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1 of 13 Education Policy Analysis Archives Volume 7 Number 7March 1, 1999ISSN 1068-2341 A peer-reviewed scholarly electronic journal Editor: Gene V Glass, College of Education Arizona State University Copyright 1999, the EDUCATION POLICY ANALYSIS ARCHIVES. Permission is hereby granted to copy any article if EPAA is credited and copies are not sold. Articles appearing in EPAA are abstracted in the Current Index to Journals in Education by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation and are permanently archived in Resources in Education Restructuring the Schoolbook Provision System in In donesia: Some Recent Initiatives Dedi Supriadi Institute of Teaching and Educational Sciences Bandung-IndonesiaAbstract Schoolbooks account for between 65% and 75% of all publishing activity in Indonesia. The amount of money allocated is continu ally increasing. Priority is given to the primary and junior secondary school levels (6+3 years), which are compulsory. Between 1969 and 1988, the Government of Indonesia (GOI) has produced some 550 million primary textbooks and library books. Up to the year 2000, the GOI has decided to allocate the total of US$ 355.2 million to produ ce 250 million copies of primary and junior secondary school textbooks to reach the rati o of one book for each student. In addition, around Rp 20-50 billion (US$ 10-20 millio n) annually is spent to purchase 8-17 million copies of reading books which are aime d at stimulating the reading interest of primary school children. These books are distrib uted free to some 168,000 primary and 26,969 junior secondary schools throughout Indo nesia. Following the massive efforts to increase book availability at schools, s ome innovative policies are being taken. Book evaluation standards have been improved to ens ure that only high quality books are used at schools. The distribution system has be en restructured to guarantee that books reach targeted schools. Consequently, the boo k monitoring system has had to be strengthened to examine whether or not the books re ally reach the schools and are used properly by students and teachers in the classrooms In the last three years, there has also been a growing concern with multicultural issues in schoolbook provision programs. In such a culturally diverse nation as Indonesia, scho olbooks should also be culturally
2 of 13 sensitive and be recognize the varied sociocultural backgrounds which affect students' learning.Schoolbooks and Educational Quality:International Comparison Schoolbooks, especially textbooks, tend to be the dominant instructional medium in the classroom (Patrick, 1988). Because textbooks ty pically deliver the curriculum, they are regarded as the single most important instructi onal material. As a result, they are central to schooling at all levels (Lockeed & Versp oor, 1990). Especially in a context of scarce learning resources and a shortage of teacher s--in terms of number and quality-textbooks appear to have a strong positive impact o n educational quality, as indicated by student achievement. A review by Heyneman, Farrell, and Salveda-Stuarto (1981) has found that of 18 correlational studies, 83% showed statistically significant positive correlations between textbook availability and stud ent achievement. In the Philippines, increasing the studenttextbook ratio from 10:1 to 2:1 in the first and second grade of primary schools in the late 197 0s led to significant learning gains among students using the new textbooks. In Nicaragu a, students who received textbooks scored significantly higher by about one-third of a standard deviation on a test of mathematics achievement than students not supplied with textbooks. In Brazil, the compensatory program of adding various "school qual ity" elements--especially textbooks--to poor rural schools in the 1980s confi rmed the crucial importance of textbooks; students made impressive improvement in achievement on tests of mathematics (World Bank, 1995: 10-11). In Indonesia a national survey in the 1970s found that students who had library books and many other classroom facilities, as well as good teachers, demonstrated higher achievement ( BP3K, 1980). Realizing these facts, many developing coun tries invest heavily in schoolbooks, especially textbooks, with higher priority given to primary and secondary school levels. Many developing countries are now moving toward pur suing the goal of "a textbook for each" student. But countries pursue this goal in di fferent ways. One can ask of these strategies: who are the targets, what is the book d istribution system, what are the roles of government and private sector, and what is the cont ribution of the students' parents? Ten countries assisted in this endeavor by World Bank l oans can be cited as examples, as summarized in Table 1.Table 1 World Bank/IBRD Textbook Assisted Projects in Ten C ountriesCountryTargeted AreasNumber of Textbooks Distribution scheme Indonesiaentire country 29.2 million primary school students procured by MOEC's Book Center 158 million copies of student books+) & 6.3 million copies of teacher guides 100% funded by GOI. Free for all students Total cost: US $ 182.2 million. 8.8 million junior secondary school students, procured by 85.1 million copies ofstudent books++) & 980 thousand copies of Free for all students
