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1 of 22 Education Policy Analysis Archives Volume 9 Number 12April 22, 2001ISSN 1068-2341 A peer-reviewed scholarly journal Editor: Gene V Glass, College of Education Arizona State University Copyright 2001, the EDUCATION POLICY ANALYSIS ARCHIVES. Permission is hereby granted to copy any article if EPAA is credited and copies are not sold. Articles appearing in EPAA are abstracted in the Current Index to Journals in Education by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation and are permanently archived in Resources in Education .Affirmative Action at Work: Performance Audit of Tw o Minority Graduate Fellowship Programs, Illinois' IMGIP and I CEOP Jack McKillip Southern Illinois University at Carbondale Abstract IMGIP and ICEOP are minority graduate fello wship programs sponsored by the State of Illinois in order to incr ease the number of minority faculty and professional staff at Illinois institutions of higher education through graduate fellowships, networking and mentoring support. Nearly 850 fellowships have been awarded s ince 1986. A performance audit examined immediate (areas of grad uate study, ethnicity of awards), intermediate (graduation area s and rates), and long-range results (academic job placement). The pr imary source for the audit was the database maintained by the programs' administrative office. These data were compared with data sets maintained by the Illinois Board of Higher Education and with national benchma rks (NSF and Ford Foundation Minority Graduate Fellowships). Findings revealed: (a) the IMGIP and ICEOP programs led to major diversificati on of minority doctoral study in Illinois; (b) a high percentage o f all fellows graduated, both absolutely and in relation to national benchma rks, and fellows made up a large percentage of doctoral degrees awarded t o minorities by

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2 of 22Illinois institutions (e.g., 46% of doctorates in t he hard sciences awarded to African Americans from 1988-1998); and (c) fello ws made up an important proportion of all minority faculty in Ill inois (9%). Most ICEOP doctoral fellows and many other fellows have taken academic positions. The audit revealed outcomes-based eviden ce of a successful affirmative action program in higher education—evid ence that is not otherwise available. African American, Hispanic Americans, and N ative Americans are significantly underrepresented throughout the collegiate educatio n pipeline leading to faculty positions. In addition, minority graduate students have traditionally not done doctoral work in the sciences and humanities but have concen trated in education (Blackwell, 1987, Stamps & Tribble, 1995). Minority students ma ke up a small proportion of students awarded advanced degrees and few minoritie s hold faculty positions in higher education (Midwest Higher Education Commission, 199 5; Sandersen, & Dugoni, 1999). In the mid-1980s, Illinois initiated two pr ograms aimed at increasing minority faculty in institutions of higher education in the state. These programs, described below, provide graduate fellowships, mentoring, and networ king support to African American, Hispanic American and Native American graduate stud ents at institutions within the state who have the career goal of working in higher education in the state. This combination of financial, academic, and networking support has been identified as critical to the success of minority graduate studen ts (Smith & Parker, 2000; Stamps & Tribble, 1995; Willie, Grady & Hope, 1991).Program Descriptions The Illinois Minority Graduate Incentive Pr ogram (IMGIP) was established in 1985, funded by a Higher Education Cooperation Act (HECA) grant awarded by the Illinois Board of Higher Education (IBHE). HECA fun ding has continued through the current fiscal year. The purpose of IMGIP is to inc rease the number of minority faculty and professional staff at Illinois institutions of higher education in the physical sciences, life sciences, mathematics, and engineering. Applic ants for the fellowship must be African American, Hispanic American, or Native Amer ican and have been unconditionally accepted into an appropriate Illino is doctoral program. Three-year fellowship awards with an annual stipend of $13,500 are made following statewide competition. Fellows also receive a $1,500 books, s upplies and travel allowance, a tuition waiver, and mentoring and networking suppor t, including a yearly, three-day conference of workshops and presentations by curren t and former fellows, faculty mentors and university officials. Applicants need n ot be Illinois residents. There is no pay back provision; although, upon graduation, fell ows must seek employment at institutions of higher learning in Illinois. A tota l of 177 fellowships have been awarded since 1986. The Illinois Consortium for Educational Opp ortunity Program (ICEOP) was established by state legislation in 1985 by Public Act 84-785. According to the Act, ICEOP awards were established "to implement the pol icy of encouraging minority students to enroll and complete academic programs a t the post-baccalaureate level." The ultimate goal was to increase the number of faculty and staff from minority groups underrepresented in Illinois institutions of higher education and governing boards. Applicants for the fellowship must be Illinois resi dents, be African American, Hispanic American, Asian American (Note 1), or Native Americ an, have financial need, and have

