Greene (1977) demonstrated that the ETOI could be used to discriminate between groups of professors who were nominated by their students as exceptionally enthusiastic or lethargic Using university history instructors, Oldham-Buss (in progress) gathered data which indicate that items on the ETOI have adequate interobserver agreement and reliability Sneed The ETOI was developed because an instrument was needed to verify the independent variable in a series of teacher enthusiasm experiments The first of those experiments was conducted by Sneed (1977) One hundred and twelve ninth and tenth grades American history students (31 blacks, 81 whites, 57 males, 55 females) were randomly assigned to four classes Two of these classes met one period and the other two met the following period The treatments were administered by two regular classroom instructors, one of whom was Sneed, who were accustomed to planning their instruction and exams as a team During the first period of the experiment, one of these instructors taught his class enthusiastically, the other taught lethargically The following period, the instructors switched treatments The entire design was rotated on the second day of the experiment, i .e ., the classes which received the enthusiastic treatment on day one received the lethargic treatment on day two and vice versa On both days of the experiment, Larkins and four trained observers used the ETOI to verify the independent variable Measures of the dependent variable were an achievement test and a short student attitude scale constructed by Sneed T-tests were used to determine whether mean differences between treatment groups were due to sampling error Results of Sneed's experiment were largely, but not completely, consistent with our expectations The achievement test means for the treatment groups 2 8


were virtually identical at the end of day one The mean for the enthusiastic group was 14 .2, compared to 14 .1 for the lethargic treatment Results at the end of day two, however, were as expected ; means of 13 .75 versus 11 .77 were in favor of the enthusiastic group (p < .05 .) Several rival explanations for the inconsistency in findings for day one and day two were examined and rejected : ETOI results indicated that the instructors applied their assigned treatments Likert ratings indicated that students perceived differences between treatments and that they prefered the enthusiasm treatment Examination of cumulative average scores from the teachers' grade book indicated that randomization did not produce a problem of differential assignment to treatments The rival hypothesis that random assignment produced an experimenter effect which over-rode the effect of treatment on day one could not be rejected It was obvious that an experiment was being conducted Students may have been determined to do well in front of strangers regardless of their instructor's behavior That determination may have abated by day two Malcolm The next experiment was an attempt to extend Sneed's findings from two levels of enthusiasm to three As noted, Mastin (1963) found that students exposed to extreme levels of teacher enthusiasm, i .e ., high enthusiasm versus indifference or lethargy, differed significantly in social studies achievement, but Bettencourt (1979) found that students exposed to high enthusiasm versus normal enthusiasm did not differ in social studies achievement Furthermore, it is impossible to determine from Sneed (1977) or Mastin (1963) whether pupil achievement differed because of the accelerating effect of teacher enthusiasm, the depressing effect of lethargy, or both Therefore, Malcolm (1977) designed a small-scale study of effects of high, normal and low teacher enthusiasm Malcolm's (1977) sample consisted of 98 seventh grade social studies students, i .e ., sixty-one blacks, thirty-seven whites, fifty females, fortyeight males Students were not randomly assigned to treatments Three intact classes were used ; one per treatment Malcolm was the instructor for all three treatments Treatment lasted three days The independent variable was verified by Larkins and a trained observer using the ETOI Pupil outcomes were assessed by an exam and a set of student-scored Likert ratings written by Malcolm Posttest achievement means for the three treatment groups were compared using analysis of covariance with Iowa Tests of Basic Skills scores as the covariate Achievement results from Malcolm's study were consistent with our expectation Posttest achievement means for the high, normal and low enthusiasm groups were 82 .84, 72 .68, and 64 .22 (p < .01) One of the major problems with Malcolm's (1977) study was that the enthusiastic treatment was administered each of three consecutive days during second period, while the normal and lethargic treatments were given on the 2 9


same days during fourth and sixth periods respectively Obviously, sixth period is not an ideal time to teach lethargically if you want to provide an adequate comparison with higher levels of teacher enthusiasm The first of the two studies reported in the main body of this paper was an attempt to replicate Malcolm's study with a stronger design Study Number One The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether three levels of teacher enthusiasm would produce corresponding differences in social studies achievement Secondary purposes were to determine whether pupils perceived differences in teacher enthusiasm and whether those differences affected their attitudes toward instruction Positive results from prior studies (Sneed, 1977 ; Malcolm, 1977) led us to expect that each increase in teacher enthusiasm would produce a mean increase in pupil achievement, that pupils would be able to perceive differences in teacher behavior across levels of enthusiasm and that each increase in teacher enthusiasm would produce an increase in pupil attitude We also expected that teachers could be trained to vary their levels of enthusiasm and that we could measure those variations with the Oldhan and Larkins Enthusiastic Teaching Observation Instrument (ETOI) Setting and sample The study was conducted in a seventh grade center, a public school which enrolled all seventh grade students in a small southern city The racial composition of the center was roughly one-third black, twothirds white The sample consisted of nine intact classes of students (N = 211) and three teachers The instructors were experienced female social studies specialists, one white and two black, who routinely planned their lessons and examinations as a team, though classes were not team-taught McKinney was the fourth member of this team, but his classes were not included in the experiment As a rule, every social studies class in the school was taught the same lesson on the same day ; therefore, that particular characteristic of the experiment was similar to customary practice for this sample Procedures The experimental treatment consisted of three levels of teacher enthusiasm : high, normal and low Treatments were administered during periods 2, 3, and 4 over four days in a counterbalanced design, so that teacher effects and time of day effects were balanced out For each of the three days, the distribution of treatments can be represented by : Second Period t Third t Fourth Teacher One High Enthusiasm Normal Low Teacher Two Normal Low High Teacher Three t Low t High t Normal 3 0


As was customary, social studies content and exams for the experimental classes were planned by the teachers as a team and were coordinated with their seventh-grade social studies text The Enthusiastic Teacher Observation Instrument (ETOI) was used to train the three teachers to vary : their, levels of overt enthusiasm Training consisted of suggestions for varying hand gestures, facial expression, voice inflection, rate of speech, teacher mobility in the classroom, flamboyance, stops or breaks in the lesson, and teacher comments which indicate commitment to the subject being taught Previous experience with the studies by Sneed (1977) and Malcolm (1977) indicated that teachers were able to vary their levels of overt enthusiasm after a brief exposure to the content of this instrument During the experiment, the independent variable was verified through classroom observations using the ETOI All teachers were observed at least three times during the four-day study, once during each treatment, but not every experimental condition was verified each day for each teacher The principal dependent variable was pupil achievement on the social studies .content taught during the four days of the experiment This variable was measured by a teacher-made exam Secondary dependent variables were pupil perception of teacher behavior and pupil attitudes toward instruction These variables were measured by Likert-scale items similar to those used by Sneed (1977) and Malcolm (1977) Achievement means for the three treatment -groups were compared using analysis of covariance with California Achievement Tests reading scores as the covariate Results Achievement results for the three treatment levels were inconsistent with expectation The adjusted means for the enthusiastic, normal and lethargic groups were 25 .68, 27 .93 and 27 .41 respectively The difference between adjusted means for the normal and lethargic groups was obviously not significant But, the overall F for this analysis was 4 .77, which is significant at the .01 level with 2 and 207 degrees of freedom, indicating that the adjusted mean for the enthusiastic group was significantly lower than`the means for one or both of the other treatments Scheffe tests for two-group comparisons indicated that mean achievement for the enthusiastic group was lower than for the normal group at the .01 level of significance, and lower than the lethargic group at the .06 level Several alternative hypotheses were examined in an attempt to explain the unexpected outcome in pupil achievement for study one The first possibility was that the teachers did not apply the treatment, i .e ., the three levels of enthusiasm were not distinguishable, or the treatments were reversed Data from the ETOI did not support that explanation Differences in scores for subinstruments of the ETOI were unambiguous and in the intended direction As teachers increased their overt levels of enthusiasm from low to normal to high, they used more hand gestures, moved about the room more 3 1


(mobility), exhibited more facial expressions, were more vigorous in their communications, spoke more rapidly, produced fewer stops or breaks in their lessons and verbalized greater commitment to teaching or to the subject being taught A second rival hypothesis was the possibility that, though teachers applied the treatments as intended, students perceived the teacher behaviors differently than intended or they preferred the enthusiastic treatment less than the normal or lethargic conditions At the end of each treatment period each day during the experiment, students were asked to respond to the following items using a Likert scale : "The lesson just heard was interesting ." "The teacher seemed enthusiastic ." "I wish we had more lessons like this ." "I learned much from this lesson ." Results from the four Likert items did not supply a ready explanation for the superior performance on the achievement test by the normal and lethargic groups The normal and lethargic groups did not perceive their teacher as more enthusiastic than did members of the enthusiastic group, nor did they prefer their treatment more The only item which produced a significant difference among groups was : "The teacher seemed enthusiastic ." When Chi Square was used to compare frequency of response in the three categories, "Strongly Agree," "Agree," and "Disagree plus Strongly Disagree," the obtained value of 11 .94 was significant at the .02 Table 1 : Study One, Scores for Subinstruments of the Enthusiastic Teaching Observation Instrument Treatment Subinstruments Groups (frequencies) t Enthusiastic t Normal t Lethargic Note : The ETOI contains items for instructional and noninstructional teacher behavior Items reported here are considered instructional 3 2 Gestures Mobility Facial Expressions 102 215 120 37 54 57 6 20 33 Subinstruments (average ratings, range 0 to 5) Gestures (vigor) 3 .67 1 .50 0 .33 Mobility 3 .83 1 .00 1 .67 Expressions (vigor) 3 .67 2 .33 0 .33 Voice Inflection 4 .17 2 .67 0 .50 Rate of Speech 3 .83 2 .67 1 .17 Momentum 3 .00 2 .67 0 .67 Commitment 4 .33 2 .67 0 .67


level with four degrees of freedom Inspection of the Chi Square cells indicated that students perceived greater teacher enthusiasm in the enthusiastic treatment than in the normal or lethargic groups A third rival hypothesis was that the use of intact classes produced nonequivalent comparison groups Inspection of the California Achievement Tests means did not lend strong support to that explanation The mean of 5 .99 for the enthusiastic group was identical to the mean for the lethargic group, and was close to the mean of 6 .05 for students who received the normal treatment A fourth rival hypothesis was that the results were due to poor reliability of the social studies achievement test The internal consistency of that instrument was very low (KR21 = .35) but we would expect that an unreliable test would produce no significant differences among groups, not a significant difference opposite to expectation A final possible explanation is that students perceived that they were part of an experiment, and that experimenter effects masked treatment effects The explanation does not seem as likely as in Sneed's (1977) study because there was virtually no disruption of usual classroom procedure Since the results for study one ran counter to our previous studies, and since we were unable to find a rival hypothesis which convincingly explained those results, we decided to perform a systematic replication with tighter controls Study Number Two Objectives The primary objective of this investigation was to determine whether the social studies achievement results of the first study would replicate It was expected that they would not because those results were inconsistent with findings from prior studies in this series and because achievement results from the first study were inconsistent with student perceptions and attitudes toward teacher behavior within the same study On the assumption that social studies achievement results would not replicate, secondary objectives for this experiment were identical with objectives for the first study, i .e ., to determine whether social studies achievement, pupil perceptions of teacher behavior, and pupil attitudes toward teacher behavior would vary positively with teacher enthusiasm Procedures The second study used the same students, the same teachers, similar content and instruments as the first Differences between the two investigations were intended to strengthen research procedures The first study used intact classes The second used random assignment of subjects to treatments within school periods For instance, during the second period of the school day, all students for Teachers One, Two and Three were considered a common pool and randomly assigned to the three treatments The same procedure was followed for the third and fourth periods of the day The study was also strengthed by retraining teachers to vary their levels of 3 3


