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Educational policy analysis archives
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Educational policy analysis archives.
n Vol. 6, no. 21 (December 10, 1998).
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Boundary breaking : an emergent model for leadership development / Charles Webber [and] Jan Robertson.
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1 of 25 Education Policy Analysis Archives Volume 6 Number 21December 10, 1998ISSN 1068-2341 A peer-reviewed scholarly electronic journal. Editor: Gene V Glass Glass@ASU.EDU. College of Education Arizona State University,Tempe AZ 85287-2411 Copyright 1998, the EDUCATION POLICY ANALYSIS ARCHIVES.Permission is hereby granted to copy any a rticle provided that EDUCATION POLICY ANALYSIS ARCHIVES is credited and copies are not sold. Boundary Breaking: An Emergent Model for Leadership Development Charles Webber University of Calgary Jan Robertson University of WaikatoAbstractWe summarize the results of a cross-cultural on-lin e project for graduate students in educational leadership at the University of Calgary in Canada and the University of Waikato in New Zealand. A conceptual framework for the collaborative Internet project is presented in conjunction with a summary of relev ant literature and participant views of the project. Finally, the authors propose a mode l for on-line graduate learning in educational leadership with the following component s: construction of meaning, provision of a forum for discussion, validation of personal knowledge, generative learning, formal and informal leadership, sense of community, and international perspectives.Introduction A key component of professional development that results in sustainable change in educators’ practice is ongoing support (Joyce & Sho wers, 1982; McLaughlin & Yee, 1988). For classroom teachers, ongoing support can be as basic as school timetables that provide teachers with shared planning time, adminis trator participation in professional development activities, or participation in action research projects. For school administrators, ongoing support can take the form o f mentoring programs (Goddard,


2 of 251998) or professional partnerships (Barnett, 1987; Robertson, 1995) or study groups (Bailey, 1987). In recent years, electronic networks have e merged as a structure to link educators involved in professional growth activities in diver se settings. For example, Writers in Electronic Residence is a successful network of sev eral years’ standing that links classroom teachers and their students across Canada with well known authors via electronic mail (Note 2). School Net is a Canadian program designed to provide members of educational organizations with access to people, resources, and information that will help to promote excellence in learning (N ote 3). In New Zealand, an electronic mail discussion group called Leaders-Net was establ ished in 1997 as a way to connect principals in schools located in both rural and urb an settings throughout that country (Note 4). In the context of providing ongoing support for professional growth, this article describes a university-based initiative designed to provide individuals enrolled in similar educational leadership development courses in Canad a and New Zealand with on-line opportunities to engage in substantive academic dia logue about shared interests. A conceptual framework for the university partnership is presented, followed by a description of the participants and the processes i n which they were engaged. Then, the findings of a survey of participants are presented and discussed.Conceptual Framework for the University Partnership The cross-cultural linkage of graduate stud ents and professors described in this paper was based on three key beliefs. First, leader ship development programs at universities should contain an international compon ent. Second, substantive learning best occurs within the context of active participat ion, preferably within a professional network. Finally, electronic communication has the potential to complement face-to-face interactions in university leadership development p rograms.International Focus The current practice of educational leaders occurs in a political and social milieu that transcends international borders. School admin istrators in the Western world share common concerns such as school reform that emphasiz es concurrent and sometimes dichotomous centralization of decision making about curriculum and funding in the hands of governments, and devolution of other decis ions such as staffing to school councils (Dimmock, 1993). Educators as far apart ge ographically as England and Tasmania are struggling to reframe accountability u sing "stewardship" (Radnor, Ball, & Vincent, 1998) and "neo-pluralism" (Macpherson, 199 7) as related touchstones for practice. The rise in popularity of a market model of education in Canada (Fleming, 1997), the United States (Murphy, 1995; 1996), Aust ralia (Dimmock, 1993), and New Zealand (Codd & Gordon, 1991) and even the call for "hospitality" or the creation of a safe space for children and adults to learn (Rud, 1 995), share a common base in the perceived inflexibility of schools in response to s tudents’ diverse needs. The foregoing international trends in educa tion have led policy makers and educators alike to look beyond their own borders fo r information. Webber and Townsend (1998) analyzed the similarities and diffe rences in how Canadian and Australian teachers in Alberta and New South Wales responded to government mandates to increase educator accountability through, for ex ample, expanded student and teacher evaluation programs. They found a shared confusion among educators in both countries


3 of 25about the definition of educational quality, a conc erted effort by governments in Alberta and New South Wales to avoid educator involvement i n decision making, and a negative impact on the morale, professional growth, and care er ambitions of teachers. Perhaps as a result of shared concerns about recent educationa l reforms, teachers around the world have looked for guidance in the work of researchers of international repute, for example, Canadians Michael Fullan (1995; 1997) and Andy Harg reaves (1997), Americans Karen Seashore Louis and Matthew Miles (1990) and Thomas Sergiovanni (1992), and British researcher David Reynolds (1997). Even politicians, in venues such as Alberta, Canada, have based their educational policy reforms on thos e introduced by politicians in other countries, for example, New Zealand’s Sir Roger Dou glas (1993). Clearly, it is insufficient for leadership development programs to focus solely on local or national conditions which, although critic al to leadership acceptance and success, may be misunderstood without a parallel ex ploration of international influences on policies and practices in education.Active Participation in Professional Networks Emergent models for professional developmen t include a constructivist approach (Sparks, 1995; Sparks & Hirsh, 1997) in which parti cipants individually and collectively build knowledge structures rather than simply recei ve information from experts. Indeed, expanding understandings of the professional growth necessary for successful school reform have led Lieberman and Grolnick (1997, p. 19 3) to call for professional development opportunities characterized by "a wide array of learning opportunities, engagement and commitment to inquiry, access to rea l problems to solve, learning that connects to ... prior experiences, [and] opportunit ies to work with others..." They suggest that networking can provide one such professional d evelopment opportunity. According to Lieberman and Grolnick (1997), professional netw orks have several important characteristics, First, networks have the potential to provide participants with venues to articulate their tacit knowledge of educational pra ctices, thus validating what Connelly and Clandinin (1988) called personal practical know ledge and supporting the assumption of Loucks-Horsley, Harding, Arbuckle, Mu rray, Dubea and Williams (1987, p. 111) that "a networking approach builds the capa city of its members to identify and solve their own problems." Also, networks have a ge nerative nature that allow learning needs to emerge prior to the development of structu res; thus, the focus and structure of seminars, mentoring initiatives, and other vehicles for learning can be refined prior to their implementation. Further, professional network s provide a plethora of opportunities for individuals to emerge as formal and informal le aders with a corresponding increase in motivation to participate. Also, the very surviv al of professional networks depends upon collaboration among members which, in turn, ma y facilitate a strong sense of community that Bell (1997) stated is necessary for successful teamwork. Importantly, networks that cross organizational boundaries may f oster stakeholder relationships that are mutually beneficial, egalitarian, and safe. One description of professional networks (L oucksHorsley et al, 1987) outlined several conditions for success. First, networks mus t retain a focus to maintain members’ interest and involvement. Second, network members m ust communicate regularly or the network loses its momentum. Further, successful net works tend to be small (Significantly, this recommendation preceded the in troduction of electronic networks that are large and successful; Note 5). Importantly networks should be simple and cheap so as to retain a low cost of active participation. Finally, network members should be able to rely upon one another for information and s upport. This description of the


