Educational policy analysis archives

Educational policy analysis archives

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Educational policy analysis archives
Arizona State University
University of South Florida
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Educational policy analysis archives.
n Vol. 10, no. 40 (October 03, 2002).
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University of South Florida.
c October 03, 2002
Original ten : a multisite case study of Florida's millennium high school reform model / Carol A. Mullen.
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1 of 25 Education Policy Analysis Archives Volume 10 Number 40October 3, 2002ISSN 1068-2341 A peer-reviewed scholarly journal Editor: Gene V Glass College of Education Arizona State University Copyright 2002, the EDUCATION POLICY ANALYSIS ARCHIVES .Permission is hereby granted to copy any article if EPAA is credited and copies are not sold. EPAA is a project of the Education Policy Studies Laboratory. Articles appearing in EPAA are abstracted in the Current Index to Journals in Education by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation and are permanently archived in Resources in Education .The Original Ten: A Multisite Case Study of Florida's Millennium High School Reform Model Carol A. Mullen University of South FloridaCitation: Mullen, C. A. (2002, October 3). The orig inal ten: A multisite case study of Florida's Millennium High School reform model, Education Policy Analysis Archives 10 (40). Retrieved [date] from This study should have immediate utility for the Un ited States and beyond its borders. School-to-work approaches to co mprehensive reform are increasingly expected of schools while legislat ive funding for this purpose gets pulled back. This multisite case study launches the first analysis of the New Millennium High School (NMHS) m odel in Florida. This improvement program relies upon exemplary lead ership for preparing students for postsecondary education and for a career or work. Using participants' feedback, the researcher conduc ted a pilot study of one prototype school and then investigated all 10 o riginal NMHS prototypes. These were examined and compared with t he benefits of and


2 of 25challenges to the improvement effort in mind. In al l, 15 school leaders were interviewed and 530 school personnel were surv eyed for this sample. It was revealed that the millennium program is essentially a grassroots endeavor that continues to depend on the state for administrative and financial support. One lesson le arned is that school leadership can function from deep within the organi zational tissues of a restructured school. Reformers come in many guises, then, some without formal leadership titles and public recognition. An other lesson is that other schools should expect to achieve similar posi tive effects, but ongoing support from the public and government is n eeded for such significant developments. The state policy context of this school improvement model is considered along with implicat ions for further change.Introduction: School Reform WavesA significant wave in school reform is gathering mo mentum from school-to-work (STW) initiatives that have been yielding positive results (Blank, 1997, 1999; Cassel, 1998; Lozada, 1999; Maduakolam, 1999; Mathews, 2000 ). Schools throughout the nation could find the perspectives and assessments provided in this paper useful for addressing this issue. High schools are being expec ted to function differently in their vision, purpose, and effects. State and national pr ograms have offered incentives for whole-school reform that help ensure the goals of s uch legislation. Notably, the School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994 (Public La w 103-239) required that schools integrate academic and vocational education to aid the development all students. However, the status of federal law outlining expect ations for academic-vocational integration is ambiguous at this time (Medrich, Mer ola, Ramer, & White, 2000). While the laws governing STW legislation lose potency wit h the withdrawal of the federal government from education (Scott, Stone, & Dinham, 2001), the trend toward integrated curricular reform continues to grow, with parallel movements across the state of Florida, Texas (Note 1), and elsewhere. This paper is concer ned with the manifestation of academic-vocational curricular reform at the state and local level. This article represents the first academic analysis of Florida's showcase school improvement model. The New Millennium High School ( NMHS) movement grew out ofstate legislation that endorses STW as the basis of educational reform. The 10 original NMHS schools offer a vision and process of change t hat needs study (Florida Department of Education, Such secondary schools that function as career pathways offer integrated learni ng and relevant schooling. They also foster the evolution of school-community organizati ons that partner the schools with business and industry (Mullen, in press; Blank, 199 7, 1999). The NMHS program depends for its success on exempla ry leadership and teamwork aimed at preparing students for postsecondary educa tion and for a career or work. However, the process of major change was not new to any of the participating schools, and decisions on how to approach this change were i nfluenced by various existing key stakeholder groups, not just the building principal The strategies used for penetrating the bureaucratic infrastructure of these schools en abled us to gain insight into the role of the principal within the millennium context.


3 of 25Our results primarily derived from the perspectives of the grassroots reformers themselves. These concur with Schuttloffel's (2000) finding: "In the current school reform environment, crediting successful change to the action of a building principal may be as misleading as the assignment of failure s olely to the same principal" (p. 3). Our lessons learned also reinforce Hargreaves' (199 8) observation about effective principals and their role in shaping teacher leader ship: "One of the most important functions that educational leaders perform is devel oping their staff. …The ability and desire [of teachers] to exceed expectations springs from discretionary commitment—from teachers being prepared to work abo ve and beyond the official call of duty, entirely of their own volition" (p. 315).Two points of validation for undertaking this study emerged during the work: One, the school teams did not have the time, as many admitte d, to document their developments and problems, and this was viewed as a definite obs tacle. Two, the millennium model exemplifies the kind of nationwide reform expected of many secondary schools, and they will find the results of this study useful as they embark on their transition (Florida Senate, 2001).Macro View of Florida's Millennium SchoolsThe millennium project at the prototype schools was essentially a grassroots activity guided by the state of Florida. Spearheaded by facu lty, personnel, and administrators, this improvement program is supported by principals and other administrative leaders. This model emphasizes interdisciplinary and cross-d isciplinary teaching with a focus on work-based learning, team-building, and shared enga gement of all critical tasks. New Millennium High School is a designation granted to a select number of sec ondary schools that had initiated restructuring plans for a new school-wide curriculum prior to state-level funding. In 1998, policymakers establis hed that a prototype curriculum system building on vocational education was needed to prepare students for work and postsecondary education (Brawer, 1998). The Florida Millennium Project Task Force claims the NMHS school curriculum is "as academical ly rigorous as the traditional college preparatory pathway" (Brawer, p. 5). The re presentatives in our study provided a similar description, with an added emphasis on the need for schools to develop "supportive learning communities with cross-curricu lar threads and tireless commitment."Educational and vocational researchers argue that s chool-to-work initiatives, when combined with academic preparation, can promote man y gains. Among these are the achievement of postsecondary goals, job readiness a nd career development, lifelong learning, and economic self-reliance of students (M aduakolam, 1999; Mathews, 2000). A major gain is nationwide and global competitivene ss in a response to a trend toward the increased competitiveness of nations (Scott, et al., 2001). The relevance of schooling—regarding the academic performance and wo rk readiness of students—has been a pressing concern for over a century. It is b elieved that many high schools continue to operate as outdated institutions almost exclusively focused on the college-bound population (Lozada, 1999). A possible solution to this seemingly entrenched problem is for high schools to integrate academic and vocational education in order to become centers of dynamic, relevant lea rning.


