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SFRA Review
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Science Fiction Research Association
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Science fiction -- History and criticism -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Fantasy fiction -- History and criticism -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
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Fantasy fiction -- Book reviews -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
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usfldc doi - S67-00004-n239-1999-04
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#1a. CoedHors: Karen Hellekson & Crajl Jacobsen .. .:. APRIL 1### lIonljdjon Reyjew EdHor: lIejl Barron [;) CYBERSPACE PATROL Alan Elms Cyberspace fictions continue to be of considerable interest to SFRA members; note for instance the twenty pages on "Approaching Neuromancer" in the February issue of the SFRAReview. Until recently, SFRA itself has been nearly invisible in cyberspace-but no more! First, Peter Sands has been working to expand the scope and content of the official SFRA Web page, with the help of vice president Adam Frisch and oth ers. If you haven't visited our Web page in the past few weeks, give it a try at (If you bookmarked the page ear lier, you may be using an old address that leads to an earlier version; replace it with the address above.) By the time you read this, we may have been able to obtain an address that's easier to remember: . Second, Karen Hellekson and Craig Jacobsen have established a separate SFRAReview Web page. It's linked to the official SFRA Web page, but you can get to it directly at this address: . Karen and Craig will use this page to publish material that's just too long for inclusion in the SFRAReview's print version (see, for instance, the twenry additional pages of de tailed commentary on Neuromancer by Rich Erlich), as well as abstracts and excerpts from published SFRAReview articles. We have great hopes for both Web pages. Meanwhile, the Web is steadily becoming more useful for SF researchers. Sturgeon's Law applies with a vengeance to Web content, but with care you can quickly locate all sorts of interesting and useful information. Here are some sites I've found to be especially reliable and productive: The Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers' Association, . This page will lead you to a large number of members' pages, current SFWA news, some obituaries, etc. The International Association for the Fantastic in the Arts, .


SUBMISSIONS The IfMReriew editors encourage submissions, induding essays, Review Essays that cover several related texts, and interviews. Please send submissions or queries to both coeditors. If you would like to review nonfiction or fiction, please contact the respective editor. The general editorial address for the IfM Reriew is: . Karen Hellekson, Coeditor 742 N 5th Street lawrence, KS 66044 <> < khellekson@ > (for attachments) Craig Jacobsen, Coeditor & Fiction Reviews Editor 208 E Baseline Road #311 Tempe, AI 85283 Neil Barron, Nonfiction Reviews Editor 1149 lime Place Vista, CA 92083-7428 <> Visit us at in the Fantastic On-Line Bibliographic Project," edited by Len Hatfield and Neil Baker-both solid resources for finding scholarly papers in diverse loca tions. The Internet Speculative Fiction DataBase, . This includes many lists and linkages, including awards, author bibliographies, and magazine indexes. I've found the latter particularly useful: if you want to know what stories and authors Amazing Stories published in its earliest years, or the contents of a specific issue of Astounding or IASFM or many other magazines, you can usually find the information here. The Internet Movie Database, . If you write about or teach SF film and need really precise and detailed information about a movie's cast, crew, etc., this is the place to go. For one of my projects, I wanted to know whether the 1945 Mars-invasion serial "The Purple Monster Strikes" carne out before or after the August 6 bombing of Hiroshima. The IMDB gave me a specific release date that I couldn't find anywhere else: August 3. Now I just have to figure out how those events are connected ... SF Site, "The Home Page for Science Fiction and Fantasy," . This is a more obviously commercial site than those above, but it has a large array of links to virtually every professional and semipro SF and fantasy magazine currently being published, plus author interviews and plenty of book and magazine reviews. There are lots of other SF-related sites available, including individual authors' personal home pages not linked to those above. (If you're interested in Orson Scott Card, for instance, go immediately to . which will tell you more about Card than you may want to know.) I'm sure I haven't found all the good ones; let us know if you have others to suggest. . LOOHIIIG WEBWARD Karen Hellekson and Craig Jacobsen The SFRAReview website is up and running at . It can be linked from our regular home page (the URL of which is listed on the back cover of this issue). This site, which is maintained by SFRARe view coeditor Craig Jacobsen with content he and coeditor Karen Hellekson put together, contains information relating to the SFRAReview, including links to ama for ordering books reviewed in the SFRAReview's pages. We are also assembling a Review archive. In order that content will reach paying SFRA members first, selected review essays and other features of the SFRAReview will be posted six months to a year after their initial publication. Occasionally, the "director's cut" of an essay cut for length will appear simultaneously with its publication. Because many of our new members have come from our organization website, we want to make it as exciting and informative as possible while maintain ing certain benefits for subscribers. Webmaster Peter Sands has some exciting ideas; look for a definite improvement in timeliness and content of our home page. In addition, the Board is working on a statement of intent for our home page in order that we might more successfully focus on soliciting and posting material of interest to SFRA members at large; we will be focusing on the teaching of SF and SF re search opportunities. As Alan mentions above, be sure to share any internet re sources that you've found particularly valuable. We'd like to make the SFRA web site the place to start SF research on the web. Keep in mind that SFRA receives a kickback from, urn percentage of, any books that you order through when you connect through the link on our page, and it doesn't add anything to your cost.


l!;' =l':& = SFRA OFFICERS' REPORTS Vice President's Repon Adam Frisch I have been working steadily since SFRA's early February executive con ference call to help Peter Sands update the SFRA Website so that it might serve as a more efficient recruitment and research tool. Since most of our new membership during the past year has come out of initial inquiries via this Website, it seems important to make it as accessible as possible to the widest range of potential mem bers. I hope that by the time you're reading this, we will have secured the common sense Internet address for our organization: ; this will make it easier for everyone to access our organization. Also, I am working to make our Website a truly useful instrument for our own members to discover successful classroom tools and approaches, to conduct serious SF research on their own, and to engage in productive dialogue with others currently working in the same SF areas. To these ends, I'd like to ask any member who currently has an online home page, online class syllabi, and other like materials that might prove helpful to a broader range of SFRA members to e-mail me at or snailmail me at 2308 Summit, Sioux City, IA 511041210 with those Internet address so that we can create links to these sites on the SFRA's own home page. I am confident that with new tools such as our Website to supplement our traditional tools for recruitment, such as fliers, brochures, personal notes, etc., SFRA's membership will continue strong into the next century. Secretary's Repon Carolyn Wendell CONFERENCE CALL, SFRA EXECUTIVE BOARD, 7 FEBRUARY 1999 On the line: Alan Elms (president) Adam Frisch (vice president), Joan Gordon (immediate past president), Karen Hellekson (coeditor, SFRA Review), Mike Levy (treasurer), Carolyn Wendell (secretary). The meeting began when everyone was on the line, at 1:04 P.M., EST. SFRA 1999 Conference Update It was reported that the Mobile conference plans were proceeding well, de spite the unfortunate cancellation of guest Michael Bishop. Greg Benford will be guest of honor in Bishop's place. Tom Brennan needs to schedule a time for a board meeting during the conference and to send the SFRA Review a confer ence progress report. Treasurer's Report Mike Levy's treasurer's report was accepted with one small correction (the Scholar Support Fund Balance should be $164.90). SERA Review Concerns The February SFRA Review is nearly completed and the Board agreed to fu ture SFRA Reviews having volume and issue numbers, so that pages can be numbered consecutively from issue to issue. This will make for much easier in dexing. Putting the SFRA Review on the Web page has become more and more obvi ously a necessity: almost every new SFRA member in the last year has come to us through the Web page. Peter Sands, Adam Frisch, Karen Hellekson, and Craig Jacobsen will discuss and oversee the process of upgrading the Website. Some things the Board noted: the SFRA Web page banner does not reflect SFRA (currently, Star Trek motifs are used); the SFRA Web page should be linked to the SFRA Review page, with parallel appearances; permission from In Memoriam Robert Stratton Coulson 1928-1999 Following a long illness, Robert "Buck" Coulson, longtime science {laion fan, filker, bookseller and author, passed away on February 19, 1999. In addition to several novels written with Gene DeWeese, Coulson wrote the novels Gates of the Universe and High Spy. He served as Secretary of the Science Fiaion and Fantasy Writers of America from 1972-1974. He was survived by his wife, author and well-known {llker, Juanita Coulson. Together they edited the fanzine Yan dro, which won a Hugo award in 1965. The body was cremated with no funeral or visitation. Memorials may be sent to American Diabetes Association, American Lung Association or American Heart Association. Lewis Murphy I I MEMBER DIRECTORY ALERT It's time to think about the 1999 member directory. (fhe 1998 directory was in error printed from a database that contained more than one hundred former members.) Many area codes have changed. If yours has or will and you know the new code, please write with the change, indicating the new code and its effeaive date. In addition, many e-mail addresses have changed; check yours for correctness. Send all revisions to Mike Levy (address on back cover) no later than June I, 1999. A new feature in this year's directory will be an interest index, prepared by Neil Barron. The interests stated in the name portion of the directory are necessarily brief (and sometimes vague, or lacking altogether). If you want


to amplifY that brief listing, or add a new listing, send full details ta Neil Barron (address page 2) no later than June I, 1999. [T""a MISSING ISSUES OF THE SFRA REVIEW? The SFRA Review is now back on track, with a full complement of issues printed in 1998 and the February 1999 issue mailed on time. However, we have been receiving trickles of complaints from members regarding missing back issues. We are now photocopying the labels stuck to the SFRA Review when it is mailed to verifY whether or not particular issues were sent But if you or your institution are missing some SFRA Review back issues, please contad SFRA treasurer Mike Levy. We will arrange to have back issues or photocopies of back issues sent to you. Not all back issues are available as originals. I I CALL FOR NOMINATIONS SFRA has always financially supported scholars in need. Mike Levy reminds everyone to nominate scholars for SFRA to subsidize. In the past, SFRA has supported third-world scholars; American graduate students overseas; and graduate students in other countries. Donations are welcome. Contad Mike with nominations and donations. I I. GUIDEliNES FOR GRADUATE STUDENT PAPER AWARDS This award is a way to recognize the fine scholarship by graduate students, to encourage graduate student work in science fiction and fantasy literature and (ilm, and to recruit new members for the organization and annual conference. SFRA Review contributors to put their material on the Web must be granted; material on the Web will be older (so that the printed SFRA Review will remain current); and datelines for updates must be established and met. The organizational Websites must show those characteristics our association is unique for: an emphasis on research, a welcome to new members, ideas for paper topics, information on teaching SF, papers and panels from the last two or three conferences. In the near future, SFRA may need to add the position of Webmaster to its official list of officers and editors. URL space is available for an easy-to-find address: -let's see if we can get it. And we defi nitely are looking for more and better ways to use the Website. Since this meeting is not taking place in the traditional face-to-face method, but in a conference call, the savings can and should be applied to ensure atten dance of the Board at the conference in Mobile-especially Karen Hellekson and Craig Jacobsen, coeditors of the SFRA Review. It is assumed that Geoffrey Sperl {former coeditor of the SFRA Review still holds materials, including submissions, back issues of issues he put out, materials from past editor Amy Sisson (some archival). Attempts to retrieve these have not yet met with success; Alan Elms will send Geoffrey a letter. If any member is missing an issue or a submission, please let Karen Hellekson know. Election Concerns Since there is increasing difficulty in finding people willing to run for office, should we consider abolishing the tradition of opposing candidates? The con sensus was no, because people should be willing to show commitment to the organization by running (besides, it's flattering to be asked and can be used in annual review processes). Probably more nominations should be lined up at the annual conference; also, descriptions of officers' duties would help so people know what they're agreeing to. The SFRA Review will run such descriptions in the October 2000 issue; meanwhile, please work on them, officers. SFRA Book Bequest Mary Bray has donated books to SFRA: what to do with them? The best idea was volunteered by Joe Sanders: he will collect the books (SFRA will pay mileage) and auction them off at the Cleveland 2001 meeting. We need a list of the books or, Karen Hellekson suggests, photographs so that we can ask a knowl edgeable member about what we own (Ron Larson was mentioned). Pilgrim Award Winners A good portion of our membership derives from Pilgrim winners, all of whom are provided with free memberships. As the years go by, the list grows longer. No one wants to remove this benefit, as Pilgrims deserve it; instead, we will concentrate in building paying memberships to offset the cost. (Some past presidents and Pilgrims do pay their way.) Subscriptions Included in SFRA Membership The question has once more been raised about continuing to include sub scriptions to Science-Fiction Studies and Extrapolation as part of the membership cost, as this raises it. The vote was unanimous to continue the situation as is; our support of these two major journals keeps us unique and emphasizes the scholarly aspect of the organization. Membership Recruitment Membership is now (February 7) at 219; the high was 1997's 230 at this point. To recruit new members, the following will be done: upgrade the Web page (Adam will contact other organizational Web pages to find out how they do it); solicit a member list from the International Association of the Fantastic in the Arts (can we?); and write new flyers (how to produce-Liz? Craig?) or write inserts to make changes to old flyers. Ads should be placed in other publications, both to recruit new members and


to advertise the upcoming conference. Stationery Although e-mail decreases the need for stationery, Mike Levy needs it for his correspondence, as will Craig Jacobsen and Neil Barron, who need it to solicit review copies from publishers. Carolyn Wendell will request such from David Mead. Karen Hellekson uses postcards to acknowledge receipt of material for the newsletter that is received in hard copy and e-mails acknowledgments for copy received via e-mail. Proposed Change of Membership Schedule A suggestion was made to change membership schedule from the standard calendar year to twelve months from whenever the initial payment or renewal is made. This was voted down as involving too much tracking. Graduate Student Paper Award Elizabeth Cummins and Susan Stratton devised guidelines for the proposed graduate student paper award, the idea of which was distributed and approved at the meeting in Phoenix in June 1998. Liz and Susan should be asked to serve as the first committee, along with a graduate student of their choosing. The winner will serve on next year's committee. An announcement of this award will be posted on the Web page and put in the SFRA Review. Miscellaneous Concerns A call needs to be made (via the SFRA Review) for candidates for the Over seas Student Scholar Support Award (paid membership) as well as for donations to the fund. Neil Barron suggested compiling an interest index for the SFRA annual di rectory, one that could be used by publishers and reviewers. This seems a prac tical and workable idea, but it will require a redesign of the membership form, to which a list of numbered interests will be appended for easier compilation of the material. The meeting adjourned at 2:36 P.M., EST. Approac .......... Ursula K Le Guin's The Left Hand of Hardcover: 25th anniversary edition Walker & Co (1994); ISBN: 0802713025 Paperback: Reissue edition Ace Books (1991); ISBN: 0441478123 .:. .:. . ;to:" .... .. TEACHIIIG 'HE LEF' HAN. IF .ARHNESS James Gunn The Left Hand of Darkness has been part of my course in science fiction almost since the novel was published. Even when I teach only the short stories from The Road to Science Fiction, I include the opening chapter in the discussion of feminism (and feminism as an example of the way in which SF deals and is able to deal with cultural issues). Since I am teaching a genre course rather than a great books course or an idea course (even though I think Left Hand is a great novel and ruled with ideas, both of which I touch upon), the aspects of Left Hand that I deal with are primarily the novel's science fiction qualities and particularly its place in the evolution of the SF novel. Certainly there was anthropology in science fiction before Le Guin, but the anthropological aspects of Left Hand represent a new cen tral emphasis, and certainly there were feminist works before Left Hand, but the anthropological approach to feminism is illuminating. But because I teach a genre rather than great books, I place Left Hand in the context of the consensus galactic The guidelines for the award are as follows: I. The first awards will be given to papers presented at the 1999 con-ference. 2. Students who wish to have their work considered for the award must submit their papers to a member of the Graduate Student Award Committee or of the SFRA Executive Board by the end of the 1999 an-nual conference. 3. Judges for the award will be members of the Committee, appointed by the President of SFRA. Notices of the winners will be sent to the stu-dents within a month after the end of the annual conference and will be announced in the next SFRA Re-view. 4. Ordinarily, prizes will be awarded for first, second, and third places; however, the number of pries awarded each year will depend on the number and quality of papers submitted. Awards for ties are pos-sible. First-place award will be $1 00 and membership in SFRA for the calendar year immediately following the confer ences (i.e., the 1999 awardees will receive membership for 2000-200 I); second-and third-place awards will be membership in the SFRA for the calendar year immediately following the conference. In the event of a tie, memberships will be awarded to both awardees; if the tie is for first place, the awardees will receive $100 each. Elizabeth Cummins and Susan Stratton


