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Educational policy analysis archives.
n Vol. 13, no. 3 (January 07, 2005).
Tempe, Ariz. :
b Arizona State University ;
Tampa, Fla. :
University of South Florida.
c January 07, 2005
Inclusive Education and Training Systems: Illusion or Reality? The Story of Nothemba / Lebusa A. Monyooe.
Arizona State University.
University of South Florida.
t Education Policy Analysis Archives (EPAA)
E DUCATION P OLICY A NALYSIS A RCHIVES A peer reviewed scholarly journal Editor: Sherman Dorn College of Education University of South Florida Copyright is retained by the first or sole author, who grants right of first publication to the Education Policy Analysis Archives EPAA is published jointly by the Colleges of Education at Arizona State University and the University of South Florida. Articles are indexed in the Directory of Open Access Journals (www.doaj.org). Volume 13 Number 3 January 7 2005 ISSN 1068 2341 Inclusive Education and Training System s : I llusion or R eality ? The Story of Nothemba Lebusa A. Monyooe National Research Foundation South Africa. Citation: Monyooe, L. A. (2005, January 7 ). Inclusive education and training systems: Illusion or reality? The story of Nothemba. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 13 (3). Retrieved [date] from http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v13n3/. ( This article was accepted for publication by Gene V Glass, Editor 1 993 2004. ) Abstract This article explores the challenges facing the South African National Department of Education in its commitment to provide equal educational opportunities for all The Story of Nothemba is central to the theme of this paper. It descri bes the story of a South African girl born in eQebe, whose physical disability and systematic disregard for her constitutional rights dashed her life time dream and passion to become a lawyer in a democratic South Africa. The paper argues for a critical in terrogation of the following dynamics that have the potential to complicate both the implementation and optimization of the Inclusive Education Policy: (i) Understanding the social stereotypes about disability, (ii) Teacher empowerment, (iii) Systemic imba lance between support and expectations, (iv) Adopting relevant curriculum policy and assessment strategies and practices, and (v) Utilizing the research logic to inform policy implementation. The paper further calls for a robust interrogation at conceptual level about disability to inform the current policies on education and training, teacher training and development, curriculum and assessment strategies.
Education Policy Analysis Archives Vol. 13 No. 3 2 1. Introduction Story telling is an integral part of African culture and heritage. It is through this genre that both national and personal historiographies are passed from one generation to the next. The importance of story telling as a craft has been succinctly articulated by Fredrickson (1997:12) who writes We all have stories to tell. In times pa st, people seemed to understand that stories are the way we make sense of our lives, pass long knowledge and traditions that are helpful, and transform knowledges and traditions that no lon g er serve us What Fredrickson postulates is both instructional an d relevant to the theme of this paper in many ways. In the first incidence, it is a story about a South African girl born in eQebe, whose physical disability and the ravages of the then apartheid regime dashed her life time dream and passion to become a la wyer in a democratic South Africa. In the second, it offers us an opportunity to interrogate the challenges associated with the institutionalization of Inclusive Education and Training System (IETS) in a post apartheid South Africa. 1.1 The Story of Nothe mba: A struggle for identity recognition and acceptance I am tempted to begin this paper by narrating a story about Nothemba, who as a consequence of her physical disability and the ravages of the then apartheid legacy lost her identity and c onstitutiona l rights as a South African. She also lost her recognition and acceptance as a human being and a bona fide member of the Qebe community She became an outcast in her own family, community and country of birth and lived a seclude d life Nothemba was born 75 years ago in a rural and poverty stricken village of eQebe in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The news of Nothembas impending birth created a lot of euphoria and excitement among the Njabulo family and the community at large For the Njabulo family, i t w ould signify an important development in their life. They were expecting their first born child th a t would continue the Njabulo lineage It was during this period of pregnancy that the Njabulo s seriously pondered about the future of their unborn child. The y had visions of how the birth of their first born child would literally and symbolically change their lives. Their social stature would substantially change. They visualized Nothembas educational successes as a plausible strategic framework on which to b uild the civic virtues of the Qebe community and the nation at large. The thought of being the parents to a successful child turned lawyer was ecstatic and conjured endless waves of gratitude, celebration and hope. They could not wait for the child to be b orn. It seemed like eternity. The defining moment finally happened, Nothemba was born. The news about Nothemba s birth spread like a bush fire across th e Qe b e village. It was an antithesis of their nine months of waiting, hope and illusions Their hopes a nd aspirations had gone to the dogs! Nature had dispatched one of its cruel blows to the Njabulo family. They had given birth to a child with disability. Nothemba was born blind. Within the Qebe community, b lindness was associated with mythology and witchc raft, a serious abomination within the Qe b e village in general As a consequence of the societal stereotypes about disability and to protect themselves from public harassment and prejudice, Nothemba was banished away from her family, community and cultural heritage. She lived a secluded and lonely life away with her grand mother. Her wish and passion to become a lawyer quashed away. Her constitutional rights deliberately
Monyooe: Inclusive Education and Training Systems 3 undermined and compromised. The story of Nothemba Njabulo is but one of the many untold personal struggles and tragedies that many South Africans with disabilities have endured over the years and have come to embrace as part of their identity and a definitive summation of their biographies 2. Inclusive Education and Training System : Unmask ing the Context The Constitution of South Africa (Act 108 0f 1996) stipulates unambiguously in ( S ection 29(1) that everyone has the right to (i) a basic education, including adult basic education, and (ii) further education, which the state, through reaso nable measures, must make progressively available and accessible. The notion of the right to basic education i s further articulated in Sections 9(2), (3), (4) and (5) which commits the South African government to achieve the principles of equality and non discrimination across the education and training sector. It is within this purview that the government is further obligated to create plausible conditions for the implementation of a new unified system of education and training. Of particular relevance in this regard is a litany of educational policies and frameworks that have since 1994 underpinned and shaped educational change and transformation and these include: Education White Paper No1, on Education and Training (1995), National Commission on Special Needs in Education and Training and National Committee on Education Support Services (1996), Higher Education Act (1997), South African Schools Act (1997), Further Education and Training Act (1998), Consultative Paper No1, on Special Education: Building a n Inclusive Education and Training System (1999), Adult Basic Education and Training Act (2000), National Policy on Whole School Improvement (2001), Revised National Curriculum Statement Grades R 9 (2001). South Africas commitment to champion and devel op the culture of rights and freedoms among the South Africans and the world at large, is confirmed by the enactment of laws, policy frameworks and promulgation of Bills by Parliament. Of critical significance to the thesis of this paper are the: Human Rig hts Commission (1994), Commission on Gender Equality Act (1996), Constitution of South Africa (Act 108 0f 1996), National Disability Strategy (1997) and White Paper on Disability (1997) to mention but a few. Of the above mentioned legislative policy framew orks, the Constitution provides a fundamental framework to address human rights issues in post apartheid South Africa. The South African Constitution as the supreme law of the land in its preamble guarantees the following civil virtues: (i) Heal the divisi ons of the past and establish a society based on democratic values, social justice and fundamental human rights, (ii) Improve the quality of life of all citizens and free the potential of each person, (iii) Lay the foundation for democratic and open societ y in which Government is based on the will of the people and every citizen is equally protected by law. The vision of the South African Constitution alluded to above is central to the thesis of this paper. It in many ways responds to the plight of Nothem ba and many South Africans that experienced the wrath of the apartheid regime. In a nutshell, the apartheid system did not guarantee Nothembas rights as a human being and a bona fide citizen of