3 of 13 private publishers teacher guides, cost: US$ 172.8 million. India Utar Pradesh Primary schools, procured by private publishers. 83 million copies, reaches all children Parents purchase at lower prices China entire country Primary schools, produced by state 2.2 billion copies for 180 million students (!) Parents purchase at subsidized prices Vietnam entire country Primary schools, procured by state Textbooks for all children, Per book prices: US$ .15 Parents purchase, allowing choice of buying or renting Brazil, Northeast Provinces Primary schools, produced by private publishers 100 million copies per year, Total cost: US$ 63.1 million Total cost: US$ 63.1 million under 1/1 basis Romania, entire country Primary schools, produced by private publishers 15.7 million copies, total cost: US$ 41.4 million Textbooks are provided to schools for purchasing Chile, entire country Primary schools, produced by private publishers Total costs: US$ 25 million Free for students in deprived urban and rural areas Philipines, entire country Primary schools, produced by government 44 million books, total cost: US$ 50 million Free books for the poor, rich parents could purchase Venezuela, entire country Basic education, procured by private sector 11.3 million copies, total cost: US$ 23 million Free for allstudents in marginal areas Mexico, four states, rural areas Basic education 70 million copies per year, many books never reach poor provinces Free for all students in all schools in project+) Covering 6 subjects: Pancasila, Bahasa Indonesia Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, and Local content.++) For 9 subjects: Bahasa Indonesia, Mathematics, Physics, Biology, History, Economics, Geography, English, Art and Craft.Source: World Bank, 1995. Staff Appraisal Report: Indonesia, Book and Reading Development Project. Report No. 141016-IND pp. 21, 32.The Anatomy of Schoolbooks in Indonesia:Vary in Kinds, Complex Procedures of Provision The nature of schoolbooks in Indonesia is q uite complex, both in terms of kinds and procedures of provision. Schoolbooks consist of student textbooks, teacher guide books, reading books, and reference books for teach ers and students. There are two kinds of textbooks: 1) government textbooks which a re obligatory for school use, and 2)
4 of 13supplementary textbooks which are not obligatory, d epending on the needs of each school. Government textbooks used to be published b y Government (Ministry of Education and Culture, MOEC) mainly under the coord ination of the Book Center and other projects at the Directorate General of Primar y and Secondary Education (DPSPE). Supplementary textbooks, on the other hand, are pub lished by private publishers. Teacher guide books used to be provided together wi th student textbooks. Reading books which consist of fiction and nonfiction books are those which are intended to promote reading interests and increase literacy of primary school children. Thus far, the effort to provide reading books is on ly for primary school level, while for the upper levels (junior and senior secondary) prio rity is given to textbooks (production, quality, and distribution). Annually, each of the 1 68,000 SDs/MIs (Note 1) throughout the country used to receive between 50 and 100 copi es of reading books in different titles. Counting all primary school libraries, appr oximately 75 million reading books have been delivered to schools since 1979. The main issue concerning these books is ho w to maximize their use by pupils so that they can have significant impact on pupils' re ading behaviors. Low correlations between the presence of reading books and student r eading behaviors as revealed in the 1989 IEA (the International Association for the Eva luation of Educational Achievement) study (Note 2)and cited in the 1992 World Bank's re port do not necessarily mean that those books are not useful, rather they indicate th at the use of these books by students is still very low. This was supported by the fact that many students spend relatively little time "reading for