NEXT APPROACHES .. TITLE The next title for the Approach ing . series is Philip K. Dick's Do An droids Dream of Electric Sheep? We will also accept copy for the movie Bladerunner. Please send the SFRA Review editors copy by May 15. Directions for submitting are listed in every issue and are also available on the SFRA Review's Website. We are looking for study guides, short essays about teaching the work, essay topics for student papers, and the like. The calendar for the year's remaining Approaching . features looks like this: August (due dote July 15): Russ's The Female Man October (due date September 15): Miller's A Canticle for Leibowitz December (due dote November 15): Clarke's 200 I: A Space Odyssey and Kubrick's (rim I I WORKS IN PROGRESS New member Rebecca Thomas Ankeny is working on the topic of evil and innocence in William Bloke's Songs of Innocence and Experience. Andrea Bell is working on a critical anthology of Latin American SF in English translation. New member Helen J. Burgess is working on interdisciplinary multimedia projects involving cultural studies of technology. Peter Cannon is working on on anno tated edition of H. P. Lovecraft. Patricia Ciuffreda, who teaches politihistory and what it borrows from and adds to it, and Gethen in the context of SF's ability to contextualize the thoughtexperiment. I begin by asking students, "What is the most important chapter?" My answer is chapter 7-The Question of Sex (students often have other answers but can be brought around to see the defining nature ofOng Tot Oppong's report). A more important question is whether students see Estravan as male or female. Curi ously enough (from my viewpoint), most see him as male. We consider why this is-mostly, I believe, because of the male pronoun. But I point out the description ofEstravan in the first chapter (and the name's evocation of "estrogen") and Genly Ai's evaluation of him as an example of the need to read SF carefully if we are go ing to get out of it what SF has to offer. We discuss the difficulties of finding an appropriate pronoun. And then I ask how the novel would be changed if Genly Ai had been a woman instead of a man. The question of whether Genly Ai might have been a different sex leads to a consideration of the decisions an author makes and the possibility that she could have made other choices. One of my goals is to demythologize literature so that students see fiction as works created by people much like themselves instead of as sacred documents (many of our literature courses could profit from that ap proach as well). The better the work, the better the process works. I consider The Left Hand of Darkness one of the breakthrough SF novels of our time (and say of it what Raymond Chandler said of The Maltese Falcon, it demonstrated that [a genre novel] capable of this was not, by definition, incapable of anything). But that leads us to consider Genly Ai and why he was chosen as the First Mobile, the envoy to the Gethenians. What is wrong with Genly Ai? Clearly ifhe had been more sensitive or more experienced, he would have understood in chap ter I (as the reader does), that Estravan was not being evasive or lying to him but was trying to help as best he could, and if Genly had known then what it took most of thc novel for him to learn, events would not have happened as they did. Like me, the students are willing to overlook Genly's inadequacies and Le Guin's willingness to choose someone for the job who is not (at first, anyway) up to the task, but I find it useful to suggest that the Ekumen (and Le Guin) could have cho sen more wisely and the novel could still have worked (perhaps even better), even though the author might have had to struggle harder and longer to make the con flict unavoidable. I don't conceal from the students (and I grant them the same right to be annoyed with aspects of novels and stories) my irritation with characters who are not as smart as their readers nor plots based on misunderstandings, even if misunderstanding because of gender is at the work's thematic heart. Finally, because I try to relate any particular work to the genre from which it draws and to which it contributes, I compare Left Hand with Hal Clem ent's Mission of Gravity (a novel we have read earlier). Although at first glance the novels seem dissimilar, they offer useful parallels as "thought experiments," as dem onstrations of how environment shapes culture and psychology, and as examples of what science fiction says (and what these two novels say) about the human condi tion: not only their specific comments about biology and gravity and our cultural, psychological, and sociological adaptations, but the message that, because we are rational beings, we can rise above our evolutionary origins by recognizing the na ture of our limitations and their origins, and consciously decide to override our conditioning. Richard D. Erlich The point I make below about The Left Hand of Darkness and sexual har assment didn't get discussion going last time I tried it, but next time I'll prepare my audience a bit with some work on Buck Rogers and try this: In the mid-1980s, some undergrads worked on a project eventually pub-


lished under the tirle, '''For Our Balls Were Sheathed in Inertron': Textual Varia tions in 'The Seminal Buck Rogers Story,''' Extrapolation 29, no. 4 (winter 1988): 303-18, by Alan Kalish, Michael Fath, Chris Ehrman, John Gant, and me. We looked at the original Buck Rogers story in Amazing (1928, 1929), comparing it with the 1962 fix-up and 1978 reissue, focusing on the changes made to make the story acceptable to post-World War II readers, and, in 1978, at a high point of second-wave feminism. The story remained somewhat sexist and, far more centrally, racist and genocidal: the happy ending is the utter extermination of "Mongolians" called the "Han"-who have a "taint" of an alien race about them. (Even in 1929, there seems to have been a problem with murdering off an entire Terran people.) The Buck Rogers science got updated for the fix-up and the reissue. The plots remained the same for the genocidal "Yellow Peril" politics; what got changed was the vocabulary. The "Han" were still utterly destroyed, but the ways of talking about them were cleaned up. One could defend the readers in 1962 and 1978 by saying that even a genocidal story is only a story and using racist terms is an immediate offense in itself. Kalish et al. did not take that approach, instead genrly chiding readers of 1962 and 1978 (and later) for failing to look beyond words. (And one could bring in here the flap a few years ago on Huck Finn as racist because of its use of "n*gger.") Similarly, I think, though far less culpably, there was much discussion of Le Guin's use of pronouns in Left Hand and mosrly (entirely?) silence on the sexual harassment imaged in the foretelling scene in chapter 5 ("The Domestication of Hunch"). The Pervert of the group ... paid no heed to anyone but the one next to him ["him" probably = "pronoun that designates a male animal"], the kemmerer, whose increasingly active sexuality would be further roused and finally stimu lated into full, female sexual capacity by the insistent, exaggerated maleness of the Pervert. The Pervert kept talking softly, leaning towards the kemmerer, who answered little and seemed to recoil. ... there was no sound but the whis per, whisper of the Pervert's voice .... The kemmerer avoided the touch hast ily, with fear or disgust, and looked across at Faxe as if for help. Faxe did not move. The kemmerer kept his [Le Guin's generic] place, and kept still when the Pervert touched him again. (p. 64 in the Ace 1976 edition) I'm willing to argue that one big figurative tree was missed for seeing the forest of pronoun use (and the unfortunate analogy earlier on p. 64 speaking of tolerant disdain for homosexuals even in the time of the Ekumen). I strongly agree that Left Hand can be a Rorschach, not only for students but for critics and other sophisticated readers. And I continue to argue that Left Hand is a great work, even ifLe Guin did err in letting the harassment images pass without comment, and erred later in getting stubborn about pronouns. (Although I've sort of arranged a test of reader tolerance of the use of a made up gender-neutral pronoun: in a discussion of a section of Always Coming Home, I use the "pe/per/pem" system.) Anyway, I wasn't very successful in the attempt with my students last fall, but I think it would be good idea to historicize Left Hand in terms of the feminist debate in the 1970s and early 1980s (before most of our students were born, and therefore history)-and in terms of current debates on words/actions/policy. As Lenny Bruce and Fire-Sign Theatre pointed out even before some of the users of this list were born, people can do good for a group while using a taboo term for them and recommend harmful policies in the most sensitive, or even radicalized, of language. cal science at Straylor University, is working on designing and marketing a college-level course in science fiction. Niels Da/gaard is working on a history and bibliography of SF in Danish from the years 1741 to 2000. Jane Donawerth is working on an anthology of rhetorical theory by women before 1900. Susan H. George is working on a dissertation on I 950s SF films, especially invasion narratives focusing on such issues as gender, individualism versus conformism, and the use of technology in the atomic age. Philip Hallard notes that he's working on the relationship between creator and creature in SF. William H. Hardesty reports that he's working on a study of the novels of lain [M.1 Banks. Karen Hellekson is working on the writings ofC. L Moore. She's (still) waiting for Borgo Press to publish her book about Cordwainer Smith. Edward James is working on utopian thought in modern science fiction. John L Mcinnis III is working on an essay on H. P. Lovecraft's story "In the Walls of Eryx," which he characterizes as "the only real SF HPL wrote." David Mead reports that he's (still) waiting for Bargo Press to publish his Jack Vance Cyclopedia. Farah Mendelsohn is studying early science fiction magaZines.


Michael Orth invites SFRA members to check out his online resource on futures called Headlight. It can be found at . Active SFRA member Joan Slonczew ski is working on a new novel, The Carrier, about microbial aliens. Samuel Vasbinder is working with astronauts at NASA's Lewis Space Research Center in Cleveland to develop ways of teaching students about possibilities in the third millennium. Projects SFRA Should Undertake: Richard Mathews wants to maintain the quality of the SFRA Review but lower membership costs. John L Murphy suggests updating the 1988 Warrick-Waugh-Greenberg SFRA anthology to reffect the past fifteen years and to make it more student friendly. I I SO YOU'VE HEARD ABOUT THE SFRA USTSERV ... If you do not presently subscribe to the SFRA's listserv but you want to, please e-mail Mike Levy or Len Hat field to be put on the list That's all there is to it! The listserv can be a wonderful research tool as it draws on the collective knowledge and experience of dozens of SFRA scholars (as one member called it, "the hive mind"). Dave Samuelson I have little to say on this subject, despite having used the book in class numerous times over the last three decades. I've not had any great difficulty in get ting students to grasp it, nor any sexist responses: the first time I taught it, a male student (unaware of Sturgeon's Venus Plus X) opined that a man would not have been likely to write it because a man wouldn't have seen anything wrong with the existing order. Gender put-downs (male/female, straight/gay) don't seem as big in Southern California as they may elsewhere. Students have objected to the length of the chase across the ice and ques tioned whether a genderless society would avoid wars or decelerate technological progress (the climate can also be blamed). I have raised questions about multiple points of view and their associated styles, about the book's various mentalist fanta sies, and about various images and image patterns, from weaving to the Swifrian ending in which Genly seems to favor the Gethenians over the conventional (to us) gendered humans debarking from the ship. The issue of "betrayal" is often eye-opening, since learning to accept any thing new is a kind of betrayal of the old (we can usually each relate it to our own upbringing and education as well as to every mediator of political division-the former Yugoslavia was fertile ground this year, while Israel and Northern Ireland always seem relevant). Nobody much seems to object to the jejune politics of the two nations-they don't expect sophisticated political theory in SF-but we do typically boggle over the pronoun question (and I throw in other override at tempts: e.g., Le Guin's own, Piercy's, Delany's). Susan Stratton My students (perhaps because they live in Canada) are interested in Le Guin's idea about living in a cold climate that only marginally supports human life resulting in wise caution about headlong "progress" and the Gethenians' preference for now, the Year One, and myth, rather than history and progress. Tracing how the myths suggest ways to fIll in gaps in Estraven's personal history aids comprehension of both-and of the relationship between myth and history. As to gender, and particularly gendered pronouns, students are interested in Le Guin's periodic retrospectives on the subject as her own feminism evolved. Material in the 1994 twenty-fifth anniversary edition of Left Hand updates and expands the commentary she offered in her earlier essay (in Language of the Night, I think, but possibly Dancing at the End of the World) It does make a difference which course it's being taught in. It went over better in a course I taught last year for senior English majors in contemporary (post-1960) American SF class than it did in the broader SF survey for everyone. It's been a while since I've taught the survey course, but I was always disappointed that the students' response to Left Hand seemed only lukewarm and figured there was something wrong with the way I was teaching it-so I look fotward to seeing other people's tips. Rob Latham I taught Left Hand in my Fall 1997 course on American SF since 1960, and it precipitated one of the most interesting class discussions I've ever moder ated. Granting the ideological limitations of the book that Le Guin herself has ac knowledged, I think Left Hand remains enormously valuable as a kind of Rorshach test of students' attitudes toward gender and sexuality. When reading and respond ing to SF, students clearly feel freer in venturing large-scale opinions than they might when conftonted with more realistic texts; Left Hand in particular, with its


thought-experiment testing of whether gender is a necessary component of social experience, is liable to provoke strong reactions. It certainly did in my class, where students took the novel as a provocation to expound their points of view on gender equality, androgyny, and the persistence of sexist (and heterosexist) attitudes. Basically, the class divided into gendered camps: the men (sounding, in their huffy defensiveness, a lot like Genly Ai) attacked the premise that a social world can survive without gender divisions and, by implication, gender hierarchies, while the women were more willing to entertain the possibility. What provoked the sharpest reaction was Le Guin's alternative biology, which many of the male students loudly proclaimed to be simply impossible, since settled dimorphic gen ders were allegedly inescapable. In the midst of this by now rather heated exchange, one of the guys offered the observation that women are, biologically, pre disposed to be the more nurturing sex because of their "enzymes." There was a brief silence, into which I interjected, incredulously: "Enzymes?! Did you say en zymes?" Needless to say, the women jumped on him immediately. After the class was over, I found much to be optimistic about and much to regret. I was very pleased to see that the women students were unwilling to sit and listen to inane sexist pronouncements, but I was depressed that these pro nouncements came so readily to the male students' lips. (I should say that this was not true of all the men, but only of a vocal few.) Still, I think it is important that these attitudes be given an opportunity for expression, lest we feel inclined to pre maturely congratulate ourselves on having achieved gender harmony. Unfortu nately, Enzyme Boy (as he soon became known by many of his fellow students) is not alone in his beliefs and values. Left Hand is an important book because it calls these attitudes onto the carpet, where they can be examined and analyzed. The same cannot be said of much recent SF, alas. Warren Rochelle I love The Left Hand of Darkness. I mean, it is one of my all-time favorite books. I have read it over and over and over again, and it never fails: Each time I am caught and lost in Le Guin's evocative and lyrical language, her keen sense of metaphor and imagery, and her power as a story-teller. I willingly suspend disbelief: Winter is a real place; the Gethenians are a real people. I fall in love as Genly does; I can imagine that long trek over the ice. The questions Le Guin raises about gender and how it is con structed I find intriguing and provocative. I was so struck by Le Guin's use of myth and of story, and the idea that "Truth is a matter of the imagination" that I wrote a paper on the subject. I mean, I really love this book. So, a few years ago, when as a somewhat naive graduate student at UNC Greensboro, I finally got the opportunity to teach English 105, an intro lit class, The Left Hand of Darkness was at the top of the book order I sent in to the univer sity bookstore. If I loved the book, then, of course, my students would love the book. As I filled in the ISBN, the publisher, and the number of copies, I had rev eries of what would happen when the time came to discuss the novel. There wocld be scintillating discourse on the question of gender and the definitions of mascu linity and femininity. All thirty-five of them would have epiphany after epiphany: yes, gender is a social construct; yes, we have all, all of us, been trapped by societal definitions that constrict and restrict; and, look, look, see how language and gender has shaped our thoughts, our world-view; and the environment and language--did I tell you about all the Inuit words for ice?--oh, it was going to be grand. I was going to enlighten them all. I made sure the class was thoroughly prepped. I gave a background lec ture on science fiction, on Le Guin, on language and gender. I drew on the board a map ofLe Guin's Hainish universe; I talked about Stars Wars and Star Trek--see, FOUNDATIONSOUCITS SUBMISSIONS Edward James, editor of SF academic journal Foundation: The Interna tional Review of Science Fiction, writes, "If you feel like writing an article on any aspect of science fiction (including film, comics, etc.), then do think of us. Get in touch with us beforehand if you wish (e-mail me at

Gill, P.O. Box 260042, Madison, WI 53726; e-mail . Young Adult Literature: Facets of Fantasy in YA Literature. This session examines many aspects of young adult fantasy, a genre frequently overlooked by YA scholars; Contact Judith Gero John, Department of English, Southwest Missouri State University, 90 I South National, Springfield, MO 65804; e-mail . Special Session: Feminism and the Very Ideo of the Future. This session seeks papers on the role the idea of the future and/or paradigms of temporality play in feminist theory, criticism, and political practice. Contact Judith Roof, Department of English, Ballantine Hall, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405; e-mail ; and Lynda Zwinger, Department of English, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721; e-mail . The Female Gothic and the Horrors of Women's Place in Nineteenth-Century America. Contact Abbey Zink, Department of English, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115; e-mail . I I FOR PAPERS FfMSPEC, an interdisciplinary feminist journal dedicated to critical, pedagogical and creative works in the realms of SF, fantasy, magical realism, and other supernatural genres, is soliCiting material for upcoming issues. The deadline for consideration for the second issue is April 10, 1999. For consideration for the third issue, the deadline is September 20, 1999. These deadlines will be our permanent deadlines in the future. The FfMSPEC office is not all of you already know about science fiction, you are all ready to just jump right in, right? My students hated The Left Hand o/Darkness. It was too complicated. They couldn't figure who was telling the story, Genly or Estraven. What was the point of all these extra stories? What did "Odyrny Thern" and "Getheny Thanern" mean and why were these words used as subheadings? What was the point? Yeah, men and women are different, and? I knew all was lost when one of my better students told me that she got the idea of gender as a social construct, and yes, she agreed. "But, as for this book," she added, "I wouldn't recommend it to anyone." Maybe enlightenment wasn't quite the right word. Would I teach The Left Hand 0/ Darkness again? In a heartbeat, but not to an intro lit class, one meant for non-English major students who needed a lit credit--at least not as their first introduction to science fiction as literature. Stars Wars and Star Trek are just not enough of an introduction to the gente, This is especially true for these students who, more often than not, have already made up their minds that they don't like English, they don't like to read, and can't we just get this over with as painlessly as possible. I am not saying that non-English ma jors couldn't ever get The Left Hand o/Darkness; I know they could. But an intro lecture on SF really isn't enough prep. The leap I asked my 105 students to make was one they weren't ready for. Oh, yeah, I still really love The Left Hand o/Darkness. ,,:.;;e..;. II: 2 . a:" ...... .. THE NOVEL WHOSE SECRET NAME IS "LIGHT" Charles Nicol 1. Ishi Genly Ai makes his report "as ifI told a story," and when I teach Left Hand, I tell a number of stories. Ideally, each creates another context into which the novel fits, until eventually the students have a solid foundation on which to build their reading, even if it is bolted together in strange ways. My first story for my class, intended to provide contexts for both Genly Ai and his author, is about Ishi, one of the most important people in the biography of Ursula Kroeber Le Guin's father. Ishi grew up in a small Native American tribe in northern California that hid from sight for fony years. Eventually the only survivors were Ishi's own imme diate family: father, mother, and sister. And then they died and Ishi lived alone. Malnourished and in rags, he stumbled into white civilization in northern Califor nia in 1911, speaking a dialect that was not spoken by anyone else in the world. He was as alone as anyone has ever been. Yet he spent the last five years of his life learning English, teaching Yahi, making artifacts, and demonstrating his skills at the Anthropological Museum of the University of California-sometimes wearing a suit and tie, sometimes a loincloth. Before he died he had become a close friend of several anthropologists, including Alfted Kroeber. Although Ursula was born quite some time after Ishi died, her mother wrote two books about him. His story must have been part of Ursula's childhood imagination. (In a way, she eventually brought back the Indians of Northern California in Always Coming Home.) When Genly Ai arrives on Gethen, he is of a somewhat different appear ance than the natives. He speaks their language, but his own language is unknown to anyone on the planet. He is all alone: because of the immense time spent in space travel, he will never see his relatives again; even his few associates from the Ecumen will age only a month during the two years he spends on Gethen. He is dependent on only himself to explain his world to the Gethenians. It the drama of Genly's isolation that I want my class to comprehend. I tell them that surely Ishi


