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1 of 25 Education Policy Analysis Archives Volume 6 Number 9April 27, 1998ISSN 1068-2341 A peer-reviewed scholarly electronic journal. Edit or: Gene V Glass Glass@ASU.EDU. College of Education Ari zona State University,Tempe AZ 85287-2411 Copyright 199 8, the EDUCATION POLICY ANALYSIS ARCHIVES.Permission is hereby granted to copy any a rticle provided that EDUCATION POLICY ANALYSIS ARCHIVES is credited and copies are not sold. SOCRATES Invades Central Europe Joseph Slowinski Indiana UniversityAbstract The objective of this article is to explore the cu rrent reality faced by higher education students in Central and Eastern Europe and to draw out the implications of this current reality for policy makers in the future. In the art icle, I explore the influence of transnational corporations' training programs on education as it currently pertains to Central and Eastern European higher education and employment. In additi on, multinational corporate entities exercise influence on European Union policy through the role of lobby organizations and activities. I explore the influence of these practi ces on education with an emphasis on the emerging importance of Western language skills. In addition, I focus on the European Union and its efforts to expand into Central and Eastern Europe in order to provide a focal point for analysis.Introduction"If there ever was an all-European house, it had an upstairs and a downstairs.... There was the industrialized West, and then there w as another, underdeveloped Europe to provide meals and servants--raw materials food and cheap migrant labour. ...Europe in 2018 will consist of a Western superstate whose floors are scrubbed by Romanians or Poles, and a periphery of beggarly Bantustans (Ascherson, 1988:12)The nineties are also witnessing the continuation o f important social, cultural, economic and political developments that affect hig her education. Prominent among them are the globalization of the economy, th e decline of the welfare state, and the commodification of knowledge. Since the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, there has been a deepening of the shift fr om Keynesianism to neoliberalism, and with it a wave of privatization and an increasing presence of
2 of 25market dynamics in social exchanges."(Schugurensky, 1997, p. 1) At no other time in our history has the global prol iferation of consumer markets been so pervasive. Global corporations produce and disse minate products throughout the world with ever increasing speed and scale. Since the fal l of communism, these international corporations have expanded their markets into the p ost-communist nations. With this expansion of economic markets ensues a simultaneous global influence in economic, cultural and political arenas. In regard to educati on, particularly higher education, transnational corporations influence curriculum cho ices through training practices as well as language utilization. As we approach the twenty-fir st century, more and more global corporations are utilizing centralized training pra ctices at corporate universities while opting for English as the language of instruction. This us age serves to promote English as a global lingua franca. At the regional level, Central and Eastern European nations have been actively seeking admission to the European Union. Bound by t he 1993 Copenhagen European Council agreement, CEE nations who have applied for EU membership must be actively engaged in developing a functioning market economy. Consequently, these CEE nations must demonstrate the introduction of active measure s to reduce state owned enterprise and create a free market system (Note 1) Due to these measures, the CEE region has been a fertile ground for international investment. Conseq uently, on a regional level, transnational corporations have been granted access to CEE market s due to the necessary adoption of neo-liberal economic practices facilitated by the W orld Bank and the European Union (Note 2) Consequently, these powerful corporate entities i nfluence language policy due to employment opportunities in Western as well as Cent ral and Eastern Europe (Note 3) Due to their centralized training practices, access to employment is dependent upon western language skills and knowledge. This serves to privi lege those in the region who have English language skills; those who have acquired En glish language skills maintain an advantage in the economic and labor markets. Conseq uently, transnational corporations have begun to play a major role in the field of higher e ducation due to employment access based on western linguistic skill. Furthermore, the European Union (EU) exerts influe nce in the region due to the involvement in education and developmental assistan ce (Note 4) Recently, Romania and Hungary became eligible for participation in Europe an Union Community programs in the field of education, training and youth: SOCRATES, L eonardo da Vinci and Youth for Europe programs. This will serve to expand EU suppo rt of education carried out through TEMPUS from 1990 1996 (Note 5) Since 1990, the European Union has instituted the TEMPUS program which has provided educational trave l opportunities for faculty and students. An examination of TEMPUS program data ind icates that an unequal flow, from east to west, of faculty and students has occurred; many more university faculty and students from the east are traveling to the west than vice v ersa. I contend that these unequal mobility flows demonstrate an advantage for those with weste rn language skills; CEE university students and faculty endowed with western language skills are afforded the opportunity to travel to Western Europe. This advantage along with the promotion of English language for training among transnational corporations will serv e to devalue Central and Eastern European intellectual work. Through the introductio n of SOCRATES, mobility flows will further exacerbate an unequal East-West flow of stu dents and faculty. Through this unequal flow, those with Western European language skills w ill gain economic privilege through increased job opportu nities. Furthermore, these mo bility flows will lead to a diminished output of scholarly work published in Eastern and C entral European languages. In this article I will explore the influence of tr ansnational corporations and the
3 of 25European Union on Central and Eastern Europe. I con tend that global trends facilitated by transnational corporate training is facilitating a de facto linguistic advantage for those who have acquired English language skills. Furthermore, since most transnational corporations maintain a strong lobbyist structure in Brussels, t ransnational corporations act more in the role of policy development in the European Union. S imultaneously, participation in TEMPUS has operated to privilege university student s with western language skills. Further participation in ERASMUS will further this trend; t hose university students with French, German or English language skills will maintain a p rivileged position due to access to university mobility programs. EU involvement in the region paired with the international influence of transnational corporations will lead t o an increased level of economic stratification in Central and Eastern Europe. Those who have western language skills, especially English, will be granted access to study and employment opportunities not afforded those without these linguistic skills.Globalization: English as Corporate Lingua Franca With the collapse of Soviet communism and subsequen t opening to international capitalism, global corporations were given the oppo rtunity to expand operations and markets into Central and Eastern Europe. During the initial phases of transition, those CEE nations which were oriented towards a market economy were r ewarded with large amounts of foreign investment (Note 6) Consequently, the World Bank and other multilater als provided funding for those nations which were actively engag ed in attempts of free-market liberalization and privatization (Note 7) Due to a need for capital and required by multilateral conditionality, CEE nations have opene d its doors to global commerce. Yet, global commerce is simultaneously English speaking; five hundred and sixty-six of the top one thousand corporations in the world are located in English speaking nations (Note 8) Due to the economic power of global commerce centered i n English speaking nations, English has become a global lingua franca. With markets exp anding into CEE nations, those with English language skills will be given a privileged opportunity in the labor market. Consequently, English will increase in value as exp ansion of transnational corporation continues into the east. With this economic expansion comes a de facto infl uence on University curricula. Since University students in CEE nations will be gr anted employment opportunities with English language skills, a demand for English langu age instruction at the university as well as at other levels of the educational system has be en realized (Note 9) Due to the economic influence of global commerce, the connection betwee n transnational corporations and institutions of higher education continues to merge For example, Mallampally (1997) provides the example of two internationally renown business universities (i.e., Institut pour lenseignement des mthodes de direction de l'enter prise (IMEDE) and the International Management Institute (IMI) which were originally fo unded as corporate training centers for Nestl and Alcan. Levels of university and corporat e connections will be discussed in more detail later. Yet, the connections current exist an d will continue to flourish as global commerce grows. Consequently, a hierarchal system o f influence exists; labor market requirements (facilitated by TNCs) influence univer sities which provide the credentialing and cultural knowledge needed to advance in a globa l society. The power of economic capital works to define the system of higher educat ional institutions; due to economic influence, the practices of these corporations faci litates public demands which operate to change university practices and knowledge distribut ion (Bourdieu, 1973). Table 1 illustrates the training strategies of the largest transnational corporations.