fun." At grade four, approximatel y one in five (19.5%) claimed to read a book for fun "almost never." Almost 60% of studen ts considered themselves "average" or "not very good" at reading, while only 27.8% con sidered themselves "good" and 14.4% "very good." It is for that reason the DGPSE continues to work with students (and teachers) to maximize the use of reading books at p rimary school libraries.Book Evaluation and Approvals: Procedures and Crite ria To be eligible to be used at schools, both supplementary textbooks and reading books have to pass the evaluation process carried o ut by the National Evaluation Committee for private publishing books (which I hav e served as chairman since 1993) and be officially approved by the Director General of PSE. The Committee members consist of experts from universities, IKIPs, and ot her government agencies. The evaluation comprises four aspects, viz., quality of content, language, graphical presentation, and security. Quality of content refers to such indicator s as scientific truthfulness and its relevance to the existing National Curriculum. Lang uage basically means readability, legibility, and consistency with the standardized I ndonesian language. Graphical presentation includes quality of printing, binding, format, illustrations, colors, typefaces, font sizes, spacing and book appearance in general. Security means that the content of the books should be in line with and not contradict ory to Pancasila (the Five Principles--Note 3), UUD 1945 (National Constitutio n), Government policies, national unity and security, laws, regulations, ethics, and that the content not exploit the sensitive issue of SARA (ethnics, religions, race, and interg roup relations). Judgment of this aspect is made by evaluators coming from Mabes ABRI (Armed Forces Headquarter), Kejaksaan Agung (Office of Attorney General), Lemha nas (National Defense Institute), and Inspectorate General of MOEC. The number of books considered in the evalu ation process has increased over the years, indicating the rise of market demand, the pr oductivity of book writers, and growth
5 of 13in the size of the schoolbook sector. In 1995, the number of books nearly doubled over previous years. However, the quality of books has n ot increased significantly as shown in the percentage of books passed in the evaluation (Table 2). To bridge this deficit, the Directorate of Educational Facilities, DGPSE, has r epeatedly held meetings with book writers, editors, and publishers to address some ba sic mistakes found in the evaluation process. The DGPSE has also suggested ways of deali ng with those mistakes to publishers. At the same time, the Book Center under the Secretary General of MOEC has been conducting workshops and training sessions involvin g book writers and editors. Some of the participants in these activities are newcomers but appear to have potential for book writing. This program could help alleviate the shor tages and the low quality of many books. These efforts are expected to have signific ant effects on the capacity of writers and editors to produce high quality books in response t o the rising demand for higher quality schoolbooks. The criterion of evaluation for supple mentary books has been raised from a minimum of 60 to 80, to ensure that only high quali ty books are recommended for use in schools. It is particularly important for supplemen tary textbooks to be qualitatively comparable to the main textbooks evaluated by the N ational Textbook Evaluation Committee (NTEC). Another criterion is that supplem entary textbooks must contain significant amounts of enrichment material.Table 2 The Number of schoolbooks participating in the evaluation process at the Directorate of Educational Facilities, DGSPE MOEC, 1979-1995YearNo. of Books No. Passed%No. of Publishers 19792,8601,07838%n.a19801,28774758%n.a19811,84780844%n.a19821,43295667%n.a19831,7861,25770%n.a19842,5511,09943%n.a19853,6451,81250%n.a19862,5361,23249%n.a19871,13256750%n.a19882,07998948%n.a19892,7401,13441%n.a19902,7631,57057%10119912,17978136%12619922,6851,45554%17019932,5651,35953%23719942,38084836%23019954,1621,43735%275
