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1 of 25 A peer-reviewed scholarly journal Editor: Gene V Glass College of Education Arizona State University Copyright is retained by the first or sole author, who grants right of first publication to the EDUCATION POLICY ANALYSIS ARCHIVES EPAA is a project of the Education Policy Studies Laboratory. Articles appearing in EPAA are abstracted in the Current Index to Journals in Education by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation and are permanently archived in Resources in Education Volume 11 Number 47December 12, 2003ISSN 1068-2341University Strategic Planning in Cameroon: What Lessons for Sub-Saharan Africa? Terfot Augustine Ngwana University of Lincoln (UK)Citation: Ngwana, T. A. (2003, December 12). Univer sity strategic planning in Cameroon: What lessons for Sub-Saharan Africa? Education Policy Analysis Archives, 11 (47). Retrieved [Date] from article argues that the global, regional, and local realities can complement rather than contradict each other in the process of strategic planning for universities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Using the case of the University of Buea in Cameroo n, it attempts to use the global trends of polarisation in knowled ge production capacity as an input or tool for identifying strate gic choice in the process of strategic planning in institutions. The national policy background is used to highlight the context and inh erent role of the central government in the process of institutio nal strategic planning.IntroductionCameroon is a Sub-Saharan African (SSA) state locat ed in the Central African Sub region. The most significant colonial legacy in this nation is perhaps the French/English bilingual and bicultural systems tha t currently dominate public


2 of 25 policy. This circumstance dates back to the First W orld War when the combined Anglo-French force invaded the then German colony i n 1916. The two powers jointly ruled the country from 1919 on a mandatory basis under the League of Nations. Great Britain was assigned about one-fifth while France had the remaining four–fifth of the territory. The French g ranted independence to its territory in 1960 and in 1961 part of the British t erritory (Southern Cameroons) reunified with the French portion (La Republique du Cameroun). Therefore for forty-five years the organisation of public service s including education was going to be conditioned by the traditions of the mandate holders (France and Britain). Hence reunification in 1961 meant that there had to be harmonisation or coexistence of the political and socio-economic ins titutions of the regions under a single state machinery.The last decade of the twentieth century saw far re aching changes in the landscape of higher education in Cameroon. These ch anges could be interpreted as a natural sequel to the gradual but steady accumulation of problems from independence and reunification of the Cameroons in 1960 and 1961 respectively. At the same time it can also be noticed that most issues emerging in the system were analogous to what could be perceived in higher education in Sub-Saharan Africa and Developing coun tries as a whole. The perception of multilateral analysts on higher educa tion in the region is also shifting. In 1986 at a meeting with African vice-ch ancellors in Harare Zimbabwe, the World to Bank argued that higher education in A frica was a luxury rather than a necessity (Brock-Utne, 2000, p.218). Today t he same institution may not uphold such a view. The UNESCO/World Bank Task Forc e for Higher Education in Developing Countries (2000, p.20) asserts that t he social rates of returns on investment in higher education are substantial and exceed the private returns by a wider margin than previously thought. The Associa tion for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) and its work group on hi gher education (WGHE) has also the notion that the vitality of higher educati on in SSA has been rediscovered. Therefore as higher education institu tions, systems and multilateral organisations or donor agencies grappl e to contend the dynamics of change for the purpose decision-making, there is a corresponding need for analysts to provide more discernable and practical knowledge for management and governance.In this article I argue that the global, regional, and local realities can complement rather than contradict each other in the process of strategic planning for universities Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It draws fro m a case study of the strategic planning process in University of Buea (U B) in Cameroon. On the backdrop of the 1992/93 higher education reforms in the country, I demonstrate knowledge of global competitiveness and local conce rns can be used in designing an effective strategic plan with minimum state steering or control (Njeuma et al 1999). This implies that the experience of the UB may shed light on answers to some of the strategic and operational problems of higher education in the sub region especially if the insti tutions are adequately empowered in the strategy formulation and implement ation. Strategy formulation and implementation involves th e constant alignment of internal and external environment of the organisati on or institution for learning and positive change Curtis, 1995: p.47). Also Ozga, (2000: p.52) argues that


3 of 25 common concepts are open to different conceptualisa tions in process of intellectual work thereby creating what she calls ‘ a lacework of meanings’. The choice of methods of data collection in this study took the difficulties posed by the above propositions into consideration.The research reported in this article is based on d ata derived from an in-depth semi structured interview with a sample of faculty members in the University of Buea and documentary evidence. Heads of departments and senior administrators were interviewed and the main docume ntary evidence related to strategic planning in UB were collected and analyse d. Both the interviews and documents were aimed at establishing an authentic n arrative of the key issues in the strategic planning process, namely: ownership, understanding of the global issues and global as well as local policy context i n higher education. The overarching research question at the centre of this study is concerned with the following: How best can the strategic planning proc ess address the issues of quality and relevance in the UB as a global and loc al higher education policy phenomenon? The inferences drawn from the study may not be directly generalisable to all institutions in SSA but may se rve as viable exploratory framework.Documentary evidence included reports of workshops on strategic planning, senate and administrative council meeting resolutio ns, the UB strategic plan for 1998-2003, newsletters and other internal publicati ons. Using the ‘constant comparison’ (Strauss, 1987) method the researcher d erived the premises on which the arguments of this article are based.Discussions are divided into three main parts: part one briefly presents the global concern, African context, national context, institu tional processes and brief socio-political circumstances (at the national leve l) under which change took place reviews the process of strategic planning. Part two outlines a general theoretical conception of strategic planning as a f ramework for understanding its use in higher education organisations. Part three d iscusses the broader implications and strategic lessons for higher educa tion institutions in Cameroon and SSA as a whole.Two main reasons prompted the choice of the Univers ity of Buea as a showcase on strategic planning. One is that after the reform s of 1993 it was the only university out of the six state universities that d eveloped a five-year strategic plan. It presented a research opportunity to examin e whether the process of strategic planning and its initial outcomes can cla rify the relationship between the global and local environment in addressing issues s uch as quality and relevance. The other is that the most articulate changes that have taken place in the higher education sector in the country in the 1990s may be expressed in the developments in the institution. Considering that s trategic planning is an innovation to the Cameroonian higher education syst em and perhaps to some SSA higher education systems, this study could be o f vital significance in understanding the dynamics of such a project in oth er institutional settings.The Global and Local Concerns Castells (1996, p.106) paints a picture of the new division of labour in the global


