SFRA Review

SFRA Review

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SFRA Review
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Science Fiction Research Association review
Science Fiction Research Association
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Eugene, Ore
Science Fiction Research Association
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Science fiction -- History and criticism -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Fantasy fiction -- History and criticism -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Science fiction -- Book reviews -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Fantasy fiction -- Book reviews -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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S67-00005-n240-1999-06 ( USFLDC DOI )
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#140 Coed'tors: Karen Hellellson &. Crals Jacobsen ..: .. .. lilliE 1### lIonfiction ReY'ew Editor: lIeil Barron !;] AGAIN INTO CYBERSPACE Alan Elms First, SFRA's Web page address is now officially . That may seem a very small step for humankind, but have you ever tried to tell a potential member of our organization, "Oh, sure, all you need to do is check out .. ? Much thanks again to Pete Sands, Adam Frisch, and Len Hatfield for overcoming the various complications of get ting the new address and for keeping the Web page going, and extra thanks to Len's home institution for giving the page a free home on its server. (Thank you, Virginia Tech, thank you thank you thank you.) The new address was set up just in time, too. The current issue of the SFWA Bulletin says somebody has been snapping up such Web addresses as and>, presumably in hopes of selling them to the named authors or their publishers for a profit as Web commerce expands in scope. One more thank you to Craig Jacobsen, for providing clean and colorful logos both for the SFRA Web page and for the SFRAReview Web page. I do appre ciate the efforts of previous logo artists, but the Executive Committee felt that Star Trek's Captain Picard had dominated our Web presence long enough. So now it's deadline day for this column: four days before the century's most massively publicized sci-fi event (May 19, 1999: will you remember that date 50 years from now?), and less than a month before I'm scheduled to present a somewhat less publicized paper at the SFRA conference in Mobile. In connection with the latter, let me perseverate on last issue's topic: do ing research via the Internet. Last time I listed a number of Web sites specifically relevant to science fiction research. There are plenty of non-SF sites, however, that may prove surprisingly useful when you need a bit oflast-minute information to complete your paper or review or column on deadline. Among the broad-sweep search engines on the Net (Yahoo!, HotBot, Lycos, etc.), my current favorite is Google . Home-based at Stanford and still in a beta version, Google can produce vast amounts of information that other search engines over look. The SFRAReview (ISSN I068-395X) is published six times a year by the Science Fiction Research As sociation (SFRA) and distributed to SFRA members. Individual issues are not for sale. For informa tion about the SFRA and its benefits. see the description at the back of this issue. For a membership application. contact SFRA Treasurer Michael M. Levy or get one from the SFRA Website: .


SUBMISSIONS The IFMReriew editors encourage submissions, including essays, Review Essays that cover several related texts, and interviews. Please send submis sions or queries to both coeditors. If you would like to review nonfiction or fiction, please contact the respective editor. The general editorial address for the IFM Renew is: . Karen Hellekson, Coeditor 742 N 5th Street Lawrence, KS 66044 (for attachments) Craig Jacobsen, Coeditor & Fiction Reviews Editor 208 E Baseline Road # 311 Tempe, AI 85283 Neil Barron, Nonfiction Reviews Editor I 149 lime Place Vista, CA 92083-7428 < meilbarron@> Visit us at Among more specific sites, one that may lead you in lots of interesting directions is . More and more newspapers worldwide are making at least part of their content available on the Web, and sometimes you can quickly find very detailed information about very obscure locations and topics via such a search. At other times, you can waste incredible amounts of time searching, and searching, and searching .... (And nothing on the Internet can beat leafing through an actual 1926 Nairobi newspaper, page by crackly page, at the British Library's branch newspaper library in a suburb of London.) One illustration ofInternet use: I recently decided it was time, after some twenty years of intermittent research, to wrap up my Cordwainer Smith/Paul Line barger biography. One of the last things I needed to learn more about was the first home Linebarger could remember: "a great, scattered old Southern house, bayou encircled, looking out on the Bay of Biloxi. Paul and his parents lived in this mansion when he was three to six years old, in 1916-1919. From my archival re search and from phone conversations years ago with Paul's now-deceased brother, I knew that the mansion had been located in a wooded area along Davis Bayou, near Ocean Springs, Mississippi. Last September I spent most of a day there, looking for any trace of the mansion or its specific location, without success. That had been a Sunday, with Ocean Springs' public offices and library closed, and I'd had to move on to other obligations in other cities. I did pick up a copy of the weekly Ocean Springs news paper, which featured its new e-mail address on the front page. I'll check with them later, I thought as I drove on eastward. Eight months later, I'm just starting to write my paper for the SFRA con ference in Mobile. "Cordwainer Smith as a Southern Writer, its subtitle reads, and I really, really want to know more about that mansion and its location. (The mansion appears pretty directly in Cordwainer Smith's "On the Storm Planet," and his childhood years there enter less directly into several other stories.) So I write a letter to the Ocean Springs Record, appealing to its editor and its readers for information. But the new e-mail address announced so prominently eight months ago doesn't respond. Apparently the Records deal with AOL just didn't work out. So I check for an Ocean Springs Record home page on the Net. No luck. I do find, in a different Internet newspaper index, a post office address and a fax number for the Record. By now it's yesterday morning (Friday), the newspaper's weekly dead line for Letters to the Editor is Monday, and the SFRA conference starts less than three weeks from now and counting. So I drop my letter into the US Mail, fax an other copy, and sit back to wait hopefully. Bingo! By 4 PM Friday afternoon, I have in hand an e-mail message from a true Southern gentleman, Ray Bellande, a local historian and newspaper colum nist in Ocean Springs. The editor has given him a copy of my fax, and also plans to print it in next week's Record. Ray tells me exactly where the Linebarger mansion stood; he says he paddles his canoe past the site frequently. He also tells me who built the mansion, who sold it to Paul Linebarger's father on what date, and who Linebarger's father sold it to three years later. After a couple more e-mails back and forth, Ray offers to send me pictures of the mansion (which, alas, no longer exists), plus maps and his newspaper columns on both the mansion and Linebarger Senior. I tell Ray several things he hadn't known (e.g., that little Paul eventually became a lot better writer than Paul's father, under the name of Cordwainer Smith), and Ray tells me more things that I'm happy to learn, and it isn't even Saturday yet. "Western science is so wonderful," as Cordwainer Smith titled one of his stories. Or at least, the Internet and e-mail and fax machines can be pretty use ful research tools sometimes. One last quick example of that: Several months ago I was working on a different (but related) research topic, this one dealing with James Tiptree, Jr. I was puzzled by the title of one of her most powerful stories, "Her Smoke Rose Up For-


ever" (which has also been used as the title of the best Tiptree collection). The story itself gave no source for the title, and the title wasn't obviously related to the story's content. Tiptree seemed to like William Blake, so I looked in my collected Blake, with no luck. Then bye-mail I asked Julie Phillips, who's working on a fuHscale biography of Tip tree. But Julie didn't know the title's origin either. So I simply entered the whole title, in quotation marks, into one of the standard Internet search engines. Bingo again! Try it yourself and you'll see. (Skip over the entries that refer to Tiptree's story; they won't tell you about the title. When you come to an entry that begins, "The End of the Wicked Contemplated by the Righteous," go there.) L:. = VICE PRESIDEIII'S REPORI Adam Frisch Now that SFRA's Website address has stabilized at , we can begin the task of redesigning our home page to reflect our primary interests and to attract and retain new members. I plan to use many of the suggestions made at the Mobile meeting to ac complish this task. Thanks again to those of you who have already sent me your individual home page URLs; I would urge any of you who maintain a home page that might be of interest or use to the broader membership to do likewise for eventuallinking to our organization's main Web page. .. .. 110BILE Craig Jacobsen Though it won't be mailed until late June, the contents of this issue (except this editorial) were set before the Mobile conference. That means that the August issue will contain the award winners' speeches, interviews with some of the guest authors (Benford, Pobl, Goonan, McDevitt and Stableford, though probably not all in one issue) and other conference-related material. The conference itself was wonderful. Tom Brennan and Andy Duncan put together a collection of interesting papers and engaging guest authors, and pro vided the perfect mid-conference break: a beach party on Dauphin Island, com plete with twenty pounds of fresh shrimp. The porpoises and pelicans were nice touches. Mobile was a delightful city where, as past-President Joan Gordon noted, good food is plentiful. A Saturday morning session about the Review was well-attended, lively and I've got pages of great suggestions, many of which we will be incorporating in the coming months, provided we can twist some arms and get folks to help us out by doing some writing. It was gratifying to hear that members feel this publication is not only visually pleasing, but genuinely useful as well. A good time was had by all. In this issue we spotlight Philip K. Dick's Do Androids Dream o/Electric Sheep? and its Hollywood adaptation, Bladerunner. In August we'll focus on Russ's The Female Man, October brings us Miller's A Canticle for Leibowitz, and Decem ber delivers Clarke's and Kubrick's 2001. So submit and share your wisdom and experience with your colleagues. In our continuing effort to be of public service, in the center of this issue you'll find a civil defense poster. Simply pry up the staples, pull it out, and post it somewhere prominently so that you can do your part in staving off the impending dangers ofY2K. "QUESTIONS" AND "COSMIC COMICS" HOWARD NEMEROV Questions l Whf is the unirem mpterious! Whf should it be! Did someone make it so! And if he did, wzs it zs haring us In mind, and our importunate Wl71 to know! Emo iJIlSwer!, tile rad3f of the mind, Receiring what it sends, but modi5ed The bmtll of languzge goes out on tile wind, The dfllmming on the earrifllm comes inSIde. What IY3S it drew tile spirit from tile stone, Giring so much and hiding so much more! and does tile temptress of tile To Be Known Summon across a sea tIIat hzs no shore! Il Or wiU tile whole relation end somewhere In libraries abandoned, books deafed, Language itself no longer in tile air AmI men relapsing from an eon's raid Into the other mind! Where would it go, Where be, tile know/edge that we nerer had! Would we remember what it IY3S to know, Be temd for a time bf dreams of going mad Witll nearlf knowing or half-remembering Idolatries of trutll we could not keep, Before tile iC)' d;uk began to sing. Hocking tile cradle of our backward sleep! Cosmic Comics There is in space a small black hole Through whidt, saf our zstronomefJ, The whole rkmn tiling. tile unirerre, Hust one daf fall That wl71 he all Their shrinks can't get them to reaU How tIIis apoalfptic dream :r elaborated on a humhler tIIeme: The tOl7et howl, the Oisposa/l let pnies from tile Pnr, Purre He ward tile Ultimate Hygiene for Rusmng all Resh from tile scene. Where Hoses saw tile seat of God Exod ]].1] Sdence hzs seen what's just zs odd, The asshole of tile unirerre.


[These poems are reprinted from The Collected Poems of Howard Nemerov, University of Chicago Press, 1977. Nemerov (1920-1991) was U.S. Poet Laureate, and this collection won the National Book award and the Pulit zer prize. Reprinted by permission of his widow, Margaret Nemerov. -Ed.] I I. SFRA PRESS COMMITIEE APPOINTMENTS At the SFRA's annual meeting in Mobile, Alabama, formation of an SFRA Press Committee was dis cussed at some length. The committee will be asked to explore various ques tions connected with the status of sus pended Borgo Press projects, as well as other questions concerning the po tential role of an SFRA Press in de veloping the SFRA's own publication pro1,Tfam. The committee will be ex pected to provide the Executive Board and the membership of SFRA with detailed information and recom mendations on these matters. We have several volunteers already on record as interested in serving on the committee; we'd like to hear from others who also want to serve so we get a broad representation of member interests. Within a few weeks after you see this announcement, the Executive Board will appoint a full committee--so get your name and a little information about your interests to at least one Board member soon if you'd like to be considered. -Alan Elms ...-rr-. BORGO PRESS CLOSES ITS DOORS Robert Reginald, in an e-mail to Hellekson, Approac .......... Philip K. Dick's Do Androids Dream of Electric J .. ."e-u: and Ridley Scott's Bladerunner Philip K. Dick, Blade Runner (Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?) Mass Market Paperback Rei edition (Aprill990} Ballantine Books; ISBN: 0345350472 Ridley Scott, Blade Runner-Director's Cut Available in widescreen VHS and DVD .... ..:. ";' ,.; :" J ':' J.J fl.:' ... .: ; ..:. J ..:..: .. READIMG THE MODERM MYTH Rich Carvin Although I've not taught a science fiction course per se yet, I have had occasion to teach the ftlm Blade Runner several times in a mythology course. The inclusion of such a contemporary ftlm often gets a few raised eyebrows, but it seems to me the ideal means to teach mythology. I have long felt that it makes lit tle sense to simply get students to memorize a few Greek and Latin names, names that they'll likely forget fifteen minutes after the exam-if I'm lucky. What I'd like to see them do, instead, is get a sense of how mythology functions, and then begin to see it in contemporary cultural productions and in their everyday lives. Al though I sometimes still get the "You're reading way too much into this; it's just a film" response, I find that having the mythological context helps students to a dif ferent and deeper appreciation of the film. To that end, I teach mythology in dusters, generally beginning with an ancient myth such as that of Cassandra or Prometheus, and follow them through into modern or contemporary texts or films. In this particular cluster, we begin by reading Prometheus Bound by Aeschylus, in conjunction with the appropriate sec tions from Bullfinch. Those texts are followed by Mary Shelley's Frankemtein, or, the Modern Prometheus, which makes the perfect segue into Dick's/Scott's Blade Runner. (I have, upon occasion, also included Robin Cook's Mutation, though I have since dropped it. Personally, it was just too depressing having the students tell me it was the best text in the class.) When reading Blade Runner against or through the Prometheus myth and the Frankenstein rewriting of it, I believe a number of relevant and related themes opened up to. us. Among them are the role and respon sibility of god/creator, the terrain or topography, and the meaning o.f the term "human." As with many of the Greek myths, several often conflicting versions of the Prometheus story exist. In some versions, the gods create human beings, and then Prometheus and his brother Epimetheus are given the task of endowing character istics upon humans and the animals. In other versions, in Bullfinch's, for example, it is Prometheus himself who shapes humans out of clay. As the creator of humans, and as the son ofThemis/Earth, he feels a certain attachment to humans and en dows them with far too much power and ability for Zeus' comfort, who takes re venge against Prometheus and humans. In either story, Prometheus oversteps his bounds, commits an act of hubris that threatens the order of things, and is subse quently punished for his actions by being chained to the rock on Mount Caucasus and having his liver eaten every day. In Shelley's Frankenstein, the doctor similarly oversteps his bounds in at tempting to create "a new species" that "would bless [him] as its creator" (p. 52). As with Prometheus, Dr. Frankenstein desires to create a "noble race," and conse-


quently endows his creation with superhuman characteristi<.:S. His Monster demon strates his physical superiority on Mount Blanc, in swimming the English Channel, and in racing across the frozen north. He also demonstrates his intellectual capabilities in outstripping his learning partners in the hovel. Dr. Frankenstein, for his overstepping his domain, for his hubris, is also punished for his actions. Al though he is not crucified,. nor is his liver eaten, he is punished through the repeti tive act of having his family members and loved ones destroyed, one by one. As the Monster swears his renewed vengeance on the doctor, Frankenstein remarks, "I desired that r might pass my life on that barren rock" (p. 161), thus drawing his own connection between himsdf and Prometheus. In the film Blade Runner, Tyrdl becomes the Prometheus/Frankenstein figure. In designing and producing the replicants, he too has taken on the creator role. And while the two former creators desired to create a "noble race," Tyrdl was simply creating a mass of slave labor, a race that, in his own estimation, was any thing but noble. However, the replicants have also been endowed with superhu man characteristics, which they demonstrate when Leon removes a manufactured eye from the liquid nitrogen; when Pris removes an egg from a boiling pot; and when Roy shoves his head through the plaster wall and crucifies himsdf with a nail. Apart from their physical characteristics, they also demonstrate their mental acuity (as does Frankenstein's Monster), when Roy discusses biomechanics with his own creator and quotes Blake. Interestingly, though, in Blade Runner, the emphasis has shifted from focusing on the creator to the created. Consequently, perhaps, the punishment and torture of the creator Tyrdl is not prolonged but rather short and quick; sealed with a kiss. Roy meets his maker and dispatches him. Although the Greeks gods are not generally provident gods, Prometheus is often read as a provident creator. It can be argued that it is precisdy for this .. transgression that he is so roundly punished. However, it is precisdy this provident stance that makes him a friend to humanity. His benevolence is one of the charac teristics that has made him such a sympathetic character. Shelley's novd seems to be criticizing Dr. Frankenstein in particular and scientists in general for a failure of providence. It is clear from the first moments of the Monster's birth that his crea tor fails miserably in his charge: He flees the room and abandons his creation. Three years later, when the Monster pleads with him on the mountaintop, he says, : "for the first time, I fdt what the duties of a creator towards his creature were" (p. 97). A day late and a dollar short. In Blade Runner, Tyrell also seems to fail in his role as provident creator: He packs his creations off to dangerous oftWorid occupa tions; he limits their lifespans for the sake of convenience and con trol; he lies to and manipulates them. For his failure of providence, in the logic of the narrative, he is punished. Because of the ancient Greek adherence to the unities of time, place, and action, all of the events of Prometheus Bound take place atop a rocky mountain, Mount Caucasus. This rocky terrain is reproduced for us in Frankemtein when the Monster confronts his own maker atop Mount Blanc near Chamounix. By this time, the doctor already knows that the Monster has killed his brother, and the Monster threatens more killing if his demand is not met. Such torture is, for Frankenstein, akin to the perpetual consumption and regeneration of his liver. The scenario is also reenacted in the film version. The outside shots show us the T yrdl Corporation in the shape of a large pyramid, and we see Roy and J. F. Sebastian creeping up the side of the mountain via devator in order that Roy meet his own maker atop the mountain. Here Roy, too, makes a demand of his maker. Instead of a companion, he demands of his creator, "the God of biomechanics," Tyrdl: "I want more life, fucker." When Roy then descends from atop the mountain, we see him look up into the stars as they fall away from him: his Fall from Grace. When Philip K. Dick wrote Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? in 1964, he was writing, in part, in response to the Vietnam war, fearing that we as Reginald declined to write a blurb for the Review, noting that he "Iack[s] perspec tive." Borgo Press had been in operation for twenty-four years. All outstanding contracts have been canceled. Reginald is apparently not contacting authors with outstanding contracts personally to inform them of Borgo's closure. Borgo's departure leaves a hole in the publication of SF scholarship. A panel on options, including the pOSSibility of the SFRA working with other nonprofit SF organizations to self-publish a series of titles, was hastily convened to meet at the SFRA annual meeting. Reports of options will appear in future issues of the SFRAReview. SF scholars concerned or interested in the notion of a se/f-publishing umbrella organization to run a press should contad any Board member or the SFRAReview editors, who will forward .. messages to the appropriate people. II. WEB SITE CREATED FOR NESVADBA Greg Evans reports, 'This is just to let you know that there is now an Englishlanguage Web site dedicated to the Czech sdence ffction author Joseph Nesvadba, done with his cooperation. It features a recent interview, full biographical entry (recently translated into English for the ffrst time), and ffve of his stories, two of which are from a rare Prague edition of his short stories and are almost impossible to find in the USA. You can find the Web site at . DA YID BRIN CALLS FOR