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3 of 22been unconditionally admitted to an appropriate Ill inois graduate program. Two-year master's fellowships and four-year doctoral fellows hips are made following statewide competition. The annual stipend is $10,000. In addi tion, most fellows receive a tuition waiver from their university. The administrative of fice provides orientation and networking support, especially through the yearly f ellows' conference that includes IMGIP fellows. Upon graduation, applicants must tak e a position in Illinois education or payback 20% of their stipend award. A total of 669 fellowships have been awarded since 1987. In 1988, a central office for both IMGIP an d ICEOP was established at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (http://www.imgip .siu.edu/). Since then, the two programs have been administered jointly by an admin istrator responsible to the ICEOP Board of Directors (made up of representative from 34 graduate degree granting institutions in the state) and the IMGIP Board of D irectors (made up of representatives from 10 doctoral degree granting institutions in th e state). Figure 1. Logic Model of IMGIP and ICEOP OutcomesMethodologyLogic Model This performance audit examined program out comes following the logic model outlined in Figure 1 (United Way, 1996). The immedi ate result of state-awarded fellowships (i.e., IMGIP and ICEOP) was expected to be a diversification of the fields of graduate study chosen by minority students. The int ermediate result of the minority graduate programs was expected to be increased freq uency of advanced degrees being awarded to minority students in the fields of funde d study. The long-range goal was expected to be increase employment of minorities in higher education in Illinois. Performance Audit The primary source of information for the a udit was the database of IMGIP and ICEOP fellows developed and maintained by the progr ams' administrative office. The database included information on awards (100%), aca demic progress (90%), job

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4 of 22placement (66%), and residential address (98%) for each fellow. An audit of the database by a confirmatory survey of current and fo rmer fellows and of university representatives found that the information in the d atabase was up to date and accurate. Data from the administrative database were compared with three data sets maintained by the IBHE: (1) enumeration of graduate students enro lled by institution, academic program, and student ethnicity yearly from 1988 thr ough 1998; (2) enumeration of graduate degrees conferred by institution, academic program, and student ethnicity yearly from 1988 through 1998; and (3) enumeration of faculty by institution, rank and ethnicity for 1997. IBHE data sets are available at http://www.ibhe.state.il.us/ The program audit examined these issues: The ethnicity and areas of academic study of IMGIP and of ICEOP fellows and the impact of the programs on the areas of study of minority graduate students in Illinois. 1. Graduation rates of IMGIP and of ICEOP fellows and impact of the programs on the number of graduate degrees awarded by Illinois universities to minorities. 2. Job placement of IMGIP and ICEOP fellows and the im pact of programs on the number of minorities on Illinois faculty, administr ation, and staff. 3.

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5 of 22ResultsGraduate Study-Ethnicity and Areas of Academic Stud y African American, Hispanic Americans, and N ative American made up 9.3% of Illinois graduate students from 1988 to 1998 (Table 1, Appendix) and 7.2% of Illinois the college faculty (1997, Table 9, Appendix). All IMGIP and ICEOP fellows were minorities. Based on the National Center for Education Statistics' 2-digit Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) codes, Figure 2 compar es the areas of study for all Illinois' doctoral students, for all minority doctoral studen ts, and for IMGIP fellows, highlighting the areas of primary concentration of IMGIP fellows (see also Table 2, Technical Appendix). Figure 2. Areas of Academic Study for IMGIP Fellows and Illinois Doctoral Students In Illinois, a smaller percentage of minority docto ral students studied in Biological and Life Sciences, Physical sciences, Engineering, and Mathematics than for all doctoral students (12% vs. 28% overall). In contrast, 81% of IMGIP fellowships have been awarded in these areas, increasing academic diversi ty. Figure 3 compares the areas of study for al l Illinois' graduate students, for all minority graduate students, and for ICEOP fellows, highlighting the areas of primary concentration of ICEOP fellows (see also Table 3 in the Appendix ).

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6 of 22 Figure 3. Areas of Academic Study for ICEOP Fellows and for Illinois Graduate Students Both master's and doctoral students are inc luded in the figure. Compared to all Illinois graduate students, minority graduate stude nts were somewhat less likely to enroll in the areas of Social Sciences/History, English La nguage/Letters, and Visual & Performing Arts (11% vs. 9%, respectively). In cont rast, 29% percent of ICEOP fellowships have been awarded in these three areas, increasing academic diversity. In the opposite direction, ICEOP fellowships have tended t o intensify minority graduate study in the area of Education. Thirty-two percent of min ority graduate students study Education, compared to 20% of all graduate students Thirty-eight percent of ICEOP fellowships have been awarded in Education. Together the IMGIP and ICEOP programs have contributed a major diversification of minority doctoral study into the areas of Biolog ical/Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Engineering, and Mathematics and to additional dive rsification of minority graduate study into Social Sciences/History, English Languag e/Letters, and Visual & Performing Arts.