4 of 25The NMHS schools were considered to be capacity-bui lding institutions when funded. (Note 2) For this reason, respondents did not view the millennium program as a comprehensive reform effort per se but rather as an expression of ongoing change. Being designated as a millennium school was valuable beca use it provided an opportunity for the schools to make improvements along an already t raveled path. However, the capacity-building strengths and contextual supports of these funded schools ranged widely, and so in some instances the changes seemed more significant than in others. Six of the 10 NMHS schools were rural (all of these wer e small except for one) and four, urban (two small and two large).Although these were all programmatically accelerate d schools, their socioeconomic situations varied considerably: Higher poverty and fewer resources characterized the small rural schools. The number of students at the schools ranged from approximately 1200 to 3000. The racial make-up of the schools als o varied, with minority student populations ranging anywhere from 7% to 25%. The mi norities were mostly African American with a rising population of Hispanics. In one school only, the minority population was relatively high, about 65%. English Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) populations ranged widely across the sites f rom almost negligible to 40%. These populations were characterized as generally high-po verty and low-literacy, both in English and in the student's native language. While the numbers of students at the schools reflected the demographics of the surroundi ng counties, this did not always extend to their ethnic representation. Comments to this effect were: "We have fewer black students than blacks in our county but don't know why." The schools, all federally assisted Title I institutions, had a "free and redu ced lunch" status. Students from the rural schools were living in circumstances that swu ng widely from comfortable to homeless: "We have kids living on their own, often with cousins, and with their families but with other families renting the same apartment. Changing demographics and migratory populations wer e reported to have posed a significant challenge for all of the schools. The l argest urban school in our sample faced a "tremendous demographic shift" reflected in a stu dent population representing 40 countries and over 20 languages: "We have the large st Guatemalan/Mayan population in the U.S. And we've got language facilitators that s peak Hmoung, Konjobal, Urdu in addition to Haitian-Creole." Ethnic groups at this school include Muslims, Christians, Jews, Hindus, Azerbaijani, Serbs, and Croats. The m igrant Hispanic population was in flux at all of the millennium schools, but at this particular school the Hispanic population has a 40% mobility rate, the highest in the state. Because of its transitory migrant population, one rural county school was act ually required to provide a second FTE (Full-Time Equivalency) count to the state.As these statistics suggest, the NMHS schools all e ncountered various challenges of student poverty, diversity, and mobility. However, some were better positioned than others for capacity-building. Nonetheless, signific ant work was carried out across the sites, a development that could inspire onlookers.Multisite Case MethodsPilot Study of Prototype School


5 of 25This New Millennium High School research was launch ed with a pilot study of one prototype school. This early study provided the gro undwork needed for understanding the "millennium" phenomenon at the school level, an d for producing tentative results. Through this process, five key areas of leadership were identified and further explored in the multisite case study: improved communications a nd collaborative support structures; development of a career guidance program as a light house mechanism for change; encouragement of teacher empowerment, investment in research and development, and shared governance; curriculum integration for suppo rting students' career development; and creating school-community systems of accountabi lity and applied learning. These areas were turned into open-ended research qu estions on the interview/survey instrument, accompanied by additional probing quest ions. For the pilot study that was published, the self-report of the principal was eli cited and compared with the school-generated data and the staff's progress repo rts. The school's changes seemed to bring about improvement in many critical areas, not ably its overall profile with regard to racial diversity, student attendance, graduation, a nd achievement scores. Overview of Qualitative Multisite MethodsAll administrators and staff specialists who were c ontacted at the 10 NMHS schools agreed to participate. The 100% response rate was u nusual for a study dependent on the good graces or interest of persons unknown to the r esearcher (principal investigator). As a bonus, we were also given access to reformers fun ctioning deep within the organizational tissues of the restructured millenni um schools. The typical profile of these individuals was a female staff member or spec ialist without a leadership title. The cooperation of the school personnel may have re sulted, in each case, from several factors. These include: 1) the researcher's lack of affiliation with the state funding agency and the non-bureaucratic, evaluative quality of this study; 2) the school's awareness of the value of applied/action research i n helping informed changes to be made (Jacobs, 1991); 3) the school's desire to gain recognition for its goals and successes; 4) the school's desire to make its criti cisms of the millennium program heard by the public and the state; and 5) the school's ea gerness to share with other schools and to serve, where appropriate, as a template for chan ge. (A caveat was placed on the role of change agent: Because programs were under develo pment, results were not completely known.)This follow-up study provided perspective on the mi llennium effort beyond that underway at one school. Through this expanded inves tigation, various kinds of leaders emerged, busy behind the scenes. For example, the v ital role of the career specialist was revealed, and so the interviewing was adjusted to m onitor this individual's contribution. Also, whereas the principal stood out as the cataly st of the pre-millennium and continuing reforms at the pilot school, this was un true for most of the other schools. Data collection. Multiple data for each school included not only ta ped telephone interviews and surveys but also relevant curriculum documents.In all, 15 school leaders were interviewed and 530 school personnel were surv eyed, with 6 to 26 surveys completed by key players from each school. The inte rviewee pool consisted of one school director, six principals, three assistant pr incipals, three career specialists, one


6 of 25instructor, and a technology coordinator. Most of t hese individuals filled additional roles at their sites that included research coordinator, department head, teacher mentor, and dean of students. The interviews lasted between 20 and 60 minutes each. Procedures. The same questions were used on the survey instrum ent as for the interviews. This way, the responses could be compar ed, especially since different stakeholder groups were being consulted. The scope of this study therefore extended beyond the principal's self-report to that provided by other school leaders. By involving various stakeholders, we were able to cross-referen ce statements (from the surveys and interviews) to see if the views that emerged reveal ed any patterns. As the next section will show, similar themes emerged that suggest a sh ared view was held by the stakeholders across the 10 sites, except where chal lenges and circumstances varied and idiosyncratic views were expressed.The principal investigator and research assistant u sed established data coding methods in order to analyze the data (Miles & Huberman, 1994). Interview transcripts were read independently and analyzed in order to compare resu lts. Key words and ideas were identified and salient pattern themes developed fro m the transcripts and surveys. Matrices were designed to display the overall resul ts. Our conversations about the emergent themes were taped and analyzed. Support fo r claims was established through these systematic approaches to interpreting the dat a; the instrument itself had been validated by the pilot study.Thematic Description of ResultsAs previously indicated, the change initiatives und ertaken at the NMHS schools were mostly in gear before the state grant was awarded. Despite challenges, all grant recipients were able to enhance existing or planned programs, and to develop some capacity for continued developments.The thematic description that follows emerged from the questions on the survey (provided in the form of subheads, such as "benefit s of the improvement effort") combined with the patterns from the data. The resul ts suggest benefits of and challenges to the improvement effort in these specific areas: vision guiding the school, work-based programs, role of school leadership, teacher involv ement in change, collaborative character and team work, career academy reorganizat ion, professional development and staff morale, student achievement, agendas for furt her change, ways to assist schools, points of pride, and messages for the state and nat ion. Stakeholders' voices are represented in this larger depiction of a grassroots movement that was, paradoxically, spawned by state policy re form. Teachers' views have yet to be heard in the debate on educational reform, as their voices have "often been muted or stifled in the debates about schooling" (Mitchell & Weber, 1999, p. 187). Benefits of the Improvement EffortThe question of benefits elicited reflection from s takeholders on what it means to be a millennium school. Responses converged, highlightin g key areas. For example, the value of being acknowledged for doing something worthwhil e and contemporary for one's students, communities, and state was repeatedly men tioned. One individual commented,