COMMUNITY TO REACH OUT TO YOUTH Some of you have in the past expressed an interest in helping improve science fiction's outreach to young people. During the last few years, some fanbased committees (mostly on the East Coast) have begun taking seriously their charter pledges to promote SF literacy to kids and educators. Efforts in Boston, Philadelphia, Dayton, and Baltimore have borne fruit Unfortunately, the idea has been greeted with active hostility by most con committees west of the Mississippi. But that may change. In any event, I think it's time to try something new. For some months I've been talking with Stan Schmidt and the publishers of Analog and Isaac Asi mov's Science Fiction Magazine about endowing a new contest Its aim will be to encourage and reward the development of sites on the World Wide Web that use science fiction literature to assist educators in livening up their curricula. For instance, with the right supporting materials, a chemistry teacher could help iJ/ustrate aspects of science with a Hal Clement story. Another might bring ethical questions into clearer focus using the famous moral quandary tale, "The Cold Equations," if she had access to Study guides, illustrations, and provocative question sets ... and the story itself. The advantage of doing this through Web sites is apparent Excellent sites can be produced part-time by a teacher or aficionado at almost no expense. a site is up, it's permanent and accessible. Teachers all over the world can use it, cost-free, and news of the best sites can spread rapidly by word of mouth. Incremental improvements are easy to make as teachers gain experience with the materials. Some very good examples were ere-human beings were becoming hardened to me violence and inhumanity of the televised war. Therefore, in Electric Sheep. Dick seems to be suggesting that the androids are decidedly not human beings and not capable of becoming so. By the time Ridley Scott undertook the film version of the novel (1982), the scientific and cultural terrain had changed dramatically. The news was filled with announce ments of in vitro fertilization, of test-tube babies, and. of cloning, all of which again raised the question of what it means to be human and how technology intervenes in that question. Scott seems to be suggesting a vastly different answer, especially in the director's cut version of the film. The question has been already raised for us in Frankenstein, and in re,.. sponse to similar developments. Accor.ding to the author's. introduction to the novel, Shelley suggests that she was unable to envision a compellingly frightening scenario until she read of the experiments of Dr. Darwin trying to reanimate a piece of vermicelli via electric current. Shelley then raises through her narrative the question of being "human." Is the Monster human? Does he become human? What does it mean to be human? This, it seems to me, is one of the toughest sells for contemporary students. Although generations of readers and critics have identi fied with the Monster and his plight, students now have a much more difficult time doing so. They are much less willing to forgive he Monster's transgressions, preferring instead a lock-him-up-and-throw-away-the-key attitude. However, as Harold Bloom suggests in an afterword to Frankenstein, although the Monster may be physically repugnant, he is "more human than his creator" (p. 215). Despite being abandoned by his creator and left to fend for himself in the wilderness like an animal, the Monster learns the positive values of society through reading Paradise Lost, Plutarch's Lives, and The Sorrows ofYounK Werther, and through observing his adopted fumily. Through these experiences, he develops a kind, loving demeanor and wants to embrace humanity. In the end; after failing miserably to integrate himself, he removes himself from the world for the better ment of the world. In Blade Runner, many of these plot lines are replicated. For the most part, the replicants are left on their own, in the wilderness of the offworld colonies, to fend for themselves. Although Pris is "a standard pleasuremodd;" she discusses her" accelerated decrepitude" with J. F. Sebastian, and, as we have already seen, Roy discusses biomechanics with Tyrell and quotes Blake. But the replicants can no more integrate into humanity than could the Monster; he for his physical imperfection, and they for their physical perfection. However, we must remember that the motto of the Tyrell Corporation is. "More human than human." In implanting memories in the replicants, Tyrell has provided for them one of the keys to humanity: memories of human interaction, of meaningful relationships, of personal history. In Prometheus Bound, Prometheus looks back as he is tried to the rock and recounts for the Chorus his own litany of personal accomplishments for human beings. In Frankenstein, the Monster re counts for Dr. Frankenstein his litany of personal memories of his relationship to the cottagers. In Blade Runner, this is perhaps most clearly seen in Rachael, the Nexus 6 replicant who, unlike the others, does know that she is manufactured and cannot distinguish the implanted memories of Tyrell's niece from the real memories of her own life. This process, however, IS also powerfully evident in Roy Batty, especially as his moment of termination approaches. Although he could easily de stroy his would-be terminator, in the end he saves Deckard's life. His lifetime of memories, his litany of "things you people wouldn't believe," brings him to hu manity, to his supreme act of human charity. Roy's final act reads very much like the admiration and respect that the Monster demonstrates toward Dr. Franken stein once he boards Walton's ship in the northern wilderness. The body of criticism on Blade Runner is ample, and it provides quite a number of important and interesting ways to read and understand this film. Gen der criticism, postcolonial readings, and cultural studies approaches all offer in-


sights into the text of the film. I would like to suggest, however, that the mytho logical, thematic approach I have sketched above has value. It is a way to bring stu dents to a fuller understanding of the film than they might have otherwise have had, and, more importantly for me, it is a way to bring them to see and understand that myths and mythology functions in their everyday, contemporary lives. .;. ;. ..:. ..: I .:. II.: .: .." ..:. ; .:.' : II.: II.: : 0=-STUDY GUIDE Rich Erlich The following study guide is from ; it is used with permission. Citations from T. Dunn and R. Erlich, Clockworks: Blade Runner. Ridley Scott, director. USA: Warner et al., 1982. 114 or 188 min. film, 123 min. VHS. Based on Philip K. Dick's Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? A 1940s filmnoir detective thriller set in 2019 in a Los Angeles extrapo lated (ethically) from that of Roman Polanski's Chinatown (1974). Significant for placing a Frankenstein theme in a funky, punkish (or cyberpunk), corporationdominated world, and for its alternative investigation of Dick's questions on the differences and similarities between humans and androids (called here "replicants"). See V. Sobchack, Screening Space, Chapter 4, and Retrofitting Blade Runner: Blade Runner-The Director's Cut, Ridley Scott, director. USA: Warner et al. 1982/1991 (copyright), 1992 (release). 117 min. A separately copyrighted version of the film deleting the voice-over narra tion and the final escape sequence ending the 1982 version and adding "the expunged unicorn scene which suggests that Deckard is a replicant" (Dennis K. Fischer, CineJantastique 22, no. 5 [April 1992]: 60). The unicorn scene is very brief, and the suggestion of Deckard's being a replicant is subtle. CAST LIST Rick Deckard: Harrison Ford Rachael: Sean Young Roy Batty: Rutger Hauer Gaff: Edward James Olmos Bryant: M. Emmet Walsh J. F. Sebastian: William Sanderson Pris: Darryl Hannah Leon: Brion James Tyrell: Joe Turkel Zorah: Joanna Cassidy Comments and Questions Blade Runner is best known for its cyberpunk mise-en-scene: the incredibly dense texture of its shots (especially impressive if you know the street scenes were shot on a back lot: The tricks are mostly old-fashioned set dressing and theatrical effects). Watch very carefully to see how a whole culture is suggested visually; you're cued to watch by all that imagery of eyes. In Do Androids Dream, androids are inhuman because they do not have empa thy. Do the humans in Blade Runner feel empathy (or much of anything else)? Do Rachael et al. help to teach Deckard how to be human? If so, what definiated a year or so ago. California High School teacher Don Braden created a Postman curriculum site correlating both the novel and the movie with a two-week curriculum concerning history, society and ethics. Braden's latest is a colorful site dealing with The Martian Chronicles. I have offered to fund the first and second prizes, totalling $1,500. Analog will promote and publicize the contest, receive entries, coordinate the judging, and present the awards. Now we need volunteers. We need to create a panel of judges. These people will be sent the URLs of candidate sites, look over the nominees, and deliberate among themselves in order to choose finalists. Almost no paperwork will be involved, just a commitment to browse nominated Web pages and discuss which ones best achieve the goal of helping to link good SF literature with the needs of teachers and kid-friendly curricula. We need someone to help write and polish both the contest rules and the press release. We need someone with knowledge of the education community, to help spread the press release where it will do the most good--such as teachers' organizations and groups of Web designers. We need someone to create a supplementary resource list, including the examples given above, that can be posted, helping anyone interested in competing to come up with good ideas for Web-based pro jects. We need criticism and suggestions about how this project can be made to succeed.


Do you feel qualified to take on one of these tasks? Can you suggest someone who would make a great judge? If we can make this work, it might wind up doing a lot of good. -David Brin SFRA 2000 UPDATE IJJ Joe Sanders has provided an update for SFRA 2000. The theme: SF and ... The dates are June 28-July 2 at the Comfort Inn, 1800 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland OH 441 15 (phone 2/6186/000 I), $72 per night for single or double and includes continental breakfast Guests include the following: Richard A. Lupoff is guest of honor; others include Karen Joy Fowler, Geoffrey Landis, Maureen F. McHugh, Mary Doria Rus sell, and Joan Slonczewski. Registration is $70 until the end of '99; $90 until Easter 2000; $100 until date of conference; $125 at the door. The SFRA conference will meet in conjunction with the Imagination writers' conference at Cleveland State University and cochaired by Neil Chandler and Karen Joy Fowler. Lakeland Community College is a supporter of SFRA 2 000. For more information, e-mail Joe at and keep watching this space! LA CILEPSYDRE PUB- I I. LISHES FIRST ISSUE James Gunn passes along this tidbit written by P. Mergey, of the University of Lumiere, Lyon, France: "I'm happy to inform you that the first issue of La tion are you using (and what definition is the film using} for the term "human"? How is Tyrell both like and unlike Jon Frederson of Metropolis, like Rotwang on Metropolis? How is Blade Runner generally like and unlike its great prede cessor? .... .:. : Ii.' I ':' .i.L4 .. i. ...:.....: ; ;.' :. ..: a.: i. .. STUDY QUESTIOIIS Margaret McBride I use these questions to generate discussion and writing with juniorsenior level students (mostly non-English majors) at the University of Oregon. Watching Blade Runner is highly recommended, but not required, and we spent one day on it compared to four days on the book. Even so, we did a lot of com parison with the book. 1. Discuss the way animals are used to show or develop time period, culture, characters, and themes. 2. Write about your impression of Chapter 10 (where Rick doesn't get his wife when he phones, etc.) Why might Dick have put such a scene in the mid dle of the book? How does it connect with theme issues? 3. On page 110, Rick says he no longer feels it necessary to think of an andy as an it. Why? How does that scene and statement fit with other themes or with the development of Rick's character? 4. Why does Rick burn the art book he brought for Luba Luft? How does the scene in the art museum and the purchase of the book, etc., contribute to themes of the novel? 5. Analyze what is going on in the scene where Rick talks to Mercer (pp. 155-57). Why might Dick include this passage-what does it add to themes? 6. Write about the different aspects of how Isidore and Pris interact. How do Isidore's feelings and the way Pris treats him add to the themes? 7. From K. W. Jeter (working on sequels to be consistent with Blade Runner): "My feeling is that so much of what people tend to think of as answers in Phi/'s books were really Phi/'s own explorations, his own process of raising more and more questions. So if there are some crazy things in Do Androids, things that don't add up-the whole process of determining who's human and who's not is flawed-I don't think of that as contradiction with what Phil himself was shooting for. His argument and his exploration of the question of what's human and what's not, that's one of the great themes in his books, but it was a theme that was an exploration, not a pronounce ment." Using references from several places in the text, explore Jeter's ideas. Does this view of the book justifY or change your reaction to some of the plot contradictions and other problems in the novel? 8. "The foregrounding of violence and the change in the nature of the androids subtly and cynically distorts the major themes of Dick's novel by catering to violent escapist fantasies." Peter Fitting in "The Neutralization of Revolt in Blade Runner," Science-Fiction Studies (November 1987). Agree or dis agree, using references from the book and movie. 9. These comments are from the First American Philip K. Dick Convention, September 1993, printed in the New York Review o/Science Fiction, June 1994. Choose anyone and show why you agree or disagree with it for ei ther the book, movie or both a. Kathryn Cramer: One way in which Anglo-American modern literature is dif ferent from modern literature in the rest of the world is the idea that it's char-


acter driven .... Philip K. Dick was in one sense a European modernist rather than an American modernist because, yes, you can point out instances of good characterization, but his work is as much about the dissolution of character as it is about characterization. b. David Smith: I want to pick up on the idea of inversion. The moment when the funny and the straight man, if you will, reverse. Or where the thing that appeared to be an extruding object is an intruding object. Monty Python does this a lot. They'll have a bit where you're absolutely sure that someone's the straight man and then he'll say something and then it's clear that there is no straight man. Almost at every point in a Philip K Dick novel, he an nounces "This is the straight man, this is the frame, this is the premise, this is where we are," and somewhere in the book, none of that is right. c. Quote from Dick about his own work: All I can say to defend it is that people who read it are disturbed and go off brooding, very puzzled and unhappy. 1. Discuss some significant difference between book and movie: depiction of spe cific character, things eliminated from the movie (Mercerism, wife) or things added to the movie. What are the effects of the changes? Which did you find the more interesting, the more thoughtful (for the particular dif ference you are analyzing, not necessarily your judgment of the whole book or movie)? 2. Discuss the effect of some of the common SF tropes in the film. Does the movie alter them in any way? You can include cyberpunk tropes. Don't forget Frankenstein motifs. 3. Does the movie make you think Deckard is a replicant? How and why? Analyze fUm effects: lighting, camera angle, fades and scene changes, etc. What are the results? How do they shape theme exploration, character development, etc.? .;. .. .;. li .. j,j' .. .:.I l:: e:::. BIBLIOGRAPHIES Hal Hall Bibliographer's Note: I did an Alta Vista search of the Web this morning and got the following results. The search string: "Do androids dream of electric sheep" hit 1258 Web pages. I looked at the first thirty or so, including: bladerunner/dadoes.htmb (short, but some interesting tidbits), . 1987 SFRA I I ANTHOLOGY STILL AVAILABLE Patricia Warrick, Martin Greenberg, and Joseph Olander's Science Fiction: Contemporary Mythology, the SFRA anthology, is still available from Addison Wesley Longman. Although many of our members have used the new SFRA anthology, Visions of Wonder, edited by David Hartwell and Milton Wolf, with great success, others still prefer the original 1987 anthology and we have received several requests that we check to see if copies are still available. According to the current publisher, 840 copies are currently available. MEMBER I I SHIP Mike Levy reports that membership is currently at 284. He gave a full Treasurer's Report at the June meeting, and a written version of that report will appear in the next SFRAReview.


