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Educational policy analysis archives.
n Vol. 2, no. 13 (October 07, 1994).
Tempe, Ariz. :
b Arizona State University ;
Tampa, Fla. :
University of South Florida.
c October 07, 1994
Carrot or stick? : How do school performance reports work? / Mark E. Fetler.
Arizona State University.
University of South Florida.
t Education Policy Analysis Archives (EPAA)
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1 of 18 Education Policy Analysis ArchivesVolume 2 Number 13October 7, 1994ISSN 1068-2341A peer-reviewed scholarly electronic journal. Editor: Gene V Glass,Glass@ASU.EDU. College of Educ ation, Arizona State University,Tempe AZ 85287-2411 Copyright 1994, the EDUCATION POLICY ANALYSIS ARCHIVES.Permission is hereby granted to copy any a rticle provided that EDUCATION POLICY ANALYSIS ARCHIVES is credited and copies are not sold.Carrot or Stick? How Do School Performance Reports Work?Mark E. Fetler California Community Colleges Chancellor's Office Abstract: State and federal government espouse school perfor mance reports as a way to promote education reform. Some practicing educators questio n whether performance reports are effective. While the question of effectiveness deserves study, it accepts the espoused purposes of performance reports at face value, and fails to add ress the more basic, tacit political and symbolic roles of performance reports. Theories of organizat ion, modern government, and regulation provide a context that helps to clarify these polit ical and symbolic roles. Several performance report and assessment programs in California provid e illustrations.Introduction"The buck stops here." --Harry S. Truman "State and federal governments view performance rep orts as instruments of policy to help promote education reforms. "Decision s about desired outcomes and conditions will determine the nature of any indicat or system ... these decisions will be political." (Oakes, 1986, p. 24) Accountability systems are "very powerful policy tools." (OERI, 1988, p. 31) "An apparent strategy i mbedded in most state indicator systems is that they will be used to guide future p olicy." (Brown, 1990, p. 5) An education indicator information system "can be used by policymakers responsible for defining the nation's education agenda to monitor t he education outcomes they consider most significant." (NCES, 1991) The functi on of an accountability mechanism "is to oversee (monitor and evaluate) the performance of the education system and to propose needed changes to policy make rs." (Wohlstetter, 1991, p. 31) "It is hardly a novelty for testing and assessment to figure prominently in policymakers' efforts to reform education." (Linn, 1993, p. 1)
2 of 18 The above statements presume a relationship between accountability and politics. The authors are clear about the meaning of "accountabil ity," "indicator system," and "assessment." Although the authors may be equally clear about "po litics," "policy," and "power," these terms are not well defined. Traditionally, educators defi ne accountability as a system with goals (educational reform), inputs (indicators), processe s (reporting, incentives), and results (school change). How does "politics" enter the picture? How effective are accountability systems? One barrier to answering these questions is that th e traditional view of accountability tends to jumble political matters (decisions about the us e of limited resources) with structural issues, (roles and responsibilities of management and staff ), with human resource issues, (authoritarian versus need oriented management styles), or culture (the symbols, rituals, myths, and theater that cloak public schools). For example, Mitchell and En carnation (1984) consider together such diverse "policy mechanisms" as structural organizat ion, revenue generation, resource allocation, program definition, personnel training, assessment, and curriculum--an approach that clusters diverse aspects of organizations into the single ca tegory of "policy." "Politics" is a word that through frequent repetition in many contexts appear s to have lost any precise meaning. A second barrier to answering the questions is the common vi ew of a monolithic government, which fails to discriminate the internal from the external orie ntations of government, and the forces that mediate between these orientations. These different aspects of government often have distinct perspectives on policy. An alternative to the traditional approach, suggest ed by Bolman and Deal's (1991) multifaceted analysis of organizations, examines ac countability not only from a structural viewpoint, but also from political, cultural, and h uman resource perspectives. Galbraith's discussion of modern government (1983) and Thurow's (1981) analysis of regulation deepen the understanding of the relationship between accountab ility, policy, and power. Of course, there are other non-standard approaches to accountability, assessment, and evaluation. For example, Sirotnik and Oakes (1990) observe that school culture (roles, norms, expectations, assumptions, beliefs) influences scho ol conduct. This cultural view presumes a sense of wholeness of schools and consideration of sources of resistance to change. Moreover, the evolution of program evaluation bears witness t o the creative use of various metaphors -law, art, history, hermaneutics, etc. -to develop cont rasting methods of evaluation.Conventional Wisdom "Taking a car's measure ... The testers note whethe r the gauges and displays are easy to read, whether the controls are logicall y placed, and whether drivers of various sizes can easily work the controls and see out." (Consumer Reports, p. 220) Educators often view accountability almost mechanic ally as a steering system that monitors progress toward goals. The system sounds a n alarm when schools veer off track, do not function efficiently, or do not meet goals. Account ability indicators signal an opportunity to make adjustments. Key accountability system design issues are who has oversight, the conditions of education to be monitored, the measures or indic ators, performance standards, who is responsible, and what the consequences are for meet ing or falling short of the standards. Resolving these issues defines the type of accounta bility system. While there are many different kinds of accountability systems -program review, compliance monitoring, fiscal audits, etc. -this paper focuses on the recent development of per formance reports. The current vogue for school performance reporting traces its roots back to the early 1980s when various national reports portrayed public scho ols as at risk and on the brink. The US. Department of Education published an "Education Wal lchart" or "State Reportcard" that described the condition of state education systems using test results, dropout rates, funding, and
3 of 18staffing. Many states followed suit with similar sc hool performance reports. (Council of Chief State School Officers, 1987) States hoped to use pe rformance reports for a number of purposes. Educators could use the information in order to pro mote school improvement. The reports would motivate parents to lobby school boards, PTA groups and other organizations to make desired changes. Newspaper comparisons would spur schools t o compete for favorable standings. Performance incentives based either on money, recog nition, or embarrassment would help to motivate school improvement. While state approaches vary, there is consensus on the elements of a standard performance report system. (Oakes, 1986; OERI, 1988; Kagan and Coley, 1989; Blank, 1993) Very briefly, a performance report system begins with a systemic mo del based on research of how schools and the education system function. The model specifies major inputs (fiscal, staffing, and students), processes (curriculum, instruction, and services) a nd desired results (student achievement, skills, attitudes, college attendance, or employment). To b e useful, the indicators, defined as "measures of the condition of education," must meet certain c riteria, e.g., measure the central features of schooling, measure what is actually taught, provide policy relevant information, focus on the school site, allow for fair comparisons, and maximi ze usefulness and minimize burden. Some authorities emphasize outcome indicators (Murnane, 1987), others argue for contextual information (Oakes, 1989), and yet others recommend measures of process. (Porter, 1991) Dissemination strategies encompass the potential au diences for the report and include quality standards that rely on comparisons. Schools can compare their own present to past performance by tracking an indicator over a period of years. Norms can help to judge school performance in comparison to an overall population, or to a subgroup of schools that are socially or demographically similar. (Fetler, 1991) School p erformance can be predicted by statistical regression using relevant background measures that are not readily controlled by schools, e.g., parent education or economic status. (Salganik, 199 4) Comparisons can also be made after standardizing all school scores to a common (state or national) demographic mixture. (Wainer, 1994) Content standards specify the ability of some percentage of students to complete a given task or demonstrate a skill. Ernest Boyer describes the current interest with performance standards: "I think we've gone about as far as we c an go in the current reform