4 of 25 From Table 1, large transnational corporations prov ide more technical training as well as on-the-job training than small to medium TNCs. Sinc e large transnational corporations rely more on their own training systems, access to this training is critical for employment with these firms. Due the location of corporate headquar ters, access to training is dependent upon western language skills. For example, since 566 of the top 1000 corporations are located in English speaking nations, English will more likely be the language of training. Consequently, what appears to be more important cri teria in hiring is the language skills through which TNCs provide training for employees. Therefore, western language skills become more critical for employment in large TNCs.Table 1. Training of employees by TNCs Type of Training & Region Small to Medium TNCsLarge TNCs On-the-Job Training% Providing Training% Providing Training South, East & South-East Asia 61%75% Latin America60%69% All Developing Nations61%73% Technical Training% Providing Training% Providing T raining South, East & South-East Asia 46%71% Latin America35%74% All Developing Nations44%73% Source. Mallampally (1997). From table 1, it can be ascertained that large tran snational corporations tend to train employees at centralized locations. For example, in 1993, Nestl trained 1200 workers from over 60 various nations at its Rive-Reine training center (Mallampally, 1997). As ERT (1989:35) explains about Nestl training, due to gl obal expansion: a special group is prepared for an international ca reer. An initial on-the-job training mixed with classroom seminars is offered d uring a 1 2 years. For this group it is especially essential to look after the company's interests as though they were one's own, through (1) mobility or the willingness and ability to move about both physically (i.e., from one geogr aphical area to another) and socially, (2) adaptability both in geographical and intellectual terms, and (3) linguistic skill. The minimum requirement is for tw o languages, the preference being English, French and Spanish. Similarly, large TNCs such as McDonald's as well as Anderson Consulting maintain their own universities which operate as training ce nters. Yet, in order to conduct training in these central locations, employees must utilize a l ingua franca. Consequently, workers who are hired are required to have gained linguistic ca pital in French, English or German. At Airbus Industries, a collaboration between Spanish, English, German and French companies, workers communicate in English (World Press Review, 1997).
5 of 25 Global commerce is influencing training practices t hroughout the world while TNC's training policies are influencing language acquisit ion as well as access to employment opportunities. Consequently, those who possess West ern European linguistic capi tal remain in a privileged position. Transnational corporation s located in Western Europe or moving into Eastern and Central Europe are continually inf luencing language policy. Since the EU is expanding into CEE nations, CEE university students are driven to acquire Western European linguistic capital.European Union: Conflation of the Regional and Glob al Bound by the 1993 Copenhagen European Council agree ment, CEE nations who have applied for EU membership must be actively engaged in developing a functioning market economy. In accordance with this EU mandate, the EU clearly views CEE nations as potential consumers of Western European products (Note 10) EU policy makers desire to increase the economic competitiveness of Western Eu ropean corporations. "Further integration and enlargement will help rapidly growi ng income in Central and East European countries translate into a continuous rapid growth of the West-European export market" (European Commission, 1997a). With the European Com mission keen on expanding economic markets into Eastern and Central Europe, E U policies are created in an effort to perpetuate free market liberalization and privatiza tion in CEE nations which further contributes to the influence of global corporations Like all large political institutions, the Europea n Union has an ancillary collection of lobbyist organizations working for private corporat e interests. One of the largest is the European Round Table of Industrialists (ERT). ERT i s comprised of some of the largest multinational companies in the world. Of the fortysix companies ERT represents, twelve are listed in the top one hundred corporations in t he world. European business continues to a major play on the world's stage. In 1998, 139 of th e top 500 and 290 of the top 1000 corporations were located in Western Europe. In 199 0, 168 of the world's top 500 corporations were based in Western Europe (Ikeda, 1 996). Table 2 demonstrates the international economic power of many of the ERT cor porations. Table 2. ERT Corporations' Economic Power Corporation International Corporate Ranking (Rank of 1000) General Electric1 Royal Dutch Shell3 British Petroleum21 Unilever33 Nestle38 British Telecom45 Daimler Benz58 Ericsson71 Siemens77 Bayer91
6 of 25 Veba94 B.A.T. Industries96 Source. Business Week (1997). With such economic influence, it would be prudent to explore the relationship between ERT and the EU. For example, "[t]he aim of the ERT is to strengthen Europe's economy and improve its global competitiveness" (ER T, 1998). In order to accomplish this objective, ERT makes contact biannually (i.e., ever y six months) with members of the government which currently holds the EU presidency. This is due to the change in the EU presidency each six months. During these meetings, ERT presents working papers, reports or position papers outlining their policy in regard to critical issues influencing their corporate markets. In addition, ERT operates at the national level with its members facilitating contact with country level governmenta l and parliament members. Like all lobby organizations, the European Round T able of Industrialists is a policy dissemination body which attempts to steer EU polic y decisions. For example, ERT released "Education for Europeans-Towards the Learning Soc iety" in March 1995. Interestingly, a July 14, 1997 report on the European Council's deci sion to admit Hungary, Romania and the Czech Republic for participation in Community progr ams for education, training and youth makes reference to a White Paper entitled, "Teachin g and Learning Towards the Learning Society." According to the European Council, this p aper "defines the priorities of an education which is capable of carrying out its trad itional tasks while integrating the new economics, technological and, above all, human aspe cts" (European Parliament, 1997: 20). In addition, in 1997, ERT published a report "Inve sting in Knowledge: The Integration of Technology in European Education." L ater the same year, the European Commission released "Towards a Europe of Knowledge. ERT's report emphasizes an information society which learns through cooperatio n with corporations. This sentiment was echoed by the European Commission. In section three of the European Commission report, "The Parties Involved," economic partners are empha sized. "There must be a commitment to securing greater involvement of the business sector (European Commission, 1997d, p. 7). Topics raised by ERT through their policy papers se ems to have an influential effect on European Commission policy. This influence extends directly to institutions of higher education through collaborate efforts with universi ties.European University--Corporate Connection ERT maintains an Educational Policy unit through wh ich policy papers and collaboration with European Higher Education is fac ilitated. For example, the ERT joined together with the Standing Conference of Rectors, P residents and Vice-Chancellors of the European Universities (CRE) to conduct research, pu blish policy papers and facilitate policy which would benefit corporate interest. CRE represe nts 500 universities in thirty nations. Two examples of collaborative publications include the following: European Approaches to Lifelong Learning (1992); and Lifelong Learning: De veloping Europe's Future Capability: The Role of Industry University Cooperation (1991 ). Through these publications, ERT promotes an increased partnership with institutions of higher education. Table 3 provides an example of suggested university corporate collabo rations currently being utilized by ERT member corporations.Table 3. University--Corporate Collaboration