4 of 25 economy. He asserts that there is a symbolic triang ular network in the development of science and technology. This triangl e connects three dominant regions, namely, North America, the European Union and industrialised Asia. He further points out that nation-states or regions th at are reluctant to undertake consistent innovations by developing a knowledge-ba sed production models run the risk of being continuously marginalized or kept out of this space of flows. The major argument posited by Castells in this analysis is that there is a new pattern of division of labour in the world’s political econ omy that does not develop along traditional historical and geographical lines. He f urther notes that the ‘newest’ division of labour in question is different from th e perspective developed in the 1970s and documented by Froebel in 1980. This stran d of thinking presupposes that the concept of developed industrialised west/n orth and developing south/third world is changing. Therefore the opport unities of marginalisation as well as inclusion exist in a relatively conceivable degree. The Circumstances of some regions especially Sub-Sa haran Africa on the global platform show the extent of marginalisation facing them. Brock-Utne (2000, p. 216) echoes the fears of the International Developm ent Research Centre (IDRC) that ‘a new global apartheid’ might be created as a result of uneven distribution of higher education resources and capacity to gener ate and create new knowledge. This is because there is a trend toward polarisation between the north and the south. In the 1990s, the gap in Resea rch and Development (R&D) widened by 170%. The number of scientists and techn icians involved in R&D related activities also increased by 60% in the nor th. Sub-Saharan African share of scientists and engineers in R&D stood at 1% and 0.2% of global capital on this activity. Though Brock-Utner’s account is crit ical rather than analytical, it nevertheless presents the illustration that might b e carried to analytical ends. In 1995 all research papers in sciences and social sciences published in Sub-Saharan Africa stood at 5,839 as against 249,38 6 in the USA, 61,734 in the UK, 12,825 in Sweden, 4,264 in Norway just to menti on a few. Cameroon, for instance, had 144 publications. This demonstrates t he immense discrepancy in the capacity of countries of the North as compared to Sub-Saharan Africa. (UNESCO/World Bank 2000, p.124).Kifle (1997, p.113) has also demonstrated that inad equate attention on diversification through R&D might expose Sub-Sahara n Africa to a defeat on ‘home grounds’. This metaphor means that those prim ary products that in most cases account for a substantial part of the economi c development might be developed better in areas out of Africa by way inno vations in biotechnology. This predicament logically poses a challenge to the high er education systems of Sub-Saharan African countries to reinvigorate their missions and to strive to attain them (UNESCO/World Bank, 2000, p.96).The African ContextThe relationship between higher education and natio nal development has undergone some changes in Sub-Saharan Africa from t he nineteenth century to date. The transition between liberation from the sl ave trade and the imposition of colonial rule generated a vision of a university mi ssion characterised by mental liberation from the shackles of the slave trade and religious dogma. Claims were


5 of 25 accordingly directed to an African secular universi ty, which emphasised the use and learning of African languages (Ajayi, Goma & Jo hnson, 1996, p.187). The natural consequence of this phenomenon led to the p resupposition that higher education was akin to nationalism. It followed in t he same light in other public services deemed as crucial to nations’ lives such a s air transport, rail transport etc.The period leading to independence witnessed the em ergence of the ideology that the mission of the nation was same as that of its universities, that is, mental, economic and political liberation or de-colonisatio n. This implied that the university did not need to be autonomous. Most Afri can nations gained independence in the early part of the 1960s. As ind icated earlier, in these nations higher education was seen as an important i nstrument of national development (Neave and Van Vught, 1994). Nyerere an d Nkrumah who were prominent post-independent statesmen in SSA thought higher education could help the nation in the process of societal developm ent (Mwiria, 1992, p.2). Yesufu (1973) emphasises this view in the assertion that the African university … must not pursue knowledge for its own sake, but f or the sake of and the amelioration of the conditions of life and work of the ordinary man and woman. It must be fully committed to active participation in the social transformation, economic modernization, and training and upgrading of the total human resources of the natio n….(Yesufu, 1973, p. 82) This view suggests pressure on the nations to adapt their higher education systems to the changing development needs. What rem ains completely out of the scope of this paper is the extent to which acad emic freedom was guaranteed in such systems.This state of affairs went on even far into the pos t-independent days when the state virtually took over the definition of the mis sion of higher education. Action at the universities depended on what the state bure aucracy prescribed. The mission of higher education could not be separated from that of that of the state (Ajayi, Goma & Johnson, 1996, p.188). In Sub-Sahara n African states, development was focused at different periods on str ong national government with centralised planning, rural development and po pulation control, income re-distribution and equality of access; economic st ructural adjustment and multiparty politics, human resource and today capac ity building and stress on sustainable development dominate the rhetoric. This changing emphasis called for direct involvement of the universities in devel opment programmes. The 70% loss of market shares on primary products a nd the exacerbation of external debt problems for SSA countries had a very negative impact on public finances in the 1980s and 1990s (Hussain, 1997). Th e subsequent structural adjustment forced the universities and the national economy in general to strive towards doing more with less. This was due to cutba cks in resources, which resulted in decline in standards. Under these circu mstances state funds in all sector was followed by greater demand for accountab ility. In Cameroon, State Corporations signed performance contracts with the government as precondition for financing. The advocating of private universiti es could be attributed to this


6 of 25 development. Though the role of higher education in national development remained primary, there was no way it would not be affected by the global wind of accountability. The crucial management and polic y challenge would therefore consist of meeting demands of accountability withou t compromising the development functions of higher education.The Evolution of Higher Education in Cameroon A university as an institution of higher education with the mission of teaching, learning and research came into existence in Camero on on the 22nd of July 1962. That is the date of the creation of the Unive rsity of Yaounde. The mission of the lone university was to train manpower for th e public service of the newly independent Cameroon (Njuema et al 1999, p.2). Southern Cameroon (the English speaking United Nation mandate territory) h ad just reunified with La Republique du Cameroun by the plebiscite of 1961, hence the decree creati ng the university specified that it was bilingual (Eng lish/ French). By 1970 the university had 7000 students whereas the initially planned number of students it could host was 5000. This trend towards obesity con tinued and in 1977 four university centres were created in order to deconge st the university, namely: the university centre for languages, translation and in terpretation in Buea; the university centre in Douala for Business studies an d training of teachers of technical education; the university centre of Dscha ng for Agriculture; and the university centre of Ngaoundere for food science an d food technology. The University of Yaounde, however, remained the only f ull-fledged university in the country. Apart from the emerging problems of overcr owding, policy makers found it difficult to clearly define the status of the la nguages in the bilingual system. These extensions did not solve the problems hence b y 1984 enrolment stood at about 17000, by 1990 it rose to 36490 and 39151 in 1991. Entrance into the university centres and specialise d institutes was very competitive and based on the actual openings availa ble in the public service for recruits. Until 1993 students were entitled to stip end and paid no tuition fees.This implies that admission in any of the university cen tres or to any of the specialised institutions was a guarantee for a well-paid govern ment job. For this reason the state could not create free entry into these school s even if the infrastructure still had room for more students. Another limitation of t he specialised institutions was that the programmes offered there did not correspon d to the academic needs of the tens of thousands of students who left secondar y school every year. The facilities created to host the various university c entres were highly underused. The university centre in Buea, for example, could a ccommodate 2000 students and yet there were only 60 effectively studying the re. As a result the following problems ensued: The dramatic growth in student enrolment from 7,000 in 1970 to 39,151 in 1991 at Yaounde University was not accompanied by a corresponding increase in infrastructure. This naturally resulted in overcrowded lecture halls and other facilities. Under such conditions t he teaching and learning process was bound to be very ineffective. Bilingualism as a language policy in the university was not effective since teaching was carried out predominantly in French th ereby creating a