movement dealing with procedural issues." By establishing national a cademic standards and exams, schools "would be held accountable for outcomes rather than the cu rrent situation of heavy state regulation that nibbles them to death over procedures." (Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing, 1989) In summary, the conventional approach to performanc e reporting tends to adopt a rational perspective. The focus is on structural characteris tics (budgets, staffing, processes) and the outcomes that this structure is designed to produce The rational approach pays less attention to the ways that people interact to do work, cultural values and norms, and the political process of dividing up resources. However, understanding how p erformance reports affect organizations requires consideration not only of structure, but a lso of other organizational dimensions.Organization The American Heritage Dictionary defines "organizat ion" as something comprising elements with varied functions that contribute to t he whole and to collective functions. Different theories of organization--structural, human resourc e, cultural, and political--focus on different elements and functions. To examine the relationship between politics and accountability, it helps to characterize these theories and suggest how they apply to schools. Consideration of these different organizational perspectives also helps to clarify the idea of "politics" in the context of accountability.
4 of 18Structure Structurally, schools are relatively closed systems with explicit inputs, processes, and outcomes. Two central issues are how to divide and coordinate the work. For example, faculty are classified by grade level or subject matter. Sc hools are organized by grade-span, and sometimes by curriculum or type of student (academi c, regular, continuation, or special needs). Different types of facilities best meet the specifi c needs of the elementary, middle, or high schools. Vertical lines of control run from the boa rd to the superintendent, administrative staff, principals, to faculty and staff. Committees, or ma trix management schemes address lateral coordination. There are explicit rules and procedur es for providing instruction, delivering services, and administering the system. Plans, budg ets, and accounting systems help to monitor school operations. A number of factors influence structure. Bigger sch ools tend to require more coordinating mechanisms and clearer lines of authority. The "cor e technology,"--teaching and learning-and beliefs about cause and effect relations are import ant factors. For example, vocational and college preparatory programs often involve differen t curricula, equipment needs, instructional techniques, kinds of students, and student outcomes The social and demographic environment is an influence. Districts in high growth versus older established neighborhoods face different challenges and must organize differently. Different school goals will produce different structures, e.g., academic excellence, citizenship, character d evelopment, custody and control, efficiency, or equity. An emphasis on equity might result in highl y diverse classrooms, collaborative teaching styles, and a wide array of services for disadvanta ged students. An efficiency goal to standardize instruction might encourage tracking and sorting of students. The traditional view of educational accountability has a strong structural bias. Categorical program regulation and accreditation review, for ex ample, tend to focus on structural features, such as staffing, organizational charts, published rules and procedures, budgets, expenditure reports, plans, and record keeping. Despite a focus on student outcomes and results, the current trend in school performance reports is no less stru ctural in its emphasis.(Oakes, 1986; Shavelson, 1991; Shavelson, McDonnell, and Oakes, 1989; OERI, 1988) That is, performance report indicators should reflect a rational, systemic mode l of the educational process. Reports of student achievement are helpful if they causally refer to s tructural factors that can be changed, e.g., staffing, budgeting, planning, facilities, curricul um, instructional techniques, technology, etc. Human Resources The human resource frame deems the central task of managers to be harmonizing the needs of schools with the needs of people who work in the m. One view assumes that managers direct and control the work of subordinates, who prefer to be led and who resist change. A different, needs based, view is that managers must arrange con ditions so that the employee's self-interest coincides with the organization's interests. In pra ctice, managers may find it difficult to attain harmony. As people mature and develop they become m ore independent, attain a broader perspective and range of skills, and develop a long er time perspective. This developmental process appears to hold not only for faculty, but a lso for other professionals who provide education services. However, organizations often tr eat people like children by requiring higher level managers to direct and control subordinates. Managerial domination can result in psychological failure, passivity, and dependence. The conventional approach to performance reporting often presupposes an inadequate and demeaning approach to human resource management. Pe rformance reports typically focus on the institution as a whole, and not on relationships an d the process of implementing change. The institutional focus, and lack of concern with indiv iduals, would appear to be consistent with a
5 of 18top-down, controlling management style. Performance reports aim to produce change by aligning a school's need for recognition, incentive funding, or avoidance of bad publicity with the government's desire to meet goals for graduation, c ollege attendance, or employment. Schools decide for themselves how to meet goals and manage change. An example is Arizona's Student Assessment Program (ASAP). (Noble and Smith, 1994) ASAP's goals are instructional improvement and accountability. Arizona designed th e assessment to be consistent with current cognitive theory. To score well schools must adopt new curricular and instructional practices. Arizona widely publicized the results, including sc hool comparisons. However, ASAP does not specify how schools are going to change from their traditional models of teaching to the desired models. Districts vary in their capacity to accompl ish the outcomes. Some lack the money to train faculty, and some are loyal to their traditio nal methods. Politics The political frame views schools as arenas where c oalitions compete for limited or scarce resources, e.g., money, staff, facilities. Conflict is inevitable and decisions are the product of bargaining and negotiation. Coalitions arise when p eople have common enduring interests, values, or beliefs. Hierarchy, budgeting, and diver sity can stimulate coalition formation. Collective bargaining highlights the faculty union and management groups. A school's budget may profile faculty, instructional support groups, student services groups, athletics organizations, or extra-curricular groups. Diversity can lead to a dvocacy groups for underprivileged, special education, or gifted students. Similar coalitions a rise as the result of state and federal budget processes. Coalitions at either the local, state, o r federal level seek to influence decisions made by groups at other levels. The distribution and use of power to distribute res ources is central to politics. The authority that inheres in an organizational positio n is one kind of power. Power also flows from individual expertise or control of information, the control of rewards, the coercive ability to punish, alliances, control of agendas, the ability to persuade with symbols and myths, and personal charisma. Given the multiple sources of po wer, school goals rarely come those who are nominally in charge. Goals are more frequently a pr oduct of negotiation among those people who have power. Conflict among people with power is not primarily a matter of selfishness or incompetence, but rather results from enduring diff erences between groups, limited resources, and the distribution of power. Murnane (1987) suggests that the political basis fo r accountability programs derives from the hierarchy of federal, state, and local agencies The federal government delegated major responsibility to states that in turn delegated to local school districts. Schools draw their funds from all three levels and in principle must respond to their requests for accountability. As public policy issues become more important (e.g., illitera cy, equity, or diversity), government seeks to measure and report on relevant conditions (e.g., st udent achievement of underrepresented groups). In practice, state and federal data collec tion must accommodate local officials who can refuse to participate or who can delay for reasons of cost or for fear of inappropriate or unfair comparisons. State and federal government cannot un ilaterally require data collection without endangering the quality and timeliness of reports. Most performance report systems result from negotiation with local educators. The conflict that arises during those negotiations is a natural and inevitable result of the political process.Culture "Evaluation is a ritual whose function is to calm t he anxieties of the citizenry and to perpetuate an image of government rationalit y, efficiency, and accountability.