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7 of 22 Figure 4. ICEOP/IMGIP and Other Minority Doctoral G raduates as a % of Illinois Doctorates by Fiscal Year Graduate Study-Degree Completion Over the 11 years from 1988 to 1998, Africa n American, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans received 5.3% of the doctoral degr ees awarded by Illinois institutions. (Note 2) Sanderson & Dugoni (1999) report that thes e minority groups received 9.4% of all PhDs awarded in 1997 by US universities. In Ill inois, the percentage of doctorates awarded to minorities has risen gradually from 4.6% in FY 1988 to 6.9% in FY 1998. Over the study period, 15% of the minority doctoral degrees in Illinois have been awarded to IMGIP and ICEOP fellows, rising from 7% in 1988 to 18% in 1998. Figure 4 shows the growth of minority doctoral degrees as a percentage of all degrees over this period and illustrates the increasing importance of the IMGIP and ICEOP fellows to this change.

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8 of 22 Figure 5. Graduations Rates for IMGIP and ICEOP Fel lows by Years Post-fellowship Award and for National Benchmarks Because of the research on time-to-degree-c ompletion (Bowen & Rudenstein, 1992; Sanders & Dugoni, 1999), graduation rates of IMGIP and ICEOP fellows were examined for three time periods: fellows who starte d between 1986 and 1990 for whom graduate study should be completed; fellows who sta rted between 1991and 1995 who should be nearing completion of doctoral work and h ave completed master's work; and fellows who started graduate study between 1996 and 2000. Results are displayed in Figure 5. Sixty-nine percent of the IMGIP fellows and 75% of the ICEOP doctoral fellows from 1986 to 1990 finished their degrees (see Table 4, Appendix). By comparison, Bowen and Rudenstein (1992) found that “about half of all entering students in Ph.D. programs eventually obtain doctorates” (p. 105). Do ctoral graduation rates for the Ford Foundation Predoctoral Minority Fellowships was 41% after 7 years (Note 3) (National Research Council, 1996). National Science Foundatio n Minority Graduate Fellowships were also about 41% (Note 4). Illinois' fellows doc toral graduation rates far surpass these national benchmarks. Those awarded doctoral fellowships more rec ently appear to be on track to meet or exceed the experience of other programs with 40% of IMGIP fellows and 47% of the 1991 to 1995 ICEOP doctoral fellows, already having received their degrees. A high percentage of the ICEOP master's fellows received t heir degree: 74% and 87% for awards from 19871990 and 1991-1995, respectively. The observed graduation rates for fellows may be underestimated because academic stat us was not available in the administrative database for 13% of IMGIP fellows an d 9% of ICEOP fellows. Graduate Study-Area of Degree Further evidence of the importance of the I MGIP and ICEOP programs to minority doctoral education in Illinois came from analysis o f the proportion of minority doctoral degrees granted by area of study. Figure 6 presents this information for academic areas typical of IMGIP fellowships (top, darker bars) and of ICEOP fellowships (bottom, lighter bars). Overall, fellows received 27% of all doctoral degrees awarded in Illinois to minorities in the areas of Biological/Life Sciences Physical Sciences, Engineering, and Mathematics over the 11 years from 1988 to 1998 (se e Table 5, Appendix). Fellows

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9 of 22received 16% of the doctoral degrees awarded to min orities in the areas of Education, Social Sciences/History, Psychology, English Langua ge/Letters, and Public Administration/Services (see Table 6, Appendix). In none of the areas of academic study where ICEOP master's fellowships were awarded did t he fellows makeup more than 5% of the degrees awarded to minorities. Figure 6. Doctoral Degrees Awarded to IMGIP and ICE OP Fellows as a Percentage of Doctoral Degrees Awarded to Minoritie s in Illinois 1988-1998, Selected Fields Clearly, at the doctoral level, the IMGIP a nd ICEOP programs have had a major impact on the field of study and the number of degr ees awarded to minority scholars in Illinois. Impact on master's graduations was not as clear. Job Placement Known job placements for fellows who have r eceived their degrees are presented in Figure 7. Both programs consider appropriate job pl acements to include somewhat more than academic faculty positions in Illinois (Note 5 ). Seventyfive percent of ICEOP doctoral degree recipients, 43% of IMGIP degree rec ipients, and 38% of ICEOP master's degree recipients have taken academic jobs (see Tab le 7, Appendix). Comparably, through 1995 the Committee on Institutional Coopera tion (CIC) schools reported that 69% of 137 minority doctoral fellows who had by the n received a doctorate in humanities or in social sciences took a faculty pos ition (in any state), as did 45% of the 22 minority fellows who had received a doctorate in sciences (Note 6). The former group would be most comparable to ICEOP fellows and the latter to IMGIP fellows.

