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1 of 12 Education Policy Analysis Archives Volume 6 Number 12July 11, 1998ISSN 1068-2341 A peer-reviewed scholarly electronic journal. Editor: Gene V Glass Glass@ASU.EDU. College of Education Arizona State University,Tempe AZ 85287-2411 Copyright 1998, the EDUCATION POLICY ANALYSIS ARCHIVES.Permission is hereby granted to copy any a rticle provided that EDUCATION POLICY ANALYSIS ARCHIVES is credited and copies are not sold. Counseling in Turkey: Current Status and Future Challenges Suleyman Dogan Gazi College of Education Gazi University Ankara, Turkey Abstract In this article a special emphasis is placed on th e current status and the future challenges of counseling in Turkey. A brief history of counseling in Turkey, current developments, and the basic issues in this field ar e pointed out. Finally, the future challenges and recommendations to improve the curre nt status of counseling are discussed.Counseling in Turkey: Current Status and Future Cha llenges The Turkish Republic was built on the ashes of the Ottoman Empire and started her existence under the able leadership of Ataturk in 1923. Turkey is a country of over 63 million people. Situated in both Europe and Asia and controlling the major waterway between the Black Sea and the Aegean and Mediterran ean Seas, the country has long been a crossroads between east and west and north a nd south. A developing country, Turkey is subjected to the usual problems of indust rialization and urbanization, including a significant increase in the breakdown o f family networks, and the modification of traditional of cultural patterns (M cWhirter, 1983). Turkey has already made major efforts in the educa tion development, and has set ambitious goals in education and training as a pare t of its strategy for economic adjustment and national development. The objective of national education is to train "good people," "good citizens," and "qualified manp ower," which thus carries
2 of 12implications for counseling in education (Organizat ion for Economic Cooperation and Development, 1989). The practice of counseling has become internationa l in scope. Counseling is not only emerging in developed countries but also in de veloping countries, as industrialization replaces traditional paradigms of decision making and career selection (McWhirter, 1988). It is being interpreted differen tly in different countries, with its form and expression influenced by political, sociologica l, and economic considerations. This article aims to provide readers with an overv iew of the current status of counseling in Turkey in order to enhance awareness of how specific cultural, political, and economic factors have impacted counseling and i ts delivery systems and how international perspectives have influenced the coun seling profession. It may also enable counselors to develop a better perspective of curre nt issues in the counseling profession throughout the world.The Emergence of Counseling in Turkey Earlier historical forces that created a need for counseling in the United Sates are currently active in Turkey. Psychological testing, vocational career choice, and mental health concerns are currently paramount in defining what counseling is and what counselors do (McWhirter, 1983). As in the United States and most other countries, counseling in Turkey began in the schools (Kepceoglu, 1986). Turkey has been maki ng efforts to develop a system of counseling in schools for about fifty years. The fi rst school counselors were primarily teachers, and counseling was a function they perfor med in addition to their teaching responsibilities. Their major duties involved caree r and educational counseling. The main factors that have influenced the emergenc e of counseling in education settings in Turkey may be listed as follows: Social changes, such as modernization, technologica l development, democratization, and changing family patterns, have created the need and the desire for counseling in education (McWhirter, 1983 ). 1. Counseling has been viewed as an effective means fo r developing human potential (Kepceoglu, 1994). 2. The individual differences emphasized in education have contributed to the emergence of counseling in the schools (Organizatio n for Economic Cooperation and Development, 1989). 3. The counseling services have been seen as a useful means of modernizing and democratizing the school system (T. C MEB Turkiye E gitim Milli Komisyonu Raporu, 1960). 4.A Brief History of Counseling in Turkey The Turkish counseling movement dates back to 1950 and derives largely from advances and developments in the United States syst em of counseling, such as Rogers's person-centered approach. The history of counseling in Turkey may be organized around five identifiable historical periods. To better und erstand the development of counseling movement in Turkey, it is necessary to review each period and reflect on the significant events from 1950 to the present. Taking Initial Steps (1950-1956)