6 of 18The very act of requiring and commissioning evaluat ions may create the impression that government is committed to the pursuit of publ icly espoused goals, such as increasing student achievement ...." (Floden and We iner, 1978, cited in Bolman and Deal, p. 284) How people assign meaning and interpret their exper ience in organizations depends on culture. The hard-headed realist may dismiss cultur al symbols, rituals, or myths. However, the symbolic point of view values "meaning" more highly than "reality." The more ambiguous and uncertain a situation, the less easy it is to ratio nally analyze, and the more likely that people will create symbols that support faith in order and pred ictability. Diplomas, textbooks, tests, grades, report cards, chalkboards, etc., all have one kind of meaning for a school planner. They are also deeply embedded symbols that define what many peopl e expect from a "school." Rituals help the members of an organization to defi ne what it means to be a member, what to believe, how to behave, and what is important. R ituals embody the accreted culture of a school and help to instruct new members in that culture. S chools open in September, hold classes for two semesters with set holidays, and let out for su mmer vacation. These and other patterns of behavior and events define educational roles respon sibilities, and processes. In another sense they are rites of matriculation, passage, and commenceme nt that help people make sense of the educational process. A common way of discounting an explanation is to la bel it as a "myth" or "story." While myths and stories are not empirically testable, the y present clear and vivid messages that establish meaning, solidarity, certainty, and legit imacy. People judge the legitimacy and worth of a school by the correspondence between prevailing m yths and actual structural characteristics. Public esteem depends on properly maintained facili ties, professional behavior of faculty, availability of instructional materials, and approp riate procedures for teaching, testing, and grading. Ideally, an appropriate structure, combine d with the right technology and processes will result in effective teaching and learning. However, to many the appearance of a school is more important than effectiveness. The symbolism of a school performance report relies on the connotations of accountability for responsibility, integrity, and trust. People en trust their children directly to schools. Indirectl y, through government taxation and education funding, they entrust their money to schools. A report on the measurable benefits of education for children can have several meanings. The report can affirm school integrity by documenting t he consistency of the school's mission, e.g., teaching and learning, with the goals of the educat ional program and student outcomes. The act of reporting can also affirm the school's willingne ss to take responsibility for carrying out its mission. The connotations of integrity and responsi bility are stronger if people perceive schools as accepting accountability. This might be termed t he "Truman effect," from the hand lettered sign on the President's desk, "The buck stops here. By contrast, if the perception is of government coercion, the connotation is negative.Government"Few words are used so frequently with so little se eming need to reflect on their meaning as power, and so it has been for all the ag es of man." John Kenneth Galbraith Many perceive government as a monolithic agent wiel ding power in order to implement its goals. Many perceive that government imposes accoun tability on schools in order to promote reform policies. The fallacy in this perception is that modern governments do not typically behave as large disciplined units. Galbraith (1983) distinguishes three aspects of government; an
7 of 18inner orientation, an exterior orientation, and a f orce that mediates between the two orientations. These orientations respond to different constituenc ies and in practice have different viewpoints on accountability. The distinctions made here betwe en the types of government will be useful in the case studies of California's performance report ing programs, below. The exterior orientation comprises the legislature, voters, and the many organizations that seek to influence both the legislators and voters. Organized groups, e.g., faculty unions, administrator associations, political action commit tees, book, or test publishers, may seek to sway legislators and voters, either by lobbying or by public information campaigns. For example, a union might oppose student assessment in the cont ext of performance review, but might support assessment as a justification for increased funding. A test publisher might oppose an assessment program that relies on state developed t ests, but support one that relies on commercially available instruments. The inner orientation refers loosely to the bureauc racy and the many organizations that administer the tasks of government. Continuity and relative autonomy characterize the inner orientation. The power of the bureaucracy is in pre paring budgets, overseeing programs, and developing regulations. The inner orientation also promotes its goals to the public by providing information -speeches, memoranda, advisories, pre ss conferences, etc. The chief executive, her staff, cabinet, and appoin tees embody the force that stands between and mediates the external and internal orie ntations. In California, for example, the Governor controls the budgets of government agencie s, can blue-pencil budget line items, can veto or sign legislation, and persuades by means of press conferences, speeches, and news releases. Galbraith considers society to be in an equilibrium between those who use power and those who oppose it -the result of a "dialectic of powe r." For instance, when the bureaucracy opposes an employee union, the union can turn to the legisl ature or the executive. A governor can also weaken a bureaucracy that is too effective in enfor cing claims on the state budget. Regulation Regulation is one way that government can exert pow er and enforce accountability. Historically, government regulations have accompani ed new funding for categorical programs, e.g., Title I, vocational education, bilingual educ ation, special education, etc. Perhaps in recognition of local political pressure on budgets, state and federal agencies have invoked regulation to encourage schools to spend funds for their earmarked purposes. Whatever the original intent, the public has come to see regulat ion as burdensome and as an ineffective way of attaining program goals. Performance reports are so metimes proposed as an alternative to regulation that be a more effective tool for meetin g program goals. However, Thurow's (1981) analysis of regulation suggests that performance re ports actually are a kind of regulation. Further, an attempt to substitute performance reports for ex isting regulation is likely to encounter resistance. Thurow observes that government justifies regulatio n as a way to accomplish a worthwhile social goal. Implicitly, however, regulations alway s alter the distribution of income, and this is the real reason for their existence. Judgments abou t the goodness of regulations presume a vision of what distribution of income should exist, and ho w to create this distribution. Two related issues are how regulations come into existence, and the failure of deregulation. In the US regulations are created in response to real problem s. Markets are not performing some task and/or public tolerance for failure has weakened. It is difficult to eliminate established regulation s. Regulations persist because they create vested interests. People -faculty, students, coun selors -enter schools expecting certain kinds of employment and services, and meeting this expectati on depends on regulations. There may be