4 of 25conditions under which networks tend to be successf ul is complemented by Smith and Wigginton’s (1991) description of successful networ ks as characterized by voluntary participation and spontaneity but "with a strong ov erlay of permanence and professionalism..." (p. 199) and "opportunities for teachers to develop leadership" (p. 204). The end result, according to Smith and Wiggin ton (1991), can be a sense among participants of being a significant part of a large r movement.Supporting Professional Networks With Technology Successful learning manifests itself in alt erations to beliefs and practices. However, before substantive change can occur, individuals ne ed to clarify what change will mean for them (Fullan, 1997; Hopkins, 1987). Significant ly, clarification implies meaningful communication, a construct that has been central to numerous professional growth models, including clinical supervision (Acheson & G all, 1987; Cogan, 1983; Goldhammer, Anderson, & Krajewski, 1980), peer coac hing (Joyce & Showers, 1982), differentiated supervision (Glatthorn, 1984), devel opmental supervision (Glickman, 1981), and cognitive coaching (Costa & Garmston, 19 89). Each of these models has included a description of the skills and knowledge that are required of growth facilitators. More recently, some of the challenges posed by professional development models have emerged as significant factors in on-line prof essional development networks. For instance, facilitators of on-line networks need to be aware of the importance of promoting sufficient trust among participants that they will feel comfortable discussing substantive issues within the group (Farley, 1992). That is, facilitators of on-line networks need to be aware of how perceptions of the m as overly controlling leaders, perhaps even censors, can prevent network members f rom becoming actively involved in network dialogue; this caution is of even more impo rtance when there is a "status hierarchy" such as that which exists between univer sity instructors and their students (Thomas, Clift & Augimoto, 1996, p. 165). Brent (1995, p. 3) described the reactions of individuals whose words have been controlled in some way by the network facilitator o r editor: Five hundred years of print have accustomed us to t reat our words as extensions of our own identity, not to be messed wi th by others without our express consent nor to be inserted into others' wor ks without acknowledgment. Just as planners of professional developmen t initiatives need to guard against the tendency of those involved most closely with progra ms to describe the results of their work in glowing terms, designers of online profes sional development programs need to beware of the hyperbole that too often characterize s reports of online networks (Rogers, Andres, Jacks, & Clauset, 1990). Similar c autions apply to the unrealistic expectations, held by some network participants, of immediate and substantive dialogue with colleagues from around the globe, and to the t endency to minimize the technical challenges presented by the need to integrate softw are, computers, modems, and server access. On-line facilitators also must grapple with the degree to which they should structure electronic dialogue. Waugh, Levin, and Sm ith (1994) described how the structure of on-line networks can range from the an archistic approach, characterized by the free flow of ideas, to highly structured models which are easier to organize but may restrict the breadth and depth of participant dialo gue. Whatever the degree of structure


5 of 25decided upon by facilitators and participants, Waug h, Levin, and Smith (1994) suggested that network activities have a life cycle that incl ude observable stages: start, implementation, refinement, and closure. Further, t hey advised project facilitators to balance "high tech" with a "high touch" approach th at acknowledges the benefits of respecting participants’ needs for brevity and care ful editing of electronic exchanges. Further, they described the potential for participa nts to establish an electronic presence that will affect their professional reputations loc ally and in much broader contexts, plus the importance of clear time lines for participant exchanges and the salience of promoting shared ownership of the project. To this end, Waugh, Levin, and Smith (1994) urged facilitators to strive to promote dial ogue by validating the ideas of participants, posting "cheerleader" messages, and s ubmitting dialogue summaries that lead to spin-off conversations. Further, Thomas, Cl ift, and Augimoto (1996) urged on-line network facilitators to respond in person a nd on-line to the issues and concerns that students articulated. Clearly, successful faci litation has the potential to result in what Fulk, Steinfield, Schmitz and Power (1987) des cribed as a "social presence," or the degree to which the medium promotes personalization warmth, sensitivity and sociability among the people involved.Summary of the Conceptual Framework Based on the foregoing information, the cro sscultural linkage described in this report attempted to achieve an environment characte rized by the following attributes: Opportunities to construct personal meaning individ ually and collectively. Provision of a forum to discuss substantive leaders hip issues encountered in theory and practice. Validation of personal practical knowledge. A generative approach to issue identification that encouraged participants to articulate their immediate concerns and interests. Emergence of formal and informal leadership. Creation of a strong sense of community. Opportunities to gain international perspectives on policies and practices. Flexible structure Proactive intervention by network facilitators These characteristics formed the basis for the cros scultural network that is described in the next section.Project Structure This cross-cultural university partnership began with the authors deciding to facilitate an on-line exchange between graduate stu dents concurrently taking educational leadership courses in Alberta, Canada, and New Zeal and; the courses focused on school culture and educational review and development. Thi s decision necessitated the development of complementary course outlines that i ncluded a common text (Hargreaves, 1997) and a common assignment that all owed students to create an electronic portfolio consisting of postings to an i nternational electronic mail discussion group called the Change Agency Listserver (Note 6). The six New Zealand students were required by their professor to complete the el ectronic portfolios while the class of twenty-one Canadian graduate students were able to choose between completing an