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10 of 22 Figure 7. Academic Job Placement of IMGIP and ICEOP Graduates Historically, 33% Illinois minority doctora l graduates have taken academic employment in the Midwest (Midwest Higher Education Commission, 1995). The percentages of fellows in academic jobs in Illinois are 46% (ICEOP, PhD), 10% (IMGIP), and 31% (ICEOP, master's). Illinois job pl acement of ICEOP doctoral recipients was impressive and that of IMGIP graduat es was disappointing. However, because of their disciplinary specialties and non-a cademic opportunities, appropriate placement of IMGIP graduates may be a matter of sev ere competition among universities that value a diverse faculty. Job plac ements of fellows may be underestimated because employment status was not av ailable in the administrative database for 46% of IMGIP fellows and 31% of ICEOP fellows. Comparing the number of fellows who have ta ken academic faculty positions in Illinois with the total number of minority faculty in Illinois reveals that almost 9% of the minority faculty in Illinois have been or are ICEOP and IMGIP fellows (Note 7). The rank and type of institution where fellows were pla ced were not available in the administrative database. Analysis of this informati on for all Illinois faculty indicate that minority faculty are (1) more likely than other fac ulty to teach at community colleges (28% vs. 18%), (2) about as likely as other faculty to teach at public universities (43% vs. 41%), and (3) less likely than other faculty to teach at private universities (29% vs. 41%, see Table 9, Appendix). Minority faculty are l ess likely to be tenured (45% vs. 55%) and more likely to be on tenure track than oth er faculty (29% vs. 20%).Discussion As an immediate result, IMGIP and ICEOP hav e contributed a major diversification of minority doctoral study into sciences and engine ering and to additional diversification of minority graduate study into social sciences and humanities. The programs have intensified minority graduate study in Education. A s an intermediate result, a high percentage of all fellows finish their degrees, esp ecially when compared to national bench marks. This is particularly clear for ICEOP d octoral fellows. Graduating IMGIP and ICEOP fellows make up a large percentage of doc toral degrees awarded to minorities by Illinois institutions and make an imp ortant and increasing contribution to the rising proportion of minority doctoral degrees awarded in the state. Long-term results also are positive. IMGIP and ICEOP fellows make up an important proportion of the

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11 of 22 minority college faculty in Illinois (9%). Most ICE OP doctoral fellows and many other fellows are taking academic positions. However, for science and engineering graduates (IMGIP), that the percentage of fellows with academ ic positions is lower and that they are not locating in Illinois is disappointing. In terms of educational policy, this result s-focused program audit revealed Illinois investments in minority graduate fellowship program s are bearing fruit for the state and the nation. Several aspects of the programs would b enefit from further investigation. First, both programs, but especially IMGIP, focused on academic areas of graduate study especially infrequently pursued by minority student s. Working closely with universities, both programs were able to identify, admit, enroll, and graduate these students. Second, science doctorates and master's graduates were less likely to take academic positions. Although the mechanisms certainly differ for these groups, both may benefit from additional mentoring and encouragement to pursue ac ademic careers, either through state supported post-docs or teaching internships. Finally, an explicit pay back provision, such as that implemented for ICEOP, may help tip th e balance between academic and private sector employment for new PhDs. As realized in the present report, the perf ormance audit took advantage of an outcome-focused database of program participants an d of datasets for the state that allowed development of comparison statistics. The o utcome-focus has proven quite popular with the state higher education authority ( IBHE) and the state legislature. For both groups issues of clear causal inference are le ss important that evidence of change in policy related indicators. At the same time, the ou tcome-focus was much preferred to the more typical process analysis of minority graduate fellowship programs (Smith, & Parker, 2000; Stamps & Tribble, 1995). NotesAsian Americans have received 12 of 669 ICEOP award s. Because of the small number of awards, this ethnic group was not covered in this study. 1. Computed by author from IBHE graduation data sets. 2. Adapting Tables 1 and 8 (National Research Council, 1996) for the 129 minority fellowships awarded from 1986 to 1988 when studied in 1995 (7 years RTD) yields these percentages: Awarded Degree Continuing with Studies DiscontinuedUnknown Total (N=129) 41.1%15.5%4.7%38.8%100% 3. "By the end of 1988, 41% of the 113 MGFP awardees o f 1979-1981 had completed their doctorates"(National Research Counc il, 1995, p. 3). Alternatively, by calculation from Table A-7 (p. 46), 79 of 190 fe llows received their doctorates (41.5%). The authors concluded: "it is unlikely tha t the number of 1979-1981 fellows completing the Ph.D. will grow appreciably in the future" (p33). 4. ICEOP legislation allows fellows to accept faculty or staff position in Illinois higher education or "as an employee of this State i n an education related position"(930/10; 110 ILCS 935/2). The IMGIP board seeks faculty or staff positions in Illinois higher education for fellows. Both governing boards have recently entered into a reciprocity relationship wi th the State of Michigan allowing placement in higher education institutions in Michi gan as well as Illinois. 5. Personal communication, December 1999. 6.