8 of 18more people who pay for these regulations (taxpayer s) than there are students and teachers. The per capita loss to students and teachers is much la rger than the per capita gain to taxpayers. "Intensity overwhelms numbers, and the resistance t o deregulation may be much stronger than the pressures for it." Thurow's view is that regula tion is inevitable. If a majority wishes to provide services to disadvantaged students or estab lish equity in educational outcomes, government will adopt regulations. Regulations may be frustrated or they may be ineffective. The result is not a return to the "status quo ante," bu t the adoption of new and more stringent regulations. There are two basic sets of regulatory instruments. One set influences the production of goods or services. Thurow refers to these as q-regu lations since they affect quantities of things. Another set of regulations attempts to levy taxes o r subsidies to encourage or discourage the production of goods and services. Thurow refers to these as p-regulations since they affect prices. With p-regulations the government agency takes adva ntage of market incentives. Q-regulations attempt to fight market incentives. Thurow's analysis suggests that performance reports are regulatory. In education q-regulations prescribe how schools spend money, e. g., to hire staff, purchase equipment, or serve certain groups of students. These are the con ditions for accepting categorical program funds. P-regulations involve establishing incentive s for desired student outcomes or results, and sanctions for undesirable outcomes. The incentives can be intangible, as in the publicity surrounding a newspaper report or a recognition pro gram, or they could be fiscal, relating to competition for enrollment or performance based fun ding. To the extent that performance reports are effective they establish incentives and are a t ype of pregulation. A strategy of justifying accountability systems in exchange for deregulation may be difficult to implement. Thurow's analysis suggests that deregulation of categorical programs would threaten the incomes of faculty and service p roviders. An effective accountability program will change school budgets. There will be pressure not to deregulate. Consistent with this view, Lorraine McDonnell (Rothman, 1993) observes that Am ericans support procedural equity, or a process to ensure that everyone has access to value d goods. Substantive equity, or equal results, does not enjoy public support, in part because it d emands redistribution of resources.California California joined many other states in using accoun tability programs to promote educational reform goals. Three of these programs s tand out for their visibility, ties to education funding, and amount of effort. They include a schoo l performance report program, a school report card mandate, and the California Learning As sessment System. Different aspects of government took the lead in designing these program s, with varying consequences for schools and for the programs themselves.Performance Reports The California Department of Education (CDE) starte d a school performance report program in 1983. (Fetler, 1986) Research staff desi gned and implemented the program at the request of CDE's elected superintendent. Although t he program trailed major school reform legislation, it had no legal mandate. The staff had primary responsibility for design, production, and dissemination of the report, as well as its use in school recognition programs. While CDE controlled the program and made the final decisions it also consulted local school administrators, researchers, and various education organizations. CDE claimed that the selection of indicators and wa ys of displaying them reflected the state's judgment of what is most important for scho ols. Larger enrollments in academic courses
9 of 18and higher achievement test scores indicate school quality. CDE considered these indicators to be consistent with the reforms enacted in 1983 -a st rengthened curriculum, higher grading standards, and more rigorous graduation standards. Special interest group lobbying added to the performance reports. Initially, in 1984, the Califo rnia report limited itself to school average test scores. Next years' report disaggregated results by ethnicity and English language fluency. Initially, the report included enrollments in speci fic academic courses. This expanded to include enrollment in courses that met the University of Ca lifornia entrance requirements. For the first few years the reported included SAT scores. ACT tes t results were soon added. Other groups managed to stay out of the report. For instance, re search staff attempted unsuccessfully for several years to define and collect indicators for vocational programs. CDE annually produced a quality indicator report fo r the state, each district, and school. The high school indicators reflected academic cours e enrollments, attendance, dropouts, state achievement test results, SAT, and ACT scores. Scho ol and district reports showed progress over time, its statewide rank, and its standing compared to other demographically similar schools. CDE set absolute improvement goals for each indicat or. Schools could meet normative goals by performing in the highest 25 percent of a demograph ically similar group. Goal attainment was the primary criterion for selection into state and federal school recognition programs. School district and county offices received the reports ab out two weeks before release to the press. A 1984 survey of board members, superintendents and administrators foreshadowed the question of performance reporting effectiveness. CD E conducted workshops to explain the program to local school officials. Four questions w ere asked in order to evaluate the workshops. How important are the proposed quality indicators? How realistic are the state goals? How comprehensive are the school profiles? How fair are the analysis and approach? Possible responses to these questions were "very," "some," a nd "not at all." Analysis of 674 questionnaires from 21 sites statewide found that 43 percent respo nded that accountability was "very important," 21 percent responded that the goals were "very real istic," 15 percent said the profiles were "very comprehensive," and 10 percent felt that the approa ch was "very fair." There was more support for the idea of accountability than for the state's proposed performance report program. This uneven local support may have weakened program effe ctiveness. For example, one large Southern California school district apparently conf iscated the school reports in the central mailroom. Anecdotally, some superintendents used th e reports for conferences with principals, but others criticized the reports to local newspape rs. Oakes (OERI, 1988) surveyed 350 educators in Califo rnia and several other states to examine how accountability systems influence school s and classrooms. The survey found that performance accountability systems caused schools i n California, Florida, and Georgia to change the way they plan and teach. Apparently, schools di d not direct these changes at improved effectiveness. Accountability systems caused admini strators and faculty to change because they want students to perform well on State tests. Presumably, performance reports stimulate public in terest, raise the stakes for schools, and cause school improvement. However, the effectivenes s of California's performance reports has never been carefully evaluated. For example, do cou rse enrollment indicators really result in greater student participation in rigorous academic courses? Do they result in greater participation in less stringent courses with academic titles? Do achievement indicators elicit a higher priority for academic instruction and curriculum, or do they encourage narrow teaching to the test and irregular practices in test administration and scor ing? The studies reported by OERI (1988) and Fetler (1986) only assessed perceptions, not the at tainment of program goals. While the effectiveness of performance reports for school improvement remains in question, the existence of the program per se, and the information provided by the indicators became a staple weapon in the annual battle over K12 education's portion of the state budget, in campaigns for education bonds, and in the passage o f legislation favoring schools. In particular,