6 of 25electronic portfolio and a set of article reviews; eight Canadian students elected to complete electronic portfolios, while another six s tudents chose to read the Change Agency postings and discuss them in class and seven students decided not to participate in the on-line dialogue either by posting or readin g messages. The eight Canadian students who completed e lectronic portfolios consisted of one elementary school principal, three elementary schoo l junior administrators, two secondary school junior administrators, one element ary school teacher, and one secondary school teacher. The six Canadian students who chose to read but not post messages consisted of one elementary teacher, two s econdary school teachers, one secondary school junior administrator, and two inst ructors in postsecondary institutions. The seven nonparticipants included four elementary school teachers and three secondary school teachers. The New Zealand graduate students included two principals, one deputy principal, and three international students. The in ternational students were a primary teacher, a College of Education president and a Min istry administrator from Zimbabwe, Solomon Islands and Indonesia. Students in both settings who completed ele ctronic portfolios could participate in the on-line dialogue in any of the following ways: Respond to e-mail messages posted by others on the Change Agency. Post messages to the Change Agency that did not res pond to someone but started the general discussion in another direction. Send an e-mail message to the professor(s) and refl ect on how the general discussion related to the course readings and class discussions. Send an e-mail message to the professor and make su ggestions about how to improve the Change Agency. Post brief reviews of books and/or articles that re lated to the topic of school culture. The messages from each student to the Chang e Agency or the professor were collected in an electronic file or "portfolio" and evaluated according to these criteria: breadth, depth, clarity, evidence of critical schol arship, and technical quality. Both the Canadian and the New Zealand profe ssors told their students that the varying levels of experience with both e-mail and t eaching that students brought to the course would be recognized in the evaluation of the electronic portfolios. It was expected that students who were familiar with e-mai l would contribute a larger number of postings to the Change Agency than those who had not used e-mail before the class. Further, it was anticipated that junior and senior educators would introduce different content to the electronic discussions. Finally, stu dents were told they should expect that they would have diverse backgrounds as teachers, co nsultants, and administrators in a variety of educational contexts and that their dive rsity likely would be reflected in the electronic portfolios. The cross-cultural graduate student exchang e was limited by the fact that, due to different university schedules, the university term s overlapped by only six weeks. Therefore, the on-line exchange occurred over a six -week period, the first two weeks of which were used to get students in both settings fi tted with e-mail accounts and, in some instances, to familiarize students with e-mail soft ware and computer hardware. An open-ended survey instrument was develop ed by the two researchers to determine the utility and impact of the collaborati ve project. It was piloted with four Canadian students who had completed electronic port folios in previous courses with the


7 of 25Canadian professor, revised based on student feedba ck, and then administered to all students in the two courses. The data were analyzed through a series of detailed readings to discern patterns and categories that emerged from the data rather than f rom a predetermined framework. The resulting categories of information are described i n the following section.FindingsThis description of the results of the graduate stu dent survey is presented as a series of categories that summarize the substance of response s to the survey items. This format was considered by the authors to be more reflective of the patterns of information provided by respondents than a summary that followe d the sequence of items in the instrument would be.Enhanced opportunities for gaining critical perspec tives nationally and internationally The opportunity to explore international in fluences and perspectives on policies and practices in education was one of the major themes that came through the students' responses in the survey on the collaborative study. They articulated the importance of seeing the bigger picture of issues in education in ternationally. As one student so aptly put it, "I think it was most powerful for me in its reminder that there's a world out there!" The listserver gave students the access to a far wi der community of scholars than their usual graduate classrooms. Students from New Zealan d, Zimbabwe, the Solomon Islands, Canada, and Indonesia took part in discuss ion and debate. One student said he would tell others about this learning experience in this way: He said he would "...strongly advise them to take part as it will he lp them feel connected to educators worldwide." Another said "Issues presented by our N ew Zealand counterparts brought forth a variety of perspectives which would otherwi se have not been considered, i.e. the Zimbabwe colleague whose discussion of 'postmoderni sm' reminded us to look beyond our own situations to a 'global' view." One student said "I have been able to develop international perspectives through the responses of members. It gave me the opportunity to broaden my understanding of how things happen or are done in different parts of the world." The fact that there were similar issues bei ng confronted by educators across the Commonwealth was also noted as a positive outcome o f the project as it gave the students opportunities for collective construction of meaning. The outcomes from this creation of counter cultures within the learning fr amework were ideas and possibilities, affirmation and challenge. One student described it like this: "Good to know others are having similar experiences and what they are doing about it." This led to a feeling of global community among members of the educational l eadership courses. Developing a sense of community The students felt they were given a unique opportunity to 'meet' with people in other parts of the world. This was something they w ould normally have not had the opportunity to do in their graduate studies. One th ought there might be chances for study visits or sabbaticals in the future. Her concluding statement was, "In my culture there is a saying that ‘those who have met, will sometimes m eet again.’" This summarized the connections she had experienced with these newfound friends on the other side of the


8 of 25Commonwealth. There were many interesting comments from t he students about how well they felt they knew their colleagues on the other side of the world through their discussions on the listserver. The students who were in the same c lass on campus felt they gained new insights about their face-to-face classmates throug h their discussion on the listserver, but found that it was more difficult to get to know tho se students who were in a different classroom on the other side of the Commonwealth. Ea rly in the project students in New Zealand asked for profiles of their Canadian counte rparts as they felt they were writing to an unknown audience and initially found this dif ficult. They felt they needed a greater knowledge about their counterparts' interests, educ ational positions and professional issues. These were provided. A Canadian student, in his final evaluation, also suggested that receipt of a profile of each participant befor e posting began would "add interest and context to the discussion." Along the same lines, a nother student suggested that we "begin class with having to e-mail a classmate or y ou [the two professors] [a] letter of introduction." On the other hand, others found that writin g to an unknown audience made things easier. One student said, "Sometimes it is easier t o say what I want to say without looking at a face." Students also found the "think time" before making a response a valuable part of taking part in the asynchronous na ture of electronic discussions. One student said that the listserver discussion "allows time to hear 'their voice' and decide to agree or disagree." However, the students were also really surprised and pleased at the rapidity of responses to their contributions. One o f the students commented that "whilst this was not a face-to-face communication I, howeve r, felt as if I was talking directly to someone. Above anything else, electronic group disc ussions make learning fun and exciting." Another student voiced her enjoyment of the new form of communication by stating "I know how to communicate in a new way and do so daily." Another outcome of the involvement in the c ollaborative study was the positive impact that it made on the complementary in-class s essions that were being held on each campus. Students were motivated and excited about r esponses they received on the Change Agency prior to their class sessions. One st udent summarized this by saying, "There was great anticipation by participants regar ding how others would respond to their postings," and indeed disappointment when the re was no response. Students felt they generally had thought in far more depth about the articles and the discussion carried out on-line, and this depth of critique carried ove r to their continuing class discussions. One student who saw the two types of interaction as complementary, giving him a greater understanding of his colleagues., said "Thi s was like reading other people's papers. It allows perhaps a deeper look at your col leagues" (rather than face-toface). Canadian students wondered whether those students i n the class who didn't take part in the collaborative project felt "left a bit out of t he Change Agency 'loop'." However, some students found they enjoyed t he class discussions more than the on-line discussion. One student said "I enjoyed the in-class discussions more because they involved more people than [those who] responde d to a given posting." Another said, "I prefer in-class sessions because I feel a bond is easier to develop. The non-face-to-face bonds develop as well but take tim e." This 'bond' was also referred to by another of the students who could see good poten tial if time were given. She said "I believe that a bond could easily develop [among] in dividuals, schools and countries after the initial interaction on the Change Agency. You v ery quickly see someone who sums up education as you see it, who you can really rela te to. I believe this is a good form of professional development." Therefore the students i dentified their graduate study as their professional development and saw that with the Chan ge Agency, this could continue


