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Educational policy analysis archives.
n Vol. 10, no. 20 (April 14, 2002).
Tempe, Ariz. :
b Arizona State University ;
Tampa, Fla. :
University of South Florida.
c April 14, 2002
Amalgamation of Chinese higher education institutions / David Y. Chen.
Arizona State University.
University of South Florida.
t Education Policy Analysis Archives (EPAA)
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1 of 13 Education Policy Analysis Archives Volume 10 Number 20April 14, 2002ISSN 1068-2341 A peer-reviewed scholarly journal Editor: Gene V Glass College of Education Arizona State University Copyright 2002, the EDUCATION POLICY ANALYSIS ARCHIVES Permission is hereby granted to copy any article if EPAA is credited and copies are not sold. Articles appearing in EPAA are abstracted in the Current Index to Journals in Education by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation and are permanently archived in Resources in Education .The Amalgamation of Chinese Higher Education Instit utions David Y. Chen Huazhong University of Science & TechnologyCitation: Chen, D. Y. (2002, April 14). The amalgam ation of Chinese higher education institutions. Education Policy Analysis Archives 10 (20). Retrieved [date] from http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v10n20.html.AbstractThe 1990s witnessed revolutionary change in China's higher education system, particularly through radical mergers. The r eform process and its background are detailed here, with a case study foc using on Zhejiang University. After nearly 15 years of painstaking ef fort, the reform goals for the higher education system have been met, and a decentralized, two-tiered administrative system has been installed However, the most hotly debated reform has been the amalgamation of u niversities. The need to optimize China's system of higher education has a background dating back about 50 years, when the first reorderi ng of higher education took place. The reordering and its results are desc ribed, and the causes and after effects of this reform are detailed. Never before has Chinese higher education undergone such momentous changes, and
2 of 13never before has higher education attracted so much attention from both the general public and authorities at all levels. A new awakeni ng has been brought about in higher education and as a result of this new leap forward. As the vice-premier of the Chinese government announced on August 24, 2000, at a meeti ng of Congress, China's optimization of the administrative structure of hig her education has been basically and successfully fulfilled (Li, 2000).The main target of reform was to change the obsolet e system under which universities were owned and run by a variety of central industry ministries, in order to establish a fairly decentralized, two-tiered management system. In this system, administrative powers would be shared by both central and local go vernments, but with the local governments being required to play a major role. Af ter nearly fifteen years of painstaking effort, this two-tiered administrative system has been finally installed. During the whole process of reformation, the guidel ines were gongjian (joint administration), tiaozheng (adjustment), hezuo (cooperation) and hebing (merger). Gongjian or joint administration between the central gover nment and local levels illustrates the potential of provincial governments in the construction of universities. Tiaozheng or adjustment, calls for a shift in the balance o f administrative power from the central government to local levels. Hezuo or cooperation, requires universities in the same area to cooperate by making full use of resour ces owned by different institutions. Now, 452 institutions have changed their masters, a nd only a few more than 100 universities still remain directly under the admini stration of the central government. Seventy-one flagship universities are under the jur isdiction of the Ministry of Education (MOE), and another fifty or so professional institu tions (e.g., defense, sports, civil aviation, etc.) are temporally under those correspo nding ministries. Hebing or merger, refers to the attempt to merge several universities and colleges into one. Although the amalgamation of universities and colleges is the mo st difficult decision to make, nevertheless a total of 612 higher education instit utions have been merged into 250 (Li, 2000), though these mergers have sometimes been per functory and unpleasant.The ProcessThe process of reforming the administrative system of higher education can be divided into three stages.1. The brewing stage (1985 to 1992). In 1985, the central authority dec lared the first act to restructure higher education. New ideas were wid ely publicized, reform was encouraged, and although, sporadic pilot experiment s were indeed performed, no substantial progress was made. Still, the necessary foundation for further change had been laid.2. The exploration stage (1992 to 1997). By 1992, the State Commission of E ducation (now MOE) actively sought a solution to the problem of segmentation between horizontal (called "bars") and vertical (called "bl ocks") departments, and by tentatively moving some institutions from the control of centra l ministries to provincial governments. In 1992, Guangdong province pioneered the pilot reform by co-constructing Zhongshan University and the Huanan University of Science and Technology under an agreement with the State Commis sion of Education. The administration of the Guangzhou University of Forei gn Languages was also moved from