enthusiasm to match the assigned treatments, and by obtaining a third observer so that the ETOI could be used to verify the indepenent variable for each teacher during each period of each day of the experiment A third change involved administration of the social studies achievement test In the first study, the social studies test was given only at the conclusion of the experiment, but Likert items were used to assess student perceptions and attitudes at the end of each treatment period each day In the second study, social studies achievement items appropriate for the instruction given on that day were administered at the end of each treatment period This procedure allowed us to determine whether each of the variables (pupil achievement, pupil perception of instruction, and pupil attitude toward instruction) varied with teacher enthusiasm each day and whether variations each day were positive or negative A by-product of this change was that we were able to investigate whether Sneed's (1977) findings of no treatment effects on pupil achievement on day one, but significant effects on day two, would replicate A fourth change limited the experiment to three days, rather than four This change allowed us to avoid beginning that experiment on Monday and to avoid ending it on Friday As in the first study, treatments were rotated to counterbalance teacher effects and time of day effects The second day was conducted within one month of the first Findings As expected, social studies achievement test findings from the first study did not replicate in the second Achievement means were compared across treatment groups for each of the three days of the experiment In no case did the enthusiastic treatment group score significantly lower than either the normal or lethargic groups (see Tables Three, Five, and Seven) We did not know whether to expect Sneed's (1977) finding of no treatment effect on day one, but a significant effect on day two, to replicate It did In this study, for day one, social studies achievement means for the enthusiastic, normal and lethargic treatments were 11 .02, 11 .69 and 10 .94 respectively (see Table Three) Scheffe tests for two-group comparisons among Table 2 : Study Two, Day One, Analysis of Covariance Comparison of Social Studies Achievement For Three Levels of Teacher Enthusiasm 3 4 Sources SS(X) SS(Y) (XY) Ad SS(Y) DF Ad XS(Y) Between 3 .12 32 .77 5 .47 26 .48 2 13 .24 Within 1110 .27 3091 .67 804 .12 2509 .28 230 10 .91 Total 1113 .38 3124 .44 809 .59 Homogeneity of Regression F = .36 P = .71 Treatment F = 1 .21 P = .30 Regression F = 52 .92 P = .00


Table 3 : Study Two, Day One, Social Studies Achievement Means, Standard Deviations and Scheffe Tests For Three Levels of Teacher Enthusiasm these means produced very small F-values For day two, achievement means for the enthusiastic, normal and lethargic treatment were 11 .45, 11 .14 and 8 .42 (see Table Five) On day three, the enthusiastic, normal and lethargic group means were 11 .70, 11 .41 and 9 .21 (see Table Seven) It appears that for both day two and day three, the enthusiastic and normal treatments produced virtually identical effects on social studies achievement, and that both produced greater achievement than did the lethargic treatment We expected Malcolm's (1977) finding that high enthusiasm would produce greater achievement than normal enthusiasm, which would produce greater achievement than low enthusiasm, to replicate It did so only in part As the summary in the above paragraph indicates, high teacher enthusiasm did not produce greater pupil achievement than did normal enthusiasm, though pupil achievement under each of those treatments was higher than when students were taught by lethargic instructors Table 4 : Study Two, Day Two, Analysis of Covariance Comparison of Social Studies Achievement For Three Levels of Teacher Enthusiasm 3 5 Treatment Groups California Achievement Tests Social Studies Achievement Test Social Studies Achievement Test (adjusted) Enthusiastic X 5 .98 10 .98 11 .02 SD 1 .95 3 .74 Normal X 6 .21 11 .74 11 .69 SD 2 .32 3 .40 Lethargic X 6 .24 11 .01 10 .94 SD 2 .26 3 .76 Sources SS(X) SS(Y) (XY) Ad SS(Y) DF Ad XS(Y) Between 3 .12 396 .90 -21 .83 422 .32 2 211 .16 Within 1110 .27 3,284 .48 633 .18 2,023 .38 230 12 .71 Total 1113 .38 3,681 .38 611 .35 Homogeneity of Regression F = 1 .49 p = .23 Treatment F = 16 .61 p = .00 Regression F = 28 .16 p = .00 Scheffe Test for Two-Group Comparisons (2 and 230 df) Enthusiastic with Normal F = .83 P = .56 Enthusiastic with Lethargic F = .01 P = .99 Normal with Lethargic F = .98 P = .62


Table 5 : Study Two, Day Two, Social Studies Achievement Means, Standard Deviations and Scheffe Tests For Three Levels of Teacher Education Scheffe Test for Two-Group Comparisons (2 and 230 df) The partial inconsistency in findings between Malcolm's (1977) study and the present experiment leaves unresolved the issue of whether differences in pupil achievement are caused by the accelerating effects of high teacher enthusiasm, the depressing effects of low teacher enthusiasm, or both Results of the present study seem to indicate that achievement differences are caused by the depressing effects of teacher lethargy, but findings from Malcolm's (1977) study seem to indicate that both effects occur Since one of our major expectations was not supported, that high teacher enthusiasm would produce greater pupil achievement than would normal teacher enthusiasm, rival hypotheses were examined The first was that teachers did not implement the independent variable, i .e ., that their behaviors were similar under the high and normal treatments Examination of data from the ETOI partially supports that hypothesis Table 6 : Study Two, Day Three, Analysis of Covariance Comparisons of Social Studies Achievement For Three Levels of Teacher Enthusiasm 3 6 Sources SS(X) SS(Y) (XY) Ad SS(Y) DF Ad XS(Y) Between 3 .12 258 .13 -17 .60 281 .70 2 140 .85 Within 1110 .27 5,729 .59 713 .88 5,270 .88 230 22 .92 Total 1113 .38 5,987 .73 696 .29 Homogeneity of Regression F = .26 p = .78 Treatment F = 6 .15 p = .003 Regression F = 19 .86 p = .000 Treatment Groups California Achievement Tests Social Studies Achievement Tests Social Studies Achievement Tests (adjusted) Enthusiastic X 5 .98 11 .36 11 .45 SD 1 .95 3 .82 Normal X 6 .21 11 .18 11 .14 SD 2 .32 3 .46 Lethargic X 6 .24 8 .47 8 .42 SD 2 .56 3 .95 Enthusiastic with Normal F = .61 p = .85 Enthusiastic with Lethargic F = 13 .91 p = .00 Normal with Lethargic F = 11 .17 p = .00


Table 7 : Study Two, Day Three, Social Studies Achievement Means, Standard Deviations and Scheffe Tests For Three Levels of Teacher Enthusiasm Scheffe Test for Two-Group Comparisons (2 and 230 df) Table Eight contains the number of gestures counted by observers using the ETOI, the number of steps taken by teachers during the observation periods, and the number of changes in facial expressions by teachers in each treatment condition Table Eight also contains an average rating for all rating items on the ETOI Comparison of the pattern of the data across treatments in Tables one and eight indicates that in study one teacher behavior was more clearly differentiated between the enthusiastic and normal treatments than between the normal and lethargic In study two the pattern was reversed ; the normal and enthusiastic treatments were similar to each other, but different from the lethargic treatment The second rival hypothesis was that students did not perceive differences Table 8* : Scores for Subinstruments of the Enthusiastic Teaching Observation Instrument *The magnitude of the frequency counts in this table are not directly comparable to those in Table One The counts here are totaled over nearly twice as many observations 3 7 Treatment Groups California Achievement Tests Social Studies Achievement Tests Social Studies Achievement Tests (adjusted) Enthusiastic X 5 .98 11 .60 11 .70 SD 1 .95 4 .54 Normal X 6 .21 11 .45 11 .41 SD 2 .32 5 .37 Lethargic X 6 .24 9 .27 9 .21 SD 2 .26 4 .89 Subinstruments (frequencies) Enthusiastic Normal Lethargic Gestures 175 134 36 Mobility 295 294 42 Facial Expressions 192 174 99 Average rating for all subinstruments 2 .56 2 .220 .66 Enthusiastic with Normal F = .08 p = .93 Enthusiastic with Lethargic F = 5 .21 p = .01 Normal with Lethargic F = 4 .05 p = .02


between the enthusiastic and normal treatments or did not prefer the enthusiastic treatment to the normal treatment Table nine indicates the number of students who marked each rating category by treatment for each item Compared to study one, two patterns in these ratings are important First, contrary to the first study, there are statistically significant differences among ratings across treatments for each item Taken as a whole, students perceived treatment differences and preferred the more enthusiastic to the less enthusiastic treatments Second, there are larger differences between student ratings of the normal and lethargic treatments than between ratings of the normal and enthusiastic This finding is consistent with data from the ETOI Trained classroom observers perceived the normal and enthusiastic treatments as being more similar than the normal and lethargic, and the student apparently did also It appears that the best explanation of the lack of social studies achievement differences between enthusiastic and normal teaching is that teacher behaviors in those two treatments were not adequately differentiated Summary and Recommendations The two studies reported in this paper are part of a continuing series of investigations into the effects of teacher enthusiasm conducted by the auTable 9 : Comparisons of Student Perceptions and Attitudes Toward Teacher Behavior Across Three Levels of Enthusiasm* *This table contains combined frequencies for ratings taken on three occasions using the same students Frequencies within cells, therefore, are not independent Tests of significance are not appropriate 3 8 Strong Treatment t Agree Agree Disagree Strong Disagree Item #1 : The lesson was interesting Enthusiastic 56 106 48 36 Normal 40 108 71 15 Lethargic 15 81 55 59 Item #2 : The teacher seemed enthusiastic 45 29 Enthusiastic 53 115 Normal 46 124 40 13 Lethargic 29 83 47 51 Item #3 : I wish we had more lessons like this 66 51 Enthusiastic 44 81 Normal 23 80 88 43 Lethargic 14 46 68 82 Item #4 : I learned much from this lesson 61 24 Enthusiastic 56 101 Normal 41 119 62 12 Lethargic 18 88 54 50


thors, their colleagues and students at the universities of Georgia and Southern Mississippi The principal question addressed by those studies has been, "What are the effect of various levels of teacher enthusiasm on social studies achievement?" Sneed (1977) reported that extreme levels of teacher enthusiasm produced significant differences in social studies achievement after the second day of a randomized two-day experiment in which treatments were rotated over teachers, periods and students Malcolm (1977) found that three levels of teacher enthusiasm produced significant differences among achievement means in a non-randomized quasi-experiment in which treatments were not counterbalanced The first of two studies reported in this paper produced findings which were inconsistent with Sneed (1977) and Malcolm (1977) There was no significant difference in achievement between the lethargic and normal treatment groups, but the mean for each of those treatments was significantly larger than the social studies achievement mean for the enthusiastic treatment Examination of several rival hypotheses failed to produce an adequate explanation for that unexpected findings The second study reported here was an attempt to determine whether results of the first study would replicate under tighter controls Using the same teachers and students as in the first study, subjects were randomly assigned to one of three levels of treatment The design was rotated over teachers and time of day, and the independent variable was verified using the Enthusiastic Teaching Observation Instrument during each instructional period within the experiment The unexplained outcome of the first study did not replicate ; students in the normal and lethargic treatments did not score higher on the social studies achievement test than students in the enthusiastic treatment The authors' expectations, however, were not fully confirmed Although students in the enthusiastic and normal treatments had higher achievement means than students in the lethargic group, the mean for the enthusiastic group was not higher than for the normal treatment Examination of results from the ETOI, and from measures of student perception of teacher behavior and of attitudes toward instruction, indicated that teachers may not have differentiated adequately in their behavior between the enthusiastic and normal treatments Although procedures used in study two produced tighter experimental control than those used in study one, we need to improve experimental procedures even more in future studies In prior studies, we have used teachermade social studies achievement tests An advantage to teacher-made instruments is that they may be more valid for the content of instruction used in the experiment than are standardized tests A disadvantage is that reliabilities are frequently low In our studies, the range has usually been between .35 and .70 We need to develop achievement tests which have adequate validity and reliability A second problem has been that we have trained teachers to vary their 3 9


levels of enthusiasm, but have not trained them to exhibit similar levels across teachers, i .e ., one teacher's high enthusiasm is much higher than another's We need to train teachers to reach specified levels of enthusiasm which are adequately differentiated from each other A third problem is that we have not designed studies so that the classroom group can be used as the unit of analysis We need larger samples of classes This would also reduce experimenter effects due to random assignment of subjects One approach to correcting the above weaknesses is to videotape treatments This would assure that each class of students under a given treatment would receive identical levels of teacher enthusiasm Videotapes would also assure adequate differentiation among treatments Video taped treatments could be used in a series of pilot studies aimed at improving the validity and reliability of the social studies achievement tests used in the principal studies Finally, with video taped treatments and validated achievement instruments, more attention could be given to obtaining the large samples needed to use the proper unit of analysis in tests of significance We anticipate that video-taped treatments may reduce the external validity of future studies, but for now our first priority is to improve internal validity References Barr, A S Characteristic differences in teaching performance of good and poor teachers of the social studies Bloomington, Illinois ; Public School Publishing Company, 1929 Bettencourt, E M Effects of training teachers in enthusiasm on student achievement and attitudes Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon, 1979 Collins, M L Effects of enthusiasm training in preservice elementary teachers Journal of Teacher Education, 1978, 19, 53-57 Greene, Deborah K The relationship of teacher enthusiasm to student assessment of enthusiasm Applied Project, University of Georgia, 1977 Malcolm, P Some effects of teacher enthusiasm on pupil achievement Applied Project, University of Georgia, 1977 Mastin, V E Teacher enthusiasm Journal of Educational Research, 1963, 56, 385386 Meier, R S and Feldhusen, J P Another look at Dr Fox : Effect of stated purpose for evaluation, lecturer expressiveness, and density of lecture content on student ratings Journal of Educational Psychology, 1979, 71, 339-345 Oldham, S E and Larkins, A G Inter-observer agreement and reliability of an instrument to assess enthusiastic teaching : A progress report Unpublished manuscript, 1977, University of Georgia 4 0