Education Policy Analysis Archives Vol. 13 No. 3 4 South Africa. The advent of the democratic dispensation in So uth Africa in 1994 has played a significant in foregrounding the social justice discourse The notion of social justice throughout the period of political struggle and liberation has played a major role in raising the level of political consciousness among the South Afri cans. According to Feagin (2001, p. 5): Social Justice requires resource equity, fairness and respect for diversity as well as the eradication of existing forms of social oppression. Social Justice entails a redistribution of resources fro m those who have unjustly gained them to those who justly deserve them. And it also means creating and ensuring the process of truly democratic participatory decision The cumulative significance of the policies alluded to above can be summed up as follow s:(i) Affirmation by the African National Congress led government about its political will and commitment to provide the necessary resources and infrastructure to transform the social structures (ii) Strong message to the global world about the need to prom ote and uphold the culture of Human Rights ,(iii) Provide the basic infrastructure for the interrogation of an Inclusive Education & Training System and (iv) Provide fora t hat would set the change agenda including consolidation of transformation initiatives a nd successes thus made It is in this context that 1996 will remain a symbolic year for the African National Congress led government. It was during this period that the Ministry of Education appointed the National Commission on Special Needs in Education and Training and the National Committee on Education Support Services to investigate and make tangible recommendations on special needs and support services in education and training in South Africa. The rationale was to find strategies t o redress the ap artheid legacy in education and training. I must hasten to add that d uring the apartheid era, special schools were for the few and privileged and the majority of blacks with disabilities were denied access to such schools including social welfare, except a few that were run by the missionaries. These schools were few and under resourced. It is within this context that the Story of Nothemba epitomizes the enormity of the challenge lying ahead particularly with regard to questions of access, equity and redr ess. Furthermore, the Commissions investigation yielded the following scenarios that characterized apartheid education and disregard for the rights of those with disability: (i) Specialised education and support have been predominantly provided for a smal l percentage of learners with disabilities within special schools and classes; (ii) Where provided, specialized education and support were provided on a racial basis, with the best human, physical and material resources reserved for whites; (iii) Most learne rs with disability have either fallen outside of the system or been mainstreamed by default; (iv) The curriculum and education system as a whole have generally failed to respond to the diverse needs of the learner population, resulting in massive numbers o f drop outs, push outs, and failures; and (v) While some attention has been given to the schooling phase with regard to special needs and support, the other levels or bands of education have been seriously neglected. (Education White Paper 6 2001:5).
Monyooe: Inclusive Education and Training Systems 5 The Commissions findings are instructional and relevant to the discourse of change and transformation In the first incidence, they create d a forum for dialogue among the stakeholders on the rights of the people with disability. S econd, they led to a paradigm shift both in policy and praxis which culminated in the conceptualization of the Education White Paper 6, with well defined short and medium term strategies regarding three fundamental aspects of transformation such as funding, human development and infra structure. The need and exigency to transform and implement educational changes in a more transparent and holistic manner is well articulat ed by the Education White Paper 6 stipulates that: The education and training system should promote education for al l and foster the development of inclusive and supportive centres of learning that would enable all learners to participate actively in the education process so that they could develop and extend their potential and participate as equal members of society ( Education White Paper 6: 2001, p. 5). The resonance of what the Education White Paper 6 articulates and proposes as a transformative strategy was non existent during lifetime of Nothemba. The education system then failed to honour her right to education a nd better life as a person with disability. To circumvent the challenges and tribulations that Nothemba and South Africans of similar physical stature experienced during the apartheid regime the Education White Paper 6 (2001:6) makes the following fundame ntal propositions: (i) Transforming all aspects of the education system, (ii) Developing an integrated system of education, (iii) Infusing special needs and support services throughout the system, (iv) Pursuing the holistic development of centres of learning to ensure a barrier free physical environment and supportive and inclusive psycho social learning environment, developing a flexible curriculum to ensure access to all learners, (v) Promoting the rights and responsibilities of parents, educators and learners, ( vi) Providing effective development programmes for educators, support personnel, and other relevant human resources ,(vii) Fostering holistic and integrated support provision through inter sectoral collaboration, (viii) Developing a community based support syst em which includes a preventative and developmental approach to support, and (ix) Developing funding strategies that ensure redress for historically disadvantaged communities and institutions, sustainability, and ultimately access to education for all lear ners. In addition to the policies alluded to in the discussion above, there are further policy changes and consolidation achievements taking place. Of particular significance are (i) Report to the Minister: A r eview of the financing, resourcing and costs of education in public schoo l s (2003), (ii) Implementation Plan for Tirisano (2001 2002), to mention but a few. A lot of work still lies ahead before tangible policy implementations can be realized. The extent to which the envisaged changes are implemented will indeed give credence to both the short and long term benefits. Furthermore, the level of success will invariably confirm South Africas commitment to transform education and institutionalize Inclusive Education & Training System for the scholastic em powerment of South Africans.
Education Policy Analysis Archives Vol. 13 No. 3 6 What is an Inclusive Education & Training System? Commenting on the need to transform educational systems to address socio political challenges Tomasevski (2003 p. 18) writes : For education to be adaptable, schools must ad just to childrens needs in accordance with the principle of the best interests of every child. This change ended the practice of forcing children to adapt to whatever school was offered to them. Human rights being indivisible, the requirement of adaptabil ity means that all human rights must be protected within the education system and also improved through education. It is in this context that the Story of Nothemba reverberates again and again about the need for governments worldwide to recognize and affi rm the rights of children in their education systems. A commitment the apartheid regime failed to honour in the case of Nothemba. Education White Paper 6 (2001:16) identifies the following as the critical pillars of a n Inclusive Education and Training Sys tem: (i) Acknowledging that all children and youth can learn and that all children and youth need support (ii) Enabling education structures, systems and learning methodologies to meet the needs of all learners ,(iii) Acknowledging and respecting differences in learners, whether due to age, gender, ethnicity, language, class, disability, HIV or other infectious diseases (iv) Broader than formal schooling and acknowledging that learning also occurs in the home and community, and within formal and informal setti ngs and structures ,(v) Changing attitudes, behaviour, teaching methods, curricula and environment to meet the needs of all learners and (vi) Maximizing the participation of all learners in the culture and the curriculum of educational institutions and uncov ering and minimizing barriers to learning. The cumulative significance of what the Education White Paper 6 poses demonstrates the enormity of the challenge, the ANC led government faces as it grapples with transformation and change. The challenges alluded to above are not peculiar to South Africa alone. Several countries and organizations have engaged commissions to figure out plausible strategies of addressing these challenges. According to Tomasevski (2003, p. 13): Accessibility subsumes various governm ent obligations. Education as a civil and political right requires the Government to permit the establishment of schools and universities, while education as a social and economic right requires Government to ensure that education is for all children of s chool age. Education as a cultural right requires the affirmation of collective and individual rights... Tomasevskis analysis of educational rights in Colombias system of education is relevant to the issues raised by this paper. Of particular signific ance is the ability to capture the complex interplay between education and politics in general. In South Africa education has always been a source of political contestations. The thesis of Tomasevski (2003) bears semblance to the Story of Nothemba and atte mpts to institutionalise an Inclusive
Monyooe: Inclusive Education and Training Systems 7 Education and Training System. Like her Colombian counterparts, Nothembas rights and freedoms were violated. She was banished away from her family and community. Her right to basic education and training was usurped b y the apartheid regime.The advent of the new democracy brings with it opportunities to recognize and affirm human rights and freedoms. Educationally, it presents South Africa with exciting possibilities to institutionalize Inclusive Education and Training System that is adaptable, competitive and responsive to the needs of South Africans. 3. Defining Disability The concept disability is variously defined and unders tood, for instance, Power (2001, p. 85) refers to disability as: ... cognitive and physical conditions that deviate from normative ideas of physical ability and physiological function. The term disability and disabled denote more than a medical condition or an essentialised deformity or difference and are prefe rable to the terms impairment an d handicapped which suggest inherent biological limitations and individual abnormalities. To advance the argument and issues raised here I intend to ad opt Mitchell and Snyders (1999, p. 3) definition of disability that denotes the social, historical, political and mythological coordinates that define disabled people as excessive to traditional social circuits of interaction and as the objects of institutionalised discourses. The story of Nothemba is used as a n appropriate metaphor to reflect on the p light of people with disabilities. It is also used as a scaffold to interrogate the possibilities for creating conducive conditions to optimiz e the potential of people with disability. In her analysis about the need to mainstream gender issues Dankelman (2 003 p. 17) writes: Good governance not only includes transparency, democracy and respect for human rights, institutional capacity and resources, but it also has major gender implications. Among these are equal participation of women at all levels, their access to education, training employment and benefits, as well as the use of gender differentiated methodologies and instruments Gender mainstreaming is not simply a question of more women I decision making in development sector. It also means that in stitutional mandates, policies and actions are shaped by gender perspectives. The resonance of Dankelmans articulations is a sad reminder of Nothembas plight. As a consequence of apartheid laws, she could not benefit from such an educational system sinc e g ender mainstreaming was selective and highly racialised. Attempts to mainstream women and gender issues have to be underpinned by sound policies and legislative frameworks. As argued earlier, South Africa is endowed with such plausible policies to advan ce the rights and aspirations of women and its citizens in general. The discourse of mainstreaming gender and women issues, particularly regarding those with disabilities remains a global challenge. The enormity of this challenge was further re affirmed b y the Disabled Peoples International Womens Committee (DPIWC)