9 of 25after the last course assignment was due.Continuing professional development The students involved in this collaborative study saw the electronic portfolio assessment option as more than an assignment for a course of study. The findings indicated that they could see that it could make a valuable contribution to their continuing professional development well after the assignment or course of study was over. One student summarized it this way: "I would suggest that the use of electronic portfolios is an effective way to develop one's kno wledge base while gaining a very current perspective in a specific educational area. As well, this fosters critical writing and reading which will benefit the student at the c onclusion of the program." This pervasive theme in the findings was also summed up by another participant who commented that "I will be able to keep current thro ugh the Change Agency after my courses are done." These students involved in gradu ate study talked in class about the positive effects of tertiary study on their practic e and their ability to keep up with the ever developing knowledge base. They therefore valu ed the opportunity to establish a presence in a forum which could continue well after the graduate classes had finished. Nearly all of the students involved in the collabor ative project did not unsubscribe from the listserver in the six months after the project had finished. Continued access to research and literature especially when studying at quite a distance from a university campus, was appreciated by some students and summed up by one student who said she found that "reading quotes from literature in others' contributions gives me a wider knowledge base than [that which] is readily available when studying at a distance." Students used ideas from the postings with their professional colleagues outside of their university course work. One women set up a fi le of contributions for other school members to view. Others made statements like "[it] has also led to interesting conversations with colleagues [outside of the Chang e Agency]" and another said "I shared one of the postings with my colleagues and i t has generated quite a discussion." Another used the contributions to generate discussi on in her local principals' group. The learning community was being redefined through this process. The fact that the "information is current, up to the minute" was noted by the students. Not only were they critiquing recent publ ications, but the students’ contributions were written about issues of immediat e concern and interest. Also, there was a number of postings on particular issues such as networking, future trends, and postmodernism, which built into a source of referen ce material for future use. Influence on professional beliefs and practices Although more difficult to ascertain from t he students' responses, we believe there was an influence on students' professional beliefs and practices through the reading and posting of contributions on the listserver. One stu dent in particular intentionally sought clarification and challenge of his own beliefs, val ues and practices. He said "I have tried in all my contributions and discussions to use or r eflect on situations from my country in the hope that I will receive contributions or criti ques from members which will help me adjust my perceptions or practices in the areas of policies and practices in education." Another student stated that this learning experienc e "promotes reflection and analysis of personal beliefs." Other students' responses to que stions on the survey did indicate that


10 of 25their involvement in the collaborative study had pr ompted them to change their leadership practice or take action in some way. One student said "Some postings have given me metaphors that help me understand certain ways of thinking and made me reflect on my practice," and then gave specific exa mples of these from postings both from Canada and New Zealand. One student commented on her further reflection on the issue of student respect and the wearing of hats an d said "I have really done some hard thinking and am looking at this issue with my stude nts and parents." An over-riding theme, through the comments the students made about their involvement on the Change Agency, was the power it had of making them reflect upon their own value positions, culture and ways of know ing. One student said "One re-examines one's own outlook through the eyes of a reader from overseas. For example, when communicating internationally one has to provi de context which often simplifies our own issues." The students had to negotiate cult ural boundaries in their pursuit of understanding and being understood. Another student commented about the positive challenge to critically reflect as part of this pro cess. She said, "Critical opinions are stated in ways that are not demeaning or hurtful. I really think this helps to push the edges of our reflections of our own beliefs and pra ctices." Another area of influence on professional b eliefs of this electronic task was that the students gained in confidence by personally using e -mail and the Internet, and several students were planning ways they would take a great er leadership role in promoting technology usage by students and teachers in their educational institutions. This was particularly true of those educators who had not us ed e-mail prior to this project. At the beginning of the project one student shared her "tr epidation about the unknown and feeling of inadequacy" and ended the study by sayin g, "I'm pleased I had to do this and have found the interchange of information and expos ure to the ideas of others to be very valuable and at times challenging." Significantly, one student stated that she believed that personal experience like that provided by the collaborative electronic study was imperative for an educational leader. She said, "In the future we will be using e-mail as an educational tool for our children and so we need personal experience as teachers [with] the benefits and practicalities of this proc ess." The new skills they learned were seen as an added bonus to the benefits of being inv olved in the collaborative study. Publishing Skills and Opportunities Not only were the students challenged to re flect but the students also commented on how they had developed in being able to put forw ard a strong case or perspective on particular issues. They said this necessitated bein g able to think carefully and to make sure they had read well on the subject. One student said that responding to issues "...forced me to do additional readings on topics t o expand my perspectives or to support my personal belief." Another agreed that "in making a contribution it's a real commitment of your own ideas when going public, so they have to be well founded." One student stated, "Writing for a particular audie nce (potentially global) in a particular format...requires a certain ability to analyze, [an d] synthesize in a succinct manner." Others concurred that a short posting was much more difficult to develop than a full 3000-word assignment as they had to think more care fully about what to say when word length was limited. One student went so far as to s ay that compared with literature reviews and critical essays, the contributions to t he listserver incorporated a process that "is superior because it broadens one's perspective so much more and one is accountable to a much wider audience." However, one student did not post to the Change Agency because "the brevity of the postings did not allow much critical discussion" and another