3 of 13the State Commission of Education to Guangdong prov ince. Meanwhile, mergers between universities were used as a mechanism to ch ange the structure of higher education. The Tianjing College of Foreign Trade, o wned by the Ministry of Foreign Trade, was transferred and at the same time amalgam ated into Nankai University. During this period, some large-scale universities w ere established through amalgamation. In May of 1992, seven colleges in the city of Yangzhou in Jiangsu Province (Jiansu Agriculture College, Yangzhou Teac her's College, Yangzhou Technical College, Yangzhou Medical College, Jiangs u Business College, and Jiangsu College of Water Conservation) were merged into a s ingle new institution, Yangzhou University. Yangzhou University thereafter covered a wide range of disciplines, and as a result, became then the most comprehensive and perh aps the largest university established since the 1950s. However, the most tort ured merger was between Sichuan University and the Chengdu University of Science an d Technology in April, 1994. This was the very first case of amalgamation between str ong universities. In the reordering of the 1950s, these two universities split from the th en original Sichuan University. In fact only one road cuts the campus in two. However, afte r decades of development, they were almost equally strong, though both suffered th e deficits of provincialism and restrictions brought about by the arrangement of na rrowly set disciplines. Both were later voluntarily incorporated into one institution with formal support from the State Commission of Education. In addition, other compreh ensive and large-scale universities were also created by combining several institutions These include Nanchang University in Jiangxi province, Yanbian University in Jilin pr ovince, Shanghai University, Qingdao University in Shangdong province. By 1998, 207 inst itutions had been merged into 84 (Bao, 1998).3. The full-scale advancement stage (1998 to 2000). In 1988, an important meeting was held in Yangzhou, Jiangsu province to speed up the reform of the higher education administrative system. At the same time, the fourth campaign of governmental restructuring was officially unveiled in the centra l government. Its goal was to change the role of government in the market economy emphas izing more macro-regulation rather than unnecessarily detailed micro-direction. As a result, the number of departments of the State Council was reduced from 4 0 to 29 (GUO, Nei, 2000), and the size of governmental staffs was reduced by half. Pr ofessional ministries were no longer permitted to run higher education institutions. Ins tead, universities and colleges were required to separate from their originally affiliat ed departments and find their own means of survival. Some were to be decentralized to the localities, others were to be transferred to the Ministry of Education, mainly by merging with those universities that were already under the direct administration of the Ministry of Education. In this stage, 1,232 institutions were radically changed through d ecentralization and amalgamation. About 406 universities have been restructured into 171 since 1996 (Ji, 2000). Consequently, the amalgamation of universities and colleges was accelerated. Before 2000, the focus was on the readjustment of administ rative powers of those universities, which were separated from their former masters. How ever, from the start of 2000, a general advancement was pushed forward. In just six months, 778 institutions affiliated with 49 departments under the State Council had bee n restructured. The entire process rested on two basic premises. Fi rst, all top-rate universities should be comprehensive, should include most disciplines, and should be big enough to handle large enrollments. Secondly, most medical universit ies should be incorporated into comprehensive educational institutions, and recogni zed as essential parts of first-class