7 of 25 Training TypeDescription Inhouse Training Individual University faculty utilized at corporate headquarters Tailor-made programs Universities construct program for corporation Joint Collaboration Combine accredited company training with external university courses Pick and Mix Select courses at a variety of institutions Publicly funded adult educationOpen University Self-study Distance Education Supported with Technology Source. European Round Table of Industrialists (199 1). ERT desires universities to serve its interest thr ough a concerted effort to promote life long learning; training costs will be reduced if un iversities aid corporations in training. For example, the American Society for Training and Deve lopment (ASTD) reported that $25 billion was spent annual in order to train poorly e ducated graduates (Vaughn, 1997). In addition to global economic influence, the European Round Table of Industrialist is attempting to drive educational policy making throu ghout Europe through its partnership with CRE and policy papers disseminated to the Euro pean Union at its biannual meeting with the EU presidency. Yet, the corporations repre sented by ERT influence university students as well as language policy in CEE nations through its global economic strength.Corporate Influence in Central and Eastern Europe A recent survey conducted by Universum (1997) illus trates how Polish, Hungarian and Czech University students view language skills and their relationship to economic opportunity. Fifty-seven percent of the respondents indicated that "the ability to speak foreign languages" was a critical skill perceived a s necessary to realize success in career plans. A large percentage realize that access to in creased levels of employment in the European market is dependent upon the possession of language skills. Economic incentives, realized through language ability, remain the impet us for travel to Western Europe for education and employment opportunities. On the othe r hand, the large number of Romanians and Hungarians without knowledge of Western languag es face an uncertain and perceived unfair future. World Press Review (1997:8) provides insight into their feelings: Hardest to take for many non-English speakers is th e way the global language has divided the world into haves and have-nots: opp ortunities for knowledge, jobs, and advancement may be open to English speake rs and closed to others. Career ads in French newspapers published in Belgiu m are often used in English, because multinationals increasingly regard mastery of the language as a job requisite. With such an emphasis on foreign language acquisit ion as a requisite for employment, transnational corporations are endowed with a de facto influence over CEE university students. Due to the economic prowess of TNCs, CEE students look to these multinationals as a mechanism for upward mobility. Of those surveyed about companies that
8 of 25 they would ideally like to work for, only four dome stic companies (i.e., two banks, one telecommunications company and one brewery) made th e top 25 "wish list" in total of the three countries represented in the survey. Interest ingly, in two nations these companies were the number one choice. Generally, university studen ts in the region are looking toward the West for economic prosperity; thirty-six percent of the respondents want to work for a multinational. This desire for employment at multin ational corporations leads to a de facto influence on language programming at Central and Ea stern European universities. For example, students seeking upward mobility realize t he need to acquire Western European language skills which in-turn creates a demand for these languages at CEE universities. Fifty-seven percent of the university students indi cated that acquiring a command of foreign languages is important to current career success. I n other words, these university students recognize that acquiring linguistic capital (i.e., modern languages of Western Europe such as German, French and English) is critical to upward m obility in the emerging new Europe. In addition, the influence of western linguistic capit al can also be seen in the number of students from post-communist nations studying in th e United States; 4780 students came to the U.S.A. during the 1991-92 year to study at Amer ican universities as compared with 18,032 during 1995-96 year (Moffet, 1996). The infl uence of global commerce on language acquisition can be seen through this recognition. C onsequently, transnational corporations (TNC) create linguistic value through their global economic power. Students are clearly aware of this fact and equate economic success with working for this influential transnational corporations. Table 4 illustrates the university respondents top ten selections for ideal employment.Table 4. CEE University Students Dream Jobs. PolandCzech RepublicHungary IBMKomenci BankaMOL BMWIBMIBM OPELMicrosoftUnilever MicrosoftSPT TelecomCoca Cola General MotorsCitibankBMW PhilipsCoppers & LybrandAndersen Consulting SiemensHewlett PackardNestle Bank HandlowyArthur AndersenMercedes-Benz Arthur AndersenSiemensAudi SonyBMWDanone Source: Universum International (1997) Surely, the majority of these companies are famili ar to the reader. Students chose large TNCs; TNCs that represent some of the most su ccessful and wealthiest corporations in the world. With this recognition comes a simultaneo us realization of the language of their corporate headquarters (i.e., English, French, Germ an). Obtaining linguistic capital for these university students represents an economic incentiv e for upward mobility. In addition, these languages operate as a transnational corporate ling ua franca allowing communication between native speakers of various vernacular langu ages. The influence of English and other Western languages facilitates university policy and curriculum change as well as a
9 of 25simultaneous demand by university students to acqui re these linguistic skills.EU Involvement in Central and Eastern Europe Higher Education Beginning September 1, 1997, Romania and Hungary be came eligible for participation in European Union Community programs in the field of education, training and youth: SOCRATES, Leonardo da Vinci and Youth for Eu rope programs (Note 11) In a ddition, the Czech Republic has recently became eli gible to participate and it is anticipated that other CEE countries (i.e., Slovakia, Poland) w ill become eligible in the near future. The European Union (EU) has been actively involved in Central Europe since 1988 (Note 12) As CEE nations realized more freedom, the level o f EU involvement and cooperation from the EU increased. On December 18, 1989, the EU created PHARE in an effort to provide financial assistance and advice t o post-communist nations (Note 13) As part of the creation of PHARE was the development o f TEMPUS (Note 14) TEMPUS has been the EU's primary developmental assistance prog ram in the field of education for Central and Eastern Europe. TEMPUS was initially im plemented in order to meet the education and training needs of Hungary and Poland in an effort to support the initiatives of Phare. Yet, the EU soon realized Member Countries c ould benefit from expanding aid to other nations in the CEE region. In 1990, the Minis ters of Foreign Affairs of G24 nations extended financial assistance to Czechoslovakia, Bu lgaria, the German Democratic Republic and Yugoslavia On May 7, 1990, the European Council created the TE MPUS program; Article 4 of the European Council decision outlines the objectiv es of the TEMPUS program (European Commission, 1997; European Commission, 1991). With the admission of associate countries into community programs, the EU will furt her its educational efforts first facilitated through TEMPUS (Trans European Cooperat ion Scheme for Higher Education). The objectives of TEMPUS are: to facilitate the coordination of the provision of assistance to the eligible countries in the field of exchange and mobility, particularly fo r university students and teachers, whether this assistance is provided by the Communit y, by its Member States or by third countries of the G24 group; to contribute to the improvement of training in the eligible countries, particularly in subject areas to which they give priority, and to e ncourage their cooperation, including joint cooperation, with partners in the Community, taking into account the need to ensure the widest possible participation of all reg ions of the Community in such actions; to increase opportunities for the teaching and lear ning in the eligible countries of those languages used in the Community and covered by the Lingua program and vice-versa; to enable students from the eligible countries to s pend a specific period of study at university or to undertake industry placements with in the Member States, while ensuring equality of opportunity for male and femal e students as regard participation in such mobility; to enable students from the Community to spend a si milar period of study or placement in an eligible country; to promote increased exchanges and mobility of teac hing staff and trainers as part of the cooperation process. Of particular interest are the final two objectives : (1) to enable students to study or work in CEE nations; (2) to promote exchanges betwe en EU and CEE faculty and students.