SFRA MEMBER UPDATES II J. Albert Bacardit is doing research on epidemiologic literature. New member Amy Clarke is working on a book-length study of ecology and SF, including the works of Le Guin, Kim Stanley Robinson, Callenbach, Herbert, etc. She's also working on on article on Le Guin's story 'The New Atlantis." New member Bill Dynes reports that he's working on on essay on "Multiple Perspectives in Kim Stanley Robinson's Red Mars." Craig Jacobsen reports that he's working on on essay on cryonics in SF and is busy producing the SFRAReview. Jeff King is working on on SF quotebook-quotes from SF writers, editors, and others about SF. Michael Levy has been named Maybelle Rainey Price Professor of Education at the University of WisconsinStout He will be teaching in Scotland in the fall semester of the year 2000, assuming that the world does not in fact end before that time. Tom Moylan has a new address: Uverpool John Moores University, School of Media, Critical, and Creative Arts Dean, Walters Building, St James Street, Uverpool LI 7BR, UK. Nancy Steffen-Fluhr is writing an essay on the SF film Gattaca Janeen Webb and Jack Dann have just published on original anthology Master's thesis, Idaho State University, 1975. Dick, Philip K. "How to Build a Universe that Doesn't Fall Apart Two Days Later." In I Hope I Shall Arrive Soon, pp. 1-23. Garden City, N.Y.: Dou bleday, 1985. ---. "The Profession of Science Fiction: XVII: The Lucky Dog Pet Store." Foundation 17 (September 1979): 41-49 "Even Sheep Can Upset Scientific Detachment." Daily Telegraph Magazine, July 19,1974,pp.27-28,30. Fitting, Peter. "Reality as Ideological Construct: A Reading of Five Novels by Philip K. Dick." Science-Fiction Studies 10 Guly 1983): 219-36. Freedman, Carl. "Towards a Theory of Paranoia: The Science Fiction of Philip K. Dick." Science-Fiction Studies 11 (March 1984): 15-24. Gillespie, Bruce. "The Best of Philip K. Dick." In Survey of Science Fiction Literature, vol. 1, edited by Frank N. Magill, pp. 196-201. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Salem Press, 1979. ---. "Mad, Mad Worlds: Seven Novels of Philip K. Dick." SF Commentary, pt. 1, January 1969. Also in Philip K Dick: Electric Shepherd, 1975. ---. Philip K Dick: Electric Shepherd. Melbourne, Australia: Nostrilla Press, 1975. Green, T. M. "Philip K. Dick: A Parallax View." Science Fiction Review 5, no. 2 (1976): 12-15. Greenberg, M. H., and J. D. Olander. Philip K Dick. New York: Taplinger, 1983. Henderson, Chris. "One Hundred Most Important People in Science Fiction/ Fantasy: Philip K. Dick." Starlog 100 (November 1985): 45, 52. Kaveny, P. E. "From Pessimism to Sentimentality: Do Androids Dream ... be comes Blade Runner." In Patterns of the Fantastic IL edited by Donald M. Hassler, pp. 77-80. Mercer Island, Wash.: Starmont, 1985. Kerman, J. B. "Private Eye: Comparison of Blade Runner and Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?' In Patterns of the Fantastic IL edited by Donald M. Hassler, pp. 69-76. Mercer Island, Wash.: Starmont, 1985. Kosek, Steven. "Blade Runner May Mean a Second Coming for Sci-Fi Marvel Philip K. Dick." Chicago Tribune, July 4, 1982. In Newsbank Review of Literature 9 (1982-83): 05-6. Lawler, D. L. Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? In Survey of Science Fiction Literature, vol. 2, edited by Frank N. Magill, pp. 554-59. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Salem Press, 1979. "The Mainstream that through the Ghetto Flows: An Interview with Philip K. Dick." Missouri Review 7 (1984): 164-85. Malzberg, B. N. Introduction: Philip K. Dick. In Philip K Dick, edited by Martin H. Greenberg, pp. 7-12. New York: Taplinger, 1982. Mathieson, Kenneth. "Influence of Science Fiction in the Contemporary American Novel." Science-Fiction Studies 12 (March 1985): 22-32. Moorcock, Michael. "Real Ideas of Philip K. Dick." Vector 39 (April 1966): 7-14. Nicholls, Peter. "Philip K. Dick: A Cowardly Memoir." Foundation 26 (October 1982): 5-10. Pagetti, Carlo. "Dick and Meta-SF." Science-Fiction Studies 2 (March 1975): 24-31. "Philip K. Dick Movie Nears Completion." Locus 15, no. 3 (March 1982): 1, 13. Pierce, Hazel. Philip K Dick. Mercer Island, Wash.: Starmont, 1982. Platt, Charles. "Do Androids Dream of Philip K. Dick?" Horizon 25, no. 5 Guly August 1982): 38-42. ---. "Philip K. Dick." In Dream Makers: The Uncommon People Who Write Science Fiction, pp. 145-58. New York: Berkley, 1980. ---. "Reality in Drag: A Profile of Philip K. Dick." Science Fiction Review 9


(August 1980): 6-11. Rickman, Greg. Philip K Dick: In His Own Words. Long Beach, Calif.: Fragments West, 1984. ---. Philip K Dick: The Last Testament. Long Beach, Calif.: Fragments West, 1985. Robinson, Kim Stanley. Novels of Philip K Dick. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, San Diego, 1982. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1984. Stableford, B. M. "Philip K. Dick." In Science Fiction Writers, edited by E. F. Blei ler, pp. 337-43. New York: Scribners, 1982. Stewart, Bhob. "Do Androids Dream of Philip K. Dick?" Comics Journal 76 (October 1982): 121-34. Stricker, Philip. "Philip K. Dick and the Movies." Foundation 26 (October 1982): 15-2l. Suvin, Darko. "Artifice as Refuge and World View: Philip K. Dick's Foci." In Philip K Dick, edited by Martin H. Greenberg, pp. 73-95. New York: Taplinger, 1982. (Reprint from Science-Fiction Studies, March 1975.) ---. "P. K. Dick's Opus: Artifice as Refuge and World View." Science-Fiction Studies 2 (March 1975): 8-22. Taylor, Angus. "Can God Fly? Can He Hold Out His Arms and Fly? The Fiction ofphilip K. Dick." Foundation 4 Guly 1974): 48-60. Van Hise, James. "Philip K. Dick on Blade Runner." Starlog 55 (February 1982): 19-22. Warren, Eugene. "Philip K. Dick: Exile in Paradox." Christianity Today 21, no. 16 (May 20, 1977): 22-24. Warren, Eugene. "Search for Absolutes." In Philip K Dick, edited by Martin H. Greenberg, pp. 161-87. New York: Taplinger, 1982. Warrick, Patricia S. "Labyrinthian Process of the Artificial: Philip K. Dick's An droids and Mechanical Constructs." In Philip K Dick, edited by Martin H. Greenberg, pp. 189-214. New York: Taplinger, 1982. ---. "Labyrinthian Process of the Artificial: Dick's Androids." Extrapolation 20 (summer 1979): 133-53. Also in Selected Proceedings of the 1918 SFRA National Conference, edited by T. J. Remington, pp. 122-32. University of North. Iowa, 1979. Williams, Paul. "The True Stories of Philip K. Dick." Rolling Stone, November 6, 1975,pp.45-50,88,91-94. Wingrove, David. "Understanding the Grasshopper: Leitmotifs and the Moral Di lemma in the Novels of Philip K. Dick." Foundation 26 (October 1982): 21-40. Blade Runner Bibliography Allman, John. "Motherness Creations: Motifs in Science Fiction." North Dakota Quarterly 58 (spring 1990): 124-32. Bergstrom, Janet. "Androids and Androgyny." In Close Encounters: Film, Femi nism and Science Fiction, edited by Constance Penley, pp. 33-60. Min neapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991. "Blade Runner Special Effects Wizard Says Space Movies are Easier to Create." New Orleans Times-Picayune, July 20, 1982, sec. 5, p. 6. Brooks, Christopher K. "More Human than Human: In Search of the Human Condition." Journal of American Culture 2 (winter 1998): 65-71. Bruno, Gi uliana. "Ramble City: Postmodernism and Blade Runner." October 41 (summer 1987): 61-74. Reprinted in Alien Zone, edited by Annette Kuhn, pp. 183-95. Byers, Thomas B. "Commodity Futures: Corporate State and Personal Style in Three Recent Science Fiction Movies." Science-Fiction Studies 14 of Australian SF, Dreaming Down Un der (HarperCollins Australia). Dann's latest novel, The Silent (Bantam), has just appeared in trade paperback. CALL FOR PAPERS: NEW I I JERSEY ENGLISH JOURNAL Muriel Becker reports, "The New jersey English journal, an annual publication of the New jersey Council of Teachers of English [of which I am the current president] has put out a call for articles for the spring 2000 issue on 'Futurism,' and there's no reason why SF film would not be accepted. Our editors are looking for articles on technology applied to the teaching of English, recent scientific research as it may apply to language arts instruction at any grade level, and the teaching of science fiction. They ask for two hard copies and a disk copy of the double-spaced titled manuscript and a cover sheet with name, address, phone number, institutional affiliation, and not more than a five-sentence autobiographical sketch. Its distribution is primarily in New jersey. The deadline is September 15, 1999, with notification by December. Send manuscripts to Rosalind jones, 5 Mead Place, Pompton Plains, Nj 07444." SECOND I I CALL FOR PAPERS: STAR TREK: DEEP SPACE 9 ANTHOLOGY Since the 1998-99 season is the last scheduled one for this series, we are ca/ling for papers for an anthology on ST: DS9. Papers are solicited from any discipline. Analytical and pedagogical papers


are welcome. Any topic will be considered, but we are especially interested in issues of: -Ethnicity -"Race" -Gender -Sexuality -Religion -The Family Deadline for completed papers: September 15, 1999 Length: 35 pages maximum Attribution: MLA parenthetical or endnotes Submit two copies of your completed paper to: Robin Anne Reid Department of Uterature & Languages TAMU-Commerce Commerce TX 75429 or Judy Ann Fard History Department TAMU-Commerce Commerce TX 75429 I I CALL FOR PAPERS: SCIENCE FICTION AND ROMANTICISM William Gibson's cyberpunk novel, Neuromancer, even as it invented the future now up on the screen in The Matrix, winked back at the past with his evocative title. "Neuron" "'Romancer" for sure, but also, "New" "Romance" or "New Romantic". The connections between science fiction and romanticism are not limited to cyberpunk allusion. The claim that Mary Shelley "invented" science fiction in Frankenstein and The Last Man has been made for some time, while the continued reworkings of the former in film and novel argue for its foundational importance to the genre. (November 1987): 326-39. Byers, Thomas B. "Commodity Futures." In Alien Zone, edited by Annette Kuhn, pp.39-50. ---. "Kissing Becky: Masculine Fears and Misogynist Moments in Science Fiction Films." Arizona Quarterly 45 (autumn 1989): 77-95. Crooks, Robett. "Retro Noir Future Noir: Body Heat, Blade Runner, and Neo-Conservative Paranoia." Film and Philosophy 1 (1994): 105-10. Desser, David. "Do Androids Dream of Ridley Scott?" In Phoenix from the Ashes, edited by Carl B. Yoke, pp. 193-200. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1987. Deutelbaum, Marshall. "Visual MemoryNisual Design: The Remembered Sign in Blade Runner." Literature/Film Quarterly 17 Ganuary 1989): 66-72. Dick, Philip K. "1968 Notes on How to Film Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep!' PKDS Newsletter 18 (August 1988): 1-4. Doll, Susan, and Greg Faller. "Blade Runner and Genre: Film Noir and Science Fiction." Literature/Film Quarterly 14 (1986): 89-100. Dresser, David. "Blade Runner. Science Fiction and Transcendence." Literature! Film Quarterly 13 (1985):172-79. Ebert, Roger. "Harrison Ford Shares His Stardom with Special Effects." Chicago Sun-Times, June 29, 1982. In NewsBank: Film and Television 4 (198283): G14-5:A1. ---. "Worked up over Harrison." Austin American Statesman, July 4, 1982, sec. H, p. 1. Fisher, William. "Of Living Machines and Living-Machines: Blade Runner and the Terminal Genre." New Literary History 20 (autumn 1988): 187-98. Fitting, Peter. "Futurecop: The Neutralization of Revolt in Blade Runner." Science-Fiction Studies 14 (November 1987): 340-54. Harvey, Carol. "Blade Runner. Wake up! Time to Die!" Lan's Lantern 20 Guly 1986): 66, 68-70. Hockley, Luke J. Detecting the Myth: An Application ofe. G. Jung's Analytical Psychology to Film Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Stirling (UK), 1988. Kaplan, Sam H. '''Runner': A Grim View of the Future." Los Angeles Times, July 18, 1982, calendar, p. 4 Kart, Larry. "Harrison Keeps the Real Ford under Wraps." Chicago Tribune, June 20, 1982. In NewsBank: Film and Television 2 (1982-83): D5-D7. Kerman, Judith B., ed. Retrofitting Blade Runner: Issues in Ridley Scott's "Blade Runner" and Philip K Dick's "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?" Bowling Green, Ohio: Popular Press, 1991. Kolb, W. M. "Blade Runner. An Annotated Bibliography." Literature/Film Quarterly 18 (1990): 19-64. Kuhn, Annette, ed. Alien Zone. London: Verso, 1990. Lee, Gwen, and Doris E. Santer. "Thinker of Antiquity." Starlog 150 Ganuary 1990): 22-25, 34. Mann, Roderick. "Blade Director Keen on L.A." Los Angeles Times, July 1, 1982, sec. 6, p. 1. Mills, Bart. "Alien Director Cuts a New Blade." Milwaukee Journal. June 27, 1982. In NewsBank: Film and Television 2 (1982): D8-D9. Morrison, Rachela. "Casablanca Meets Star Wars: The Blakean Dialectics of Blade Runner." Literature/Film Quarterly 18 (1990): 2-10. Neale, Stephen. "Issues of Difference: Alien and Blade Runner." In Fantasy and the Cinema, edited by James Donald, pp. 213-23. London: BFI Publishing, 1989. Pringle, David. "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? by Philip K. Dick (1968)."


In Science Fiction: The 100 Best Novels, pp. 129-30. New York: Carroll and Graf, 1985. "Ridley Scott's Tightrope." Variety, July 9, 1980, pp. 6, 22. Romero, Rolando J. "The Postmodern Hybrids: Do Aliens Dream of Electric Sheep?" Post Script 16 (fall 1996): 41-52. Rudas, Michael. "Blade Runner. Androids vs. Blade Runner. The Intellect of Mechanism or the Mechanism ofIntellect?" Lan's Lantern 20 Guly 1986): 66,71-72. Ruppert, Peter. "Blade Runner. Utopian Dialectics of Science Fiction Films." Cineaste 17, no. 2 (1989): 8-13. Ryan, Michael, and Douglas Kellner. "Technophobia." In Alien Zone, edited by Annette Kuhn, pp. 58-65. Senior, Bill. "Blade Runner and Cyberpunk Visions of Humanity." Film Criticism 21 (fall 1996): 1-12. Silverberg, Rohert. "The Way the Future Looks: Blade Runner and THX-1138." In Reflections and Refractions: Thoughts on Science Fiction, Science, and Other Matters, pp. 21-27. Grass Valley, Calif.: Underwood Books, 1997. Reprinted from Screen Flights/Screen Fantasies, 1984. Slade, Joseph W. "Romanticizing Cybernetics in Ridley Scott's Blade Runner." Literature/Film Quarterly 18 (1990): 11-18. Taggart, Patrick. "Blade Runner Good Idea." Austin American Statesman, June 26, 1982, sec. E, p. 24. Telotte, J. P. "The Doubles of Fantasy and the Space of Desire." In Alien Zone, edited by Annette Kuhn, pp. 152-59. Tessel, Harry. "Menacing Hauer Now Looking for Laughs." Houston Post, July 18, 1982, sec. AA, p. 14. Turan, Kenneth. "A Prime Cut." Los Angeles (Calif) Times, October 13, 1991. In NewsBank: Film and Television 96 (1991): EII-E13. Warrick, Patricia S., and Martin H. Greenberg. Robots, Androids, and Mechanical Oddities: The Science Fiction of Philip K Dick. Carbondale: Southern Illi nois University Press, 1986. Philip K Dick Secondary Sources Abrash, Merritt. "Dick and SF Scholarship: A Failure of Scholarship." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 123-24. ---. "Dick and SF Scholarship: In Response to George Slusser." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 129-30. ---. "'Man Everywhere in Chains': Dick, Rousseau, and The Penultimate Truth." In Philip K Dick, edited by Samuel J. Umland, pp. 157-68. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1995. Also appeared in Foundation 39 (spring 1987): 31-40. ---. "Sparring with the Universe: Heroism and Futility in Philip K. Dick's Protagonists." Extrapolation 27, no. 2 (summer 1986): 116-22. Aichele, George, Jr. "Two Forms of Metafantasy." Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts 1, no. 3 (1988): 55-68. Aldiss, Brian W. "Dick's Maledictory Web: About and Around The Martian Time Slip." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 37-40. ---. "What Did the Policeman Say? In Memoriam PKD." PKDS Newsletter 29 (September 1992): 1. ---. "A Whole New Can of Worms." In The Detached Retina: Aspects of SF and Fantasy, pp. 44-51. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1995. Allman, John. "Motherness Creations: Motifs in Science Fiction." North Dakota Quarterly 58, no. 2 (spring 1990): 124-32. Anton, Uwe, ed. Welcome to Reality: The Nightmares of Philip K Dick. Cambridge, Other authors could be offered as inven tors-William Godwin's alternative history in St. Leon, Percy Shelley's Queen Mab's utopic imagininings, Edgar Allan Poe's balloon hoaxes-but the very Wordsworthian phrase, "something ever more about to be" suggests how important the future was to romanticism. A propos of the millenium, Romanticism on the Net will devote a special issue to science ffction and romanticism in 2000. Articles on science fiction's roots in romanticism and romanticism's persistence in science fiction will be welcome. More broadly, we will also welcome papers about scientific imagining in the period. Finally, how does seeing romanticism as "science fiction" enable us to see it differently? Potential contributors might be interested in the bibliography "Fictional Representations of Romantics and Ro manticism," available at Romantic Circles (http://www.rc.umd.edulreference/ ficreplnassr-sf.html). Submission deadline: 15 November 1999. For more information, please contaa Robert Corbett (rcor@u.washington. edu) I I CALL FOR PAPERS: HONG KONG 2000: TECHNOLOGY, IDENTITY AND FUTURITY IN THE EMERGING GLOBAL VILLAGE To be held June 19-23, 2000 Hosted by the Chinese University of Hong Kong In Conjunction with UC Riverside To what degree are Western technology and science, as their influence and works inform culture after culture, creating a globalized world? At what cost to traditional societies and cultures? In