7 of 25"It's nice being considered one of the top and to b e associated with a select group in Florida." Words such as "recognition," "prestigious ," "honor," and "strategic" were often used in this context.Additional responses covered a myriad of benefits. Notably, these referred to the opportunity to collaborate and "learn from other people—obviously that's part of what it's all about"; to mentor by "taking responsibility for sharing the results of our work with as many schools as possible"; to treat the student population as an investment in the future: "Most of our students return to our county so we have a vested interest in doing a good job"; to stand out from other schools and "model something different" ; and, importantly, to make significant changes in practice related to program and community development: "This program has given us the opportu nity for re-examining practice, heightening integration, and making better connecti ons across programs and with people internally and externally." Several people provided this important and enduring caveat—"Although being designated as a millennium s chool meant it was neat to be different, this feeling wore off when the state gre w disinterested." Another benefit was that the schools' popularity in creased once perceived as relevant to the times: "Students are flooding our school, visit ing us with their parents—once admitted, our career teams hook them up with their selected vocational field." In terms of public relations, the teams across the NMHS site s increased their advertisement of programs, presented to community groups, and involv ed more people from the community on advisory boards. For example, one scho ol's advisory list increased from 43 business partners to over 650 after it was award ed the millennium grant. A smaller school currently has 45 businesses that participate in its program, after having had no such partnership.Finally, the benefit of being a millennium school h ad apparently set in motion a more inclusive approach to learning for all student popu lations: "Regular high school focuses on students who will go to college where many non-c ollege students fall through the cracks." This benefit was simultaneously perceived as an obstacle. Many critiqued how America has a rigid view of education that favors t he college graduate: "If you don't go to college you're simply not successful as a human being. And we're fighting that view, which has to come from the faculty."Obstacles to the Improvement EffortNot surprising, problems of various types were asso ciated with this millennium effort, a challenging reform initiative. (Two schools reporte d not having experienced any significant obstacles.) One issue concerned difficu lty with soliciting "buy-in" and contributions from senior staff. Most of the school s had perceived their older faculty as counter-productive to the changes: "We have small g roups of teachers who've been here forever and don't want to try something new." It wa s believed that most senior staff did not understand the relevance of career preparation classes or the movement away from strictly teaching academics. At one such school, a leader offered that everyone has a responsibility for enabling senior staff members to "feel safer in the new environment." On a positive note, a few individuals had experienc ed leadership from the veteran body of teachers: "Seasoned teachers saw some things tha t needed changing and shared their ideas with the rest of us."


8 of 25A second problem raised by half of the schools was that the academy model had to be modified due to less-than-idealistic conditions. Mo st respondents raised the issue of discontinued millennium funding in this context and questioned whether the academies could be sustained. They foresee that definite chan ges will need to be made to their academy models. However, the strong conviction abou t the value of this restructuring model seemed to outweigh even these concerns: "Our academy model needs to be kept alive, even if what we end up with is a shadow of i ts former self." A problem of significant proportion centered on fin ancial support: "My biggest plea is that there be monies out there for continuing the g ood work already undertaken." The reports from this small rural school indicate that it is "just scraping by." A consensus was that vocational programs are very expensive to develop because they "require separate career support and equipment." To complica te matters, the software, tools, and materials used by the schools were apparently not p ackaged in a "teacher-friendly" way. It proved wearisome to be engaged in "a constant ba ttle to stay abreast of technology and software, and somehow find the money to update equi pment and replace old and malfunctioning computers." In contrast with this pi cture, two large schools claimed financial stability: "We've been very lucky; so far we've had the money to do what we really want, and now we have as many computers as s tudents here." These schools were, needless to say, anomalies.Speculation about the issue of how state funding is handled for schools undergoing reform led the majority of leaders to critique the motives of the state: "I think the whole NMHS thing has never been completely 'bought' by th e Florida legislature, which is why there's no more money for us." One person ventured that "The word 'millennium' connoted some kind of humanism to the fundamentalis t people in the legislature who reacted to that." Another believed that with the NM HS model "you're fighting the idea the public and legislature have that you're going t o take a pediatrician and turn him into a plumber." Frustration over this issue of withdrawn funds culminated in the fear that "this millennium program will just blow away like everyth ing else in education because we have a history of non-funded mandates."Other complaints highlighted the overloading of fac ulty with teaching and planning responsibilities: "Our teachers have to keep up wit h the reforms while teaching six classes each semester while challenging each other' s perspectives by hammering away during planning times." Also, teachers had to conti nue satisfying the state's curriculum benchmarks so that students would be prepared for t he FCAT (Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test). (Note 3) At the same time, the m illennium program expected the teachers to "think outside the box, which has been difficult." Toward this end, the teachers have been "forced to not use lesson plans as one strategy for helping them to look at teaching in new ways."As a result of probing questions, some of the schoo l leaders identified fear as an element of teacher innovation and change: "All of this [exp ectation for growth] has been a great consternation to the faculty, very scary actually." As Hargreaves's (1998) ground-breaking work on the sociology of emotions s uggests, the risk of teachers' work is probably compounded in reform contexts that are imposed and associated with high-stakes testing. In the case of the millennium program, the teachers' emotions would have been shaped more by a feeling of power than po werlessness because of the self-initiated direction of the changes; however, t he accountability climate was intense,


9 of 25as was the external bureaucratic pressure.Notably, managerial issues related to the grants ha d proven cumbersome and frustrating—new mechanisms had to be established. A s one leader shared: "We had to create lots of forms and figure out how to record t he information and code it." More bluntly put, "The kind of bean counting that I had with this grant was just outrageous. The DOE [Department of Education] didn't know the s tructure of what they wanted in the [curriculum] report until 6 months into the gra nt, and then you had to work retroactively to try to piece together the bean the y wanted counting." (Note 4) As another example of a management issue, the marketing of the millennium program proved very trying for some of the schools. One shared, "People have an ingrained image of technical education that it's for kids who can't go to colleg e or for those academically challenged." Apparently the mind-set of the guidance counselors and teachers had to change before anything different could be expected of the parents and the public. Even the notion of leading change was associated wi th stress because of what seemed implicitly owed to the public: "It takes a tremendo us amount of courage and commitment to be out front as a 'cutting edge' inst itution while being scrutinized." The public's misguided view of the NMHS initiative as a "been there, done that" step backwards was also considered challenging: "We stru ggle with using new terms to describe new situations to avoid hearing, 'Oh, that was tried in 1952 and it failed.'" A fresh language (e.g., millennium school and career academy) was hence used to foster new understanding.Vision Guiding the SchoolRespondents described vision in a pragmatic way. Vi sion was equated with the mission of the school and collective efforts toward student improvement. Distinctions were thus not made, for the most part, between "vision" and mission." These concepts were apparently viewed as one and the same within the wo rld of practice. When asked what vision currently guides their reform work, leaders shared their schools' mission statements: These supported educational learning wi thin a safe environment that is responsive to a continually changing, diverse socie ty. Connected to our purposes, the schools' vision/miss ion reflected the goals for improvement within the context of the millennium pr ogram. For example, the expansion of currently existing programs was highlighted (e.g ., "Faculty are committed to creating curriculum that has been negotiated with business c onstituents and is problem-based with real-world applications"), as well as the acad emic readiness and technical preparation of students for work and for college (e .g., "Our student is going to graduate with technical knowledge and relevant skills that w ill let her get a job while she goes to college and at the same time be prepared for colleg e"). These goals meant that the schools aspired to provide the learner with a solid knowledge base ("having the foundation students need to be secure and successfu l"), a relevant and progressive education ("preparing students to be on the 'cutting-edge' s o they will have more options available," and lifelong opportunities ("having all doors open to our students and finances to get them where they want to go").The mission/vision of these schools encompassed the demands of the broader community and specifically that learner not likely headed for postsecondary education.