10 of 18the campaign for Proposition 98, which has formed t he basis of education finance in California since 1988, depended in part on performance report data. Proposition 98 and School Report Cards California voters passed a constitutional ballot in itiative in 1988, Proposition 98, which addressed school funding and accountability. (Fetle r, 1990) Many considered the school report card requirement of Proposition 98 as significant i n swaying public support for the measure, which succeeded by a very thin margin. A number of politically significant events preceded Proposition 98. During the 1980s California's growi ng and increasingly diverse population pressured the public education system, while strain ed state finances made school funding more difficult. A 1987 study by Policy Analysis for Cali fornia Education (PACE) described California's school finance in the early 1980s as unstable and uncertain." Tax reform measures in the 1970s had cut local property taxes in half, limited the ability of governments to expend revenues, and shifted the balance of funding away f rom local to the state level. Funding in constant dollars declined and student enrollments i ncreased. A growing population of disadvantaged and underrepresented students brought increased linguistic diversity, poverty, and threw up new barriers to teaching and learning. Ris ing public expectations helped pass major reforms in 1983, which encouraged higher pupil achi evement, standards for faculty, increased instructional time, tougher graduation requirements and incentives for student, faculty and school performance. Before 1988, the California Constitution capped the amount of taxes that government, including school districts, could appropriate. Any excess was returned to taxpayers. Proposition 98 altered the cap by specifying a minimum funding level for schools, which was set either at the percentage allocated in 1986-87, or at the same amo unt received in the prior year, whichever was larger. In addition, schools would receive any reve nues which exceeded the cap. These excess revenues permanently increased the minimum school f unding levels and must be used for "instructional improvement and accountability." The initiative also required the Department of Education to develop a Model School Accountability Report Card, which contained information on thirteen school conditions, including: Student achievement in and progress toward meeting reading, writing, arithmetic, and other academic goals. Progress towards reducing dropout rates Estimated expenditures per student and types of ser vices funded Progress toward reducing class sizes and teaching l oads Any assignment of teachers outside their subject ar eas of competence Quality and currency of textbooks and other instruc tional materials The availability of qualified personnel to provide counseling and other student support services Availability of qualified substitute teachers Safety, cleanliness, and adequacy of school facilit ies Adequacy of teacher evaluations and opportunities f or professional improvement Classroom discipline and climate for learning Teacher and staff training and curriculum improveme nt programs Quality of school instruction and leadership Each district board must issue an annual report car d for each school that addresses the thirteen conditions. Local boards can develop their own report card, but must compare their own document with the state model every third year.
11 of 18 Support for Proposition 98 coalesced from several d irections. The California Teachers Association spent over seven million dollars on the ballot campaign. Other major fund raisers were California's Superintendent of Public Instruct ion, the state PTA, and the Association of California School Administrators. The supporting co alitions naturally were involved in designing the school report cards. The Department of Educatio n convened a task force, composed of teachers, administrators, parents, school board mem bers, classified employees and researchers. Representatives and friends of the California Teach ers Association were well represented. The consultation resulted in a 27-page document, callin g for new data collection, and reporting in more areas than the 13 required by Proposition 98. Even though administrators had a voice on the origi nal task force, the Association of California School Administrators developed its own model "in order to assist the State Board in its deliberations, and to insure that the specifica tions and reporting requirements of the state's model were not burdensome on school site administra tors." (ACSA, 1989; Stephenson, 1989) ACSA lobbied the State Board of Education not to ac cept the original model and assembled its own group to develop an alternative. ACSA's guiding principles were to keep the report card simple, to focus on the assessment areas required b y law, and to use data sources that are readily available to all schools. The primary audience for the report card should be the parents within a school's attendance boundaries. Ultimately, The Sta te Board of Education accepted ACSA's model with some minor changes. (California Departme nt of Education, 1989) ACSA's model differed from the state's in using a s impler display of expenditures, requiring less detailed reporting of class sizes an d teaching loads, allowing optional use of comparative data on student achievement, and permit ting a simpler description of student support services. Both models cite the main objective as in forming the local school community about conditions and progress being made at schools. ACSA goes on to state that "comparisons with other school sites or to statewide standards is per missible, but is not required." The relationship between the report cards, school accreditation repo rts, and program quality reviews is another area of difference. ACSA notes that the report card s are not intended to replace or duplicate accreditation reports or program reviews, and that data collection should rely on existing sources where possible. The Department of Education stresse s that the report cards should be viewed as complementing, not duplicating these other assessme nts, that is, "review teams should use report cards as a source of valuable information and selfassessment, and report cards should draw important information about school conditions from the various reviews and reports." The PTA, in a news release issued after the State B oard adopted its model (California Congress of Parents, Teachers, and Students, Inc., 1989), stressed its view that the School Accountability Report Card should help parents to e xercise their right "to be informed about their schools' conditions and progress." There should be a role for PTA units in collecting information for the Report Cards, in serving on relevant commit tees, and in sharing of the Report Card information through the sponsorship of public meeti ngs. Although the California PTA did not issue its own model, it did propose that parents as k certain questions when reviewing the school accountability report card. If class size and teaching load are being reduced, how is this being done? If teachers are being assigned outside their subjec t areas, what are the reasons for their assignments? If the drop-out rate is being reduced, which method s for reduction are proving effective? If a classroom discipline policy is in effect at a school, what is the policy and how is it being enforced? If the school facilities have been determined to be safe and adequate, what were the criteria for that determination? As academic goals are being addressed, how is stude nt achievement being measured in