3 of 12 This period between 1950 and 1956 marks the beginn ing of the counseling movement in Turkey and is considered as the most ac tive period in terms of developments in the counseling field (Kuzgun, 1991; Tan, 1986). The visits of some American counselor educators and the efforts of pio neer counselor educators trained in the United States played a significant role in brin ging counseling concepts into Turkish education in the 1950s (Baymur, 1980; Tan, 1986). This period witnessed the several important develo pments in counseling. The Ministry of National Education set up a Test and Re search Bureau to standardize IQ tests as well as personality and achievement tests for diagnostic and educational purposes in 1953 (Dogan, 1996). A Center for Psycho logical Services was established in Ankara in 1955. It was later changed to a Guidance and Research Center and exported to other provinces (Oner, 1977). About 100 such center s have been created and 606 counselors called "guidance teachers" were employed in these centers by the 1997-1998 academic year. Neither the quality nor the number o f such centers is adequate to meet the demand. These centers focus on "correction" and "remedial" functions, and cater primarily to students in need of special education (Education in Turkey, 1995). The centers cannot reach a large part of the student po pulation, either rural or urban, and the majority of the students, teachers, and parents are uninformed about their purpose and function. Formative Years (1957-1969) The second period of counseling, from approximatel y 1957 to 1969, was the formative years. Although this period is considered an inactive stage for counseling, it witnessed significant events that played an importa nt role in the movement of counseling in Turkey. This period included the adap tation and development of some group tests and rapid changes in school curricula ( Oner, 1977). Delivering counseling in secondary schools, especially career counseling, wa s considered to accomplish the training of qualified manpower through the school y ears and to solve the unemployment problem as a long-term objective in the 1960s (Tan, 1986). Counseling was proposed as a means of enhancing pupils' well-being by the Seve nth Council of National Education in 1962 (Baymur, 1980). Some Turkish universities b egan to set up either undergraduate or graduate counselor education programs based on t he counselor education models of the United States, such as Rogers's person-centered approach (Kuzgun, 1993; Ozguven, 1990). Establishing Counseling Services in Schools (1970-1 981) In many ways this period was a golden era, very ac tive for school counseling. It marked the beginning of professional counseling pra ctice in schools and witnessed many developments in the counseling field. The Ministry of National Education implemented some essential policies and then employed 90 counselors to start services for 24 sel ected secondary schools in the 1970-1971 academic year. Although the number of sch ools having counseling services and the number of counselors employed increased eve ry year, the rate of increase was very slow (Kepceoglu, 1986). (About 2,199 school co unselors were working in 2,033 schools, mostly secondary schools, accommodating 12 million students in Turkey by the 19971998 academic year.) The Ministry of National Education directly addressed counseling (guidance) in the schools in its officia l documents. These years of the Turkish counseling movement witnessed guidance prog rams in the secondary schools consisting of extracurricular activities during stu dents' homeroom hours. Homeroom
4 of 12teachers assumed the duties of educating students t hrough various group guidance activities and undertook the responsibility for con ducting counseling in schools. The Basic Law of National Education, which was enacted in 1973 and updated in 1983, accepted orientation as a basic principle to be acc orded through the education system. Orientation and evaluation of the success attained are to be effected via objective evaluation, test and measurement methods, and guida nce services (Education in Turkey, 1995). Both the Tenth National Education Council in 1981 and the Eleventh National Education Council in 1982 focused on the need for c ounselors in education settings and the establishment of counselor education programs a t three different levels in universities. These councils also recommended "coun selor" as a title for the graduates and confirmed "guidance" as a specialty field in ed ucation (Dogan, 1990). Establishing Undergraduate Programs in Counseling ( 1982-1995) During this