6 of 13Total40,62919,46248%Source: Directorate of Educational Facilities, DGPS E-MOEC, 1995.Junior Secondary School Textbooks: Improving Textbook Quality, Restructuring Distribut ion System For the junior secondary school level, the GOI has launched a new project--effective of October 1, 1995-April 1, 2000 -called the Book and Reading Development Project (BRDP). The Project aims to imp rove the quality of education for secondary school students (nine-year compulsory bas ic education). In particular, the Project is expected to contribute to improving prod uction and distribution of more and better quality textbooks, their availability in the classrooms, and their use by teachers. These objectives are to be achieved by assisting in the implementation of the textbook provision and distribution system to all school stu dents on a sustainable basis, giving help to teachers in how to make better use of the b ooks in the classroom, and motivate and promote reading habits among children (World Ba nk, 1995a). Different from the previous book projects, the BRDP is developed under some innovative policies. First, books are selected by t he NTEC--chaired by the Director General of PSE-based on a set of high standards a nd strict evaluation procedures to guarantee that only high quality textbooks will pas s the evaluation. Members of the Committee represent those experts whose achievement commitment, and personal integrity have been widely acknowledged. Secondly, books are selected from private p ublishers and should consist of both student books and teacher guides for grade one to t hree. Thirdly, book selection and procurement are "liberalized" in that international publishers--including those who are known as "global players" in the publishing busines s-could participate in a bidding procedure known as International Competitive Biddin g. Fourth, production and distribution of books are given to publishers whose books are selected to be purchased. Fifth, books are directly delivered from the publis hers' warehouses to each individual school, rather than following conventional routes a s from Kanwil's (Provincial Office of MOEC) warehouses down to Kandep (District Office of MOEC) and then sent to schools. Sixth, textbooks are procured at the provi ncial level --in which 90% of the total expenditures are allocated--and for that, each Kanw il is given authority to select only one title for each subject and grade for distributi on to all schools in a given province. These innovative policies have significantl y changed the entire scheme of book provision with government tending to become the reg ulator and the private sector the main actors--a trend that is also occurring in many other sectors.Implication of Reform: The Crucial Importance of Strengthening Monitoring and Evaluation Reforms in the book distribution system are aimed at strengthening monitoring and evaluation procedures to ensure that books reach th e schools and are used in the teaching-learning process so that they will have si gnificant impact on quality improvement. (Note 4) The monitoring activities are focused on providing timely and accurate information regarding actual receipt of bo oks in the schools and their use. Three main indicators are used: (1) how well teachers, pa rents, and administrators understand the objectives and procedures of the system?; (2) h ow effectively books are distributed to schools?; and (3) how effectively teachers and s tudents use them in the classroom,
7 of 13and what is the effect of the books on quality impr ovement? These activities involve 29 state IKIPs and Schools of Education at Universities in 27 provinces, and the Office of Inspectorate Genera l of MOEC. Since 1996, two kinds of activities have been carried out: conducting an indepth study of 162 primary schools (6 schools in each province); conducting a quantita tive survey of 810 primary and 810 junior secondary schools (30 schools in each provin ce) to get baseline data on book condition at schools. Each shipment of books to a school includes a simple selfaddressed, postage-paid postcard which provides the following information: (a) date books received; (b) condition upon arrival; and (c) sufficient quantity or not. The returned postcards are then analyzed and reported by independent experts of IKI P. More in-depth and comprehensive studies are conducted by independent experts of IKIP and the universities. They employ both quantitative and qua litative methods to gather data/information through a series of interviews, ob servations, documentary studies, and checklists. During school visits which take 5 to 6 days in each sampled school, they conduct interviews with principals, teachers, and parents, asking specific questions about the new textbooks, how well they are liked, if they seem to be helpful, problems related to book deliveries, etc. They also interview a small number of students asking similar questions, and observe and report activities of two or three c lassroom sessions involving textbooks. Sampled school are assigned to represent different locations, i.e. urban, suburban, and rural; public and private, Java and outside Java, b etter served and under-served schools.Reading Promotion Program: In Response to the Challenges of 21st Century The overall