4 of 13universities.There are two kinds of merger. One is to merge clos ely located institutions sharing the same or similar disciplines, but affiliated with di fferent governmental departments. This is done in order to increase efficiency and effecti veness, and to tackle the problem of segmentation and provincialism. Another is to form many larger and stronger universities by combining leading universities with relatively narrow disciplines. This is done in order to build representative and supposedl y world-class universities. As a result, a number of bigger and stronger universitie s emerged with comprehensive fields of study in literature, arts, science, technology, agriculture and medicine. For example, Tsinghua University, China's leading university in science and engineering, incorporated the Central Academy of Arts, a leading institute in art design. The new Zhejiang University, the new Wuhan University, and the new H uazhong University of Science & Technology were each created from four smaller univ ersities, and the new Jilin University was created through the merger of five s maller universities. The latter, which now consists of five campuses, presently has the la rgest student enrollment in China consisting of about 46,000 full-time resident stude nts, 130 undergraduate programs, and 180 postgraduate programs including 71 doctoral pro grams (Chen, 2000). The new Zhejiang University covers all disciplines except m ilitary science, has five campuses, 40,000 full-time students, a staff of ten thousand, 98 undergraduate programs, 193 postgraduate programs, and 106 doctoral programs. E stablished in 1988 by merger of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou University, Zhejiang University of Agriculture, and Zhejiang University of Medical Science, it is one o f the largest and most comprehensive universities in today's China (Wen & Bi, 2000).Most strikingly, the majority of strong medical uni versities have been absorbed into flagship universities in this large-scale merger. B eijing University took in Beijing University of Medical Sciences, the best in its fie ld. Shanghai No.1 University of Medical Sciences, one of the best, was incorporated into Fudan University. Other medical school mergers include Tongji University of Medical Science and Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hunan Univers ity of Medical Sciences and Zhongnan University, Huaxi University of Medical Sc ience and Sichuan University, Hubei University of Medical Science and Wuhan Unive rsity, Zhejiang University of Medical Science and Zhejiang University, Baiqiouen University of Medical Science and Jilin University, and Xi'an University of Medical S ciences and Xi'an Jitong University. Many ambitious universities dreaming of becoming so -called world-class institutions are finding ways to incorporate with the left over medi cal universities to avoid being perceived as inferior to others in competition for resources and status in the hierarchy of higher education.Nevertheless, the new round of amalgamations of uni versities and colleges was eventually completed, having proceeded reluctantly for some universities and willingly for others, but all reacting to the polices of the central government. For more detail on these amalgamations, please see the Appendix: Major Mergers of Universities Currently Under the Direct Administration of the Ministry of Education.Behind the AmalgamationWhy did China's system of higher education need to be optimized? The reason can be found in an examination the situation about fifty y ears ago when the first reordering of
5 of 13higher education took place.When the People's Republic of China was set up in O ctober 1949, the higher education sector was fairly small. Among the 205 higher educa tion institutions at that time, 60 percent were publicly-owned, 40 percent were privat ely-owned or owned by foreign missionary organizations, and enrolled in total jus t 117,000 students (only 2.2 students per 10,000 population), and 16,000 teachers (MOE, 1 984). In 1951, after about two years of minor readjustments, among the 211 univers ities and colleges there were 49 universities that had at least three schools or dep artments of discipline classes; 91 independent colleges that had only one or two schoo ls or departments of discipline classes; and 71 special higher institutions that in general covered only one or two disciplines. However, when the large-scale industri al construction of the First Five-year Plan began nationally, such a system of higher educ ation revealed very distinct drawbacks. Geographically, most higher institutions were located in coastal areas. In 1949, while 79 of the 205 were in Beijing, Shanghai Jiangsu, and Guangdong provinces, there were only nine in the large northw estern areas. In the structure of disciplines, there were too many arts and literatur e, social sciences and humanities programs on campuses, but little engineering, agric ulture and animal husbandry, medical sciences, and teacher training programs. There were a hundred institutions that offered programs in politics and law, and seventy offered p rograms in economics and finance. Students studying engineering, agriculture and anim al