must have been among Genly's precursors as ambassador to an alien race. All we know of Genly's appearance is that he is from Earth, taller and darker than most Gethenians; probably most readers assume he has some African blood, but I tend to think that perhaps his skin is the color of copper. 2. Androgyny, Yin and Yang Like many of the teachers who have already comments on how they teach Left Hand, I place it for my class in the context oflate-1960s feminism. I doubt that I need to expand on this at any length here. I explain to my class that the theoretical mother of that brand of feminism was Virginia Woolf, one ofLe Guin's personal writing models as well, and that is primary emotional label was, following Woolf, androgyny. This is the concept developed in what Le Guin calls her "thought-experiment." For feminism, an androgynous society was one where one's job or social role would not be dependent on one's gender; in Le Guin's novel, this androgyny was not a concept but a fact of existence. What is important in my teaching of feminism in the novel is to connect it to another important facet, already mentioned in several books on Le Guin: T ao ism. I draw the Tao on the blackboard, "the double curve within the circle" (p. 267), and ask them what it is. Always someone identifies it correctly as yin and yang (although I then kid them for a moment, claiming that actually I drew a base ball). In the Tao, contraries are resolved by the larger context: the male and female principles each contain the seed of their opposing principle, and the two make up a greater unity of the Tao itself. We then look at "Tormer's Lay" (pp. 233-34), the poem that gives the novel its title, and analyze its obvious connection to Taoismright up to its last word, "way" (the Tao is ofren translated as "the Way"). The ultimate point here, as far as I am concerned in teaching it, is not so much that it is a feminist novel and a Taoist novel, but that its politics and its metaphsics are identical; as Genly says about the Tao to Estraven, "It is yoursel" In its larger contexts, Left Hand is a seamless whole. And this kind of greatness is important to point out. 3. Shifgrethor, Chauvinism, Communication At this point I go into some close reading to show that the real drama in this novel lies under the surface. I explain shifgrethor, or at least the part of shifgrethor that I understand and can explain. (No doubt other people have commented on this, but I haven't seen it.) What I know about shifgrethor is that because of it, Gethenians never offer or listen to advice. To give someone advice is to insult him or her. (Only the King deliberately gives Genly advice, and that is because he is the King, is insane, and intends the insult.) To avoid giving advice, the Gethenians go through elabo rate parables and elliptical references; even then, such assistance is rarely offered unless the recipient has already said, "I waive shifgrethor." Afrer this, we reread a number of situations in the novel showing the drama hidden beneath the surface when Estraven's shifgrethor and Genly's male chauvinism collide and result in a hopeless failure in communication. Here is an early example of Estraven failing to give needed advice and Genly compounding the failure because of his gender pref erence: "Did you hear what the king said to me at the ceremony today?" "No .... The king didn't speak to you in my hearing." "Nor in mine," said he. I saw at last that I was missing another signal. Damning his effeminate deviousness, I said, "Are you trying to tell me, Lord Estraven, that you're out of favor with the king?" I think that he was angry then, but he said nothing that showed it, only, staffed during the summer, so submissions arriving in June, July, or August will probably not be reviewed until September. General Guidelines: If you are interested in speculating, theorizing, creating, and questioning gender across the boundaries of what is real and what is not real, consider submitting your work to FEMSPEC. We are interested in interdisciplinary approaches and encour age work on teaching as well as literary and cultural criticism and creative material. We hope an approach to pedagogy will bring in work from a wider area of disciplines. We are interested in a vari ety of feminist approaches and aim to be inclusive of ethnic and cultural diver sity in an internationalist perspective. We invite work between genres as well: coverage of conferences, personal essays, nonfiction, media critiques, analy ses of popular culture, transcripts of dia logues on relevant topics, interviews with authors, art, photography, work by or about girls of any age. We are considering fUture theme issues, including femi nism and SF or sf, girls' power figures in contemporary SF/fantasy animation, multicultural fantastic literatures, and shamanism, and we invite forums by readers on such topics as the role of 1330 in WE and the relevancy of Delany's Trouble on Triton for the con temporary transgender movement The first scheduled theme issue will focus on the intersections between femi nism, multiculturalism, and speculative fiction. The deadline for that issue will be September 20, 2000. Contact Robin Anne Reid for fUrther information on that issue. Please submit proposals for other possible themes to the editors. Format: Please send four hard copies of your submission by regular mail. Peer review is blind, so your name and ad-


dress should be included only on your cover letter. If you wish the hard copies returned, please include a SASE with postage. Fewer copies submitted will mean that the review process will toke longer. Articles (15 pages, MLA style) or abstraas (250-500 words) will be considered. Creative writing is accepted: short fiction, 15 pages or fewer; poetry, three poems per submission. Reviews (art, books, television shows, movies, animations, conferences, conventions) of I 000 words or fewer also welcome. Contact .nformation: FEMSPEC Editorial Office, Department of English, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115. Phone: 216/687-6870; Fox: 216/687-6943; e-mail: . &litor: Botya Weinbaum, . Associate editor: Robin Anne Reid, . Subscription 'nformation: We plan to publish two issues a year, with the first issue due out in spring 1999. If for some reason we are unable to meet this schedule, we will consider a year's subscription to cover two issues. FEMSPEC will depend completely upon sufr missions to continue publishing. Send U. S. cash, check, money order, or credit cord information to the editorial office address above. Charter and sustaining memberships include listing on the magazine editorial page. Regular and institutional subscribers, $30/year; students or low-income subscribers, $20/ year, charter membership, $50/year, sustaining membership, $75/year. II. CALL FOR PANEL AT SFRA ANNUAL CONFERENCE Mike Levy wiites, 'We're trying to put fDgether a panel on teaching the "I'm not trying to tell your anything, Mr. Ai." "By God, I wish you would!" He looked at me curiously. "Well, then, put it this way .... The two of them cannot get past their own social taboos. It seems to me that only by carefully demonstrating this communication problem can I eventually show the drama of its resolution, when Genly and Estraven are alone on the ice and Genly can finally see Estraven as "a woman as well as a man" (p. 248). This, of course, is the real culmination of the novel. 4. The Beauty of Anticlimax One of the many qualities of Left Hand that I admire and try to communicate to my students is its marvelous understatement, its lack of grandstanding. Having told them that the climax of the book is Genly's breakthrough to Estraven, his finally "being able to see the people of the planet through their own eyes" (p. 12), and their achievement of mutual acceptance and trust, I then comment on their decision not to go to bed together: "For us to meet sexually would be for us to meet once more as aliens" (p. 249). As a writer myself, I admire Le Guin's abil ity to resist the temptation to write such a scene. And it is in this context that I then discuss the "Gulliver syndrome" (possibly my own term, but the idea has been mentioned by a number of commentators), the moment when Genly's fellow Ekumen arrive on the planet and he sees them not as people like himself but as strange apes, just as Gulliver, after being reunited with his fellow men, had a hard time not seeing them as Yahoos. If course this gives me a chance to briefly summarize Gulliver's Travels, but I also remind my class that if Left Hand were a piece of fluff like Star Wars, we would have had a grand parade (echoing the initial parade) and a triumphant reunion scene. Instead, we have Genly retreating to his room and summoning a physician to treat his nerves. Le Guin paid a price for the modesty of these scenes, and I wam my students to appreciate how they work. You can't appreciate the art if you can't see the craft. .:. .;. a.;: I_ 2 ... .: .: : .: A CONVERSATION Richard D. Erlich and Farah Mendelsohn Rich Erlich I think it would be good idea to historicize Left Hand in terms of the feminist debate in the 1970s and early 1980s. Farah Mmdelsohn While I quite agree re historicizing texts before we start criticizing their politics, I had trouble with Left Hand even in the 1970s for the continual use of derogatory adjectives associated (in our world) with women: "shrill" comes immediately to mind. I accept that this may have been Le Guin allowing us to see the world through her character's eyes, but the choice of adjectives implies, at the least, a lack of imagination in visualizing the far future, surely? Rich Erlich Le Guin was less sensitive than she should have been in 1969, and her use of "shrill" {etc.)-primarily for King Argaven's cousin Tibe?-was unfortunate insofar as it kept in "use ... derogatoty adjectives associated (in our world) with women." But the immediate context in Left Hand has, before Genly Ai's ship lands, only three persons sexed-not gendered-as women: the kemmerer at the Foretelling, the Orgota person in kemmer on the truck to the prison farm, and Estraven in kemmer on the Ice. {Caution: I'm depending on my memoty here,


which ain't what it used to be and was never too good.) Genly Ai looking at an obstreperous Gethenian and seeing pem as a woman thinks "shrill," and that's not good for the heads of readers identifying strongly with Genly. Still, the Gethenian is not a woman but, Le Guin insists, a human, potentially sexed male or female and without gender. 1'd ask my students to consider the possibility that even as violence is a possibility in the human repertory of behaviors, so is shrillness, and how we go about gendering adjectives in English. Most people read books without teachers around, though, so I haven't denied Farah Mendelsohn's objection. Still, if it's important to point out that vio lence isn't encoded solely on the Y chromosome and limited to males-and Le Guin, Russ, Charnas (and maybe Sheldon?) all seem to agree on that one-it's also important to allow that shrillness, a tendency to gossip, and/or the ability to nur ture aren't limited to:XX female folk. And that is one way (charitably) to read Left Hand. For a painless introduction to gendering adjectives, you might ask stu dents to consider an old joke on how we decline them: We are firm. I You are stubborn. I They are pigheaded. We are flexible. I You are arbitrary. I They are tyrannical. (This one is useful when dealing with authorities who want "flexibility.") We are flexible. I You are wishy-washy. I They are spineless. (A complement to the one above, sent me by a conservative friend.) The same behavior can be typified in many different ways, beginning in bono (the good way) and in malo (the way the Others do it). ..:.. III: STUDY QUESTIOIIS David Mead Where does Genly Ai come from? How old is he? How long has he been gone from home? How did he get to Gethen? How long did it take to travel? Does he have com panions? Does he have friends? What happened to his family? Is his singularity or difference important to the story? What is Genly's job? What is the rationale for it? Who is Estraven? Tibe? Argaven? Shusgis? What are the principal nations of Gethen? What are their distinguishing char acteristics? What are their state religions? Is there a relation between the political system of a nation and its dominant religion? Who was Meshe? What was the Lord of Shorth's question? What is the significance of "nusuth" to the Handarata? What narrative devices does Le Guin/Genly use to tell the story? How do these affect our reception of the story? What is the significance of the trek cross the Gobrin Ice? What happens to Genly and Estraven in the course of that journey? What is the significance of mindspeech in the novel? What is the significance of the opening scene in Ehrenrang? What is being done? What is being built? Do similar events occur later in the story? Are these events symbolic? What is Shifgrethor? What does the word derive from? What is a kemmer? What is the sexual cycle of Gethenians? Why don't the Gethenians fight wars? How do they resolve conflict? What do the Gethenians call/consider Genly (sexually)? Why? Are Gethenian proverbs appropriate to their lives and place? Hartwtell-WolfVisions of Wonder anthology at SFRA in Mobile this June. What's good about it? What's not so good? Which stories work? Which don't? How do you feel about the fact that it includes some fantasy?" Send abstracts to Mike Levy, whose address is on the back of the SFRA Review. E-mail submissions and snailmail submissions are welcome. I I SFRA 1999 UPDATE SFRA 1999 will be held in Mobile from June 2-6 at the Radisson Hotel. Hotel reselVations can be made by calling 8001333-3333; ask for the SFRA 1999 ffat rate for double $79.00. The registration fee for the conference can be sent to Tom Brennan, Department of English, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688. The fee is as follows: March 30 to April 30, $85; April 30 to May 15, $95; at the door, $ I 05. Fees include the awards banquet and evening activities. Guests of honor include: author guest of honor Gregory Benford; special guest speaker I. F. Clarke; and special guest writers Kathleen Goonon, Andy Duncan, and Jack McDevitt. Other writers attending include Brian Stableford, Joan Slonczewski, Bor bara Chepaitis, F. Brett Cox, Syd ney Sowers, Del Stone, Fred Pohl, and David Hartwell. I I. SFRA 1999 PROGRAM Andy Duncan writes, "Please let me know if you have any impulse to participate on the program in any way. The deadline is April 15. Contact me via email at or via the U.S. Postal Service (Andy Duncan, Department of English, Univer-


sity of Alabama, P.O. Box 870244, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487). I'm especially interested in recruiting additional papers (maybe the twenty-two listed below will inspire you), including papers on the works of our guests, Benford, et 01. Also people willing to do public hour-long interviews with same. And anything else that springs to mind. Presentations are listed alphabetically by presenter, regardless of scheduling or grouping by panel. Kenneth Andrews Philander Smith College "Multiple Personalities in Science Fiction" Susan Baugh Louisville, Kentucky, Public Ubrary "Kentucky Writers in Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror" Janice Bagstad University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire "Octavia Butler's Post-Holocaust Par ables: The Xenogenesis and Parable Series" Wendy Bousfield Syracuse University "Uplifted Animals: From The Island of Dr. Moreau to Lives of the Mon sterDogs" I. F. Clarke Retired from University of Strathclyde, Glasgow "Albert Robida: First Artist to the Future" Solomon Davidoff 80wling Green State University "The Heir of Patrick Henry: Robert Heinlein's Attack on Communism in Starship Troopers" Alan C. Elms ..:. i;6 .:. ...-: f. .; J' ..... .: 0=:. ESSAY QUEST. OilS Dave Samuelson In a sense, the subject of every essay in this class is the nature of SF, illus trated by a text by a specific author. Whether your author writes predominantly "hard" or "soft" SF, consider both scientific and literary aspects, both extrapolation and speculation. You may also discuss the author's claim to fame, but you must include how he or she uses, misuses, or ignores science in the text you have stud ied. Susan Stratton My essay topics are generic. I ask for a topic to be generated from some aspect of the student's personal response to a text: I hated this, I was puzzled by that, etc. I show them how to develop their response into an essay of significance beyond themselves. This approach emphasizes their role as reader, it teaches me more about them and their readings than r d learn from topics I set myself, and it subverts impulses to plagiarism, since they have to trace the connection between their reading and their essay in a preface if it doesn't work into the essay itself. Richard D. Erlich Prepare a brief table listing the various statements in Left Hand ofDarkness on Gethenian capacity for violence and the explanations given for why the Gethenians have never had a war (plus the names of the characters presenting the suggestions and the chapter and page number). Statting from that table, generate a thesis on violence, war, and peace on Gethen; prove that thesis. Append the table to your essay as an appendix. Anne Weins tone Left Hand of Darkness is not only about sexuality and gender, it is also an erotic text. How would you characterize the text's eroticism or eroticisms? How is the reading experience or the trajectory or structure of the narrative shaped by eroticism? How does the eroticism of the text interact with or inflect the narrative's more explicit pronouncements about sexuality and gender? Margaret McBride The students may use anyone of several quotations as a springboard for a shorr paper. Some examples: Damien Broderick, Reading by Starlight. "Does SF, above all else, write the narrative of the otherls? If this suggestion is taken in a spirit of description (though hardly of definition), a negating and demystifying alternative is in stantly inscribed in its logical shadow: that SF writes, rather, the narrative of the same, as other." Clifford Geertz, Works and Lives, quoting Loring Danforth from The Death Rituals of Rural Greece: "Anthropology inevitably involves an encounter with the Other. The ethnographic distance is often rigidly maintained and even attificially exaggerated. This distancing leads to an exclusive focus on the Other as primitive, bizarre, and exotic. The gap between a familiar 'we' and an exotic 'they' is a major obstacle to a meaningful understanding of the Other, an obstacle that can only be overcome through some form of patticipation of the world of the Other."


Audre Lorde, A Burst o/Light: "Real change requires we 'stop killing / rhe orher / in our selves / rhe self rhat we hate in orhers. '" Some of rhe questions I give rhe students to focus rheir rhoughts for journal entries or more formal papers include rhe following: What are rhe differences between Karhide and Orgoreyn (environmental, poli tics, technology, cultural mores, etc.)? What do rhese things say about rhe kind of people rhey are and rhe decisions rhey make about Genly Ai and rhe Eckumen? Genly Ai makes a number of references to gender, calling some rhings "shrill, effeminate or womanly." Analyze several of rhese to describe his view of rhe differences between the sexes, especially where he compares women to ani mals. What difficulties do rhese views cause him? What may Le Guin want readers to rhink about in rhe foretelling section in relationship to plot and larger rhematic ideas? Consider rhe role that rhe idea of teachable mindspeak (which Terrans use differently rhan rhe Gerhenians) and orher mystic interactions might play. Explain rhe reason for chapter 12. How does it fit in wirh other aspects of rhe novel? Remember rhat rhe Yomesh cult is seen as heretic by rhe Haddarata. Genly Ai, on rhe first page, says orher people will tell part of rhe story and rhat he's not sure whose story it is. Why might Le Guin break up his narra tive? What do you learn in rhe orher sections rhat he couldn't tell you? Whose story is rhis and why? How does his first sentence about trurh, imagination, and storytelling fit wirh rhe book? Analyze any of rhe myrh's connection with rhe plot/characters/rheme. Or write a myrh you rhink would fit. The book is full of paired images: light/dark, Karhide/ Orgoreyen, isolation/ union, cold/warm, left/right, etc. Discuss rhe use of rhese images. What is ..:. ..:. a.;: 2 .... .. e:::. SECOIIDARY SOURCES Domna Pastourmatzi Books Armitt, Lucie, ed. Where No Man Has Gone Before: Women and Science Fiction. New York: Routledge, 1991. Barr, Marleen, and Nicholas D. Smirh, eds. Women and Utopia: Critical Interpretations. Lanham, MD., Univerisity Press of America, 1983. Bittner, James W. Approaches to the Fiction o/Ursula K Le Guin. Ann Arbor: UMI Research P, 1984. Clareson, Thomas D. Understanding American Science Fiction: The Formative Pe riod, 1926-1970. University of Sourh Carolina Press, 1991. Cranny-Francis, Anne. Feminist Science Fiction: Feminist Uses o/Generic Fiction. New York: St. Martin's, 1990. de Bolt, Joe, ed. Ursula K Le Guin: Voyager to Inner Lnads and to Outer Space. Port Washington, NY.: Kennikat P, 1979. Donawerth, Jane. Frankenstein 5 Daughters: Women Writing Science Fiction. Syra cuse: Syracuse UP, 1997. Ketterer, David. New Worlds for Old: The Apocalyptic Imagination, Science Fiction and American Literature. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1974. Palumbo, Donald, ed. Erotic Universe: Sexuality and Fantastic Literature. New York: Greenwood P, 1986. Spivack, Charlotte. Ursula K Le Guin. Boston: Twayne, 1984. Suvin, Darko. Metamorphoses o/Science Fiction: On the Poetics and History 0/ a Literary Genre. New Haven: Yale UP, 1979. University of California-Davis "Between Motti/e and Ambiloxi: Cord wainer Smith as a Southern Writer" Fred Erisman Texas Christian University "Boys' Books and the Gernsback Milieu" Bud Foote Georgia Tech "In the Wet, Not On the Beach: The Other Science Fiction of Nevil Shute" Adam Frisch "Nothing Suffices: Self-Consuming Melodrama in James TIptree Jr:s With Delicate Mad Hands" Patricia Harkins-Pierre University of the Virgin Islands "The Sacred and Different Invisible Man de: Virgin Islands Fantasy Poetry Since 1975" Darren Harris-Fain Shawnee State University "Octavia Buder's Kindred: Science Fiction Meets the Slave Narrative" Karen Hellekson Lawrence, Kansas "Catherine L Moore's Vintage Season: Death as SPectacle" Heather Hicks Villanova University "Striking Cyborgs: Reworking the Human in Marge Piercy's He, She, and It" Craig Jacobsen Arizona State University "Freeze, Release Me, Thaw Me Slow: Cryonics in Science Fiction" David Ketterer Concordia University