10 of 25A typical comment to this effect was, "We need to g ive those students options that aren't going to college so they will be vocational complet ers and be job ready." Indeed, participants hinted at the need for a strong politi cal agenda that redefines the schooling process itself to accommodate a vocationally-orient ed focus: "We changed how we educate so that all of our kids, no matter what the y plan to do—go on to college, the military, or work, are suited for that purpose." Th is technical pathway is viewed as integral to, not separate from, a rigorous academic curriculum for all: "We're committed to a Tech-Prep pathway or comprehensive secondary e ducation program of study that models academic achievement and rigorous real-world curriculum." Work-Based ProgramsThe millennium schools used the state funding to im plement new programs and strengthen existing ones. The focus on the academic -vocational connection, involving curricular development across departments, spawned teaming: "The grant allowed us to integrate academics with technical curriculum and t o have teachers working side-by-side along with their students." Other benefits included making improvements in career academies already in place (e.g., "We had the monie s to expand the capacity of our engineering and manufacturing academy"), and expand ing enrichment opportunities provided to students (e.g., "We offered shadowing a nd internship experiences through the academies"). With funding available, personnel (e.g., career specialists) were hired in areas of need, faculty were trained in the context of the millennium goals, and expensive equipment was purchased.The school teams studied relevant information point ing to areas of work in which employees were needed or would be before creating c areer academies and mustering appropriate expertise. Programs were developed acro ss academies or departments in major occupational areas (e.g., business technology engineering technology, health sciences, hospitality/tourism, performing arts, cri minal justice, and air force). All programs included pertinent business and industry c ertifications. Role of School LeadershipAs indicated earlier, the catalysts within the scho ols that sparked the millennium program were typically persons other than the desig nated school leader. Principals shared, and with apparent pride, how "the initiativ e for the new millennium grant and model was grassroots, from the faculty up." Another 's story of leadership relayed how "a couple of people, my assistant principal and career specialist, asked, 'How about if we apply for the millennium grant, since we're doing a ll this stuff pretty much anyway? I said, 'What do you need?' They replied, 'Time to be locked up in a room for a few days.' 'Go for it,' I said."Change agents defined here as millennium professionals committe d to ongoing reform within the context of the school's collective goals were hard at work behind the scenes. These individuals, mostly women holding fairly mode st positions within the school's hierarchy, could otherwise go unnoticed. The person or group that wrote the proposal for the millennium grant at each school became the engi ne for driving the work aimed at both furthering and sustaining its positive effects One message?—reformers come in many guises, some without leadership titles, hence unassuming and unsuspected.


11 of 25The millennium principals were usually liaisons tha t interfaced with the district school office to provide administrative support and to use power where necessary. These school leaders were not micro-managers. One typical respon se was, "Our principal assumed an administrative role regarding district rules, regul ations, and procedures, but did not get involved in spearheading the work or in the day-today workings of the program." Principals were also active to varying degrees duri ng the implementation of the program as enablers. As one typical principal statement was "I'd been a real leader in changing some of the programs when I came here but excellent people spearheaded and wrote the grant." The school's survey data concurred with thi s explanation of the different leadership roles assumed by the principal and the o ther leaders. In exceptional cases, principals whose roles had go ne beyond sponsorship to proactive leadership seemed to find it necessary. All three h ad essentially responded to challenging or unusual circumstances. In one instance, the prin cipal had set the stage for vision-planning with the faculty, although the staf f had, even in this case, discovered the grant opportunity and acted upon it. Context is cru cial, and at this high school traditional structures that separated faculty were so entrenche d that the principal "decided to be that person who pushes to get the teachers motivated so they can see the 'big picture.'" In another instance, a principal who was newly hired h ad "brought the millennium vision with him and introduced it to the faculty." Yet a t hird leader, the founder of a new school, envisioned using the new millennium program to design the institution. In order to accomplish this, this principal worked alone wit h a guidance counselor. She shared how he preferred to "hire those who could be molded to the philosophical orientation of the millennium school, unlike those who had taught for years and were not open to changing."Alternatively, the norm that was established for th e millennium sites involved leadership "from the trenches" where "teachers were very activ e in changing and improving our school." The staff was prepared for their leadershi p roles and aspired to higher professional development standards. Non-faculty lea ders described how they had "offered in-service after in-service for teachers a nd also paid stipends." Teacher Involvement in ChangeWith the millennium grant in hand, a staff team rep resenting the curricular spectrum typically headed each school's program. This team w as typically composed of an administrative council made up of department heads working specifically with teachers, educating them on the needs of industry and busines s. But not all of the teachers at the schools assumed ownership for the work or were inve sted in the importance of the changes: "The teachers did not all understand the c oncept of the new millennium and what it could do for our school; in fact, a few fel t put upon to do extra work." Similarly, but from a career specialist's perspective: "Many t eachers are leery of change so I encouraged them to see how the initiatives would be nefit the students in the long run." The expectation for teachers to change may have bee n experienced by some as pressure to conform, as this statement suggests: "We [the ca reer specialist and grant coordinator] recruited and interviewed the academic teachers to make sure they went along with the philosophy of the millennium high school—our vocati onal teachers were already invested."


12 of 25The climate in which the millennium program was int roduced seemed to vary somewhat from one school to the next. However, few schools r evealed having to prod teachers to participate and most stressed that participation wa s enthusiastic. Thus, the pervasive climate across the sites appears to have been posit ive. As one principal reported: "I have a very participatory type of administration and eve ryone is on the leadership team here." Several specialists at another site shared how it w as their "job to help guide the teachers who were already encouraged, wanting to participate to prepare their kids for careers." Similarly, at a different school "all staff who wer e active brought something to the table, either technical expertise or enthusiasm." In some cases staff showed a willingness to commit once the funding had been secured: "Once we got the grant and learned how to spend the money, the department heads and the vocat ional teachers became much more involved in staff development and inservicing."Collaborative Character and Team WorkThe collaborative work of the teachers and staff in cluded both formal and informal elements, with an emphasis on the latter. Most scho ols, excepting the small rural ones, functioned "totally as teams, with everyone part of some team." Faculty and staff formed active technology teams, career teams, curriculum i ntegration teams, community advisory teams, and more. An example of curriculum integration teaming was the pairing of academic teachers with vocational teache rs. Administrators were teamed with particular academies. All work related to the mille nnium program was carried out in teams.Teaming facilitated curriculum integration—departme nts working effectively intra-departmentally and inter-departmentally. Resp ondents explained that the individual disciplines became cross-curricular in design throu gh such efforts as small engines teachers and math teachers team teaching, and Engli sh teachers creating curricula with vocational teachers. English teachers also partnere d with local businesses on curricula aimed at, for example, effective job correspondence and interviewing skills. In the smallest rural school, the entire faculty team plan ned during shared breaks. Career Academy ReorganizationThe career academy model was defined as a "small school within a larger sch ool whereby students and teachers develop identificatio n with each other, which is essential." One practitioner's view of academies re ferred to "the layout of what we call 'teaching-learning spaces' for permitting us more i ndividualized student attention." Career academies feature the arrangement of each vo cational area (e.g., health education) in a designated building/space. Some act as magnets for the school. The overall effort involves collaboration across differ ent program areas and early concentration on identifying the career interests o f students. The career academy structure reorganizes school programs to promote re levant and rigorous curriculum using three major elements: small learning communities, a college preparatory curriculum with a career theme, and partnerships with the community The success of career academies in improving student performance could help curtail Florida's 40% high school dropout rate.Across the sites this consensus emerged: Regardless of what system of organization was