Education Policy Analysis Archives Vol. 13 No. 3 8 during the 1995 Beijing Conference. The DPIWC (2000) took a critical stance towards the United Nations initiatives on social development, with a particular reference to women. In its rebuttal the DPIWC expressed serious concerns at the lack of significant impact towards developing and sustaining the profile of people with disabilities in national economies, particularly women and girls in developing nations. Of particular significance here is the dearth of public awareness campaigns around issues of disability and concomitant challenges facing people with disabilities across the globe. The lack of commitment to transform and improve the socio economic conditions of the people with disabilit ies is further expressed by Mandla Mabila, a virtual artist during an interview with Shelley Barry Mabila argues that it is incumbent upon practising artists with disabilities to conscientise the public around issues of disability. He argues that through arts and culture people s perceptions about disability can successfully be conquered and transformed. Commenting on the role of arts and culture as an empowering strategy to transform peoples perceptions about disability, Mandla argues: The role of arts and culture is an important one in South Africa not only for self expression of experiences of disability but as a way of entrenching our experiences as people with disabilities and saying that we countThere is a disability culture emerging in South Afric a right now and it is coming out with images of disability, images of strength, beauty and pride. This culture needs to be nurtured and safeguarded ( Barry 2001, p. 2). To highlight the plight of people with disability, Ma bila recalls a story once narrated by one of the delegates during the National Conference on Witchcraft Violence held in September 1998: It is a story of a woman who gave birth to a disabled baby The child had one arm. She (mother) was immediately told that she gave birth to a witch. She had to dig a grave, and jump over it while she threw the child into it. The family then burnt the child, and threw the ashes in the gra ve (Conference Report 1998, p. 27 ). The story alluded to above and Nothembas are a grim reminder of a chilling and at rocious incidences of discrimination and human rights abuses that continue to dominate the news headlines across the globe 4 Disability as a Human Rights Issue: Some Reflections Disability is both a global and human rights issue that has no racial, gen der, socio economic and political boundaries. People with disability exist throughout the globe (world). As a consequence of rampant and systematic disempowerment through discrimination, people with disabilities are susceptible to poverty, prejudice, publi c violence and early death. Apart from living in abject poverty, the majority of disabled people are deliberately denied access to education, health and social welfare, employment and the basic right to life and development. The cumulative implication of t hese practices is indeed a gross violation of human rights principles and virtues. Commenting
Monyooe: Inclusive Education and Training Systems 9 on the experiences of disabled people in Zambia, Hamuwele (1993) argues that invariably, disabled persons are made invisible including the violations of their hum an rights. Furthermore, Hamuwele argues that the majority of parents in Zambia will only educate children without disability. This is a consequence of a view that perceives children as future security. Families will not invest in the welfare of disabled children. It is seen as an irrational burden. The Zambian perceptions about disability also apply to most indigenous communities in Africa and elsewhere d isability is unfortunately associated with witchcraft or some form of a curse. Similar views on disab ility and negation have been articulated by Rapp (1998:1): The attitude that a disabled child is not worth the effort required to advance his/her personal and/or social development leads to emotional abuse and feelings of isolation, low self esteem, and w orthlessness for the disabled child. Sometimes parental neglect is compounded by others in the community who encourage the family to ignore the disabled childA disabled woman from the USA, Etta Ginsberg McEwan, recalls that : At the outset, my mother was told by the doctor: Forget about this little girl. Place her in an institution. You have other children. The tendency to hide persons with disability away from the rest of the community is an attestation of a rampant and systematic discrimination and breach of human rights strategy prevalent in our communities. From time in memorial, disabled persons have been viewed as a burden to society and family. As a consequence of this negation, m any were brutally killed and continue to be exposed to all forms of abuse s It is increasingly evident therefore, that incidences on disability alluded to above are invariably, human rights issues. Drastic steps and strategies have to be identified and implemented to stop the blatant violations of the fundamental human rights of the disabled people. Rapp (1998 :3 ) offers both a cautionary and pragmatic strategy towards addressing the problem of disability: The voices of disabled people must be encouraged, listened to and taken seriously. Only then will the brokenness, po verty, sadness and self hatred give way to the vast array of resources, gifts, skills and visions of disabled people. Only when the abilities of those with disabilities are acknowledged and incorporated int o our churches, schools, and home will our communi ty be whole The notion of disability and the concomitant experiences that individuals bear across communities are both complex and challenging. The level of negation that is associated with disability complicates the overall socio economic framework of t he disabled people According to Disability Studies the public negation experienced by people with disability is a consequence of discriminatory laws and practices based on fallacy and stereotypes (Funk, 1987 ; Olkin 1999 ; Stone, 1999; Gleeson, 2001 & 1999) Similar views have also been articulated by Power (2001) who argues that a failure to embrace disability as a nation challenge has serious ramifications on the overall societal infrastructures. Power (2001. pp. 94 5) further offers an invaluable perspect ive regarding the concept of disability:
Education Policy Analysis Archives Vol. 13 No. 3 10 The construction of disability as a separate development policy domain is problematicto develop enabling alternatives development agencies need to radically rethink their entire notion of development taking their lead directly from the disability movements who endure its contradictions and shortcomings on a daily basis. Disability issues cannot be hidden away in a private house or policy document and must not be allowed to appear as obscure sub site of key institut ional web sites like that of the World Bank. Perhaps the very success or failure of every form of development should be measured by the extent to which it is inclusive of disability 5. Teacher E mpowerment: A prerequisite for an I nclusive E ducation and T raining System The academic credence of institutions of learning is invariably gauged by the professional profile and organisational ethos of both the academic and support staff. Undoubtedly, professional development is critical towards the overall enhan cement of institutional profile and practices. It serves both as a benchmark for educators (academics) to gauge their professionalism and the degree of preparedness to meet the new educational challenges. The governments decision to implement inclusive ed ucation and training has a range of challenges to facilitate smooth implementation. In the first instance, it requires teachers (educators) endowed with specialised training, skills and competences to adequately address the learning needs of learners with disabilities. The reality of the situation is that South Africa has a dearth of educators with specialised training. Poorly trained and under qualified educators compromise not only the educational ethos but the overall organisation and application of incl usive education and training system in our institutions of learning. Another challenge closely associated with professional development is the lack of professional resourcefulness among those entrusted to educate our children. This is evidenced by their r eligious reliance on textbooks. As a consequence of this deficiency, educators struggle to create conducive environment for the learners with disabilities to explore the frontiers of knowledge. Inability to use appropriate resources, teaching and assessmen t strategies has serious implications for the intellectual development of learners with disabilities. Another concern related to the one alluded to above, is the educators lack of basic classroom management and facilitation skills that would enable them t o monitor learners progress and intervene where appropriate. To address this problem, appropriate educator empowerment programme should be explored and implemented to give impetus to the notion of school effectiveness, especially within the context of inc lusive education and training. Attempts to empower teachers (educators) should be underpinned by a rigorous audit of the following key professional development indicators: (i) Qualifications (ii) Professional and work ethos (iii) Knowledge capacity with re gard to learners with disabilities (iv) Methods and strategies of teaching (v) Assessment and evaluation strategies (vi) Leadership and management skills (vii) Organisational and operational skills and (viii) Linguistic proficiency These are the basic ben chmarks that teachers should display in their interaction with learners of diverse social, economic and educational background.