7 of 25 situation of imbalance between the two languages. T he English-speaking students increasingly felt marginalized because thi s situation also caused them to register very high rates of failure in exam inations. Staff recruitment was far less than the growth in s tudent enrolment so the staff-student ratio was high at the University of Y aounde. This also rendered teaching and the supervision of student re search very difficult. Laboratory equipment was grossly insufficient for t he number of students enrolled for such courses. This either resulted in students shifting to other faculties or ineffectiveness in the teaching and le arning process. Quite apart from the fact that the existing library facility was inadequate for the number of students, a new library building that was constructed remained unequipped for decades. Out-dated books we re never replaced and the rate of acquisition insufficient as per the demand for books. These factors affected both the motivation and poss ibilities of the students and therefore resulted in low academic performance and capacity. The overall success rate in the annual examinations stood at 30 %. This high rate of failure of 70% further justified high dropout rates. Budgetary allocation was also a very serious problem. About 46.3% of the expenditure was for personnel, 43.3% on student stipends, 8.9% on recurrent expenditure and only 1.5% on research and laboratory facilities.The curricula designed in the 1960s were grossly in adequate in the 1990s for the demand of the expanding private sector, market forc es and the increasing tendency of the government towards retrenchment and down sizing of the public service manpower. The number of unemployed graduate s was growing in the society. This was mostly due to the fact that the s kills acquired in the university were highly inadequate for the requirements of the labour market. The general picture of the university community in Cameroon was that of a demoralised and de-motivated academic and non-academic staff. The s ituation was highly compounded by the following problems: the absence o f a clearly defined career profile for academic staff; the prevalence of teach ing overloads and poor teaching conditions; the absence of clear-cut and o bjective criteria for promotion based on merit; the lack of research facilities and study leave opportunities. Under these circumstances, higher education in Came roon was viewed as sick and was seen as having lost all the elements of qua lity that it could boast of. The main policy challenge was then to re-establish qual ity by way of revitalisation and overhaul. Government reacted in decrees No.92/74 of 13th April 1992 and 93/034 of 19th January 1993 instituting some major reforms in the system. The main aim of the reforms was stated to be, to broade n the participation of different stakeholders in the financing and managem ent of higher education institutions through the introduction of tuition fe es and eventual constriction of state funding. This ambition would presuppose consi derable emphasis on quality assurance and accountability as explicit goalsin go vernance and management. This was translated into the following objectives: To provide universities with more academic and mana gement autonomy. To provide all Cameroonians with the opportunity to obtain university education. To expand and increase higher education opportuniti es and make


8 of 25 university programs more professional and more resp onsive to market forces.To make universities more accessible to local, regi onal, national and international communities. To decongest the overcrowded Yaounde University by raising university centres to the status of full-fledged universities with specific missions geared towards an overall national development pers pective. To make rational optimal use of infrastructure, fac ilities and services. To revive and maximise inter-university and interna tional co-operation Some vital presuppositions could be proposed in the context of the outlined circumstances and actions: 1) these moves recognise d the fact higher education in Cameroon was loosing its international competiti veness and harmony with the global academic community; 2) the demoralised state of mind of the academics was an illustration for a crucial need for reinvigo ration through a renewed political will on the one hand and active participa tion of institutional academic and administrative leadership on the other. 3) Stru ctural adjustment plan (SAP) was not specifically construed as a source of the p roblems but as part of a sequel of events leading to them. Hence its contrib ution was rather indirect because its logic suggested the review and adjustme nt of macro-economic indicators through micro-economic processes and str uctures and higher education was just one of many.The Socio-Political ContextThe general state of discontent that characterised thinking nationwide also carried significant policy implications. In 1990 a constitutional amendment re-instituted multiparty politics in the country. C onsequently the law of association was reviewed and the creation of organi sation (including political ones) was relaxed. The grievances, especially, of t he Anglophone Cameroonians on many issues (including higher educa tion) were swelling. For the first time after reunification in 1961 they met in Buea in 1991 to reconsider the terms of the reunification because they felt ma rginalized by the regime. This issue officially surfaced what is today referred to as the ‘‘Anglophone Nationalism (Note 1) ’’. The changes made were therefore expected to se rve as a vent for political and social animosity against t he state. The general tendency of liberalisation, institution al autonomy and freedom of association enshrined in the1990 multiparty constit utional amendment led to private initiatives mediating state action and soci al pressure for greater access to higher education. This was in the form of the creat ion of higher education institutions by private entrepreneurs and religious bodies for example, the Central African Catholic University in Yaounde, the International University (IU) in Bamenda, Bamenda University of Science and Techn ology (BUST), SAMBA Superiuer in Yaounde, SIANTO Superiuer in Yaounde, National Polytechnique in Bambui near Bamenda, FONAB Polytechnique in Bamenda and many others fast emerging. There is also the North West Provinc ial Academy (an independent organisation whose aim is to promote ed ucational ventures). The development of these institutions is simply a resul t of social pressure and the persistent inability of the existing state universi ty to absorb all the qualified upper secondary school graduates (Note 2) It has remained a problem for the state