13 of 25being used, the career academy model was, for each, a "work-in-progress." Also, the smaller schools had no choice but to develop their own variations on this program. Their arrangements resembled a departmental version of th e academy model whereby students, enrolled in a program such as health education, too k the required courses and received industry certification; teachers worked across the curriculum to provide integration. In contrast, the larger schools have found the full ac ademy model to be essential for survival: "We're just too large with 3000 students, so we're creating smaller learning communities just to make educational learning manag eable—modernizing in the process is a plus." One such school that has managed to cre ate academies has yet to incorporate academics: "We've got academies with courses like c arpentry without English and math integrated into them, as that's still on the drawin g board." Finally, the academy model was valued for the oppor tunity it gave students to make curricular connections and apply essential tenets: "Our kids are seeing the interdependence of all subject areas that combine a cademics with a career and real-world focus." Whether schools used the "pure" or modified academy framework, it was agreed that this system helped students who had not fared well in basic, conventional programs. On this note, respondents shared: "Our educators re inforce essential course concepts through curricular integration and extension into t he community"; and "The academies facilitate the diversity of ways students learn and teachers teach, other than 'chalk and talk'."Professional Development and Staff MoraleProfessional development may have contributed to in creased staff morale for the schools, as this powerful statement suggests: "Our school-community partnerships have definitely caused us to rethink, rewrite, open our minds, and change our old paradigms of learning." Isolation experienced by the teachers appears to have been ameliorated through cross-curricular team planning that was nes tled within a local advisory council structure. These school-community councils provided realistic assessment and ongoing support: "People representing local businesses meet with us across all program areas on a monthly basis, and discuss concerns that the teac hers have in the classroom and with the new curriculum." In addition to improving relat ionships, this cooperative learning and advising experience has given "the community a 'buy-in' now that they know what goes on at our school."Another feature of teacher development was the exte nsive inservice training sponsored by the schools. Principals who were unable to descr ibe in any detail the activities undertaken inadvertently reinforced the role of tea cher leadership. Estimates of the number of participating faculty and non-faculty per sonnel ranged from over 50% to 100%. At least one school's budgetary investment in professional development approximated $100,000 annually. Teachers across the sites were paid a stipend for training in various areas: technology integration, cross-curricular development, the senior capstone project, and standardized test scor es. Staff attended many state and national conferences, such as High Schools that Wor k and National Educational Technology. Teachers also found it useful to visit other prototype locations to learn more about the on-site implementation of well-developed academies. These various modes of work apparently proved motiv ating. They were, for example, thought to increase teaching effectiveness through such means as access to technology.


14 of 25New inclusiveness in decision making also appears t o have contributed to the morale and empowerment of the staff across the schools, de spite frustrations (reported earlier). Administrators shared, "Teachers now have choices, such as in the areas in which they want to team and how, and we don't tell them what t o do—they figure it out." Importantly, faculty were heard to concur: "This mi llennium opportunity has been a big boost for us," and "There's empowerment for us in t he ways that the teams work and how we want them to work."In summary, respondents stated that teacher morale had increased via these three avenues: increased professional development opportu nities, intensified relations with the community, and improved methods for enhancing stude nt learning. This last is exemplified in the following: "Many teachers now ha ve computers—the money has had direct impact on making life better for their stude nts." Student AchievementWhen queried about evidence for claims that the mil lennium program had been responsible for increased gains in student achievem ent, no direct correlation was provided. However, factors identified as having mad e a significant difference for one school applied to the others. New and improved cond itions, such as smaller class sizes and learning communities as well as applied work-ba sed learning, were believed to have contributed to higher test scores. Typical comments were: "We came up on SAT's [Sanford Achievement Test, Ninth Edition/SAT-9)] la st year [2000] 14% over the year before. The fact that we almost doubled the number of students taking them and still went up was a clear indication that the millennium program yielded major results for us." Another similarly echoed: "Given our large ES0 L population, the fact that we came up at all in our scores is amazing." Someone else a nnounced, "Our standardized test scores in the last 2 years have gone up and are amo ng the highest scores in the county." Through the pilot study that was conducted for this broader investigation, the school's test scores were carefully tracked in the context o f the millennium program. In all areas of testing and overall success (graduation rate, co llege readiness rate, employment statistics) the school had shown a noticeable incre ase; scores on standardized tests for 2000–2001 had even risen above the state and nation al scores (Mullen, in press). However, as another millennium school pointed out, "It's hard to say how much of our improvement is based on the changes we've made [pre dictor variables] or on other things, such as the different groups of kids that c ome through every year [intervening variables]." Because all of the schools dealt with predictor variables (the millennium program and planned changes) and intervening variab les (forces not anticipated or controlled, such as changing demographics), no dire ct correlation can be made. Although a corresponding link between the millenniu m reform and student learning cannot be assumed from these changes, the trend in this direction certainly seems promising.Indicators of student success include the teacher-student relationship and its personal quality: "This program has really brought the whole school into a one-to-one relationship with each student; this process changes attitudes b ecause you begin to see each other on a human level." Apparently students and teachers al ike appreciated the new opportunity for closeness that the academies provided. Supporti ng this picture, the guidance department, functioning as a career team, was unifo rmly perceived as having become an