Rolidor, A Effects of enthusiasm training on subsequent teacher enthusiasm behavior (Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1979) Dissertation Abstracts International, 1979, 40, 1952-A (University Microfilms No 7922548) Rosenshine, B Enthusiastic teaching : A research review School Review, 1971, 78, 499-514 Sneed, L A Some effects of teacher enthusiasm on student recall of American history and on attitudes toward an American history lesson Applied Project, University of Georgia, 1977 Ware, J E ., Jr and Williams, R G The Dr Fox effect : A study of lecturer effectiveness and ratings of instruction Journal of Medical Education, 1975, 50, 149156 Ware, J E ., Jr and Williams, R G Discriminant analysis of student ratings as a means for identifying lecturers who differ in enthusiasm or information-giving Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1977, 37, 627-639 Williams, R G and Ware, J E ., Jr Validity of student ratings of instruction under different incentive conditions : A further study of the Dr Fox effect Journal of Educational Psychology, 1976, 68, 48-56 Williams, R G and Ware, J E ., Jr An extended visit with Dr Fox : Validity of student satisfaction with instruction ratings after repeated exposures to a lecturer American Educational Research Journal, 1977, 14, 449-457 4 1


Theory and Research in Social Education Spring, 1982 Volume 10 Number 1, pp 43-62 by The College and University Faculty Assembly of the National Council for the Social Studies Test of a Model Relating Political Attitudes to Participation in High School Activities Janet Eyler Vanderbilt University "you all of a sudden catch on that life is nothing but high school . You get out into real life and it turns out to be high school all over again class officers, cheerleaders and all (Vonnegut, 1975) High school as Vonnegut perceives is in some ways a surrogate for the broader society This parallel has long served as a rationale for extra-curricular programs (Ziblatt, 1965) It was assumed that students involved in such activities would develop positive attitudes about the political system and their role in it These attitudes were important because they were thought to be associated with adult political behavior Some authors suggested that these early positive attitudes created basic support for maintenance of the political system that withstood the later development of political cynicism (Easton & Dennis, 1967) Others found evidence to associate such non issue specific political attitudes as interest and efficacy with active expressions of political competence including party and campaign work, interest group activity and voting (Lane, 1959 ; Almond and Verba, 1963 ; Milbrath, 1977) Results of political socialization research have not lent much support to this view that the high school experience contributes to the development of political attitudes Studies have shown that many basic political attitudes approach adult levels by the 8th grade and are relatively stable after that (Hess & Torney, 1967) High school instruction has little impact on such attitudes (Langton & Jennings, 1968 ; Ehman, 1980) Even participation experiences specifically designed to involve older students in political action have had limited impact on such attitudes as political efficacy (Jones, 1974) As a result of these findings both high school curriculum and extracurricular programs have been largely abandoned as fruitful areas for researchers intent on tracking down agents of political socialization There has been little attempt to identify other variables which might better capture political socialization during adolescence Although there is a growing body of spec4 3


ulative literature on the effects of the hidden curriculum, almost no empirical work has been done to trace the impact of the school experience itself on the students' political competence There is, thus, a gap in our knowledge of political socialization during high school Attitudes developed during late childhood appear to be important predispositions to adult political behavior What role, if any, these attitudes play during the high school years is unclear This study attempts to bridge this gap in our understanding of the contributions of the high school to development of political competence Political attitudes are not viewed as outcomes of the high school experience, or as a single index of political socialization, but rather as predispositions to participate in particular kinds of high school experiences It is the thesis of this study that the high school provides a political arena for the expression of these attitudes in activities that are expected to further enhance the individual's political development The Cycle of Political Competence Durkheim noted in 1907, that the society of the school acts as a kind of bridge between the personalistic relationships of the family and the requirements of the political society ; in high school students have the first sustained contact with the large, relatively impersonal, legalistic institutions they will cope with as adult citizens (Durkheim, 1961) But to extend Vonnegut's analogy, as in real life there are not only class officers and cheerleaders, but the apathetic, the uninvolved and the disaffected as well The high school, like society, provides an arena for participation ; those who will benefit are those who choose to enter Those who do choose to enter will enhance their political competence by developing participation and leadership skills As M Brewster Smith has observed about personal competence, political competence consists of a basic core of attitudes like trust, social integration, confidence and interest and a behavioral component of "habits, skills and abilities, that are required to translate hopeful expectations and active orientations into effective behavior ." (Smith, 1969) These two aspects of political competence are bound together : Launched on the right trajectory, the person is likely to accumulate successes that strengthen the effectiveness of his orientation toward the world, while at the same time he acquires the knowledge and the skills that make his further success probable His environmental involvements generally lead to gratification and to increased competence . Off to a bad start, he soon encounters failures that make him hesitant to try again . and he falls increasingly behind his fellows in acquiring the knowledge and skills that are needed for success on those occasions when he does try (Smith, 1969) This cycle of political competence is well underway by the time students enter high school Students who come to high school with the positive 4 4


political attitudes that make up the first stage of political competence will seek out experiences that will contribute to the development of further competence Thus the high school experience connects early political attitudes to later expressions of political attitudes and to political skills Participation in school activities is an important way for students to develop the skills and knowledge which form the second component of political competence Participation contributes to the development of this competence in several ways First, participation in school activities will help students develop political skills While participating in group activities, individuals may perform such tasks as planning and directing group activities, articulating points of view, evaluating alternatives, reducing tensions and involving others in group projects, and carrying out the work required for such projects ; all involve the practice of particular skills Some research in schools does demonstrate a relationship between participation in school activities and skills and behavior which may contribute to political competence McPartland in his study of participation in urban high schools, found participation in various types of school activities to be associated with increased satisfaction, academic skill and interest, initiative, willingness to assume responsibility and decision making skill Participation in groups in which students were perceived to control decision making had the most powerful effect on initiative, responsibility and decision making skill (McPartland, 1971) Barker and Gump found that students who participated in school groups, especially those who took active roles analogous to organizer or advocate, were more satisfied with their own socio-political competence (Barker and Gump, 1964) Experiences in decision making roles, whether in the classroom or the activity structure of the school, contribute to political skills Glidewell points out a number of effects of student involvement in classroom decision making These effects include a greater tolerance for diverse viewpoints early in the decision making process and greater convergence in later stages which leads to more effective decision making, and greater responsibility and initiative in carrying out group tasks (Glidewell, et al ., 1966) Clearly then students who choose to participate, especially those who take active roles in groups in which decision making is a major focus, are likely to accumulate the knowledge and skills that form a part of political competence The increased personal interaction which results from participation in school groups also enhances political competence by helping the individual define the self as a politically active person Jensen found in a survey in Evanston in 1970 that a clear self-image as the "type of person who engages in politics" was strongly related (r = .60) to actual activity (Jensen, 1970) As Milbrath documents, participation and the adoption of active participant roles in one setting is likely to be transferred to new political situations 4 5


(Milbrath, 1977) Barker and Gump also find evidence for this within the high school (Barker and Gump, 1964) and others have found high school activities to be predictors of subsequent community involvement Bennett traced 1945-49 graduates of central New York high schools and found that those who had been active in high school were fifty percent more likely to participate actively in their community (Bennet, 1956) In a similar study, Marks found that students who had held several offices in high school were more likely to be found in positions of leadership in college and their communities (Marks, 1958) Participation in the high school political arena thus may contribute in a number of ways to the further development of political competence in students A Model Relating Socio-Political Attitudes to Group Participaton In this analysis, a model is proposed and tested which suggests that students who come to school with more positive attitudes towards the political system, generalize these attitudes to the school as a surrogate political system and in turn seek out involvement in extra-curricular and governance activities in the arena of the high school If this notion that the high school is a political arena is valid we would predict that student attitudes and participation would be related in the following ways : First, we would expect students to perceive the school as a political system ; we would expect them to transfer their general attitudes of social trust and integration, and political interest and confidence, to the school, expressing them in high levels of school trust and integration, and school political interest and confidence Dawson and Prewitt discuss this tendency to transfer general social attitudes to specific parallel objects like the school (Dawson & Prewitt, 1969) In the only study exploring this link, Meixel and Haller found a relationship between sense of school efficacy and general political efficacy in Canadian elementary school children (Meixel and Haller, 1973) They suggest that the children were generalizing from their school experience to the political system, but found no relationship between their independent measure of classroom climate and the childrens' sense of school efficacy It is as plausible to suggest that the childrens' general sense of personal or political efficacy was transferred to the school room We would, in turn, expect students with positive attitudes towards the school as a political system to seek out situations in which to express these predispositions in action School political interest and confidence should be especially powerful predictors of involvement in school groups if these activities are serving political as well as social functions Thus, school governance groups should attract students with a high level of interest in the politics of the school The grade level of the student should also be a factor in group involve4 6


ment ; students who have been in school longer have had more opportunity to become active Data were collected during the spring-which meant that sophomores had had a year to become involved in the school and seniors were beginning to look beyond graduation This may mitigate the expected effect of grade level on attitudes and participation We also expect these relationships to be modified by the sex of the student There is a good deal of evidence to suggest that many of the differences in activity and interest between males and females reported in early political socialization literature (Hyman, 1959) has largely disappeared (Merelman, 1971 ; Jennings and Niemi, 1974) While recent studies have found fewer gender differences in political attitudes, there is some evidence that these attitudes and participation in school activities hold a different meaning for boys than for girls For example, Merelman found few attitude differences, but found that senior high school boys were six times as likely to show an interest in future active political participation than were girls (Merelman, 1970 Rehberg and Shafer found that boys tended to view participation in school activities as connected with their future occupational and educational roles ; girls did not anticipate this future relevance for their high school participation (Rehberg and Shafer, 1973) If this were true for political attitudes as well, we would expect school political attitudes to be stronger predictors of participation in governance activities for boys than for girls Participation should be a more immediate expression of school social interest for girls than for boys Since gender is expected to modify the relationship among the variables, the model will be tested separately for males and females Socio economic status has been linked in the literature to both the attitudes and forms of participation explored in this paper Experiences that are associated with the students' SES are assumed to have influenced the development of Smith's first component of competence, attitudes These attitudes subsequently should affect the decision to participate As Milbrath notes in his review of the political participation literature, political attitudes of interest and efficacy are influenced by social class, but have a subsequent effect on participation that persists when SES controls are used (Milbrath, 1977) We do not have individual level SES data and thus cannot test whether it exerts an effect on participation, independent of its assumed effect on attitudinal predisposition The following diagram illustrates the pattern of relationships among variables predicted in our model : Procedures of the Study Data for this analysis were gathered in the spring of 1974 by the School Political Behavior Research Project, with which the author was associated (Ehman & Gillespie, 1975) School Sample An attempt was made to choose public schools that varied in size, location, racial and social make-up and political climate No at4 7