9 of 25 bureaucracy to enact a detailed policy for the regu lation of the institutions to ensure quality and equity.In his report at the UNESCO world conference on hig her education in Paris in 1998 the Minister of Higher Education also declared that it is the government’s intention to encourage an entrepreneurial spirit in the higher education sub-sector (Mebara, 1998). Such a policy goal will naturally fall within the framework of the objectives of the 1993 reforms (me ntioned earlier). Bill No. 694/PJL/AN of March 2001 was presented to parliamen t proposing a comprehensive policy framework for higher in the co untry. The focus of this paper is not to posit a critique of the bill but it is worth noting that the document acknowledged that higher was without a legislative framework until then. This presupposes that the system was steered using regul atory provisions (decrees). A situation, which is also indicative of the centra lised nature of such a system. Given that a decentralised system would provide the freedom for institutions to design an appropriate corporate plan, the following question surfaces: Did the Bill resolve the issue?Njeuma et al. (1999) argued that apart from the Uni versity of Buea none of the six state universities of the country has a detaile d strategic plan. This might have been because there is no explicit mandatory provisi on in the decree instituting the 1993 reforms (most recent) for strategic planni ng. However in 1999 the Ministry of higher education developed a plan to ap point UNESCO experts to draw general strategic plan for the ministry. This demonstrated the government’s perception of the central role which strategic plan ning can play in meeting its goals in the higher education sub sector.The University of BueaBuea is the provincial headquarters of the South We st province (one of the two English speaking provinces). The University of Buea was created along side four others in the 1993/93 reforms with an aim of servin g the English speaking population in particular and other Cameroonians who wished to study in English. The University Center for Translation and Interpret ation (mentioned earlier) was then extended to a full-fledged university. The uni versity started with an enrolment of 2048 students in 1993 and by 1995 the enrolment stood at 4093 students.The political and economic environment in which thi s institution was created was difficult. The period cited above was in the heat o f a generalised economic crisis (as mentioned earlier) with an accompanying devalua tion of the nation’s currency. The reform creating the university was re garded by most donor agencies as inconsistent with the economic situatio n of the country as well as other African countries (Njeuma et al 1999, p.1). Under these circumstances the senior management of the university understood that there would be the need to be ‘armed with the unflinching determination to suc ceed against all odds’ (Njeuma, 1998). In order to reinforce the collabora tion of the government, the community, and friends abroad they decided embark o n strategic planning in order to have a clear sense of direction.Though a legal framework or policy instrument was a lready in place for the


10 of 25 university to go operational, no formal finances wa s made available by the government for the institution to take off for the 1993/94 academic year. Faculty and central administration was appointed. The major problem of the institution was financing. The student registration fees could only amount to 30% of the total budget of the university. Despite the financi al constraints the consensus was that the university should launch. The communit y was ready to make financial sacrifices but on a strict condition that this should be backed by efficiency and accountability. Consequently the man agement of the University of Buea (UB) opted to identify themselves with those w ho think that strategic planning could be applied in higher education secto r. A document entitles ‘Priority projects of the Unive rsity of Buea’ was prepared by the Development office. It identified amongst other things the preparation of a strategic plan. This culminated in a series of work shops jointly run by the UB in collaboration with the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom (UK). The aim of the workshops was to develop a procedure for the drawing of a five-year strategic plan for the university. It also focused on how to adopt an annually updated plan for academic development. The manageme nt of the institution acknowledged the utility of the workshop as follows : It provided the management of the University of Bue a an opportunity to appreciate the value and importance of having a strategic plan to guide its multi-dimensional growth and development.It mobilised the participation and involvement of m ost stakeholders in the University of Buea including students, academic and non-academic staff and representatives of sectors o f the wider community and representatives of other state univer sities. (UB Strategic plan 1998-2003) The foundation was then laid for the University to proceed through the strategic planning process. Faculties and schools prepared th eir objectives and handed to the university management. The institution set up a strategic planning committee, which in turn organised a team, which ha rnessed the inputs from the workshops and the objectives of faculties and schoo ls. An analysis of this information was followed by conceptual framework on which to draw up an appropriate strategic plan for the university. They propounded as follows: The University of Buea is at its early formative ye ars. As such it needs a global strategic framework for its growth a nd development. The strategic plan of the University of Buea is int ended to be proactive rather than merely reacting to pressing p roblems and key issues. (UB Strategic Plan 1998-2003). The team embarked on what they termed target-orient ed project planning approach (TOPP), which identified problems, analyse d, their causes and translated them into concrete projects with detaile d costing and direction for action. One of the major claims of the team was tha t all segments of the plan were designed in consultation with the appropriate internal and external stakeholders. This assertion was corroborated in th e interviews of both senior administrators and academics in the following words :


11 of 25 I have never felt this sense of ownership in a plan ning process for fifteen years within higher education in this count ry (a senior administrator).To me going down this road was very important in ad dressing the problems of relevance and quality in the curriculum of higher education in this country. I hope this spirit will be encourage structures in Yaounde (Note 3) (Academic and head of department) Their final recommendation was that a standing comm ittee be set up to oversee the implementation and annual updating of the plan and present their findings and recommendations to the University Council (the highest governing body in the institution). The strategic plan was summarised as follows: From the outset the executive and academic staff of the University of Buea had a keen knowledge of the standards they wan t to achieve. Quality assurance was the foremost theme. But quali ty assurance cannot happen unless the university has the materia l means equal to its will to change the conditions under which teach ing and learning take place. Largely, such means are beyond the scop e of the University of Buea.It is our fervent hope that the strategic plan will elicit a greater level of response and support for our efforts from governmen t, the community and friends of the University at home and abroad. (UB Strategic Plan, 1998-2003) One of the major aims of the strategic planning of (UB) was to raise and stabilise the level of funding, which was found to be unpredi ctable and unsustainable especially on the government side of the business. The resource implications this funding instability obviously had an adverse e ffect on the quality of teaching, learning and research. This implies that the strate gic planning process served the purpose of dealing with informational asymmetry in the transaction between the institution and funding bodies rather than for its strategic intent per se (Milgrom & Robert, 1992). Hence the element of trus t will be increased between the institution and its stakeholders and thereby at tracting the required funding. It is interesting to observe that the role of the M inistry of Higher Education in the entire process of strategic planning from the works hop to publication of the plan was minimal. The process was not part of a national program or project championed by the Ministry of Higher Education. Fur thermore, the implementation of the 1993 reforms did not include any statutory component meant to enable the drawing of a strategic plan for any of the six universities. The University of Buea was simply adapting to the c onstraints or environmental contingencies of the time. This demonstrates that p olitical action did not directly usher in the needed reinvigoration. However, the st rategic planning process could be attributed to an institutional initiative which used an existing international collaboration as a means of achieving an a priori defined goal.The Strategic Planning Process


12 of 25 Literature on Strategic Management indicates that o ne of the most crucial challenges of the area is deriving a transferable t heory for strategy building in organisations. It highlights the distinction betwee n strategy formulation and implementation. According to Mockler (1995), althou gh strategy formulation is very central to understanding strategic management, it does not sufficiently provide a concrete direction for action. This can o nly be provided by strategy implementation. This view suggests that strategy im plementation poses even more difficulties than strategy formulation. Howeve r a basic framework can be derived to serve as a road map to strategy formulat ion (Mezias, Gringer and Gruth 2001; Hills and Jones 1995. p.15; Mockler 199 5). Figure 1. Basic Framework for Strategy Formulation Source: Mockler, 1995 Strategic Management: The Beg inning of the New Era IN: Hussey (Ed) International Review of Strategic Management V ol. 6, London: John Willey & Sons Ltd. It is important to define the nature and objectives by elaborating the mission and goals that justify the existence of the organisatio n. This includes how it intends to satisfy its customers in terms of value for money a nd social responsibility. Universities might define such missions and goals t o reflect the needs of their internal and external stakeholders (Sallis, 1992). The internal stakeholders include the academic, administrative staff and supp ort staff, and the external