12 of 18reading, writing, arithmetic, etc.?As textbooks and other instructional materials supp ort the school's instructional program, how current are the materials and are they in adequ ate supply? Individuals voiced a number of issues about use of the school report cards. (Kossen,1989) A member of the State Board of Education asked whet her schools might not use the report cards as a tool to tell the public what it wants to hear. An official with the California School Boards Association suggested that the report cards are mis sing the point. Parents really want to know how their individual children are performing, and t he report cards will not provide this information. Also, the press is likely to look only at controversial areas and take information out of context. An ACSA spokesman noted that schools ma y be unfairly judged without considering socioeconomic and other background information. The PTA also expressed concerns that marketing campaigns designed to attract students co uld be confusing to parents. The campaign for Proposition 98 and the development of the school report cards illustrates how different political coalitions--bureaucrats, ad ministrators, teachers, and parents--can cooperate to obtain funding, but can also differ on the closely related issue of accountability. The model school report card was the result of numerous political compromises on a variety of both major and minor issues.Performance Assessment "Assessment, at all levels, is seen as the key stra tegy in bringing about significant educational reform. It gives educators more tools to evaluate the quality of learning-and then make necessary adjustments. Moving beyond the standardized, multiple choice test as the primary a ccountability tool, the new approach to assessment helps educators measure what matters--including a student's ability to analyze, organize, interpret, explain, s ynthesize, evaluate, and communicate important experiences." (California Dep artment of Education, 1992, p. 32) The idea of using assessment to implement state edu cation reform is relatively new. Cronbach (1984) omits education reform as a use of tests. In the mid 1980s Mitchell and Encarnation (1984) summarized the policy goals of t esting and assessment to include student placement, program evaluation, and certification of competence. Policy makers had not yet made a strong connection between assessment and reforms in curriculum, instructional methods, or staff development. By the mid 1990s the terms of th e debate had changed. Prominent educators (Tucker, M., Sizer, T., Resnick, L., and Anrig, G., 1992) viewed performance assessment, in harmony with curriculum and staff development, as a way to implement educational reform. The evolution of state assessment in California reflect s this change in thinking. The California Department of Education administered a program to assess student achievement for many years. During the 1970s CDE re quired schools to select a commercially available standardized achievement test, administer it, score the results, and submit a record of the distribution of the test scores to CDE. Unfortu nately, CDE could not obtain a clear picture of student achievement statewide from the variety of t ests in use. The legislature enacted the California Assessment Program (CAP) in order to pro vide a statewide picture. CAP relied on pools of 400 600 multiple choice test items that were distributed in a matrix fashion into 30 or 40 roughly similar short forms of the test. The tes t forms were spiraled into packets to insure that each form was taken by about the same of students a t every school. Schools administered all three CAP reading, mathematics, and written assessm ent tests during one regular class period. The assessment produced accurate and reliable state wide estimates of achievement both in
13 of 18general subjects and at a more detailed skill level The accuracy and reliability of school results varied, depending on the size of the school, and th e participation of students in the test administration. Because each student responded to o nly a few questions, there were no meaningful scores for individuals. Initially, CAP produced an annual statewide report for the State Board of Education. Individual school reports were discretely shared wi th local superintendents. During the 1980s CAP assumed a new high-stakes role in school reform CDE began by disseminating individual school results to most newspapers in California. In 1984 CDE made the CAP scores a centerpiece of the school performance reports. In 1 989 the CAP results became a part of the Proposition 98 School Accountability Model Report C ard. A widely publicized annual school recognition program identified schools that met tes t score goals. CAP's resultant high visibility may have contributed to its demise. California's Go vernor, just before retiring from public service, during a highly publicized feud with the S tate Superintendent, eliminated CAP funding in 1990 from the CDE budget. Despite strained state finances, in 1991 California 's Legislature, the new Governor, and CDE created the California Learning Assessment Syst em (CLAS). (Intersegmental Coordinating Council, 1993). CLAS' designers wanted a multipurpo se test that would "first and foremost" assess pupil progress, but would also measure progr am effectiveness, school and district effectiveness, and the condition of education state wide. Unlike CAP, CLAS' designers expected assessment to be an instrument for school reform, a nd wove the test into existing school programs and activities. The new statewide assessme nt program is "performance based," requiring students to write, speak, do research, wo rk cooperatively, solve problems, create, and experiment. Teachers assist in the test constructio n, test scoring, and receive individual student scores. CDE made teacher designed and field tested tasks available for classroom instruction across the state as a "curriculum embedded assessme nt." CDE aligned CLAS is with statewide curriculum frameworks. The assessment system is con sistent with strategic plans published in the CDE sponsored "grade span initiative" documents. CLAS requires more time for administration than its forerunner. (CDE, 1994) The 1993 English Language Arts tests required one class peri od for each of three sections. Students responded independently to a reading passage on the first day. On the second day they worked in small collaborative groups to prepare for writing. On the final day, students independently wrote down their responses. The mathematics assessment re quired an additional class period during which students answered two open-ended problems and several enhanced multiple choice questions. The test development teams produced scor ing guides that teachers used to evaluate students' work. Roughly two thousand teachers parti cipated in the scoring as a staff development exercise at 34 regional sites. CDE views the traini ng of teachers for scoring as a way to shape effective teaching practices. CLAS produces a distribution of student scores, com pared to CAP's subject area and skill scores. Teachers use performance standards with six levels to rate student responses. The performance standards and levels refer to CDE's cur riculum frameworks. For example, in Reading a level six response "demonstrates insight, is "confident and willing to take risks," is "open to considering and developing new ideas," and "explores complexities in depth." A level one response "demonstrates understanding of only an individual word, phrase, or title," and does not "demonstrate understanding of the ideas or expe riences offered or developed." The school report includes the percentage of students scoring at each level, as well as an average of the results obtained by 100 schools that are most simil ar socially and demographically. Controversy over reports on school performance led the Superintendent for Public Instruction to appoint a committee to evaluate CLAS The committee's report (Cronbach, Bradburn, and Horvitz; 1994) addressed operational problems relating to the management of the assessment, measurement difficulties, and touched u pon political issues. Many of the problems