11 of 25student preferred to read the longer contributions and enjoyed the chance to read more than one response on a particular issue. Students received international "publishing opportunities which are seldom afforded graduate students. One student was "spotte d" by the editor of an international journal who asked her to further develop her contri bution and submit it to the journal. The student described this publishing experience by stating that "the opportunity has afforded me ‘courage of voice’ [and] stretched me i nto realizing the potential of shared ideas.Opportunity for innovation and challenge The students commented in their final cours e evaluations about the uniqueness of the electronic portfolio assignment as part of thei r graduate course work. They not only valued the opportunity to be given a variety of ass essment options within the course, but also felt that they were taking part in something w hich was an exciting innovation. Further, they used words such as "exciting," "progr essive," and "valuable" to describe the cross-cultural project. One student described t he joint initiative as a "very progressive and valuable collaborative effort," and went on to say that, "the major value of this is that it is current [happening] right n ow." Another student supported this by stating that she felt that is was "a real activity, [with] real people on the other end." The students felt that it was a useful activity, that your words actually count" and that others were interested in their viewpoints. They were writ ing with a purpose and receiving constant feedback. It was too real for one who was "concerned about the consequences of my words on, for instance, central office!" Some students talked about "possibilities," that is, chances to explore leadership issues collaboratively and motivation to use e-mail with the children in their classes. A sense of global community was aroused and students raised the possibility of this type of study being taken one step further and actually mee ting with the students they had discussed and debated key issues with in a collabor ative study tour exchange. One student said that the experience "makes me think ab out possibilities such as school contact with other countries, doing courses by e-ma il." Computer skill level and confidence Computer skill level and confidence influen ced student involvement in the Change Agency. The New Zealand students were not given an option for this particular assignment and their responses echoed their fears a t the beginning. Many of these students said they would not have chosen to become involved but, in hindsight, were pleased they had no other option. One student said, "There was trepidation about the unknown, a feeling of inadequacy because of my lack of knowledge and skills, and bewilderment about the jargon, but [I’m] also pleas ed to be forced into it and looking forward to the personal growth and finding out what others seem to be so enthused and excited about." This student later said, "I'm pleas ed I've had to do this and have found the interchange of information and exposure to the ideas of others to be very valuable and at times challenging." Another student said "I was afraid of computers and I was ignorant of the wonders computers can do to help pe ople to do things, especially in education. For a week or so I tried to avoid the ro oms where the computers are...It was very scary indeed on the outset..." and later said, "It has been absolutely excellent and educational. There was a whole lot of things coveri ng a wide range of topics and issues I


12 of 25would not have had access to if I had not joined th e discussion group." Another student said that the learning experience was "...wonderful I really wondered at first whether I should even venture to participate. Once I got thro ugh the initial technological 'glitches' and intimidation in writing my views and opinions f or such a large and unknown audience I was fine. I felt proud of my accomplishm ent." In fact, some of the students were able to link their experiences of the personal change process they underwent to their participatio n in this study to the theory. One student said, "Everard and Morris (1985, p.170) sta te change usually leads to temporary incompetence and that it is uncomfortable! How true !" Fullan's (1993) work on change also featured in their final reflections about the process they had gone through to take part in this study. One student said, "I do now cha llenge Fullan's writings that people can't be forced to change (1993, p.22). This learni ng was forced in a way if we had not changed and become e-mail users we would not have c ompleted this section of the course." Another said "I now see why Fullan (1993, p.27) said 'Problems are our friends.’ All those hassles at the start were worth it." Another student had advice for the instructors. She said, "My only suggestion is that you (both) strongly encourage students not to back out at the beginning of the course if i t looks too scary." The Canadian students were given an option and the majority of the students who chose not to be involved in the project said that e ither skill level or computer difficulties had influenced their choice of assignment formats. Some students had difficulty connecting to the listserver from their homes, whil e others had malfunctioning computers at the time. They mentioned words like "i ntimidating," "lack of time to learn," and "frustrating" in their justification fo r choosing not to be involved. However, there also were Canadian students who had never used e-mail who took the electronic assignment option. Their comments we re similar to their New Zealand counterparts. One student said "I would say it was VERY stressful and intimidating but a learning experience that I would encourage others t o participate in because I learned a great deal." Another Canadian student who did take part suggested that the instructor "should make the 4th or 5th class an entire lab and mandate one small posting from each student." Another felt that they should "devote som e actual class time to mock postings." It is important to note that, despite their frustrations with learning new computer skills and the time that took, students from both c ountries were disappointed the project could not have continued longer and that the New Ze aland students finished their contributions just when the Canadian students felt they were getting underway. Guidelines and structure The students in both countries sought more structure than was originally planned for. Students asked for suggestions and "starters" for ideas during the course and also worked on group responses in class sessions. This w as more at the beginning of the study when they were unsure of what was expected. T hey gained in confidence after reading and contributing to the listserver. None of the students made any comment about the mandatory nature of some of the work, particula rly in the New Zealand course where no options were given. Indeed, many students felt t hat all students taking part in the graduate course should be mandated to make at least one posting as part of an in-class session, and many commented that they felt that gui delines and more structure would have enhanced the project. One student stated that the study needed "more direction and feedback" because to him "at times it felt like 'hi t and run'." Another student wished that there had been "private" messages of affirmation as there was no evaluative feedback until the end of the study and this did not help to allay fears during the initial stages of


13 of 25 contributing. Finally, one student felt that "there needed to be more emphasis on collaboration in a conversational kind of style" an d in a similar vein another student felt the contributions were a "bit dry" at times. The paradox of the students wanting more st ructure and our belief of the necessity of a more fluid context for learning raised an issu e that needed to be addressed. If we believed in all of the components of the learning f ramework, highlighted by the findings, overstructuring was the antithesis of what we were striving for. Their discomfort was indicative of how dependent some of their previous learning contexts have made them. We consciously worked to resist their attempts to h ave too much reliance on us. We knew the initial discomfort was essential in the de velopment of intellectual independence and to enable the formal and informal leadership to emerge from the student group.An Emergent ModelThe results of this exploratory cross-cultural elec tronic partnership support the development of a structured framework for universit y-based educational leadership programs. Although the Internet has emerged as a fr eeflowing, often chaotic environment that fosters--in its positive manifesta tions--unrestrained creativity, it is obvious from the partnership described here that th e successful use of the Internet as a teaching tool depends upon a clear understanding of the resultant changes to roles and expectations for participants, that also may have i mplications for more traditional approaches to leadership development. Table 1 (see next page) portrays an emergent technology-enhanced model for universitybased lea dership development programs. Many aspects of the model are consistent with widel y used leadership development models. However, the nature of on-line instruction changes the model components in many ways, including the ease with which internatio nal delivery can occur. The model is described as "boundary breaking" because of its cap acity to move learning beyond the boundaries normally imposed by cultures, roles, ins titutions, economics, and national borders.Table 1 Boundary Breaking: An Emergent Model for Leadership DevelopmentAttributeStudent RoleInstructor RoleImplicationsConstruction of meaning Rigorous reflection Active ‘listening’ Juxtaposition of self & others Examination of instructional practice Reduced role as information provider Co-learning Reduced hierarchy Provision of a forum for discussion Challenging debate Public expression Self-evaluation Risk taking Cross-role dialogue ‘Public teaching’ Asynchronous communication Redefinition of ‘courses’ Shared evaluation Potential discomfort Technological infrastructure Computer skill development Seamless integration of technology