15 of 25invaluable support to teachers, students, and paren ts. Advisory boards, in their partnership with the scho ols, were positively assessed. They were believed to have supported student achievement in at least four ways: 1) providing input on instructional development, 2) sponsoring o n-site internships, 3) assessing student progress, and 4) providing industry and loc al certification for work-based programs. As a major effect of this support, studen ts were generally kept on track by the career teams whose work was synergistically enabled through the advisory boards. Also, the establishment of career centers had assis ted student achievement across the sites. The centers considered state-of-the art flou rished: "We've got a career center with 21 new computers hooked up to the Internet—it's use d a lot." Students were expected to use technology in their presentations and connect t heir learning to their career goals. For some schools, though, the logistics of using insuff icient and outdated software was evident: "Imagine trying to prepare kids to enter t he business world when you have a business lab that runs on Windows 3.1—we had to bui ld the connections outside our doors."Finally, deeper and more lasting effects underscore d changes in the value of learning through practical application and real-life experie nce. The curriculum seemed to shift from being a state-imposed albatross to a source of internal engagement: "The millennium model made the curriculum come alive for the kids who could finally see the relevance of what they're learning to the real worl d." Agendas for Further ChangeMajor agendas for further improvement emphasized ar eas needing attention and support. For example, all millennium representatives aspire to enhance their relationships with the business/industry community. They aim to increa se opportunities for industry certification and alignment of the curriculum with the real world. Specifics along these lines included "adding more business partners," "in creasing our exposure in the community by significantly enhancing our work-based learning environment," and "eliciting more buy-in from our school-community fo r distance learning and career initiatives." A few mentioned the need to improve t he senior capstone project by working more closely with the community.A school-based area targeted for further change was the somewhat murky notion of cross-curricular integration. School leaders called for clarification from the state regarding the expected dynamics of this kind of wor k. Specifically, they emphasized needing "more academic and technical development an d integration to enhance the relevance of learning"; "an increased overlap of ou r vocational areas with academics," and "a deepening of the meaning of 'integrated curr iculum.'" Interestingly, several respondents identified the n eed for greater ownership over the practice of leadership at the school level: "Create an atmosphere that is called leadership—it's important to recognize that you can be a custodian and provide leadership for those people you work with." As an e xample of taking ownership, many articulated plans for obtaining funding to continue the work accomplished: "Our main focus is on hunting down more grants to make sure w e have money for a guidance counselor and career specialist"; and, in summary, "Funding is our top concern—to


16 of 25enhance and continue programs."Ways to Assist the SchoolsMore guidance from the state was requested for carr ying out the new millennium work. All agreed that this meant a focus was needed on "s tronger DOE [Department of Education] support, less equivocation, and a concre te plan that doesn't vacillate according to political administration." Others call ed for assistance with the millennium goal of connecting with the real world of business and industry. The state was strongly advised to increase its effectiveness vis--vis the millennium program by developing "a better reporting system," "a streamlined bureaucrac y," and "a clearer idea of expectations." Someone summed up these critical sen timents: "You've got a system here in Florida of encumbrances."Participants thought that the Department of Educati on probably needed support from the state: "When the DOE does these programs Florida ne eds to acknowledge them." A strong message sent to the state recommended commit ment to initiatives beyond the short term: "If you want teachers to stand behind i nnovation, then it has to be known that these are programs everyone is going to stand behin d—they shouldn't just disappear." Scott and colleagues (2001) link this concern to a larger pattern of erratic school funding that contributes to teacher discontent and even ero sion of the education profession. The respondents asked for more time to work toward the expectations for outstanding performance. Areas specified to this effect were pr ofessional development, instructional preparation, curriculum integration structures, and shared workloads. The need for training in integrative instructional delivery stra tegies was underscored. Teachers also desire time to "visit other schools to find solutio ns to similar problems." In fact, some argued that "a comprehensive plan for professional development" could only continue with monetary support. Smaller classes were also su pported for enhancing student learning.Points of PrideSchool accomplishments were generally expressed as points of pride. Student success received praise in such areas as the senior capston e project, the mock interview process, and especially accountability assumed for one's edu cation: "Our students now feel they own their future and are responsible for it."Program highlights were also mentioned as noteworth y. These include the infusion of career development from grade 9 to 12, the use of b usiness/industry certifications, the high quality of vocational programs, the establishm ent of Bright Future Scholarships and others, opportunities for distance learning, articu lation of credits with community colleges, responsiveness of business partners to sp onsoring internships, active student-run school facilities (e.g., restaurants an d banks), bustling career/technology laboratories and centers, popular health careers pr ograms, increased standardized test scores, and the employment success of graduates. Th ese features all evidently resulted from the integration of "real life experiences in t he curriculum" combined with the increased motivation of students to learn.Even the millennium vision/misson itself constitute d a source of pride: "We provide a


17 of 25learning environment with a practical yet visionary focus on integrating technology and education."Messages for the State and NationMost notably, the schools called for improved effor ts from the state in the areas of communication, recognition, support, and especially funding. In the absence of continued funding, schools are forced into creative solutions such as downsizing and reorganizing their academies.This optimistic message was sent to high schools in terested in adopting the career academy approach to student learning: "If we could do it, any school can." Other schools were advised to designate individuals as career spe cialists and program implementers, without teaching responsibilities. One individual e ncouraged that change can proceed more modestly: "Just work with what you have—we did not overhaul the whole school." However, the millennium schools generally warned th at the effort is very demanding: "It's tough trying to be all things to all people, something comprehensive models expect."A consensus emerged that the millennium model only makes good sense because it prepares students for the next level of their lives toward the "ultimate goals of being self-supportive and better prepared as citizens in the world." These programs were reported to be successful learning communities that provide a safe place for learning. Enthusiasm was clearly voiced: "The millennium scho ol is a great place to send your kids to school."The schools want the public to hear about the mille nnium concept and to learn firsthand what it can look like in practice. Even the most "c hallenged" school had this to say: "We may only be a small rural impoverished county with zero growth, but we've been able to do great things at our school—come visit us and see for yourself."ReflectionsThis article responds to the call of Lieberman, Sax l, and Miles (2000) to describe how schools actually create structures for improvement: "There are few precedents, few models, and no guidelines" (p. 348). With this goal in mind, this study of Florida's site-based improvement model builds upon stakeholde rs' models of practice. Our results combined with the literature suggest that schools o perating as NMHS prototypes can significantly and holistically improve (Mullen, in press; Brawer, 1998). Research indicates that students excel when schools offer a dual curriculum focused on postsecondary education and the career or workforce (e.g., Berryman & Bailey, 1992; Blank, 1997, 1999).As has been described, the new millennium model att empts to make headway with internal and external development as well as accoun tability to constituents. A premium is being placed on educational institutions that ca n act as a catalyst for the nation's schools in developing a comprehensive, integrated s ystem that closes the pervasive gap between academics and work. Generally, schools can probably benefit from exposure to such prototypes that show how leadership structures and program development can be redirected to focus on relevance and rigor.