period the number of four-year undergr aduate counselor education programs rapidly increased. In 1982, the Turkish un iversities began admitting students to a four-year bachelor of education program with a major in guidance and counseling. (About 19 universities currently offer four-year un dergraduate programs, which primarily emphasize school counseling.) The number of masters and doctoral degree programs was also increased. As in the United State s, counseling is flourishing in Turkish colleges of education rather than in depart ments of psychology (Whiteley, 1984). Each university was obliged to establish a c ounseling and guidance center to be in charge of individual, educational, and career co unseling of students as a division of the medical-social, health, culture and sports acti vities department by the new Higher Education Law in 1984 (Resmi Gazete, No. 18301, 198 4). The Psychological Counseling and Guidance Associati on was founded in 1989 by a group of counselor educators at Hacettepe Univers ity in Ankara. Its current membership of almost 450 is made up mainly of schoo l counselors and counselor educators. The association began to publish the res pected Journal of Psychological Counseling and Guidance in 1990 and added a newsletter entitled "Psycholog ical Counseling and Guidance Bulletin" in 1997. The Psychological Counseling and Guidance Associati on held The First National Psychological Counseling and Guidance Congress in 1 991 with subsequent national congresses held every two years. In 1995, the assoc iation designated the ethical standards of the counseling profession in order to heighten the standards of the profession (Psikolojik Danisma ve Rehberlik Dernegi 1995). Three different but complementary counselor roles were identified in th e ethical guidelines: the remedial, the preventive, and the developmental. Assigning Counselors to Schools (1996-The Present) A rapid increase in the appointment of counselors has taken place during the last few years. The Ministry of National Education has a lso begun to assign counselors trained specificly as counselors to both elementary and secondary schools. Elementary school counseling was emphasized and reviewed in th e Fifteenth National Education Council in 1996. Sponsored by the collaboration of the Higher Education Council and the World Bank, the National Education Development Project for Pre-Service Teacher Education further developed guidance and counseling four-year undergraduate, and master's degree programs in 1996 (YOK/World Bank Na tional Education Development Project Pre-Service Teacher Education, 1996). The g overnment was determined to realize the total implementation of reforms in elem entary education and extend national
5 of 12obligatory education from grades 1 through 5 to gra des 1 through 8 in 1997. Some new steps are being taken to establish a new structure for elementary schools, including counseling. The Current Status of Counseling in Turkey The history of counseling in Turkey is closely rel ated to the history of educational practice and problems in the schools. As each count ry has its own unique historical background, political system, and economic conditio ns, any counseling model being appropriated from one society into another will nat urally be affected by these factors. Counseling in Turkey is generally perceived as: 1) a corrective and remedial instrument (Kuzgun, 1991), 2) a means of orienting students toward the schools and regulating the manpower that the country requires ( Tan, 1986), 3) a means of disciplining and controlling the students in school s (Dogan, 1995), 4) a means of special education, and 5) homeroom and various educational activities being carried out by ordinary teachers (Dogan, 1991).Current Developments Counseling is a new phenomenon in Turkey and there is a lack of information, knowledge and understanding of counseling among the public. The term "counseling" is only used by a small group of professionals. The mo re familiar term is "guidance" which has connotations of leading, directing, coaching, a nd advising the students at problematic times (Demir & Aydin, 1996). The current status of the counseling field in Turk ey may be briefly characterized as: 1) working primarily with normal individuals, 2 ) specializing in the interpretation of standardized tests, particularly group tests, 3) in cluding the field of educational, vocational, and personal adjustment, 4) serving as a source of referrals to specialists in other related areas, and 5) being Rogerian in orien tation. Counseling in Turkey had been very much influenced by developments in the United States. The major models and theories adopte d have accordingly been culture bound, being been developed in the main for the whi te middle/upper classes in a different context. As Skovholt (1988) contended, bo th Rogerian ideas and standardized tests procedures have been imported from the United States in a way that is not completely positive. It is important to note that i n the United States as well, applications of traditional models of counseling are being quest ioned in programs which respond to the needs of people whose cultural background is no t white middle/upper class. With the increased migration of people globally, it is impor tant that the skills and techniques of counseling be modified appropriately to work in oth er countries and cultures as well. The concrete results of 50 years of counseling dev elopments in Turkey are: 1) the establishment of guidance and research centers in e ach province, 2) the establishment of counseling services in some elementary and secondar y schools, 3) undergraduate and graduate counselor education programs in universiti es, 4) "guidance" as an elective course included in the teaching knowledge certifica tion program, 5) some in-service counseling training programs arranged by the Minist ry of National Education, 6) counseling units as divisions of the medical-social health, culture and sport activities department in universities, 7) the Psychological Co unseling and Guidance Association, 8) the national psychological counseling and guidan ce congresses held by the association every two years, 9) the Journal of Psychological Counseling and Guidance published by the association, 10) the guidelines of ethical stan dards, and 11) some tests and textbooks
6 of 12in counseling.Current Issues Counseling in the accepted American sense is still very limited in Turkey. The counseling profession in Turkey has not been fully successful to date in spite of persistent efforts. Counseling is less developed, l ess organized, and still in search of its professional identity. Counseling, and in particula r school counseling, is evolving very slowly because of failure to place it in the mainst ream of school curriculum in Turkey. Neither the quality nor the amount of such services is adequate to meet the demand. Understanding of the nature and mode of delivery of effective counseling services in Turkey is lacking. As a profession, counseling is still vaguely ident ified and confused with other disciplines such as psychology, social work, and ev en psychiatry. Counseling faces numerous obstacles and limitations in Turkey. Couns eling in Turkey does not emphasize the development of the individual's potential nor d oes it require the receptivity of the person's thoughts and feelings. It is more or less guidance based primarily on the provision of information in a directive and advisor y manner. Both undergraduate and graduate counselor educatio n programs have been increasing in number since 1982. There is great dis parity in both the classes offered and the content of the courses from one university to a nother (Akkoyun, 1995). There is also a lack of standardized selection criteria upon whic h counseling students can be admitted to counselor education programs. There are no forma lly recognized requirements for certification as a professional counselor; neither are there procedures for, and official accreditation, of undergraduate and graduate traini ng programs and an agreed upon specialty title and definition in counseling. The c ounseling field is seriously lacking textbooks and sufficient literature to be used in b oth undergraduate and graduate programs. There is still great dependence upon Amer ican literature and research in this field. The dearth of Turkish literature has reduced the quality of the education programs. All counseling in Turkey is done under the auspice s of the government; there is no private counseling practice. The general style of education still overemphasize s cognitive learning and school achievement and neglects affective development at t he secondary level in Turkey. Counseling is not perceived as being essential in s uch an educational system which does not recognize the concept of individual differences Counseling was not instituted from the beginning as a separate and powerful department within the Ministry of National Education Organization, but as a supplementary unit of the special education department. School counseling services have not bee n presented as an integral part of the education process as defined by the curriculum. Some of the appointed counselors are specialized in different disciplines other than counseling, such as sociology, psychology, education and philosophy. Appointing un qualified graduates to school counseling services and guidance and research cente rs has caused the misunderstanding that counseling is ineffective and even not useful. Counseling has a decidedly clinical flavor and the ratio of students to counselors appears to be typically about 4,500: 1. The deliver y model is neither developmental in nature nor designed for all students. The students perceive school counseling activities as boring, cumbersome, unnecessary, and ineffective (Demir & Aydin, 1996). The school counselor is usually expected to do some tes ts in addition to school counseling duties. The lack of standardized counseling tools such as interest, aptitude, intelligence,