"Vivisection: Schoolboy John Wyndham's First Publication?" Michael Levy University of Wisconsin-Stout 'What If Your Fairy Godmother Were an Ox?: The Many Cinderellas of South east Asia" Pete Lowentrout California State University-Long Beach 'The Heart's True Home: Some Further Reffections on Community in Science Fiction" Margaret McBride University of Oregon "Bildungsroman, Southern Gothic, and Fantasy" Joe Sanders 'The Game of Seek and Hide in Michael Bishop's No Enemy but Time" Carol D. Stevens E.astern Illinois University '7 opological Dreams, Science Fiction Allusion, and the Surreal in David Wies ner's Picture Books" Mark Weinert George Fox University "Michael Bishop as Boseball Historian: Brittle Innings as a Chronicle of Bose boll in the 1940s" Also: A cookout and swim party at Bud Foote's place on Dauphin Island. A professional storytelling session led by Borbora (8. A.) Chepaitis. A science talk by Joon Slonczewski: 'Thinking with Silicon and Computing with DNA." A panel on the present and fUture of the SFRA Re view, with Craig Jacobsen, Karen He/lekson, and Neil Borron. And much more. Essays Allen, L. David. "The Left Hand of Darkness. Science Fiction: Reader's Guide. 1973; Lincoln, Nebraska: Centennial Press, 1974. 184-197. Annas, Pamela J. "New Worlds, New Words: Androgyny in Feminist Science Fic tion." Science-Fiction Studies 5.2 auly 1978): 143-156. Barbour, Douglas. "Wholeness and Balance in the Hainish Novels of Ursula K Le Guin." Science-Fiction Studies 1.3 (Spring 1874): 164-173. Cogell, Elizabeth Cummins. "Setting as Analogue to Characterization in Ursula Le Guin." Extrapolation 18.2 (May 1977): 131-14l. Fayad, Mona. "Aliens, Androgynes, and Anthropology: Le Guin's Critique of Rep resentation in The Left Hand of Darkness. Mosaic 30.3 (September 1997): 5973. Galbreath, Robert. "Holism, Openess, and the Other: Le Guin's Use of the Oc cult." Science-Fiction Studies 7.1 (March 1980): 36-40. Holland, Norman. "You, U.K Le Guin." Future Females: A Critical Anthology. Ed. Marleen S. Barr. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State Universitry, 1981. 125-137. Huntington, John. "Public and Private Imperatives in Le Guin's Novels." Science Fiction Studies 2.3 (November 1975): 237-243. Hull, Keith N. "What is Human? Ursula Le Guin and Science Fiction's Great Theme." Modern Fiction Studies 32.1 (Spring 1986): 65-74. Jones, Kay. "Le Guin, Ursula K: Life and Works." Reader's Guide to Twentieth Century Science Fiction. Eds. Marilyn P. Fletcher and James L. Thorson. Chi cago: American Library Association, 1989. Lake, David J. "Le Guin' s Twofold Vision: Contrary Image-Sets in The Left Hand of Darkness. Science-Fiction Studies 8.2 auly 1981): 156-164. "Le Guin, Ursula K." Reader's Guide to Twentieth Century Science Fiction. Eds. Marilyn P. Fletcher and James L. Thorson. Chicago: American Library Asso ciation, 1989.343-338. Lewicki, Stef. "Feminism and Science Fiction." Foundation 32 (November 1984): 45-59. Nudelman, Rafail. "An Approach to the Structure ofLe Guin's SF." Science-Fiction Studies 2.3 (November 1975): 210-220. Scholes, Robert. "The Left Hand of Difference." Textual Power: Literary Theory and the Teaching of English. New Haven: Yale UP, 1985. Wendell, Carolyn. "The Alien Species: A Study of Women Characters in the Neb u1aAward Winners, 1965-1973." Extrapolation 2004 (Winter 1979): 343-354. ....... ..;..r.;:. .:.II; .. SECOIIDARY SOURCES Hal Hall "1991 Locus Awank" Locus 27, no. 1 auly 1991): I, "1995 Tiptree Award Presented." Locus 34, no. 3 (March 1995): 7. "1995 World Fantasy Awards." Locus 35, no. 6 (December 1995): 4,81. Adams, Rebecca. "Narrative Voice and Unimaginabiliry of the Utopian 'Feminine' in Le Guin's The Left Hand of Darlmm and The Ones Who Walk Away From Omdas." Utopian Studies 2, no. 1/2 (1991): 35-47. Attebery, Brian. "Beginning Place: Le Guin's Metafantasy." In Ursula K Le Guin, edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 235-42. --. "Gender, Fantasy, and the Authoriry of Tradition." Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts 7, no. 1 (1996): 51-60. Attebery, Jennifer E. "The Trolls of Fiction: Ogres or Warm Fuzzies." Journal of the Fantas tic in no. 1 (1996): 61-74. Baggesen, Soren. "Utopian and Dystopian Pessimism: Le Guin's Word for the World Is Forest and Tiptree's We Who Stole the Science-Fiction Studies 14, no. 1 (March


1987): 34. Bailey, K V. "Counter-landscapes of Fantasy: EanhsealNarnia." Foundation 40 (summer 1987): 26-36. ---. "Fantasy's Lost Children." Australian Science Fiction lUview 6, no. 1 (summer 1991): 4-9. [Whole number 26] Bain, Dena C. "Tao Te Ching as Background to the Novels of Ursula K. Le Guin." In Ursula K Le Guin, edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 211-24. Baldry, Cherith. "A Hand Held out in the Dark: Some Relationships in the Science Fiction of Ursula Le Guin." Vector 168 (August-September 1992): 6-8. Barbour, Douglas. "Wholeness and Balance." In Ursula K Le Guin, edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 23-33. Barnouw, Dagmar. Die Versuchte Realitit, otUr, von tUr Muglichkeit, glucklichere Welten zu Denken. Meitingen: Corian Verlag, 1985. Barr, Marleen S. Lost in Space: Probing Feminist Science Fiction and Beyond. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993. ---. "Searoad Chronicles of Klatsand as a Pathway toward New Directions in Feminist Science Fiction: Or, Who's Afraid of Connecting Ursula Le Guin to Virginia Woo!f?" Foundation 60 (spring 1994): 58-67. Barrow, Craig and Diana Barrow. "Le Guin's Eanhsea: Voyages in Consciousness." Extrapo lation 32, no. 1 (spring 1991): 20-44. ---. "The Left Hand of Darkness: Feminism for Men." Mosaic 20, no. 1 (winter 1987): 83-96. Barry, Nora and Mary Prescon. "Beyond Words: The Impact of Rhythm as Narrative Tech nique in The Left Hand of Darkness." Extrapolation 33, no. 2 (summer 1992): 154-65. Bassnen, Susan. "Remaking the Old World: Ursula K. Le Guin and the American Tradi tion." In Where No Man Has Gone Before, edited by Lucie Armin, pp. 50-66. New York: Routledge, 1991. Bastien, Louis A Green Fire and the Legacy of the Dragon: Science Fiction, Fantasy and Cultural Ideology. Ph.D. dissenation, University of Connecticut, 1992.238 pp. (DAI A 54/04. p. 1359. October 1993.) Bell, Celina. "Prome: Ursula K. Le Guin." Quill and Quire 55, no. 1 Oanuary 1989): 22. Benford, Gregory. "Reactionary Utopias." Far Frontiers, vol. 4, pp. 214-29. 1985. ---. "Reactionary Utopias." In Storm Warnings: Science Fiction Confronts the Future, edited by George E. Slusser, pp. 73-83. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1987. Bengels, Barbara. "Sex and the Single Man: The Left Hand of Darkness." Science Fiction: A Review of Speculative Literature 9, no. 1 (1987): 16-18. [Whole number 25] Berkley, Miriam. "Ursula K. Le Guin." Publishers Weekly 229, no. 21 (May 23, 1986): 72. Bickman, Martin. "Le Guin's The Left Hand of Darkness: Form and Content." In Ursula K Le Guin's "The Left Hand of Darkness, edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 53-62. Binner, James W. "Persuading Us to Rejoice and Teaching Us How to Praise: Le Guin's Orsinian Tales." In Ursula K Le Guin, edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 119-43. Bloom, Harold. Introduction. Ursula K Le Guin, edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 1-10. ---. Introduction. Ursula K Le Guin's "The Left Hand of Darknm, edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 1-10. ---. Ursula K Le Guin. New York: Chelsea House, 1986. ---. Ursula K Le Guin's "The Left Hand of Darkness. "New York: Chelsea House, 1987. "Brin, Card, Le Guin, Wan-Evans Win Hugos." Locus 21, no. 10 (October 1988): 1,34-37,78. Brown, Barbara. "Feminist Myth in Le Guin's Sur." Mythlore 16, no. 4 (summer 1990): 56-59. [Whole number 62] ---. "The Left Hand of Darkness: Androgyny, Future, Present, and Past." In Ursula K Le Guin, edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 225-33. ---. "The Left Hand of Darkness: Androgyny, Future, Present, and Past." In Ursula K Le Guin's "The Left Hand of Darkness, edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 91-99. Bucknall, BarbaraJ. "Rilke and Le Guin." Mythlore 16, no. 2 (winter 1989): 62-65. [Whole number 60] "Campbell and Sturgeon Award Winners." Locus 35, no. 2 (August 1995): 8. Campbell, Beatrix. "Eye to Eye: Dark Star." Marxism Today (November 1990): 4-5. PROGRESS REPORT: SFRA.2001 Jan Howard Finder has the following update: SFRA 200 I will be held over May 24-27,2001, at the Scheneaady Ramada Inn, New York. USA. Our literary guests of honor are C. j. Cherryh, David Weber, and Jane Yo/en. Our artist guest of honor is Vincent Di Fate. The theme for SFRA 200 I is "SF in the Next Millennium: Looking Forward while Remembering the Past" Registration for SFRA 200 I is currently $75 for SFRA members. It will be $150 after April I, 200 I, and at the door. Our Website is at . You will find there the list of suggested paper and panel topics, and you can register and check out our tentative schedule, list of current members, etc. I have been working with our programming chairman, Barbara Chepaitis , 19 Hillside Avenue, Scheneaady, NY 12308, USA, to work up a rough list of topics for the conference and suitable dates for the abstraa and the finished paper. You will find them below. We encourage members to peruse the list and come up with a specific paper and suggest additional areas for discussion. Panels Tolkien The Language Game (can any-one play it as well as T olkien did? creating and sustaining linguistic worlds in SF and fantasy) Why We Need Tolkien: Arche-types and Cultural Yearnings Fantasy as Past, SF as Future: Time, T olkien, and Technology


Storytelling Story Form, Past, Present, and Future: Orality in Technology Storytelling Round Robin (a predetermined event) Story Swap (sit in the circle and tell a tale; be prepared to tell a short one if the circle is big) Storytelling Workshop Folktales to SF: Using the Oral Tradition to Enrich Writing Media The Golden Years: Did They Exist? Book to Film to TV, TV to Film to Book: How the Medium Creates Meaning What Next, Hollywood? (films we'd love to see, and how we'd like to see them done) TV: SF or Just Plain Bad SciFi? TV We'd Uke to See Criticism Multiple Critiques on the Hugo Winner: An Interactive Panel (utilize your favorite critique method to examine the work, and describe how you construct your critique) Critique and Review: The Dif-ferences, the Similarities A Critical Preview: What to Expect Next from SF and Fantasy Teaching Approaches to Teaching SF in the College Classroom Approaches to Teaching SF in the High SchoollJunior High Class Fighting the Bias against SF SF in the Diversity Classroom How do You Get Kids to Read SF? Clark, Edith I. Ursula K Le Guin: The Utopias and Dystopias of "The Dispossessed" and "Always Coming Home. "Master's thesis, University of British Columbia, 1987. Two microfiche. [Not seen] Clarke, Amy M. A Woman Writing: Feminist Awareness in the Work of Ursula K Le Guin. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis, 1992. (DAl-A 54/01. p. 176. July 1993.) Crowe, Edith L. "Integration in Earthsea and Middle-Earth." San Jose Studies 14, no. 1 (winter 1988): 63-80. Cummins, Elizabeth. "Land-Lady's Homebirth: Revisiting Ursula K. Le Guin's Worlds." Science-Fiction Studies 17, no. 2 Ouly 1990): 153-66. ---. "'Praise the Creation Unfinished': Response to Kenneth M. Roemer." Utopian Studies 2, no. 1/2 (1991): 19-23. ---. Understanding Ursula K Le Guin. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1990. Damico, Natalie W. The Other: Duality in the Science Fiction of Ursula K Ie Guin. Master's thesis, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 1977.82 pp. Dean, John. "Uses of the Occult in the Earthsea." Fantasy Commentator 5, no. 2 (winter 1984): 116-21. "Diunar Awards." Science Fiction Chronicle 7, no. 9 Oune 1986): 6. Dixson, Barbara. "Enlarging the World: Women Heroes in Le Guin, Mcintyre, and Lessing." IAFA Newsletter 2, no. 3 (spring 1989): 26-32. Dooley, Patricia. "Earthsea Patterns." Children s Literature Association Quarterly 4, no. 2 (summer 1979): 1-4. ---. "Magic and Art in Ursula K. Le Guin's Earthsea Trilogy." Children's Literature 8 (1979): 103-10. Drake, Barbara. "Two Utopias: Marge Piercy's Women on the Edge of Time and Ursula K. Le Guin's The Dispossessed." In Sti/! the Frame Holds: Essays on Women Poets and Writers, edited by Sheila Roberts, pp. 109-28. San Bernardino, Calif: Borgo Press, 1993. Dunn, Margaret M. "Dragon Is Not Dead: Le Guin's Earthsea Trilogy." In Forms of the Fantastic, edited by Jan Hokenson, pp. 175-80. Westpott, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1986. ---. "In Defense of Dragons: Imagination as Experience in the Earthsea Trilogy." In Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference of the Children s Literature Association, March 1982, edited by Priscilla A Ord, pp. 54-60. Boston: Children's Literature Association, 1983. Dunn, Thomas P. "Deep Caves of Thought: Plato, Heinlein, and Le Guin." In Spectrum of the Fantastic, edited by Donald Palumbo, pp. 105-12. Westpott, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1988. ---. "Theme and Narrative Structure in Ursula K. Le Guin's The Dispossessed and Frederik Pohl's Gateway." In Reflections on the Fantastic, edited by Michael Col lings, pp. 87-96. Westpott, Conn.: Greenwood, 1986. Erlich, Richard D. "Ursula K. Le Guin and Arthur C. Clarke on Immanence, Transcen dence, and Massacres." Extrapolation 28, no. 2 (summer 1987): 105-30. Feimer, Joel N. "Biblical Typology in Le Guin's The Eye of the Heron: Character, Structure and Theme." Mythlore 19, no. 4 (autumn 1993): 13-19. [Whole number 74] Filmer, Kath. Scepticism and Hope in Twentieth Century Fantasy Literature. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1992. Fischer, Dennis. "The Binary Worlds of Ursula K. Le Guin." Lans Lantern 39 (August 1991): 22-30. Fitting, Peter. "Readers and Responsibility: A Reply to Ken Roemer." Utopian Studies 2, no. 1/2 (1991): 24-29. "The Turn From Utopia in Recent Feminist Fiction." In Feminism, Utopia, and Narrative, edited by Libby F. Jones, pp. 141-58. Knoxville: University ofTennessee Press, 1990. Franko, Carol. "Self-Conscious Narration as the Complex Representation of Hope in Le Guin's Always Coming Home." Mythlore 15, no. 3 (spring 1989): 57-60. [Whole number 57] Franko, Carol. "Dialogic Narration and Ambivalent Utopian Hope in Lessing's Shikasta and Le Guin's Always Coming Home." Journal of the Fantastic in the Am 2, no. 3


(1990): 23-33. Garcia, Frank. "Dreams Come True: Will We Ever See The Lathe of Heaven Again?" Video Watchdog 45 (1988): 34--43. Getz, John. "Peace-Studies Approach to The Left Hand of Darkness." Mosaic 21, no. 2/3 (spring 1988): 203-14. Golden, Kenneth 1. Science Fiction, Myth, and Jungian Psychology. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press, 1995. Goodwin, Barbara. "Science Fiction Utopias." Science as Culture 2 (1988): 1 07-19. Greenland, Colin. "Ursula K Le Guin: Interview." Interzone 47 (March 1991): 58-61. "Greg Egan Wins Campbell Memorial Award; Sturgeon Award to Ursula K Le Guin." Sci-ence Fiction Chronicle 16, no. 9 (August-September 1995): 5. Greven-Borde. "Science-fiction et discours didactique: La problematique du voyage dans 3 oeuvres d'Ursula K Le Guin." Caliban 22 (1985): 29-4l. Griffin, Jan M. "Ursula K Le Guin's Magical World of Earthsea." ALAN Review 23, no. 3 (spring 1996): 16-19. Hare, Delmas E. In This Land There Be Dragons: Carl G. Jung, Ursula K Le Guin, and Narrative Prose Fantasy. Ph.D. dissertation, Emory Universiry, 1987.231 pp. (DAI 43: 165-166A.) Harris, Mason. "Psychology of Power in Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, Orwell's 1984 and Le Guin'sA Wizard of Earths ea." Mythlore 15, no. 1 (autumn 1988): 46-56. [Whole number 55] Hatfield, Len. "From Master to Brother: Shifting the Balance of Authoriry in Ursula K Le Guin's Farthest Shore and Tehanu." Children's Literature 21 (1993): 43-65. Heldreth, Leonard G. "ICFA Converses with 1992 G. O. H. Ursula K Le Guin." IAFA Newsletter 5, no. 2 (summer 1992): 24-27. Heldreth, Lillian M. "To Defend or to Correct: Panerns of Culture in Always Coming Home." Mythlore 16, no. 1 (autumn 1989): 58-62,66. [Whole number 59] ---. "Speculations on Heterosexual Equality: Morris, McCaffrey, Le Guin." In Erotic Universe, edited by Donald Palumbo, pp. 209-20. Westpon, Conn.: Greenwood, 1986. Heller, Terry. "Tehanu: The Last Book of Earthsea." In Magill's Literary Annual, 1991, edited by Frank N. Magill, pp. 794-97. Pasadena, Calif.: Salem Press, 1991. Holliday, Liz. "Animating the Animus." Fear 28 (April 1991): 31-33. ---. "War of the Words." The Guardian (4 October 1990). [Not seen] Hollinger, Veronica. "Pilgrim Presentation Speech: Protean Pilgrim Maps Frontiers ofNarration." SFRA Newsletter 169 Ouly-August 1989): 14-16. Holmberg, John-Henri. "Darkness: Cold and Love." Vector 57 (May 1971): 5-11. Holway, Lowell H. "Ursula K Le Guin at SJSU: The Future Is a Metaphor." San Jose Stud ies 20, no. 1 (winter 1994): 54-7l. Hovanec, Carol P. "Visions of Nature in The Word for the World Is Forest: A Mirror of the American Consciousness." Extrapolation 30, no. 1 (spring 1989): 84-93. Huff, Marjorie 1. The Monomyth Pattern in Ursula K Le Guin's Earthsea Trilogy. Master's thesis, Middle Tennessee State Universiry, 1977. 164 pp. Hull, Keith N. "What Is Human? Ursula K Le Guin and Science Fiction's Great Theme." Modern Fiction Studies 32, no. 1 (spring 1986): 65-74. Irving, James A. The World Makers: Techniques of Fantasy in]. R. R. Tolkien! "The Lord of the Rings" and Ursula K Le Guin's ''Earthsea Trilogy. "Master's thesis, Acadia Uni versity, 1976. 128 pp. Jacobs, Naomi. "Beyond Stasis and Symmetry: Lessing, Le Guin, and the Remodeling of Utopia." Extrapolation 29, no. 1 (spring 1988): 34--45. ---. "Beyond Stasis and Symmetry: Lessing, Le Guin, and the Remodeling of Utopia." In Utopian Studies II, edited by Michael S. Cummings, pp. 109-17. Lanham, N. Y.: University Press of America, 1989. ---. "The Frozen Landscape in Women's Utopian and Science Fiction." In Utopian and Science Fiction by Women: Worlds of Difference, edited by Jane 1. Donawenh and Carol A. Kolmenen, pp. 190-202. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1994. Jago, Wendy. "A Wizard of Earth sea and the Charge of Escapism." Children's Literature in Education 8 Ouly 1972): 21-29. Cross genre Why We Call Something Mainstream When It's SF and Vice Versa Paranormal vs. SF Other Genres Whose Stories Could Read as SF We are looking into a number of events that we can use to enliven SFRA 200 I even more for you. We are planning a non banquet banquet--a pizza party--an the Wednesday evening be fore the conference. This will give the staff and any early attendees a chance to meet with our guests in an informal manner. On Saturday, we plan to visit the "mailbox from whence it all comes." On Monday, Memorial Day, we are looking at a breakfast cruise on the Hudson or Mohawk Rivers. We have a tentative agreement with the Schenectady Planetarium for a show during SFRA 200 I. We welcome your suggestions for exciting diversions. If you would be so kind, please indicate if you will be flying in for SFRA 200 I. We hope to make arrangements with an airline for discounted rates. If we have some idea of the numbers involved, it will improve and ease discussions. I I DARK FANTASY THEME OF SPECIAL NIEKAS ISSUE Niekas began publishing eight years before the founding of the SFRA in 1970, was suspended about 19701976, resumed in 1977, and has been published irregularly ever since. Issue 43, 1998, was guest edited by Joe Christo pher of Tarleton State University's Eng lish Department in Stephenville, Tex. I hadn't seen an issue of Niekas in some years, during which desktop publishing made dramatic progress, and it shows in