Monyooe: Inclusive Education and Training Systems 11 It seems appropriate therefore that for the policy of inclusive education and training to succeed it must be anchored on a well capacitated professional development unit that understands the dynamics of inclusive education agenda. To optimise their value, teachers should form the core of an intervention team and be at the cutting edge of their discipline. This obviously hinges on t he nature and quality of teacher education programmes available to teachers. During the apartheid era, teacher education and training in this country was highly fragmented with great disparity in the quality of training offered by different institutions. The conditions did not accelerate optimal functioning of teachers and learners. The emerging Higher Education Plan attempts to redress the apartheid legacy by addressing both the structural and curricula issues. Tangible changes have indeed unfolded since 1994 for instance, the National Department of Education (NDoE) appointed a Committee on Teacher Education Policy (COTEP 1999 ) to develop a set of norms and standards for teacher education and training. The COTEP document outlines in details the various r oles teachers (educators) have to perform to facilitate effective teaching and learning. These include educators being: (i) L earning mediator(s) (ii) I nterpreter and designer of learning programmes and materials (iii) L eader, administrator and manager c ommunity, citizenship and pastoral role (iv) S cholar, researcher and lifelong learner (v) L earning area / subject/ discipline/phase specialist and (vi) A ssessor of the learning process. Each role requires educators to display foundational, practical and reflexive skills and competences in their interactions with learners. This reflects a paradigm shift from the former content based approach to teacher education and training and towards a process oriented, competence based approach. I t is within the conte xt of these changes that the following questions continue to prickle the minds of the stakeholders in education and training: (i) What does the new policy on tea cher regulation and development say teachers should be doing in the classroom? (ii) What are tea chers actually doing in the classroom? (iii) Is there a "fit" between what policy stipulates (expects) and what actually takes place in our school classrooms? Answers to these questions highlight the magnitude of the processes of school improvement. It is c lear that more effort has to be directed at changing the conditions of our schools. They ought to be run professionally by well qualified educational leaders who have a solid knowledge and understanding of the historiography of South Africa and its impact on educational initiatives. It is not a simple feat it is like performing a Russian Troupe on a minefield. It requires utmost discernment and impeccable mine craft to successfully de activate the mines before one is blown into shreds. Furthermore, i t must be underpinned by the principles of diversity, collegiality, collaboration, creativity and etiquette. It becomes even more daunting when it applies to inclusive education and training. A lot of foreground has to be done to harmonize the context within whic h educational change has to occur. The success of the policies referred to above will depend on many factors. The key is the adequate monitoring strategies to reinforce their implementation On the contrary, lack of well articulated implementation and mon itoring framework
Education Policy Analysis Archives Vol. 13 No. 3 12 poses a serious challenge. The enormity of the situation will further be compounded by the National Department of Educations commitment to implement inclusive education and training. To professionalise institutions of learning depends la rgely on the leadership and collegial undertaking by the stakeholders to initiate the most compelling strategic changes that would catapult the profile identity and the core business of such institutions. Teachers form a crucial part of any transformation initiative For t eachers (educators) to play a significant role in educational transformation, they need to understand the institutional processes and continuously remain at the cuttin g of their discipline of specialisation. Unfortunately, we cannot micro wave te achers into professionals of a meticulous teaching and research sta ture It is a process that requires commitment, time, resources, training and a passion to conquer the ever cascading educational landscape and teaching challenges. Similar views ha ve been expressed by Carlson (1989 p. 2) who believes that: By giving more authority to and imposing more responsibility upon teachers and principals, school based management contributes to an overall professionalization of the work forceeffective schoo ls have staff that share a commitment to excellence and that help one another in moving the school in that direction The resonance of Carlson's argument is also reflected in the litany of r esearch on school effectiveness and improvement ( Harris 2000 ). Th i s would afford institutions of learning to become self directing. Th e notion of self directing should be complemented by these following operational chan ges a nd practices : (i)I nstitutional commitment to quality education (ii) Inter institutional collaborat ion to exchange information and expertise and (iii) Peer coaching and mentoring the basic strategies that schools can use to accelerate teacher effectiveness and optimal learner performance Congruent with the above suggested strategies is the n eed to str engthen and conso lidate the parent community and school partnership. S uch a tripartite partners hip should focus inter alia. on i ncreasing the active (as opposed to superficial) in volvement of parents in the education of their children...moving beyond pare nts to raise the level of in volvement and commitment of other community members as well This is both relevant and instructive in that it underlines the need to formalise collegial partnership bet ween schools and communities. Such a venture would harmonis e the social fabric be tween schools and members of the community. It would further empo wer them about the dynamics of schooling. This is crucial for South Africa beari ng in mind that during the apartheid era, communities had no say in the way school s opera ted. Educational decision making was the exclusive prerogative of the government thro ugh its bureaucratic structures.