General Social Attitudes Grade General Political Attitudes School Social Attitudes School Political Attitudes Group Participation Figure 1 : Model Relating Socio-political Attitudes and Grade Level to Participation in High School Extra-curricular Activities


tempt was made at random sampling Schools were located in Indiana, Illinois, Ohio and Pennsylvania Table 1 shows the size and location types represented by the 13 schools in the sample Although an attempt was made to classify schools by political climate the aggregate student perceptions were similar across schools Student Sample Within each of the 13 schools about 200 students were chosen to respond to two questionnaires To minimize school disruption, in most cases students were sampled by classes Required classes, meeting at different times of the day were chosen in order to minimize systematic bias The main sample includes 2,546 students An additional student sample was obtained by having students in the main sample list groups "most actively involved in planning and making important decisions in your school ." An attempt was made to administer the attitude questionnaire to all members of the top three groups nominated in each school We have data from 33 such groups This sub-sample was used to identify students involved in governance groups The total number of students in both sub-samples was 3,087 Students appearing in both sub-samples are counted once Table 1 : Distribution of Sample Schools by Size and Location The Variables The socio-political attitudes Four basic attitudes, which commonly appear as dependent variables in political socialization research, were included in this research ; social trust, social integration, political interests and political confidence The first two of these attitudes, trust and social integration, are basic to any involvement in social institutions ; political interest and confidence are more specifically associated with involvement in political decision making processes Each attitude was measured with regard to two referents -the society in general and the students' own school Students responded on five point Likert type scales which ranged from strongly agree to strongly disagree Trust Trust is the belief that human behavior is consistent and governed by non-negative motives (Ehman and Gillespie, 1975) A Sample item : 4 9 School Size Location under 1000 1000-2000 over 2000 Urban 0 3 2 Small city suburban 1 2 3 Rural 2 0 0


"What people tell me and what they actually do are two completely different things" Some degree of basic trust must be established before an individual can feel a part of human society (Erikson, 1950) This threshold of trust is important for social involvement A number of studies found that persons who have low levels of political trust are much less likely to participate in politics (Milbrath, 1977) Ziblatt, in his study of an Oregon high school, presents evidence to link trust with participation in high school activities (Ziblatt, 1965) Social integration Social integration refers to the belief that one is connected to one's social environment and not cut off or alienated from it (Ehman and Gillespie, 1975) A Sample item : "What happens with other people in my school has an influence on what I will do ." Social integration is an important prerequisite to seeking active involvement One very clear association in the political behavior literature is the relationship between alienation (the opposite of integration) and a lack of political involvement (Milbrath, 1977) Those who feel that they have a stake in their own community or other social institutions are more inclined to active participation in the setting (Lane, 1959) Ziblatt's study linking political attitudes with school participation found social integration to be closely associated with participation in extracurricular activities, as well (Ziblatt, 1965) Kenniston found that student activists, often referred to as `alienated' actually felt very much a part of their society and were therefore anxious to change what they perceived to be its flaws Alienation was characteristic of students noted for their apathy (Kenniston, 1968) Political interest Political interest is defined as the set of beliefs which predisposes one to respond positively toward political situations (Ehman and Gillespie, 1975) A sample item : "I would like to figure out how decisions are made in our school ." Interest in politics has consistently been associated with political activity It has been found to be a more important factor in voting than education or social class Milbrath notes that over a dozen studies spread across several cultures have shown that persons who are high in political interest are more likely to participate in political activities, particularly those that involve a considerable commitment of time and energy Indeed, he notes that this predisposition of those with political interest to seek our political stimuli and to participate is so predictable that many authors fail to address it when reporting results (Milbrath, 1977) Political interest is expected to be a good predictor of the likelihood that 5 0


students will seek out participation settings associated with political decision making and that they will pursue active roles in these settings Political confidence Political confidence refers to the belief that one's actions can have an effect in political activities (Ehman and Gillespie, 1975) It is analogous to political efficacy A sample item : "People like me can influence political decisions Political confidence has been widely studied under the more narrow construct "political efficacy ." As Milbrath notes in his review, the relationship between efficacy and political participation is one of the most widely documented in political science research It holds across cultures and has an effect independent of socio economic status Political confidence is a better predictor of more active forms of participation such as joining political groups, campaigning and so forth than of so called `spectator' activities such as voting or wearing a campaign button (Milbrath, 1977) This attitude, like other political attitudes, seems to be well established before the high school years (Hess & Torney, 1967) Merelman, in his cross sectional study of the political climates of two California school districts, reports a slight growth in political efficacy between grades 9 and 12 among female students ; he attributes this to compensatory effects of the high school civics curriculum (Merelman, 1971) Langton and Jennings attributed a similar change in political efficacy for black students to the same compensatory effect (Langton and Jennings, 1968) There is some evidence to associate political confidence with participation in high school extracurricular activities Lewis studied the relationship between participation in extracurricular activities and political attitudes in a Michigan high school and found that political efficacy was associated with participation (Lewis, 1962) The 80 items which composed the initial eight scales were selected from a large pool of items administered in two schools used for pretest purposes The ten items showing the highest factor loading on each dimension were chosen for the attitude instrument used in the study In order to determine if these 80 items did function as the scales for which they were constructed, factor analysis was again performed using the responses from the 2,546 students in our main sample The 40 general attitude items do appear to form four distinct sociopolitical attitudes corresponding with the items chosen to represent trust, integration, political interest and political confidence The 40 school related items yielded five scales The integration, political interest and political confidence items loaded as expected ; the trust scale was divided into two five item scales corresponding with trust in other students and trust in school adults Cronbach's Alpha was used to measure reliability of the nine scales Alphas ranged from .60 to .86 with most above .80 5 1


To simplify presentation of data in this article, and since the predicted relationships involving the social attitudes of trust and integration and the political attitudes of interest and confidence are the same, we have combined these attitudes in the analysis Social attitudes of trust and integration are grouped to form General Social Attitudes and School Social Attitudes ; political attitudes of interest and confidence combine to form General Political Attitudes and School Political Attitudes As each individual develops attitudes towards society and then towards the school, we would expect a growth of social trust and integration to precede the more active and specialized attitudes of political interest and confidence ; we have ordered them accordingly in the analysis Group participation The underlying dimension of the group participation variable is the degree to which the group should afford opportunity for acquiring and practicing political skills There are three categories of group involvement : 1 the student is a participant in school governance activities, 2 the student is involved in other school groups, 3 the student is not involved in school groups Governance activities include student councils, student executive advisory groups, class councils and so forth Other activities include such groups as language clubs, honor society, and student athletics Participation in any type of school activity group will provide students with the chance to develop social and organizational skills that equip them for future citizenship participation as well as exposing them to information about the issues in the political system of the school In governance groups, the explicit focus on influencing school policy will add to the opportunity for students to develop skills useful in political life and to identify themselves as political actors Since the students in our total sample come from two sub-samples, different methods were used for assigning them to the categories In the main sample students were assigned to category 2 or 3 on the basis of their response to a question asking them to categorize the nature of their group participation Those indicating that they did not belong to school groups were assigned to category 3 ; all other responses were assigned to category 2 Students in the special sub-sample were assigned to their group on the basis of characteristics of their group Members of governance activities were assigned to category 1 ; all other group members were placed in category 2 If students appear in more than one category they are assigned to the highest category in which they appear, for example, members of governance groups who also fall in the main sample are assigned to category 1 Analysis of the Data In our earlier discussion, we suggest a causal ordering of variables ; general attitudes are formed then transferred to the school, inclining students to become involved in activities available in the school Since this is crosssectional data, such causal interpretation cannot be clearly established Re5 2


ferring to "associations" of variables, avoiding causal terms, does not erase the implicit causal assumptions made when these associations are interpreted Path analysis is a useful technique for testing the plausibility of such an assumed ordering of variables in cross sectional research It allows us to break original zero order correlations into direct effects i .e ., the proportion of standard deviation by which a dependent variable changes when a given antecedent variable changes a full standard deviation -other variables held constant, and indirect effects i .e ., the part of the total effect of a particular variable on the dependent variable which is accounted for by influences of other intervening variables Results of the path analysis will tell us whether the interpretation suggested can be supported by the data ; there are of course, other models of the data which might yield plausible results The multiple regression option of the SPSS computer package is used (Nie, et al, 1975) The model is tested with all variables entered into the regression equation, i .e ., fully identified Each direct path yielding a Beta of less than .05 is deleted from the model as non-existent and the regression including it as a predictor is rerun (Kerlinger, 1970) Basic path models are assumed to be linear, recursive and additive Therefore sex, which is thought to modify the relationship among variables is not included as a variable in the model ; separate path analysis is performed for males and females Since the N is large, significant differences may be obtained when actual differences in attitude scores are very slight and have little practical import In order to illustrate how these relationships translate into student responses, means on each composite attitude for each participation category will be presented in Table 2 Results and Conclusions The empirically derived path models are presented in Figure 2 As can be Table 2 : Attitude Means by Group Participation by Sex 5 3 Attitudes Sex NonParticipation Participation Non-Governance Participation Governance General Social F 3 .17 3 .45 3 .50 Attitudes M 3 .13 3 .33 3 .48 General Political F 2 .67 3 .10 3 .32 Attitudes M 2 .76 3 .15 3 .68 School Social F 3 .38 3 .73 3 .87 Attitudes M 3 .32 3 .60 3 .89 School Political F 3 .14 3 .63 3 .86 Attitudes M 3 .04 3 .42 3 .95


General Social Attitudes Grade School Social Attitudes General Political Attitudes O 1 O 11 School Political Attitudes 0 Group Participation Figure 2 : Empirically Derived Path Model Relating Socio-Political Attitudes to Participation in the High School Political Arena-Females above line, males below


seen from the path diagrams, the data fit the proposed models very well The notion advanced earlier that the school is a surrogate for society is supported by the magnitude of direct paths from the general to school attitudes ; general socio-political attitudes do appear to be transferred to the school The model accounts for from one half to two thirds of the variance in school attitudes This is a substantial relationship especially since we would expect school attitudes to be affected by policies, personnel and other idiosyncracies of the student's particular school experience as well as by the student's general socio-political attitudes Another important result of the path analysis is the deletion of direct paths between general attitudes and group participation As expected the correlations between these variables can be explained by their relationship with the school socio-political attitudes One expects general political attitudes to affect involvement in school activities only if these attitudes are applied to the school as a political system as well The one deviation from this pattern, a link between General Political Attitudes and Group Participation for males will be considered when sex differences are discussed The best predictor of Group Participation in the school is School Political Attitudes There are many reasons for becoming involved in school activities ; students join groups to be with friends, for prestige, to build a record for admission to an elite college and so forth The fact that the political attitude variable is a much more powerful predictor of group participation than the school social attitudes of trust and integration, lends support to the view that involvement in school governance activity does have political significance for students-the school is a political arena Grade, as predicted, contributes to group participation ; one expects students in school longer to have more opportunity for group involvement The negative path linking Grade and School Social Attitudes might be accounted for by the spring data gathering time ; seniors are anticipating their post graduate roles and may feel less connected to the high school Sex Differences These particular data do not yield dramatic sex differences ; the similarities between the models is more remarkable The distributions of sociopolitical attitudes are similar for boys and girls ; girls are slightly more positive for most of the attitudes tested School activity patterns also fail to show that boys are more active in the political arena of the high school In fact, in the 13 schools in this study, girls were significantly more likely than boys to participate in school activities in general, in school governance groups, and to be identified by peers as taking leadership roles within governance groups (Eyler, 1977) Girls are as, or more, likely to have school experiences that should contribute to their political competence and to have same sex leadership models in school groups There is some evidence for the prediction that school activity may have different significance for boys than for girls The differences which do occur between the models are not precisely as predicted, but they are consistent 5 5