husbandry, and medical science accounted for a mere 31.5% of total enrollments (L iu, 1991). As required under the First Five-year Plan, large-s cale economic restructuring and construction concentrated on a series of industrial projects with the support of the then Soviet Union. As socialist construction needed a la rge pool of labor talent, mainly technical professionals, a major reorganization of higher education became inevitable. However, what pattern would be followed: the tradit ional Chinese pattern, the communist revolutionary pattern, or some foreign pa ttern? At this point, however, the international political climate suddenly changed. The intensification of the Cold War forced the newly es tablished China to close its doors to the West, and moreover, China's participation in th e Korean War from 1950 to 1953 led Chinese politicians to a closer relationship with t he socialist Soviet Union. Politically, economically, and culturally, the Chinese governmen t chose an all-out emulation of Soviet Union patterns and practices, with the cordi al assistance of large numbers of Soviet experts both as consultants to the various m inistries, and as teachers and researchers in a number of specific institutions. T herefore, higher education increasingly assumed a Soviet Union character.The first large-scale reform of higher education wa s put into practice in 1952 and 1953 under full guidance from the Soviet Union. This pro gram was called yuanxi tiaozheng which in Chinese means the reordering of colleges a nd departments. The reordering involved two important aspects: the geographical ra tionalization of the higher education layout, and the reestablishment of new types of ins titutions with special emphasis on the development of new engineering universities, both p olytechnical and specialized, and teachers colleges. The primary concern was to restr ucture the whole higher education system in ways which would immediately serve the ec onomic and political objectives set by the First Five-year Plan. Each institution and e ach program had a specially designated mission oriented directly to an industrial sector o r a specific product or technical process. Consequently, all institutions were put un der scrutiny and reorganized by
6 of 13department and specialization. Tactically, universi ties that had spent decades developing fairly comprehensive programs of literature and the arts, sciences, engineering, agriculture, law and medicine were destroyed in ord er to build new specialist universities, colleges, and departments. All relate d departments, programs, teachers, equipment, and books in the related higher educatio n institutions were concentrated and moved to one newly designed institution so as to bu ild a specialized college. Almost overnight specialist colleges mushroomed across the nation. In order to ensure an even geographical distribution of each type of higher in stitution, six major regions (the Northwest, the Southwest, the Central South, the Ea st China, the North China, and the Northeast) were designated as the basic units for p olitical-administrative planning. Each region was allowed to establish one or two comprehe nsive universities (i.e., liberal arts and/or science(s) institutions), one or two polytec hnical universities or colleges, one major teachers college, one to three agriculture un iversities or colleges, and other specialized institutions.Following the two years of reform from 1951 to 1953 the total number of higher institutions decreased from 211 to 182. Among the 1 82 institutions, there were 14 comprehensive, 39 engineering, 31 teachers, 29 agri cultural, 29 medical, 6 financial, 4 political and law, 8 language, 15 art, 5 sports, 2 ethnic, and 1 other (CIES, 1984). While the Ministry of Higher Education (now MOE) had been the only legitimate administrative organ for higher education, and dire ctly administered comprehensive, polytechnical and key teachers colleges, specialize d institutions were rationed to and administered by the corresponding central specializ ed ministries, (e.g., all mechanical institutions were under the direct leadership of th e Ministry of Mechanics, all agricultural institutions under the Ministry of Agr iculture, etc.). The whole process was, to a large degree, centrally planned and monitored. The only institutions administered at the provincial level were small local teachers coll eges. In order to improve the geographical balance, from 1955 to 1957 a small-sca le restructuring was initiated by moving five coastal universities to the hinterland, and building twelve new institutions there. Although other reforms were tried in the 196 0s and 1970s, the overall structure and framework remained relatively unchanged after t he radical reordering of the 1950s. This system had two obvious characteristics. From t he perspective of the administrative structure, professional ministries owned and admini stered relevant specialized