what ways are these forces being "resisted"? The idea of a single Earth culture wrought by technology is a persistent dream of Western science fiction. Western SF is now in full swing imagining Asian futures, "high-tech" Tokyos, T aipeis, Shanghais. But what sorts of technological societies and physical landscapes are actually emerging from these locations? And how are these being depicted in the rapidly growing number of Asian SF works? How do these works envision the forms or structures Western technology? Hong Kong seems an ideal venue for this conference that examines such questions. On one hand, it offers a unique cultural landscape of a "cyberfuture." It can be variously seen as a postmodern city-state, or a "third wave" satellite culture in its rapid diffusion of media events, a place of ceaseless meltdown and fusion of formerly landed cultural forms and values. It also appears to offer -in its architecture, institutions, and social and ethnic patterns -a science fiction city, in the sense of Bruce Sterling, who sees the new century no longer writing SF but building and living it On the other hand, Hong Kong is a cultural crossroads. It is an interface between Eastern and Western societies, traditions, a place where maintaining cultural identity deeply matters. As applied to the Hong Kong question, the term "science fiction" designates a widely shared set of themes, icons, media events, technological devices, and modes of living in relation to dreams of Earth's future. We seek papers, whatever their period or discipline, that discuss the impact of Western technology and culture on the East and/or Eastern SF as seen from the West -or conversely, that measure Mass.: Broken Mirrors Press, 1991. Anton, Uwe, and Werner Fuchs. "So I Don't Write about Heroes: An Interview with Philip K. Dick." SF Eye 14 (spring 1996): 37-46. Apel, D. Scott. "The Dream Connection." In Philip K Dick, edited by D. Scott Apel, pp. 143-253. ---. "Phil as I Knew Him." In Philip K Dick, edited by D. Scott Apel, pp. 13-27. Apel, D. Scott, ed. Philip K Dick: The Dream Connection. San Jose, Cali: Perma nent Press, 1987. Apel, D. Scott, and Kevin C. Briggs. "Interview with Philip K. Dick, Part 1." PDKS Newsletter 5 (December 1984): 1,5-7. ---. "Interview with Philip K. Dick, Pan 2." PDKS Newsletter 6 (April 1985): 1-2, 11-14. ---. "Philip K. Dick in Interview." In Philip K Dick, edited by D. Scott Apel, pp.29-113. "Appendix: A Letter to Scott Apel from Philip K. Dick." In Philip K Dick, edited by D. Scott Apel, pp. 283-87. "Appendix: Theodore Sturgeon on Philip Dick." In Philip K Dick, edited by D. Scott Apel, pp. 288-89. "Appendix: The 'Tagalore' Letter." In Philip K Dick, edited by D. Scott Apel, pp. 290-94. "Arbor House to Issue Last Philip K. Dick Novel." Publishers Weekly 227, no. 22 (May 31, 1985): 44. Ashby, Heather. The Media Novels of Philip K Dick: Cautionary Fables for an Electronic Age. Thesis, University of Guelph, 1987.2 microfiche [not seen]. Barlow, Aaron J. Reality, Religion, and Politics in Philip K Dick's Fiction. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa, 1988. Barricelli, Jean-Pierre. "Afterword: The Morigny Conference." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, p. 236. Barricelli, Jean-Pierre. "Afterword: The Morigny Conference." Science-Fiction Studies 15, no. 2 Guly 1988): 232-33. Beale, Lewis. "Madman's Ravings or Relevant Message?" AtlantaJournal Constitu tion, August 18,1991, sec. N, p. 10. ---. "Philip K. Dick: When Sci-Fi Becomes Real." Los Angeles (Calif) Times, August 8, 1991, pp. E1, E15. Also available in NewsBank: Literature 75 (1991): F9-FlO. Bennett, Rick. "In Philip K. Dick Territory." PDKS Newsletter 3 (April 1984): 14. Berman, Mark, and David Newnham. "God's New Age Prophet." Guardian, July 24, 1990, p. 34. Bernstein. Richard. "The Electric Dreams of Philip K. Dick." New York Times Book Review, November 3,1991, pp. 1,28-30. Black, D. S. "Blade Runner Revisited." PKDS Newsletter 28 (March 1992): 7-8. ---. "Puttering about the Silver Screen: The Story of Ubik, the Movie." PKDS Newsletter 11 (May 1986): 1-4, 11-13. Blaylock, James P., K. W. Jeter, and Tim Powers. "Phil Wars." PKDS Newsletter 20 (April 1989): 12-13. Bowden, Keith. "VALIS: The Opera." PKDS Newsletter 17 (April 1988): 8. Bozzetto, Roger. "Dick in France: A Love Story." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 153-60. Also appeared in Science-Fiction Studies 15, no. 2 Guly 1988): 131-40. Burgheim, Manfred G. "Philip K. Dicks Ubik und Thomas Pynchon's Die Versteigerung von 49 [The Crying of Lot 49]: Zwei romane, ein epistemologis ches Modell." Quarber Merkur 33, no. 2 (December 1995): 25-29. [Whole number 84.]


Butler, Andrew. "Science Fiction as Postmodernism: The Case of Philip K. Dick." In Impossibility Fiction: Alternativity-Extrapolation--Speculation, edited by Derek Littlewood and Peter Stockwell, pp. 45-56. Atlanta, Ga.: Rodopi,1996. Campbell, Laura E. "Dickian Time in The Man in the High Castle." Extrapolation 33, no. 3 (fall 1992): 190-201. Carrere, Emmanuel. Je suis vivant et vous etes morts: Philip K Dick, 1928-1982. Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1993. Carter, Cassie. "The Metacolonization of Dick's The Man in the High Castle: Mimicry, Parasitism, and Americanism in the PSA." Science-Fiction Studies 22, no.3 (November 1995): 333-42. Christiansen, Peder. "Classical Humanism of Philip K. Dick." In Women Worldwalkers, edited by J. B. Weedman, pp. 71-82. Lubbock: Texas Tech Press, 1985. Csicsery-Ronay, Istvan, Jr. "Pilgrims in Pandemonium: Philip K. Dick and the Critics." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. v-xviii. Davis, Erik. "T echgnosis: Magic, Memory and the Angel of Information." South Atlantic Quarterly 92, no. 4 (fall 1993): 585-616. Reprinted in Flame Wars: The Discourse of Cyberculture, edited by Mark Dery. Durham, N. c.: Duke University Press, 1994. ---. "Technomancer: Philip K. Dick's Signal Achievements." Village Voice Literary Supplement, August 1989, p. 17. Davis, Grania, "PKD and the Versailles Throne." PDKS Newsletter 6 (April 1985): 6. Cuyper, Frank R. F. "Drei Stigmata van Philip K. Dick: Of, is er Leven voor de Dood?" In Just the Other Day, edited by Luk De Vos, pp. 465-70. Ant werp: Restant, 1985. De Meester, Gilbert. "Het Universum van Philip K. Dick: Een Systeemtheore tische Benadering." In Just the Other Day, edited by Luk De Vos, pp. 471-80. Antwerp: Restant, 1985. Desser, David. "Do Androids Dream of Ridley Scott?" In Phoenix .from the Ashes, edited by Carl B. Yoke, pp. 193-200. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1987. Dick, Anne R. Search for Philip K Dick, 1928-1982: A Memoir and Biography of the Science Fiction Writer. Lewiston, N.Y.: Mellen, 1995. "Dick, Philip (Update)." In Beacham's Popular Fiction 1991 Update, by Walton Beacham et al., pp. 371-76. Washington, D.C.: Beacham, 1991. Dick, Philip K. "Brief Excerpt from the Exegesis." PKDS Newsletter 3 (April 1984): 12. ---. "A Clarification." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, p. 73. ---. "The Different Stages of Love: A Previously Unpublished Passage from Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said." PKDS Newsletter 28 (March 1992): 3-5. ---. "Excerpt from the Exegesis." PKDS Newsletter 12 (October 1986): 3-5. ---. "The Eye of the Sibyl." In Philip K Dick, edited by D. Scott Apel, pp. 111-29. ---. "Fantasy." PKDS Newsletter 29 (September 1992): 7. ---. "Fawn, Look Back: A Plot Outline." Science Fiction Eye 1, no. 2 (August 1987): 40-44. ---. "If You Find This World Is Bad, You Should See Some of the Others (The 'Metz Speech')." PKDS Newsletter 27 (August 1991): [1-39J. ---. In Pursuit of "VALIS': Selections .from the Exegesis. Lancaster, Pa.: Under wood-Miller, 1991. ---. Letter. PKDS Newsletter 4 (September 1984): 1-4. the impact of Eastern technology and culture on the West and/or Western SF, as seen from the East How does the concept and reality of an emerging "global village" lead to a reformulation of relations between the terms "technology, "identity," and "futurity" along the East-West axis? If you have a paper idea that "pushes the envelope" of this topic, or one that hits dead center, please send a one-page abstract by October I, 1999, so that it can be considered at the mid-October teleconference between UC and CUHK. The final deadline for submissions is December 15, 1999. E-mail proposals or papers to BOTH coordinators: Wong, Kin-yuen George Slusser Or mail two copies to: George Slusser SpeCial Collections Ubrary University of California Riverside CA 92517 USA (909) 787-3233 (909) 787-6384 RECENT AND FORTHCOMING BOOKS McCracken, Scott Pulp: Reading Popu lar Fiction. Manchester University PresslSt Martin's, 1998. *Bleiler, Richard, ed. Science Fiction Writers. 2nd ed. Scribner's, January 1999. Revised and expanded version of Everett Bleiler's first edition, 1982. Whitney, Grace Lee and Jim Denney. The Longest Trek: My Tour of the


Galaxy. Quill Driver BookslWord Dancer Press, February 1999. *Le Guin, Ursula K. Sixty Odd: New Poems. Shambhala, April 1999. *Perrakis, Phyllis Sternberg, ed. Spiritual Exploration in the Works of Doris Lessing. Greenwood, April 1999. : *Slusser, George, Paul A. Alkon, et 0/., eds. Transformations of Utopia: Changing Views of the Perfect Society. AMS Press, April 1999. 26 essays presented at a 1991 Swiss conference. *T a/ia(erro, john. Tarzan Forever: The Life of Edgar Rice Burroughs, Creator of Tarzan. Scribner, April 1999. Howlett-West, Stephanie. The Inter Galactic Price Guide to Science Fiction/Fantasy and Horror. Author, 1100 Sylvan Avenue # 153, Modesto, CA 95350, May 1999. Spiral bound ($35), CD-ROM or floppy disk ($35 each), both $50; tax = 7.375%; darkman@s2.sonnet com. Robb, Brian j. Screams and Night mares. Overlook, May 1999. Examines the films of Wes Craven ( 1984's Nightmare on Elm Street is perhaps the best known), with more than 200 black-and-white stills Lupack, Alan and Barbar Tepa Lupack, eds. Arthurian Literature by Women; An Anthology. Garland, june 1999. Bongco, Mila. Reading Comics: Lan----. Letter from Philip K Dick. Glen Ellen, Calif.: Philip K. Dick Society, 1983. [PKDS Pamphlet l.} ---. "A Letter to Anthony BoucherlA Letter from Anne Dick." PKDSNewsletter 30 (December 1992): 1-4. --. "Life of an S-F Writer." PKDS Newsletter 26 (April 1991): 1-2. ---. "Missing Pages from The Unteleported Man." PKDS Newsletter 8 (September 1985). ---. "Nazism and the High Castle." PKDS Newsletter 14 (June 1987): 1-2. Reprinted from Niekas 9 (September 1964): 45-48. ---. "1968 Notes on How to Film Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?" PKDS Newsletter 18 (August 1988): 1-4. ---. "Notes Made Late at Night by a Weary SF Writer." PKDS Newsletter 22/23 (December 1989): 19. ---. "Notes (Possibly Contaminated) on an 'Information Virus.'" PKDS Newsletter 24 (May 1990): 3-4. ---. "Outline for a Science Fiction Novel Called: Our Friends from Frolix 8." PKDS Newsletter 19 (January 1989): 1-17. ---. "Pessimism." PKDS Newsletter 29 (September 1992): 6. ---. "Schizophrenia and the Book of Changes." PKDS Newsletter 14 (June 1987): 1-9. [Reprinted from Niekas 11, March 1965.) ---. The Selected Letters of Philip K Dick: 1974. Lancaster, Pa.: Underwood Miller, 1991. ---. The Selected Letters of Philip K Dick, Volume 4, 1975-1976. Lancaster, Pa.: Underwood-Miller, 1992. ---. The Selected Letters of Philip K Dick, Volume 5, 1977-1979. Lancaster, Pa.: Underwood-Miller, 1993. ---. "Self Portrait." PKDS Newsletter 2 (December 1983): 1, 11-13. ---. "The Soul of the Wub." PKDS Newsletter 24 (May 1990): l. ---. "3 by PKD: Venom." PKDS Newsletter 29 (September 1992): 5. ---. "Today the World." PKDS Newsletter 20 (April 1989): 2-3. ---. 'Transcript of a Seance." PKDS Newsletter 12 (October 1986): 5-6. --_. "Unpublished Foreword to The Preserving Machine." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 16-17. ---. "Unpublished 'Prescript' To Flow My Tears." PKDS Newsletter 12 (October 1986): 2-3. ---. "Universe Makers ... and Breakers." Radio Free P.KD. 1 (February 1993): 1,8. --_. "Warning: We Are Your Police; Unpublished Manuscript." PDKS News-letter 7 (July 1985): 3-20. ---. "Was Horselover Fat a Flake?" PKDS Newsletter 15 (August 1987): 5-6. --. "Zap Gun; An Outline." PKDS Newsletter 16 (January 1988): 1, 13-14. Dick, Tessa. "Letter from Tessa." PDKS Newsletter 4 (September 1984): 7. Dumas, Alan. "Philip Dick Fans Are Seeking Out Fort Morgan Plot." Denver (Colo.) Rocky Mountain News. December 8, 1992. In NewsBank: Literature 2 (1992): E8-E9. Dumont, Jean-Nod. "Between Faith and Melancholy: Irony and the Gnostic Meaning of Dick's 'Divine Trilogy'." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 240-242. Also in Science-Fiction Studies 15, no. 2 (July 1988): 251-53. Durham, Scott. "From the Death of the Subject to a Theology of Late Capital ism." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 188-98. ---. "P. K. Dick: From the Death of the Subject to a Theology of Late Capi talism." Science-Fiction Studies 15, no. 2 (July 1988): 173-86. Easterbrook, Neil. "DianoialParanoia: Dick's Double 'Imposter.'" In Philip K


Dick, edited by Samuel J. Umland, pp. 19--42. "Editors' Letters to Philip K Dick: 1955-1959." PKDS Newsletter 17 (April 1988): 3-7. "Editors' Letters to Philip K Dick: 1960." PKDSNewsletter24: 5-8. May 1990. Erikson, Steve. "California Time-Slip: Philip K Dick's Memories ofIrreality." PKDS Newsletter 25 (December 1990): 11-16. Reprinted from L.A. Weekly, November 9-15, 1990. Everman, Welch D. "Paper World: Science Fiction in the Postmodern Era." In Postmodern Fiction, ed. Larry McCaffery, pp. 22-38. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1986. Farmer, Christopher. "VALIS and Wille; an Antinomia Opera." PKDS Newsletter 18 (August 1988): 6. Feehan, Michael. "Chinese Finger-Traps or 'A Perturbation in the Reality Field': Paradox as Conversion in Philip K Dick's Fiction." In Philip K Dick, edited by SamuelJ. Umland, pp. 197-206. Fekete, John. "The Transmigration of Philip K Dick." In On Philip K Dick, ed ited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 119-22. Fitting, Peter. "Futurecop: The Neutralization of Revolt in Blade Runner." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 132--44. ---. "The Life and Work of Philip K Dick." American Book Review 14, no. 1 (April-May 1992): 8. ---. "Philip K Dick in France." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mul len, p. 131. ---. "Philip K Dick Is Dead." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 243--45. ---. "Reality as Ideological Construct: A Reading of Five Novels by Philip K Dick." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 92-110. ---. "Ubik: The Deconstruction of Bourgeois SF." In On Philip K Dick, ed ited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 41--48. "Flow My Tears: The Correspondence." PKDS Newsletter 28 (March 1992): 6, 9. Fondanache, Daniel. "Dick, the Libertarian Prophet." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 161-69. Also appeared in Science-Fiction Studies 15, no. 2 (July 1988): 141-51. Forbes, Cheryl. "Philip K. Dick: Exile in Paradox." Christianity Today 21, no. 16 (May 20, 1977): 22-25. Freedman, Carl. "Editorial Introduction: Dick and Criticism." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 145-52. Also appeared as "Editorial Introduction: Philip K Dick and Criticism." Science-Fiction Studies 15, no. 2 (July 1988): 121-30. ---. "In Search of Dick's Boswell." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 257-61. ---.. "Style, Fiction, Science Fiction: The Case of Philip K Dick." In Styles of Creation: Aesthetic Technique and the Creation of Fictional Worlds, edited by George E. Slusser and Eric Rabkin, pp. 30-45. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1992. ---. "Towards a Theory of Paranoia: The Science Fiction of Philip K Dick." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 111-18, and Philip K Dick, edited by Samuel J. Umland, pp. 7-18. Galen, Russell. "Letter from Russell Galen." PDKS Newsletter 5 (December 1984): 3--4. Gillespie, Bruce R. "The Non-Fiction Novels of Philip K Dick." Science Fiction: A Review of Speculative Literature 12, no. 2 (1993): 3-14. [Whole number 35.] ---. "The Non-Science Fiction Novels of Philip K. Dick (1928-82)." BRG guage, Culture and the Concept of the Superhero in Comic Books. Garland, July 1999. Bryan, G/ennis, and David Punter, eds. Spectral Readings: Towards Gothic Geography. St Martin's, july 1999. *Hammond, j. R. An H. G. Wells Chronology. St Martin's, September 1999. *Seed, David, ed. Imagining Apoca lypse: Studies in Cultural Crisis. St Martin's, October 1999. *Manual, Alberty, and Gianni Guadalupi. The Dictionary of Imaginary Places. Revised and expanded. Har court, November 1999. Originally published by Macmillan in 1980 and revised by Harcourt as a 1989 trade paperback. *Bacon-Smith, Camille. Science Fiction Culture. University of Pennsylvania Press, December 1999. *Auerbach, Nina. Daphne du Maurier: Haunted Heiress. University of Pennsylvania Press, December 1999. *-Book reviews for these titles will appear in future issues of the Review. I I RECENT FICTION OF NOTE The April 1999 Locus listed Con stance Ash, Not of Woman Born (Roc), john Barnes, Finity (Tor), james Alan Garner, Vigilant (Avon Eos), Martin H. Greenberg, ed., My Favorite Science Fiction Story (Dow), Paul johanson and eon-Louis Trudel, Tesseracts7