on-going efforts to increase bo ok availability at schools (to reach the ratio of 1:1--one book for each student at basic ed ucation) and to improve their quality are also followed by a reading promotion program. T his is a priority in Indonesia at present and has officially been declared as a natio nal movement by President Soeharto on May 1995. This massive program is based on a bel ief that the creation of a reading society is a must, a conditio sine qua non, for the nation to successfully enter the 21st Century. The month of May every year has been decla red "The National Book Month" and September has been declared "The Month of Visit ing Library." In December 1995, the Society Association for Reading Interest Promot ion (Perhimpunan Masyarakat Gemar Membaca, PMGM) was established in Jakarta rep resenting those individual citizens concerned with reading promotion. In addition, at the Book and Reading Develo pment Project, there is a component dealing with reading promotion under the coordinati on of MOEC's Center for Communication Technology (Pustekom) in cooperation with PMGM. Its main targets are primary and secondary school students in additi on to the community at large. The challenge of book and reading promotion in Indonesia is obviously not easy, since many facts show that reading interest and beh avior of Indonesian people, including school children, are still low. For instance, IEA h as conducted a study covering the samples of 3,169 fourth graders of primary (SD) and 1,929 second graders of junior secondary schools (SLTP) from seven selected provin ces. The sampled provinces of SDs were Riau, Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, Yogyak arta, East Java, and East Nusa Tenggara; while for SLTPs were Riau, Lampung, Jakar ta, West Java, Yogyakarta, East Java, and East Nusa Tenggara. One of the most disturbing findings is that Indonesian primary school students
8 of 13placed 26th out of 27 countries participating in th e study, mastering only 36% of test items. Of the 27 countries, the highest scores were recorded by Finish students and the lowest were by Venezuelans. In Indonesia, among the seven provinces, the highest average scores were achieved by Yogyakarta (49%), f ollowed by Jakarta (44.5%), East Java (38.6%), Riau (36.5%), Central Java (34.8%), E ast Nusa Tenggara (32.6%), and West Java (32%). At the junior secondary school lev el, Indonesian students placed 5th of 5 countries surveyed in Asia, i.e. Hong Kong 75. 5%, Singapore 74%, Thailand 65.1%, the Philippines 52.6%, and Indonesia 51.7% ( World Bank, 1992: 15-16; World Bank, 1994: 74). This research has also revealed that both a t primary and junior secondary schools, home-related variables have a greater effect on stu dent reading behavior than school or teacher-related factors. This finding points toward the importance of massive involvement of families and parents in any effort a t reading promotion.Book Provision for Multicultural Students:Some Recent Development Another development is that in the last thr ee years there has been a growing concern with the importance of considering multicul tural issues into schoolbook provision programs. This concern grows out of is a belief that in such a culturally diverse country as Indonesia, schoolbooks should al so be culturally sensitive and recognize varied students' sociocultural background s which affect their learning. How is cultural diversity taken into accoun t in schoolbook provision in Indonesia? In 1993, the DGPSE initiated a substantial effort t o recognize student sociocultural backgrounds in reading book selection and provision Preceding the decision taken by the Director General of which books to be purchased by the project, books are read by sampled students in different regions. The goal is to identify which books are more interesting to children. Each title is read by 10 s tudents from different locations, and samples consist of fourth, fifth, and sixth graders of primary schools. Three indicators are used, i.e.: degree of "interestingness," readab ility, and meaningfulness. Annually, no fewer than 600 titles are read by students, of whic h some 400 titles meet the criteria. On the basis of this survey, the DGPSE classifies the books into two categories: 1) those books assumed to be "culturally-fair" are sent to a ll or most of schools; 2) those books which tend to be "culturally-bound" are allocated t o schools in certain provinces-usually around 10-15% of the total book titles. How ever some locally-content reading books are also assigned to the national level (dist ributed to schools outside its own province) to enrich students with knowledge of othe r cultures. In spite of many commonalities in