13 of 25 stakeholders are the students, the local community, the state and international community. The mission and goals of the institution are viable in pointing to the direction to which resources will be concentrated o r the proportion of resource allocation.External analysis will identify the position of the organisation in national, regional and wider arena. The aim of this analysis is to spo t possible threats and opportunities in its operating environment. Competi tiveness and compatibility are driving the strategies of most higher education ins titutions today. These forces in themselves constitute the sine quo non of change. According to Pashiardis (1996) strategic planning of which environmental sc anning is part assumes an open system whereby organisations must constantly c hange and adapt as needs of the larger society change. He sees environmental scanning as central in focusing on the process of planning, building a vis ion, community development in order to build scenario for decision centres. Su ch scenarios would consist of a hypothetical sequence of events constructed for the purpose of focusing attention on causal processes and decision points.An analysis of the above components could be made t o derive a strategic choice in a process that identifies the strength weaknesses opportunities and threats (SWOT analysis). It provides concrete directions fo r the generation, allocation and usage resources. It can also permit institution s to take up specific programs or projects with a clear notion of their utility to the system or business strategy (Davies and Allison 1999, p.112). However it is of no benefit to set goals and design projects without a clear understanding of th e organisation structure and processes that will implement them. Structure provides a fra mework for accountability and evaluation.It is beyond the scope of this article provide a co mprehensive model of/for competitive advantage for the higher education inst itutions in Sub-Saharan African countries. However, it is worth pointing ou t that its geographical, economic and socio-cultural potentials like in most countries could constitute strength and opportunities on which strategic plann ing can capitalise. This implies that each university has the potential for the development of centres of competence that might place it in a significant pos ition within national and international competitiveness. Such an adaptation i s not different from the general theoretical framework of strategic planning in formulating a strategy in any business. The formulation and implementation of the strategy would depend on the desired image for the organisation (Ivy, 200 1). The strategies of most universities outside SSA str ive to meet certain parameters within national and regional standards a nd leagues. The regional location of the universities in Cameroon, for insta nce, and the diversity of institutions might give room for the development of various individual competitive strategies, which will be depicted in their mission s. Mintzberg, (1994) also argues that there are at lea st ten schools of thoughts in the planning process. This elasticity in the proces s is due to the fact that strategy is always contingent on each situation. Mockler fur ther highlights that the environment of the organisation is of vital importa nce in determining the approach to strategy formulation. The environmental conditions may be stable,


14 of 25 turbulent or chaotic. Strategy formulation on the o ther hand may be manager-oriented or highly analytical and focused o n micro contingencies. He demonstrates his strong preference on an approach t hat focuses on micro-contingencies as a means of embracing the mac ro contingencies. This is an approach whereby expert planners focus on frontl ine operations or specific situations to develop scenarios and decision centre s. Universities like most businesses are structured wi th functional units such as Human Resource, Information Systems, Marketing, Fin ancial Management and Production or Faculties and schools. These are serv ices that support the general or corporate business strategy through their respec tive strategies. What seems apparent is the intractable dominance of informatio n in the achievement of productivity in prosperous organisations today. Hen ce ‘firms, regions or nations fundamentally depend on their capacity to generate, process and apply efficiently knowledge-based information’ for succes s (Castells, 1996, p.66). It may therefore follow that Information Systems, as a unit is the most important. Therefore considerable attention should be paid on the Information Systems strategy.However it is important for institutions to identif y the distinction between information systems strategy and business informati on technology strategy (Curtis, 1995). The business information systems st rategy focuses on determining the information needs of the organisati on and how it relates to the business strategy. This involves the identification of decision-making centres in formulated strategy and setting systems for trackin g relevant information. Business information technology strategy on the oth er hand is concerned with determining what technology and technological syste ms are required for business information systems strategy to be realise d. It may also be a question of technological cost-benefit analysis. Strategic p lanning permits the strategy to focus on adapting the technology to organisational needs rather than vice versa. Though the implementation of strategy is more diffi cult than the formulation stage it is possible to identify five ‘make-happen’ areas on which success may depend (Hardy, 1995) namely: There should be a complete resource commitment at s trategic level. Policies and programmes should be formulated at the sub-unit level to implement the strategies. An appropriate structure should be designed to meet with the nature of the strategy through sufficient clarification of roles and relationships. A clear and realistic system of reward should be de vised to motivate internal and external stakeholders. Adequate analysis should be made of the human resou rces needed to accomplish the implementation task. The most obvious question at this point would addre ss the relevance of the foregoing arguments in theorising about higher educ ation strategic planning. By logical extension, the same question would apply to the case of higher education institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa. The argument th at may be adopted as a framework for analysis in this paper leans on the f ollowing propositions that seem to dominate the literature:


15 of 25 that strategic planning whether in service or indus trial sector is contingent on particular circumstances of the organisation. that education organisations can also adapt their s trategic plans to requirements of their core activities and that a single country case study may be relevan t in reflecting on strategic planning in sub-Saharan Africa because of the similarities in global, historical and institutional realities faci ng the sub region. Curtis (1995, p.46) asserts that it is possible for a business to function without an explicit strategic plan. In such an institution per formance is based on routine activities. Such a situation is analogous to a ship which is underway without a destination or sailing without knowledge of the nat ure of its waters. He further outlines three main reasons why a strategic plan ma y be necessary in an organisation, namely: Subsystems or department may function well within t heir objectives but at the same time does not serve the objectives of the organisation. This may be because the objectives of the department are cou nter to those of the organisation and may lead to system sub optimisatio n. Therefore it is necessary to design an agreed and communicated plan and how to achieve it. The organisation would occasionally need resource a llocation for its development. These allocations can only be made aga inst agreed direction for the organisation or a strategy for the future. The organisation has responsibilities to its intern al and external stakeholders. The corporate plan will normally embo dy particular interests for these groups and therefore these interests will be perceived at the level of the organisation’s success. Similar assumptions may have been the explanation b ehind the Jaratt report of 1985 in Great Britain jointly commissioned by the U GC and the committee of Vice Chancellors and Principals which recommended t hat universities work and operate under a corporate plan (Becher and Kogan, 1 992) One of the main concerns of Educational Management practitioners and analysts is to ascertain the difference between the typical corporate models of strategic planning and those relevant to higher edu cation. Saker and Speed (1996) for instance sound a note of warning on the applicability of strategic planning in educational services. However the reser vations do not dismiss the fact that the educational sector has begun to see t he increasing need for planning in order to maintain its responsiveness to the rapidly changing environment (Kriemadis, 1997). According to BurlerMiko (1985) the concept of planning has existed under different labels in the post second world war period. Master plan was in vogue in the nineteen sixties; l ong range planning in the nineteen seventies and strategic planning in the ni neteen eighties and nineties. What seemed significantly common in the process at different points in history was the notion of anticipating change and developin g a proactive measure, a goal which is not strange to education. Therefore b ased on empirically tested view and theories of strategic planning in organisa tions an actionable theory can be devised to respond to the need for strategic pla nning in higher education