with the underlying rationale for these predictions School attitudes, both social and political, are better predictors of group participation for girls than for boys We had predicted that social attitudes would be stronger for girls and that political attitudes would be better predictors for boys There is, however, a direct path linking General Political Attitudes to Group Participation for boys ; this is the only link between general political attitudes and group participation in either of the models This suggests that political attitudes are better predictors of involvement in school governance activity for boys than girls As noted, other research has established that boys tend to predict a future political role for themselves more than girls do, and that boys tend to associate their participation in school activities with future occupational roles The results reported here, while not containing direct evidence of student perceptions of the relationship of participation to future political roles, is consistent with the view that boys make a greater connection between political attitudes and participation in governance activity Group participation in school may be a more political activity for boys than for girls Figure 2 presents means of each of the composite attitudes for each participation category by sex to illustrate actual differences in student response : While most differences are substantial considering the five point response scale, particularly noteworthy are differences in both general and school political attitudes compared with differences in social attitudes among the participant categories The fact that political attitudes differentiate participant categories more clearly than do social attitudes lends support to the view that choosing to become involved in student governance activity is an act with political relevance to students In summary, the empirically derived path models approximate the predicted model and allow us to conclude that socio-political attitudes towards society do generalize to the school as a political system Students with positive school socio-political attitudes are, in turn, inclined to involve themselves in school activities which contribute to the development of political competence School political attitudes of interest and confidence are particularly strong predictors of this involvement Grade level has a modest impact on the quality of involvement, while gender appears to have negligible impact Implications for Theory and Further Research A new model relating political attitudes to school participation has been supported by our data If the model is valid, it has a number of important implications for political socialization research and theory development By using political attitudes to predict participation behavior rather than as outcomes of school experience, this model suggests a way to bridge a major gap in political socialization theory General or non issue specific political attitudes are well established before high school ; these same attitudes are asso5 6


ciated with adult political behavior Since it is apparently not an important molder of political attitudes, the place of the high school in furthering political competence has been in doubt By establishing the high school as a political arena where these attitudes are expressed in participation behaviors, this model suggests that the primary contribution of the high school to the development of political competence may lie in the effects of this participation Specifically, participation within the school political arena in varied group settings, in leadership and participant roles, and in school decision making processes is expected to contribute to the development of the behavioral component of political competence, political skill A second effect of this participation may be to contribute to the maintenance of the positive political attitudes developed prior to high school The fact that political attitudes associated with adult political behavior generally are well established by the eighth grade does not guarantee that they will remain stable throughout adolescence and adulthood Recent research has traced a steady decline in such attitudes as trust in government institutions and political self-confidence in the American electorate over the past decade (Miller, 1974) This has been speculatively attributed to such political events as assassinations, the Viet Nam war and governmental corruption, and to the impact of the focus of the mass media on negative events (Robinson, 1976) If the development of political competence is a cyclic process as Brewster Smith suggested, then one would expect experiences which build political skills to subtain the students' initial political confidence and interest, perhaps offsetting some of the forces acting to undercut these positive political attitudes often assumed to be important for maintenance of the political system The support for the model suggest further lines of research and theory development The strong relationship between general political and school political attitudes lends credibility to the view that the school is a surrogate political system This suggests that further theoretical development and empirical investigation of school experience from a political science perspective will be fruitful Greater attention should be devoted to describing the school as a political system More adequate descriptions of schools and settings within schools are necessary if the effects of the "hidden curriculum" on the development of political competence in students are to be identified Also critical to ascertaining the impact of the schooling experience is adequate identification and measurement of appropriate outcome variables Since development of participation skills, rather than political attitudes, appears to be a productive focus for research during the high school years, greater attention must be paid to identifying and measuring the decision making, leadership and participation skills that are desired outcomes of political education More adequate description of the political characteristics of schools and identification of appropriate socio-political skills will allow a number of 5 7


questions suggested by this research to be answered It will be possible to learn whether political skillfulness does in fact increase during the high school years, or if it, like political attitudes develops at an earlier age It will be possible to determine what types of school experience, if any, contribute to the development of this skill component of political competence It will be possible to find out if political behaviors expressed in a particular school context, transfer to other settings, or are related to effective adult political behavior Better description and measurement of school political experience and political skills will also facilitate exploration of possible effects of participation on attitude development Although this research is based on the assumption that attitudes lead 'to participation in skill enhancing activities, there are two ways in which the reverse effect might be anticipated As previously noted, the development of political competence is a cyclic process With adequate measures of political skill it will be possible to determine if increased skillfulness from participation experience does have the effect of maintaining or increasing positive attitudes towards the political system It is also possible that the negative cycle can be interrupted ; participation experiences which increase skillfullness may have a remedial effect on political attitudes for those students who enter school with comparatively negative attitudes towards the political system and themselves as citizens Evidence consistent with this view has been developed in studies of these attitudes in an alternative school setting (Metzger & Barr, 1978) In this analysis, it has also been suggested that participation in school governance activity has a different significance for boys than for girls If there is a different significance in these activities, it is not expressed in the types of activities, or group leadership roles chosen by males and females ; these choices were quite similar Evidence needs to be gathered about the perceptions that boys and girls have about the relevance of school activities to their future political roles Implications of the Model for School Practice The recognition that political attitudes are predictors of participation in the political arena of the high school, makes clear that high school is a relatively late influence in the cycle of development of political competence The voluntary nature of school activities in the typical American comprehensive high school, coupled with the fact that student propensities to participate are formed prior to high school means that high school will not have a monolithic influence The richness of the political environment for any particular student is dependent on that student's decision to become involved in available settings For students who do not choose to involve themselves, the high school may be irrelevant as a factor in their political development Even students who choose to engage in school activities may elect to participate in ways that add relatively little to their political com5 8


petence In some schools there may be relatively few opportunities for participation in roles or settings that will facilitate the development of political skillfulness The influence of the high school political arena is thus likely to be rather haphazard If one wishes to increase student political competence, one cannot rely on the political arena provided by voluntary group activity This approach assures that the competent will become more so and students already deficient in political skills will remain deficient If political skillfulness is a desired goal then systematic attempts to achieve this goal must be made One way to intervene in the cycle of development is through the curriculum Both information useful for a sophisticated understanding of political participation and training in actual participation skills can be provided through instruction Although much secondary civics instruction continues to be bland, misleading and redundant (APSA, 1971), there is evidence in Litt's study of the impact of text materials on the socialization of adolescents that the curriculum can make a difference He found that students using text material which portrayed the group nature of political influence and the conflict inherent in the political process had a more adequate view of politics, than students who were exposed to materials stressing loyalty and individual citizen efficacy (Litt, 1963) Adolescence is an appropriate period for the study of political conflict and effective strategies of political influence, as well as political skills ; students are likely to have the cognitive capacity to master these complex concepts and the interest necessary for effective instruction (Riccards, 1973) Efforts can also be made to teach the group process skills necessary for personal political effectiveness The classroom offers maximum opportunities to manipulate student experiences ; each student can be assured of the chance to participate in a variety of leadership and participation roles The natural political environment of the school can also be utilized in a more systematic way than is provided through voluntary activities Study of the political system of the school can serve as an initial link between classroom learning and political practice The hidden curriculum can become part of the formal political education curriculum School governance can also be organized to encourage more, and more varied, participation by students There are a number of examples of such attempts to involve students in school governance in both alternative schools and public high schools The impact of these experiences on political competence remains to be studied Attempts to involve students in participation experiences within the wider political community are a natural continuation of this effort to link classroom learning with political activity The focus on designing strategies for development of political participation skills during the high school years seems appropriate in light of the early development of the attitude component of political competence, and its ef5 9


fect on channeling students into potentially skill building activities Before effective programs to achieve this end can be created a good deal more theoretical and empirical work remains to be done As the political system of the school is more adequately described, and as more is learned about the kinds of school experiences that contribute to political competence, systematic attempts to organize school decision making to involve all students in such experiences may be made References Almond, Gabriel and Sidney Verba, The Civic Culture : Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations, Princeton University Press, New Haven, 1963 American Political Science Association Committee on Pre-Collegiate Education, "Political Education in the Public Schools ." PS : Newsletter of the American Political Science Association 4 :431-457, 1971 Barker, Robert and Paul Gump, Big School, Small School, Stanford : Stanford University Press, 1964 Bennet, Fred, The Relationship Between Participation in Student Activities in Central New York State High Schools and Later Civic Participation, Unpublished Ph .D dissertation, Cornell, 1956 Dawson, Richard and Kenneth Prewitt, Political Socialization, Little Brown, Boston, 1969 Durkheim, Emile, Moral Education, Free Press, Glencoe, 1961 Easton, David and Jack Dennis, "The Child's Acquisition of Regime Norms : Political Efficacy," American Political Science Review, 61 :25-38, March, 1967 Ehman, Lee, "An Analysis of the Relationship of Selected Educational Variables with the Political Socialization of High School Students" American Educational Research Journal, 6 :559-580, November, 1969 Ehman, Lee and Judith Gillespie, Final Report : The School as a Political System, National Institute of Education, Project no 3-3067, September, 1975 Ehman, Lee and Judith Gillespie, Final Report : The Second as a Political System, National Institute of Education, Project no 3-3067, September, 1975 Erikson, Erik, Childhood and Society : Norton, New York, 1950 Eyler, Janet, The High School as an Arena for the Development of Political Competence : Test of a Model Relating Political Attitudes to Parallel School Attitudes and Participation in Extracurricular Activities in Thirteen American High Schools, Unpublished Ph .D dissertation, Indiana University, 1977 Glidewell, J C et al ., "Socialization and Social Structure in the Classroom," in Review of Child Development Research, eds M Hoffman and L Hoffman Russel Sage Foundation, New York, 1966 Goldenson, Dennis, "An Alternative View about the Role of the Secondary School 6 0


in Political Socialization : A Field Experience Study of the Development of Civil Liberties Attitudes" Theory and Research in Social Education, March, 1978 Hess, Robert and Judith Torney, The Development of Political Attitudes in Children, Aldine, Chicago, 1967 Hyman, Herman, Political Socialization, Free Press, New York, 1959 Jennings, M Kent and Richard Niemi, Political Character of Adolescence, Princeton University Press ; Princeton, New Jersey, 1974 Jensen, Jack, "Political Participation : A Survey in Evanston, Illinois," (Masters thesis, Northwestern University, 1970) cited by Milbrath, op cit ., p 59 Jones, Ruth, "Changing Student Attitudes : The Impact of Community Participation," Social Science Quarterly, September, 1974 Kerlinger, Fred and Elazar Pedhazur, Multiple Regression in Behavioral Research, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970 Lane, Robert, Political Life, Free Press, Glencoe, 1959 Langton, Kenneth and M Kent Jennings, "Political Socialization and the High School Civic Curriculum," American Political Science Review, 62 :852-867, September, 1968 Lewis, Helnan, "The Teenage Joiner and his Orientations toward Public Affairs," Ph .D dissertation, Michigan State University, 1962 Litt, Edgar, "Civics Education, Community Norms and Political Indoctrination," American Sociological Review, 29 :69-75, February, 1963 Marks, Melvin, The Relationship of Leadership Experiences in High School to Leadership Participation in Community Activities, Unpublished Ph .D dissertation, North Texas State College, 1958 McPartland, James et al ., Student Participation in High School Decision Making : A Study of 14 Urban High Schools, Johns Hopkins University Center for Study of Social Organization in Schools, Final Report, Project number 9-0163 U .S Department of Health Education and Welfare, OE (January, 1971) Metzger, Devon and Robert Barr, "The Impact of School Political Systems on Student Political Attitudes" Theory and Research in Social Education, June, 1978 Meixel, Carole and Emil Haller, "Classroom Practices and the Development of Political Efficacy," paper presented at the American Educational Research Association convention, New Orleans, February, 1973 Merelman, Richard, Political Socialization and Educational Climates, Holt Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1971 Milbrath, Lester, and M L Goel, Political Participation, Rand McNally, Chicago, 1977 Miller, Arthur, "Political Issues and Trust in Government : 1964-1970" American Political Science Review, 68 :951-972, June, 1974 6 1