7 of 12and personality tests and the unavailability of org anized occupational information causes a great difficulty in the work of counselors. This issue has decreased the quality of counseling services both in schools, and in guidanc e and research centers. According to the laws or by-laws regulating counse ling services both in schools, and in guidance and research centers, counseling is considered as supplementary service of special education and a means of controlling and disciplining the students (Dogan, 1995). The occupational title of counselor is new a nd sometimes confusing to those who do not know or agree that counseling is an importan t "third force" in a school, next to the administration and teachers. There is still a c ertain resistance against the concept of counseling in schools; many teachers and administra tors do not see counseling as an important discipline and think of it as a luxury. I t is commonly held that counseling in schools can be offered by ordinary teachers rather than counselors since for years teachers have largely been charged with counseling duties. There is a misunderstanding among the teachers and the administrators that school counselors are incompetent. Most of the coun selors limit themselves to individual counseling and neglect all other guidanc e services, which gives the impression that such counselors do not perform thei r jobs adequately. School counselors tend to isolate themselves from the normal flow of school life, expressing an air of importance and a feeling that they occupy a higher status than the teachers. "Guidance" has either been included in the teaching knowledge certification program as an compulsory course or an elective course or complete ly excluded from this program from time to time. This issue has prevented school princ ipals and teachers from developing a common and sufficient understanding about counselin g concepts and practices during their pre-service training.Future Challenges and Recommendations Although it is generally considered that counselin g will continue to grow and gain a broad base of acceptance and support in Turkey, t here are a number of immediate challenges confronting counseling in the country. T hese include the following: Presenting to the broader society its basic mission and the services which it can deliver to clients, 1. Regaining involvement in the field of prevention, 2. Generating more quality scholarly accomplishments, 3. Anticipating the consequences for client needs of p ervasive shifts occurring in the economic structure of society, 4. Being recognized as professionals and having a type of certification similar to that offered by the National Board of Counselor Certific ation in the United States or the Canadian Counselor Certification, 5. Being accepted in community development centers whe re individual, group and family counseling can be offered. 6. During the nearly 50 years that have passed since its beginning in Turkey, counseling has emerged as the profession primarily responsible for planning, interpreting, and delivering counseling to students in grades 9-12. The following recommendations may ameliorate probl ematic issues in counseling in Turkey: Counseling should be expanded into non-educational settings, such as correctional 1.
8 of 12institutions, mental health, social work, and rehab ilitation facilities in order to promote its professional identity.Training and accreditation standards for counseling programs and practices should be designated in order to gain a professional ident ity and obtain a legitimate role among other mental health professionals. 2. The number of universities offering degrees in coun seling should be reduced by the Council of Higher Education. The contents and t he standards of the current counselor education programs should be developed an d heightened by the qualified faculty and the use of excellent text boo ks, and other media. 3. The counseling unit should be separated from being a division of the Special Education Department and should be instituted as a separate and powerful department responsible for policy within the Minist ry of National Education. 4. An institute should be established and charged with producing tests and other counseling materials. 5. The laws and by-laws regulating counseling services both in schools and in guidance and research centers should be revised acc ording to contemporary counseling principles and concepts. 