18 of 25Schools can also improve by decentralizing and henc e increasing their capacity for site-based management through school-community cont rol (Mullen, in press; Leithwood, 2001). The NMHS movement, while dependen t upon local, grassroots involvement for its success, is not to be viewed as separate in its mission or operations from the state: The state's role in endorsing the m illennium vision as well as related reforms (e.g., High Schools That Work) was paramoun t. Local and state leadership can serve to enhance and reinforce one another. Fullan' s (1999) change model idealistically demonstrates in the context of school reform policy that top-down (state-to-school) and bottom-up (school-to-state) leadership can provide the necessary momentum for change toward coherence and cohesion.Applying Fullan's model to this study makes one won der wherein the balance of power lies between schools and the state. For those mille nnium schools that struggle as impoverished rural sites, their very real dependenc e on the state for financial support will determine their outcomes and successes over ti me. The reality for the NMHS prototypes as a whole is that their financial depen dence upon the state is combined with the need for endorsement and approved guidelines fo r reform. Reform cannot occur in a vacuum without accountability to the state and publ ic. These funded schools could be viewed as a "legislat ed" or oxymoronic grassroots movement that is, in many ways, similar to other pu blic institutions. Take the accountability of test preparation and scores, for example. The continuing responsibility for high performance on standardized tests for thes e over-loaded schools has heightened the tension between the decentralizing effort of th e school-communities and the centralizing effort of the state. As has been incre asingly shown, high-stakes testing weakens the position of schools and communities to control their own learning process (Caputo-Pearl, 2001; Waite, Boone, & McGhee, 2001). To what extent, then, even the millennium model can enable a grassroots base of po wer to endure remains to be seen. Schools that are centralized or aligned with govern mental mandates probably overly state the leadership role of the building principal But the authority and even activism of teachers in concert with other stakeholders can shi ft this paradigm and even re-make it (Glickman, 1998). To varying degrees, the original millennium schools represent shared governance models, even in those exceptional cases where principals "kick-started" the initiatives and where not all teachers participated The professional capacity of the staff—recognized by Sergiovanni (2000) as a critica l ingredient in any leadership endeavor or school innovation program—appears to ha ve increased through the millennium initiative.Not to be overlooked, criticisms of the NMHS model from those who had experienced its daily ramifications were varied and at times st ark. Notably, one undeniable issue concerned conformity—having to mold to the philosop hy of the New Millennium High School. Those cast as non-cooperative may have been resistant, not simply disinterested—a recognized but untapped dimension o f this research. As Goodlad (1984) and Mitchell and Weber (1999) have pointed out, tea chers can subvert or deflect change when policies of curricula are viewed as imposed an d even harmful, or not beneficial to student learning.Policy Implications for Continued Success


19 of 25The Florida Senate Bill (2001) would have promoted the cause of vocational-technical education at the high school level, but it failed t o become legislation in 2001. We speculate that the policy, which would have legisla ted whole-school reform for all high schools in Florida, was probably considered overly ambitious and risky. The state legislature will need to provide dollars to fully i mplement any such policy. Schools that are "kick-started" in the direction of reform tend to be abandoned, as in the case of the millennium schools.The question of sustainability for transforming sch ools is a national issue (Mullen & Graves, 2000). The literature forecasts that STW in itiatives may erode or even disappear without federal funds (Hettinger, 1998). The invest ment of both capital and people is critical. It is expensive to fund the goals of mill ennium schools. Some of them have been forced to improvise to such an extent that their re forms may become tarnished. The irony is that schools expecting to build self-susta ining systems need continuing support as they work toward this goal because of the protra cted nature of effort involved. Despite the successes of any school, improvements m ust be perpetuated and refined if they are to have impact over the long haul (Mullen & Graves, 2000). The gap between the good intentions of policy and t he reality of implementation at the school level is illustrated in another case study. This shows how a school's reliance on resources could lead to an "inevitable social const ruction of social failure" (Schuttloffel, 2000, p. 10). The assumption that schools that have been successfully initiated into change through temporary funding can somehow sustai n changes on their own is probably short-sighted in most cases.Although it must be taken into account that reforme d schools can be quite resilient, the small rural millennium prototypes in particular wil l probably experience great loss and compromise. As Schuttloffel (2000) aptly sums up, s chool reform legislation must consider the situation of distressed schools if com prehensive reform is to develop along the lines envisioned—otherwise the nation could end up being littered with a series of quasi-modified sites at best. Support is needed for continuous adaptation within our schools; even automobile industries like Honda of A merica are ahead of schools in these respects (Weiss & Cambone, 2000). Sustained staff p lanning, shared decision-making, and professional development will require a system of supports beyond those available even within the millennium sites.Possible recommendations from another study of site -based school reform (Weiss & Cambone, 2000) are relevant here: Ongoing stipends could be paid for teachers' extra work hours, continuing professional development, an d time spent planning the (integrated) curriculum; also, school districts and legislators will have a key role to play in supporting the (millennium) reform program over time. Teachers in the NMHS schools currently see that support has faded, perha ps when it is most needed. Although they can write grants to continue the work, there a re many dimensions beyond the financial—structural, informational, and developmen tal—that need support in order to allow visions to take root.Finally, this improvement model has implications fo r change on a broader scale. High schools can modernize and adolescents can thrive wh ere a dual purpose of schooling exists. The people we heard from seem to want the o pportunity to both lead and serve in this respect. And they appear to have gained this o pportunity through the millennium


20 of 25model, at least in part. In today's world it might be that site-based reforms within the public secondary school system will need to be para doxically "married" to the state beyond their infancy.Notes1. High Schools That Work, Texas Education Agency, 2. These "lighthouse" schools, as we refer to them, had been at the forefront of noteworthy Florida initiatives such as Tech Prep, H igh Schools That Work, and Blueprint for Career Preparation when they were fun ded. The NMHS schools were viewed as committed to developing their capacity to manage and sustain change (Brawer, 1998). Funding for the schools ranged from $100,000 to $200,000 the first year, with a second disbursement of $50,000. The NM HS sites were charged with becoming prototype systems with a relevant, work-ba sed curriculum that integrated career guidance and sponsored strong business partn erships. The millennium theme was created from one of Florida's goals for reform and accountability of a high-quality school system ( The FCAT is based on the Sunshine State Standard s. 4. One respondent referred to a report that was dev eloped by the millennium schools for the state during the first year of funding. The sch ools involved in this study shared their new curriculum guides (described holistically herei n) but no such reports were provided.AcknowledgementsThis research was supported by a Research and Creat ive Scholarship Grant sponsored by the University of South Florida, a source that is i ndependent of Florida's NMHS grant sponsorship. The Institutional Review Board at the Principal Investigator's university approved this study. The author thanks the NMHS par ticipants for their generous sharing of insights and time. She especially extends her gr atitude to Carol Burg, a talented doctoral student at USF who was the paid research a ssistant on this project; she facilitated the school contacts and collected the i nterview data.ReferencesBerryman, S., & Bailey, T. (1992). The double helix of education and the economy New York: Institute on Education and the Economy, Teach ers College, Columbia University. Blank, W. E. (1997). High school could look like th is. In W. E. Blank & S. Harwell (Eds.), Promising practices for connecting schools with the real world (pp. 153-160). Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.Blank, W. E. (1999). Future perspectives in vocatio nal education. In A. J. Pautler, Jr. (Ed.), Workforce education: Issues for the new century (pp. 281-289). Ann Arbor, MI: Prakken.Brawer, M. P. (1998). Findings and recommendations of the Millennium Proj ect Task Force. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Department of Education.