10 of 25Ideally, TEMPUS objectives promote cooperation as w ell as the exchange of ideas and cultures between citizens of EU and CEE nations. Ye t, this is only true if a two-way flow of exchange occurs. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate faculty and student flows from 1990 to 1996. Consequently, an examination of the flow patterns o f faculty and students to and from CEE nations should reveal if TEMPUS objectives have been met through exchanges and mobility flows. According to the European Training Foundation (1997a), large numbers of East-West and West-East exchanges have occurred. Fo r example, 100,649 faculty and students have benefitted from TEMPUS funded Joint E uropean Project exchanges as well as 10,624 individuals through Individual Mobility Gran ts (European Training Foundation, 1997b).Figure 1. Faculty & Student Flows between EU and CE E countries (1990-1996) Source. 1996 Tempus Yearbook.Figure 2. Faculty & Student Individual Mobility Flo ws (1990-1996) Source. 1996 Tempus Yearbook. From this data, it becomes clear that an unequal f low of faculty and staff is occurring; faculty and students from CEE countries are traveli ng to the EU Member States in much greater numbers. What is particularly worrisome is the low number of students from EU member countries traveling to CEE nations. Since these students represent the future scholars from the region, the capability for
11 of 25access to knowledge from CEE nations is dependent u pon translations from CEE nation students obtaining Western European language skills Consequently, the potential for the loss or lack of distribution of academic work produ ced in CEE nations remains great due to the emphasis on Western European languages as well as these unequal academic mobility flows. Due to the emphasis on western languages, sc holars will not have access to academic production written in CEE languages; those who will translate are more likely to translate from western to eastern languages. As English conti nues its global dominance, fewer scholarly journals will utilize CEE languages; the majority of the global intellectual products, journals and magazines, are published in a few languages: English, French, German, Spanish (Altbach, 1982) Some may argue that this unidirectional flow is ju stifiable. After years under Soviet domination with strict regulations governing travel faculty and staff from CEE nations desire travel opportunities to visit and explore We stern Europe. In addition, universities in the region may not have the infrastructure capacity to support large numbers of west-east exchanges. Certainly, conversations with many stude nts and colleagues from the CEE region indicate a desire to see Western Europe after oppre ssive communist policies. Yet, these mobility patterns are likely to result in a high de gree of social-epistemological stratification based upon linguistic and other capital. For exampl e, those who have acquired Western European language skills are able to participate in East-West exchanges. Current realities in Western European Academic exchange will only be exa cerbated with the further entry of Eastern and Central scholars. For example, current participation of EU Member countries in staff mobility demonstrates the dependence on the d ominant languages of Europe. Enders' (1998) study of academic staff mobility in the European Union through ERASMUS demonstrates that a hierarchal value of lan guages exists in the European Union. Of all staff mobilities in 1990 91, English was u tilized in 61 percent of course offerings where visiting faculty were lecturing at host insti tutions. French was the language of instruction in 27 percent of the courses, German 13 percent, Spanish 10 percent, Italian 9 percent and all other languages 2 percent. English is presently the academic lingua franca of choice. In addition to the potential for decreased producti on of scholarly works in CEE languages, these opportunities created through univ ersity exchange could lead to future employment prospects with Western European universi ties and/or corporations leading to further economic stratification between university students in the CEE region who possess Western European language skills and those who don' t. Consequently, economic stratification based on educational attainment will be further exacerbated by access given to those with western language skills. Access which pr ovides upward mobility opportunities for those with these linguistic skills.European Higher Education: Potential Impact on CEE Faculty and Students In 1979, Jean-Franois Lyotard published The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge His work acted as a catalyst for the postmodern m ovement but more importantly discussed his perceptions of the future of educatio n and knowledge. Lyotard (1993, p. 4-5) writes: The relationship of the suppliers and users of know ledge to the knowledge they supply and use is now tending, and will increasingl y tend, to assume the form
12 of 25already taken by the relationship of commodity prod ucers and consumers to the commodities they produce and consume that is, the form of value. Knowledge is and will be produced in order to be sold it is and will be consumed in order to be valorized in a new production: in both cases, the goal is exchange. Knowledge ceases to be an end in itself, it loses i ts "use-value." Due to this shift from knowledge as an end in itsel f to knowledge as symbolic capital, educational institutions must sell the acquisition of knowledge and skills to the consumer-student. Universities throughout the world are experiencing a shift from knowledge as an end in itself to knowledge as added value to the individual's symbolic captial. Consequently, universities are forging rel ationships with corporate entities as I have discussed previously in the paper. Transformation in the nature of knowledge, then, co uld well have repercussions on the existing public powers, forcing them to reco nsider relations (both de jure and de facto) with the large corporations, and more generally with civil service. (Lyotard, 1993, p. 6) Lyotard's keen prognostication of the current reali ty we are witnessing in higher education is valuable for reflection on the impact of Central and Eastern Europe in regard to higher education. In CEE nations, the commodificati on of higher education is realized in two majors forms: privatization of education and th e shifting profession of higher education. With the elimination of communist state controlled education at the beginning of the 1990's came privitization efforts. International do nor agencies including the European Union mandated privatization as a preresquisite to EU mem bership as well as receipt of donor aid. Consequently, the education sector was opened to pr ivate institutions offering all types of educational services. Through these privatization e fforts, Central and Eastern Europe has witnessed the influx of hundreds (or perhaps thousa nds) of private institutions of higher education as well as universities headquartered in Europe or the United States with branch campuses in the region. Higher education has become a commodity. Since many of the programs strive to offer international models of bu siness or authentic language instructors, local instructors are replaced with scholars who ha ve knowledge of Western European business, law, economics models as well as the comm and of English or German. Could this lead to unemployment for those regional scholars wi thout these languages or skills? In addition to privatization efforts, higher educat ion institutions in Europe as well as throughout the world are facing similar circumstanc es. Throughout the world in the past fifteen years, the percentage of students entering institutions of higher education as well as the percentage graduating has continued to rise sub stantially. Figure 3 demonstrates these trends in several OECD nations.Figure 3. University Enrollment Rates (1985-1995)