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12 of 22Includes "all persons whose specific assignments cu stomarily are made for the purpose of conducting instruction, research, or pub lic service as a principal activity" (IPEDS, form S). This can include adminis trators "if their principal activity is instructional" (see Table 8, Appendix). 7.ReferencesBlackwell, J. E. (1987). Mainstreaming outsiders: The production of black professionals. 2 nd edition Dix Hills, New York: General Hall. Bowen, W. G. & N. L. Rudenstein. (1992). In Pursuit of the Ph.D .. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Illinois Board of Higher Education (IBHE) (1999). Databook 1999 Springfield, Illinois. http://www.ibhe.state.il.us/Data%20Book/1999/1999%2 0Data%20Book.htm Midwestern Higher Education Commission (MHEC). (199 5). Minority faculty development project. Minneapolis. Minn.: MHEC.National Research Council. (1995). Minority Science Paths: National Science Foundation Minority Graduate Fellows of 1979-1981. Washington, D. C.: National Academy PressNational Research Council. (1996). Status Of the Ford Foundation Predoctoral and Dissertation Fellowship Recipients for the Ford Fou ndation Predoctoral Fellowships for Minorities Program (1986-1991) and Ford Foundat ion Dissertation Fellowships for Minorities Program (1986-1993). Washington, D. C.: National Academy of Science. Sandersen, A., & Dugoni, B. (1999). Summary Report 1997: Doctoral Recipients from U.S. Universities Chicago: NORC. Smith, D. G. & Parker, S. (2000). Progress and promise: An evaluation of the Compact for Faculty Diversity Boston, Massachusetts: New England Board of Highe r Education Stamps, S. D., & Tribble, I. (1995). If you can walk, you can dance. If you can talk, yo u can sing Silver Spring, Maryland: Beckham House Publishers United Way of America. (1996). Measuring program outcomes: A practical approach Alexandria, Virginia: United Way of America.Willie, C. V., Grady, M. K., & Hope, R. O. (1991). African-Americans and the doctoral experience: Implication for policy New York: Columbia University Teachers College.About the AuthorJack McKillipSouthern Illinois University at CarbondaleDr. McKillip is a Professor of Psychology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, where he has been on the faculty for more than 25 y ears. His disciplinary specialties are program evaluation, need assessment, professional c ertification, and secondary data

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13 of 22 analysis. He has published 2 books and more than 50 articles and has had several large corporate research contacts. Current projects inclu de evaluations of a statewide community college to senior college minority transf er program, of K-12 science educations interventions, and of professional certi fications. He also is involved in a multi-university, hierarchical linear modeling stud y of college student binge drinking. Please address comments to Dr. McKillip at the Depa rtment of Psychology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901-650 2. Phone: (618) 453-8909, email: mckillip@siu.edu Thanks to Jerry Zar, Pat McNeil, and James Wallac e for comments and to Jane Meuth for help with program description s. This research was funded under a contract of the IMGIP and ICEOP administrative offi ce with the author.Appendix Table 1 Ethnicity of IMGIP and ICEOP Fellowship Recipients and Illinois Graduate StudentsEthnicity % IMGIP1% ICEOP1Illinois Graduate Students2African American63.3%78.9%6.8%Hispanic American32.8%17.2%2.3%Native American4.0%2.1%0.2%Asian American--1.8%4.4%N177669862,0811 Source: IMGIP/ICEOP administrative database, undup licated IMGIP and ICEOP Fellowship awards 1986 through 1999. Computed by author. 2 Source: IBHE data on graduate enrollment in Illinois unive rsities, 1988 though 1998 for graduate students with declared majors (FES88.dat to FES98.d at). Computed by author.Table 2 Minority and Illinois Doctoral Program Enrollment a nd IMGIP Fellowships, by Academic DisciplineDoctoral Program (2 Digit CIP Code) % IMGIP1% Minority2% Total3Biological/Life Sciences27.7%4.0%8.2%Physical Sciences24.3%2.7%7.3%Engineering23.7%4.3%10.0%Psychology47.9%13.7%11.3% Mathematics5.1%0.7%2.4%Home Economics3.4%0.2%0.1%

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14 of 22 Agricultural Sciences2.8%0.6%1.1%Computer & Information Science1.7%0.8%2.8%English Language/Letters1.7%3.6%4.4%Agribusiness/Production0.6%0.4%0.3%Education0.6%30.1%13.8%Social Sciences/History0.6%11.2%11.8%All Others (17)0.0%27.7%26.3%Total Doctoral Programs100.0%100.0%100.0%1 Source: IMGIP/ICEOP administrative database, unduplicated IMGIP Fellowship awards 1985 through 1999. Coding and computation by author. N=177.2 Source: IBHE data on doctoral enrollment in Illinois unive rsities, 1988 though 1998 for African American, Native American, and Hispanic American st udents (FES88.dat to FES98.dat). Computed by author. N=12,668.3 Source: IBHE data on doctoral enrollment in Illinois unive rsities, 1988 though 1998 for doctoral students with declared majors (FES88.dat to FES98.d at). Computed by author. N=183,850.4 The IMGIP board voted to end funding of doctoral s tudy in Psychology in 1997.Table 3 Minority and Illinois Graduate Program Enrollment a nd ICEOP Fellowships, by Academic DisciplineGraduate Program (2 Digit CIP Code) % ICEOP1% Minority2% Total3Education37.7%31.6%20.3%Social Sciences/History15.2%4.7%5.2%Psychology8.8%5.2%4.7%English Language/Letters7.2%2.3%2.7%Visual & Performing Arts6.4%2.4%3.2%Health Professions4.6%6.3%7.0%Public Administration/Services4.6%9.9%4.8%Business Mgt./Admin. Services2.1%18.4%23.9%Biological/Life Sciences1.9%1.6%3.1%Philosophy & Religion1.6%0.5%0.7%Communications1.5%1.7%1.3%Foreign Languages1.5%1.0%1.2%Physical Sciences1.0%1.0%2.6%