14 of 18arose from the newness of CLAS, and were not antici pated. Considered as a field trial, CLAS succeeded because it uncovered these problems and i s overcoming them. The performance assessment aspects of CLAS posed op erational requirements that were much greater and more complex than those associated with traditional multiple choice testing. Test development, administration, scoring, and repo rting all involve more material, are more time consuming, and require more careful coordinati on. The limited budget, considering the magnitude of the task, and the short time frame con tributed to the operational difficulty. Some of the measurement problems related to the req uirement that CLAS report on school as well as student performance. A design to assess schools includes many different test forms and numerous assessment tasks. The time available for t esting individual students is limited, and the luck of the draw determines whether a student recei ves an easy test form, or a hard one. Fairness in student assessment requires allowing for unequal opportunity to learn. Despite a clearly stated preference in the law for individual student report s, the limited funding available permitted scoring only a fraction of the students' tests. The relatively small number of performance tasks on each test form resulted in unreliable student score s. Deficiencies in the sampling and scoring also resulted in unacceptably imprecise school results f or a number of schools. Apparently the scoring rules for the mathematics test were much more rigor ous than the other tests. The low mathematics results for most schools may have contr ibuted to the misperception of a crisis in California's mathematics instruction. The committee's report noted that a number of asses sment tasks became controversial when they became public. These tasks required stude nts to express personal opinions about their families. Some of the written prompts referred to s ensitive racial stereotypes. CDE's reluctance to public disclosure of the test in the face of the co ntroversy, appeared to cause more dissent and resistance. Cronbach et al. (1994, p. 30) noted tha t the "complaints have reminded Californians of the ill-defined border between political sensiti vity and censorship. The dilemma is to be resolved by political mechanisms, not by measuremen t professionals." The dissent relates to curriculum goals, not to the fidelity of the test t o California's adopted curriculum frameworks. While this dissent is not primarily an operational or measurement problem, some parents and school boards resisted the requirement to test stud ents. The resistance created nonresponse that may have contributed to measurement and operational difficulties. More significantly, the dissent can eroded political support for CLAS. CLAS has provoked more lively controversy than Cali fornia's earlier state assessment programs ever did. Some of this controversy relates to technical measurement aspects (Linn, 1993) but other aspects are cultural and may be mor e difficult to address. Mitchell and Encarnation (1984) describe the development and sel ection of curriculum materials as a "legal and moral issue," not just a matter of professional judgment. Parents will naturally have interest in CLAS as an assessment that is designed "first an d foremost" to assess individual pupil progress. CLAS' other goal, to measure the effectiv eness of statewide reforms, will then focus the attention of those parents on the purposes and valu es that underlie the reforms. Perhaps unavoidably, CLAS is caught in the same legal and m oral controversies that crop up around curriculum and staff development. If this analysis is accurate, the context and the process for designing CLAS will sharpen the conflicts. First, C LAS is intentionally highly visible as the centerpiece of California's accountability programs Moreover, those political and cultural groups that are interested in curriculum and in the treatm ent of their children, but with no role in test development, will be dissatisfied and will continue to lobby for their interests.Conclusions Practicing educators who work in schools, unions, o r associations sometimes comment that performance reports do not work. (Fetler, 1990 ) These educators do not see improved
15 of 18academic performance, the reports are costly and ti me consuming, and they cite unintended side effects, e.g., narrowed curriculum, poor teacher mo rale, irregular testing practices, and biased data gathering. While these perceptions are worthy of study, they are not an evaluation of performance report effectiveness. Such an evaluatio n should include not only the espoused goals of performance reports (outcomes and restructuring) but also the tacit political and cultural goals. During the 1980s and 90s the California Department of Education intensely pursued its own bureaucratic goals of a more academic curriculu m, more rigorous instruction, and higher student achievement. CDE's strategy was to align it s assessment and performance report programs with its goals. Schools and professional o rganizations were in a sense subject to these programs and had little to say about their operatio n. At the same time, the assessment and performance report programs were a part of CDE's ad vocacy campaign for K12 with the legislature and in the development of the state's b udget. Although many districts disagreed with CDE's policy of school accountability, there was ev en more intense conflict over the budget with non-education interests, e.g., the justice system, social services, and health services. When the Governor abolished the assessment program, CDE's ab ility to negotiate grew weaker. The California Teachers Association and the Associa tion of California School Administrators are two organizations that have infl uence on legislation and during elections. CTA and ACSA worked to pass Proposition 98 as a gua rantee of school funding, and used school accountability report cards to persuade the public. CTA and ACSA negotiated with the legislature on the process for drawing up the repor t cards and arguably had dominant roles in their design. The State Board rejected the CDE mode l in favor of ACSA's proposal. CDE has little to say in the administration of the report c ards. Local schools have primary authority over production and dissemination. Some educators consider performance reports to be a n alternative to regulation. For example, in exchange for relief from prescriptive r egulations, schools agree to disclose how well students perform and to meet specified standards. W hile this exchange is difficult to transact with established regulations, it may work in agreements for new funding, e.g., the funding guarantees in Proposition 98 and the school accountability rep ort cards. New funding obtained through Proposition 98 is to be used for school improvement including salaries. Without the report cards, it is possible that government would more narrowly prescribe the use of new funds. The effectiveness of performance reports for school restructuring and improving student outcomes is poorly understood. Performance reports work politically in the sense that state and federal government continue to devote time and reso urces to their design and implementation. The old symbols of accountability and cudgels in bu dget battles--program regulation and compliance reviews--have become somewhat tarnished over time. New symbols of accountability-performance reports, standards, an d incentives--are gaining in favor.ReferencesAssociation of California School Administrators. (1 989). Model accountability report card. Sacramento: Author.Brown, P. (1990). Accountability in public educatio n. Far West Laboratory Policy Brief Number Fourteen. San Francisco: Far West Laboratory.Bolman, L. and Deal T. (1991). Reframing Organizations San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. California Department of Education. (1992). Second to None. A Vision of the New California High School. Sacramento: Author, pp. 35-35.