16 of 25 institutions (Calori,Atmer and Nunes, 2000).Inspiration in strategy building could also be draw n from other disciplines. A significant body of literature in development studi es propounds that chances of success in development ventures may be maximised if a bottom-top approach in decision-making is adopted (Corbridge, 1995:p.1; Ch ambers, 1983; Chambers, 1999; Brock-Utne, 2000).One of the justifications for using the above model to theorise on educational change could be derived from Carnoy and Rhoten (200 2) in their explanation of epistemological changes in educational policy analy sis. They assert that prior to the 1950s education policy analysis saw educational change as rooted in new educational philosophies or theories, new conceptio ns of what knowledge should be transmitted and hence organise institutions acco rdingly. In the 1960s and 1970s this view was strongly challenged by new stud ies that provided evidence to show that educational reforms should be situated in economic and social change. Therefore the environment of the internatio nal and national political economy is a fundamental source of variable for ins titutional strategic planning.Lessons for Institutional StrategiesIn the light of the framework suggested by the lite rature on strategic planning some categories could be identified on which discus sions could be generated from the case study presented above. Firstly the in stitutional and national circumstances under which the strategic planning wa s designed is a pointer to how reflection could be focused on the discourse on strategic planning in higher education institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa. Secon dly, designing structures that enable the assessment of accountability was one of the key features of the strategic planning process in UB. This has been ide ntified by Carnoy and Rhoten (2002) as one of the drivers of change in education al systems globally. The University of Buea was created in circumstances of crisis. During 1993/94 academic years the institution did not receive any formal financing from the government (UB Strategic Plan 1998-2003). This circ umstance conditioned the way management thought about the survival of the in stitution. An independent body was set up to cater for the development of the university through fund raising from well wishers. Before the Ministry of T erritorial Administration suspended the fund raising activities of the body t hey had registered very remarkable success. This might be indicating that t he outer limit of the motivation and good will of stakeholders in higher education is not reached. The public and parents developed greater confidence and interest in the university and were ready to commit their resources in achievi ng the institution’s goals. Furthermore, despite the economic environment of th e country in the early 1990s parents and students were still able to respo nd to the calls of private universities paying tuition fees, which were three to eight times the registration fees in state universities (at least $250). Therefo re a significant amount of resources for the development of higher education i nstitutions is not being adequately used. This argument may be considered as a component of strength which institutions can use for planning strategies.


17 of 25 The interdependence of nation states and the proces s of globalisation may provide opportunities for institutions to explore. The notion that raising the level of skills in the labour force can guarantee develop ment is now almost considered as established wisdom. Castells,(1996, p.253) argue s that the skill profile of the newly created jobs in prosperous economies is gener ally higher than the overall average skill of the labour force. Therefore the mo re skilled hands there are in an economy the better. Though this argument is buil t on the background of most developed countries (MDC) it might be relevant to l ess developed economies (LDC) as well. Globalisation may provide a viable f orce for higher education institutions to increase their capacity for trainin g research and service to the community through joint ventures, recruitment and r etention of qualified researchers, consultancy, franchises, campus branch ing and other forms transnational educational opportunities.The collaboration between UB and the University of Manchester is a case in point. This collaboration had existed before the cr eation of the University (in the days when it was university centre). That was part of the tradition of internationalisation and universality of higher edu cation as described by De Wit, (2002). Also, Rada, (2001, 93) holds that globalisa tion may provide a very powerful opportunity for educational broking. This permits competency to be developed and used in the home country through the delivery of courses tailored to the needs of the learners anywhere in the world. This is different from importing solutions that might not best suit local circumstances. One of the points reflected in the UB strategic pla n was the inability of the state to supply funding in a foreseeable amount and perio d. The private institutions, which perhaps may not rely on state funds for survi val, may tailor their plans according to available resources. This may lead to a situation whereby the provision of training, research and services in pri vate institutions may be better. However the fear expressed by sceptics is that the race for profitability may deplete quality in such institutions. Another point of weakness in institutions is the lack of adequate management and leadership skil ls among the support and academic personnel within universities. This hamper s the proper management of the available resources (Njeuma, et al 1999). One of the key aspects emphasised by the academics interviewed was the satisfaction derived from ownership in decision mak ing in curricular and strategic matters. They thought it is very central in resolvi ng the problem of quality and relevance. The administrators as might be expected were not very enthusiastic about relevance. However the main issue they echoed was that a slight increase in political will in addition to the strategic plan would make a significant difference in quality of deliveries in UB. They thought their participation in the process enhanced their enhanced their understanding of the rationale behind institutional actions and could eliminate bureaucracy or Red tape (in the words of one participant).Both the academics and administrators, who are all senior civil servants, agree that the dominant presence and heavy hand of the go vernment in both governance and institutional management stifles cha nge management in institutions. The institutional autonomy aimed at i n the 1993 reform may not be


