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Educational policy analysis archives.
n Vol. 10, no. 15 (March 08, 2002).
Tempe, Ariz. :
b Arizona State University ;
Tampa, Fla. :
University of South Florida.
c March 08, 2002
Basic education reform in China : untangling the story of success / Chengzhi Wang [and] Quanhua Zhou.
Arizona State University.
University of South Florida.
t Education Policy Analysis Archives (EPAA)
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1 of 4 Education Policy Analysis Archives Volume 10 Number 15March 8, 2002ISSN 1068-2341 A peer-reviewed scholarly journal Editor: Gene V Glass College of Education Arizona State University Copyright 2002, the EDUCATION POLICY ANALYSIS ARCHIVES Permission is hereby granted to copy any article if EPAA is credited and copies are not sold. Articles appearing in EPAA are abstracted in the Current Index to Journals in Education by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation and are permanently archived in Resources in Education .Basic Education Reform in China: Untangling the Story of Success Chengzhi Wang Princeton University Quanhua Zhou University of ArizonaCitation: Wang, C. & Zhou, Q. (2002, March 8). Basi c education reform in China: Untangling the story of success. Education Policy Analysis Archives 10 (15). Retrieved [date] from http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v10n15.html/.Abstract China's recent basic education reform followed and, in a certain way, imitated its economic reform. The economic reform m erged the experimental dual (planned and market) price system s into a free market economy and yielded phenomenal success. Basic educa tion reform, however, has not succeeded in transforming the intr oductory dual-track (key school and regular school) systems into a univ ersal one. This article briefly examines the general process and outcomes o f basic education reform. It discusses the following questions: Is ba sic education reform also a story of success? What significant lessons c an the Chinese reform experience offer to other comparable developing cou ntries?
2 of 4 IntroductionThe reform of basic education (which includes prima ry and junior secondary schooling) in China from the middle 1980s has not completely s evered it from Maoist popular education. The post-Mao reform policy makers have n ever discarded the tradition of localization and community participation. In contra st to Maoist egalitarian schooling, however, school or pupil tracking (typically repres ented by key vs. regular schools) has been promoted in pursuit of economic efficiency in post-Mao educational changes and reforms.This article presents a brief examination of the ge neral process and outcomes of basic education reform. We first summarize economic refor m and basic education reform, in particular their significant similarities and diffe rences in terms of process and results. We then explain the success of basic education refo rm using three perspectives, namely, 1) the three matters/solutions, 2) contingency theo ry, and 3) the 3-C framework. Next, we analyze the price that China has paid for the su ccess of education reform. Finally, we conclude that what the Chinese experience can offer to other developing countries is just what other countries have offered to China: erosion of traditions and westernization of schooling.Economic ReformChinese economic reform is a unique process. From a price perspective, in the early 1980s, the government acquiesced to the coexistence of central planned production and market pricing. In 1985, transactions based on mark et prices outside the state plan won legal sanction. Gradual decontrol of consumer goods prices steadily brought most consumer goods into a market price system (Naughton 1995; Riskin, 1987). In 1991, the Central Committee of the Communist Party called for elimination of the dual-track system and boldly recommended a gradual shift to a market system. One year later, the National People's Congress declared that the object ive of reform was a "socialist market economy with all stress on the free market" (Naught on, 1995, p. 288). The government then unambiguously embraced the free market economy and began systematically dismantling the outdated command plan economic stru cture. However, the economic reform was not strategically planned. In other words, it was