this special 120 letter-size page issue devoted to dark fantasy. Among the approximately thirty contributors are Darrell Schweitzer, Don D,Ammassa, Ben In dick, the late Sam Moskowitz, S. T. joshi, Mike Ashley, and regular editor Ed Meskys, formerly a college physics teacher and now active in the National Federation of the Blind. The scope is relatively broad, from joshi's remarks on the weird fiction of L P. Hartley to Moskowitz on Machen to Tom Whitmore on the young adult novels of john Bellairs. Vampires, psychiC detectives, Leiber, and Blackwood are other topics in the varied mix of articles averaging 2-5 pages. SFRA member Fred Lerner admits that his indexing of worldwide publications on posttraumatic stress disorders and related problems has exposed him to "more real horror than anyone needs to experience vicariously. II This special issue is priced at $9. 95 and has its own ISBN, 09206/9-08-5. SubSCriptions are $19 for four issues, $37 for eight, $50 for twelve, with extra postage for non-USA subscriptions. Details fi'om or Niekas Publica tions, RR 2, Box 63, 322 Whittier Hwy, Center Harbor, NH 03226-9708. Neil Barron I I HIGH HALLACK GENRE WRITERS' RESFARCH AND REFERENCE LIBRARY High Hallack Genre Writers' Research and Reference Ubrary is a unique facility which is the result of more than half a century of labor. A tax-exempt foundation, it is intended to provide writers and scholars of "popular" is, those whose work deals with the genres of science fiction, fantasy, mystery, west-Jameson, Fredric. "World-Reduction in Le Guin: The Emergence of Utopian Narrative." In Ursula K Le Guin, edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 57-70. ---. "World-Reduction in Le Guin: The Emergence of Utopian Narrative." In Ursula K Le Guin s "The Left Hand of Darkness, "edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 23-37. Jameson, Sara. "Ursula K. Le Guin: A Galaxy of Books and Laurels." Publishers Weeko/ 242, no. 39 (September 25, 1995): 32-33. Jean, Lorraine A. "Ursula K. Le Guin." In Facts on File Bibliography of American Fiction 1919-1988, edited by Matthew J. Bruccoli, pp. 288-90. New York: Facts on File, 1991. Jenkins, Sue. "Growing Up in Earthsea." Children's Literature in Education 16, no. 1 (1985): 21-31. Jose, Jim. "Reflections on the Politics ofLe Guin's Narrative Shifts." Science-Fiction Studies 18, no. 2 Guly 1991): 180-97. Keith, Donald H. "Example of the Potential Contributions of Literature to Geography as Exemplified by a Comparison between the Works of Alfred L. Kroeber and Ursula K. Le Guin." Unpublished paper, December, 1978, Texas A & M University. 41 pp. Held in the Texas A&M University Library Science Fiction Research Collec tion. Kerr, Jim. "Conversation with Ursula K. Le Guin." Lan's Lantern 23 Gune 1987): 4-9. Ketterer, David. "The Left Hand of Darkness: Ursula K. Le Guin's Archetypal Winter Journey." In Ursula K Le Guin's "The Left Hand of Darkness, "edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 11-21 ---. "Ursula K. Le Guin's Archetypal Winter-Journey." In Ursula K Ie Guin, edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 11-21. Keulen, Margarete. Radical Imagination: Feminist Conceptions of the Future in Ursula K Ie Guin, Marge Piercy, and Sally Miller Gearhart. New York: Lang, 1991. Khanna, Lee C. "Beyond Ornelas: Utopia and Gender." Utopian Studies 2, no. 112 (1991): 48-58. ---. "Women's Utopias: New Worlds, New Texts." In Feminism, Utopia, and Narrative, edited by Libby F. Jones, pp. 130-40. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1990. Klarer, Mario. "Gender and 'The Simultaneity Principle': Ursula K. Le Guin's The Dispossessed." Mosaic 25, no. 2 (spring 1992): 107-21. Klein, Gerard. "Le Guin's Aberrant Opus: Escaping the Trap of Discontent." In Ursula K Le Guin, edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 85-97. Kuelen, Margarete. Radical Imagination: Feminist Conceptions of the Future in Ursula Ie Guin, Marge Piercy and Salo/ Miller Gearhart. New York: Lang, 1991. Kuznets, Lois R. "High Fantasy in America: A Study of Lloyd Alexander, Ursula K. Le Guin, and Susan Cooper." Lion and the Unicorn 9 (1985): 19-35. Lamb, P. F. and D. L. Veith. "Again, The Left Hand of Darkness: Androgyny or Homopho bia?" In Erotic Universe, edited by Donald Palumbo, pp. 221-31. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1986. Latham, Robert. "SFRA 20: Conference Report." SFRA Newsletter 169 Guly-August 1989): 5-12. Lefanu, Sarah. "Inner Space and the Outer Lands: Ursula K. Le Guin." In Feminism and Science Fiction, pp. 130-46. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989. Le Guin, Magnolia W. A Home-Concealed Woman: The Diaries of Magnolia Wynne Le Guin, 1901-1913, edited by Charles A. Le Guin. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1990. "Le Guin, Ursula (Update)." In Beacham's Popular Fiction 1991 Update, edited by Walton Beacham et al., 744-53. Washington, D.C.: Beacham, 1991. Le Guin, Ursula K. "A Citizen of Mondath." In The Profession of Science Fiction, edited by Maxim Jakubowski and Edward James, pp. 73-77. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992. ---. Earthsea Revisioned. Madison, N.J.: Children's Literature New England, 1993. ---. "Introduction to the Women's Press Edition of The Language of the Night." New York Review of Science Fiction 2 (October 1988): 1,3-4. ---. "Legends for a New Land." Mythlore 15, no. 2 (winter 1988): 4-10. [Whole number 56] ---. "Legends for a New Land." In The Roots of Fantasy, pp. 35-46. Seattle, Wash.:


World Fantasy Convention, 1989. ---. "Pilgrim Award Acceptance Speech: Spike the Canon." SFRA Newslmer 169 OulyAugust 1989): 17-21. ---. "Talking About Writing." Writer 105, no. 12 (December 1992): 9-11, 41. "Le Guin Wins Pilgrim Award." Science Fiction Chronicle 10, no. 12 (September 1989): 5. "Le Guin Wins Pilgrim; SFRA Stays on Course." Science Fiction Chronicle 11, no. 1 (October 1989): 32. Littlefield, Emerson. Character and Language in Eight Novels by Ursula K Le Guin and Samuel R. Delany. Ph.D. dissertation, Florida State University, 1984. Littlefield, Holly. "Unlearning Patriarchy: Ursula Le Guin's Feminist Consciousness in The Tombs of Atuan and Tehanu." Extrapolation 36, no. 3 (fall 1995): 244-58. Maddern, Philippa. "True Stories: Women's Writing in Science Fiction." Meanjin 44, no. 1 (March 1985): 110-23. Madrigal, Alix. "A Specialist in the Unexpected." San Francisco (Calif) Chronicle Review (February 2, 1992): 5. "The Making of Always Coming Home." Mythlore 17, no. 3 (spring 1991): 56-63. [Whole number 65] Malkki, Tatya. "The Marriage Metaphor in the Works of Ursula K. Le Guin." In Modes of the Fantastic, edited by Robert A. Latham and Robert A. Collins, pp. 100-9. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1995. McCaffety, Larry. "An Interview with Ursula K. Le Guin." In Across the Wounded Galaxies, edited by Larry McCaffery, pp. 151-75. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990. McDowell, Elizabeth J. Power and Environment in Recent Writings by Barbara Kingsolver, Ursula K Le Guin, Alice Walker and Terry Tempest Williams. Master's Thesis, University of Oregon, 1992. [Not seen] McGuirk, Carol. "Optimism and the Limits of Subversion in The Dispossessed and The Left Hand of Darkness." In Ursula K Le Guin, edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 243-58. ---. "Optimism and the Limits of Subversion in The Dispossessed and The Left Hand of Darkness." In Ursula K Le Guin s "The Left Hand of Darkness, edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 117-34. McIntyre, Vonda N. "Without Apparent Effort." In The Roots of Fantasy, edited by the World Fantasy Convention, pp. 13-16. Seattle, Wash.: World Fantasy Conven tion, 1989. Mendlesohn, Farah. "Women in Science Fiction: Six American SF Writers Between 1960 and 1985." Foundation 53 (autumn 1991): 53-69. Mielenhausen, Eileen M. "Comings and Goings: Metaphors and Linear and Cyclical Move ment in Le Guin's Always Coming Home." Utopian Studies III, edited by Michael S. Cummings and Nicholas D. Smith, pp. 99-105. Lanham, N.Y.: University Press of America, 1991. Miles, Margaret. "Earthsea Revisited Revisited." Voice of Youth Advocates 14, no. 5 (December 1991): 301-2. Mills, Alice. "Burning Women in Ursula K. Le Guin's Tehanu: The Last Book of Earths ea. New York Review of Science Fiction 79 (March 1995): 1,3-7. Monteith, Moira. "Blueprints for No Place: An Examination of Utopian Novels by Marge Piercy and Ursula K. Le Guin." Metaphores 9-10 (April 1984): 183-90. [Actes du Premier Colloque International de Science-Fiction de Nice, 1983] Moore, J ohn. "An Archaeology of the Furure: Ursula K. Le Guin and AnarchoPrimitivism. Foundation 63 (spring 1995): 32-39. Murphy, Patrick D. "The High and Low Fantasies of Feminist (Re)Mythopoeia." Mythlore 16, no. 2 (winter 1989): 26-31. [Whole number 60] ---. "The Left Hand of Fabulation: The Poetry of Ursula K. Le Guin." In The Poetic Fantastic, edited by Patrick D. Murphy and Vernon Hyles, pp. 123-36. New York: Greenwood, 1989. Myers, Victoria. "Conversational Technique in Ursula Le Guin: A Speech-Act Analysis." In Ursula K Le Guin s 'The Left Hand of Darkness, "edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 101-15. "Nancy Springer, Ursula K. Le Guin Wm Tiptree Award." Science Fiction Chronicle 16, no. 5 (March-April 1995): 4. "Nebula Awards, 1990." Locus 26, no. 6 Oune 1991): 1,62-63. em, romance, gothic, or horror-a peaceful place for research and reference study. The library'S books have been carefully selected for this purpose and include outstanding examples, both early and contemporary, of every genre, as well as relevant nonfiction studies and handbooks for writing in that field. Foreign material is represented, too, as are publications that have long been out of print In addition to its core collection of more than ten thousand books supplied by Andre Norton, High Hallack also boasts a military history library bequeathed by fantasy author Robert Adams and an extensive selection of pagan and Wiccan lore contributed by an eighth-generation Welsh witch. Moreover, the library owns a minigallery of original fantasy art, examples from which will be on display, and a sizable group of relevant videos, available for viewing by request To use the resources of High Hallack, it is necessary to be either a working writer of a student currently enrolled at college level or higher; equally with the writing of fiction, the production of scholarly papers or articles constitutes an acceptable usage of its offerings. The library encourages authors and scholars in both the juvenile and adult fields of its represented genres to labor here, as it contains notable works for both age levels. As many as four researchers are welcome at a time. No materials may be removed from the library but must be read or viewed on site. There is no charge for use of the facility itself, however, a modest fee will be asked for faxing or copying needs. As an additional service, critiques on both creative and academic writing are available by prior arrangement; a charge will also be made for these analysis. Poetry


on subjects from fantasy and science fiction will be examined by Dr. Rose Wolf; prose will be the province of Andre Norton. To make application for use of this facility, please write to the following address: High Hallack 114 Eventide Drive Murfreesboro, TN 37130-2123. .---rr-. GAUGHAN ARlWORK FOR SALE Paul DiFilippo writes, "As a longtime friend of Nora Gaughan, daughter of famed SF artist Jack Gaughan, I have been asked by the family to notift the SF world of a recent development in the Gaughan estate. After years of catalog ing, Jack's widow, Phoebe Adams Gaughan, is now offering selected works of Jack's for sale. Both black-and-white illustrations and full-color cover illustra tions are for sale. For more information, contact her at 93 Fair Street, Kingston, NY 1240 I, or phone her at 9141339-1724. Phoebe Gaughan will be attending this year's Boskone with a selection of Jock's work." II ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SCIENCE FICTION AVAILABLE ON CD-ROM For those who want the Encyclope dia of Science Fiction, edited by John Clute and Peter Nicholls, online, frnding it has been tough because for its CD-ROM form, the title was changed. The same content found in ESF is available as a CD under the title Grolier Science Fiction: The Multimedia Science Fiction Encyclopedia. John Qute notes that because of the name change, "many people have thought this is an entirely different product" The fullest text available is available as 998 SFE VIEWER from David Langford, who can "Nebula Awards, 1991." Science Fiction Chronicle 12, no. 8 Oune 1991): 4. Nodelman, Perry. "Reinventing the Past: Gender in Ursula K Le Guin's Tehanu and the Earthsea Trilogy." Children's Literature 23 (1995): 179-201. O'Connell, Nicholas. "Ursula K Le Guin." InAt the Field's End, pp. 19-38. Seattle, Wash.: Madrona, 1987. Pageni, Carlo. "Tra universo technologico e tempo del sogno: la narrativa de Ursula K. Le Guin." In Nel tempo del sogno, pp. 109-42. Ravenna: Longo Editore, 1989. Peel, Ellen. "Utopian Feminism, Skeptical Feminism, and Narrative Energy." In Feminism, Utopia, and Narrative, edited by Libby F. Jones, pp. 34-49. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1990. Pegg, Barry. "Down to Eanh: Terrain, Territory, and the Language of Realism in Ursula K Le Guin's The Left Hand of Darkness and The Dispossessed." Michigan Academician 27, no. 4 (August 1995): 481-92 Philmus, Roben M. "Ursula K Le Guin and Time's Dispossession." In Science Fiction Roots and Branches, edited by Rhys Garnett, pp. 125-52. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990. Platt, Charles. "News From the Ghetto: The Teflon Fantasist." Quantum 43/44 (spring summer 1993): 19-20. Prescott, Jani and Jean W. Ross. "Le Guin, Ursula K(roeber), 1929-(with interview)." In Contemporary Authors, edited by James G. Lesniak, pp. 248-54. Detroit: Gale Research, 1991. New Revision Series vol. 32. Pringle, David. "Dispossessed by Ursula K Le Guin (1974)." In Science Fiction: The 100 Best Novels, pp. 167-68. New York: Carroll and Graf, 1985. ---. "Left Hand of Darkness by Ursula K Le Guin (1969)." In Science Fiction: The 100 Best Novels, pp. 139-40. New York: Carroll and Graf, 1985. Rabkin, Eric S. "Determinism, Free Will, and Point of View in The Left Hand of Darkness. In Ursula K Le Guin, edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 155-69. Rabkin, Eric S. "Determinism, Free Will, and Point of View in Le Guin's The Left Hand of Darkness." In Ursula K Ie Guin 's "The Left Hand of Darkness, edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 75-90. Rass, Rebecca. Ursula K Le Guin's "The Left Hand of Darkness ':. A Critical Commentary. New York: Monarch Press/Simon and Schuster, 1990. [Monarch Notes] Reinking, Victor and David Willingham. "A Conversation with Ursula K Le Guin." Paradoxa 1, no. 1 (1995): 39-57. Roemer, Kenneth M. "Dissensus Achieved, Apologies Offered, and a Hinge Proclaimed." Utopian Studies 2, no. 112 (1991): 59-62. ---. "The Talking Porcupine Liberates Utopia: Le Guin's 'Ornelas' as Pretext to the Dance." Utopian Studies 2, no. 112 (1991): 6-18. Rollin, Lucy W. "Exploring Earthsea: A Sixth Grade Literarure Project." Children's Literature in Education 16, no. 4 (1985): 195-202. Rousseau, Yvonn. "Right Hand of Light, or, Mr. Rottensteiner and Mrs. Le Guin." Metaphysical Review 5/6 (October 1985): 11-47. Ruddick, Nicholas. "Breaking out of the SF Box: Recent Srudies of James Blish and Ursula K Le Guin." Canadian Review of American Studies 21, no. 1 (summer 1990): 101-6. Samuelson, David N. "Ursula K Le Guin." In Supernatural Fiction Writers, edited by E. F. Bleiler, pp. 1059-66. New York: Scribner's, 1985. Schaafsma, Karen. "Wondrous Vision: Transformation of the Hero in Fantasy Through En counter with the Other." In Aspects of Fantasy, edited by William Coyle, pp. 61-71. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1986. Schicke, Ulrike. "Individuum und gesellschafi: in Ursula K Le Guin's The Dispossessed, 1. Teil." Quarber Merkur 31, no. 1 Oune 1993): 23-34. [Whole number 79] ---. "Individuum und Gesellschafi: in Ursula K Le Guin's The Dispossessed, 2. Teil." Quarber Merkur 31, no. 2 (December 1993): 3-13. [Whole number 80] ---. "Individuum und Gesellschaft in Ursula Le Guin's The Dispossmed, 3. Teil und Schlua." Quarber Merkur 32, no. 1 Oune 1994): 3-20. [Whole number 81] Scholes, Robett. "Good Witch of the West. In Ursula K Le Guin, edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 35--45. ---. "Vive la difference: Sexual Space in The Left Hand of Darkness by Ursula K Le