Nie, Norman et al, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, McGraw-Hill, 1975 Rehberg, Richard and Walter Shafer, "Participation in School Activities as a Variable in the Educational Attainment and Expectation Process," paper presented at the American Educational Research Association convention, New Orleans, February, 1973 Riccards, Michael, The Making of the American Citizenry, Chandler, New York, 1973 Robinson, Michael, "Public Affairs Television and the Growth of Political Malaise," American Political Science Review, 70 :409-432, June, 1976 Smith, M Brewster, Social Psychology and Human Values, Aldine, Chicago, 1969 Vonnegut, Kurt, Jr ., Good Missiles, Good Manners, Good Night," Wampeters, Foma and Granfallons, Delta, New York, 1975 Ziblatt, David, "High School Extra-curricula Activities and Political Socialization" Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 351 :21-31, September, 1965 6 2


Book Review Section Book Review Editor : William Stanley Louisiana State University Theory and Research in Social Education initiated a book review section in the 1979 Fall issue Starting in 1982 the section will be under the direction of a new editor, but the successful review criteria and format established by the previous editor will remain basically the same We are seeking critical reviews of scholarly works related to, the concerns of social educators This includes books on education, the social sciences, history, philosophy, research and any other works which might make a contribution to the field Normally, textbooks will not be reviewed with the exception of those which appear to advance theory and research Essay reviews of two or more works on the same topic will be considered if they conform to manuscript guidelines for reviews Reviews which exceed the guidelines for length must be handled on a case by case basis as space permits Reviewers who have suggestions for reviews which might exceed the guidelines are urged to contact the book editor prior to submitting the review Reviewers should provide sufficient detail regarding the book's substance and approach, including positive and negative evaluations where relevant Finally, the review should include the specific importance of the book for social educators Manuscript Format The length may vary from 1,000 to 2,000 words ; the manuscript must be typed, double-spaced (including quotes) on 8'/2" x 11" paper The format is as follows for the top of the first page of the review, left side : Book Author's Name (Last Name first), Title, City of publication : Publisher, Date ; Total pages ; list price (if known) Reviewer's Name (Last Name Last) Institution Submit review manuscripts to : Professor William B Stanley, Book Editor Department of Curriculum and Instruction 64 Long Field House Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, LA 70803 6 3


Books Joel Garreau, THE NINE NATIONS OF NORTH AMERICA (Boston, Mass : Houghton Mifflin Company, 1981 390 pp $14 .95) In The Nine Nations of North America Joel Garreau redefines the continent of North America To write this book Garreau takes an idea on the road After many miles and numerous interviews the idea is confirmed : North America is a continent divided into nine nations (not 50 states and three countries) Traditional political boundaries are swept away as the author admonishes his readers to, "forget the bilge you were taught in sixth grade geography about East and West, North and South, faint echoes of the glorious pasts that never really existed save in sanitized textbooks ." In this book Garreau's task clearly is to justify his redefinition of North America which, in turn, requires a fresh look at what constitutes a nation The author is not a political philosopher like Ernst Cassirer who thought a nation was man's invention to give shape and structure to a chaotic world nor like Rousseau who was concerned with the question of a state's legitimacy Rather Garreau is dealing with a perception of what is Garreau's definition of a nation is an outgrowth of his and his fellow Washington Post reporters awareness of the importance of regionalism in the United States a regionalism that Garreau sets out to define In The Nine Nations of North America the author steps back to look at the entire North American continent ; he then proceeds to develop a set of criteria to identify the continent's regions or "nations ." The criteria Garreau develops to define his nations are unblushingly subjective First he decides the boundaries of any one nation must feel right ; second, a nation must serve a utilitarian purpose such as providing self understanding (where you're from indicates where you're coming from) ; and third, a nation's boundaries must encompass a comprehensible chunk of territory which can help the reader better understand issues such as water policy These comprehensible chunks of land occur wherever one finds sharp differences in history, attitudes toward the land, prejudices, economics, and the future of the territory The author claims that studying regions which are based on the above criteria is far more constructive than examining, for example, "California ." Simply stated, there are two Californias because Northern California must be considered part of Ectopia, Garreau's western water-abundant nation Southern California, on the other hand, must be included in the thousand miles of western desert Garreau claims that "California" as a region (and as a nation) does not exist and the term is misleading What the author claims is not misleading are his nine nations which be6 4


gin on the Atlantic coast and end on the Pacific : NEW ENGLAND (the poorest nation of the nine which prides itself on being the most civilized, QUEBEC (a nation that exemplifies the nonhomogeneity of North America), THE FOUNDRY (the only nation in decline), DIXIE (the nation of change), THE ISLANDS (a nation whose South Florida economy and culture are facing due south), MEXAMERICA (the nation of the future), THE BREADBASKET (the nation at peace with the basic American values), THE EMPTY QUARTER (the nation of growth), and ECTOPIA (an ecological utopia which is anti-growth) The strength of The Nine Nations of North America rests largely on the process of definition which the author undertakes in order to justify the existence of the above nine nations In this process Garreau is confronting regional similarities and differences in 1981, a year in the midst of economic, political, and social change As he sees it, regional comparisons help us to get on top of current events by anticipating outcomes based on our understanding of different regional realilties The questions Garreau asks as he builds his justification for each nation are indeed issue-oriented : How does a nation deal with growth? What does a population shift West mean to nations both East and West? How does the Empire vs Environment debate affect each of the nine nations? No single nation encompasses the full complexity nor reveals the vital significance of Garreau's questions It is through regional comparisons and contrasts that the reader begins to see issues in their full complexity Look at Ectopia, for example, and compare it to the other nations in Garreau's framework Ectopia is a nation which begins in southeastern coastal Alaska and ends below San Francisco where the Tehachapi Mountains meet the Pacific at Point Conception Ectopia really needs no one since it has an economy based on renewable resources such as fish, timber, and hydroelectric power Ectopia from the earliest times has had beauty and abundance (Garreau points out that Ectopia was the only early settlement in the continent with fat Native Americans) Located on the Pacific Rim, Ectopians prefer Datsuns to Plymouths and find it hard to identify with Detroit's decline ; in fact, the trouble in The Foundry seems irrelevant in Ectopia Furthermore, the push for resource development in the Empty Sector and the population scramble in MexAmerica make little sense to Ectopians who tend to agree with William Boley's assessment of growth which appeared in the Oregon Times : "Growth for the sake of growth is the ideology of the cancer cell ." Ectopia's motto is "Leave Me Alone ." Give Ectopia as a foil, the surge of growth in the Empty Sector and MexAmerica appear that much more remarkable It is this kind of contrast that makes Garreau's analysis noteworthy and interesting Garreau's comparisons of regions within the United States leads to an important political observation This work suggests that the questions that need to be asked nationallythose questions generated by a White House 6 5


striving for a national domestic policymight be unanswerable Regionalism suggests fragmentation Garreau believes that Ronald Reagan recognizes that national unity is an impossible dream and will go with the Sun Belt in policy matters leaving the Frost Belt behind since he rode into office on anti-eastern sentiment In any case, although Nine Nations does not build a case for the destruction of the Union, it does suggest that a national consensus on almost any important issue is a near impossibility While Joel Garreau's effort is commendable in terms of his regional analysis, the work is seriously flawed as research Garreau calls this book "his private craziness" possibly because once he has decided on new boundaries for the nine nations he no longer can make sense of statistical reports dealing with natural resources, population, and industrial outputs which are published along traditional state and national lines The author is constantly trying to extrapolate to make sense of these data Additionally, Garreau declares that he often found primary statistical data useless because it was out-of-date or inaccurate Statistical cartographers have a time lag (between data gathering and publication) of about five years, and Garreau found recent census figures incomplete and not dependable To add the confusion of the "soft" data, Garreau's journalistic style of writing takes some adjustment for the serious reader When something didn't work, it was "screwed up," a term which Garreau uses quite often (which might indicate the state of the world or the perceptions of the author, or both) The appeal of Joel Garreau's book The Nine Nations of North America is in its timely treatment of regional diversity which helps the reader interpret and understand the issues of our day However, like many short term visions Garreau's nine nations must be seen as a passing aberration which will self destruct simply with the passage of time For the present time, however, this book is fun to read, fresh in its outlook, and full of information ranging from trivia to insights based on numerous interviews and wide-ranging travel by the author Joyce Honeychurch University of Texas at San Antonio David Bridges, EDUCATION, DEMOCRACY AND DISCUSSION (Windsor, England : NFER Publishing Company, 1979) David Bridges provides an interesting, multi-faceted treatment of discussion in education He is concerned with reflective discussion "Reflective discussion . seeks understanding of among other things the variety of standards and criteria which people apply in their defence and criticism of judgments" (p 38) His discussion of discussion includes an important array 6 6


of topics : the moral culture of group discussion, some epistemological underpinnings of group discussion, problems of open discussion, teaching by discussion, and discussion and decision making Throughout he aligns himself with liberal democratic views of discussion such as found in the writings of Karl Popper and John Dewey Popper's version of the liberal epistemological tradition includes : "(a) a belief that error may be purged through criticism, (b) scepticism of authorities, (c) a commitment to the defence of the expression of diverse and dissentient opinion, (d) a belief in the value of the activity of discussion (in the service of (a) and (c)) ; and (e) a belief that these opinions have implications for the political ordering of society" (pp 60-61) The areas appropriate for discussion are those where the views of many are deemed valuable and where appeal to expertise and authority is unforthcoming (p 64) The book is less in the how to do it mold than it is a treatment of many important philosophical characteristics of discussion and democracy in education As the author writes in the Preface, "The form of argument is very largely philosophical, but many of the ideas and observations have in fact arisen from my own and others' practical experience of discussion in the school classroom . (p 11) I recommend that those who teach undergraduate social studies methods courses consider it for their classes because it is readable and not very technical It is also useful because of references to English developments in social and political education such as the Humanities Curriculum Project It is also relevant to graduate courses in social studies or curriculum By and large the book is centrally located in a fairly long and well defined liberal Western tradition of thinking about education that includes Dewey and Popper But this central location is also a key to its drawbacks This book can be read both meta-theoretically and theoretically At the metatheoretical level it is about discussion It tells us what criteria we should use in judging a discussion to be satisfactory or unsatisfactory At the theoretical level it gives us a particular theory of discussion that is democratic in nature All discussion certainly does not have to be democratic but that is the preference in the present case Therefore, we clearly have a political view of discussion and education -there are many including myself who will argue that it cannot be any other way Given that discussion is political Bridges seems to take the politics out of the matter There is a curious apolitical presentation of discussion that is concededly political But this is again in the tradition of Dewey's pragmatic inquiry and Popper's critical rationalist view of "piecemeal social engineering ." The belief is that somehow inquiry and science will resolve political problems (see Damico, 1981 for commentary on Dewey and Popper, 1963, for his description of social engineering) Bridges' discussion does not mention two lines of contemporary thought on discourse that are directly related to his argument Foucault (1976) has 6 7


built a persuasive case that what Bridges would call open discussion is really anonymous discourse The discourse is anonymous in that the rules by which it proceeds constrain the options for admissable statements to a narrow range Without dealing with such constraints on discussion, Bridges' open discussion is not open at all Speakers become interchangeable The power relations underlying discourse are hidden, thus the anonymity of the discourse What Bridges takes as freedom is an illusion A second relevant discussion of discourse not mentioned by Bridges is found in the work of Habermas (1970) Habermas's analysis of the constraints on communication is different from Foucault's but he also understands the need to promote radically free discourse if individuals are to control their social structures Habermas provides an epistemological analysis of the nature of truth and discourse that is missing in Bridges Bridges waffles in his argument between a positivistic view of knowledge, that there is an objective truth that we are after, and some sort of neo-positivist view of truth, that truth is based on some kind of consensus Whereas the book will be helpful in many classes it should be made clear that it is a fundamentally apolitical treatment of politics It is a treatment that ignores both the relationship of discourse to the legal and institutional constraints on discursive practice and the epistemological relationship between what is asserted and what is true Cleo H Cherryholmes Michigan State University Damico, Alfonso J ., "Dewey and Marx : On Partisanship and the Reconstruction of Society," The American Political Science Review, 75 (Sept ., 1981), No 3, 654-666 Foucault, Michel, The Archaeology of Knowledge (New York : Harper & Row, 1976) Habermas, Jurgen, "Towards a Theory of Communicative Competence," Inquiry, 13 (1970), 360-375 Popper, Karl, The Open Society and its Enemies (New York : Harper Torchbacks, 1963) 6 8