Harry Turtledove. Colonization: Sec ond Contact (Ballantine Del Rey). and Vernor Vinge. A Deepness in the Sky (Tor). The March 22 Publishers Weekly recommended Neal Stephenson's Cryptonomican (Avon), a lengthy cyber thriller. and a welcome reprint, The EsHal Clement, Vol. I: Trio for Slide Rule and Typewriter. an omnibus that collects Needle, Iceworld. and Close to Critical (NESFA Press). The April 12 Publishers Weekly recommended Robert Silverberg, ed Far Horizons: All New Tales from the Greatest Worlds of Science Fiction (Avon Eos). II. NPR TO BOADCAST RADIO DRAMAS National Public Radio commissioned Peabody award-winning audio producer! direaor Yuri Rasovksy and his Hollywood Theater of the Ear to create Beyond 2000. a series of twenty-six one-hour dramatizations of dassic tales, aff set in the time period after 2000 A.D. Harlan Ellison will host the series and act in some. A pool of about fifty stories will be drawn from. with Heinlein's "By His .Bootstraps" used as a demonstration and pilot program. Taping will be finished by the end of November, with airing probably in early 2000 over the NPR network. The programs will later be released on cassette in the Dove Audio line. Call your local NPR station in January to persuade them to carry the series. -Neil Barron CORRECTION (Australia) 1 (October 1990): 1-12. Glaser, E. C. "In Remembrance of a Friend's Passing, Philip K. Dick." Lan's Lan tern 12 (April 1983): 6-7. Golumbia, David. "Resisting 'The World': Philip K. Dick. Cultural Studies, and Metaphysical Realism." Science-Fiction Studies 23, no. 1 (March 1996): 83-102. Gordon, Richard. "Three Stigmata of Palmer Eidritch: Critique." Zenith Speculation 12 (April 1966): 16-20. Griego, Diana. "Library Collection Sparks Lawsuit." Daily Titon (California State University, Fullerton), September 14, 1983, p. 4. Halpern, Marty. "Philip K. Dick and the PKD Memorial Award." Paperback Pa rade 11 (February 1989): 25-29. Hederer, Christian. "Gedanke an den Tod." Quarber Merkur 60 (December 1983): 61-69. Herron, Don, ed. The Selected Letters of Philip K Dick, 1977-1979. Lancaster, Pa.: Underwood-Miller, 1993. Hickman, Gregg. "What the Quizmaster Took: Solar Lottery and World of Chance; a Comparison." PKDS Newsletter 21 (September 1989): 3-38. Huntington, John. "Authenticity and Insincerity." In On Philip K Dick. edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 170-77. Also appeared as "Philip K. Dick: Authentic ity and Insincerity." Science-Fiction Studies 15, no. 2 Guly 1988): 152-60. Hurst, Mark "Last Contact." PDKS Newsletter 3 (April 1984): 2. Hyde, Dave. "Can We All Get Along?" Radio Free P.KD. 1 (February 1993): 6-7. "An Interview with Paul Williams: Reflection on Phil Dick, Part I." Radio Free P. KD. 1 (February 1993): 4-5, 10. Jakaitis, Jake. "Ridley Scott and Philip K. Dick" In On Philip K Dick. edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 278-82 ---. "Two Cases of Conscience: Loyalty and Race in The Crack in Space and Counter-Clock World." In Philip K Dick. edited by Samuel J. Umland, pp. 169-96. Jameson, Frederic. "After Armageddon: Character Systems in Dr. Bloodmoney." In On Philip K Dick. edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 26-36. ---. "Nostalgia for the Present." South Atlantic Quarterly 88, no. 2 (spring 1989): 517-37. Jouanne, Emmanuel. "How 'Dickian' Is the New French Science Fiction?" In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 232-35. Also appeared in Science-Fiction Studies 15, no. 2 Guly 1988): 226-31. Keel, John. "Was PKD a Flake?" PKDS Newsletter 15 (August 1987): 4-5. Keller, David. "The Translation of Philip K. Dick" Radio Free P.KD. 5: 7-8. August 1995. Kelley, George. "The Time Machine: Philip K. Dick, The Middle Period." Paper back Quarterly 2, no. 1 (spring 1979): 23-27. Kerman, Judith B., ed. Retrofitting "Blade Runn""; Issues in Ridley Scott's ''Blade Runn"" and Philip K Dick's ''Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?" Bowling Green, Ohio: Popular Press, 1991. Kincaid, Paul. "Broken Bubbles: The Progress of Philip K. Dick from Mainstream to SF." Vector 153 (December 1989-January 1990): 6-7. Kinney, Jay. "Summary of the Exegesis Based on Preliminary Forays." PDKS Newsletter 3 (April 1984): 1, 13. Klein, Gerard. "Concerning Pages Arising from Nothingness: A Preface to the Sec ond French Edition of Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said." PKDS Newsletter 28 (March 1992): 1-3. LaPlante, Eve. "Riddle ofTLE." PKDS Newsletter 20 (April 1989): 3-7. Latham, Rod. "Clanker Meets Gulper." Necrofile; The Review of Horror Fiction 4


SURVIVING Y2K-Publication #1313/BAA What is the Y2K Problem? The Y2K Problem, or Y2K Bug, may be: A.} A computer problem that could result in the disrup tion of countless systems worldwide. B.} An example of monumentally unbelievable technical shortsightedness. C.} Divine retribution for humanity's hubris and destruc tion of the biosphere. D.} A reminder of how fragile a society dependant upon computers to provide the basic necessities of life can be. E.} A secret plot by the Federal Emergency Management Agency to institute martial law and deprive good Americans of their civil liberties, with the eventual goal of turning us into a slave race for fleshy-headed aliens. F.} The imminent collapse of global civilization, reducing us, in a matter of days, to a level of technology little higher than the late Neolithic, and plummeting us into a dark age in which people will do savage battle with one another in a nightmarish post-apocalyptic land scape for once-common commodities such as paper tow els and tinned meat. Your Underground Y2K Shelter (plans Y2K .... A) "Y2K doesn't have to ruin backyard fun!" G.} A minor computer glitch that is unlikely to be more inconvenient than, say, discovering that the restaurant has put caesar dressing on your salad when you dis tinctly remember asking for the ranch. How do I prepare for the impending collapse of global post-industrial society? It is impossible to determine with confi dence just how disruptive the Y2K bug will be. lf the consequences are as dire as some fear mongers and profiteers would have us believe, there is little you can do to the remainder of your days eking out a meager ex istence in the cold shadows of the decaying ru ins of our once glorious culture, burning Ste phen King novels to keep warm and pondering whether talking apes will one day hunt your descendents for sport. On the other hand, there are a number of things that you can do that will keep you oc cupied, help to take your mind off of the pros pect that you will soon be using the Yellow Pages as toilet paper, and provide you with a genuinely warming false sense of preparedness. the Y2K disaster, and you may need no more powerful protection than the television remote control required to save you from watching Dick Clarke's New Year's Rockin' Eve, there is little as satisfying or comforting as a good old fashioned underground bunker (request plans from your local Civil Defense Warden). The construction of this bunker can be made into a family project, with Dad at the shovel, Mom on wheelbarrow duty, and Junior and Kitten l)elping out wherever little hands are most needed. You'll have to swear the kids to secrecy, however, as "Loose Lips Sink Ships." Neighbors who notice the activity can be mis lead by telling them that you are simply install ing a new sprinkler system-a very deep sprin kler system. to pull together, each lending a hand and help ing others. Just as often, however, human na ture leads people to a fistfight in supermarket aisle twelve over the last jar of Cheez Whiz. Re member that jl.x,ou 19tve wisely prepared for Y2K, you may become the object of your "friends'" jealous attention. In the post-collapse world, your careful forethought may make you a full-fledged member of the elite "haves," and thus an attractive target for the lazy, disbeliev ing, hippie/commie "have-nots" you formerly called "neighbors." Only you can decide what measures you are prepared to take to protect your home, fam ily, pets, bottled water, emergency rations, and compact disc collection. Food & Water Shelter Even as you read this poster you are wasting valuable time. Read faster. While your current shelter may be more than adequate for Protection It's a good idea to have some of each None of us likes to think about it, but in handy. times of great stress, human nature can be an unpredictable thing. Often disasters cause folks Can Anything Good Come Out of Y2K? You won't have to worry about paying off those student loans when the interna tional banking system collapses and canned ham becomes the medium of ex change. With all of the time you're not spending reading and writing e-mail, you can do something productive, like learning to spin your pet collie's hair into yarn and weave it into ponchos. Scavenging through the burned-out remains of your local Seven-Eleven for over looked snack cakes can be a very satisfying way to spend a day. There's little chance that as you're huddled around a bonfire of burning Lay-Z Boys, heating water to reconstitute your foil pouch of dehydrated potatoes au gratin, you'll be interrupted by someone selling carpet cleaning. Never again will some self-important idiot with a cellular phone nearly run you off of the freeway. Think of all of the time you'll have to catch up on your reading. Don't drop your glasses, though. POST THIS NOTICE PROMINENTLY! Science Fiction Research Association Review


(spring 1992): 7-10. Le Breton, David. "Philip K. Dick: Un Contrebandier de la Science-Fiction." Esprit 10 (1988): 81-89. Lee, Gwen, and Doris E. Sauter. "Thinker of Antiquity." Starlog 150 Oanuary 1990): 22-25, 34. ---. "Worlds of Sound and Color: Philip K. Dick." Starlog 165 (April 1991): 51-57,72. Lem, Stanislaw. "Philip K. Dick: A Visionary among the Charlatans." In On Philip K Dick edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 49-62. Leman, Bill. "Conformity in Science Fiction." Imide Science Fiction 52 (October 1975): 37-42. Lethem, Jonathan. "Unexpurgated Zap Gun: A Report." PKDS Newsletter 15 (August 1987): 12-13. "A Letter to Scott Apel from Philip Dick." In Philip K Dick, edited by D. Scott Apel, pp. 283-87. Levack, Daniel J. H. PKD: A Philip K Dick Bibliography. Westport, Conn.: Meck ler, 1988. Levy-Taylor, Linda. Letter to the Editor. PKDS Newsletter 20 (April 1989): 1,8-10. Lupoff, Richard A. "A Conversation with Philip K. Dick." Science Fiction Eye 1, no. 2 (August 1987): 45-54. Luttrell, Lesleigh. "Philip K. Dick and the Perception of Reality, or, New Weltan schauungs for Old." Janus 3, no. 1 (spring 1977): 19-21. Mackey, Douglas A. Philip K Dick. Boston: Twayne, 1988. McNelly, Willis E. "The Science Fiction Collection." In Very Special Collectiom: Essays on Library Holdings at California State University, Fullerton, edited by Albert R. Vogeler and Arthur A. Hansen, pp. 17-26. Fullerton, Calif.: Patron of the Library, 1992. McNelly, Willis E., and Sharon K. Perry. "The Manuscripts and Papers at Fullerton." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. xviii-xxiiv. "Memories and Visions: Fans and Fellow Writers Remember Philip K. Dick." New York Review of Science Fiction 70 Oune 1994): 4-7. Moddelmog, D. A. Oedipus Myth in Twentieth-Century Fiction. Ph.D. dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1985. (DAl 46: 3341A) Moorcock, Michael. "Real Ideas of Philip K. Dick." Vector 39 (April 1966): 7-14. Mota, Jose M. "Media, Messages, and Myths: Three Fictionists for the Near Future." In Stonn Warnings: Science Fiction Confronts the Future, edited by George E. Slusser, pp. 84-93. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1987 Mullen, R. D., ed. On Philip K Dick: 40 Articles from ''Science-Fiction Studies, Terre Haute, IN: SF-TH Inc., 1992. Nelson, Ray F. "A Dream of Amerasia." In Philip K Dick, edited by D. Scott Apel, pp.131-41. ---. "Philip K. Dick and the Two Bookstores." PKDS Newsletter 26 (April 1991): 1-4. Pagetti, Carlo. "Dick and Meta-SF." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mul len, pp. 18-25. Palmer, Christopher. "Critique and Fantasy in Two Novels by Philip K. Dick." Extrapolation 32, no. 3 (fall 1991): 222-34. ---. "Philip K. Dick and the Nuclear Family." In Philip K Dick, edited by Samuel]. Umland, pp. 61-80. ---. "Posrrnodernism and the Birth of the Author in VALIS." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 265-74. Also appeared in ScienceFiction Studies 18, no. 3 (November 1991): 330-42. All Uverpool Univ. Press books, including Westphal's The Mechanics of Wonder, reviewed in the April issue, are available from International SpeCialized Book Services, Pon/and, OR, 800944-6/90, , www.isbs. com. The Westphal book is $44.95 cloth, $23.95 trade paper. The correa ISBN for the paper edition is 0-85323573-2 (not -537-2). 9-1 I, 1999: Readereon II, Waltham, Mass.; Readercon, Box 381246, Cambridge, MA 022381246; August 20-22, 1999: Conueopial NASFIC '99, Anaheim, Calif.; ConucupialNASFIC '99, c/o S.C.I.F.I. Inc, Box 8442, Van Nuys, CA 91409; September 2-6, 1999: Aussieeon 311999 Worldeon, Melbourne, Australia; Aussicon 3, GPO Box 12121<, Melbourne VIC 300 I or Box 688, Prospea Heights, IL 600700688; November 4-7, 1999: World Fantasy Convention, Providence, R.I.; WFC, Box 1010, Framingham, MA 01 701; May 11-14,2000: World Horror Con, Denver, Colo.; WHC2000 Inc., Box 32 167, Aurora, CO 800412/67; ?, 2000: SFRA, Cleveland, Ohio May 24-27, 2001: SFRA, Scheneaady, N. Y.; SFRA 2001, Box 2085, Albany, NY 12220-0085;


80 DaYt. G. Hamrell 1 MtHon T. WoK, e.Uors A definitive classroom reading anthology of modern SF endorsed by the Science Fiction Research Association David G. Hartwell. award-winning anthologist. and Professor Milton T. Wolf. past Vice President of the Sci ence Fiction Research Association. present a carefully selected reading anthology reflecting the SF field in all its modern diversity. Here are Golden Age writers like John W. Campbell and Jack Williamson, and here also are towering latter-day titans like Gene Wolfe and Ursula K. te Guin, along with up-to-the-minute popular writers such as Greg Bear, Robert Jordan, and Vernor Vinge. 800 pages. Paperback: $24.95 (0-312-85287-8) Hardcover: $35.00 (0-312-86224-5) Tor Books 175 Fifth Ave. New York, NY 100 I 0 A portion of this book's royalties sup ports the Science Fiction Research Association. Note: The October issue of the Review will include a feature on teaching with the Visions of Wonder anthology, an outgrowth of a panel on that subject at the Mobile conference. Parkinson, Bob. "Greater Than Heinlein." Speculation 21 (February 1%9): 12-14. Perez, Dan. "Dan O'Bannon Brings Philip K. Dick's Nightmare Visions to Life in Screamers." Science Fiction Age 3, no. 6 (1995): 18-22, 10 l. "Philip K. Dick." Books Are Everything 3, no. 3 (winter 1990): 14-25. "Philip K. Dick Congress." Locus 19, no. 12 (December 1986): 19. "Philip K. Dick: The Greatest Novels." New York Review of Science Fiction 70 Gune 1994): 1,3-4. "Philip K. Dick Made My Brother a Drug Addict." PKDS Newsletter 11 (May 1986): 10-1 I. "Philip K. Dick: The Mainstream Novels." New York Review of Science Fiction 74 (October 1994): 12-18. "Philip K. Dick Told FBI Disch Novel Contained Codes." Science Fiction Chroni cle 15, no. 4 (February 1994): 6. "Philip K. Dick Weekend." Locus 28, no. 1 Ganuary 1992): 39. Philmus, Robert M. "The Two Faces of Philip K. Dick." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 246-56. Also appeared in Science-Fiction Studies 18, no. 1 (March 1991): 91-103. Pierce, Hazel. "Philip K. Dick." In Facts on File Bibliography of American Fiction 1919-1988, edited by Matthew J. Bruccoli, pp. 146-49. New York: Facts on File, 199I. Pinsky, Michael. Paradise Deferred: Autobiography as Metaphor and the Effacement of Structure in Philip K Dick. Master's thesis, University of South Florida, 1992. "P. K. Dick's Flow My Tears ... To Be Performed in NYc." Science Fiction Chronicle 9, no. 9 Gune 1988): 5. Powers, Tim. "Death of Philip K. Dick." PDKS Newsletter 3 (April 1984): 3-4. ---. "Some Random Notes on VALIS and Philip K. Dick's Mystical Experi ences." PDKS Newsletter 4 (September 1984): 5-6. ---. "Some Random Memories of Philip K. Dick." PDKS Newsletter 2 (December 1983): 2-3. Pringle, David. "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? by Philip K. Dick (1968)." In Science Fiction: The 100 Best Novels, pp. 129-30. ---. "Dr. Bloodmoney by Philip K. Dick (1965)." In Science Fiction: The 100 Best Novels, pp. 113-14. ---. "Man in the High Castle by Philip K. Dick (1962)." In Science Fiction: The 100 Best Novels, pp. 93-94. ---. "Martian Time-Slip, by Philip K. Dick (1964)." In Science Fiction: The 100 Best Novels, pp. 105-106. ---. "Three Stigmata o/Palmer Eldritch by Philip K. Dick (1964)." In Science Fiction: The 100 Best Novels, pp. 107-8. ---. Science Fiction: The 100 Best Novels. New York: Carroll and Graf, 1985. ---. "Time Out of Joint by Philip K. Dick (1959)." In Science Fiction: The 1 00 Best Novels, pp. 75-76. Rabkin, Eric S. "Irrational Expectations: Or, How Economics and the Post Industrial World Failed Philip K. Dick." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 178-87. Also appeared in Science-Fiction Studies 15, no.2 Guly 1988): 161-72. "The Religious Visions of Philip K. Dick." New York Review of Science Fiction 77 Ganuary 1995): 12-16. Reynolds, J. B. "PKDS Interview with Tessa B. Dick (and Christopher Dick)." PKDS Newsletter 13 (February 1987): 2-9 Rickman, Gregg. "Dick, Deception, and Dissociation: A Comment on 'The Two Faces of Philip K. Dick.'" In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp.262-64.