Guin." Metaphores 9/10 (April 1984): 129-38. [Actes du Premier Colloque Inter national de Science-Fiction de Nice, 1983] Schweickart, Patrocinio P. Theory for Feminist Criticism. Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State Uni versity, 1980. 360 pp. (DAI 41: 3093A.) Schweitzer, Darrell. "Interview with Ursula K Le Guin (Part 1)." Science Fiction Review 1, no. 2 (summer 1990): 22-24. ---. "Interview with Ursula K Le Guin (Part 2)." Science Fiction Review 1, no. 3 (autumn 1990): 52-56. Searles, Baird. "Ursula K Le Guin: The Lathe of Science Fiction; Interview." Amazing 61, no. 3 (September 1986): 41-46. Selinger, B. G. Ursula K Le Guin and the Paradox of Identity in Contemporary Fiction. Ph.D. dissertation, York University (Canada), 1984. (DAI 46: 3721A.) [Not seen] Selinger, Bernard. Le Guin and Identity in Contemporary Fiction. Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press, 1987, 1988. ---. "Ursula K Le Guin and the Future of Discourse." Canadian Woman Studies 6, no. 2 (spring 1985): 48-50. Senior, W. A. "Cultural Anthropology and Rituals of Exchange in Ursula K Le Guin's 'Earthsea'." Mosaic 29, no. 4 (December 1996): 101-13. Shippey, T. A. "Magic Art and the Evolution of Words: The Earthsea Trilogy." In Ursula K Le Guin, edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 99-117. Simon, Erik. "Das Quartum Comparatur. Eine Beogbachtung zu Ursula Le Guins Erdsee Zyklus." Quarber Merkur 32, no. 1 Oune 1994): 39-41. [Whole number 81] Slusser, George E. "The Earthsea Trilogy." In Ursula K Ie Guin, edited by Harold Bloom, pp.71-83. ---. "The Politically Correct Book of Science Fiction: Le Guin's Norton Collection." Foundation 60 (spring 1994): 67-84. Spector, Judith. "Functions of Sexuality in the Science Fiction of Russ, Piercy and Le Guin." In Erotic Universe, edited by Donald Palumbo, pp. 197-207. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1986. Spivack, Charlotte. "Ursula K Le Guin." In Merlin's Daughters: Contemporary Women Writ ersofFantasy, pp. 51-66. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1987. Stevens, Carol D. "A Response to Ken Roemer." Utopian Studies 2, no. 1/2 (1991): 30--34. Stone-Blackburn, Susan. "Adult Telepathy: Babel 17 and The Left Hand of Darkness." Ex trapolation 30, no. 3 (fall 1989): 243-253. Talbot, Norman. 'Escape!': That Dirty Word in Modern Fantasy: Le Guin's Earthsea." In Twentieth-Century Fantasists: Essays in Culture, Society and Belie/in Twentieth Century Mythopoeic Literature, edited by Kath Filmer, pp. 135-47. New York: St. Martin's, 1992. Tavormina, M. Teresa. "Gate of Horn and Ivory: Dreaming True and False in Earthsea." Extrapolation 29, no. 4 (winter 1988): 338-48. Theall, Donald F. "The Art of Social-Science Fiction: The Ambiguous Utopian Dialectics of Ursula K Le Guin." In Ursula K Le Guin's "The Left Hand of Darkness, "edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 39-52. Thomason, Sue. "Women Wizards? Yes, Nowl" Vector 139 (August/September 1987): 7-8, 19. Thompson, Christine K "Going North and West to Watch the Dragons Dance." Mythlore 15, no. 1 (autumn 1988): 19-22. [Whole number 55] Thompson, R. H. "Jungian Patterns in Ursula K Le Guin's The Farthest Shore." In Aspects of Fantasy, edited by William Coyle, pp. 189-95. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1986. Tiptree, James, Jr. "From a Spoken Journal: Thinking about Heinlein, et al., 1971." New York Review of Science Fiction 60 (August 1993): 1,3-6. Tschachler, Heinz. "Ursula K Le Guin, The Left Hand of Darkness (1969)." In Der Science Fiction Roman in der angloamerikanischen Literatur: Interpretationen, edited by Harmut Heuermann, pp. 295-314. Diisseldorf: Bagel, 1986. Tschachler, Heinz. "Forgetting Dostoevsky; or, The Political Unconscious of Ursula K Le Guin." Utopian Studies 2, no. 112 (1991): 63-76. Urbanowicz, Victor. "Personal and Political in The Dispossessed." In Ursula K Ie Guin, ed ited by Harold Bloom, pp. 145-54. "Ursula K Le Guin." In Contemporary Literary Criticism, vol. 45, 211-24. Detroit, Mich.: be reached at . This versian carrects the CD, adds ufr dates to relevant entries, and makes the digital form of the book available on a computer's hard disk (about 50 megabytes are required). There are no illustrations or other goodies available, as there are in the Grolier version, but it is very fast I I ANTHOLOGY ABOUT STAR TREK: DEEP SPACE NINE SFRA member Robin Anne Reid and her colleague Judy Ann Ford are calling for papers for a proposed anthol ogy of critical works about Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. The 1997-1998 season is the last scheduled for this series. Papers are welcome from contribu tors in any discipline; and analytical and pedagogical papers are welcome. Any topic will be considered, but of particular interest are issues of ethnicity, "race," gender, sexuality, religion, and the family. The deadline for completed papers is September IS, 1999. Length is 35 pages maximum; use MLA in-text citation style or endnotes. Submit two copies of your completed poper to Robin Anne Reid, Department of Literature and Languages, or Judy Ann Ford, His tory Department, Texas A&M Univer sity--Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429. II. BOOKS FOR SALE Neil Barron, SFRA's reviews editor, writes, "About a dozen new non books from last May's SFRA con ference exhibit are for sale at about 60 percent of list, revenue from which will offset the costs of handling the book reviewing. There are also about a dozen used works of from my per-


sonal collection on the list, available on request" Neil's address can be found on page 2. Contact him directly for titles and prices. I I RECENT AND FORTHCOMING BOOKS COMPILED BY NEIL BARRON *Review copy requested HISTORY AND CRITICISM *Warner, Marina. No Go to the Bog eyman: Scaring, Lulling, and Making Mock. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, February 1999. By the British cuhural historian who wrote From the Beast to the Blond: On Fairy Tales and Their Tell ers "'Benford, Gregory. Deep Time: How Humanity Communicates Across Millennia. Avon/Bard, February 1999. Reverses the situation in his 1980 novel, Timescape. Author ;s GoH at 1999 SFRA con *Robinson, Fronk. Science Fiction of the 20th Century. Collectors Press (distributed by Rizzoli), fall 1999. ExtenSively illustrated *Davenport-Hines, Richard. Gothic: Four Hundred Years of Excess, Horror, Evil, and Ruin. Northpoint Press/FSG, April 1999 *Ducornet, Rikki. The Monstrous and the Marvelous. City Ughts, 1999 Robbins, Trino. From Girls to Grrrlz; Gale Research, 1987. "Ursula K Le Guin: Looking Back." Locus 30, no. 5 (May 1993): 6, 73-74. "Ursula K Le Guin: Not the Establishment." Locus 21, no. 11 (November 1988): 5, 68. "Ursula K Le Guin: The Last Book of Eanhsea." Locus 24, no. 1 Oanuary 1990): 5. "Ursula K. Le Guin." In The Writers Mind: Interviews with American Authors, vol. 2, edited by Irv Broughton, 309-38. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1990. Vinge, Joan D. "Introduction to The Left Hand a/Darkness." New York Review a/Science Fiction 43 (March 1992): 14--16. Walker, Jeanne M. "Myth, Exchange and History in The Left Hand a/Darkness." In Ursula K Le Guins "The Left Hand a/Darkness," edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 171-8l. ---. "Myth, Exchange and History in The Left Hand a/Darkness." In Ursula K Le Guin s "The Left Hand a/Darkness, "edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 63-73. Watson, Ian. "Forest as Metaphor for Mind: The Word for the World is Forest and Vaster than Empires and More Slow." In Ursula K Le Guin, edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 47-55. ---. "Le Guin's Lathe o/Heaven and the Role of Dick: The False Reality as Mediator." In On Philip K Dick: 40 Articles From "Science-Fiction Studies, "edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 63-72. Terre Haute, Ind.: SF-TH Inc., 1992. Webb, Sarah Jo. "Culrure as Spiritual Metaphor in Le Guin'sAlways Coming Home." In Functions o/the Fantastic, edited by Joe Sanders, pp. 155--60. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1995. Welton, Ann. "Earthsea Revisited: Tehanu and Feminism." Voice o/YouthAdvocates 14, no. 1 (April 1991): 14--16, 18. Williams, Donna G. "The Moons ofLe Guin and Heinlein." Science-Fiction Studies 21, no. 2 Ouly 1994): 164--72. Willis, Gary. "Le Guin's The Left Hand o/Darkness, the Weaving Together of Dualities." Riverside Quarterly 8, no. 1 (September 1986): 36--43. WLison, Mary. Balancing Polar Opposites in the Novels o/Ursula K Le Guin. Master's thesis, Tennessee Technological University, 1992. ---. "The Earthsea Series of Ursula Le Guin: A Successful Example of Modern Fantasy." Papers: Explorations into Children s Literature 3, no. 2 (August 1992): 60-74. [Not seen] Wingrove, David. "Juvenilia? A Child's View of Earthsea." Vector 81 Oune 1977): 4-7. Wood, Susan. "Discovering Worlds: The Fiction of Ursula K Le Guin." In Ursula K Le Guin, edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 183-209. "World Fantasy Awards, 1995." Science Fiction Chronicle 17, no. 2 (December 1995-January 1996): 5. "World Fantasy Awards." Science Fiction Chronicle 10, no. 3 (December 1988): 4. Wytenbroek, J. R. "Always Coming Home: Pacifism and Anarchy in Le Guin's Latest Uto pia." Extrapolation 28, no. 4 (winter 1987): 330-39. ---. ''Yaoism in the Fantasies of Ursula K Le Guin." In The Shape 0/ the Fantastic, edited by Olena H. Saciuk, pp. 173-80. New York: Greenwood, 1990. Yarnano, Koichi. "Ursula K Le Guin: Das Mittelalter der Frauenzivilisation." Quarber Mer kur 33, no. 1 Oune 1995): 26--33. [Whole number 83] Zaki, Hoda M. Phoenix Renewed: The Survival and Mutation o/Utopian Thought in North American Science Fiction 1965-1982, rev. ed. San Bernardino, Calif: Borgo Press, 1994. III: .. III: .) PRESENTING YOUNG ADULT FANTASY FICTION Neil Barron MacRae, Cami Dunn. Presrnting Young Aault Fantasy Fiction. New York: Twayne, July 1998. xxx + 464 p. $28. 0-8057-8220-6. TUSAS 699. To order in me USA, call toll free 8001257-5757.


Young adult (yA) fiction has been a staple in public libraries for several decades, but it has not attracted much interest among SF/F fiction scholars, al though the best of such fiction is fully equal to its nominally adult counterparts. To partially offset such neglect, all four editions (1976, 1981, 1987, 1995) of my Anatomy of Wonder have a chapter on YA SF, with an equivalent chapter in the 1990 editions of the companion fantasy and horror guides. The 1999 revised one-volume fantasy/horror guide integrates adult and YA books but flags them. MacRae was a YA librarian for nineteen years and has put her experience to good use in this survey, which draws extensively on a group of teens with whom she worked at Boulder Public Library, the Fantasy Fanatics, and other teen readers around the USA Quotes from many of these eighty-five teens are included throughout the book. She interviewed several of the writers whose works she discusses, such as Terry Brooks, Barbara Hambly, and Jane Yolen. It is, I note with praise, one of the few books by a librarian who makes frequent use of Locus. MacRae organizes her guide "to offer useful categories for young adult readers, educators, and librarians searching for the type of fantasy story they want, illuminating fantasy's elusive meaning through careful description of its varieties" (p. 9). Six core chapters focus on distinct subgenres, four of them highlighting the work of a "featured author," followed by briefer discussion of other authors and their works. The sub genres include alternate worlds (Terry Brooks), magic realism-not the Latin American variety (Barbara Hambly)-myth (Jane Yolen), legends (Atthurian literature), magic bestiary (Meredith Ann Pierce), and time travel (multiple authors). Chapter 2 can serve as a example of the book's organization and content. Alternate worlds (in the fans' ungrammatical version of alternative worlds) is equated with high/heroidepidsecondary world/adventure/sword and sorcery, a conflation of categories that some purists may deplore. Comments by Tolkien and several other critics are cited to elucidate the nature and appeal of this subgenre, and some preT olkien history is provided (Morris, Dunsany, Eddison, Peake, the Inklings, C. A Smith, Howard, Leiber, Pratt, and de Camp). Tolkien is discussed in moderate detail, with various critical assessments quoted or summarized. Comments by YA readers show Tolkien's strong influence. Le Guin's Earthsea series is analyzed in some detail, including its much different fourth volume, Tehanu. YA comments are included. The heart of the chapter, 66 of the 161 pages, is devoted to the works of Terry Brooks, mostly his Shannara series. Considerable biographical detail is pre sented, along with a lot of plot summary, intermixed with favorable and unfavor able comments by reviewers, critics, and YA readers (comments from maturing YAs showed a distinct shift from enthusiasm to disdain). American feminist fantasists (Bradley, McKillip, McKinley, Hambly, Pierce, Lackey) are given a section, fol lowed by one on heroic fantasy writers writing for adults but having wide appeal to YAs: Anthony, Pratchett, Eddings, and Jordan. The chapter concludes with a rec ommended fiction reading list by authors discussed in the main text and other similar authors. A secondary bibliography concludes the chapter. Fantasy gaming and tie-in books are discussed in the chapter on magic (realism). The survey concludes with notes and references, a well-chosen bibliography of secondary book sources, an appendix describing (but not listing) adult fantasy awards and sources of recommended fantasy works, an appendix listing the AlA's best YA fantasies, and the survey and questionnaire forms MacRae used with her teen advisors. A detailed index concludes the book which, at almost 500 pages, is the lengthiest Twayne book published to date (most TUSAS series books are de voted to a single author and run 150-200 pages). The only other study roughly comparable to MacRae is the annotated bibliography compiled by Ruth Nadelman Lynn, Fantasy Literature for Children and Young Adults (4th ed., 1995), which is much more comprehensive but lacks a history of comics from teens to zines. Chronicle Books, July 1999 Altner, Patricia. Vampire Readings: An Annotated Bibliogra phy. Scarecrow Press, fall 1998 *Skal, Donald J. Screams of Reason: Mad Science and Modem Culture. Norton, August 1998 *Jones, Gwyneth. Deconstructing the Starships: Essays and Reviews. Uverpool University Press, March 1999 *Parrinder, Patrick, ed. learning from Other Worlds: Estrange ment, Cognition and the Politics of Science Fiction and Utopia. Uverpool Uni versity Press, April 1999 *Corrie/, Jeanne. Demand My Writing: Joanna Russ, Femi nism, Science Fiction. Uverpool University Press, April 1999 *Ferns, Chris. Narrating Utopia: Ide ology, Gender and Form in Utopian literature. Uverpool University Press, April 1999 *Smyth, J., ed. Jules Verne: New Directions. Uverpool Univer sity Press, May 1999 AUTHOR STUDIES Leach, Karoline. In the Shadow of the Dreamchild: A New


Understanding of Lewis Carroll. Dufour, April 1999 Beahm, George. Stephen King Country: The Illustrated Guide to the Sites and Sights that Inspired the Modem Master of Horror. Running Press, March 1999 Geritz, Albert J. Thomas More: An Annotated Bibliography of Criticism, 1935-1997. Greenwood, July 1998. 1,600+ annotated entries on life and works Bennett, Betty J. Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley: An Introduc tion. Johns Hopkins University Press, December 1998 FILMITV Edwards, Ted. The Unauthorized "Star Wars" Compen dium: A Complete Guide to the Movies, Novels, Comic Books and More. UttIe, Brown, February 1999 Collecting Japanese Movie Monsters. Antique Trader, January 1999 *McCabe, Bob. Dark Knights and Holy Fools: The Art and Films of Terry Gilliam: From Before Python to Beyond Fear and Loath ing. Rizzoli, May 1999 *Gilliam, Terry. Gilliam on Gilliam, ed. by Ian Christie. Faber/FSG, April (999 most of the critical dimension of MacRae and is designed more for reference than for extended reading or study. "Dark" fantasy is discussed, rather unsatisfactorily, in a companion Twayne study by Cosette Kies, Presenting Young Adult Horror Fic tion (1992), whose focus is on writers of occult horror fiction who also appeal to teenagers. To be reviewed here is a second companion, Presenting Young Adult Sci ence Fiction (1998) by Suzanne Elizabeth Reid. MacRae well serves both her adult audience and teenage readers, who will find her survey easily accessible and are likely to find themselves comparing their own judgments with those quoted in the text. Strongly recommended. iii: 4:, .) PRESENTING YOUNG ADULT SCIENCE FICTION Muriel Rogow Becker Reid, Suzanne Elizabeth. Presenting Young Adult Science Fiction. New York: Twayne, 1998 (toll free orders in USA: 8001257-5757). xii + 230 p. $28. 0-8057-1653-X. TUSAS 709. Twayne's useful Young Adult Authors series, begun in 1985, now in cludes twenty-two volumes, each about a single author of interest to young adults. 1992 saw the publication of a volume dealing with multiple writers of young adult horror, Presenting Young Adult Horror Fiction by Cosette Kies. (Since there are rela tively few YA horror writers, many of the authors discussed by Kies are adult authors whose works are read by teens.) Last year saw the addition of two more multiple author volumes, one on fantasy and one on SF. T wayne says each book in the series offers support matter such as a chro nology, notes and references, a selected bibliography, and a concise, readable sum mary of the life of each leading YA author. The literary analysis is jargon-free. Each book in the series should "enable young readers to research the work of their favor ite authors ... [and should] provide teachers and librarians with insights and back ground material for promoting and teaching young adult novels." Reid succeeds valiantly in meeting these requirements. A brief history of SF and commentary on the major adult and juvenile SF writers of the last 60 years begins the volume. Chapters 3-9 examine individual writers, beginning with her son's favorite, Orson SCOtt Card, titled "A New Master. Douglas Hill exemplifies adventure; H. M. Hoover her didactic quality; Pamela Sargent for feminism (with additional com mentary on Russ, Charnas, and Mcintyre); Octavia Butler for race and gender; Pamela Service and Piers Anthony for science fantasy; and Douglas Adams for humor. Chapter 10 defines cyberpunk and analyzes the strong influences of Gib son, Sterling and Pat Cadigan. Chapter 11 surveys SF films, emphasizing Star Trek. The concluding chapter, "New Themes and Trends," is a clear essay in which she deals with pessimism and optimism, citing such works as Lois Lowry's The Giver (1993) as "emblematic of the best science fiction now being written." Reid's research techniques could in themselves serve as a superb example for the ubiqui tous high school term paper, especially her filmography, notes, and detailed bibli ography of primary and secondary sources ordered by chapter. Strangely missing from the bibliography, since it is so closely related in subject and purpose, is the collection of sixteen essays about SF writers of interest to younger readers (many of them the same ones she selected), Science Fiction for Young Readers, edited by C. W. Sullivan III (Greenwood, 1993). In this work you'll find a full explanation of the influence of the Tom Swift books; a treatment of the juveniles of Asimov, John Christopher and Andre Norton; analyses of the YA works of Heinlein, Hoover, Hughes, Lawrence, L'Engle, and McCaffrey; a study of the contrasting world views of Doctor Who and Captain Kirk; and more.