choice, i t was evident that sociocultural backgrounds played an important role in affecting s tudent choices. In a given geographical location, there were books which were highly favored by students (as indicated by scores) while in other locations the s ame books scored low. In more specific cases, such books as the folk stories of W ayan Bunter of Bali, Si Kabayan of PrianganWest Java, Si Malin Kundang of Minangkaba uWest Sumatra, and other local-based folk stories tended to be scored higher in their own ethnic group location, despite the fact that some of these kinds of storie s were also interesting to students of other ethnic groups. It was also interesting that in a location where the use of Bahasa Indonesia was dominant, children tended to have better comprehens ion of the content of a book, a higher percentage of completing all pages of the bo ok, and less frequent encountering of words, idioms, and paragraphs that they did not und erstand. Some locally-oriented
9 of 13words and idioms used by writers in their books wer e not fully understood by students from other locations, e.g.. Javanese idioms by Sund anese children, Balinese words by Malay children of Medan and Jambi, and the like. These findings support the hypothesis that the degree of "interestingness" and readability of a book are to some extent relative t o who are the readers, from which cultural background they come, and how much cultura lly-specific content appears in the book. It is also clear that the closer the content of a book is with the life of children, the more interesting the book is to those children. Diversity of student multicultural backgrou nds is also accommodated by use of reading books with local content, which each provin ce has the authority to choose. Like all other schoolbooks to be used at schools, local content reading books should also be legalized by the Director General of PSE. However, the evaluation process for these books is done by each Kanwil (Provincial Office of MOEC). Data at the Directorate of Educational Facilities shows that most of local con tent reading books contain local stories, traditions, customs, heroes, and languages Unfortunately, not all provinces could provide these kinds of books because of the l ack of quality writers and the absence of publishers. As mentioned earlier, the textbook project for junior secondary schools is managed under several innovative policies, one of which is that textbook procurement is carried out by Kanwils in 27 provinces. From the list of te xtbook titles that have been approved by the NTEC, each Kanwil has to nominate at least t hree titles for each subject and grade. Of these titles, each Kanwil has eventually to come up with only one title to be produced for distribution to all junior secondary s chools in its province. Preceding the process of book selection, each Kanwil has to condu ct a survey of a limited sample of students and teachers in at least 10 schools to ide ntify which book is the most appropriate for purchase by the project. The criter ia for selection are no longer related to quality of content, language, graphical presentatio n, and security aspects; rather the main criterion is local relevance to a particular provin ce. From the perspective of book writers, this would imply that from the very beginning they should consider the targeted provinc es in which their books are expected to be bought by the project. This policy is consist ent with research findings in the area of multicultural education in that the ability of teac hers and students to use and to benefit from the textbooks depend on the extent to which th e textbooks meet the needs of users and are in line with their characteristics (Gollnic k and Chinn, 1991). It is clear that schoolbook provision (both textbooks and reading books) in Indonesia is moving toward incorporating multicultu ral aspects of student life and their diverse cultural environments. This development is still in its early stage, and the pendulum is gradually moving from the extremely "na tionaloriented" education (including educational books) which had long neglec ted the reality of diverse cultures--because of political reasons which were j udged as valid at the time--toward education that recognizes local cultures, tradition s, styles, and levels of community development.NotesSD (Sekolah Dasar) is general primary school under the Ministry of Education and Culture and Ministry of Home Affairs; MI (Madrasah Ibtidaiyah) is the Islamic Primary School under the Ministry of Religious Affa irs. 1. According to this study, at primary school the corr elations between pupils' reading behavior and the frequency of borrowing books from school library, number of 2.