14 of 25 Validation of personal knowledge Exploration of practical experience Analysis of personal beliefs Articulation of assumptions Acceptance of practice-based knowledge Contextualized theory Critical analysis of relevant theory & research Confluence of theory & practice Reduced status differential Generative approach to learning Active involvement Examination of personal practice New metaphors for practice Trust in process Reduced intervention Less control Diverse student needs for information Flexible course structure Varied evaluations Issue relevancy Contextualized participation Formal & informal leadership Enhanced locus of control Embraced stress Shared leadership Modeled leadership Clarification of leadership practices Expanded participant profile Shared responsibility for learning Sense of community Links to colleagues outside classes Consideration of ‘others’ Cross-role dialogue Attended to affective behaviors Encouragement Attention to safety Pastoral care Reduced teacher isolation Global community Enhanced local community Growth of a counterculture Seeking cognitive dissonance Scrutiny of the heretofore accepted Imaging of alternatives Creating opportunities to question and imagine Pushing the edges of beliefs & practices Possibilizing International perspectives Cross-cultural analysis Reconsideration of personal contexts Collaboration with compatible instructors Provision of materials Integration with local & national communities ‘Big picture’ focus Alternative perspectivesConstruction of Meaning The on-line leadership development model is intended to complement and not replace other activities such as face-to-face class es and seminars, principal internships, and independent scholarly research. As such, expect ations for student and instructor participants in on-line learning should be consiste nt with normal standards for academic rigor. However, the on-line model is intended to cr eate a context in which participants’ reflections and understandings are subjected to int ense analysis from several perspectives: self, local colleagues and instructor s, peers in international settings, and individuals representing, for example, parents and policy makers. This juxtaposition of self and ‘others’ is designed to clarify personal u nderstandings, promote active ‘listening,’ and create cognitive dissonance that m otivates participants so that individual and collective meanings may be constructed. These a lternative perspectives form part of the reflective observation and abstract conceptuali sation of Kolb's (1984) learning cycle. If substantive meaning-making is to occur, however, on-line instructors must alter some of their instructional practices. For example, courses must be reconstituted to permit active involvement by a wide range of indivi duals who are registered formally as students and others who participate informally as p articipants from the broader community. Thus, the saliency of the role of instru ctor-as-informationprovider, of necessity, is reduced because ‘others’ also provide participants with access to theoretical and practical information. However, there is a corr esponding increase in the importance


15 of 25of instructor-asinstructional-designer, able to f ormulate a learning environment that promotes co-learning and restricts traditional part icipant hierarchies.Provision of an On-Line Discussion Forum Expressing one’s emergent understandings in an online forum is decidedly public, more so than what registrants in university leaders hip development programs usually expect to experience. Instructors should anticipate at least an initial reluctance among graduate students to post messages to an Internet f orum. Nevertheless, the nature of on-line communication, and the resultant care that participants take with their public statements, enhances rather than reduces academic r igor. That is, messages tend to be subjected to extremely thorough analyses by authors prior to posting. Instructors using an on-line delivery forma t for courses or modules also should be aware of the public scrutiny that awaits their own work. In the context of the Change Agency, participants include professors from severa l universities, policy makers, department of education personnel, teachers, and bo th school-based and central office administrators. Public and private assessment of in structors’ work is immediate and widespread. Consequently, instructors must structur e the on-line discussion forum carefully. Other instructional considerations include a willingness to alter the definition of teaching to include asynchronous communication, whi ch is of particular relevance to international participants operating in very differ ent time zones. The resulting ‘teaching’ that can and does occur at all hours of the day and night requires instructors to develop patterns of work that allow them to fulfil their ot her research and service obligations. As well, graduate courses that had been taught previou sly as twelve three-hour meetings over a four-month period may need to be reconceptua lized as an integrated package of face-to-face and virtual ‘classes.’ Consequently, s tudent and instructor understandings of courses will be challenged and some discomfort may result, particularly among those expecting a ‘typical’ university course format. Eve n student evaluation will be altered because of the need for instructors to incorporate into assessment procedures the feedback that students get from other on-line parti cipants. It is worth noting here that the design of an online discussion forum, whether that be the construction of a listserver or the use of a news group, should include opportunities for graduate students to strengthen t heir computer skills. As well, it is critical that the integration of technology into in struction be as seamless and user-friendly as possible, regardless of the techno logical infrastructure that is utilized.Validation of Personal Knowledge Participation by non-students in on-line in structional settings may promote the inclusion of practice-based knowledge in conversati ons. Rather than weakening the academic rigor associated with graduate study, prac tical knowledge can serve as the basis for examining professional beliefs and articu lating previously taken-for-granted assumptions. In fact, the wider the participant aud ience, the greater the likelihood that individuals will experience public challenges to un stated beliefs and assumptions, something that most graduate programs strive to inc lude. It was obvious in the project described in this report that theoretical and empirical perspectives can be integrated into dialogue as sig nificant issues emerge from practice-oriented conversations. However, this may only be possible when university instructors are able to recognize the value of prac tical knowledge as a vehicle for