institutions. The so-called bumen banxue (institutions owned and operated by ministries) led to compartmentalization, insularity, and self-p rotection in each sector, and an almost-closed system of higher education. All progr ams were set according to the sector's needs; all students were recruited on the basis of the sector's needs. In other words, all resources of specialized institutions in a certain system belonged to the affiliated ministry. Of course, such a system gave incentives for every ministry to support its own institutions both financially and p olitically, and to develop its own zhuanye (majors or specialized fields) and employ its own graduates. Naturally, institutions in such a closed system had no need to worry about their survival. Under a system of highly centralized planning, such closed systems were somewhat appropriate to the needs of the fledgling economy and social de velopment. However, as the prevailing policy was turning from highly centraliz ed planning to a market-oriented economy, such a pattern was no longer rational. Ins titutions oriented to self-aggrandizement in a closed system resulted in a great waste of scarce resources and inefficiency. In 1998, for example, 147 four-year u niversities and colleges had on average fewer than 2,000 students on campus, a figu re representing 24.9% of all
7 of 13four-year institutions. The enrollment in each of t he 108 two-year and three-year specialized institutions was below 1,000 students, accounting for 25.5% of this category. Improving efficiency and effectiveness became the b iggest motivation for the full-scale amalgamation of institutions.From the perspective of the functional type of inst itutions, all universities and colleges had become too narrow and specialized in discipline s, with engineering, agriculture, medicine, etc., artificially separated from liberal arts and basic sciences. As a result, there were no genuine comprehensive universities. T his fragmentation of disciplines runs counter to the current trend of scientific int egration, and of course, is detrimental to the cultivation of a body of students with broad vi sion and an integrated structure of knowledge. Thus, in the 1990s there was a cry from both within and outside for the establishment of several truly comprehensive univer sities with enough strength for competition in the world market. This is another im portant reason for the large-scale amalgamation of higher education institutions.Still these reasons are not sufficient to explain t he large-scale amalgamation of institutions. The most important external force cam e from the fourth governmental restructuring initiated in 1998. Through this restr ucturing, all national ministries were optimized and minimized. Except for very special an d national security related universities, no one was permitted to remain under the leadership of the central ministries except the Ministry of Education. Those universities originally attached to the specialized ministries had to find ways to survive whether through decentralization to the provincial governments, being moved to the Mini stry of Education, or through merging. Thus was the push towards large-scale amal gamation of universities finally accelerated.Disquiet During the AmalgamationOpponents have argued that radical amalgamation is full of risk, especially when it involves those institutions that are forced or are at least reluctant to be combined. The act of merger, these opponents argue, does not alwa ys raise the quality of a university, but in fact, might even dampen the enthusiasm of th ose institutions merged. Instead of radical amalgamation, some have pointed to other wa ys of improving efficiency, including internal restructuring of disciplines and increasing enrollment. Another criticism is that the existing 1,000-plus general i nstitutions cannot meet the education needs of a country with 1.3 billion people, so to r educe this small number through merger is in fact not necessary.Mergers between bigger and stronger universities ca n result in difficulties caused by the fusion of campus cultures, personnel, disciplines, and the pressure of management of large-scale universities. Many oppose these mergers between the bigger and stronger universities, but support it in the case smaller an d weaker institutions, and also approve of the annexation of smaller and weaker institution s by bigger and stronger universities because of the relative ease with which the former can be manipulated and managed. Because of this opposition, the central government has attempted to enhance its administration and encouraged mergers through finan cial subsidies. In any event, the period of rampant amalgamation of higher educationa l institutions in China is over. Now is the time for reflection and facing new challenge s of institutional management. Whether amalgamation will be regarded as a success or not, only history will tell.