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15 of 22 Engineering Related Technology0.9%0.2%0.2%Engineering0.7%2.2%5.6%Home Economics0.7%0.2%0.4%Mathematics0.7%0.9%1.4%Area/Ethnic Studies0.6%0.6%0.2%Computer & Information Science0.4%1.9%3.1%Protective Sciences0.4%1.6%0.5%Divinity0.3%2.6%3.3%Architecture0.1%0.7%0.8%Law and Legal Studies0.1%0.4%0.5%Liberal/General Studies0.1%0.7%0.8%Library Sciences0.1%0.7%1.0%Parks and Recreation0.1%0.3%0.5%All Others (4)0.0%0.6%1.2%Total 100.0%100.0%100.0%1 Source: IMGIP/ICEOP administrative database, unduplicated ICEOP Fellowship awards 1986 through 1999. Coding and computation by author. N=669.2 Source: IBHE data on graduate enrollment in Illinois unive rsities, 1988 though 1998 for African American, Native American, and Hispanic American st udents (FES88.dat to FES98.dat). Computed by author. N=80,484.3 Source: IBHE data on graduate enrollment in Illinois unive rsities, 1988 though 1998 for graduate students with declared majors (FES88.dat to FES98.d at). Computed by author. N=862,081.Table 4 Academic Outcome for IMGIP and ICEOP Fellows by Yea r Fellowship Began Awarded Degree Continuing withStudies DiscontinuedUnknownTotal IMGIP (Doctorate) '86-'90 (n=64)69%0%31%2%100%'91-'95 (n=57)40%7%32%21%100%'96-2000 (n=55)5%64%13%18%100% ICEOP (Doctorate)

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16 of 22 '87-'90 (n=110)75%1%19%5%100%'91-'95 (n=154)47%20%16%16%100%'96-2000 (n=155)7%83%3%8%100% ICEOP (Master's) '87-'90 (n=43)74%0%26%0%100%'91-'95 (n=60)87%3%7%3%100%'96-2000 (n=142)49%35%6%10%100% Note.1 IMGIP fellow and 4 ICEOP fellows died befo re completing their studies. They are omitted from the table as is one student enrolled in a professio nal degree program. Source: IMGIP/ICEOP administrative database. Coding and computation by author. Table 5 IMGIP/ICEOP Graduates as a Percentage of all Minori ty Doctoral Graduates in Illinois 1988-1998, for IMGIP-Targeted DisciplinesAll Illinois Doctoral Degrees (FY88FY98) 1 African Americans Hispanic Americans Native Americans Total Engineering3341 74Biological/Life Sciences2339466Mathematics36 9Physical Sciences2228252Total Doctoral Graduates811146201 IMGIP/ICEOP Doctorates (FY88-FY98)2Engineering75 12Biological/Life Sciences105116Mathematics4 4Physical Sciences166 22Total IMGIP Graduates3716154 IMGIP/ICEOP Doctorates as a % of All Graduates Engineering21%12% 16%

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17 of 22 Biological/Life Sciences43%13%25%24%Mathematics100%* 44%Physical Sciences73%21% 42%Total Doctoral Graduates46%14%17%27%1 Source: IBHE data on doctoral degrees awarded in Illinois universities, 1988 though 1998 for all students (FEZ88.dat to FEZ98.dat). Computed by auth or. 2 Source: IMGIP/ICEOP administrative database, fello ws receiving degrees from FY1988 through FY1998. Discipline coding and computations by autho r. Three African American IMGIP fellows receiving doctoral degrees not included because the y were awarded FY1999. 49 doctorates were awarded to IMGIP fellows and 5 to ICEOP fellows.* IBHE data only identify 3 mathematics doctoral de grees awarded to African American students during the study period while IMGIP/ICEOP data contain 4.Table 6 ICEOP/IMGIP Graduates as a Percentage of all Minori ty Doctoral Graduates in Illinois 1988-1998, for Selected DisciplinesAll Illinois Doctoral Degrees (FY88FY98) 1 African Americans Hispanic Americans Native Americans Total Education390808478Social Sciences/History70465121Psychology115727194English Language/Letters3212448Public Administration/Services3810 48Total Doctoral Graduates64522024889 ICEOP/IMGIP Doctorates (FY88-FY98)2Education5810 68Social Sciences/History187 25Psychology197228English Language/Letters134 17Public Administration/Services51 6Total IMGIP Graduates113292144 ICEOP/IMGIP Doctorates as a % of All Graduates