18 of 25 achieved if the governance structures remain the sa me nationally. It could also be inferred that these reforms were prompted by the argument that the dynamics of higher education are increasingly becoming too c omplex and expensive for centralised governmental control as argued by Neave & Van Vught, (1994). The minimal involvement of the ministry of Higher Educa tion in process of strategic planning at the UB provides reason to reflect on th e message of Neave and Van Vught that the state could be a referee rather than a player in institutional management.What implications have the developments in institut ions have on planning a strategy in a Sub-Saharan African university? The k nowledge-needs of the world, as a single community, have been described b y Daniel, (1996) as requiring at least one new university campus every week. Unfortunately the developed countries are already almost adequately c overed their national needs for university campuses. This implies that the bulk of the problem lies in the developing countries. Definitely the way forward is investment in higher education.Considering the argument made earlier that in order to have maximum benefit from the strength knowledge and information, inform ation strategy should be viewed as supreme by all ambitious organisations. I t naturally follows that the technology strategy should also be viewed as a prio rity. To universities in Sub-Saharan Africa this means that capital investme nt should be concentrated more on strategically targeted technology than on b ricks. This strategy must however be strictly based on empirically tested gra ss root practitioners-perceptions rather than external pont ificating from central government. If access has to be widened and life-lo ng learning developed technology mediated distance learning and other fle xible forms of delivery may be an option.Considering that five of the six existing state uni versities do not have systematically written down strategic plans, my pre sumption is that the global strategic plan for the Ministry of Higher Education might be oriented toward laying grounds or a framework for strategic plans i n the higher education institutions. Such a project confirms the propositi ons of Chambers, (1999); Brock-Utne, (2000) and all proponents of participat ory research. Alternatively, the experience of UB is enough to set an agenda for each university to prepare their strategic plans in accordance with its specif ic corporate plans. By congregating the efforts and visions of the institu tions the Ministry of Higher Education could locate itself as a ‘referee’ in the game. Such a location will naturally result in national guidelines for differe nt aspects of higher education, namely accreditation, quality assessment, funding a nd others. The merits of this approach are that it is reasonably inductive and is likely to be much more consultative than an a priori nationally imposed plan. Njeuma et al (1999) reported a marked improvement in the succes s and progression rate in the University of Buea (UB) fro m a 30 % rate in 1992 to over 60 % in 1999. They also highlighted the fact that U B registered the best success rate in the country and has been become a favourite destination for both English and French speaking candidates seeking higher educa tion in the country. This reinvigorating overturned the declining internation al competitiveness and


19 of 25 motivation that characterised the higher education system prior to the reforms.ConclusionAfrica is so diversified that a single account does not necessarily apply to every nation-state within the continent in a succinct man ner. Therefore a model for the innovation of one system may be completely irreleva nt for another. Nonetheless, there is ample evidence to justify that some histor ical and geographical factors create a common backdrop on which the varied nation al problems can be analysed (Mebara, 1998). Hence the foregoing premis es could justify the inference that Cameroon as a country of ‘the south’ a developing and Sub-Saharan country could draw inspiration from spe cific categories of the global, regional as well as localcontexts to develo p a model for strategic choice for its higher education system.The global regional and national context of polaris ation is a pervasive and ongoing process. If higher education institutions i n Cameroon and in Sub-Saharan Africa general are going to contribute in alleviating this predicament through strategic planning it will have to scan these settings to develop local strategies. The UB experience provide s an illustration from which inspiration could be drawn from the external enviro nment, as in the case of their financial dilemma of 1993, to develop local strateg ies of survival, growth, and adaptation.Furthermore, the minimal involvement of the Ministr y of Higher Education in the technical process of the development of the UB stra tegic plan provides yet another demonstration of the possibility of a techn ical and cost efficient path of networking all universities in strategic planning. The traditional normative presuppositions of policy would view the national M inistry of Higher Education as rational planner, which is omnipotent and omniprese nt in the universities. This might have been the case in the days gone but numer ous analyses have proven that the role of the ministry should be that of a r eferee rather the player (Carnoy and Rhoten, 2002; Neave & Van Vught 1994). This is because the dynamics of higher education increase in complexity with time. Therefore the local management and governance teams of the various univ ersities deserve to be put first and the Ministry last especially in matters of strategic planning. Government efforts could then be concentrated on de veloping accountability matrices and performance indicators for the institu tions and monitoring them based on thorough scanning of the global environmen t (Ngwana, 2001). The demonstration of ownership of the strategic pla n and at the same acknowledging the participation of an international partner (the University of Manchester in the UK) is an example to emulated by SSA institutions in their effort toward the shift from policy transfer to pol icy learning. This reiterates the opportunities that globalisation may offer in terms of international partnership and collaboration. This may collapse the gap betwee n SSA and developed countries in the area of research and development a nd the architecture of the Castellian ‘newest international division of labour ’ (Castells, 1996: p,107). Higher education leadership professionals in Sub-Sa haran Africa may need to view strategic planning as an intellectual problem and step up their efforts by


20 of 25 congregating into an intellectual community on high er education strategic planning. Conroy (2000, p.14) holds that intellectu al problems are characterised by situations whereby the notion that ‘colleagues w ill always be right’ is rejected. This results to the lose of innocence which implies that members of such a community actively make contributions on the issues and at the same time keep their minds open for contrary or complementary view s. Though typical intellectual communities are characterised by innocence, such a community may start from the lose of intellectual innocence and proceed to i nnocence.Notes 1. Nationalists in this region openly manifest their d etermination to attain independence from La Republic du Cameroun because o f the feeling that they are colonised and marginalized( 2. Most of the private higher education institutions s tarted in the early 1980s without a formal legal framework defining the proce dure of their creation. Given the support they received from the local communitie s it became even difficult for government to close them down. Though there were so me vocational institutions in Yaounde and elsewhere in the Francophone zone of fering post secondary qualifications, the idea of an full-fledged univers ity flourished mostly in the English Speaking zone perhaps because of the need f or them. 3. Yaounde is the political capital and the seat of th e Ministry of Higher Education of the country.ReferencesAjayi, Goma & Johnson (1994) The African Experience with Higher Education Accra :Association of African UniversitiesBecher, T. and Kogan, M., (1992) (Eds) Process and Structure in Higher Education London: Routledge. Brock-Utne, B. (2000) Whoseeducation: The Recolonisation of the African M ind New York: Palmer PressBurler-Miko, M. (1985) A Trustee’s Guide to Strategic Planning Washington DC: Higher Education Strategic Planning InstituteCalori, R., Atmar, T., and Nunes, P. (2000) Interna tional Competition in Mixed Industries. Long Range Planning. International Journal of Strat egic Management Vol. 33. pp. 349-375, Pergamon Carnoy, M. & Rhoten, D. (2002). What does Globalisa tion Mean to Educational Change? A Comparative Approach, Comparative Education Review, 46 (1), 1-9. Castells, M. (1996) The Information Age: Economy, S ociety and Culture.Vol.1, The Rise of the Network Society. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers


21 of 25 Chambers, R. (1999) Whose Reality Counts? Putting the first last London: Intermediate Technology Publication.Chambers, R. (1983) Rural Development:Putting the Last First London: Longman Scientific & Technical..Conroy, J.P. (2000) Intellectual Leadership in Education Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Corbridge, S. (ed) (1995) Development Studies: A reader London: Arnold: Curtis, G. (1995) Business Information Systems: Analysis design and P ractice. England: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.Daniel, S.J. (1996) Mega-Universities and Knowledge Media. Technology Strategies for Higher Education Great Britain: Kogan Page. Davies,B.& Allison, L. (1999) Strategic direction a nd development of the school, London: RoutledgeDe Wit, H., (2002) Internationalisation of higher Education in the Uni ted States of America and Europe: A historical, comparative and c onceptual analysis London: Greenwood Press.Grant R.M. (1998 ) Contemporary Strategy Analysis .Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Inc.Hardy, C. (1995) Managing Strategic Action: Mobilising Change, conce pts, Readings and Cases. London: Sage Publications Hill,C.W.L.& Jones,G.R. (1998) Strategic Management: An integrated approach Boston: HoughonHussain, M. Nureldin, (1997) Africa’s External Sect or and Economic Growth: Possible areas for Development Cooperation In: Kifl e, Olukoshi, & Wohlgemuth. (Eds) A Partnership for African Development. Issues and P arameters. Upsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet..Ivy, J. (2001) Higher Education Institutional Image : A correspondence analysis approach. The International Journal of Educational Management 15 (6-7 ), 276 Kifle, H. (1997) Africa’s Development Challenge in the Changing Gobal Environment, In: Kifle, Olukoshi & wohlgrmuth (eds) A New Partner for African Development: Issues and Parameters Upsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.. Kriemadis, A (1997) Strategic Planning in Higher Ed ucation Athletic Departments. The International Journal of Education al Management. Volume 11 number 6, Pp.238-247 MCB University PressMebara, J.A. (1998) ‘Conference Mondiale Sur l’ Ens eignment Suprieur’, L’ Enseignment Superieur au 21eme siecle, Vision et Ac tion Cameroon vol. 5Pleniere UNESCO Paris. Available at


22 of 25 .htlm Mezias, J. Gringer, P., and Guth, W. D. 2001 Changi ng Collective Cognition: A process model for strategic change. Long Range Planning. International journal of Strategic Management Volume 35 Issue 1, pp 71-95 Elsevier Science Ltd Milgrom,P.& Robert, J. (1992) Economics, Organisation and Management NY: Prentice-Hall International Inc.Mintzberg, H. and James, R.M. (1983b) Opening up th e Definition of Strategy. In: Quin, J.B., Minzberg H., and James R.M. (Eds) TheStrategic Process, Contexts and Cases. Englewood Cliff NJ: Prentice Hall. Mockler, R.J. (1995) Strategic Management: The Begi nning of a New Era. In:Hussey, D.E. (Ed) International Review of Strategic Management, volume 6. England: John Wiley & Sons LtdMwiria, K. (1992) University Governance: Problems and Prospects of Anglophone Africa Technical Department, Africa Region, World Bank, Washington D.C.Neave, G., & Van Vught, F. (1994) Government and Higher Education Relationships Accross Three Continents. The Winds o f Change. Issues in Higher Education International Association of Universities. NY: Pe rgamon. Njeuma, D.L., et al (1999) ‘Reforming a National System of Higher Educ ation’: The Case of Cameroon: Working Groupon Higher Education (WGHE) ADEA. .html Ngwana,T.A. (2001) The Implementation of the 1993 H igher Education Reforms in Cameroon: Issues and Promises IN: Higher Education Policy: Institutions and Globalisation. New Dynamics in South Africa After 1 994. Centre for Higher Education Transformation. South Africa. Available a t Ozga, J., (2000) Policy Research in Educational Settings: Contested Terrain Buckingham: Open University Press.Pashiardis, P. (1996) Environmental Scanning in Edd ucational Organisations:Uses, approaches Sources and Methodol ogies. The International Journal of educational Management, 10 (3), 5-9. Rada, R., (2001) Understanding Virtual Universities Intellect Bristol Saker, J and Speed, R. (1996) Developing Strategic Planning in a Special Education Service. The International Journal of Educational Management Volume10 Number 1. MCB University Press Ltd.Sallis, E. (1993) Total Quality Management In Educa tion. Kogan Page, London. Stauss, A.L. (1987) Qualitative Analysis for Social Scientists. Cambridge University PressThe University of Buea Strategic Plan, (1998-2003) Pressbook Limbe, 1998


23 of 25 UNESCO/World Bank, (2000). Task Force on Higher Edu cation and Society, Higher Education in Developing countries Perils and Promises Yesufu,T.M. (ed) (1973) Creating the African University Ibadan: Oxford University PressAbout the AuthorTerfot AugustineNgwana is a research assistant at the International Insti tute for Education Leadership, University of Lincoln, Un ited Kingdom. E-mail: The World Wide Web address for the Education Policy Analysis Archives is Editor: Gene V Glass, Arizona State UniversityProduction Assistant: Chris Murrell, Arizona State University General questions about appropriateness of topics o r particular articles may be addressed to the Editor, Gene V Glass, or reach him at College of Education, Arizona State Un iversity, Tempe, AZ 85287-2411. The Commentary Editor is Casey D. Cobb: .EPAA Editorial Board Michael W. Apple University of Wisconsin David C. Berliner Arizona State University Greg Camilli Rutgers University Linda Darling-Hammond Stanford University Sherman Dorn University of South Florida Mark E. Fetler California Commission on TeacherCredentialing Gustavo E. Fischman Arizona State Univeristy Richard Garlikov Birmingham, Alabama Thomas F. Green Syracuse University Aimee Howley Ohio University Craig B. Howley Appalachia Educational Laboratory William Hunter University of Ontario Institute ofTechnology Patricia Fey Jarvis Seattle, Washington Daniel Kalls Ume University Benjamin Levin University of Manitoba Thomas Mauhs-Pugh Green Mountain College


24 of 25 Les McLean University of Toronto Heinrich Mintrop University of California, Los Angeles Michele Moses Arizona State University Gary Orfield Harvard University Anthony G. Rud Jr. Purdue University Jay Paredes Scribner University of Missouri Michael Scriven University of Auckland Lorrie A. Shepard University of Colorado, Boulder Robert E. Stake University of Illinois—UC Kevin Welner University of Colorado, Boulder Terrence G. Wiley Arizona State University John Willinsky University of British ColumbiaEPAA Spanish and Portuguese Language Editorial BoardAssociate Editors for Spanish & Portuguese Gustavo E. Fischman Arizona State Universityfischman@asu.eduPablo Gentili Laboratrio de Polticas Pblicas Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro pablo@lpp-uerj.netFounding Associate Editor for Spanish Language (199 8-2003) Roberto Rodrguez Gmez Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico Adrin Acosta (Mxico) Universidad de J. Flix Angulo Rasco (Spain) Universidad de Teresa Bracho (Mxico) Centro de Investigacin y DocenciaEconmica-CIDEbracho Alejandro Canales (Mxico) Universidad Nacional Autnoma Ursula Casanova (U.S.A.) Arizona State Jos Contreras Domingo Universitat de Barcelona Erwin Epstein (U.S.A.) Loyola University of Josu Gonzlez (U.S.A.) Arizona State


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