13 of 25 Source. Peter (1997) With large numbers of students entering higher educ ation, universities are beginning to struggle financially. In addition, at the same t ime as large numbers of students are entering higher education, European governments are reducing per pupil funding. Consequently, a potential education crisis is being realized in Europe. To counter the economic reality of universal access to higher educ ation, many nations have introduced increased levels of tuition and fees as well as str icter admissions policies (Schugurensky, 1998). Yet, with the opening of Central and Eastern Europe, western institutions may utilize the contacts brought about through TEMPUS and SOCRA TES to fill needed lecture positions with CEE academicians. Considering the influx of western scholars to Centr al and Eastern Europe as well as the access to university connections through mobili ty programs, Western European institutions of higher education potentially view E astern European scholars as inexpensive labor to fill the needed positions to teach the mas ses entering higher education in Western Europe. Although these trends favor Western Europea n institutions, Eastern scholars are eager for an income to support themselves and their families. Intellectual labor will, as Lyotard suggests, begin to resemble commodification Advertisments may soon appear in LeMonde or Nepszabadsag written in English searchin g for lecturers to teach in Western Europe. But again we must be reminded of the lingui stic capital involved. English is a symbolic passport providing access to those who pos ess it. Furthermore, this financial crisis may lead to less opportunities for Central and Eastern European students seeking placement in the universities with the best domestic reputation. Due to the financial crisis of higher e ducation in the region, institutions of higher education are attempting to lure Western students w ho are willing to spend large sums of money on tutition to study there. With large number s of foreign students coming to the region, university spaces at prestigious unviersiti es may begin to be filled with those who can afford to pay for tuition in hard currencies su ch as dollars, marks and pounds. Language continues to play a major role at the university le vel in the region.Language as Neo-Colonial Agent or Catalyst for Upwa rd Mobility? Historically, the language of instruction at the un iversity level or the acquisition of
14 of 25foreign languages has provided the recipient of edu cational services with prestige which could be exchanged as symbolic capital. For example Latin as a dead language was the language of instruction at the higher education lev el and Hebrew, French and Greek were learned in order to train mental faculties. Acquisi tion of these languages offered potential wealth and prestige: similarly, those who acquire E nglish today have access not afforded others who are educated to the same level. Perhaps we can draw parallels between what is occurring today with the past in regard that elite education has been instituted in an effort to restrict access. For example, elites (e.g., economi cally dominant individuals and families) attempted to restrict access through language of in struction. For example, Those today who don't have command of a western language are in a s imilar position; language skills can provide access or restrict it. Yet, there are funda mental differences as well. In the past, Latin was used as symbolic capital whe n education was perceived as an end in itself. Elites differentiated themselves from ot hers through knowledge acquisition and mental training rather than career aspiration. Sinc e most students came from financial secure families, knowledge and mental training was the dif ferentiating factor. They believed that a cultivated mind made an individual superior. Enligh tment was driven by the pursuit of the rational and this would be achieved through educati on and mental training in part through the acquisition of foreign languages. Yet, today there has been a fundamental shift in the belief of the value of higher education. Today, a university education is seen more and more as a value added enterprise which provides the individual with symbolic capital to exchange in the labor market. For example, Education adds value to human capital; higher education provides individuals with upward mobility opportunities. I w ould argue that those who obtained an education in Latin were also exercising an initiati ve to realize a superior economic position in exchange for their knowledge but this education was also sought more as an end in itself. Today's university student, particularly in Eastern and Central Europe, is driven much more by market forces. Since Central and Eastern Europe is realizing an economic crisis, these forces exercise great power on issues of university curricula and language of instruction. University studies historically have operated as a mechanism to preserve elite status. Bourdieu (1973, 1990) illustrates this in French un iversities; most university students in French universities were children of the profession al class. This process of elite preservation was experienced and continues today in African nati ons. After independence, elites maintained the colonial language due to the percept ion that this language afforded more opportunities for upward mobility. Yet, this was a condition of neo-coloialism where European language and cultural was perceived as sup erior. The people called for the language of instruction to remain the Western European langu age because they perceived these languages as leading to positions of economic super iority and prestige. Indeed, the French Cultural Ministry and the British Council are invol ved in maintaining the utilization of French and English in African nations and have esta blished lucrative business operations similar to the establishment of western schools in Central and Eastern Europe. But, in Eastern and Central Europe, masses of people have rejected the colonial language of Russian and replaced it with English and German. Indeed, as with Latin and the Colonial languages of French and English, language acquisition in CEE is driven by a desire for upward mobility. Language skills are viewed as a value added enterprise. I do not see this as a nati on-state neo-colonial situation. But, multinational corporations are facilitating a neo-c olonial condition where English is perceived as superior to the national languages of Central and Eastern European countries.