16 of 25contextualizing the academic focus of leadership de velopment programs. That is, the on-line instructional framework proposed here may p rovide enhanced opportunities for theory and practice to converge in ways that are me aningful for participants who are willing to accept and, in fact, to seek a reduction to the status differential that too often is associated with theory and practice. Theory take s on a wider meaning through this validation of personal theories.A Generative Approach to Learning The proposed model for on-line graduate lea rning is generative in nature. That is, it is based on the belief that active engagement in pe rsonally meaningful activities is essential to significant learning. Feedback from pa rticipants in the Canada-New Zealand collaborative project included mention of how the o n-line dialogue made course content more meaningful because the topics of conversation emerged from individuals’ professional and cultural contexts. However, partic ipants highlighted the fact that feedback from colleagues in very different settings elicited examinations of personal practice and the construction of new metaphors that were useful frameworks for considering their professional environments. From an instructional perspective, generati vity requires a relinquishing of some control and a sufficient trust in the ability of ot her participants in the on-line learning community to pose and respond to learning challenge s relevant to the course. Further, instructor interventions in the conversation should be relatively minimal and particularly strategic when compared to many face-to-face intera ctions. Conversely, there is an increase in the need for instructors to respond to a much wider range of student information needs, the result of greater individual ization in course expectations. The potential results of a generative appro ach to learning include a course structure that is sufficiently flexible to allow for varied e valuation formats, such as electronic portfolios and collaborative writing by students in different universities and countries. Similarly, issue relevancy may be increased and stu dents may find that their course participation is contextualized in terms of their i ndividual settings and in the international educational community.Formal and Informal Leadership Student participants in the proposed model have the potential to exercise extensive control of their learning. They are able to choose, more than in traditional courses, when they will participate in online dialogue and to a ddress topics of greatest relevance to them, supported by a broad range of universityand field-based colleagues. Further, different students will emerge as dialogue leaders and information sources as different topics within the parameters of the course arise in the conversations. It is noteworthy that, despite the greater stress of learning in a s ignificantly public setting, the strong control that students have of their learning permit s them to reframe the stress so that it becomes an ‘embraced stress’ that is supportive and motivating. Opportunities for shared leadership facilit ate the modeling by instructors of the very leadership practices being studied by graduate students. That is, instructors can model educational leadership characterized as facil itative, collaborative, adaptive, informed, proactive, and constructive--the features of the transformational leadership so necessary in a rapidly changing, postmodern educati onal context. Importantly, the modeling of effective leadership practices in the c ontext of graduate learning is enhanced if instructors describe the ways their ins tructional practices reflect current


17 of 25knowledge. That is, instructors should explain to g raduate students how course organization and delivery formats were not accident al but, in fact, the result of a conscious attempt to model the manifestations of ef fective leadership. This clarification can emphasize to students the benefits of distingui shing between what Purkey and Novak (1984) described as intentional success versu s accidental success. The benefits of promoting formal and inform al leadership within on-line graduate learning include an expanded participant profile. S everal graduate students in the project described in this report found that their postings to the Change Agency resulted in requests to submit manuscripts to academic publicat ions, to participate in policy committees within their local educational community and invitations to apply for administrative positions. Other students reported g oing to meetings and seminars to discover that their postings were the basis for con structive dialogue outside of the graduate courses. These were unanticipated benefits to project participants that resulted from the public nature of their reflections, critiq ues of literature, and analyses of public policies.Sense of Community A key feature of the university-based, on-l ine model for graduate learning being presented is the strong sense of community that can result from its successful implementation. Project participants certainly comm unicated with colleagues in another country, but equally important was the fact that th e electronic dialogue reflected a consideration of ‘others’ that increased as the pro ject evolved. Participants found themselves responding to one another in ways that p recluded the posting of treatises that were of interest only to the people writing them. I n other words, participants’ postings reflected considerable consideration of the needs a nd beliefs of the authors of other postings, including individuals in parental and pol icy-making roles. This became a redefining of the learning community through the di ssonance created by different roles and cultures within the educational context. From t his perspective, the graduate learning was strengthened by cross-cultural and cross-role d ialogue that elicited a host of rich learning opportunities. It is incumbent upon on-line instructors to attend to affective behaviors that influence a developing sense of community. That is, instructors need to send electronic mail messages to all participants in order to make gentle suggestions about posting practices that invite broader participation rather than stifle it. Alternatively, instructors should be willing to embrace the equally necessary ‘invisible’ work encompassed by private messages to individual participants to vali date and encourage continued participation. Other behind-thescenes work includ es efforts to familiarize graduate students with computer software and hardware, and t o provide them with information, authors, titles, and ideas that support students’ i nformation needs and interests. Successful participant attention to communi ty building can reduce teacher and administrator isolation, plus promote membership in an international community, a phenomenon that is a particularly rare experience f or school-based educators. Furthermore, participants’ sense of membership in a local community can be strengthened because of on-site conversations that are enriched by participation in the international online community.Growth of a CountercultureA strong counterculture emerged during the six-week cross-cultural dialogue. That is,


18 of 25participants quickly understood that it was safe to disagree with one another on-line and in face-to-face classes, more than might normally b e expected. Students and instructors found that their taken-for-granted assumptions were challenged by participants in both countries. For example, most individuals in the two groups seemed to find relevance in discussion topics that ranged from the possibly tri te-students’ wearing hats or ball caps in schools, to the seemingly narrow--the possible r elationship between the length of postings and the depth of analyses, to the very bro ad--postmodern influences on learning. Nevertheless, virtually none of the topic s featured in the on-line dialogue escaped the scepticism of some participants. Thus, cognitive dissonance was encountered by participants who previously had not considered the possibility that hat-wearing students did not necessarily lack respe ct for teachers, that on-line dialogue may be limited in some important ways, or that post modern debates may have little or no relevance for colleagues in developing countries. The emergence of a counterculture meant tha t the instructors had to nurture opportunities for themselves and their students to discuss how cognitive dissonance may be a prerequisite for meaningful academic discourse The instructors learned to highlight how intended and accidental cognitive dissonance pr ovided opportunities to embrace intellectual discomfort, rather than avoid it. Push ing the edges of beliefs and practices in this way created new possibilities for learning. We called this "possibilizing". In fact, one of the more powerful components of the learning model could be its capacity to facilitate participant understandings of the need f or leaders to seek out and nurture those members of the school community who are most likely to voice uncertainty or discomfort about policies and practices. Further, t he cross-cultural dialogue experienced in the present project suggests that educational le aders may benefit from developing their abilities to move comfortably and often from the perspectives of formal leaders into the worldview of a viable school counterculture.International Perspectives One of the most potentially beneficial comp onents of the on-line delivery model is its international dimension. Participants in the Ne w Zealand-Canadian project developed a deeper understanding of how educational systems i n the two countries were undergoing very similar changes, often mandated by governments with equally conservative economic and political philosophies. L earning was enriched further by the views of international students, particularly those from developing countries in attendance at the New Zealand partner university, w ho countered the tendency of their Western colleagues to fail to consider the contexts of educational leadership in developing countries. Thus, the focus of the progra m promoted participants’ understandings of international influences on local educational conditions. Instructors working within the framework of the on-line model must assume responsibility for promoting the international conn ections necessary for successful collaboration. Responsibilities include identifying and contacting colleagues with a shared interest in collaborative on-line instructio n, collectively ascertaining the compatibility of instructors and courses, and decid ing upon the materials and procedures that will form the basis for the cross-cultural dia logue. Equally important is the responsibility for linking the international compon ent of instruction to the local and national educational communities. Instructors must not neglect their responsibility to help future and present educational leaders apply t heir ‘big picture’ understandings appropriately within local communities, because a k ey determinant of the success of educational leaders is their ability to understand the culture of their immediate