8 of 13A Case in Point: Zhejiang UniversityZhejiang University was founded in 1894 as Qioushi Academy in Hangzhou City, Zhejiang province. By 1950, Zhejiang University had earned a national and international reputation, and had become one of China's best and most comprehensive universities. The university had 24 departments in 7 schools: the school of literature, the school of sciences, the school of engineering, the school of agriculture, the teachers college, the school of law, and the school of medicine. In addit ion there were ten institutes, affiliated hospitals, factories, farms, and a forestry center.However, when the reordering of institutions and de partments began in 1952, Zhejiang was changed from a comprehensive university to a po lytechnic institute. Then it was divided into some specialized colleges, and certain parts were moved to other universities. The school of medicine was incorporat ed with another medical college as an independent Zhejiang College (renamed University in the 1990s) of Medical Science. Its school of agriculture also became another unatt ached Zhejiang College (also renamed University in the 1990s) of Agriculture, and its te achers college was merged with another university thereby forming a new school fir st known as Zhejiang Teachers College, but later named Hangzhou University. And t he major part of its school of sciences was transferred to Fudan University that h ad been designated as a comprehensive university. The department of forestr y was transferred to Northeast College of Forestry in Harbin, Helongjiang province and the department of animal husbandry and veterinarian medicine was transferred to Nanjing College of Agriculture. The department of aeronautics was shifted to Nanjin g College of aeronautics, and department of water conservancy was transferred to East China College of Water Conservancy in Nanjing, Jiangsu province. Some of i ts teachers were ordered to four other universities. After this unprecedented reorde ring, the new Zhejiang University had only four departments: mechanics, chemical engineer ing, civil engineering, and electrical mechanicsÂ—a true polytechnic university.Then in 1988, another revolutionary readjustment be gan which essentially reversed the reordering of 1952. Zhejiang University, Hangzhou U niversity, Zhejiang University of Agriculture, Zhejiang University of Medical Science (four universities that had the same ancestor) were amalgamated into a new Zhejiang Univ ersity. The new Zhejiang University, which today is the most comprehensive u niversity in China, boasts disciplines ranging from philosophy and the science s to agriculture and management, and a student population second only to Jilin Unive rsity in enrollment. In all it has 20 schools, 70 departments, 183 institutes, more than 40,000 students on five campuses, and a staff of almost 30,000.ConclusionThe massive amalgamation of China's higher educatio n system is basically concluded. The reform reflects the revolutionary changes in Ch inese society, and general developmental trends in higher education from aroun d the world.ReferencesBao, Daosu and Xu, Guangming. (1998). Nanchang Univ ersity. China Education Daily
9 of 13 May 2,1998.p.2.Chen, Fanbo. (2000). Five Universities Merged into Jilin University. China Education Daily June 13, 2000. P.1 CIES (Central Institute of Educational Science). (1 984). Education Memorabilia of the People's Republic of China (1949-1982). Beijing: Education Science Press, 1984. P.70-71, Item NO.5372.Guo, Nei. (2000). Government reform makes progress. China Daily Oct.10, 2000. Ji, Baocheng. (2000). Farewell to the Administratio n by Central Ministries. China Education Daily September 25, 2000. P.1. Li, Lanqing. (2000). Working Report on Implementing the Strategy of Rejuvenating the Nation through Science and Technology Delivered at the Seventeenth Session of Standing Committee of the Ninth National People's C ongress on August 24, 2000. Liu, Yifan. (1991). Higher Education History of Con temporary China. Wuhan: HUST Press.MOE (Ministry of Education of China). (1984). The S tatistics of Educational Achievements of China(1949Â–1983). Beijing: Renming Education Press. Wen, Hongyan and Bi, Quanzhong. (2000). Work Hard t o Create Word First-class Zhejiang University and Its Road of Amalgamation an d Reform. Renming Daily May 12,2000.About the AuthorDavid Y. ChenInstitute of Higher EducationHuazhong University of Science & TechnologyWuhan, China 430074; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgDavid Y.Chen (Chinese Name: Chen Yunchao) is curren tly a PhD candidate at the Institute of Higher Education of Huazhong Universit y of Science and Technology in China and a lecturer at the University of Logistica l Engineering. His research interests include the university presidency, management of hi gher education, and international comparative research. David can be contacted at dav email@example.com.Appendix Major Mergers of Universities Currently Under the Direct Administration of the Ministry of EducationUniversityInstitutions MergedBeijing UniversityBeijing University, Beijing Unive rsity of Medical Sciences Tsinghua University Tsinghua University, Central Academy of Techniques Arts