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18 of 22 Education15%13% 14%Social Sciences/History26%15% 21%Psychology17%10%29%14%English Language/Letters41%33% 35%Public Administration/Services13%10% 13%Total Doctoral Graduates18%13%8%16%1 Source: IBHE data on doctoral degrees awarded in Illinois universities, 1988 though 1998 for all students (FEZ88.dat to FEZ98.dat). Computed by auth or. 2 Source: IMGIP/ICEOP administrative database, fello ws receiving degrees from FY1988 through FY1998. Disciplines selected because they had gradu ated at least 5 fellows. Discipline coding and computations by author. Thirteen ICEOP fellows rece iving doctoral degrees not included because they were awarded FY1999. 131 doctorates were awarded to ICEOP fellows and 13 to IMGIP fellows.Table 7 Job Placement of IMGIP and ICEOP Fellows By Academi c Outcome Academic Outcome IMGIP Fellows1Awarded Doctorate (n=70) Continuing with studies (n=39) Dis-continued (n=67) Unknown (n=23) Total (n=176) Faculty/Staff-IL10.0% 4.5% 5.1% Faculty/Staff-MI21.4% 0.6% Faculty/Staff-Other31.4% 9.0% 14.8% Other or Unknown55.7% 86.3%100.0%56.8% Continuing1.4%100.0% 22.7% Total IMGIP100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% ICEOP Fellows1,3Awarded Doctorate (n=166) Awarded Master's4(n=153) Continuing with studies (n=213) Dis-continued (n=74) Unknown (n=58) Total (n=664) Faculty/Staff/Educ.-IL45.8%31.4%7.0%9.5% 22.0%Faculty/Staff/Educ.-MI22.4%0.7%0.5% 0.9% Faculty/Staff/Educ.-Other27.1%5.9%0.9%9.5%1.7%9.6%Other or Unknown21.7%62.1%1.4%81.1%98.3%%37.3%Continuing3.0% 90.1% 30.1%Total ICEOP100.0%100%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%

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19 of 22 Note.One IMGIP fellow and 5 ICEOP fellows have di ed and are not included in the table. 1 Source: IMGIP/ICEOP administrative database, fello ws receiving degrees from FY1988 through FY1998. Coding and computations by author. 2 Since 1997 IMGIP/ICEOP boards allow fellows to acc ept academic jobs in Michigan via a reciprocity agreement.. 3 ICEOP legislation allows fellows to accept faculty or staff position in Illinois higher education or “ as an employee of this State in an education related p osition”(930/10; 110 ILCS 935/2). This educational placement is often as administrators in public k-12 school districts. 25 ICEOP fellows hold such positions in Illinois (8.4% of those awarded the do ctorate and 6.5% of those awarded the master's).4 Students with master's level ICEOP fellowship that have been awarded the master's degree.Table 8 IMGIP and ICEOP Fellows Employed as Faculty at Illi nois Universities and Colleges as a Percentage of All Illinois Minority F aculty, by Ethnicity Ethnicity African American Hispanic American Native American Total Minority Number of IllinoisFaculty1 1253454651763 Number ofIMGIP6309Fellows Employed ICEOP117242143as Illinois Faculty2Both123272152 Fellows as a % ofIMGIP0.5%0.0%0.6%0.5%Illinois FacultyICEOP9.3%4.4%5.2%8.1% Both9.8%4.4%5.8%8.6%1 Source: IBHE IPEDS S file on faculty at 138 Illinois insti tutions in 1997 (line F107, Total Faculty, staff97.txt).Includes “all persons whose specific a ssignments customarily are made for the purpose of conducting instruction, research, or public service as a principal activity”. This can include administrators “if their principal activity is inst ructional.” Computations by author. Minority facult y (African American, Hispanic American, and Native Am erican) make up 7.2% of the total of 24,565 faculty at 138 institutions. Table 9 presents minor ity faculty rank and type of institution.2 Source: IMGIP/ICEOP administrative database, Illin ois faculty placements only. Coding and computations by author.