---. "The Nature of Dick's Fantasies." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 275-77. ---. "Phil's Cats." PKDS Newsletter 15 (August 1987): 12. ---. To the High Castle; Philip K Dick: A Life. Long Beach, Calif.: Fragments West, 1989. ---. '''What Is This Sickness?': 'Schizophrenia' and We Can Build You." In Philip K Dick, edited by Samuel J. Umland, pp.143-56. Rickman, Gregg, ed. Philip K Dick: In His Own Words. Long Beach, Cali: Fragments West, 1988. Rieder, John. "The Metanctive World of The Man in the High Castle: Hermeneutics, Ethics, and Political Ideology." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 223-31. Also appeared in Science-Fiction Studies 15, no. 2 Guly 1988): 214-25. Roberts, Hal. "Philip Kindred Dick: A Checklist of U.S. and British Paperbacks." Books Are Everything 3, no. 4 (winter 1990): 14-25 Robinson, Kim S. "Afterword to Philip K. Dick's VALIS." Thrust 31 (summer 1988): 13-15, 30. ---. "Dick and SF Scholarship: Whose Failure of Scholarship?" In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 125-26. ---. The Novels of Philip K Dick. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, San Diego, 1982. (DAI-A 43/03, p. 803. 1982.) Also appeared as revision of thesis, Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press, 1984. Rucker, Rudy. "Philip K. Dick Lives." PDKS Newsletter 4 (September 1984): 12-13. Sauter, Doris E. "Past Is Present: A Review of Theatre ofN.O.T.E.'s; Radio Free Albemuth." PKDS Newsletter 26 (April 1991): 5-8. Silverberg, Robert. "Philip K. Dick: A Premature Memoir." In Reflections and Reftactions: Thoughts on Science Fiction, Science, and Other Matters, pp. 267-71. Grass Valley, Calif.: Underwood Books, 1997. Reprinted from Philip K Dick: The Last Testament, 1985. ---. "Philip K. Dick: The Short Fiction." In Reflections and Reftactions: Thoughts on Science Fiction, Science, and Other Matters, pp. 272-81. Grass Valley, Cali: Underwood Books, 1997. Reprinted from Amazing Stories Anthology, 1996. Slusser, George E. "Dick and SF Scholarship: Scholars and Pedants." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 127-28. ---. "History, Historicity, Story." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 199-222. Also appeared in ScienceFiction Studies 15, no. 2 Guly 1988): 187-214. Spinelli, Ernesto. "Philip K. Dick and the Philosophy of Uncertainty." PKDS Newsletter 28 (March 1992): 19-22. Spinrad, Norman. "The Transmogrification of Philip K. Dick." In Science Fiction in the Real World, pp. 198-216. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1990. Stableford, Brian. "The Creators of Science Fiction, 4: Philip K. Dick." Interzone 101 (November 1995): 54-57. ---. "Little Victories: The Heartfelt Fiction of Philip K. Dick." In Outside the Human Aquarium: Masters of Science Fiction, pp. 99-107. San Bernardino, Calif.: Borgo, 1995. Stanley, John. "The Fantastic Life of an Ordinary Man, Philip K. Dick." San Francisco (Calif) Chronicle, September 19, 1993, Datebook, pp. 27-30 Stephens, Christopher P. A Checklist of Philip K Dick. Revised ed. Hastings-on-Hudson: Ultramarine, 1991. Stephensen-Payne, Phil, and Gordon Benson, Jr. Philip Kindred Dick: Metaphysical Conjurer, A Working Bibliography. 3rd rev. ed. Albuquerque, N.M.: Galactic Central, 1990. ---. Philip Kindred Dick: Metaphysical Conjurer, a Working Bibliography. 4th rev. ed. Albuquerque, N.M.: Galactic Cen tral, 1995. Stilling, Roger J. "Mystical Healing: Reading Philip K. Dick's VALIS and The Divine Invasion as Metapsychoanalytical Nov els." South Atlantic Review 56, no. 2 (May 1991): 91-106. Sudbery, Tony. "What Do They See in Philip K. Dick." Speculation 29 (October 1971): 26-28. Sutherland, Dan. "Notes from a Low-Budget Stage Director." PKDS Newsletter 22/23 (December 1989): 3-4. Sutin, Lawrence. "Confessions of a Philip K. Dick Biographer." PKDS Newsletter 22/23 (December 1989): 1-3. ---. Divine Invasions: A Life of Philip K Dick. New York: Harmony Books, 1990. Sutin, Lawrence, ed. The Shifting Realities of Philip K Dick: Selected Literary and Philosophical Writings. New York: Pantheon, 1995. Suvin, Darko. "The Opus: Artifice as Refuge and World View (Introductory Reflections)." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 2-15.


"The 'Tagalore' Letter." In Philip K Dick, edited by D. Scott Apel, pp. 290-94. Taylor, John W. "Entering the World of Philip K. Dick" Tales of the Unanticipated! (fall 1986): 7-9. Teissl, Verena. "Der rod in drei asugewolten phantastischen texten der Moderne." Quarber Merkur 33, no. 2 (December 1995): 34-46. [Whole number 84.J "Theodore Sturgeon on Philip Dick." In Philip K Dick, edited by D. Scott Apel, pp. 288-89. Tiptree, James, Jr. "A Genius Darkly: A Letter to Ted White on Philip K. Dick." New York Review of Science Fiction 63 (November 1993): 16. Tolley, Michael J. "Collected Stories of Philip K. Dick.." Australian Science Fiction Review 3, no. 5 (September 1988): 24-30. [Whole number 16.] ---. "Some Kinds of Life: An Account of Volume Two of the Collected Stories of Philip K. Dick: Second Variety." Australian Science Fiction Review 5, no. 2 (winter 1990): 6-17. [Whole number 24.] Trokhachev, Sergei. "Escape to The High Castle." Radio Free P.KD. 5 (August 1995): 1,9-11. Truchlar, Leo. "Philip K. Dick, Ubik (1969)." In Der Science Fiction Roman in der angloamerikanischen Literatur: Interpretationen, edited by Harmut Heuermann, pp. 315-30. Dusseldorf Bagel, 1986. Tumey, Paul C. "The First Annual Philip K. Dick Convention: Opening Address." New York Review of Science Fiction 70 a LIne 1994): 1, 3--4. Turan, Kenneth. "Blade Runner 2." Radio Free P.KD. 1 (February 1993): 2-3, 9. Umland, Rebecca A. "Unrequited Love in We Can Build You." In Philip K Dick, edited by Samuel J. Umland, pp. 127--42. Umland, Samuel J. "'Faith of Our Fathers': A Comparison of the Original Manuscript with the Published Text." PKDS News-letter 29 (September 1992): 12-14. ---. Introduction. In Philip K Dick, edited by Samuel J. Umland, pp. 1-6. ---. "To Flee from Dionysus: Euthousiasmos from 'Upon the Dull Earth' to VALIS." In Philip K Dick, edited by Samuel J. Umland, pp. 81-100. Umland, Samuel J., ed. Philip K Dick: Contemporary Critical Interpretatiom. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1995. "VALIS: The Opera." PKDS Newsletter 15 (August 1987): 1-3. "Vintage Philip K. Dick." Locus 25(2): 4. August 1990. Warrick, Patricia S. "The Encounter of Taoism and Fascism in The Man in the High Castle." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 74-79. ---. "In Memory of Philip K. Dick." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 80-91. ---. Mind in Motion: The Fiction of Philip K Dick. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Press, 1987. Warrick, Patricia S., and Martin H. Greenberg. Robots, Androids, and Mechanical Oddities: The Science Fiction of Philip K Dick. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1986. Watson, Andy. "Music Based on PKD." PKDS Newsletter 18 (August 1988): 9. ---. "PKDS Interview with Tim Powers and James P. Blaylock." PDKS Newsletter 5 (December 1983): 3-5, 12-13. Watson, Ian. "Le Guin's Lathe of Heaven and the Role of Dick: The False Reality as Mediator." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 63-72. Wessel, Karl. "Worlds of Chance and Counterfeit: Dick, Lem, and the Preestablished Cacophony." In Philip K Dick, edited by Samuel J. Umland, pp. 43-60. Williams, Paul. "Author and the Oracle." PKDS Newsletter 25 (December 1990): 1-10. ---. "Introduction to Wilkommen in der Wirklichkeit." PKDS Newsletter 18 (August 1988): 4-5. ---. Only Apparently Real: The World of Philip K Dick. New York: Arbor House, 1986. ---. Philip K Dick in Conversation; Philip K Dick Alone: Notes for Work-in-Progress. Glen Ellen, Calif: Philip K. Dick Society, 1985. Audiocassette, 90 min. [PKDS Newsletter 9110.] Wilson, Robert A. "Afterwards." In Philip K Dick, edited by D. Scott Apel, pp. 255-80. ---. "Return of Philip K. Dick." Magical Blend 18 (February-April 1988): 41--44. Wolfe, Gaty K. "Not Quite Coming to Terms." In On Philip K Dick, edited by R. D. Mullen, pp. 237-39. Wolk, Anthony. "The Swiss Connection: Psychological Systems in the Novels of Philip K. Dick." In Philip K Dick, edited by SamuelJ. Umland, pp. 101-26. Wright, H. Stephen. Philip K Dick: A Secondary Bibliography, 1960-1983. DeKalb, Ill.: Wright, 1987. Zajac, Ronald J. The Dystopian City in British and United States Science Fiction, 1960-1975: Urban Chronotopes as Models of Historical Closure. Master's Thesis, McGill University, 1992. (Master's Abstracts 31/03, p. 1020, fall 1993.) Zelazny, Roger. "Musings from Melbourne." PKDS Newsletter 16 Oanuary 1988): 2--4.


Zhu, Jianjiong. "Reality, Fiction, and Wu in The Man in the High Castle." In Stateo/the Fantastic, edited by Nicholas Rud dick, pp. 107-114. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1992. Also appeared in Journal o/the Fantastic in the Arts 5, no. 3 (1993): 36-45. [Whole number 19.] THE LAND THAT TIME FORGOT Donald Gi/zinger, Jr. Burroughs; Edgar Rice. The Land that Time Forgot. Introduction by Mike Resnick. Illustrations by J. Allen St. John. Lincoln: University Nebraska Press, 1999. [xiv] + 428 pages. Paper. $14.95. ISBN: 0-8032-6154-3. Edgar Rice Burroughs seems to be undergoing a sort of renaissance. Consider the new biography by John Taliaferro, Tarzan Forever: The Life o/Edgar Rice Burroughs, Creator o/Tarzan (Scribners, 1999), the Disney animated Tarzan due this summer, and the fact that most of his major series (the Tarzan, John Carter on Mars, Pellucidar, and Venus novels) have never been out of print. Even an establishment writer like Gore Vidal admits, in "Tarzan Revisited" (Esquire, December 1963), that Burroughs has "a gift very few writers of any kind possess: he can describe action vividly" and thus can tell a ripping good story. So it is a pleasure to discover that the University of Nebraska Press has reissued The Land that Time Forgot in a hand some trade paperback edition (at a fair price) including reproductions of the original J. Allen St. John illustrations and a text apparently photo-offset from the plates of the 1924 edinon. The novel, which is a compilation of threeshort novels Burroughs-wrote during 1917-1918: "The Lost U-.. Boat" (renamed "The Land that Time Forgot"), "Cor-Sva-Jo" (renamed "The People that Time Forgot"), and "Out of Time's Abyss," possesses the most science fictional edifice of any Burroughs story. The undiscovered, dinosaur-infested island of Caprona in the south Pacific, to which the main characters travel in a hijacked German U-boat, is the site of a unique evolu.. tionary cmvironment based on nineteenth-century misinterpretations of Darwin. On Caprona, humanity evolves from eggs laid by humans in pools of primordial water, first as tadpoles and then through various species including fish, amphibians, and reptiles. Those individuals fortunate enough to continue to evolve ultimately pass through seven ascending stages of humanity, from the apdike Ho-Iu to the most highly advanced Galu. Some Galu women develop the ability to reproduce through live birth,. thereby breaking the cycle oflinear development from tadpole to human. If this system sounds confusing, it may be be cause Burroughs himself is not exactly clear about how it works, although he valiantly attempts to explain its mechanism on pages 349-52. The advantage of this text for those planning to include Burroughs in a course is that, unlike his more famous series, The Land that Time Forgot is a stand-alone novel and does not require prequel-sequel contextualization. The text's apparatus includes a comprehensive glossary, a reproduction of Burroughs's handwritten "Map ofCaspak on the Island of Capron a," and an enthusiastic, but too brief, introduction by Mike Resnick. Furthermore, the novel is vintage Burroughs, filled with larger-than-life heroic protagonists, damsels in distress, fearsome opponents, physical struggle, ever-present danger, a well.. imagined exotic setting, and the traditional Burroughsian racial and ethnic stereotyping. In other words, it displays his narra tive strengths as well as his customary limitations concerning issues of gender, race, and class. When he died at age seventy-five in 1950, Burroughs had sold over 35 million hardcover copies of his works in the United States alone, left an estate valued at more than $10 million, and named a town in California after his favorite character, Tarzana (ZIP code 91357-9999). He had also created the archetype for heroic fantasy that flourishes in many different forms to this day. That longevity attests to the universality of his characters, plots, and themes and to Burroughs's skill as a storyteller. The Land that Time Forgot is a suitable yet revealing introduction to his oeuvre THE CONQUEROR'S CHILD Michael Levy Charnas, Suzy McKee. The Conqueror's Child. New York: Tor, June 1999. 384 pages. ISBN: 0-312-85719-5. Ursula K. Le Guin's The Left Hand o/Darkness (1969) may have been published first, but when Suzy McKee Char nas's dystopian nightmare Walk to the End a/the World appeared in 1974, followed in short order by Joanna Russ's The Female Man (1975) and Marge Piercy's Woman on the Edge o/Time (1976), the science fiction community knew for certain that