6. School counseling should be extended to cover both elementary as well as secondary schools. School counseling programs shoul d comprise much more than individual counseling. 7. Each school should have a qualified and powerful co unseling unit supplied with enough qualified counselors and all the required to ols, materials, and tests. Unless this unit provides qualified services, the importan ce of counseling for the students may not be understood by parents, principals, and t eachers. 8. Counseling activities should be included within the school curriculum for two hours per week and these activities should be carri ed out as group guidance activities by the counselors. Otherwise, counseling will be perceived as an emergency service intervening in problems only afte r they occur. 9.Conclusion Counseling in Turkey is seen as having an integral role in the educational process, through fostering the development and integration o f an individual's many potentials. However, its place in Turkish schools has often cau sed it to be the target of criticism for regulating both the manpower that the country requi res, and youth behavior, over which it has had little control. Most counselors still se e students with special difficulties on an individual basis, their contacts being remedial or crisis-oriented. The next decade should give rise to the implementation of the developmenta l and preventive emphasis by counseling practitioners. As democratization, industrialization, and urbaniz ation continue to supplant traditional cultural models of decision making, car eer selection, and human service delivery, the awareness of counseling needs is grow ing in Turkey. As Turkey looks to the future, there seems to be some justification fo r optimism. Research, publication, and training programs in counseling have advanced and w ill continue to advance the counseling movement in a way that is necessary in a modern, democratic, and humane society.ReferencesAkkoyun, F. (1995). Psikolojik danisma ve rehberlik te unvan ve program sorunu: Bir
9 of 12inceleme ve oneriler [The problem of the relationsh ip between the job title and the training programs in psychological counseling and g uidance: A review and recommendations]. Psikolojik Danisma ve Rehberlik Dergisi 2(6), 1-28. Baymur, F. (1980). Turkiye'de rehberlik calismalari nin baslangici, gelisimi, ve bugunku sorunlari [The beginning, the development, and the current issues of guidance activities in Turkey]. In N. Karasar (Ed.), Egitimde Rehberlik Arastirmalari (pp. 3-7). Ankara: Ankara Universitesi Egitim Arastirmalari Merkezi Ya yini. Demir A., & Aydin, G. (1996). Student counselling i n Turkish universities. International Journal for the Advancement of Counse lling 18(4), 287-302. Directorate General Press & Information of the Turk ish Republic. (1995). Education in Turkey. Ankara: Kurtulus Ofset.Dogan, S. (1990). Turkiye'de rehberlik kavrami ve u ygulamalarinin gelisiminde milli egitim suralarinin rolu [The role of national educa tion councils in development of guidance concept and practices in Turkey]. Psikolojik Danisma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 1(1), 45-55.Dogan, S. (1991). Baslangicindan bugune Turk resmi dokumanlarinda rehberlik kavrami ve anlayisi: Bir inceleme [The conception and under standing of guidance in Turkish legal documents through the years]. Psikolojik Danisma ve Rehberlik Dergisi 1(2), 29-44.Dogan, S. (1995). Psikolojik danisma ve rehberlik h izmetleri okullarda disiplin isleri ile kesinlikle karistirilmamalidir [Counseling and guid ance services in schools must definitely not get confused with discipline treatme nts]. Ogretmen Dunyasi 184, 14-16. Dogan, S. (1996). Turkiye'de psikolojik danisma ve rehberlik alaninda meslek kimliginin gelisimi ve bazi sorunlar [The developme nt of professional identity in the counseling and guidance field in Turkey and related problems]. Psikolojik Danisma ve Rehberlik Dergisi 1(7), 32-44. Kepceoglu, M. (1986). Some negative barriers to eff ective counseling and guidance in Turkish schools. Psychological Reports 59, 517-518. Kepceoglu, M. (1994). Psikolojik danisma ve rehberlik [Psychological counseling and guidance] (8th ed.). Ankara: Ozerler Matbaasi.Kuzgun, Y. (1991). Rehberlik ve psikolojik danisma [Guidance and psychological counseling] (2nd ed.). Ankara: OSYM Yayinlari.Kuzgun, Y. (1993). Turk egitim sisteminde rehberlik ve psikolojik danisma [Guidance and counseling in Turkish education system]. Egitim Dergisi 6, 3-8. McWhirter, J. J. (1983). Cultural factors in guidan ce and counseling in Turkey: The experience of a Fulbright family. The Personnel and Guidance Journal 61(8), 504-507. McWhirter, J. J. (1988). Implications of the Fulbri ght senior scholar program for counseling psychology. The Counseling Psychologist 16(2), 307-310.