Monyooe: Inclusive Education and Training Systems 13 6 Systemic I mbalance between S upport and E xpectations towards I mplementing an I nclusive E ducation and T raining S ystem Whil st there is unanimity regarding the relevance of the framework on which inclusive education and training system is anchored, there seems to be serious systemic imbalances between the framework, the support and national expectations. Educational policies and frameworks are not cast in stone They are a resultant of dialogue and robust contestations between various stakeholders. Similarly believing and supporting inclusive education initiative does not guarantee that the system will function effectively. There are other organic variables that need to be assessed to minimise failure. For instance, an audit of available resources and capacities within the system is crucial. Another key component associated with the system s and resources audit is the need to have mechanism s in place to prioritis e strategies and action plans. The enormity of this challenge is succinctly articulated by the Education White Paper 6 (2001 p. 17): The Ministry accepts that a broad range of learning needs exists among the learner population at a ny point in time, and that, where these are not met, learners may fail to learn effectively or be excluded from the learning system. In this regard, different learning needs arise from a range of factors, including physical, mental, sensory, neurological a nd developmental impairments, psycho social disturbances, differences in intellectual ability, particular life experiences or socio economic depr iv ation. The Education White Paper 6 (2001:18) further identifies the following as potential barriers to inclu sive education and training: (i) Negative attitudes to and stereotypes of differences (ii) An inflexible curriculum (iii) Inappropriate languages of learning and teaching (iv) Inappropriate communication (v) Inaccessible and unsafe built environments (vi) I nappropriate and inadequate support services (vii) Inadequate policies and legislation (viii) The non recognition and non involvement of parents and (ix) Inadequately and inappropriately trained education managers and educators Human resources remain a f undamental component of the systems strategy. Similarly, for the inclusive education and training system to be fully operational, the personnel tasked to operationalise the system should possess appropriate skills and competences for the system to function effectively and efficiently. Furthermore, there must be adequate infrastructure to accommodate the wave of national expectations generated by the envisaged implementation of the new initiative. In its analysis of whether the structural frameworks do impac t on institutional operations, UNESCO offers both a provocative and instructive perspective, namely: Whether or not expanded educational opportunities will translate into meaningful development for individual or for society depends ultimately on whether p eople actually learn as a result of those opportunities, in other words, whether they incorporate useful knowledge, reasoning ability, skills and values
Education Policy Analysis Archives Vol. 13 No. 3 14 Similar concerns also apply to the envisaged implementation of inclusive education and training syste m in South Africa. Evidence gleaned form literature about inclusive education and training systems is critical about the state of institutional structural framework and resources. At the heart of this cautionary statement is the need to have systems in pla ce to enhance the monitoring of the processes. Although the national framework and policy on inclusive education and training is well articulated, the institutional structural capacity is seriously inadequate. The physical conditions of the majority of sch ools compromise the fundamental principles of inclusive education and training systems. Poor institutional infrastructure and limited classroom space make it difficult to implement inclusive education. Apart from inadequate physical facilities, the majorit y of schools in South Africa are poorly equipped and under resourced. Poorly equipped and under resourced institutions do not have the capacity to embrace inclusive education initiative as a strategy to change and transform education and classroom practice s. Lack of financial support (budget) to invest in institutional resource capacity building impedes the successful implementation of inclusive education strategy. An attempt has to be made to encourage joint and cost effective financial ventures between sc hools and the private sector to generate funds for instructional resources. According to Education White Paper 6 t he current profile and distribution of special schools and learner enrolment is extremely skewed. In the first instance, there is a serious disparity in terms of the existing establishments for learners with disabilities; learner enrolment and learner expenditure across provinces. ( see Appendix ) The mismatch learning needs and infra structural provisions is a consequence of apartheid policies that allocated resources on racial segregation. A comparative analysis of incidences of disabilities and the number of learners accommodated in a school reveals extreme disparities, for instance: (i) 0.28 of learners in the Eastern Cape re enrolled in spec ial schools, yet the overall incidence figure for the population of disabled persons (of all ages) is 17.39%, (ii) This pattern is repeated across provinces, indicating that significant numbers of learners who based on the traditional model should be receiv ing educational support in special schools are not getting any (iii) While the national total incidence figure for disabilities (of all ages) is 6.55%, the total number of learn ers in special schools is 0.52%, (iv) Learner expenditure on learners with disab ilities varies significantly across provinces, ranging from R11,049 in Gauteng to R 28,635 in the Western Cape and R22,627 in the Free State (v) Distribution of learner expenditure demonstrates lack of efficiency in the resource use and management and (vi ) It demonstrates lack of uniform resourcing strategy and national provisioning norms for learners with disabilities. (WP6. p.15) For the policy of inclusive education and training to succeed, a more defined allocation strategy for resources for learners w ith disabilities needs to be in place to ensure that there is equitable distribution of resources for diverse learners requirements This will ensure that learners who require more intensive and specialised forms of support will be adequately provided for so that they can achieve their full potential. Furthermore, funding plays a critical role in the provisioning and serving of an effective education system. The financial constraints as alluded to above cannot and will never be matched by any state budget Poor facilities adversely contribute to low standards in education which culminate in high learner drop outs and failure. When teachers and learners find themselves in under resourced environment, they easily lose confidence in the system
Monyooe: Inclusive Education and Training Systems 15 and schools bec ome dysfunction at the cost of the nation. The envisaged implementation of inclusive education and training is likely to compound the situation. Schools need the financial resources to rehabilitate their infrastructure including teaching and learning mater ials. Access to redress funding and other cost effective ventures by stakeholders will indeed leverage the necessary financial muscle schools need so desperately. 7 A dopting relevant curriculum policy and assessment strategies and practices The South Af rican Constitution, 1996 (Act No 108 of 1996) provides the fundamental framework for curriculum reconfiguration and development in the post apartheid South Africa. The Constitutions mandate as outlines in the preamble is to: (i) Heal the divisions of the p ast and establish a society based on democratic values, social justice and fundamental human rights (ii) Improve the quality of life of all citizens and free the potential of each person (iii) Lay the foundation for a democratic and open society in which G overnment is based on the will of the people and every citizen is equally protected by law and (iv) Build a united and democratic South Africa able to take its rightful place as a sovereign state in the family of nations. The Constitution places a huge pre mium on the Bill of Rights of the citizens in a democratic South Africa. T hrough the Revise d National Curriculum Statement Grades R 9 (2001), (RNCSG) the National Department of Education (NDoE) has embraced the values and principles of the Constitution. In its description of the kind of learners it hopes to produce as part of its curriculum reconfiguration, the NDoE states that: The curriculum aims to develop the full potential of each learner as a citizen of democratic South Africa. It seeks to create a l ifelong learner who is confident and independent, literate, numerate and multi skilled, compassionate, with a respect for the environment and the ability to participate in society as a critical and active citizen. ( RNCSG:8 ) The RNCSG adopts an inclusive strategy by specifying the minimum criteria for learners. Such criteria cater for the needs of all learners of South Africa, including those with learning disabilities. The demise of the apartheid regime in 1994 created a wave of euphoria and excitement ab out the future educational prospects for South Africa. The three cardinal principles that underpinned the transformation discourse in education are Access, Equity and Quality Striving towards realising these principles, the educational initiatives in Sout h Africa have been targeted towards implementing quality education for all. There are concrete developments around the plight of the learners with disabilities within the mainstream and the so called special schools. (EWP1:1995). The legislative framewor k for instance, Section 8(1) of the National Education Policy Act of 1996 empowers the Minister of Education to direct standards of education provision, delivery and performance throughout the Republic. The seriousness of th e p light of learners with disa bili ties led to the establishment of various fora that engaged at ways of addressing the needs of learners with disabilities. The National Commission on Special Needs in Education and Training and a National Committ ee o n Education Support Services (1996) p layed a sterling role which led to the formulation of Cosultative Paper 1 on Special Education: Building an Inclusive Education and Training System (1999). The