10 of 13 Nankai UniversityNankai University, Tianjing Colleg e of Foreign Trade Northeast University Northeast University, Gold college Jilin University Jilin University, Jilin Industry University, Baiqi ouen University of Medical Sciences, Changchun University of Scienc e and Technology, Changchun College of Postal and Communi cation Fudan UniversityFudan University, Shanghai Universi ty of Medical Sciences Tongji University Tongji University, Shanghai Railway University, Sha nghai College of City Construction, Shanghai College of C onstruction Materials Shanghai Jiaotong University Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai Agriculture College Huadong University of Science and Technology Huadong University of Science and Technology, Jinsh an Petrochemical College Donghua University China Textile University, Shanghai Textile College East-China Teachers University East-China Teacher's University, Shanghai College o f Education, Shanghai No.2 College of Education, Shanghai Teache r's College for Children Dongnan University Dongnan University, Nanjing College Railway Medial Medical Sciences, Nanjing Jiaotong College Hefei Industry University Hefei Industry University, Anfei College of Technol ogy Zhejiang University Zhejiang University, Hangzhou University, Zhejiang University of Medical Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture University Shangdong University Shangdong University, Shanghai University of Medica l Sciences, Shanghai Industry University Wuhan University Wuhan University, Wuhan University of Hydroelectric Wuhan University of Mapping and Survey, Hubei University of Medial Sciences Huazhong University of Science and Technology Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Tong ji University of Medial Sciences, Wuhan College of Cit y Construction, Wuhan Training College of Science and Technology for Cadres Wuhan University of Science and Technology Wuhan Industry University, Wuhan University of Auto -Industry, Wuhan University of Communication Technology Hunan UniversityHunan University, Hunan University of Finance
11 of 13 Zhongnan University Zhongnan Industry University, Hunan University of M edical Sciences, Changsha Railway College, Changsha Indust ry College Zhongshan University Zhongshan University, Zhongshan University of Medic al Sciences Sichuan University Sichuan University, Chengdu University of Science a nd Technology, Huaxi University of Medical Sciences Chongqing University Chongqing University, Chongqing University of Const ruction, Chongqing College of Construction Xi'an Jiaotong University Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an University of Medi cal Sciences, Shannxi College of Finance Northwest University of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences Northwest University of Agriculture Sciences, North west College of Forestry Sciences, Institute of Water Conservanc y of China Academy of Sciences, Northwest Institute of Irrigat ion works of the Ministry of Water Conservancy, Shannxi Academy of Agriculture, Shannxi Academy of Forestry, Northwest Institute of Plants of China Academy of Sciences North Jiaotong University North Jiaotong University, Beijing College of Elect ric Power Beijing University of Chinese Medicines Beijing University of Chinese Medicines, Beijing Co llege of Acupuncture and Bone Injury University of Foreign Trade and Economy University of Foreign Trade and Economy, China Coll ege of Finance Zhongnan University of Finance and Law Zhongnan University of Finance, Zhongnan University of Law Chang'an University Xi'an Road Transportation University, Northwest Col lege of Construction Engineering, Xi'an College of Technolo gyCopyright 2002 by the Education Policy Analysis ArchivesThe World Wide Web address for the Education Policy Analysis Archives is epaa.asu.edu General questions about appropriateness of topics o r particular articles may be addressed to the Editor, Gene V Glass, firstname.lastname@example.org or reach him at College of Education, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 8 5287-2411. The Commentary Editor is Casey D. Cobb: email@example.com .EPAA Editorial Board Michael W. AppleGreg Camilli
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