initiated without a strategy. Yet, "a limited numbe r of crucial government decisions and commitments were required in order to allow reform to develop. In certain periods, policymakers acted as if they had a commitment to a specific reform strategy" (Naughton, 1995, p. 7). In the process of the refor m as a whole, "what is most striking is the succession of incremental, steadily accumulatin g measures of economic reform that have gradually transformed the economy in a fundame ntal way" (Naughton, 1995, p. 20).No doubt, the two decades of economic reform result ed in increasing income inequality as documented in the rich research literature study ing the reform. Yet, the growth of an income gap is not peculiar to China. It is a worldw ide phenomenon observed in both developed countries such as the U.S. and all transi tional countries in recent decades. Furthermore, in the case of China, the extent of in come inequality and its underlying
3 of 4 Copyright 2002 by the Education Policy Analysis ArchivesThe World Wide Web address for the Education Policy Analysis Archives is epaa.asu.edu General questions about appropriateness of topics o r particular articles may be addressed to the Editor, Gene V Glass, email@example.com or reach him at College of Education, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 8 5287-2411. The Commentary Editor is Casey D. Cobb: firstname.lastname@example.org .EPAA Editorial Board Michael W. Apple University of Wisconsin Greg Camilli Rutgers University John Covaleskie Northern Michigan University Alan Davis University of Colorado, Denver Sherman Dorn University of South Florida Mark E. Fetler California Commission on Teacher Credentialing Richard Garlikov email@example.com Thomas F. Green Syracuse University Alison I. Griffith York University Arlen Gullickson Western Michigan University Ernest R. House University of Colorado Aimee Howley Ohio University Craig B. Howley Appalachia Educational Laboratory William Hunter University of Calgary Daniel Kalls Ume University Benjamin Levin University of Manitoba Thomas Mauhs-Pugh Green Mountain College Dewayne Matthews Education Commission of the States William McInerney Purdue University Mary McKeown-Moak MGT of America (Austin, TX) Les McLean University of Toronto Susan Bobbitt Nolen University of Washington Anne L. Pemberton firstname.lastname@example.org Hugh G. Petrie SUNY Buffalo Richard C. Richardson New York University Anthony G. Rud Jr. Purdue University Dennis Sayers California State UniversityÂ—Stanislaus Jay D. Scribner University of Texas at Austin Michael Scriven email@example.com Robert E. Stake University of IllinoisÂ—UC Robert Stonehill U.S. Department of Education David D. Williams Brigham Young University
4 of 4 EPAA Spanish Language Editorial BoardAssociate Editor for Spanish Language Roberto Rodrguez Gmez Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico firstname.lastname@example.org Adrin Acosta (Mxico) Universidad de Guadalajaraadrianacosta@compuserve.com J. Flix Angulo Rasco (Spain) Universidad de Cdizfelix.email@example.com Teresa Bracho (Mxico) Centro de Investigacin y DocenciaEconmica-CIDEbracho dis1.cide.mx Alejandro Canales (Mxico) Universidad Nacional Autnoma deMxicocanalesa@servidor.unam.mx Ursula Casanova (U.S.A.) Arizona State Universitycasanova@asu.edu Jos Contreras Domingo Universitat de Barcelona Jose.Contreras@doe.d5.ub.es Erwin Epstein (U.S.A.) Loyola University of ChicagoEepstein@luc.edu Josu Gonzlez (U.S.A.) Arizona State Universityjosue@asu.edu Rollin Kent (Mxico)Departamento de InvestigacinEducativa-DIE/CINVESTAVrkent@gemtel.com.mx firstname.lastname@example.org Mara Beatriz Luce (Brazil)Universidad Federal de Rio Grande do Sul-UFRGSlucemb@orion.ufrgs.brJavier Mendoza Rojas (Mxico)Universidad Nacional Autnoma deMxicojaviermr@servidor.unam.mxMarcela Mollis (Argentina)Universidad de Buenos Airesmmollis@filo.uba.ar Humberto Muoz Garca (Mxico) Universidad Nacional Autnoma deMxicohumberto@servidor.unam.mxAngel Ignacio Prez Gmez (Spain)Universidad de Mlagaaiperez@uma.es Daniel Schugurensky (Argentina-Canad)OISE/UT, Canadadschugurensky@oise.utoronto.ca Simon Schwartzman (Brazil)Fundao Instituto Brasileiro e Geografiae Estatstica email@example.com Jurjo Torres Santom (Spain)Universidad de A Coruajurjo@udc.es Carlos Alberto Torres (U.S.A.)University of California, Los Angelestorres@gseisucla.edu