Education Policy Analysis Archives Vol. 13 No. 3 16 impact of these interactions gave rise to various curriculum policy initiatives that further bro adened the scope of debates and discourse. I must hasten to argue that c urriculum policies are not cast in stone. They are a consequence of robust contestations by different stakeholders in education and training. The ensuing debate or discourse around cu rriculum change and transformation is a consequence of diverse factors, for instance, the huge public displeasure about poor learner performance across the curriculum including discrimination against those with disabilities It is also due to the huge fina ncial expenses incurred by governments worldwide as a result of dysfunctional school systems. According to Archer (1992) the global proliferation of curriculum initiatives is a response to globalisation and its concomitant impact o n institutional domains l ike science and technology, politics, economics and culture. Archer (1992) and Finegold et al (1993) view globalisation as a multi faceted process characterised by the principle of interconnectedness and flexible policy borrowing across countries. The ad option of educational policies and systems is a complex process that requires planning and access to resources to make systems functional. Educational systems are not cast in stone. They are a consequence of contestations and trade offs between various rol e players. South Africa is a typical example regarding the genesis of educational transformation and the overall political trade offs Curriculum reconfiguration is both a complex and emotive process that requires meticulous planning and monitoring to ens ure that the envisaged changes bear fruit. The dynamics of the envisaged educational changes are further articulated by Harris (2000 p. 1) that: In most western countries the pressure for change has manifested itself through government policies aimed at generating the impetus for school development. In reality, however, such policies have often proved counter productive to innovation and change. The current dichotomy facing schools is one of greater central accountability and control, with an increased re sponsibility for self management and development. What Harris alludes to is pertinent to the changing educational landscape in South Africa. The adoption of the National Qualifications Framework (NQF) as a grandeur for scaffolding curriculum reconfigurati on for South Africa is a bold shift policy and praxis. The NQF is largely underpinned by the following key principles: (i) Create an integrated national framework for learning achievements (ii) Facilitate access to and mobility and progres s within education and training (iii) Enhance the quality of education and training (iv) Accelerate the redress of unfair discrimination in education, training and employment opportunities, thereby (v) Contribute to the full and personal development of each learner and the s ocial and economic development of the nation at large. (Government Gazzette, 1995:1 ) The principles that underpin the philosophy of the government through the NQF articulations are crucial towards addressing the welfare of particularly, learners with dis abilities. Similar views have been articulated by Christie (1997:111) in her analysis of the impact of the White Paper on Education and Training (WPET, 1995):
Monyooe: Inclusive Education and Training Systems 17 In responding to the need for change, the WPET brings together a set of proposals to restructure the relationship between education and training, to introduce greater flexibility of structures, to enhance mobility between learning contexts, and to build quality on the scaffolding of a National Qualification Framework. Together, these proposals aim at a policy of life long learning, which would widen access to education and training as well as link it to human resource development policies. The cumulative wisdom alluded to above, is succi nctly elaborated by Nkomo (1998, p. 137): Education is a pr ocess by which we seek to achieve the maximum enlightenment possible. This is accompanied by emancipating the individual (through the promotion of the realisation that there exists within one the capacity to transform ones circumstances) and by extension society, from ignorance, prejudice of all forms, parochialism, poverty and so forth. The resonance of Nkomos thesis consolidates explicitly the cumulative rigour that curriculum and assessment synergy bears on educational systems and practices. Attempts to address barriers to learning and exclusivism are consistent with the principles that underpin the implementation of inclusive education and training system. Such a strategy recognises the need to empower learners by giving them appropriate skills to exp lore the frontiers of knowledge. It is essential therefore, to create conditions that would enhance alignment of educational systems. In this regard, the Ministry of Education through the National Education Policy Act of 1996 and the Assessment Policy for General Education and Training has been mandated to evaluate and monitor educational standards, provisioning, delivery and performance. The rationale is to ensure that educational policies and practices comply with the principles and values of the Constitu tion of the Republic of South Africa. Education White Paper 6 identifies the learners with disabilities as the vulnerable towards being excluded from the mainstream education system. To circumvent this problem the Department of Education in partnership wi th the provincial education departments and the University of Pretoria conducted the Systemic Evaluation Study for Grade 3 Learners with Disabilities at Special Schools. The participants comprised learners who were blind (LwaB) deaf (LwaD), learning disab led (LwaLD), partially sighted (LwaPS) and physically disabled (LwaPhD). The learners were drawn form 46 schools and totalled 587. The fundamental objectives of the study were to: (i) Determine the context in which learning and teaching is taking place (ii) Obtain information on learner achievement (iii) Identify factors that affect achievement and (iv) Make conclusions about appropriate education intervention (National Report 2002:11) According to the National Report (2002) the study revealed the need to ad apt the curriculum and assessment for the consumption of learners with disabilities must be underpinned by the principles of Access, Equity and Equality. It further called for accelerated training strategies for educators, managers, parents and supporters of learners
Education Policy Analysis Archives Vol. 13 No. 3 18 with disabilities. The National Report further makes the following critical observation regarding inclusive education and training: Implementing an IE policy is not about classrooms and schools or for that matter, special, full service and ord inary schools alone It is about the richly inclusive, nuanced thinking and functioning in all government departments and at all levels. The acid test for the policy must be feasibility, which superficially may be thought to translate into considerations o f cost and expertise. From a psychological perspective, however, the implementation of the new policy may be seen to rest more fundamentally on issues of attitude and values, which would affect Access, Equity and Equality by the degree, quality and content of motivation invested in engaging with the changes of the required change. The dynamics especially hold true for achieving the spirit of respect for the dignity and interests of learners with a disability or other barriers to learning and development in SE Programme of South Africa. The narrative about Nothembas plight and tribulations is a constant reminder to affirm, question and challenge the rampant stereotypes about disabilities. It is also a call to champion and the rights of all people with disab ilities as expressed in the Constitution of South Africa. 8 U tilising the research logic to inform policy decisions and practices July 2002 will go down the annuals of the South African histor iograph y as both a giant and significant step towards laying down the framework for national research and development for various reasons. In the first instance, it embraces a paradigm shift in research scope and praxis, with the National Biotechnology Strategy taking the centre stage. In the second instance, it cre ates opportunities for optimal utilisation of existing institutions of higher education to advance research agenda The new research and development strategy is underpinned by three pillars namely, innovation; science, engineering and technology (SET) huma n resources and transformation and creating an effective government S&T system and thus function as key drivers of research initiatives. Of these pillars, human resource development is critical towards optimising available capacities and skills to improve the socio economic scales of the nation. In a nutshell, the research and development strategy offers plausible opportunities to address issues of national competitiveness, improved quality of life and reduction of poverty. In outlining the context for t he research and development strategy, President Mbeki acknowledges the dialectical relationship between investing in research and the general spin offs derived from such an endeavour. The upsurge of interest in research is a consequence of a plethora of fa ctors, for instance, to promote the culture of accountability within institutions. Research can be used as a monitoring tool and thus provide some form of credibility to justify the huge financial resources invested in research initiatives. On a general le vel, i t can be used to demystify public perceptions and distrust about research initiatives. Evidence gleaned from literature on research studies confirms that research plays a crucial role to provide pertinent data on the quality of educational systems an d practices (Mwamwenda, 1994; Nyamapfene, 1999; Harris, 2000). The envisaged