16 of 18California Department of Education. (1994). Statewi de student assessment results released. (Press release). Sacramento: author.California State Department of Education. (1989). T echnical assistance manual for the California model school accountability report card. Sacramento : author. Consumer Reports. (1994). How Consumer Reports test s. Taking a car's measure on and off the track. Consumers Union 59 (4), pp. 220-222. Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and S tudent Testing. (1989). Accountability in the Post-Charlottesville Era. Los Angeles: University o f California Center for the Study of Evaluation.Council of Chief State School Officers. (1987). Sur vey of the 50 State Performance Accountability Systems. Washington DC.: Author.Cronbach, L. (1984) Essentials of Psychological Testing Fourth Edition. New York: Harper & Row.Cronbach, L., Bradburn, N., and Horvitz, D. (1994). Sampling and Statistical Procedures Used in the California Learning Assessment System. Sacramen to: California Department of Education. Fetler, M. (1986). Accountability in California pub lic schools. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 8 (1), pp. 31-44. Fetler, M. (1990). California's mandate for school accountability. Boston: American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting.Fetler, M. (1991). A method for the construction of differentiated school norms. Applied Measurement in Education 4 (1), pp. 53-66. Galbraith, J. (1983). The Anatomy of Power Chapter XV. Organization and the State. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, pp. 144 159.Intersegmental Coordinating Council. (1993). K Thro ugh 12 School Reform. Implications and Responsibilities for Higher Education. Sacramento: author. pp. 38-40. Kirst, M. (1990). Education: The solution to Califo rnia's problems. California Journal January, 1990. 49-51.Kossen, B. (1989). Grading the schools. Golden State Report August, 1989, 25-28. Linn, R. (1993). Educational assessment: Expanded e xpectations and challenges. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 15 (1). pp. 1-16. Mitchell, D. and Encarnation D. (1984). Alternative state policy mechanisms for influencing school performance. Educational Researcher 13 (5), pp. 4-11. Murnane, R. (1987). Improving education indicators and economic indicators: The same problems? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 9 (2), pp. 101-116. National Center for Education Statistics. (1991). E ducation Counts. An Indicator System to Monitor the Nation's Educational Health. Washington DC: Author.
17 of 18 Noble, A. and Smith, Mary Lee. (1994). Old and new beliefs about measurement-driven reform: "Build it and they will come." Educational Polic y, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 111-136. Oakes, J. (1989). What educational indicators? The case for assessing the school context. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 11, pp. 181-199. Office of Educational Research and Improvement. (19 88). Creating Responsible and Responsive Accountability Systems: Report of the OERI State Ac countability Study Group. Washington, DC.: U. S. Department of Education.Policy Analysis for California Education. (1987). C onditions of Education in California. Berkeley, California: University of California Scho ol of Education. 45-70. Porter, A. (1991). Creating a system of school proc ess indicators. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis Spring, 1991, 13 (1), pp. 13-29. PTA California Congress of Parents, Teachers, and S tudents, Inc. (1989). School Accountability Report Card: PTA urges parents to become involved. Los Angeles: Author. Rothman, R. (1993). Assessment Questions: Equity An swers. Proceedings of the 1993 CRESST Conference.Rudner, L. and Boston, C. (1994) Performance assess ment. The Eric Review 3 (1) 1994, 2-12. Salganik, L. (1994). Apples and apples: Comparing p erformance indicators for places with similar demographic characteristics. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 16 (2) pp. 125-141.Sirotnik, K. and Oakes, J. (1990). Evaluation as cr itical inquiry: School improvement as a case in point. New Directions for Program Evaluation No. 45, Spring. pp. 37-59. Stephenson, A. (1989). School accountability report cards: The principal's role. Thrust September. 27-31Thurow, L. (1981). The Zero-Sum Societ y. Distribution and the Possibilities for Economic Change. Spreading Rules and Regulations. New York: Penguin Books. pp. 122-154. Tucker, M., Sizer, T., Resnick, L., and Anrig, G. ( 1992). By all measures: The debate over standards and assessments. Education Week June 17, 1992 Wainer, H. (1994). On the academic performance of N ew Jersey's public school children: Fourth and eighth grade mathematics in 1992. Education Policy Analysis Archives Available URL:http://olam.ed.asu.edu/epaa/.Wohlstetter, P. (1991). Accountability Mechanisms f or State Education Reform: Some Organizational Alternatives. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis Vol. 13, (1), pp. 31-48Copyright 1994 by the Education Policy Analysis ArchivesEPAA can be accessed either by visiting one of its seve ral archived forms or by subscribing to the
18 of 18LISTSERV known as EPAA at LISTSERV@asu.edu. (To sub scribe, send an email letter to LISTSERV@asu.edu whose sole contents are SUB EPAA y our-name.) As articles are published by the Archives they are sent immediately to the EPAA subscribers and simultaneously archived in three forms. Articles are archived on EPAA as individual files under the name of the author a nd the Volume and article number. For example, the article by Stephen Kemmis in Volume 1, Number 1 of the Archives can be retrieved by sending an e-mail letter to LISTSERV@a su.edu and making the single line in the letter rea d GET KEMMIS V1N1 F=MAIL. For a table of contents of the entire ARCHIVES, send the following e-mail message to LISTSERV@asu.edu: INDEX EPAA F=MAIL, tha t is, send an e-mail letter and make its single line read INDEX EPAA F=MAIL.The World Wide Web address for the Education Policy Analysis Archives is http://olam.ed.asu.edu/epaa To receive a publication guide for submitting artic les, see the EPAA World Wide Web site or send an e-mail letter to LISTSERV@asu.edu and include the single l ine GET EPAA PUBGUIDE F=MAIL. It will be sent to you by return e-mail. General questions about ap propriateness of topics or particular articles may be addressed to the Editor, Gene V Glass, Glass@asu.ed u or reach him at College of Education, Arizona Sta te University, Tempe, AZ 85287-2411. (602-965-2692)Editorial Board John CovaleskieSyracuse UniversityAndrew Coulson Alan Davis University of Colorado--DenverMark E. Fetlermfetler@ctc.ca.gov Thomas F. GreenSyracuse UniversityAlison I. Griffithagriffith@edu.yorku.ca Arlen Gullickson firstname.lastname@example.org Ernest R. Houseernie.email@example.com Aimee Howleyess016@marshall.wvnet.edu Craig B. Howley firstname.lastname@example.org William Hunterhunter@acs.ucalgary.ca Richard M. Jaeger email@example.com Benjamin Levinlevin@ccu.umanitoba.ca Thomas Mauhs-Pughthomas.firstname.lastname@example.org Dewayne Matthewsdm@wiche.edu Mary P. McKeowniadmpm@asuvm.inre.asu.edu Les McLeanlmclean@oise.on.ca Susan Bobbitt Nolensunolen@u.washington.edu Anne L. Pembertonapembert@pen.k12.va.us Hugh G. Petrieprohugh@ubvms.cc.buffalo.edu Richard C. Richardsonrichard.email@example.com Anthony G. Rud Jr.firstname.lastname@example.org Dennis Sayersdmsayers@ucdavis.edu Jay Scribnerjayscrib@tenet.edu Robert Stonehillrstonehi@inet.ed.gov Robert T. Stoutaorxs@asuvm.inre.asu.edu