INDEX to TRSE, Volumes I-IX, 1973-1981 The following index identifies alphabetically by author's last name, all articles, reviews and responses published in Theory and Research in Social Education between the first volume (1973) and volume IX, issue 2 (1981) Allen, D I Children's Associations with their own and Other Countries IV :1, 80-92, December, 1976 Angrist, Shirley S ., Richard Mickelsen and Anthony Penna Development and Evaluation of Family Life Courses IV :1, 57-59 December, 1976 Anyon, Jean Education, Social `Structure' and the Power of Individuals VII :1, 49-59, Spring, 1979 Anyon, Jean Elementary Social Studies Textbooks and Legitimating Knowledge VI :3, 40-55, September, 1978 Bagenstos, Naida Tushnet Social Reconstruction : The Controversy over the Textbooks of Harold Rugg V :3, 22-38, December, 1977 Barger, Harold M Demythologizing the Textbook President : Teaching About the President After Watergate IV :1, 51-66, August, 1976 Barnes, Buckley, William Stallings and Roberta Rivner Are the Critics Right About MACOS? IX :1, 35-44, Spring, 1981 Barth, James L and S Samuel Shermis Nineteenth Century Origins of the Social Studies Movement : Understanding the Continuity between Older and Contemporary Civic and U .S History Textbooks VIII :3, 29-50, Fall, 1980 Barth, James L and S Samuel Shermis Response to Hurst, Weiss and Kinney VIII :1, 57-59, Spring, 1980 Baskerville, Roger A and F William Sesow In Defense of Hanna and the Expanding Communities' Approach to Social Studies IV :1, 20-32, August, 1976 Cherryholmes, Cleo Response and Rejoinder on `Citizenship as the Aim of Social Studies' V :1, 1-4, April, 1977 Clements, Millard The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives : An Ethnographic Perspectivie of an Occupational Culture VII :3, 47-63, Fall, 1979 6 9


Cogan, John J and Linda A Miner Social Studies Supervisors' Rankings of the NCSS Curriculum Guidelines V :2, 1-9, August, 1977 Common, Dianne L A Reaction to `Why Schools Abandon New Social Studies Materials' VIII :4, 81-88, Winter, 1981 Cornbleth, Catherine A Reaction to `Social Education in the Classroom : The Dynamics of the Hidden Curriculum' VIII :2, 57-60, Summer, 1980 Egan, Kieran John Dewey and the Social Studies Curriculum VIII :2, 37-55, Summer, 1980 Eyler, Janet Citizenship Education for Conflict : An Empirical Assessment of the Relationship Between Principled Thinking and Tolerance for Conflict and Diversity VIII :2, 11-26, Summer, 1980 Farnan, Greg, Gary Natriello and Sanford M Dornbusch Social Studies and Motivation : High School Students' Perceptions of the Articulation of Social Studies to Work, Family and Community VI :3, 27-39, September, 1978 Feely, Ted Critical Thinking : Toward a Definition, Paradigm and Research Agenda IV :1, 1-19, August, 1976 Feely, Ted Predicting Students' Use of Evidence : An Aspect of Critical Thinking III :!, 63-72, December, 1975 Ferguson, Patrick and John W Friesen Values Theory and Teaching : The Problem of Autonomy Versus Determinism 11 : 1, 1-24, December, 1974 Fogg, Richard Some Effects of Teaching Adolescents Some Creative, Peaceful Conflict Resolution Approaches 11 : 1, 51-68, December, 1974 Foshay, Arthur Letter in response to Cherryholmes V :1, 4-6, April, 1977 Foshay, Arthur W and William W Burton Citizenship as the Aim of the Social Studies IV :2, 1-22, December, 1976 Fraenkel, Jack R Program Presentations and Journal Publications as Indications of Productivity in Social Studies Education VIII :4, 15-30, Winter, 1981 Gay, Geneva Book Review, Stereotypes, Distortions and Omissions in U .S History Textbooks VI :2, 88-93, June, 1978 Giroux, Henry and Anthony N Penna Response to Cornbleth VIII :2, 61-64, Summer, 1980 Giroux, Henry and Anthony N Penna Social Education in the Classroom : The Dynamics of the Hidden Curriculum VII :1, 21-42, Spring, 1979 Goetz, Judith Preissle Children's Sex Role Knowledge and Behavior : An 7 0


Ethnographic Study of First Graders in the Rural South VIII :4, 31-54, Winter, 1981 Goldenson, Dennis R An Alternative View About the Role of the Secondary School in Political Socialization : A Field-Experimental Study of the Development of Civil Liberties Attitudes VI :1, 44-72, March, 1978 Hahn, Carole L Book Review, Beyond Bias VIII : 1, 61-62, Spring, 1980 Hahn, Carole L Review of Research on Sex Roles : Implications for Social Studies Research VI :1, 73-99, March, 1978 Hahn, Carole L Attributes and Adoption of New Social Studies Materials V :1, 19-40, April, 1977 Harris, David A Curriculum Sequence for Moral Development V :3, 1-21, December, 1977 Hartoonian H Michael Reasoning as a Metaphor for Skill Development in the Social Studies Curriculum VII :4, 59-78, Winter, 1980 Hartoonian, H Michael A Disclosure Approach to Value Analysis in Social Studies Education : Rationale and Components, 1 :1, 1-26, October, 1973 Hartoonian, H Michael The Ethics of Our Profession : The student and Schooling V :2, 57-69, August, 1977 Hepburn, Mary A ., John Shrum and Ronald Simpson Effects of Coordinated Environmental Studies in Social Studies and Science on Student Attitudes Toward Growth and Pollution VI :3, 71-86, September, 1978 Herman, Wayne L Teacher Behavior in Elementary School Social Studies V :3, 39-63, December, 1977 Hurst, Joe, Steve Weiss and Mark Kinney A Step Beyond Defining Social Problems : A Response to Shermis and Barth VIII :1, 45-55, Spring, 1980 Hurst, Joe B Political Pablum : Democratic Role Models in Children's Picture Books VII :3, 1-19, Fall, 1979 Hurst, Joe, Thomas Dunn, Steven Weiss, Jim Lesage, and Barbara Hurst Hierarchical Analysis of Learning Objectives in Economics VI :3, 1-13, September, 1978 Jantz, Richard K An Investigation of the Relationship Between Moral Development and Intellectual Development in Male Elementary School Students, 1 :1, 75-81, October, 1973 Jennings, M Kent and Lee H Ehman Political Attitudes of Parents and 7 1


Social Studies Teachers : Comparisons and Linkages 11 : 1, 67-84, August, 1976 Johns, Robert W Man-In-Dialogue : An Image for Global-Minded Citizenship VI :2, 1-25, June, 1978 Jones, Ruth S Evaluating Student Involvement as a Technique for Improving Citizenship Education 111 : 1, 73-8, December, 1975 Keels, Oliver M The Collegiate Influence on the Early Social Studies Curriculum : A Reassessment of the Role of Historians VIII :3, 105-120, Fall, 1980 Kissock, Craig and Dennis R Falk A Reconsideration of Attributes and Adoption of New Social Studies Materials VI :3, 56-70, September, 1978 Lamperes, Bill and Anthony Penna Critique of Michael E Siegel's Article, `Citizenship Education in Five Massachusetts High Schools' VI :2, 80-84, June, 1978 Larkins, A Guy and C W McKinney Four Types of Theory : Implications for Research in Social Education VIII : 1, 9-17, Spring, 1980 Larkins, A Guy and Sally Oldham Patterns of Racial Separation in a Desegregated High School IV :2, 23-38, December, 1976 Larkins, A Guy Critique of Alternative Research Orientations 111 : 1, 29-35, December, 1975 Leming, James S On the Limits of Rational Moral Education IX : 1, 7-34, Spring, 1981 Lindsay, Michael K Self-Constructs and Social Education VI :2, 26-47, June, 1978 Lindsey, Duncan Reflective Inquiry into Mental Illness by Hospitalized Adolescents 111 : 1, 43-62, December, 1975 Long, Samuel Urban Adolescents and the Political System : Dimensions of Disaffection VIII : 1, 31-43, Spring, 1980 Lybarger, Michael The Political Context of the Social Studies : Creating a Constituency for Municipal Reform VIII :3, 1-28, Fall, 1980 Marker, Gerald Response to Common VI11 :4, 89-92, Winter, 1981 Marker, Gerald W Why Schools Abandon `New Social Studies' Materials VII :4, 35-57, Winter, 1980 McCutcheon, Gail Elementary School Teachers' Planning for Social Studies and other Subjects IX :1, 45-66, Spring, 1981 7 2


McKenzie, Gary R The Fallacy of Excluded Instruction : A Common but Correctable Error in Process Oriented Teaching Strategies VII :2, 35-48, Summer, 1979 McKeown, Robin A Study of the Attitudinal Effects of Student Responses to Two Levels of Social Science Questions 11 :1, 69-78, December, 1974 Metzger, Devon J and Robert D Barr The Impact of School Political Systems on Student Political Attitudes VI :2, 48-79, June, 1978 Mitsakos, Charles L A Global Education Program Can Make a Difference VI :1, 1-15, March, 1978 Moore, Jerry R and Paul L Williams Trends in Social Studies Curricula and Graduation Competencies VIII :2, 27-36, Summer, 1980 Napier, John D The Validity of Preservice Teacher Use of Kohlberg's Issue Stage Scoring System VI :1, 16-30, March, 1978 Napier, John D and Charles F Klingensmith An Analysis of Instructional Planning Skills of Social Studies Teacher Trainees V :2, 10-19, August, 1977 Napier, John D The Ability of Elementary School Teachers to Stage Score Moral Thought Statements IV :2, 39-56, December, 1976 Naylor, David T A Study of the Perceptions of New Jersey Educators Regarding Nationalistic Instruction 1 :1, 59-73, October, 1973 Nelson, Jack L Reply to Fred M Newmann's Response to My Review VI :1, 100-103, March, 1978 Nelson, Jack L Book Review, Education for Citizen Action, Skills in Citizen Action V :2, 101-105, August, 1977 Nelson, Jack L Nationalistic vs Global Education : An Examination of National Bias in the Schools and its Implications for a Global Society IV :1, 33-50, August, 1976 Nelson, Murry R Social Studies : Something Old, Something New and All Borrowed VIII :3, 51-64, Fall, 1980 Nelson, Murry R The Development of the Rugg Social Studies Materials V :3, 64-83, December, 1977 Newmann, Fred Response to Jack Nelson Review of Skills in Citizen Action V :3, 96-103, December, 1977 Newton, Richard F Induction in the New Social Studies 1 :1, 27-57, October, 1973 Ochoa, Anna S The Social Studies Teacher : An Exploration of Ethical Behavior V :2, 70-80, August, 1977 7 3