Monyooe: Inclusive Education and Training Systems 19 implementation of inclusive education and training requires a rigorous commitment to explore the theoretical and operational dynamics of such a system, thus ensure its success. I n 1999, the Gauteng Department of Education (GDE) hosted a conference on Educator as Researcher . One of the primary aims of the conference was To move research agenda to the center of change process in education The long term vision of the conference was to encourage dialogue about strategies institutions might use to facilitate educators transition to the world of research in order to become critical scholars. The extent to which educators can competently undertake research is still contestable. Th is has to be understood within the historiography of South Africa. During apartheid educators had no business with research, theirs was to teach, teach and teach! No programmes existed to empower them with research skills and strategies that would impact o n their teaching and scholarship. In a nutshell, South Africa cannot micro wave educators into top class researchers over night. It is a process that requires time, training, commitment and resources. According to Nyamapfene (1999) doing research is an imp erative requirement for those entrusted with the responsibility of academia. R esearch capacity at institutional level needs jacking up to match academic and policy challenges (Noble, 1989 and Mwamwenda, 1994). The role of educators ( teachers ) in research must be explored and affirmed as a plausible strategy that will enhance their intellectual growth as classroom practitioners and policy think tanks Th e i r active involvement in research will enhance the strategic vision of the Department of Education in t erms of the envisaged implementation of inclusive education and training system in South Africa. Attempts to encourage educators to become critical scholars and actively participate in research projects should be underpinned by: (i) Strong research leader ship (ii) Mentoring and research capacity building (iii) Plausible development plan that clearly articulates institutional vision and research priorities and (iv) Effective organisation and management of resources to optimise research outputs. The impac t of research in educational transformation and curriculum reconfiguration is well documented. According to Mwamwenda (1994) research plays a crucial role in shaping up educational systems. For instance, it helps institutions to redefine their core busines s es within the ever changing global context. He also argues that decision making in education should be a consequence of research outputs. He further concedes that lack of research output would compromise the image of the institution both nationally and internationally. In this case, it would even compromise the policy systems of such a country. In addition, Wickham and Bailey (2000) believe that research further enhances: (i) Sharing and collaboration among stakeholders (ii) Dialogue on various educationa l issues (iii) Communication between teachers, learners and policy planners (iv) Performance levels of teachers and learners (v) Teacher designed staff development initiatives (vi) Developing priorities for school planning and (vii) Development to new form s of knowledge The quality of research out put s can be optimised by developing the culture of research within institutions of learning and relevant support systems. The strategy for achieving such a task is succin ctly elaborated by Gaynor (1998, p. 70):
Education Policy Analysis Archives Vol. 13 No. 3 20 Pedagogical research must be strengthened to improve the quality of education. For example, in service and action research should be carried out, and the research should be communicated to teachers in an effective manner. Schools must be allowed to have a direct input into the research process by, for example, becoming involved in research design and implementation. A cumulative analysis of scholarship on research confirms the notion that if research output is utilised intelligently, it can empower instit utions with appropriate skills on curriculum and assessment alignment strategies. Through systematic research plans, institutions can align research outputs with tuition, thus ensuring a thermotaxis between educational policies and classroom practices. T his would further enhance the utility value of the research logic as an integral part of policy formulation and decision making strategy. Furthermore, it would also enhance the application of the National Disability Strategy with regard to the plight of pe ople with disability in a post apartheid South Africa. 9. C onclusion The dictum Race and exclusion were the decadent and immoral factors that determined the place of our innocent and vulnerable children (EWP6, 2001:4) seems to be an appropriate summati on of the thesis of this paper. The S tory of Nothemba is but one of the many untold narratives about the person struggles and tragedies that many South Africa ns with disabilities endured during the apartheid regime and ultimately resigned into embracing as their identity and a definitive summation of their biographies. The envisaged implementation of an I nclusive E ducation and T raining S ystem has to be crafted and operationalised within the spirit and mandate of the Constitution of South Africa which among other things, outlaws any form of discrimination, including the marginalisation of people with disability. References A rcher M. (1991) Sociology for World: Unity and Diversity International, Sociology, 6(2):133 Barry, S. (2001) Politicizing Disability through Arts and Culture An interview with Mandla Mabila In Disability World: A bimonthly web zine of International disability news and views, (9). Bell, L. (1997) Theoretical Foundations for Social Justice Education, in Adams, M., Bell, L & Griffin, P. (1997) Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice. New York: Routledge. Christie, P.(1997) Globalisation and the Curriculum: Proposals for the Integration of Education and Training. In P. KALLAWAY, et al., (eds.) Education After
Monyooe: Inclusive Education and Training Systems 21 Apartheid: South African E ducation in Transition.(Cape Town: University of Cape Town.) Constitution of South Africa (Act 108 of 1996). (1996). Pretoria. Commission on Gender Equality Act (1996). Pretoria. Dankelman, L. (2003) Gender, Environment and Sustainable Development: Theo retical Trends, Emerging Issues and Challenges (Review Paper) United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW). Department of Education, (1995) Education White Paper No 1, on Education and Training. Preto ria. Department of Education, (1995) South Africa Qualifications Authority Act. Pretoria. Department of Education, (1996) National Commission on Special Education and Training & National Committee on Education Support Services. Pretoria. Department of E ducation, (1996) South African Schools Act. Pretoria. Department of Education, (1997) Higher Education Act. Pretoria. Department of Education,(1999) Norms and Standards for Teacher Development. Pretoria. Department of Education, (1998) Further Education and Training Act. Pretoria. Department of Education, (2000) Adult Ba sic Education and Training Act. Pretoria. Department of Education, (2001) National Policy on Whole School Improvement. Pretoria. Department of Education, ( 2001 ) Education White Paper 6 Pretoria. Department of Education, (2001) Revised National Curriculum Statement Grades R 9. Pretoria. Feagin, J. (2001) Social Justice and Sociology Agendas for the Twenty first Century, in American Sociological Review, 2001, (66) 1 20. Finegold D et al.(eds). (1993) Something Borrowed, Something Learned? The transatlantic Market in Education and Training Reform. (Washington, D.C. The Brookings Institution).
Education Policy Analysis Archives Vol. 13 No. 3 22 Fredrickson, J. 1997. Reclaiming our voices: Eman c ipatory narrat ives on critical literacy, praxis and pedagogy. An Occasional Paper Series for Entering the 21 st Century. Los Angeles, CA: California Association for Bilingual Education Funk, R. 1987. Disability rights: from caste to class in the context of civil rights. In A.Gartner & T.Joe (Eds. ) Images of the disabled, disabling images. (pp.7 30) New York: Praeger. G aynor C, (1998) Decentralization of Education Teacher Management. (Washington D.C: The World Bank). Gleeson, B. 1999. Geographies of Disability. London: Routledge. Gleeson, B. 2 001. Disability and the open city. Urban Studies, 38(2), pp. 251 265. Hamuwele, D. 1993. Improved Livelihood for Disabled Women: A Regional Programme for Southern African Countries, International Labour Organization in Challenging Disability. H arris A. (2000) What works in school improvement? Lessons from the field and future directions. Educational Research, 42(1): 1 11. Human Rights Commission Act, (1994) Pretoria. Mitchell, D.T. & Snyder, S.L. 1999. Introduction: Disability Studies and the double b ind of representation, In the Body and Physical Difference: Discourses of Disability, Mitchell, D.T. & Snyder, S.L. (Eds) Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp 1 34. M wamwenda T.S. (1994) Academics Stance on the Slogan Publish or Perish. Assessm ent & Evaluation in Higher Education, 12: 414 417. National Disability Strategy, (1997). Pretoria. N komo M.(1998) Unity, diversity, reconciliation and the curriculum: Musings on the Thesis and Rejoinder. In M. CROSS, et al (eds.) Dealing with diversit y in South African African Education A debate on politics of national curriculum. (Kenwyn: Juta). N oble K.A. (1989) Publish or Perish: What 23 Journal Editors have to say. Studies in Higher Education, 14:97 102. Norden, M.E. ( 1994 ) The cinema of isola tion: history of physical disability in the movies. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. N yamapfene K. (1999) The Business of Knowledge. Mail & Guardian, August 20 26.