15 of 25 Today, English is a desired product to be obtained due to the economic superiority of English speaking corporations. As I have demonstrated, the largest companies in the world are located in English speaking countries and utilize E nglish as a working lingua franca. Language skills today are driven by economics. Tran snational corporations are continuing to replace the nation-state as a global and regional f orce as people perceive employment opportunities with Western European companies or in Western European nations through labor mobility offered with admittance into the Eur opean Union. Those with language skills in Central and Eastern European nations are at a di stinct advantage. Yet, how prolific is the possession of English or other Western European lan guages?National Advantage: Western European Languages as C ultural Capital Von Kopp (1996) suggests that in order to succeed i n CEE nations during the transition phase, it is more important for citizens to acquire cultural capital than economic capital. For example, CEE students with foreign language skills are at a distinct advantage over students who have yet to acquire these skills. Yet, Hungary and Romania illustrate problematic realities in regard to linguistic capital. The Sixt h Central and Eastern Eurobarometer revealed that 79% of Hungarians and 78% of Romanians couldn' t speak a second language well enough to converse in it (Note 15) In Hungary, similar results were obtained in earl ier surveys; in 1979, 7% could speak a foreign language while in 1982, 13.9% surveyed could speak a foreign language (Radnai, 1994). Interestin gly, the Czech Republic doesn't have such a language problem (Note 16) With such large numbers of citizens unable to con verse in a second language, residents of Romania and Hungary a re at a distinct disadvantage as the European Union expands. Yet, educational attainment in these nations plays a major role in access and privilege. As illustrated in Table 5, un iversity educated Hungarians were twice as likely to have acquired language skills than second ary students. Educational attainment simultaneously brought about access to TEMPUS progr ams due to possession of western linguistic skill.Table 5. Foreign Language Knowledge in Hungary < 8 Years of Primary School 8 Years of Primary School Secondary School College & University Total Population Knowledge of Foreign Languages 8.18.327.453.914.8 No Knowledge of Foreign Languages 91.191.772.646.185.2 # Sampled3024435916716969750 Percent of Total 31.2%44.7%17.1%7%100% Source. Radnai (1994). With EU expansion comes mobility opportunities (Note 17) Yet, access to these mobility opportunities are dependent upon language skills. Those with English, German and
16 of 25 French language skills have access to university st udies in France, Germany and the United Kingdom as well as future employment opportunities with multinational corporations. Consequently, those university students with langua ge skills can be considered to possess a form of symbolic capital: linguistic capital. Langu age skills are not capital in an economic sense but allow for symbolic exchanges which enable an individual an to extend the boundaries of her/his existence (Bernstein, 1973). A shift toward Western Europe has allowed those who possess Western linguistic and cu ltural capital to emerge as privileged. As we approach the twenty-first century, language skil ls conducive to communicating with American, Japanese and European Union member countr ies equate to job opportunities and economic advantage. This reality will further exace rbate the economic stratification brought about since transition due to an increased emphasis on credentialism; university graduates have a distinct economic advantage since the fall o f Soviet communism (Note 18) .CEEPUS: Viable Solution or Contributor to Western E uropean Linguistic Capital? The Central European Exchange Program for Universit y Students (CEEPUS) was initiated in January 1995. Realizing that "there ha d been substantial increases in East-West' exchanges, academic exchange among the new democrac ies had come almost to a complete halt" the Austrian Government facilitated a meeting of CEE ministers of higher education to discuss the creation of CEEPUS (Austrian Ministry o f Education, 1995). Unlike TEMPUS, CEEPUS primarily operates as an East-East universit y exchange program. University exchanges occur between Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, Slovakia, Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic and Slovenia institutions of higher education or departments. Each nation pledges a number of scholarship months (see table 6); these months are considered CEEPUS currency. For example, this "curr ency" represents how many months institutions in each country will sponsor a student (i.e., host nations waive tuition costs for visiting students). Due to the age limit of the pro gram (i.e., a maximum of 35 years of age), CEEPUS primarily promotes cultural and academic exc hange between CEE students although university professors and graduate student s are also encouraged to participate. In regard to language, CEEPUS participation mandat es the inclusion of courses in English, German and French. Consequently, these thr ee languages operate as the official lingua francas of the CEEPUS program. In support of CEE languages is a type of course referred to as a "dual course." Dual courses consis t of groups of participants from two countries where each group learns the language of t he other group. Consequently, CEEPUS supports regional linguistic acquisition. Although CEEPUS doesn't serve the quantity of TEMP US mobility, as illustrated through the scholarship hours in table 6, the EastEast nature of CEEPUS provides opportunities for CEE regional intellectual exchang e and language learning. Consequently, institutions undergoing similar problems facilitate d during post-communist transition can exchange ideas without the intervention of a wester n perspective. In addition, the East-East nature provides for a mechanism to preserve scholar ly perspectives which can be endangered by global domination of academic journals written i n Western languages. Table 6. Scholarship Hours Pledged by Country Nation1995 19961996 1997 Austria400350
17 of 25 Bulgaria100100 Croatia100175 Czech Republic-100 Hungary300350 Poland150197 Slovakia300300Slovenia100150 Source. Croatian CEEPUS Office (1997). Is CEEPUS the only potential model for securing the language, culture and ideas of the region? Although I do believe that this is a best c ase scenario it is extremely limited. As can be ascertained through the number of available CEEP US hours, this program is serving few students and faculty. Of course, there will be scho lars from Central and Eastern Europe who will participate in academic mobility programs and return home to the region. These individuals are needed to be the disseminators of k nowledge produced both in the West and the East. Without individuals who can provide acces s through translation in domestic academic scholarly journals to those without the li nguistic capital to participate on the world academic stage, Central and Eastern European schola rs may not be able to provide access to information in their own nations with the knowledge they generate. This has been common in developing nations where scholars supported by the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations publish in Western European language journals and d o not publish in their own vernacular tongue. Furthermore, the introduction of bilingual programs in Central and Eastern Europe may prove to provide access for those not able to take advantage of TEMPUS or SOCRATES mobility opportunities. These programs offer classe s in the national language as well as through a western European language. Since 1990, th ere has an increase in the number of programs at the elementary, secondary and tertiary levels. Further research needs to be conducted to gauge the success of these domestic pr ograms. These programs are built upon sanguine aspirations of those who believe that inst itutions of higher education can produce bi or trilingual students who can compete globally yet remain at home to serve the needs of the nation-state. Optimism is needed in a region where the entire educational system has been transformed in a short period of time.Conclusion I have attempted to raise some critical issues whic h have emerged in Eastern and Central Europe during post-communist transition. Gl obalization efforts by transnational corporations continue to promote the acquisition of English as an international lingua franca. Consequently, those who have acquired the English l anguage maintain a de facto linguistic advantage. As I have demonstrated, the largest comp anies in the world are located in English speaking countries and utilize English as a working lingua franca. Language skills today are driven by economics. Transnational corporations are continuing to replace the nation-state as a global and regional force. At the regional level, transnational corporations h ave emerged as policy makers; through influential lobbyist organizations, TNCs pr omote corporate self interest. Consequently, EU policies serve the interests of th ese powerful international entities.