10 of 13books in school library, and presence of school lib rary were .18, .07, and .05, respectively. For junior secondary school, the corr elations between student reading behavior and the frequency of visiting school libra ry and number of books in school library were .12 and .01.The Pancasila (The Five Basic Principles) is the of ficial state ideology which consists of five principles which are formulated in the preamble of the UUD 1945 (The National Constitution) as follows: (1) Belief in the One and only One God; (2) Just and civilized humanity; (3) The unity of I ndonesia; (4) Democracy guided by the inner wisdom of deliberations and representa tives; and (5) Social justice for all the Indonesian people. 3. In this project, I was assigned as a Coordinator of monitoring and evaluation, covering 27 provinces. 4.ReferencesCousin, Patricia Tefft. 1989. Content Area Textbooks: Friends or Foes? ERIC Digest. ED321249.Direktorat Sarana Pendidikan, 1995. Rencana Proyek Pengembangan Buku dan Minat Baca dalam Rangka Wajib Belajar 9 Tahun. Jakarta: Ditsardik, Ditjen Dikdasmen. Gollnick, Donna M., and Chinn, Philip C. 1991. Multicultural Educational for Exceptional Children ERIC Digest # E498, ED333620, May 1991. Heyneman, S.P., Fareel, J., & Sepulveda-Stuarto, M. 1981. "Textbooks and Achievement: What We Know?" Journal of Curriculum Studies, 13:3. Hoge, John D. 1986. Improving the Use of Elementary Social Studies Text books ERIC Digest, ED274582, September 1986.Lockeed, M. & Verspoor, A. 1990. Improving Primary Education in Developing Countries: A Review of Policy Options Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Patrick, John J. 1988. High School Government Textbooks ERIC Digest, ED301532, December 1988.Proyek Pengembangan Buku dan Minat Baca. 1996. Buku Panduan Pemasyarakatan Buku dan Minat Baca Jakarta: Ditjen Dikdasmen. Supriadi, Dedi. 1996a. Satu Buku Satu Siswa. Suara Karya Mei 1996 Supriadi, Dedi. 1996b. Laporan Hasil Pemilihan Buku Bacaan SD/MI 1996 Direktorat Sarana Pendidikan, Ditjen Dikdasmen, Depdikbud.Supriadi, Dedi. 1996c. Promosi Buku dan Minat Baca di Sekolah. Jakarta: PBMB, Ditjen Dikdasmen, Depdikbud.Supriadi, Dedi. 1995. Laporan Hasil Pemilihan Buku Bacaan SD/MI 1995 Direktorat Sarana Pendidikan, Ditjen Dikdasmen, Depdikbud.World Bank. 1996. Indonesia: Book and Reading Development Project, Lo an 3887-IND. Draft Aide-Memoire May 1996.
11 of 13 World Bank. 1995a. Indonesia: Book and Reading Development Project, St aff Appraisal Report May1995. World Bank. 1995b. Indonesia: Book and Reading Development Project, Lo an 3887-IND. Draft Aide-Memoire September 1995. World Bank. 1994. Indonesia: Stability, Growth, and Equity in Repelit a VI Country Department III, East Asia and Pacific Region. Washi ngton D.C.: World Bank. World Bank. 1992. Indonesia: Book and Reading Development Study Washington, D.C.: World Bank.World Bank. 1989. Indonesia: Basic Education Study Washington D.C.: World Bank.About the AuthorDedi SupriadiFaculty MemberGraduate School of EducationInstitute of Teaching and Educational Sciences (IKI P) Bandung, West Java, INDONESIAPhone: 062-22-707486Fax: 062-22-707486 & 062-22-2001197E-mail: email@example.comDedi Supriadi received his Ph.D. (Cum Laude) in Edu cational Psychology and Counseling from IKIP Bandung, Indonesia. He is seco nded to the office of Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia as a speech writer and program developer, assisstant to the Director Generale of P rimary and Secondary of Education (DGSPE), Chairman of Textbook Evaluation Committee at the DGSPE, Chairman for Research and Development Division of the Associatio n of Reading Interest Promotion (Perhimpunan Masyarakat Gemar Membaca, PMGM), and c urrently is Deputy Director for Academic Affairs at the Graduate School of Educ ation, IKIP Bandung, Indonesia and editor of Mimbar Pendidikan, an Educational Journal published by the IKIP. Dr. Dedi Supriadi has written several books on counseling, c reativity, book