Monyooe: Inclusive Education and Training Systems 23 Olkin, R. ( 1999 ) .What psychotherapists should know about disability. New York: The G uilford Press. Power, M. ( 2001 ) Geographies of Disability and Development in Southern Africa. Disability Studies Quartely, 21(4). Ramirez, A. ( 1997 ) Disability as a field of study. New York Times (December 21). Rapp, E. ( 199 8 ) .To Be Whole. WorldYWCA C ommon Concern : http://www.worldywca.org/common Stone, E. ( 1999 ) Disability and Development. University of Leeds, Leeds: Disability Press. Thompson, R.G. ( 1997 ) Extraordinary bodies: figuring physical disability in American culture and literature. New Y ork: Columbia University Press. Tomasevski, K. (2003) Economic Social and Cultural Rights: The right to education. United Nations Report on Commission on Human Rights. http://www.crop.org/workshops/files/000070 CP CROP NFU UNESCO. ( 1990b ) World Declarat ion on Education for All. Paris. W ickham S & B ailey T. (2000) The Educator as a researcher Guidelines for educators undertaking action research. White Paper on Integrated National Disability Strategy, (1997) Pretoria. About the Author Lebusa A. M onyooe National Research Foundation PO BOX 2600 PRETORIA 0001 South Africa. Tel: 012 481 4230 Email: email@example.com Lebusa A Monyooe is employed in the Directorate Research Promotion and Support as a Manager for these Focus Areas: Economic Growth and International Competitiveness, Information and Communication Technologies, Challenges for Globalisation: Perspectives from the Global South and Sustainable Livelihoods: Eradication of Poverty at the National Research Foundation (NRF) in South Africa. Prior to that he was a Research Specialist in the Assessment Technology and Education Evaluation research programme at the Human Sciences Research Council. Lebusa has an extensive teaching experience both at high school an d university. During 1989 2001 he worked at the University of Transkei, South
Education Policy Analysis Archives Vol. 13 No. 3 24 Africa as a Senior lecturer in the Department of Educational Foundations. His areas of specialization are (i) Curriculum Design and Development, (ii) Teacher Education, (iii) As sessment and Evaluation and (iv) Educational Policy and Management. Lebusa holds a Master of Education in curriculum design and development, which he obtained from the University of the Witwatersrand in 1987. He is currently working on a PhD degree in educ ation. Lebusa has read papers at conferences nationally and internationally. He has published articles in accredited journals such as International Journal of Educational Development, Research in Education, Psychological Reports, The Journal of Social Ps ychology and South African Journal of Higher Education. He has also co authored an Anthology of Southern Sesotho Poetry such as Binang Mmoho and Short stories Radihlaba. A ppendix Provinces # of Speci al Scho ols # of Learner s in Special Schools % of Lea rners in Special Schools % of Total No of Special Schools in Province Per Learner Expendit ure Eastern Cape 41 6483 0.28% 10.79% 13746 Free State 19 3127 0.40% 5.00% 22627 Gauteng 96 25451 1.62% 25.26% 11049 KwaZulu Natal 58 7631 0.28% 15.26% 21254 Mp umalanga 15 2692 0.29% 3.95% 17839 Northern Cape 8 1392 0.68% 2.11% 15749 Northern Province/Limpo po 19 4250 0.23% 5.00% 16609 North West 42 4364 0.46% 11.05% 13015 Western Cape 82 9213 0.96% 21.58% 28635 Totals 380 64603 0.52% 100.00% 17838 Adapted from White Paper 6 (p.13)
Monyooe: Inclusive Education and Training Systems 25 Education Policy Analysis Archives http://epaa.asu.edu Editor: Sherman Dorn University of South Florida Production Assistant: Chris Murrell, Arizona State University General questions about appropriatene ss of topics or particular articles may be addressed to the Editor, Sherman Dorn, epaa editor@shermando rn .com EPAA Editorial Board Michael W. Apple University of Wisconsin David C. Berliner Arizona State University Greg Camilli Rutgers University Linda Darl ing Hammond Stanford University Mark E. Fetler California Commission on Teacher Credentialing Gustavo E. Fischman Arizona State Un iveristy Richard Garlikov Birmingham, Alabama Gene V Glass Arizona State University Thomas F. Green Syracuse University Aimee Howley Ohio University Craig B. Howley Appalachia Educational Laboratory William Hunter University of Ontario Institute of Technology Patricia Fey Jarvis Seattle, Washington Daniel Kalls Ume University Benjamin Levin University of Manitoba Thomas Mauhs Pugh Green Mountain College Les McLe an University of Toronto Heinrich Mintrop University of California, Berkeley Michele Moses Arizona State University Gary Orfield Harvard University Anthony G. Rud Jr. Purdue University Jay Paredes Scribner University of Missouri Michael Scriven Western Michigan University Lorrie A. Shepard University of Colorado, Boulder Robert E. Stake University of Illinois UC Kevin Welner University of Colorado, Boulder Te rrence G. Wiley Arizona State University John Willinsky University of British Columbia
Education Policy Analysis Archives Vol. 13 No. 3 26 Archivos Analticos de Polticas Educativas Associate Editors Gustavo E. Fischman & Pablo Gentili Ari zona State University & Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Founding Associate Editor for Spanish Language (1998 2003) Roberto Rodrguez Gmez Editorial Board Hugo Aboites Universidad Autnoma Metropolitana Xochimilco Adrin Acosta Universidad de Guadalajara Mxico Claudio Almonacid Avila Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educacin, Chile Dalila Andrade de Oliveira Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brasil A lejandra Birgin Ministerio de Educacin, Argentina Teresa Bracho Centro de Investigacin y Docencia Econmica CIDE Alejandro Canales Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico Ursula Casanova Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona Sigfredo Chiroque Instituto de Pedagoga Popular, Per Erwin Epstein Loyola University, Chicago, Illinois Mariano Fernndez Enguita Universidad de Salamanca. Espaa Gaudncio Frigotto Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Rollin Kent Universidad Autnoma de Puebla. Puebla, Mxico Walter Kohan Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Roberto Leher Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Daniel C. Levy University at Albany, SUNY, Albany, New York Nilma Lim o Gomes Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte Pia Lindquist Wong California State University, Sacramento, California Mara Loreto Egaa Programa Interdisciplinario de Investigacin en Educacin Mariano Narodowski Universidad Torcuato Di Tella, Argentina Iolanda de Oliveira Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil Grover Pango Foro Latinoamericano de Polticas Educativas, Per Vanilda Paiva Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Miguel Pereira Catedratico Universidad de Granada, Espaa Angel Ignacio Prez Gmez Universidad de Mlaga Mnica Pini Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina Romualdo Portella do Oliveira Universidade de So Paulo Diana Rhoten Social Science Research Council, New York, New York Jos Gimeno Sacri stn Universidad de Valencia, Espaa Daniel Schugurensky Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Canada Susan Street Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropologia Social Occidente, Guadalajara, Mxico Nelly P. Stromquist University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California Daniel Suarez Laboratorio de Politicas Publicas Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina Antonio Teodoro Universidade Lusfona Lisboa, Carlos A. Torres UCLA Jurjo Torres Santom Universidad de la Corua, Espaa
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