18 of 25 An illustration of this influence can be seen throu gh European Union expansion efforts into Central and Eastern Europe. EU expansion is dr iven by profit motivation and the expansion of commercialism to an additional 130 mil lion CEE consumers. With this goal maintaining center stage, EU policy makers, encoura ged by multinational lobbyists such as the ERT, will continue to develop educational polic ies which play a critical role in developing attitudinal, knowledge and skills conduc ive to consumer expansion. At the national level, CEE students are flocking to Western European institutions through the TEMPUS program. Consequently, European Involvement in TEMPUS has facilitated a huge disparity between east and west faculty and student flows. I have argued that unequal flows from East to West, created throu gh TEMPUS programming, have led to a privileged position for those who have acquired Wes tern European language skills. Through TEMPUS mobility, these individuals gain access to e mployment and intellectual knowledge produced in Western Europe. Furthermore, students from CEE nations continue to view Western Europe as the land of opportunity where those with the appropriate lin guistic capital can reap economic gain and upward mobility. This dual process of CEE students desiring upward mobility and EU enculturation leads to a continual devaluation of C EE linguistic, cultural and academic arenas. If the current levels of economic stratific ation remain, students will continue to be driven toward English, French and German language p rograms. These policies will favor transnational corporations who will acquire the ser vices of the brightest CEE university graduates with language skills leading to a CEE "br ain drain". Consequently, many CEE students are cashing in an o btaining Western cultural capital while rejecting their own legitimate culture. Unfor tunately, those who don't obtain the necessary linguistic and social capital might becom e members of a working class periphery who wash the floors of those who exchanged their li nguistic capital to the highest corporate bidder.Notes(1) The World Bank utilizes an Economic Liberalizat ion index to indicate how economically liberal a nation in the CEE region has become. In a ddition to the economic liberalization measure, the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Stree t Journal have created an Economic Freedom Index (Holmes et al, 1996). The liberalizat ion index measures internal, external and entrance of new firms in the country (de Melo, 1997 ). Internal liberalization is weighted at .3 and is concerned with measuring domestic transactio ns such as abolition of state monopolies and price standardization. External liberalization is weighted at .3 and analyzes export controls such as tariffs and taxation. In essence, as is indicated by variables measured by the index, liberalization is a measure of free market p ractices. In order to receive funding from multilateral organizations such as the World Bank, CEE nations must strive for and maintain a high economic liberalization index since this ind ex is referenced when determining developmental assistance. (2) To receive developmental assistance money, CEE nations must be moving toward free market practices as well as reducing state owned pr operties and enterprise. (3) International companies such as Ford or General Electric have either located operations or bought previously owned operations located in Centr al and Eastern Europe.
19 of 25(4) Total aid funneled from the EU to the 12 CEEC n ations between 1990 94 was 33.8 billion ECU; this represented 45 percent of all don or funding received in the region. In fact, the EU has become the fifth largest aid donor to th e region In 1995, the EU provided $7.1 billion which represented 10.5 percent of all donor aid to the region by OECD countries. (5) Trans-European Cooperation Scheme for Higher Ed ucation (6) Since the collapse of Soviet style communism in 1989, countries of Eastern and Central Europe have been inundated with donor assistance ac tivities from the West. Foreign direct investment surpassed $46 billion in 1996 up 60% fro m the year before (HVG, 1997). Of this $46 billion, Hungary leads transition nations of Ea stern and Central Europe with a cumulative $13.9 billion with Poland second at $9.1 billion; Hungary's foreign direct investment represents 30% of the region's total whi le Poland's 17%. Russia is third with a 13% while the Czech Republic maintains 12%. Hungary the Czech Republic, Poland, the Slovak Republic and Slovenia together received appr oximately 70% of all foreign direct investment in the region.(7) In an effort to examine the influence of a nati on's neo-liberal economic status on EU donor funding, I ranked Phare countries by their 19 90 World Bank economic liberalization index value and compared this with each nation's co rresponding level of average annual Phare support from the EU(1990-1996). Since the lev el of Phare funding varied in regard to the number of years each nation has been funded, I calculated average annual levels of funding and utilized this value for comparison. Res ults of Spearman-Rho rank order correlational analysis revealed a significant posit ive correlation of = .86, p < .005 (.735). From this result, it would indicate that multilater al funding offered by the European Union is contingent upon each nation's level of economic lib eralization. (8) Eight of the top 10, 67 of the top 100 and 566 of the top 1000 corporations in the world are headquartered in English speaking nations.(9) The elimination of Russian language courses pro vided opportunities for English and German as well as other western languages: Spanish, French, etc. For instance, during the 1990 91 school year, three French, one Spanish an d three German schools were opened in Czechoslovakia (Van Kopp, 1992). In Hungary, German is the most widely studied and used language (Radnai, 1994). In the 1989 90 school ye ar, due to these transitional language policies, Poland experiencing a chronic need for mo re than 25000 English teachers but supply was limited to approximately 1500 teachers w ho were available to teach English (Vulliamy & Webb, 1996). Hungary, in order to meet the need of German and English language instructors, facilitated an extensive lang uage retraining program. Russian teachers were trained in English, German or another foreign language (e.g., French or Spanish) to fill the demand for foreign language instruction generat ed from reform efforts. (10) The European Commission believes that "[t]he e conomic effects of enlargement will undoubtedly be beneficial for the Union on the long er run. Enlargement will mean the creation of a larger economic area, with up to 500 million consumers, compared to the current 370 million....... Further integration and enlargement will help rapidly growing income in Central and East European countries trans late into a continuous rapid growth of the West-European export market (Agenda 2000, 1997).(11) Education in the European Union is governed by Article 126 and Article 127 of the Maastricht Treaty. SOCRATES is the European Communi ty action program for cooperation
20 of 25in the field of education. SOCRATES was first adopt ed for EU member states on 14 March 1995 by Decision 819/95/CE. For an overview of the program visit http://europa.eu.int/en/comm/dg22/socrates.html. Fo r information regarding SOCRATES expansion into Eastern and Central Europe visithttp://europa.eu.int/en/comm/dg22/socrates/new-co.h tml (12) European Union involvement in Eastern and Cent ral Europe was facilitated by the signing of mutual agreements for cooperation on Jun e 25, 1988 between COMECON (Council on Mutual Economic Assistance) and the Eur opean Community. This common declaration acted as the catalyst for developing co operation between the EU and communist nations of Eastern and Central Europe. For example, Hungary signed agreements with the EC in September, 1988 as well as Poland who signed agr eements in September 1989. These agreements were followed by the creation of PHARE ( Phare (Pologne Hongrie Aide a la Reconstruction Economique) is the French word for l ighthouse. Economic aid and advice from the European Union was intended to shine the l ight on the path back to Europe) on December 18, 1989.