it was in the midst of an angry feminist revolution. The Holdfast, as Charnas described it in that first novel, was perhaps the most gruesomely misogynistic civilization ever depicted in or out of the genre. Mother/ines, published four yearsIater, continued the author's exploration orthis postapocalyptic world but centered. its narrative upon the neighboring civilizations of the Riding Women and the Free Ferns. Charnas intended to continue the series more or Iessimmediatdy by sending her protago nist, Alldera, back to the Holdfast, but found herself unable to write the novel .. It was simply too hard., too painfuL Years passed and the author turned to other types of fiction. Then, fin.alIy, she wrote The Furies (1994), one of the most long awaited sequels in the history of the genre. Now, ill The Conqueror's Child, Charnas brings her classic SF series to a con.clusion. When A1ldera led her conquering army of Free Ferns back to the Holdfast, she left her daughter, Sorrel, with the Riding Women, and her daughter has never forgiven her for this. Grown to adulthood, Sorrel resents having been abandoned and resents never having been sent for; she is further embittered by her inability to conceive a child parthenogenetically in the manner of the Riding Women, by mating with her horse. Eventually she leaves the Riding Women, carrying with her an adopted boy child, the son of a dead Free Fern. The Furies dealt in detail with the retribution visited upon the Holdfast by the avenging Free Ferns and their setting up of an almost equally repulsive female-dominated society on the remains of the old male-controlled civilization. Several years have passed since that time, and things have hardly improved at all. The men are still held as slaves used primarily for procrea tion or as beasts of burden. Some people of both sexes want something better, though, including both AIldera and her old lover and nemesis, Daya, the pet Fern. Male and female anger remains high, and any number of new revolutions may be brew ing in the Holdfast. Then things are brought to a head by the sudden return of the charismatic and wily D Layo, an unconquered man worshipped as the Sunbear by the enslaved men of the Holdfast. D Layo may in fact be Sorrel's father as a result of his rape, many years ago, of A1ldera. Although Charnas does not hesitate to show many of her men and a few of her women as severely Hawed, she never stoops to stereotypes or the simplistic depiction of personalities. Her characters, both major and minor; are people with complex, contradictory, and often rather messy motives behind their actions. Sorrel, Alldera, the librarian Eykar (another candidate for Sorrel's father), D Layo, and Dayaareall intensely believable, Further, Charnas avoids providing easy solutions to the almost insurmountable problems facing the women and men of the Holdfast. Nor does she minimize-the enormous pain, anger, and hatred felt by both sexes. Any real trust between men and women is still a long way off, but by the end of the novel, a few honest gestures have been made in both directions and there is a sense that some sort of improvement is at least possible in the future. The Conqueror's Child is a well-written, honest, and ferocious novel and represents Charnas at the height of her pow ers. People who hated the first three books in the series won't like this one any better, but there is much here of value. I strongly recommend this book to anyone who appreciates serious and morally challenging science fiction ::til ...4.. SPEAKING STONES Michael Levy Leigh, Stephen. Speaking Stones. New York: Avon Eos, 1999. 330 pages. ISBN: 0-380-79914-6. Stephen Leigh's Dark Water's Embrace was one of the major surprises of 1998, a paperback original sold at a cut-rate price and sporting a hideous cover that turned out to be an enormously intelligent planetary adventure featuring well developed characters, a nicely thought-out alien civilization, solid writing, and the fascinating depiction of the development of a third human sex. I still haven't figured out why the book wasn't taken more setiouslyas a candidate for the Dick and Tiptree : awards. Now, in Speaking Stones, Leigh has created a worthy sequel to that earlier novel. A hundred years have passed since Anais Koda-Levin, the first human mid-male, or Sa; discovered the truth about ker own sexuality and the vital role ke and those like ker would play in preserving humanity from genetic mutation on the planet Mictlan's highly radioactive surface. In this time, human beings, with human Sa help, have reproduced with increasing success. Equally important, the planet's native intelligent species, the Miccail; once degenerated to little more than animals be cause of the mass suicide of their own third sex, have, with Anais's help, regained their Sa and recovered much of their civiliza tion. Interactions between the two species are tense, however. Despite the development of ajoint Human-Miccail religion and culture based around the Sa, many of the old human families still hold to their traditional hatred of both the indigenous race, whom they regard as little more than animals, and the human Sa, whose necessary participation in human reproduction


they see-as a: perversion. The tension gains crisis status when a: two-year-old human Sa; born to the Allen-Shimmura family, the elan-most hostile to both the Miccail and the entire idea of the Sa, is kidnapped and later found dead. The QualiKa, a militant "Mictlan for the Miccail" group; is suspected of having committed the-murder, and the Allen-Shimmura family or ders reprisals that are in turn met with more violence by the-QualiKa; As events begin to spiral out of control, Caitlyn Koda Schmidt, a young human Sa-of no very obvious talent, finds herself serving in the role of detective, working frantically to un cover the truth behind the murder and end the violence before it becomes genocidal. Leigh's Mictlan is a fascinating world and the various human and Miccail cultures are both well developed and highly believable. His-characters; regardless of their species or their sexual apparatus are intensely human, given to making errors and capable of born love and hatred. Even his-villains are well rounded. Although 1 would recommend reading Dark Waters Em brace first (ami in fact going out of your way to find it), Speaking Stones stands on its own as one of the better planetary advenSLAUGHTERtiATIC Michael Levy Aylett, Steve. Slaughtermatic. New York: Four Walls Eight Wmdows, 1998. 153 pages, $13.95. ISBN 1-56858-103-3 In Clute and Nicholls' Encyclopedia o/Science Fiction, when Damien Broderick writes "Postmodernism is usually held to-imply showy. playfulness, genre-bending, and denial of neat aesthetic or moral wrap-up," he could well have been describing Steve Aylett's hilariously funny, ever-so-noir first novel Slaughtermatic. Set in the bloody twenty-first century city of Beerlight, "where to kill a man was less a murder than a mannerism ... [and] Crime was. the new and only art form," where the cops -consiOer_ ii:. their duty to. kill as many bystanders as. possible hefore bringing in. the guilty, or better yet, the innocent (since, after all, everyone is guilty of something), Slaughtermatic tells the tale of Dante Cubit, the Entropy Kid, and Rosa Control, three ._ inept, sadomasochistic crooks out to rob a bank. Things go wrong from the very beginning of the heist, when the Kid gets distracted filling out a euthanasia release form and Dante finds himself trapped in an argument with a bank teller over whose money he'll actually be stealing. Then there's the time lock on the vault, which is set to throw anyone with the wrong combination twenty minutes into the future, where they'Ualready be cuffed and surrounded by cops. Finally, there are the guns, dozens of different kinds, all described in loving, fetishistic detail: guns that will only shoot people who deserve to be shot; guns that will only shoot African Americans; .. guns designed to zero in on your target but also take out a randomly selected bystander or two as well. There isn't really a lot oflogic to Aylett's plot, and the cartoon violence isn't really designed to promote suspense. : What counts here is the deliciously overblown language, full of metaphors gone bad and twisted, malapropisms, and allusions to the Divine Comedy, early twentieth-century science fiction, and a wide range of other literature. Although Slaughtermatic is unlikely to appeal to mainstream SF readers, it should tickle the funnybone of anyone who likes Kurt Vonnegut, Jeff Noon, Jonathan Lethem or, for that matter, The Goon Show. -Il10: !II;' i.: .) DEEP TitlE Joan Canty Benford, Gregory. Deep Time: How Humanity Communicates across Millennia. New York: Avon, February 1999. 225 p. $20; 0-380-97537-8. The title of Benford's first nonfiction book is misleading: only-the first two parts of this speculative potpourri actually discuss human communication, and these sections are Benford at his best. A noted writer-of hard SF and a distinguished re" search physicist at the University of California-Irvine campus, Benford expands the concepts of communication across timeand with aliens-that are central to many of his novels, such as the award-winning Timescape (1980). He outlines in part 1 the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP), which involved the "deep time" task of both safely containing nuclear waste and successfully warning humans over millennia to avoid the containment area. Part 2 discusses the semiotic problems of human-alien communication he dealt with in the Cassiniproject. The focus of the book then switches to ecological concerns-our legacy to future generations. Part 3, based on a 1992 paper he published, calls for the establish_ ment of a Library of Life in which genomes of biological species would be frozen in order to preserve biodiversity. He proposes


in part 4 technological solutions to global warming. Benford's book is unique in that no other nonfiction work I know of has combined such a diverse set ofissues relat ing to long-term human communication and the impact of technology on the earth. Similar in approach, ifnot in scope, are Freeman Dyson'slmagined Worlds (Harvard, 1997),Jonathan Schell's The Fate of the Earth (Avon, amiEdwarclO. Wllson's The Diversity of Life (Harvard, 1992). Despite its interdisciplinary approach, its excellent illustrations, and its exploration of the multifaceted concerns of communicating through time, the book jacket's promise that-Deep TFme will address "the why and how of truly deep iSsues" is. only partially fulfilled. Although he discusses in detail deep time matters, Benford gives short shrift to the ethical issues m volved in human projects. Addressing the problems caused by technology, he labels as "puritans" those concerned with chang: ing human behavior, and contrasts them with the "prophets," scientists such as he who propose expedient technologicalsolu tions. In this stance he is opposed by Dyson, Schell, and Wilson, among others. Benford's writing style is uneven; each section is a mixture of reflection, scientific evidence, speculation, and narra tive. Besides the four parts, the book features an introduction and afterword, followed by end notes that are ordered by section but that do not refer to page numbers. The notes are difficult to follow, especially given the lack of a formal bibliography, and the index is scanty. Benford mentions a forthcoming book by Jon Lomberg, a fellow collaborator on the WIPP and Cassini projects, which will take a different approach to deep time concerns; it will be interesting to compare the two texts. Deep Time is suitable for public and academic libraries. The educated nonspecialist reader might wish to seek a more balanced perspective on the multiple issues involved in preserving the legacy of Earth. Additional readings to this end might include Dyson and certain publications recommended by the Union of Concern Scientists that promote workabksocialand political action. IIIr:: e..-: -II.': i;:' :..: ... ..) FANTASY COMMENTATOR Neil Barron Searles, A. Langley. Fantasy Commentator (periodiCal finzine). $5 from Searles, 48 Highland Circle, BroDXYille, NY 10708-5909 ($5.75 outside the U.SA); eight-issue subscription. $35 ($41: foreign). A. Langley Searles, a retired professor of chemistry, has been publishing his fanzine since 1943, with some lengthy gaps. Officially irregular, issues surface roughly yearly. Issue 5 I, dated fall 1998; appeared last April in its familiar 8Y2 x 11-inch format, offset ftom typescript; no word processor or PC here. Fantasy Commentator tends to look back at SF and fantasy, and this issue is no exception. Although Pilgrim award-winner Sam Moskowitz died in April 1997, he's prominent in this issue, in his first of sev eral parts describing the return of Gernsback in 1953 with Science-Fiction Plus, which Sam edited for its seven issues. Another thirteen pages of reminiscence is devoted to his life and work in letters from Mike Ashley to Gary Wolfe. Darrell Richardson profiles Oswald Train (1915-1988), active as an early fan in the Philadelphia area and later a publisher (Prime Press and Os wald Train: Publisher). A mail interview of Neil Barron by Ev Bleiler provides biographical details and a discussion of the evo lution of the four editions of Anatomy of Wonder and SF scholarship generally. Barron adds a two-page addendum, "The Ero sion of Wonder," tracing the reasons for his general estrangement from SF. Verse and book reviews complete the issue. 4:6: .) MUP ENCYCLOPEDIA Neil Barron Collins, Paul, Steven Paulsen, and Sean McMullen, eds. The MUP Encyclopaedia of Australian Science Fiction. Melbourne University Press, Box 278,268 Drummond Street, Victoria 3053, Australia; distributed by Paul and Co., Box 442, Concord, MA 01742, 1998. xvi + 188 p. Aus/U.S. $39.95. 0-522-84771-4; AuslU.S. $29.95, trade pa per, -84802-8. Peter Nicholls, an expatriate in the U.SA and UK for two decades 0%8-1988) and now a resident of ViCtoria, well knows the perils faced by editors of encyclopedias, and engagingly recounts them in an informative foreword. Nicholls ven-


tured. a rough guess. of 90,000. books of SF and. fantasy published. in English to date, of which. perhaps 2,000 were written. by Australians,. even if some have been expatriates for decades,. such. as. John Brosnan. or Cherry Wilder. Australia is defined as Australasia, to include New Zealand and Tasmania. Collins was assisted by two editors, a bibliographic consultant {Graham Stone), and fourteen contributors. Coverage includes SF andfantasy, with an essay on dark fantasy, but "straight" horror is The encyclopedia is multiculturally correct and contains an entry on indigl;:nous mythology, which explores the folklore of Aboriginal Australians. The largest number of entries by far are for authors, including many cross-references from pseudonyms. I suspect even a widely read North American reader of SF/F wouldn't recognize even 10 percent of them, especially if their works were published only in Australia. Even a well-read Australian reader will find many unfamiliar names. A typical entry shows year of birth (and death), where born, a brief biographical sketch, and a list of SF/F works (identified as novel, collection, or anthol ogy), including a commendably thorough coverage of children's and young adult fiction. Unlike the Encyclopedia o/Science Fiction, short fiction, its sources, and later reprints is also shown. Editor Collins's entry shows his many edited works, a dozen books (some nonfantastic), and almost three columns of short fiction, listed chronologically. The bibliographies begin with 1950, but one of the seventeen subject entries is early Australian Science Fiction and fantasy, the five pages of which provide a useful historical perspective; (Richard Bleiler's roughly equivalent overview in the 1993 Encyclopedia o/Science Fiction takes two pages-but extends its coverage to the present;) Authors discussed in the subject entries which have their own entries are identified by having their surnames in capi tal letters, but others do not; This absence of cross references to such authors, which would have added only a few pages of the book, is the-only significant weakness of the encyclopedia; Non-Australians should find the recent general encyclopedias of SF and fantasy by Nicholls and Clute more than adequate, but this attractively designed and comprehensive survey is an essential supplement and should be considered by .. those few libraries collecting intensively in this field. .) TIME PIECES Ed Higgins Bishop. Michael Time Pieces .. Edgewood Press, Box 380264, Cambridge, MA 02238, 1998.90 p. $12, trade paper. 0-9629066-7-0. If you're a fast Michael Bishop fan, you'll want this attractively presented collection of forty-nine poems, thirty-five previously published, ranging. from '70s stuff to more recent offerings. But if you're a modest reader of Bishop's quite respect able novels and short stories, you'll likely find him less engaging as a poet than as a prose craftsman. Still, there are nuggets of poetic reward if one moderates the expectation of his established reputation in SF and horror fiction. Many of the poems have been published in all the right SF poetry places, from Star*line to The Magazine o/Specula tive Poetry and others. The collection saves you the trouble of having to search for a remembered piece in a hard to recover 'zine or anthology. Not all the poems are SF or speculative pieces. The poems remind me of the nursery-rhyme girl with the curl in the middle of her forehead: when she was good she was really good, and when she was bad she was horrid. When he's good, as in the 1979 Rhysling award-winner "For the Lady of the Physicist," Bishop is at humorous and parodic heights, keying off MarveIl's "To His Coy Mistress" with charming wit as "In rapturous dance, loin to loin, I Deep space itself would seen discern / Galactic rhythm in our burn." A sardonic humor pervades the fine postapocalypse "lth"Coro," where "the earth in ruins, the oceans like magenta slime, / bones of bridges fossilized in quartzite" reveal an alien archeologist discovering and deciphering a toothbrush logo. Far too many poems, however, are bad, flat as crafr, preachy in theme. "To a Chimp Held Captive for Purposes of Research," for example, is awkwardly driven by the impulse to propagandize and reform. Whatever your leaning toward lab primates, there's only maudlin sentimentality in "But that you do possess an upward-yearning / Spirit that might have stood / In the same nearness to mine as Shakespeare's-/ Given but love an hypnosis-led learning." I regularly include a section on SF poetry in my SF course. Although lwouldn't want Bishop's entire volume there, I'm glad to discover several of his collected pieces I didn't know before and would want to have students also discover them. One back cover blurb lacks the poems as "undimmed brilliance by a acknowledged master of the genre." Such unpoetic hy perbole would better apply to Bishop's more acknowledged prose storytelling. Overall, not bad, but unless decidedly curious or a devoted fan, be prepared for a more chaff than undimmed wheat.


... .J ICON RE Briney Frazetta, Frank. Icon: A Retrospective by the GrandMizster of Fantastic Art, ed. Arnie and Cathy Fenner. Underwood Books, Box 1609, Grass Valley, CA 95945, April 1998. xii + 163 p .. $35, trade This book celebrates the more than fifty-year career of an artist whose work essentially defined the look of mass mar ket heroic fantasy from the mid-I960s through the 1980s. It focuses mainly on Frazetta's fantasy and SF paintings (more than 70 full-page color plates are included) but also includes samples of his work in comic books and magazines, movie posters, and advertising. Also included are a foreword by Rich Berry, an introduction by James E. Bama, a biographical and career survey and appreciation, "Frank Frazetta: Master of the Fantastic" by Arnie Fenner, and "Frank Frazetta: Motion Picture and Adver tising Artist" by William Stout, plus generous commentary on most of the plates. The obvious characteristic features of Frazetta's art are on display: the opulently endowed female forms (which have for years given commentators the opportunity to use the word "steatopygous") and the brutal, heavily muscled barbarians. But also on display are the artist's humor, his sense of color, his sure draftsmanship, and a broad range of mood and atmosphere. The early watercolors for Ace Books editions of Tarzan, the sensuous "Egyptian Queen," the mood ofloss and ruin in "Atlantis Rising," and the dark, menacing portraits of The Death Dealer are all recognizably the work of the same artist, but they are very different from one another. It is natural to compare Icon with a previous survey, Frazetta: A Retrospective, published in November1994 by the Alexander Gallery in New York. This book includes only half-as many color works; but'more from other areas; schoolboy car ... toons, work from comic books and comic strips, fashion drawings, and pages from the artist's sketchbooks. For those' primarily interested in Frazetta's work in fantasy and science fiction, Icon provides a generous and well-balanced overview. It is fitting that the book was published in the same year that the artist was elected to the Society of Illustrators Hall of Fame; [Two out-ofprint editions ofIcon preceded the trade paperback: a and 52-copy lettered edition; clothbound, gold-stamped, in a slipcase, with a numbered limitation page and facsimile signature ($125); and a 100-copy leather bound edition ($300), both with art not included in the trade edition; -Ed} lirli:ea.;: ea.;: :::'t::a: .J TOUGH GIRLS Shelley Rodrigo Blanchard Inness, SherrieA. Tough Girls: Women Warriors and Wonder Women in Popular Culture. University of Pennsylvania Press, 4200 Pine Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-4011, December 1998. viii + 228 p. $47.50 hardcover, 3466-9; $19.95 trade paper, -1673-3. Inness (affiliated with the Department of English at Miami University in Ohio) has written or edited studies on women, sexuality, and popular culture such as Delinquents and Debutantes: Twentieth-Century American Girls' Cultures. Here she again flexes her critical muscles, demonstrating her attention to depth and detail with endnotes, an index, and an eighteen page works cited list, yet still leaves the reader awaiting a concrete definition of "tough" by the end of the first chapter. It's not so much that anything's missing from her definition, but she constantly reminds us that the definition changes. in time and space. I agree that the meaning of "toughness" fluctuates across space, time, and sexualized bodies. But her discussions about various tough girls are precarious because her original loose definition allows for shifting, almost contradictory assertions. Whether she's discussing the "Pseudo-Tough" Emma Peel, Charlie's Angels, the Bionic Woman, women cross" dressing in ladies' magazines, and various "lady killers" -Nikita, Ellen (The Quick and the Dead),. Thelma and Louise-or the "real" tough Jodie Foster, Gillian Anderson, Lieutenant Ripley, Captain Janeway, Sarah Connor, various comic book charac ters, and Xena, llmess repeatedly claims they all embody both "tough" and "traditional" female characteristics. After reading the chapter that first engages with "real" tough girls, I was no longer surprised by her analysis: repeatedly both "tough" and "traditional," the remaining characters support her originalloos.ely defined term. She concludes that the important fact is that tough women are becoming more common and are "helping to change how society perceives the relationship between women and toughness" (p. 178). While Inness ends optimistically, I fear her analysis leaves women a lot to worry about. She repeatedly emphasizes