21 of 25Caputo-Pearl, A. (2001). Challenging high-stakes st andardized testing: Working to build an anti-racist, progressive social movement in publ ic education. Taboo: The Journal of Culture and Education, 5( 1), 87-121. Cassel, R. N. (1998). High school success and schoo l accountability begin with tentative job-career plans for each student. Education, 119 (2), 319-321. [Online]. Available: Senate Bill (Senator Horne). (2001). SB2004 [On-line]. Available:, M. (1999). Change forces: The sequel London, England: Falmer. Glickman, C. (1998). Educational leadership for dem ocratic purpose: What do we mean? International Journal of Leadership in Education, 1 (1), 47-53. Goodlad, J. (1984). A place called school. New York: McGraw-Hill. Hargreaves, A. (1998). The emotional politics of te aching and teacher development: With implications for educational leadership. International Journal of Leadership in Education: Theory & Practice, 1 (4), 315-336. Hettinger, J. (1998). The buck stops soon (funding after the expiration of federal School-to-Work Opportunities Act), Techniques, 22 (1), 1-5. [Online]. Available: http://www.bess.fcla.eduJacobs, H. H. (1991). Planning for curriculum integ ration. Educational Leadership, 49 (2), 27-28. Leithwood, K. (2001). School leadership in the cont ext of accountability policies. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 4 (3), 217-235. Lieberman, A., Saxl, E. R., & Miles, M. B. (2000). Teacher leadership: Ideology and practice. In Jossey-Bass (Ed.), Educational leaders hip for the twenty-first century. The Jossey-Bass Reader on Educational Leadership (pp. 348-365). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Lozada, M. (1999). Career learning to the nines. Techniques, 74 (7), 30-31. Available:, I. (1999). Career development theories and their implications for high school career guidance and counseling. High School Journal, 83 (2), 28-40. [Online]. Available: http://www.bess.fcla.eduMathews. J. (2000, February 3). Career academies do ing the job, study finds: At-risk students staying in school, earning diplomas. Washington Post B03. Medrich, E., Merola, L., Ramer, C., & White, R. (20 00). School to work progress measures: A report to the national school-to-work o ffice (July 1, 1997–June 30, 1998). Berkeley, CA: MPR Associates and Washington, DC: Ac ademy for Educational Development.


22 of 25Miles, M.B., & Huberman, A.M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Mitchell, C., & Weber, S. (1999). Reinventing ourselves as teachers: Beyond nostalgia London: Falmer.Mullen, C. A. (with Sullivan, E. C.). (in press). T he New Millennium High School, tomorrow's school today? International Journal of Leadership in Education. Mullen, C. A. (2001, April). A case study of Florid a's New Millennium High Schools: A reform model of exemplary leadership. Research and Creative Scholarship Grant. Research Council and Division of Sponsored Research University of South Florida. Mullen, C. A., & Graves, T. H. (2000). A case study of democratic accountability and school improvement. Journal of School Leadership, 10 (6), 478-504. Public Law 103-239, 108 Stat 568. [On-line]. Availa ble: Schuttloffel, M. J. (2000). The social construction of school failure: Leadership's limitations. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8 (45). Available, C., Stone, B., & Dinham, S. (2001). "I love teaching but....": International patterns of teacher discontent. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 9 (28). Available, T. J. (2000). Leadership as stewardshi p: "Who's serving who?" In Jossey-Bass (Ed.), The Jossey-Bass reader on educational leadership (pp. 269-286). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Waite, D., Boone, M., & McGhee, M. (2001). A critic al sociocultural view of accountability. Journal of School Leadership, 11 (3), 182-203. Weiss, C. H., & Cambone, J. (2000). Principals, sha red decision making, and school reform. In Jossey-Bass (Ed.), Educational leadershi p for the twenty-first century. The Jossey-Bass Reader on Educational Leadership (pp. 366-389). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.About the AuthorCarol A. Mullen, Ph.D. Assistant ProfessorUniversity of South FloridaDepartment of Educational Leadership & Policy Studi es 4202 East Fowler Avenue, EDU 162Tampa, FL 33620-5650Office Phone: (813) 974-0040Office Fax: (813) 974-3366E-mail:


23 of 25 Carol A. Mullen, Ph.D., is faculty in the Departmen t of Educational Leadership & Policy Studies, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 336 20-5650. She studies exemplary forms of leadership within challenging school envir onments. Dr. Mullen has published many refereed journal articles and, as guest editor more than 10 special issues of academic journals; she has also published four book s. Breaking the Circle of One (Peter Lang, 2000, 2nd edition) received the "Exemplary Re search in Teacher Education Award" from AERA (Division K) in 1998.Copyright 2002 by the Education Policy Analysis ArchivesThe World Wide Web address for the Education Policy Analysis Archives is General questions about appropriateness of topics o r particular articles may be addressed to the Editor, Gene V Glass, or reach him at College of Education, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 8 5287-2411. The Commentary Editor is Casey D. Cobb: .EPAA Editorial Board Michael W. Apple University of Wisconsin Greg Camilli Rutgers University John Covaleskie Northern Michigan University Alan Davis University of Colorado, Denver Sherman Dorn University of South Florida Mark E. Fetler California Commission on Teacher Credentialing Richard Garlikov Thomas F. Green Syracuse University Alison I. Griffith York University Arlen Gullickson Western Michigan University Ernest R. House University of Colorado Aimee Howley Ohio University Craig B. Howley Appalachia Educational Laboratory William Hunter University of Ontario Institute ofTechnology Daniel Kalls Ume University Benjamin Levin University of Manitoba Thomas Mauhs-Pugh Green Mountain College Dewayne Matthews Education Commission of the States William McInerney Purdue University Mary McKeown-Moak MGT of America (Austin, TX) Les McLean University of Toronto Susan Bobbitt Nolen University of Washington Anne L. Pemberton Hugh G. Petrie SUNY Buffalo


24 of 25 Richard C. Richardson New York University Anthony G. Rud Jr. Purdue University Dennis Sayers California State University—Stanislaus Jay D. Scribner University of Texas at Austin Michael Scriven Robert E. Stake University of Illinois—UC Robert Stonehill U.S. Department of Education David D. Williams Brigham Young University EPAA Spanish Language Editorial BoardAssociate Editor for Spanish Language Roberto Rodrguez Gmez Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico Adrin Acosta (Mxico) Universidad de J. Flix Angulo Rasco (Spain) Universidad de Teresa Bracho (Mxico) Centro de Investigacin y DocenciaEconmica-CIDEbracho Alejandro Canales (Mxico) Universidad Nacional Autnoma Ursula Casanova (U.S.A.) Arizona State Jos Contreras Domingo Universitat de Barcelona Erwin Epstein (U.S.A.) Loyola University of Josu Gonzlez (U.S.A.) Arizona State Rollin Kent (Mxico)Departamento de InvestigacinEducativa-DIE/ Mara Beatriz Luce (Brazil)Universidad Federal de Rio Grande do Sul-UFRGSlucemb@orion.ufrgs.brJavier Mendoza Rojas (Mxico)Universidad Nacional Autnoma deMxicojaviermr@servidor.unam.mxMarcela Mollis (Argentina)Universidad de Buenos Humberto Muoz Garca (Mxico) Universidad Nacional Autnoma deMxicohumberto@servidor.unam.mxAngel Ignacio Prez Gmez (Spain)Universidad de Daniel Schugurensky (Argentina-Canad)OISE/UT, Simon Schwartzman (Brazil)American Institutes for Resesarch–Brazil(AIRBrasil)


25 of 25 Jurjo Torres Santom (Spain)Universidad de A Carlos Alberto Torres (U.S.A.)University of California, Los


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