Palonsky, Stuart B and Jack L Nelson Political Restraint in the Socialization of Student Teachers VII :4, 19-34, Winter, 1980 Palonsky, Stuart B Book Review, Learning Lessons, Social Organization in the Classroom VII :2, 75-77, Summer, 1979 Pekarsky, Daniel Moral Dilemmas and Moral Education VIII :1, 1-8, Spring, 1980 Pelletti, John C The Effect of Graphic Roles in Elementary Social Studies Texts on Cognitive Achievement 11 :1, 79-93, December, 1974 Penn, Susan Book Review, Political Language VIII :2, 65-68, Summer, 1980 Piburn, Michael Teaching About Science and Society : Moral Judgment and the Prisoner's Dilemma V :2, 20-30, August, 1977 Popkewitz, Thomas S The Latent Values of the Discipline-Centered Curriculum V :1, 41-60, April, 1977 Robinson, Paul The Conventional Historians of the Social Studies VIII :3, 65-88, Fall, 1980 Schwab, Lynn S Book Review, Promoting Moral Growth, from Piaget to Kohlberg VIII :3, 129-136, Fall, 1980 Serow, Robert C and Kenneth A Stike Students' Attitudes Toward High School Governance : Implications for Social Education VI :3, 14-26, September, 1978 Shaver, James P and Richard S Norton Populations, Samples, Randomness and Replication in Two Social Studies Journals VIII :2, 1-10, Summer, 1980 Shaver, James Political and Economic Socialization in Elementary School Social Studies Textbooks : A Reaction VII :!, 43-48, Spring, 1979 Shaver, James P The Usefulness of Educational Research in Curricular/Instructional Decision-Making in Social Studies VII :3, 21-46, Fall, 1979 Shermis, S Samuel and James L Barth Defining Social Problems VII : 1, 1-19, Spring, 1979 Shermis, S Samuel and James L Barth Social Studies and the Problem of Knowledge : A Re-examination of Edgar Bruce Wesley's Classic Definition of the Social Studies VI : 1, 31-43, March, 1978 Siegel, Michael E Citizenship Education and the High Schools : A Rejoinder VI :2, 85-87, June, 1978 Siegel, Michael E Citizenship Education in Five Massachusetts High Schools V :2, 31-55, August, 1977 7 4


Singleton, H Wells Problems of Democracy : The Revisionist Plan for Social Studies Education VIII :3, 89-104, Fall, 1980 Smith, Bruce D Influence of Solicitation Pattern, Type of Practice Example, and Student Response on Pupil Behavior, Commitment to Discussion and Concept Attainment VII :4, 1-17, Winter, 1980 Stahl, Robert J Developing Values Dilemmas for Content-Centered Social Studies Instruction : Theoretical Construct and Practical Applications VII :2, 50-75, Summer, 1979 Stanley, William B The Radical Reconstructionist Rationale for Social Education VIII :4, 55-79, Winter, 1981 Stanley, William B Toward a Reconstruction of Social Education IX :1, 67-89, Spring, 1981 Stentz, Michael C and H David Lambert An Empirical Reformulation of Political Efficacy V :1, 61-85, April, 1977 Tucker, Jan L Teacher Education Policy in Contemporary China : The Socio-Political Context VIII :4, 1-13, Winter, 1981 Tucker, Jan L Book Review, International Human Rights and International Education V :2, 97-101, August, 1977 Turetsky, Fred The Treatment of Black Americans in Primary Grade Textbooks Used in New York City Elementary Schools 11 :1, 25-49, December, 1974 Van Manen, M J Max An Exploration of Alternative Research Orientations in Social Education III :!, 1-28, December, 1975 Van Manen, M J Max Rebuttal to Larkins' Critique III :1, 37-41, December, 1975 Van Sickle, Ronald Neutralizing Status Constraints on Student Performance in Small Group Activities VII :2, 1-33, Summer, 1979 Van Sickle, Ronald L Decision-Making in Simulation Games V :3, 84-95, December, 1977 Wilson, Angene H A Philosophy for Intercultural Education V :1, 7-18, April, 1977 Wiseman, Dennis G A Criterion-Based Model for the Formulation of Curricular Rationales VIII :1, 19-29, Spring, 1980 Wronski, Stanley P UNESCO and the Academic Community : An Analysis of the Ethics of Academic Boycotts V :2, 81-95 August, 1977 7 5


Social Education Dissertations in Progress Note : Please send doctoral student names and dissertation titles to the editor for inclusion in future columns Ohio State University Robert Di Bella, A Study of Ohio Social Studies Teachers' Attitudes and Practices Related to Global Education George Steele, An Oral History of the Ohio State University Laboratory School University of Georgia Mary Jo McGee Brown, The Process of Implementing a State Mandated Curriculum Change in One School System John C Caramia Studying the Local Community in Historial Perspective : Rationale, Conceptual Model, Case Study, and Curriculum Implications Nancy A Lang A Study of the Effects of Teams-Games-Tournament on the Academic Achievement and Attitude of Students in a College-Level Introductory Economics Course Larry J Thompson Public Education in Savannah, Georgia, 1918-1941 Rutgers University Barbara Godbold, Ethnicity and the Lakewood Public School System, 1970-1980 Robert Noonan, A Policy Study of Relative Influences in the Establishment of Minimum Basic Skills Test Standards Joseph Paun, An Historical Analysis of Nationalistic Influences Upon the Legislative Passage of the 1945 New Jersey Law Requiring American History Courses in High School Howard Schober, A Study of the Relation Between Inservice Economics Education and Teacher Organization of Content and Student Achievement 76


Abstracts Correlates of Attitudes Toward Social Studies Tom Haladyna, Joan Shaughnessy, Al Redsun Teacher, Student, and learning environment variables were examined in relation to social studies class attitude at grades four, seven, and nine A theoretical model was presented which described the relationship among these variables and argued for the proposition that the teacher and the learning environment play strong roles in attitude development in the class Results were very strongly in favor of the conclusion that these variables were highly related to class social studies attitudes Among the significant variables were the students' perception of the importance of social studies, fatalism, quality of the teacher, and a host of learning environment variables Implications were drawn for teachers, teacher trainers, and administrators, as well as for future research in this area Two Studies of the Effects of Teacher Enthusiasm on the Social Studies Achievement of Seventh Grade Students A G Larkins and C W McKinney Two studies are reported Both examined effects of three levels of teacher enthusiasm (high, medium and low) on student achievement in seventh-grade social studies The first study produced findings contrary to expectation ; students who received the high enthusiasm treatment had lower mean achievement than students taught with normal or low enthusiasm The second study replicated the first in sample and treatment, but with a stronger design ; subjects were randomly assigned to treatments and treatment was verified for each experimental session Findings for the second study were consistent with expectation ; students in the high enthusiasm treatment had higher mean achievement than students taught with normal or low enthusiasm These studies are reported in the context of a series of investigations being conducted at the University of Georgia and the University of Southern Mississippi Test of a Model Relating Political Attitudes to Participation in High School Activities Janet Eyler A model is tested which suggests that students who enter high school with more positive attitudes towards the political system, generalize these attitudes to the school as a surrogate political system and in turn involve themselves in extra-curricular and governance activities The model establishes a link between the early development of political attitudes and their later association with adult political activity Path analysis was used to test the model using data from 13 high schools Findings conformed to expectations : general political attitudes do transfer to the school as a political system ; these school attitudes are predictors of participation in extra-curricular activities particularly in governance groups High school thus provides an arena in which predispositions can be expressed in activities which are expected to increase political skill 77


JOURNAL INFORMATION Theory and Research in Social Education is designed to stimulate and communicate systematic research and thinking in social education The purpose is to foster the creation and exchange of ideas and research findings that will expand knowledge about purposes, conditions, and effects of schooling and education about society and social relations We welcome manuscripts on a variety of topics including : Purposes of social education ; Models, theories, and related frameworks concerning the development, diffusion, and adoption of curricular materials ; Instructional strategies ; The relation of the social sciences, philosophy, history and/or the arts to social education ; The politics, economics, sociology, social psychology, psychology, anthropology, philosophy, and/or the history of social education ; Alternative social organizations and utilizations of the school for social education ; Comparative studies of alternative models of social education ; Models of and research on alternative schemas for student participation and social action ; Relationship of different preand in-service patterns of teacher training to social education ; Models of the utilization of objectives in social education and related research findings ; Implications of learning theory, child development research, socialization and political socialization research for the purposes and practice of social education ; The relationship of different independent, explanatory variables to educational achievements in the area of learning about society and social relations ; The social organization climate, cohesion of schools and other school characteristics as independent, explanatory variables predicting to general achievement 7 8


Submission of Manuscripts In order to facilitate the processing and review of manuscripts, authors are asked to follow these procedures : 1 Manuscripts should be typed with a dark ribbon or clearly mimeographed, multilithed, or photocopied Some corrections in dark ink will be accepted 2 Four copies of each manuscript should be submitted 3 The author's name and affiliation should appear on a separate cover page, along with an abstract of approximately 100 words 4 Only the title of the article should appear on the first page of the manuscript 5 All text, references, abstracts and endnotes should be double-spaced Manuscript Style 1 When citations are made, the name of the author, publication date, and any necessary page number should be enclosed in parentheses and located directly in the text The complete reference should be included in section labeled "References ." For example, "Teachers commonly assume that students must acquire background information before they can be expected to think or to test their insights ." (Hunt and Metcalf, 1968, p 54) 2 Endnotes should not be used to cite references Substantive endnotes should be numbered sequentially and inserted in text 3 References should be alphabetized and located at the end of the manuscript The reference list should contain only those sources which are cited in the text Examples of references to a chapter in an edited work, a book, and a journal article follow Ehman, Lee H and Hahn, Carole L "Contributions of Research To Social Studies Education ." In Howard D Mehlinger and 0 L Davis, Jr (Eds .), The Social Studies, Eightieth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1981 Hunt, Maurice P and Metcalf, Lawrence E Teaching High School Social Studies (2nd ed .) New York : Harper & Row, 1968 Egan, Kieran "John Dewey and the Social Studies Curriculum ." Theory and Research in Social Education 1980, 8, 37-55 4 Each table and/or figure should be placed on a separate page and placed in a separate section at the end of the manuscript Arabic numerals should be used for numbering both figures and tables, and their location in the text should be indicated by the following note : Table/Figure t about here 5 Send manuscripts to : t Jack L Nelson Editor, TRSE Graduate School of Education Rutgers University New Brunswick, NJ 08903 7 9


Subscription Information A subscription to Theory and Research in Social Education may be obtained by membership in the College and University Faculty Assembly of the National Council for Social Studies Membership information is available from the Membership Department, NCSS, 3615 Wisconsin Ave ., NW, Washington, D .C ., 20016 Institutional and non-CUFA subscriptions are $25 .00 per year, foreign subscriptions $35 .00 Write to the Editor for these orders Back Issues/Reprints Back issues may be obtained for $4 .95 each and reprints of individual articles (beginning with Volume 7) are available Write to the Editor for these orders ; do not send payment until advised of availability of issue/reprint Change of Address/Missing Issues Send change of address notices and a recent mailing label to the Editor as soon as new address is known Also send queries about missing issues to the Editor Be sure to include a complete, proper address with such queries Advertising Information about advertising will be sent upon request 8 0


Call For Nominations 1982 Exemplary Dissertation Award in Social Studies Education The National Council for the Social Studies is sponsoring an Exemplary Dissertation Award competition in order to recognize excellence in research conducted by doctoral candidates in areas related to social studies education The author of the selected dissertation will receive a certificate of merit and $150 The award will be conferred on the basis of dissertation research in the pursuit of the doctoral degree Research is broadly defined to include experimental, conceptual, historical, philosophical, and other modes appropriate to the problem investigated For a dissertation to be selected for the award, it must make a significant contribution to the field of social education The dissertation must also be outstanding in the areas of problem statement, analysis of related literature, methods and procedures, analysis of data, and discussion of results To be eligible for the 1982 award, the dissertation must have been completed between June 16, 1981 and June 15, 1982 Nominations should include four copies of an abstract, not more than three 8'/2 x 11 pages, typed, double-spaced, submitted to the Chairperson by June 15, 1982 The heading of each copy of the abstract must include the author's name, address, telephone number, name of institution where degree was completed, name of major advisor, and date of degree completion Include a selfaddressed, stamped envelope for acknowledgement After reviewing the abstracts, the Subcommittee may ask for the submission of the completed dissertation by August 1, 1982 Send materials to : Richard K Jantz Department of Early Childhood/ Elementary/Secondary Education H R W Benjamin Building University of Maryland College Park, Maryland, 20742


Theory and Research in Social Education Graduate School of Education Rutgers University New Brunswick, NJ 08903 Non-Profit Org U .S Postage PAID Permit No 157 New Brunswick, NJ 08903


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