writing and evaluation, higher education in Indonesia, and teac her education.Copyright 1999 by the Education Policy Analysis ArchivesThe World Wide Web address for the Education Policy Analysis Archives is http://epaa.asu.edu General questions about appropriateness of topics o r particular articles may be addressed to the Editor, Gene V Glass, firstname.lastname@example.org or reach him at College of Education, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-0211. (602-965-96 44). The Book Review Editor is Walter E. Shepherd: email@example.com The Commentary Editor is Casey D. Cobb: firstname.lastname@example.org
12 of 13EPAA Editorial Board Michael W. Apple University of Wisconsin Greg Camilli Rutgers University John Covaleskie Northern Michigan University Andrew Coulson email@example.com Alan Davis University of Colorado, Denver Sherman Dorn University of South Florida Mark E. Fetler California Commission on Teacher Credentialing Richard Garlikov firstname.lastname@example.org Thomas F. Green Syracuse University Alison I. Griffith York University Arlen Gullickson Western Michigan University Ernest R. House University of Colorado Aimee Howley Ohio University Craig B. Howley Appalachia Educational Laboratory William Hunter University of Calgary Richard M. Jaeger University of North Carolina--Greensboro Daniel Kalls Ume University Benjamin Levin University of Manitoba Thomas MauhsPugh Green Mountain College Dewayne Matthews Western Interstate Commission for HigherEducation William McInerney Purdue University Mary McKeown-Moak MGT of America (Austin, TX) Les McLean University of Toronto Susan Bobbitt Nolen University of Washington Anne L. Pemberton email@example.com Hugh G. Petrie SUNY Buffalo Richard C. Richardson Arizona State University Anthony G. Rud Jr. Purdue University Dennis Sayers Ann Leavenworth Centerfor Accelerated Learning Jay D. Scribner University of Texas at Austin Michael Scriven firstname.lastname@example.org Robert E. Stake University of Illinois--UC Robert Stonehill U.S. Department of Education Robert T. Stout Arizona State University David D. Williams Brigham Young University EPAA Spanish Language Editorial BoardAssociate Editor for Spanish Language
13 of 13 Roberto Rodrguez Gmez Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico email@example.com Adrin Acosta (Mxico) Universidad de Guadalajaraadrianacosta@compuserve.com J. Flix Angulo Rasco (Spain) Universidad de Cdizfelix.firstname.lastname@example.org Teresa Bracho (Mxico) Centro de Investigacin y DocenciaEconmica-CIDEbracho dis1.cide.mx Alejandro Canales (Mxico) Universidad Nacional Autnoma deMxicocanalesa@servidor.unam.mx Ursula Casanova (U.S.A.) Arizona State Universitycasanova@asu.edu Jos Contreras Domingo Universitat de Barcelona Jose.Contreras@doe.d5.ub.es Erwin Epstein (U.S.A.) Loyola University of ChicagoEepstein@luc.edu Josu Gonzlez (U.S.A.) Arizona State Universityjosue@asu.edu Rollin Kent (Mxico)Departamento de InvestigacinEducativaDIE/CINVESTAVrkent@gemtel.com.mx email@example.com Mara Beatriz Luce (Brazil)Universidad Federal de Rio Grande do SulUFRGSlucemb@orion.ufrgs.brJavier Mendoza Rojas (Mxico)Universidad Nacional Autnoma deMxicojaviermr@servidor.unam.mxMarcela Mollis (Argentina)Universidad de Buenos Airesmmollis@filo.uba.ar Humberto Muoz Garca (Mxico) Universidad Nacional Autnoma deMxicohumberto@servidor.unam.mxAngel Ignacio Prez Gmez (Spain)Universidad de Mlagaaiperez@uma.es Daniel Schugurensky (Argentina-Canad)OISE/UT, Canadadschugurensky@oise.utoronto.ca Simon Schwartzman (Brazil)Fundao Instituto Brasileiro e Geografiae Estatstica firstname.lastname@example.org Jurjo Torres Santom (Spain)Universidad de A Coruajurjo@udc.es Carlos Alberto Torres (U.S.A.)University of California, Los Angelestorres@gseisucla.edu
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Restructuring the schoolbook provision system in Indonesia : some recent inititiatives / Dedi Supriadi.
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