For middle and junior high school srudents I recommend Reid's survey. Sullivan's book is more suitable for high school students, librarians and teachers. [To be reviewed is a spring 1999 Greenwood title edited by Sullivan, Young Adult Science Fiction. -Editor 1 NONFICTION REVIEW ) THE C.S. LEWIS READERS' EIICYCLOPEDIA Richard C. West Schultz, Jeffrey D., and John G. West, Jr. eds. The C. S. Lewis Readers' Encyclopedia. Zondervan Publishing House, 5300 Patterson Avenue SE, Grand Rapids, MI 49530, 1998.464 p. $22. 99. ISBN 0-310-21538-2. This work treats extensively what's sometimes called "all three-thirds" of C. S. Lewis: the literary scholar and critic, the writer of imaginative fiction and po etry, and the Christian philosopher. It will entertain and educate aficionados of any aspect of its complex and multifaceted subject. One of the many seeming para doxes of "Jack" Lewis is that he practiced his deeply held beliefs in individual pri vacy while his writings nonetheless freely use details of his life and personaliry. For those interested in his life, John Bremer's "A Brief Biography" distills much infor mation in about 55 pages. He paints every known wart into the portrait while also limning a man dedicated to growing morally and spiritually. (Bremer was perhaps paying heed, though perhaps not quite enough, to Christopher Mitchell's caution in his foreword against a tendency in recent years to exaggerate Lewis's character flaws in reaction to the many hagiographies.) Bremer also contributes the entry "Biographies, Review of' to the encyclopedia section. There are many studies of Lewis that include a biographical chapter, and some books that are rather deriva tive, but he sensibly passes over these in favor of important volumes of letters and reminiscences, while concentrating on major studies. He and I agree that the biog raphy by George Sayer (a srudent of Lewis who became a close friend) is the best one overall, and we also have similar impressions of the "dramatic life" by William Griffin and the photobiography by Douglas Gilbert and Clyde S. Kilby. I have a rather higher opinion than he of the early (1974) book by Roger Lancelyn Green and Walter Hooper. And I think A. N. Wilson was trying to be more judicious than he gives him credit for, and can be a salutary, if not altogether satisfactory, corrective to unduly reverential treatments. I mention this to indicate that the entries in this encyclopedia, even where another Lewis scholar might shade matters a little differently, are all in formed opinions. Finally, for devotees of biography, appendix B has a useful time line of significant dates, from the birth of Lewis's mother in 1862 to the death of Lady Dunbar of Hempriggs (the closest thing he had to a sister) in 1997. The main encyclopedia section is also full of riches. The three editors have assembled some 40 other contributors, many of them luminaries in the field of Lewis studies, and all of them knowledgeable. The editors work primarily in political science (though a description of Schultz has unaccountably been omitted from the list of contributors), but they plainly know Lewis's work, and this perspective helps John West's entry on the politics of Lewis, who was largely an apolitical animal. There are entries not only for each of Lewis's many books but also for each essay and poem, for close friends and many acquaintances, figures who influ enced him (Plato, George MacDonald), and places important in his life, and major themes and concerns. All but the shortest entries have useful, annotated bibliogra phies for further reading. Other valuable features include a checklist of resources (societies and publications and Websites devoted to Lewis, where to find collec tions of his papers, and where to get his books), photographs of dust jackets and book covers scattered entertainingly throughout, and a handy list identifying the *Sindair, Ian. Crash. Indiana University Press, March 1999. BFI series Pounds, Michael C. Race in Space: The Representation of Ethnicity in "Star Trek" and "Star T reI<: The Next Generation." Scarecrow Press, fall 1998 *Fujiwara, Chris. Jacques Tourneur: The Cinema of Nightfall. McFarland, July 1998 Alpi, Deborah Lazaroff. Robert Siod mal<: A Biography, with Critical Analyses of His Film Noirs and a Filmography of All His Works. McFarland, September 1998 Renzi, Thomas C. Jules Verne on Film: A Filmography of the Cinematic Adaptations of His Works, 1902 through 1997. McFarland, July 1998 Lucanio, Patrick and Gary Coville. American Science Fiction Television Series of the I 95 Os; Episode Guides and Casts and Credits for Twenty Shows. Macfarland, July 1998 Mank, Gregory William. Women in Horror Films. 2 vols. McFarland, Odober 1998 Meehan, Paul. Saucer Movies: A UFO logical History of the Cinema. Scarecrow Press, fall 1998 ARTIILLUSTRATION


Yount, Sylvia. Maxfield Parrish 18701966. Abrams, spring 1999 Suckling, Nigel. Soft as Steel: The Fantasy Art of Julie Bell. Thunder's Mouth Press, May 1999 *Frazetta, Frank. Icon: A Retrospec tive by the Grand Master of Fantastic Art, Frank Frazetta. Underwood Books, limited ed., May 1998; trade ed., September 1998 RECENT FICTION OF NOTE COMPILED BY NEIL BARRON The February 1999 Locus has a detailed year in review, providing abundant statistics on books and magazines, commentary by the staff, and lists of recommended novels, first novels, collections, anthologies, nonfiction, illustration/art, and shorter fiction. Subscribers complete a ballot, with votes to be tallied in the August issue. Other recommended books include: Washington Post Book World, January 24, 1999: Brian Stableford, In herit the Earth (Tor), Octavia Butler, Parable of the Talents (Seven Sto ries), Jeff Greenwald, Future Perfect: How "Star Trek" Conquered the Earth (Viking, nonfiction) Locus, February 1999: John Barnes, Apostrophes and Apocalypses (Tor; 13 stories, 8 essays); Stephen Baxter, Vacuum Diagrams (HarperPrism); Michael Bishop, Time Pieces (Edgewood; 49 poems, to be reviewed); Peter F. Hamilton, A Second Chance at Eden (Warner Aspect); Jamil Nashir, Tower of Dreams (Bantam Spectra); Debbie Notkin et ai, eds., Flying Cups dedicatees of his books. With as wide an acquaintance as Lewis had, there are bound to be omis sions. There's no entry for E. R. Eddison, with whom Lewis corresponded and who had the rare honor of twice visiting the Inklings by invitation (but Lewis's comments on The Mezentian Gate are described). Christopher Tolkien was a regu lar of the Inklings and is a fine scholar in his own right, and might have had a separate entry, but he's mentioned passim. There are mentions but no entries for student and friend John Lawlor, correspondent Naomi Mitchison (who died last January at 101), colleague Eugene Vinaver, and others. A few misprints in names or titles mar the text. Most of what I want is here; the information is solid, even when interpre tations might differ, and the volume is generally very well produced, and at a very reasonable price. There are not many other books of this kind. There are many specialized guides on narrower topics that aren't comparable. The C. S. Lewis Handbook (1990; 1996 paperback reprint, $4. 98) by Colin Duriez is of similar scope and arrangement, more limited but still a valuable resource. The closest rival is Walter Hooper's C. S. Lewis: Companion and Guide (1996; 906 pages, $28), the result of a lifetime's work editing Lewis's manuscripts and studying his oeuvre. ("Rival" is perhaps an apt word. Good use is'made of Hooper's work, and the con tributors try to be fair, but some of them are less successful than they may think in avoiding an appearance of personal animus. See almost any mention of Hooper.) The Hooper is differently organized from the encyclopedia, but both are well in dexed and extensively cross-referenced. They overlap, but each has good informa tion the other lacks. I'd rank Hooper first, then Schultz and West, then Duriez. Large university and research libraries will want all three books, and even smaller colleges may want the first two. The general reader would find any of them read able and worthwhile. lri: e..: -ill:.. .J A GLAIICE FROM 1I0WHERE Joan Gordon Kelso, Sylvia. A Glance from Nowhere: Sheri S. Tepper's Fantasy and SF. Nimrod Publications, Box 170, New Lambton NSW 2035, Australia, 1997.34 p. stapled. U.S. $10. ISSN 1326-561X. This booklet is one of a handful issued as Babel "handbooks" on fantasy and SF writers, with an emphasis on Australian writers. This longish essay offers a quick but solid and useful overview of Tepper's SF and fantasy while providing a bibliography of primary and secondary works. Because little has yet been written about Tepper, who has achieved considerable prominence in the past few years (she was interviewed in the September 1998 Locus), this glance is particularly welcome. Using Ricoeur's idea of the "glance from nowhere," which subverts the accepted and produces new possibilities, for her thesis, Kelso discusses first her fan tasy, then her SF. In her discussion of the fantasies, citing Cixous, she sees their use of "child-like attributes oflanguage" in conjunction with "adult issues from child abuse to euthanasia," as a characteristically feminist project. Kelso maps this theo retical stance concisely, lucidly, specifically, and usefully. The discussion of SF is less theoretical, exploring feminist and ecological issues, and resulting in several solid readings, particularly of The Gate to Women s Country and Raising the Stones, which she sees as among Tepper's most important works. The essay assumes an audience already familiar with Tepper's novels. In spite of its brevity, it's clear, use ful, perceptive and critically adept, even if a bit pricey.


...-: -...-: -...-: .J THE MECHAIIICS OF WOIIDER A. Langley Searles Westfahl, Gary. The Mechanics o/Wonder: The Creation o/the Idea o/Science Fiction. Liverpool University Press, Senate House, Abercromby Square, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK, November 1998. viii + 344 p. 0-85323563-5; 95, trade paper, -537-2. Orders to Marston Book Services, Box 269, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 4YN, UK direct. Add for shipping: to North America, /book; UK, $2. 50/book, .50 each additional book. When I was an adolescent, you read science fiction chiefly for pleasure and few people worried about defining it. Had anyone asked me, I'd have handed my questioner a couple of issues of Astounding, saying, "Stories like these. Frederik Pohl and Norman Spinrad also defined it by example, just as A. E. Hous man did poetry. But by the late 1930s, those dealing with the genre began to in clude simple definitions in their writings, mostly to help readers who knew little or nothing about it. These were based largely on the breadth of their own knowledge of SF, which was gradually being perceived as an ever-larger body of writings whose roots went back some two thousand years. In the 1950s academics entered the field. For most of them it was a terra incognita rather than a terra firma, so they understandably sought to impose order on what seemed to them an area of amor phous disorganization. Unfortunately, their attempts never led to a single, nicely honed description that became generally accepted. We live today with widely different schools of thought at the most basic level of criticism. There are two important consequences of this. How you define SF determines where you place its chronological origin, and critics have suggested dates such as 1634, 1644, 1790, 1818, and 1870. Now Westfahl climactically states that it all began in the 1920s with Hugo Gernsback because, inter alia, he was the genre's "first significant critic." As you scan these differing cut-off years, you see the second important consequence: while the work of early investigators continuously expanded the compass of SF, that of the moderns is increasingly con tracting it. Forget about Gilgamesh, Frankenstein, Lucian, utopias, imaginary voy ages, the scientific hoaxes and romances; they aren't the real McCoy. Let me be exact here: we aren't actually forbidden to examine them, but we must do so only "in the context of science fiction"-i.e. this new "Gernsback tradition." Westfahl sets forth his arguments in his first chapter; his arguments are better presented and contain fewer factual errors here than they did in their initial appearance in FountUztion 47 (winter 1989-90), but I still find their exclusivity reductive, disturbing, and unacceptable. That stated, I am pleased to add that although the rest of the book was supposedly written to support the arguments, it can be read without worrying about any new airy hypotheses-not only read, in fact, but enjoyed. It is interesting, well written, and collects a wealth of information; having to endure a few pages of mental masturbation as a prelude is truly a small price to pay for what follows. What we are given are detailed evaluations of Hugo Gerns back and John W. Campbell, Jr.: how they looked at SF and its history, their im mense influence upon it, and how it evolved under their leadership and guidance. There is no escaping the conclusion that for nearly two generations these two men, in their pulp magazine setting, largely controlled its development. Both come off well here. The picture of Gernsback should add to his reputation, which recently has undergone steady improvement; that of Campbell, who over the years has been virtually deified, becomes more believably human without losing importance. Westfahl uses their own words to support the thesis and Saucers (Edgewood Press; Tiptree award winners and nominees; reviewed this issue) Publishers Weekly, january 25, 1999: Vernor Vinge, A Deepness in the Sky (Tor; prequel to A Fire upon the Deep) I I CONVENTION LOG April 30-May 2, 1999: Nebula Weekend, Pittsburgh, Pa.; june 2-6, 1999: SFRA, Mobile, Ala.; Tom Brennan, English Dept, U of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688; june 12, 1999: Incense & Insensibility: SF, Psychedelia & the \. 1960s-70s, University ofUverpool, Uverpool, UK. Info: Incense & Insensibility Conference, Department of English, Language and Uterature, University of Uverpool, Modern Languages Building, Uverpool L69 3BX, UK; Fax: +44 (0) 151 794 2730 july 9-I I, 1999: Readercon II, Waltham, Mass.; Readercon, Box 38 1246, Cambridge, MA 022381246; August 20-22, 1999: Conucopial NASFIC '99, Anaheim, Cali(.; ConucupialNASFIC '99, c/o S.C.I.F.I. Inc, Box 8442, Van Nuys, CA 9 1409; September 2-6, 1999: Aussiecon 311999 Worldcon, Melbourne, Australia; Aussicon 3, GPO Box 12 121<, Melbourne VIC 300 I or Box 688, Prospect Heights, IL 60070-


0688; November 4-7, 1999: World Fantasy Convention, Providence, R.I.; WFC, Box 10/0, Framingham, MA 0170 I; May 11-14,2000: World Horror Con, Denver, Colo.; WHC2000 Inc., Box 32 167, Aurora, CO 800412/67; June ?, 2000: SFRA, Cleveland, Ohio May 24-27, 200 I: SFRA, Schenectady, N.Y.; SFRA 2001, Box 2085, Albany, NY 12220-0085; I I CORRECTION In our February issue, Neil Barron reviewed Howard DeVore's The Hugo Nebula and World Fantasy Awards. We mistakenly printed the publisher as Advent Books when it should have been Advent Publishing. Also, the price is $14.00, postpaid, not $16.00. I I 1998 NEBULA AWARDS FINAL BALLOT Novels: Asaro, Catherine: The Last Hawk (Tor, Nov97) Haldeman, joe: Forever Peace (Ace, Oct97) McDevitt, jack: Moonfall (HarperPrism. Apr98) Turtledove, Harry: How Few Remain (Del Rey,Oct97) Wells, Martha: Death of the Necromancer, Avon july 98 Willis, Connie: To Say Nothing of the Dog (Bantam Spectra,jan98) that Gernsback defined the nature, purpose, and origins of SF and that Campbell mentioned and extended many of his ideas. He also analyzes works that exemplify their credos in practice, Ralph 124C41+ and Heinlein's Beyond This Horizon. His interpretations are usually fair; my only quibble would be that he is occasionally a bit too willing to accept their statements at face value if they happen to fall his way. In summation and comparison, I should rate the treatment of Gernsback as fair and as up to date as you'll find today. Michael Ashley's account of the man, The Gernsback Days: The Evolution of Modern Science Fiction, 1911-1936. covers more ground, but is still awaiting publication by Borgo Press, possibly by late 1999 (although two chapters from it have been printed in Fantasy Commentator). Sam Moskowitz's pieces remain useful, and so are sections of Everett Bleiler's Science Fiction: The Gernsback Years [reviewed in #237]. Similarly, while The Collected Edi torials from "Analog" and Alva Rogers's A Requiem for Astounding help with the big picture, Westfahl's account is more analytical and punchier. What comes across, too, is that both men clearly loved what they were doing. Score one for good, old-fashioned nostalgia. The book has an index of names, and a works cited section that runs to 20 pages. The far-ranging entries in the latter certainly emphasize that Westfahl put a lot of hard work into his re search. Unfortunately, this work isn't available in North America; order direct from England. The Mechanics of Wonder is worth a little extra effort to obtain, for 110:. 4::.: .J A STRAHGER SHORE Erin Brenner Greenway, Betty. A Stranger Shore: A Critical Introduction to the Work of Mollie Hunter. Scarecrow Press, 4720 Boston Way, Lanham, MD 20706 (USA orders to 800/462-6420), 1998.208 p. $44. 0-8108-3469-3. Maureen Mollie Hunter McVeigh, born 1922, is a relatively prolific author of children's and young adult fiction under her pseudonym. The stories range from realistic to fantastic and often draw on the folklore and history of her native Scotland. Her first work, Patrick Kentigern Kennan (sold in the USA as The Smartest Man in Ireland), a short children's fantasy, appeared in 1963. Many of her books since have been on the best or notable books lists of various organizations, such as the Child Study Association of America and the American Library Associa tion. The Stronghold won the Carnegie Medal (the British equivalent of the New bery) in 1974. This study of Hunter by an English professor at Youngstown (Ohio) State Universiry examines more than thirry of Hunter's works, including her essays on writing for children. One chapter each is devoted to the four genres of her work: fantasy, historical fiction, modern realistic novels, and essays. Individual works are examined in chronological order. A 1996 interview at the subject's home supplements Greenway's use of secondary materials. Greenway draws on feminist and Freudian theories in showing how Hunter's personal philosophies are incorpo rated in her fiction and essays. She focuses largely on Hunter's relationship with her father and her coming to turns with it: "When writers draw their energies from sublimated, unresolved childhood conflicts, the result can be great fantasy and imaginative working out of conflicts in mythic terms, but when the experiences are brought to the light of common day, out of the shadows, they can become overt and somewhat ordinary, losing their talismanic power" (21). Greenway presents a solid argument for her theory. She parallels each protagonist, who must come to terms with a fatherlike figure, with the young Hunter. The appearance of the female protagonist in later novels follows a period