(13) PHARE (Pologne Hongrie Aide a la Reconstructio n Economique) is the French word for lighthouse. PHARE was created in order to shine a l ight (through financial aid and advice), for CEE nations, on the path back to Europe. During the 1990's, the European Union (EU) has contributed substantially to Central and Easter n Europe. From 1991-95, more than 60 percent of European Union donor aid for education w ent directly to the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) and the Newly Independent States (NIS). From 1990 to 1995, the EU provided ECU 5.3 billion to Albania, Bulgari a, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovak ia and Slovenia. (14) Since 1990,according to the European Training Foundation, which know operates TEMPUS, more than 90,000 staff and students from 70 00 higher education institutions have benefitted from East-West and West-East exchanges. In addition, 3000 sets of lecture notes have been written as well as 15,000 courses have be en created or updated. About 500 institutions have been founded or restructured, and roughly 2000 new books have been published.(15) In November, 1995, the European Commission int erviewed 20,278 residents of 19 Central and Eastern European nations. Countries sur veyed include: Albania, Armenia, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia Fyrom, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russian Federat ion, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Ukraine. This survey included all possible languages spoken (e.g., knowledge of Russian). (16) The Central and Eastern Eurobarometer found th at 36% of Czech citizens can speak Russian, 33% can speak German and 16% can speak Eng lish. (17) As a citizen of the European Union an individu al is supposedly free to live, work and set up business anywhere in a EU member country. See th e abc of European Union Citizenship at: http://europa.eu.int/abc-en.htm(18) Prior to transition, due to centralized planni ng, school graduates in Central and Eastern European nations had many opportunities for employm ent regardless of educational attainment. Education was encouraged but was not as critical to social mobility as it is today. Those who have received a university degree have a substantial economic advantage today. Those with a minimal elementary education have witn essed the largest economic decline. For
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23 of 25Transitions, 12. [On-line]. Available at: http://www.worldbank.rog/ html/prddr/trans/ nd96/doc11.htmHungary CEEPUS. [On-line]. Available at: http://www .tpf.iif.hu/ceepus/ HVG (1997). Hazai is Vilag Gazdasag. [On-line]. Ava ilable at: http://www.hvg.hu Ikeda, S. (1996). World Production. In Hopkins, T. & Wallerstein, I. (Eds.) The age of transition: Trajectory of the World-System 1945-202 5. Leichhardt, NSW, Australia: Pluto Press.Kniffin, K. (1997). Serving two masters: University presidents moonlighting on corporate boards. Multinational Monitor, 18(11). [On-line]. Available at:http://www.essential.org/monitor/ hyper/mm1197.0 5.html Lyotard, J. (1993). The postmodern condition: A report on knowledge (9th Ed.). Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press.Mallampally, P. (1997). Transnational corporations and human resource development. Prospects, 27 (1): 55 76. Mateju, P. & and Rehakova, B. (1996). Education as a strategy for life success in the post-communist transformation: The case of the Czec h Republic. Comparative Education Review, 40 (2): 158 176. Moffett, J. (1996). Eastern Europe/former U.S.S.R.: More students coming to study in U.S. Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty. [On-line]. Available at:http://www.rferl.org/nca/features/1996/12/F.RU.9 61204154150.htm Organization for Economic Co-operation and Developm ent (1996a). Reviews of national policies for education: Czech Republic. Washington, D.C.: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.Organization for Economic Co-operation and Developm ent (1996b). Reviews of national policies for education: Poland. Washington, D.C.: Organization for Economic Co-ope ration and Development.Organization for Economic Co-operation and Developm ent (1996c). Secondary education systems in PHARE countries: Survey and project prop osals Washington, D.C.: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Developm ent. Peter, D. (1997, October 4). Inside the knowledge f actory. The Economist Radnai, Z. (1994). The educational effects of langu age policy. Current Issues in Language and Society, 1 (1): 65 92. Schugurensky, D. (1998). Higher education restructu ring in the era of globalization towards a heteronomous model? In Arnove, R.F. & Torres, C. (Eds.). Reframing comparative education: The dialectic of the global and local. Boulder, Colorado: Rowman and Littlefield.Slovak CEEPUS. (1997). [On-line]. Available at:http ://www.kar.elf.stuba.sk/ceepus
24 of 25 Von Kopp, B. (1996). Elite and education in the process of post-communis t transformation The case of the Czech society. Paper presented at the World Comparative Education Society Biannual Conference. [On-line]. Available at:http://www.edfac.usyd.edu.au/projects/wcces96/ pape rs/vonkoppb.pdf Von Kopp, B. (1992). The Eastern Europe revolution and education in Czechoslovakia. Comparative Education Review, 36 (1): 101 113. Vulliamy, G. & Webb, R. (1996). Education during po litical transition in Poland. International Journal of Educational Development, 1 6 (2): 111 123. United Nations Development Program. [On-line]. 1997 Human Development Index. Available at: http://www.undp.orgUniversum International (1997). The Central Europea n Study. [On-line]. Stockholm, Sweden: Universum International. Available at:http://www.universum.se/international/surveys/ces-9 6. Vaughn, J. (1997). Big business and the blackboard: A winning combination for the classroom? Journal of Law and Education, 26 (2): 35 46. World Press Review. (1997). The world speaks Englis h: Winning the language wars. World Press Review, 44 (10): 6 8. About the AuthorJoseph SlowinskiIndiana University 4228 EducationBloomington, Indiana 47405Email: Joeslow@Indiana.edu Joseph Slowinski currently is Associate Instructor at Indiana University where he teaches "Computers in Education." In addition, he is involv ed in post-communist education scholarship and serves as Assistant Editor of the I nstitute for the Study of Russian Education newsletter. He has earned a M.Ed. in Educational Ad ministration and Supervision and is currently pursuing a Ph.D. in Educational Leadershi p and Policy Studies with a focus on International and Comparative Education. Over the c ourse of his career he has taught in England, Hungary and Switzerland.Copyright 1998 by the Education Policy Analysis ArchivesThe World Wide Web address for the Education Policy Analysis Archives is http://olam.ed.asu.edu/epaa General questions about appropriateness of topics o r particular articles may be addressed to the Editor, Gene V Glass, email@example.com or reach him at College of Education, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-2411. (602-965-26 92). The Book Review Editor is Walter E. Shepherd: firstname.lastname@example.org The Commentary Editor is Casey D. Cobb:
25 of 25 email@example.com .EPAA Editorial Board Michael W. Apple University of Wisconsin Greg Camilli Rutgers University John Covaleskie Northern Michigan University Andrew Coulson firstname.lastname@example.org Alan Davis University of Colorado, Denver Sherman Dorn University of South Florida Mark E. Fetler California Commission on Teacher Credentialing Richard Garlikov email@example.com Thomas F. Green Syracuse University Alison I. Griffith York University Arlen Gullickson Western Michigan University Ernest R. House University of Colorado Aimee Howley Marshall University Craig B. Howley Appalachia Educational Laboratory William Hunter University of Calgary Richard M. Jaeger University of North Carolina--Greensboro Daniel Kalls Ume University Benjamin Levin University of Manitoba Thomas Mauhs-Pugh Rocky Mountain College Dewayne Matthews Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education William McInerney Purdue University Mary P. McKeown Arizona Board of Regents Les McLean University of Toronto Susan Bobbitt Nolen University of Washington Anne L. Pemberton firstname.lastname@example.org Hugh G. Petrie SUNY Buffalo Richard C. Richardson Arizona State University Anthony G. Rud Jr. Purdue University Dennis Sayers University of California at Davis Jay D. Scribner University of Texas at Austin Michael Scriven email@example.com Robert E. Stake University of Illinois--UC Robert Stonehill U.S. Department of Education Robert T. Stout Arizona State University
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Educational policy analysis archives.
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b Arizona State University ;
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SOCRATES invades central Europe / Joseph Slowinski.
Arizona State University.
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t Education Policy Analysis Archives (EPAA)