10 of 12Oner, N. (1977). Psychology in the schools in inter national perspective, 2. (International School Psychology). Columbus, OH: U. S. Department of Health Education & Welfare National Institute of Education. (ERIC Document Rep roduction Service No. ED 147 257).Organization for Economic Cooperation and Developme nt. (1989). Turkey: Reviews of national policies for education. Paris. (ERIC Docum ent Reproduction Service No. ED 312 193).Ozguven, E. (1990). Ulkemizde psikolojik danisma ve rehberlik faaliyetlerinin dunu ve bugunu [The past and the present of psychological c ounseling and guidance activities in our country]. Psikolojik Danisma ve Rehberlik Dergisi 1(1), 4-15. Psikolojik Danisma ve Rehberlik Dernegi. (1995). Ps ikolojik danisma ve rehberlik alaninda calisanlar icin etik kurallar [The ethical standards for counselors]. Ankara: 72 TDFO Ltd., Sti.Skovholt, T. M. (1988). Searching for reality. The Counseling Psychologist 16(2), 282-287.Tan, H. (1986). Psikolojik danisma ve rehberlik [Psychological counseling and guidance]. Istanbul: Milli Egitim Basimevi.T. C. MEB. (1960). Turkiye egitim milli komisyonu r aporu [The report of Turkish national education committee]. Ankara: Milli Egitim Basimevi. Turkiye Cumhuriyeti. (1984). Resmi gazete [The offi cial gazette]. No. 18301. YOK/World Bank National Education Development Proje ct PreService Teacher Education. (1996). Teacher education: Guidance and counseling. Ankara: YOK. Whiteley, J. M. (1984). Counseling psychology: A hi storical perspective [Special Issue]. The Counseling Psychologist 12(1), 1-126.About the AuthorSuleyman DoganAssociate ProfessorPsychological Counseling and Guidance ProgramEducational Sciences DepartmentGazi College of EducationGazi UniversityAnkara, TURKEYPhone: 011 90 (312) 2126470/3787Fax: 011 90 (312) 2238693 Suleyman Dogan received his master's degree and Ph. D. in Psychological Counseling and Guidance from Hacettepe University a t Ankara in Turkey. He is a former junior high school teacher, research assista nt, assistant professor, and currently
11 of 12 an Associate Professor at Gazi University at Ankara where he trains counselors and teachers. His responsibilities include teaching, st udent advising, research, and conducting groups. He is the author of several arti cles and presentations, especially on the development of counseling and related issues in Turkey. He served on the Psychological Counseling and Guidance Association A dministrative Committee in Turkey for two years. Dr. Dogan spent his sabbatica l leave in Counseling and Higher Education Department at the College of Education, O hio University during the 1997-1998 academic year.Copyright 1998 by the Education Policy Analysis ArchivesThe World Wide Web address for the Education Policy Analysis Archives is http://olam.ed.asu.edu/epaa General questions about appropriateness of topics o r particular articles may be addressed to the Editor, Gene V Glass, email@example.com or reach him at College of Education, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-2411. (602-965-26 92). The Book Review Editor is Walter E. Shepherd: firstname.lastname@example.org The Commentary Editor is Casey D. Cobb: email@example.com .EPAA Editorial Board Michael W. Apple University of Wisconsin Greg Camilli Rutgers University John Covaleskie Northern Michigan University Andrew Coulson firstname.lastname@example.org Alan Davis University of Colorado, Denver Sherman Dorn University of South Florida Mark E. Fetler California Commission on Teacher Credentialing Richard Garlikov email@example.com Thomas F. Green Syracuse University Alison I. Griffith York University Arlen Gullickson Western Michigan University Ernest R. House University of Colorado Aimee Howley Marshall University Craig B. Howley Appalachia Educational Laboratory William Hunter University of Calgary Richard M. Jaeger University of North Carolina--Greensboro Daniel Kalls Ume University Benjamin Levin University of Manitoba Thomas Mauhs-Pugh Rocky Mountain College Dewayne Matthews Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education William McInerney Purdue University Mary P. McKeown Arizona Board of Regents
12 of 12 Les McLean University of Toronto Susan Bobbitt Nolen University of Washington Anne L. Pemberton firstname.lastname@example.org Hugh G. Petrie SUNY Buffalo Richard C. Richardson Arizona State University Anthony G. Rud Jr. Purdue University Dennis Sayers Ann Leavenworth Centerfor Accelerated Learning Jay D. Scribner University of Texas at Austin Michael Scriven email@example.com Robert E. Stake University of Illinois--UC Robert Stonehill U.S. Department of Education Robert T. Stout Arizona State University
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