when Hunter herselfwas finally coming to grips with her father's ghost. Her female protagonists remain as courageous in their search for truth and love as their masculine counterparts. Greenway shows how Hunter has struggled with her de mons and become a more independent woman for it. Interestingly, Hunter does not talk about her father during the interview with Greenway. She discusses the importance of storytelling and how her mother instilled that in her. She talks of writing for children, her in-depth research, and her belief in courage, truth, and love-something else she credits her mother with. Although Hunter remains silent on her father, Greenway finds evidence to support her theory throughout Hunter's writings. Hunter's philosophy of love and courage is capably explored in detail, and her writings show the dichotomy of good and evil. Characters overcome their faults to triumph over evil, as in her first book. Hunter writes about what is taboo in her field, such as death and politics, because she knows her maturing readers much deal with these subjects. Perhaps this is why Greenway doesn't directly compare Hunter with other children's authors but instead compares her with authors such as Robert Louis Stevenson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, D. H. Lawrence, and Henry James. Greenway deconstructs her subject's style and topics favorably, paralleling her style with Hawthorne and James especially. Like most YA authors, Hunter has been largely ignored by schol ars of fantastic fiction. She doesn't have an entry in the St. James Guide to Fantasy Writers but appears in The Encyclopedia of Fantasy. Greenway's study is likely to interest children's literature specialists more than fantasy scholars, and is recom mended mostly for larger public libraries and academic libraries supporting courses in children's literature. a.;: .J A YERY DIFFERENT STORY Arthur O. Lewis Gough, Val, and Jill Rudd, eds. A Very Diff"ent Story: Studies on the Fiction of Charlotte P"kins Gilman. Liverpool University Press, Senate House, Abercromby Square, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK, November 1998. ix + 188 p. .0-85323-591-0; 95, trade paper, -601-1. Orders to Marston Book Services, Box 269, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 4YN, UK direct. Add for shipping: to North America, /book; UK, $2. SO/book, .50 each additional book. No female writer of utopias has been more thoroughly studied in recent years than Gilman. Another collection of essays about her might seem redundant, but these eleven pieces are all well researched, well written, and useful additions. Through discussions of several aspects of her life, as well as her fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and correspondence, they demonstrate the breadth and significance of Gil man's accomplishments. Representative of the two dozen previous books about Gilman, reprints, biographies, and criticism, both full-length books and edited col lections, are Charlotte Perkins Gilman: The Woman and Her Work, edited by Sheryl L. Meyerling (UMI Press, 1989), Mary A. Hill's A Journeyfi"om Within: The Love Letters of Charlotte Gilman, 1896-1900 (Bucknell University Press, 1995), and Carol Farley Kessler's Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Her Progress toward Utopia, with Selected Writing.r (Liverpool and Syracuse University Press, 1995). Notable among the fourteen studies in Meyerling is a useful reprint of Charles N. Degler's seminal 1956 critical assessment of Gilman. Hill, who contributed to both Meyerling and the present volume, offers perceptive insights into Gilman's emotional state. Kessler discusses aspects of Gilman's life in relation to both fiction and nonfiction and concludes with fourteen selections that illustrate the importance of utopia in Gil man's lifelong search for women's rights. Novellas: Asaro, Catherine: Aurora In Four Voices (Analog. Dec98) Davidson, Avram & Davis, Grania: The Boss In the Wall (Tachyon Publications, Aug98) Finch, Sheila: Reading the Bones (F&SF, jan 98) Fintushel, Eliot: Izzy and the Father of Terror (Asimov's,juI97) Germld, David: Jumping Off the Planet (SF Age, jan98) Landis, Geoffrey A: E.copoiesis (SF Age, May97) Novelettes: Feeley, Gregory: The Truest Chill (SF Age, Nov97) Klages, Ellen: Time Gypsy (Bending the Landscape: SF, Overlook Press, Oa98) McGorry, Mark J.: The Mercy Gate (F&SF, Mar98) Rusch, Kristine Kathryn: E.chea (Asimov's, ju198) Williams, Walter jon: Lethe (Asimov's, Sep97) Yolen, Jane: Lost Girls (Realms of Fan tasy, Feb98) Short Stories: Brust, Steven: 'When the Bough Breaks" (The E.ssential Bordertown, Tor, Sep98) Fowler, Karen joy: "Standing Room Only" (As/mov's, Aug97) Goldstein, Usa: "Fortune and Misfor tune" (Asimov's, May97) Landis, Geoffrey A: 'Winter Fire" (Asimov's, Aug97) Rogers, Bruce Holland: Thirteen Ways to Water (Slack Cats and Sroken Mirrors, Martin Greenberg and john HeIfers, Ed., DAW,jun98) Wentworth, K.D.: ''Tall One" (F&SF, Apr98) The Award will be announced at the 1999 Nebula Awards Weekend to be held in Pittsburgh, PA April 30-May 2, 1999.


80 '\lJ8rnGJ@i? G. Hartwell &. t'. Woll A definitive classroom reading anthology of modern SF -endorsed by the Science Fiction Research Association David G. Hartwell, awardwinning anthologist, and Professor Milton T. Wolf, past Vice President of the Science Fiction Research Association, present a carefully se lected reading anthology reflecting the SF field in all its modern diver sity. Here are Golden Age writers like John W. Campbell and Jack Williamson, and here also are tow ering latter-day titans like Gene Wolfe and Ursula K. Le Guin, along with up-to-the-minute popu lar writers such as Greg Bear, Robert Jordan, and Vernor Vinge. 800 pages. Paperback: $24.95 (0-312-85287-8) Hardcover: $35.00 (0-3 12-86224-5) Tor Books 175 Fifth Ave. New York, NY 10010 A portion of this book's royalties supports the Science Fiction Research Association. Gough and Rudd present a worthy addition to an understanding of the woman whose "published legacy-equivalent to some 22 books" (Hill, p. 9) made her" [d]uring the first two decades of this century ... the leading feminist theorist in the United States" (Kessler, p. 42) and gives the lie to Degler's uncharacteristic comment that "her thought ... is hopelessly [my emphasis] tinged with utopian ism" (Meyerling, p. 23). This collection demonstrates there is nothing "hopeless" about Gilman's work, utopian or otherwise. Anne Cranny-Francis clarifies the roll of The Forerunner in "Spinster of Dreams, Weaver of Realities," and Amana Graham presents a reading of HerlandI hadn't previously considered in "Herland: Definitive Ecofeminist Fiction. Al though their concerns were less new to me, Chris Ferns's "Rewriting Male Myths ... ," Ruth Levitas on domestic labor in Bellamy, Gilman, and Morris, Nancy Beer on Gilman and women's health, and Val Gough on the much under rated Moving the Mountain also have special appeal. Each essay has many notes, and there are seven pages of bibliography, more than 90% of which are works by women; most of the male authors men tioned are either writers of utopias as such or critics of the same. References throughout Gilman scholarship are similarly lopsided evidence of the paucity of criticism by men of her work. A brief index concludes the book, which is recom mended to Gilman scholars, anyone interested in utopias, and larger academic li braries. .) BETWIXT WOOD-WOMAN, WOLF AND BEAR Richard Mathews Talbot, Norman. Betwixt Wood-Woman, Wolf and Bear: The Heroic-Age Ro mances o/William Morris: "The House o/the Wolftngs, n "The Roots o/the Mountains. n Nimrod Publications, Box 170, New Lambton NSW 2305, Australia, 1997.23 p. Aus$IO/U.S.$10, delivered. Talbot first fully outlined his perspectives on the powerful female presences in William Morris's writings in his "Women and Goddesses in the Ro mances of William Morris" in Australia's Southern Review in 1969. His perceptions have become even richer and more complex over the past three decades and form the context for the insights in this pamphlet, one of a new series, Babel Handbooks on Fantasy and SF Writers (ISSN 1326-%IX), which average about 10,000 words in length. Interesting and provocative ideas abound, but the scope of Talbot's writ ing is far broader than The House o/the Wo/fings and The Roots o/the Mountains (the two texts mentioned in the title), and the compressed critical references are difficult to unpack. It will be heavy going for readers seeking an introductory treatment-a full-fledged academic essay here, but no beginner's handbook. "':_1101 -.,-:":': .. .) MONSTER MADNESS Neil Barron Zito, Zach, Mel Neuhaus, and Michael Lederman. Monster Madness. Smithmark Publishers, 115 W 18th St, 5th Floor, New York City, NY 10011, October 1998. 64 p. $9.98. 0-7651-0885-2. As the one-page introduction suggests, monsters have a long history: the Gorgon, Hydra, Charybdis, and the Chimera. So it's not surprising that they've been refurbished, with new variations introduced for films. This ephemeral survey discusses twenty-four films from the 1920s to 1990's Edward Scissorhands, grouped in four clusters: Gothic tales of terror, they came from outer space, science has run


amok, and prehistoric throwbacks and post-atomic mutants. Lots of color and black-and-white stills are present, plus reproductions of some film posters, with about a page of text for each. The captions to the stills and posters are, lamentably, in the rear of the book. There is nothing new and no surprises in this quickie des tined for the remainder bins. The best survey of fantastic cinema to date is The World of Fantastic Films: An Illustrated Survey (UK title: Fantastic Cinema), published in 1984, by Pilgrim award winner Peter Nicholls. The illustrations enhance, not overwhelm, the text, which is very well informed and lucidly written. Australian-born UK resident John Brosnan's witty survey, The Primal Screen: A History of the Science Fiction Film (1991) usefully supplements and updates Nicholls. Ronald V. Borst's enormous collection of fantastic film memorabilia is the subject of his Graven Images: The Best of Horror, Fantasy, and Science Fiction Film Art ftom the Collection of Ronald V. Borst (1992). ..::a .&. HAPPINESS Sandra Undow Pollack, Frederick. Happiness. Ashland, Ore.: Story Line Press, 1998, 160 pp. $12.95 trade paperback, ISBN 1-885266-58-8. Pollack's Happiness might more aptly be entitled Unhappiness. None of his posse of disaffected, self-appointed Marxist enforcers seems to be particularly happy, despite the tyrannical power they hold in a brave new dystopia where an anomaly in the space/time continuum has created a wall separating them from the old, unfair world where they were mere drudges and marginal players. Now they, with the help of an amazing glove, travel the world healing the sick, saving the abused, and correcting the politically incorrect. A shadowy but physically hale Ste phen Hawking lurks in the background, commenting and calculating. Approach the wall and bleeding ears and nausea are induced. Flee, and time flows backward to birth, restarting in a Marxist utopia where capitalism has disappeared and learn ing is everything. Pollack has been described as a modern-day Dante and, certainly, Happiness has much in common with The Inferno. However, there is little here of the music in Dante's verse. Written in terse, unrhymed quatrains, Happiness can be read as prose, but it becomes poetry through the density of metaphor and the power of few words. Still, it's more the stuff of nightmares than of mainline specu lative poetry. Two of the enforcers interact as follows: We are nightmares trying to become dreams." "What sort of art do you want?" she demanded. "A histrionic festival," I said. "Unanimity. Vast Stalinist processions, but without lying." She stared at me, Appalled. "But that's impossible-the form itself is a lie." I shrugged: "Short of that, it scarcely matters." The tyranny of Marxist criticism. Like a Kline bottle, the poem doubles


back and critiques itself. When all has been deconstructed, little is left. Thomas Disch likes Happiness, describing it in a blurb as "a stern judgement and a guilty pleasure." One of the very few SF poets Disch praises in The Temple of Indolence, his cri tique of the genre, Pollack shows undoubted brilliance in doing what he sets out to do. I, however, in reading Happiness, expe rienced little of Disch's pleasure, guilty or otherwise. =I: ..... FL YIMG CUPS AMD SAUCERS Sandra Undow Notkin, Debbie and the Secret Feminist Cabal, eds. Flying Cups and Saucers: Gender Exploration in Science Fiction and Fantasy. Edgewood Press, Box 380264, Cambridge, MA 02238, December 1998. 394 p. $40, limited hardcover ed. 0-9629066-9-7; $18, trade paper, -8-9. Gender transcenders become gender benders. If you set out to write a story that will Tiptree the gender establishment you probably won't succeed. (Hugo winner David Brin failed in Glory Season.) Rather, you have to be that way, different, wobbling down the gender highway on an indeterminately wheeled bike, sometimes taking your half out of the middle, other times going the wrong way, not much in control of velocity, or destination, either. Then, when you finally stop to write your story, your characters may transcend gender. The thirteen stories here have all been chosen from Tiptree award winners and honorable mentions (a complete list of winners and shorrlisted nominees is included). Each is outstanding in its exploration of the turbulent meeting of streams called Sex, Desire, and Culture. Many of the stories have characters with a kind of slant stream gender, such as the hermaphro dites in Graham Joyce and Peter F. Hamilton's "Eat Reecebread" and L. Timmel Duchamp's "Motherhood, Etc. Some, like the characters in Kelley Eskridge's "And Salome Danced," Ian McDonald's "Some Strange Desire," and Lisa Tuttle's "Food Man," take us down that slippery slope from wish fulfillment to horror. Others, like R. Garcia y Robertson's "The Other Magpie" and Delia Sherman's "Young Woman in a Garden," take place in alternative histories where the threshold between life and death is blurred and can be crossed iflove is powerful (obsessive?) enough. Le Guin's "Forgiveness Day" is a traditional love story set amidst the dangerous politics of an Arab-like alien world. Carol Emshwiller's "Venus Rising" is a mythiC/SF prehistory that defies explanation. Particularly interesting is that six authors are men. In "Chemistry," James Patrick Kelly speaks through the voices of Marja and Lily, credibly female main characters. Ian Macleod's "Grownups" is a rite of passage piece set in a world where three sexes are required to create life-male, female, and uncle. Historically, speculative fiction's primary gender benders have been women, perhaps because girls are interested in reading about both sexes (especially if they own a horse, my daughter says), whereas boys only want to read about boys. Thus, by reading about and identifYing with the Other, girls come to gender bending early. Traditionally, male authors have been too caught up in the values of heterosexual culture to explore or bend gender. However, SF's willingness to explore other ta boos has given a kind of permission. These male authors have overcome their pink and blue stereotypes to explore the lavender shades of the truly slip gendered. CORRESPONDENCE LEnERS TO THE EDITORS Solomon Davidoff's review of Jeff Greenwald's Future Perfect (a book that has as subjects some of the people who contributed back cover blurbs) in SFRAReview #237 has engendered much discussion. Davidoff writes of cover blurbs, "Since I know that most, if not all, of these comments are solicited with an added incentive (read: paycheck), I take them with a grain of salt." However, publishers do not pay money for blurbs, and many people have written to clarifY the issue. Ursula K. Le Guin, SFRA Pilgrim winner and esteemed creative writer, responds in a Letter to the Editors in SFRAReview #238, "No added incentive was ever offered me, by any publisher, for any blurb. (Read: no paycheck.)" Others have been weighing in. Jim Gunn writes, "I don't know where the idea originated that authors got paid for contributing blurbs for the back covers of books. Like Ursula, I've done a good deal of them but no one ever offered me any thing but the manuscript or bound galleys that accompanied the request." Gordon Van Gelder, senior editor at St. Martin's Press, writes, "In response to Ursula Le Guin's letter in the Febru ary SFRAReview, I can say that in almost eleven years at St. Martin's Press, I have never seen nor heard of anyone paying money for a promotional blurb." He goes on to cite from Richard Laymon's A Writers Tale: "We call them 'blurbs' or


'endorsements.' Sometimes, they are phrases plucked from a published review. Other times, they come from authors who are recognized in the field. Sometimes, they are fake .... If you look behind the scenes, you'll find that a lot of quotes come from writers who share the same agent or publisher as the author whose book gets a favorable blurb. Ofren, too, the creator of the quote is a friend of the author who is on the receiving end. I even know of instances in which an author provided his own en dorsements, penning them under a nom de plume" (pp. 161-62). Another letter from Ms. Le Guin perhaps clarifies the situation: Dear Editors, A follow-up to my letter about whether or not blurbs are commonly paid for by the publisher: Immediately after I had indignantly stated in that letter that I had never been offered money to write a blurb, and nobody I knew had ever been offered money to write a blurb, I got a letter from a publisher offering me money to write a blurb. (Twenty-five bucks.) But the circumstances of the offer shed light on a possible source of the original confusion. The press is a small liter ary one; the author of the MS is a distinguished academic. The author insisted to the publisher that he should offer money to people who read the MS in order to write a blurb for it. The publisher had never heard of such a practice, but consented, be cause the author insisted it was common practice. But the author, I am certain, was thinking of the practice, common in academic presses, occasional in literary presses, of offering an honorarium for "expert advice"-asking an expert in the field to read a MS and to advise the press whether they should publish it and what kind of editing it needs. That has nothing whatever to do with blurbing. It's internal, editorial. The press might later ask a reader who recommended that they publish a book to write a blurb for it-but that request would not include an honorarium. I wrote the publisher & told him about my letter to SFRA, and he wrote back in dismay and relief saying that all blurbs he has ever printed had been freely given, that he regretted his reluctant agreement to offer payment, would return to the usual practice, and would "not be persuaded to do otherwise in the future." Meanwhile, I continue to ask all my writer friends whether they have ever been offered or have taken money to write a blurb, and to my great pleasure, so far not one has done anything but stare at me and say, "What?" as if I'd asked them if they ate toads. Vety truly yours, Ursula K. Le Guin President Alan Elms Psychology Department U of California-Davis Davis, CA 95616-8686 Vice President Adam Frisch 2308 Summit Street Sioux City, IA 51104-1210 SFRA EXECUTIVE COtltllITEE Secretary Carolyn Wendell English Department Monroe Community College Rochester, NY 14623 Treasurer Michael M. Levy Department of English University of Wisconsin-Stout Menomonie, WI 54751> Immediate Past President Joan Gordon 1 Tulip Lane Commack, NY 11725 For an application, contact SFRA Treasurer Michael M. Levy or get one from the SFRA Website:

SCIENCE FIC710N RESEARCH ASSOCIA710N The SFRA is the oldest professional organization for the study of science fiction and fantasy literature and film. Founded in 1970, the SFRA was organized to improve class room teaching; to encourage and assist scholarship; and to evaluate and publicize new books and magazines dealing with fantastic literature and film, teaching methods and materials, and allied media performances. Among the membership are people from many countries---students, teachers, professors, librarians, futurologists, readers, authors, booksellers, editors, publishers, archivists, and scholars in many disciplines. Aca demic affiliation is not a requirement for membership. Visit the SFRA Website at . An application for membership is avail able at this site. SFRA Benefits Extrapolation. Four issues per year. The oldest scholarly journal in the field, with critical, historical, and bibliographical articles, book reviews, letters, occasional special topic issues, and an annual index. Science-Fiction Studies. Three issues per year. This scholarly journal includes critical, historical, and bibliographical ar ticles, review articles, reviews, notes, letters, international coverage, and an annual index. SFRA Annual Directory. One issue per year. Members' names, addresses, phone, e-mail addresses, and special interests. SFRA Review. Six issues per year. This newsletter/journal in cludes extensive book reviews of both nonfiction and fic tion, review articles, listings of new and forthcoming books, and letters. The Review also prints news about SFRA internal affairs, calls for papers, updates on works in progress, and an annual index. SFRA Optional Benefits Foundation. Discounted subscription rate for SFRA members. Three issues per year. British scholarly journal, with criti cal, historical, and bibliographical anicles, reviews, and letters. Add to dues: $27 surface; $30 airmail. The New York Review o/Science Fiction. Discounted subscrip tion rate for SFRA members. Twelve issues per year. Re views and features. Add to dues: $25 domestic; $34 do mestic first class; $27 domestic institutional; $28 Canada; $36 overseas. SFRA Listserv. The SFRA Listserv allows users with e-mail ac counts to post e-mails to all subscribers of the listserv, round-robin style. It is used by SFRA members to discuss topics and news of interest to the SF community. To sign on to the listserv or to obtain further information, contact the list manager, Len Hatfield, at dhat@ebbs.english.vt. edu> or>. He will subscribe you. An e-mail sent automatically to new subscribers gives more information about the list. PRESORTED STANDARD U.S. POSTAGE PAID TEMPE, ARIZONA PERMIT NO. 45 SFU Re ew ADDRESS SERVICE REQUESTED c/o Craig Jacobsen 208 East Baseline Road #3 I I Tempe, AZ 85283 Email: Web: http://members.aoLcomlsfrareview

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