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20 of 22 Table 9 Other and Minority Faculty At Illinois Colleges by Type of School and Faculty Rank, 1997Type of School % Other Faculty(n=22,802) % Minority Faculty1 (n=1,763) Private (n=80)41.4%29.0% Community College (n=46) 17.7%27.9% Public (n=12)40.9%43.1% Total (N=138)100.0%100.0% Faculty Rank% Other Faculty% Minority Faculty Tenured55.0%45.4% Tenure Track20.4%28.8% Not Tenure Track24.6%25.8% Total100.0%100.0% Minority Faculty as a % of All Faculty TenuredTenure Track Not Tenure Track Total2Private3.4%6.5%6.3%5.1%Community College9.4%12.5%23.5%10.8%Public5.7%13.2%7.0%7.5%Total6.0%9.8%7.5%7.2% Source: IBHE IPEDS S file on faculty at 138 Illinois insti tutions in 1997 (lines F092, “Total faculty with tenure,” F099, “Total non-tenured faculty (Those on tenure track),” F106, “Total non-tenured faculty (Those not on tenured track),” and F107, “Total Fac ulty”, staff97.txt). Classification of institutions and computations by author. 1Minority faculty are African American, Hispanic Ame rican, and Native American.2 N=24,565.Copyright 2001 by the Education Policy Analysis ArchivesThe World Wide Web address for the Education Policy Analysis Archives is epaa.asu.edu

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21 of 22General questions about appropriateness of topics o r particular articles may be addressed to the Editor, Gene V Glass, glass@asu.edu or reach him at College of Education, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 8 5287-0211. (602-965-9644). The Commentary Editor is Casey D. C obb: casey.cobb@unh.edu .EPAA Editorial Board Michael W. Apple University of Wisconsin Greg Camilli Rutgers University John Covaleskie Northern Michigan University Alan Davis University of Colorado, Denver Sherman Dorn University of South Florida Mark E. Fetler California Commission on Teacher Credentialing Richard Garlikov hmwkhelp@scott.net Thomas F. Green Syracuse University Alison I. Griffith York University Arlen Gullickson Western Michigan University Ernest R. House University of Colorado Aimee Howley Ohio University Craig B. Howley Appalachia Educational Laboratory William Hunter University of Calgary Daniel Kalls Ume University Benjamin Levin University of Manitoba Thomas Mauhs-Pugh Green Mountain College Dewayne Matthews Western Interstate Commission for HigherEducation William McInerney Purdue University Mary McKeown-Moak MGT of America (Austin, TX) Les McLean University of Toronto Susan Bobbitt Nolen University of Washington Anne L. Pemberton apembert@pen.k12.va.us Hugh G. Petrie SUNY Buffalo Richard C. Richardson New York University Anthony G. Rud Jr. Purdue University Dennis Sayers Ann Leavenworth Centerfor Accelerated Learning Jay D. Scribner University of Texas at Austin Michael Scriven scriven@aol.com Robert E. Stake University of Illinois—UC Robert Stonehill U.S. Department of Education David D. Williams Brigham Young UniversityEPAA Spanish Language Editorial Board

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22 of 22 Associate Editor for Spanish Language Roberto Rodrguez Gmez Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico roberto@servidor.unam.mx Adrin Acosta (Mxico) Universidad de Guadalajaraadrianacosta@compuserve.com J. Flix Angulo Rasco (Spain) Universidad de Cdizfelix.angulo@uca.es Teresa Bracho (Mxico) Centro de Investigacin y DocenciaEconmica-CIDEbracho dis1.cide.mx Alejandro Canales (Mxico) Universidad Nacional Autnoma deMxicocanalesa@servidor.unam.mx Ursula Casanova (U.S.A.) Arizona State Universitycasanova@asu.edu Jos Contreras Domingo Universitat de Barcelona Jose.Contreras@doe.d5.ub.es Erwin Epstein (U.S.A.) Loyola University of ChicagoEepstein@luc.edu Josu Gonzlez (U.S.A.) Arizona State Universityjosue@asu.edu Rollin Kent (Mxico)Departamento de InvestigacinEducativa-DIE/CINVESTAVrkent@gemtel.com.mx kentr@data.net.mx Mara Beatriz Luce (Brazil)Universidad Federal de Rio Grande do Sul-UFRGSlucemb@orion.ufrgs.brJavier Mendoza Rojas (Mxico)Universidad Nacional Autnoma deMxicojaviermr@servidor.unam.mxMarcela Mollis (Argentina)Universidad de Buenos Airesmmollis@filo.uba.ar Humberto Muoz Garca (Mxico) Universidad Nacional Autnoma deMxicohumberto@servidor.unam.mxAngel Ignacio Prez Gmez (Spain)Universidad de Mlagaaiperez@uma.es Daniel Schugurensky (Argentina-Canad)OISE/UT, Canadadschugurensky@oise.utoronto.ca Simon Schwartzman (Brazil)Fundao Instituto Brasileiro e Geografiae Estatstica simon@openlink.com.br Jurjo Torres Santom (Spain)Universidad de A Coruajurjo@udc.es Carlos Alberto Torres (U.S.A.)University of California, Los Angelestorres@gseisucla.edu


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