19 of 25educational surroundings.Conclusion The proposed on-line model for graduate lea rning is based on understandings that emerged from a review of relevant literature and an exploratory joint project conducted in the contexts of Canada and New Zealand. However, the model should be understood to be tentative and in need of further development for several reasons. First, New Zealand and Canada share a common history in many r espects: date of settlement by Europeans, cultures that evolved from British colon ization in the last century, and governments that are based on the British parliamen tary system. Even with strong cultural similarities, students in the two countrie s varied somewhat in, for example, their desired levels of formality in postings to the Chan ge Agency listserver. Therefore, the model’s applicability in countries that have greate r differences remains uncertain. In addition, the model depends upon a reasonably sophi sticated computerized infrastructure, something that participants in lead ership preparation programs in developing countries may not be able to access easi ly. Even with access to advanced computers, the model depends upon participant famil iarity with computer-based communications or, at least, the willingness to lea rn computer skills within a short time period. Moreover, differences in university timetab les, exacerbated by time zone differences, restrict the degree to which collabora tion can occur, particularly between universities in the northern and southern hemispher es. Nonetheless, the proposed model has the pot ential to facilitate leadership development that incorporates local, national, and international interactions among educational stakeholders. This is a significant dev elopment in an era of rapid educational change influenced by factors with a global impact, particularly among Western nations. The model is based upon the concept of breaking bou ndaries. Cultural, political and economic boundaries were traversed. Community, inst itutional and role boundaries were challenged. The boundaries between theories-in-acti on and espoused theories were brought closer together. Technology often imposes i ts own boundaries, and these were overcome and fully utilised in the learning process A powerful description of the vision for th e model came from an international student attending the New Zealand partner universit y: "In my view, cross-cultural and local knowledge can be enhanced by network linkages Our electronic discussion group is part of this global/local network group...I look forward to the day when parents, teachers, and pupils in, say, Canada, New Zealand, Zimbabwe, Indonesia...would be able to share ideas making use of their experiences thro ugh the Internet." In an era when such a vision can be held by an educational leader from a developing country, perhaps the most relevant question for those of us responsible for leadership development is not "Should we adopt an online model for graduate lea rning?" but "When?"ReferencesAcheson, K., & Gall, M.D. (1987). Techniques in the clinical supervision of teachers. New York: Longman.Bailey, A.J. (1987). Support for school management London: Croom Helm. Barnett, B.G. (1985). Peer-assisted leadership: Usi ng research to improve practice. The Urban Review 17, 47-64.


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23 of 25Waugh, M., Levin, J.A., & Smith, K. (1994). Organiz ing electronic network-based instructional interactions: Successful strategies a nd tactics. The Computing Teacher, 21(5), 21-22 & 21(6), 48-50. Webber, C.F., & Townsend, D. (1998). The comparativ e politics of accountability of New South Wales and Alberta. Educational Policy, 12(1-2), 177-190.NotesAn earlier version of this paper was presented at t he annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association in San Di ego, California, April 13 17, 1998. 1. Writers in Electronic Residence: http://www.wier.yo 2. School Net: 3. Leaders-Net: rk.html 4. American Educational Research Association Listserve rs: 5. The Change Agency Network: http://www.acs.ucalgary. ca/~cll/CAN/frameset.htm 6.About the AuthorsCharles F. WebberFaculty of EducationUniversity of Calgary2500 University Drive NWCalgary, Alberta, Canada, T2N 1N4Telephone: (403) 220-5694Fax: (403) 282-8479 E-Mail: Web page: /cwebber.html Charles F. Webber is an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Education at the University of Calgary. His teaching and research fo cus on school culture, the role of the principal, and international trends in educational leadership. He facilitates the Change Agency Network rameset.htm and edits the International Electronic Journal for Leadership in Learning M. RobertsonSchool of EducationUniversity of WaikatoPrivate Bag 3105HamiltonNew ZealandTelephone: 64 7 838 4500Fax: 64 7 838 4555


24 of 25 E-Mail: Jan M Robertson is the Director of the Educational Leadership Centre and a Senior Lectu rer in the Professional Studies Department at the University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand. Her teaching, research and development focuses on action research methodology, appraisal and leadership development of teachers and principals, and the role of the principal in site-based management nationally and internationall y. She initiated a listserver discussion group primarily for networking New Zeala nd school leaders based on the Change Agency model.Copyright 1998 by the Education Policy Analysis ArchivesThe World Wide Web address for the Education Policy Analysis Archives is General questions about appropriateness of topics o r particular articles may be addressed to the Editor, Gene V Glass, or reach him at College of Education, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-2411. (602-965-26 92). The Book Review Editor is Walter E. Shepherd: The Commentary Editor is Casey D. Cobb: .EPAA Editorial Board Michael W. Apple University of Wisconsin Greg Camilli Rutgers University John Covaleskie Northern Michigan University Andrew Coulson Alan Davis University of Colorado, Denver Sherman Dorn University of South Florida Mark E. Fetler California Commission on Teacher Credentialing Richard Garlikov Thomas F. Green Syracuse University Alison I. Griffith York University Arlen Gullickson Western Michigan University Ernest R. House University of Colorado Aimee Howley Ohio University Craig B. Howley Appalachia Educational Laboratory William Hunter University of Calgary Richard M. Jaeger University of North Carolina--Greensboro Daniel Kalls Ume University Benjamin Levin University of Manitoba


25 of 25 Thomas Mauhs-Pugh Green Mountain College Dewayne Matthews Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education William McInerney Purdue University Mary McKeown-Moak MGT of America (Austin, TX) Les McLean University of Toronto Susan Bobbitt Nolen University of Washington Anne L. Pemberton Hugh G. Petrie SUNY Buffalo Richard C. Richardson Arizona State University Anthony G. Rud Jr. Purdue University Dennis Sayers Ann Leavenworth Centerfor Accelerated Learning Jay D. Scribner University of Texas at Austin Michael Scriven Robert E. Stake University of Illinois--UC Robert Stonehill U.S. Department of Education Robert T. Stout Arizona State University David D. Williams Brigham Young University