how the various w.omen's as objects of male desire and as undermine their toughness. Inness argues that the textual forms of the direct-to-video film Nemesis 2, the comic book Give Me Liberty: An American Dream, and-the campy TV seriesXena, ultimately undermine die tough characters Alex, Martha Washington, and Xena, respectively-thefew women who carefully negotiated their sexuality._ This-representative argument contradicts her optimistic conclUsion, demonstrating how various popular texts subtly subvert the "progressive" tough girls. Without giving the reader a solidcienition of example of unsubverted tough girl, Iitness appears to leave the reader empty-handecL. However, the numerous, detailed examples she provides from various_ popular culture sources allow the reader to begin constructing. her own definition of a tough girl. By repeatedly pointing_out popular culture's bifurcation of tough and traditional on the female body, Inness alerts her readers to a seemingly positive advancement that also carries potentially dan gerous complacency. Although I believe Inness's loose definition partly undermines the strength and authority of her argument, she still makes a tough critical move by choosing to analyze what many still deem unworthy, unacademic, and non problematic. Since : the reader does not need to trip over tough theory, Tough Girls is a quick enough read for anyone interested in women, mascu linity, and popular culture. {Two other recent books that explore aspects a/female toughness are both by Trina Robbins: The Great Woman Superhe roes (Kitchen Sink, 1996) and From Girls to Grrrlz; A History of [Female] Comics from Teens to Zines (Chronicle Books, July 1999); -Ed] : .) DRACULA Joan Gordon Miller, Elizabeth, ed. Dracula: The Shade and the Shadow; Papers Presented at "'Dracula 97, a-Centenary Celebration at Los-Angeles, August 1997; A Cntica/Anthology. Desert Island Books, 89 Park Street, Westcliff-on-Sea, Essex SSO 7PD, UK, 1998-.256 p' ,99. 1-874287-10-4. Distributed by Firebird Distributing, 1945 P Street, Eureka, CA 95501, $29,95. This conference was one of a range of events commemorating the centenary of the publication of Stoker's novel, Dracula. Three-fourths of its-twenty papers deal with sources-and influences, largely historical rather than literary. All are quite short, unexpanded from presentation length, and the volume has no index. For these three reasons alone, it is unlikely to be come the sourcebook for scholars of the novel that Margaret Carter's Dracula: The Vampire and His Critics (1988) and Carol Senf's The Critical Response to Dracula (1993) have become. Nevertheless, the volume offers some interesting observations about sources and a few insights into the text itself. The essays are consistently lucid and exhibit evidence of Miller's careful editing. After Miller's brief, graceful, but simply descriptive introduction, and an equally brief but stimulating essay by Nina Auerbach that asks why we're "giving Dracula a birthday party at all" (p. 23), the five sections follow: "Dracula and the Ger. mans," "Dracula and the Victocians,""Dracula-dieText," "The Historical Dracula," and "Dracula-New Perspectives." The contributors range from the obscure to the famous (Radu Florescu, Clive Le.atherdale) and include both Europeans and North Americans. Generally, the approaches are quite conservative; most of the essays could have been written ten or twenty years ago and not been out of place. Having determined a source or influence on the text, the essays tend to avoid exploring the signiflcance of these findings. For instance, Diane Milburn's '''For the Dead Travel Fast:' Dracula in Anglo-German context" estab lishes evidence of the influence of Goethe's Faust and Wagner's The Flying Dutchman, but does not move on to the signifi cance of these influences to the novel's themes. Bernard Davies identifies "Inspirations, Imitations and In-Jokes in Stocker's Dracula" without demonstrating how these influences illuminate the text. Indeed, neither of these essays nor many others in tend to discuss significance. This may have been because of the brevity of the essays, or it may be that the volume represents those aspects of Dracula scholarship more concerned with cause than effect. The three essays devoted to "The Historical Drac ula," by Miller, John F. Crossen, and Radu Florescu, are intriguing but have nothing to do with the novel and suggest that such is the case. A few essays look at effects, among them David Schmid's "Is the Pen Mightier than the Sword? The Contradictory Function of Writing in Dracula" and Harse's '''Stalwart Manhood:' Failed Masculinity in Dracula." Schmid's essay points out the many ways in which faith in writing is undermined while the late Victorian imperialist tools of "blood, violence, and


money" prove far more useful in repelling Dracula's threat (p. 129). Harse's essay discusses how "it may be the model of man hood, rather than the inability of the heroes to achieve it, that constitutes that "failed masculinity" (p. 234). These-two-essays demonstrate my preferences: They are concise and illuminating, useful in advancing my understanding of the novel. When Veronica Hollinger and I edited Blood Read: The Vampire as Metaphor in Contemporary Culture (1997), not only were we looking for essays dealing with contemporary manifestations of the vampire rather than with Stoker's novel, we were looking for contemporary critical approaches as well, and we wanted to avoid any notion of the vampire as "real," so dis cussions of historical personages were irrelevant to our project. The purposes of this conference were clearly different, but I think it would be fair to say that the volume could have been strengthened by more contemporary approaches to the subject .. and by more discussion of significance in interpreting the novel. That said, this collection isreadable, full of interesting infor mation, and, occasionally, illuminating as well. [The Desert Island Dracula Library, says the publisher, "promotes the study of Dracula, vampirism, and the works ofBram Stoker. Write the UK publisher for details. -Ed} ; .,,: J AHIARA Sandy Undow (with a response by Richard McKinney Martinson, Harry. Aniara: A Review of Man in Time and Space; translated from the Swedish by Stephen Klass and Leu Sjoberg. Story Line Press, Three Oaks Farm, Box 1240, Ashland, OR 97520-0055, February 1999-. 157 p. $14.9:5 trade paperback. 1-885266-63-4. Aniara is an epic poem about a gigantic spaceship, damaged and lost in deep space, ferrying the dying Earth's refu gees to Mars. The unhappy passengers spend the years futilely trying to retain their memories of Earth. The technician: narrator is responsible for the Mirna, a holographic projector that gathers images from Earth and elicits various kinds oEcult worship. Martinson (1904-1978),a member of the Swedish Academy and 1974 recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature, began publishing the Aniara cycle in 1953. This was his last major work and his only attempt at scic::nce.fiction. Described as "resonant, melodic and quotable" in the Clute-Nicholls encyclopedia, it was turned into an opera by Karl':'Birger BlOmdahl in 1959. The_citation for Martinson's Nobel prize pt:aises "writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos." Even for 1953, however, there is little scientifically iimovative in the cantos. Space is neither majestic nor wmth much study. Rather, Aniara is more evocative of an ocean liner with ballrooms and staterooms than a spaceship with artificial gravity or hydroponic greenhouses. Thus, it's best read as a work of philosophy reflecting the nuclear age nihilism of the mid.:. twentieth century that also brought us Nevil Shute's On the Beach (1957). Aniara was first translated into English by Hugh MacDiarmid and Elspeth Harley Schubert. MacDiarmid, Scotland's finest modern poet, used a spare, elegant blank verse that is both accessible and resonant of the overwhelminghelplessness ex perienced by the spaceship's passengers and crew. Canto 19 begins: The woman navigator enters the Mirna room, and gives a silent sign that I should switch on the Mirna. How sovereign she is, and how aloof. She wounds, but as a rose may wound, not always, as expected, with its thorn Nevertheless, the MacDiarmid translation has been criticized as "less than satisfactory" or even "atrocious" by the critic Rich ard L. McKinney. This new translation by Klass (a professor of English at Adelphi University) and Sjoberg (a professor of Scandinavian studies at SUNY) purports to be closer to the Swedish original. Neither has MacDiarmid's talent, however. The language lacks power. Rhyme is frequently forced, making serious passages seem trivial, reminiscent of roadside Burma Shave ads. Lines tend to flop around like beached flounders. "I ranged the universe but passed it by-/ for captive on Aniara here was 1." Here is their translation of canto 19: Our female pilot steps inside the mima-


chamber. Wordlessly she signals me toactivate the mima. How grand she is, how unapproachable. She wounds. you in the way that roses wound, though not, as has been often said, with thorns. SCholars may want to use. this translation,. but for the casual reader, MacDiarmid's translation is superior. [Since Richard McKinney is an SFRA member as well as fluent in Swedish, I asked him to provide a second opinion: Ed.] Despite the recognition of Aniara has received, the poem is not well known in the English-speaking literary world, nor in SF circles. One reason may be its format, a book-length epic consisting of 103 individual poems. A further difficulty is the large number of neologisms, many with scientific or quasiscientific origins. The main problem, however, has been the poor quality and incompleteness of the sole previous English-language translation. Without denying the intrinsic impossibility of translating poetry, it is nevertheless true that various attempts can be more or less successful. Klass and Sjoberg have produced a version of the poem that is considerably truer to the style, tone, and literal meaning of the original than did Schubert and MacDiarmid. For instance, Martinson's scientific language often has a Greek orLatin basis and can therefore be relatively easily shifted to an Anglicized equivalent. Many of the historical and mythical linguistic connotations are also nearly as well done in English as in Swedish. Of course, detailed comparison with the original undoubtedly leaves room for quibbles about individual choices of work or image. Attempts to deal with future slang, for example, are less than completely successful, but so are they also at times in the original Swedish. For a readership on the vergeofanew millennium, it's important to remember that this work was first published nearly half a century ago. Much of what was original, or even shocking, to a Swedish readership in the mid-1950s will hardly .. seem original or shocking to us today. It's not as accurate futurological prediction that the book can best be appreciated. How ever, there are deeper issues inAniara, and although I don't believe Martinson always gets it right, the questions he raises are important, and many are as relevant now as when they were first written. It is a dark and catastrophic future Martinson's poetry paints for us, though one also filled with moments of mirth and light, and much of its strength comes ftom its particular control of the Swedish language, a fleeting thing that can't be captured in translation. Nonetheless, we should welcome this new English version of the journey of the doomed Aniara. It displays a noteworthy sensitivity to poetic nuance and meaning, ., ., I.,. .) BARLOWE'S INFERNO & FANTASTIC ART OF BEKINsKI Walter Albert Barlowe, Wayne. Barlowe's Inferno .. Morpheus International, 9250 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite LL, Box 7246, Beverly CA 92021-7246, November 1999.72 p. $24.95.1-883398-36-3. Beksinski, Zdzislaw .. The Fantastic Art ofBeksinski. Morpheus International, November 1998.72 p. $24-95. 1-88339838-X. Although a brochure enclosed with my review copy of Inferno promised "80 pages of full color art," only twenty three of the seventy-two numbered pages contain color representations of Barlowe's vision of Hell. There are six black-and white sketches of preliminaries, but the remaining pages are all devoted to text that includes an introduction by Tanith Lee, a foreword by the artists, and commentary-also by Barlowe-accompanying the paintings. From Lee's overwrought introduction ("a treasury of superlative art [and] a monument to the human mind"), a tone of apocalyptic fervor is set, which some might see as appropriate to the dramatic, feverish climate of Barlowe's netherworld. Barlowe's text is somewhat less grandiose, and his portentous narrative odyssey includes matter-of-fact commentary that gives a curiously chatty air to the work. The paintings (whose actual dimensions aren't given) are characterized by towering buildings and impressive avenues. In earlier comments on this project in The Alien Life o/Wayne Barlowe (Morpheus, 1995), Barlowe confesses the his infernal city is inspired by Albert Speer's "start architecture of the Third Reich." His sources are also cited variously as Milton and St. John and (by Lee) as Breugel, Klimt, and Blake. Any artist who undertakes a visualization of Hell is working on a concept with centuries of literary, philosophical,


and artistic baggage, but it is unfortunate that Barlowe's otten striking art is weighted down with so much text. The nant tones of black and gray are troubled by intrusions of red, sometimes coalescing in rivers of burning lava and angry skies. Although the landscapes resemble alien cities populated by grotesque, impassive beings,. Barlowe believes that "we need not look tOO far to see [Hell].'" "See" is the key word, and the text should only be approached cautiously and sdeccivdy after the troubling images have been studied. In contrast to Barlowe's need to involve the viewer in his artistic process, Beksinski professes not to know what his paintings mean: "I do not know, myself. Moreover, I am not at all interested in knowing." He claims not to pick up ideas from outside sources (except for music) and has been trying "simply ... from the very beginning to paint beautiful paintings." He calls the method achieved in these paintings, achieved between 1968 and 1986, "fantastic realism." He is not quick to knowledge influences, but in a 1984 painting (p. 31), a seascape reminiscent of}. M. W. Turner hovers above a cemetery that almost inevitably morphs into a town. Magritte also seems to lurk in some of the paintings, while a Maxfield Parrish landscape (p. 35) is haunted by a bloodred figure clinging to a pillar. Although he grew up in southeastern Poland and was not directly exposed to the horrors of the war, his paintings appear to refer to it and evoke in particular the horrors of the German concentration camps: skeletal bodies wrapped in futile embraces, piles of rotting corpses, a skull wearing a steel helmet. Yet these images could as easily recall the first World War in their mute timelessness. It is an image of a century that Beksinski is recording, one that has been devastated by a holocaust. Unlighted buildings tower in enveloping mists on desolate plains; and apparently endless rows of stone pylons are occupied by skeletons in dark cloaks crouching round tiny fires. In one of his most striking paintings, a spiderlike figure, its headwrapped in white cloth stained with red, crawls painfully away from a burning city. Where Barlowe's Infimounfolds like illustrations from some familiar text, Beksinski's oils deem un mediated by any sense other than the eye. And in spite of theirterrible '"lation, they are graced with extraordinary beauty, their colors heightened by a light that is sometimes like an affectionateca-ress. Barlowe's Infimo is the accomplished work of an artist more in the mainstream of popular fantasy illustration and deserves to be in any library where that work is represented. Beksinski may well appeal to that audience but also to a more demic one that is less interested in popular illustration. Libraries at universities with a strong art history program should also acquire it. .: ) DISCOVERING STEPHEN KING'S "THE SHINING" Wendy Bousfield Magistrale, Tony, ed. Discovering Stephen Kings "The Shining": Essays on the Bestselling Novel by Americas Premier ror Writer. Borgo Press, Box 2835, San Bernardino, CA November 1998. 144 p. $30, 3. $20, trade paper, This collection of ten essays is a revision ofMagistrale's The Shining Reader (Starmont, 1990). Out of the original fifteen, the second edition has retained three essays, slightly revised, by Michael N. Stanton, Leonard Mustazza, and MarkJ. Madigan. My own choices for reprinting in the new edition would have been Mary Jane Dickeron's "The 'Masked Author Strikes Again': Writing and Dying in Stephen King's The Shining'; Jeanne Campbell Reesman's "Stephen King and the tion of American Naturalism in The Shining'; Vernon Hyle's "The Dark Side of Childhood: The 500 Hats o/Bartholomew [sic] Cubbins and The Shining'; and Burton's Haden's "Good and Evil in Stephen King's The Shining." Dickerson's discussion of the importance the acts of speaking, reading, and writing have in The Shining is extraordinarily illuminating. Reesman's, .. Hyles's, and Haden's essays are informed, not only by a knowledge of King's canon, but by a profound humanity. Since only a few libraries hold the earlier edition, these essays are unfortunately very difficult to obtain. The second edition is graphically less pleasing and less conveniently organized. Whereas notes followed individual essays in the first edition, the second groups them at the end under roman numerals; not essay tides. Maddeningly, the cited references of individual essays are merged into a single bibliography. Although the second edition is considerably shorter, it includes an unnecessary index and a chronology of King's works. That said, I enthusiastically recommend Magistrale's 1998 collection both to libraries and to King fans. Although essays in the 1990 collection are traditionally structured works ofliterary criticism, those in the new edition are looser and more conversational. The 1998 collection is praiseworthy for the spirit of dialogue with which a community of King scholars approach the novel and, to a lesser extent, the Kubrick film and 1997 television miniseries. The contributors question earlier critical approaches, their own included. Several explain how their own readings of King have matured or changed in response to his rapidly growing body of work. Because the arguments of several contributors use the earlier collection as a point of


parture, it unfortunate that, owing to its scarcity, most readers will not be able to read the two-back to back. The essays by Brian Kent in the first and second editions epitomize their difference in approach. Kent's original piece was "Canaries in a Gilded Cage: Mental and Marital Decline in McTeague and The Shining': a discussion of the influence of the Naturalists on King,which only minimally employs the first person. In his later essay, Kent admits that his own compari son between Frank Norris's novel and The Shining now seems "an artificial activity." In "And We All Shine On: Stephen King's-The Shining as 'Stream oENon-Consciousness'," Kent describes reading and rereading The Shining, each time recognizing different patterns ofliterary allusions. Although both essays are concerned with the internal and external forces that precipitate Jack's downfall, the second shares with the reader the process Kent went through to reach the conclusions he did. The 1998 collection_concludes with "Sit and Shine," a transcript of a conversation among Lynda and Bob Haas, and Mary and: DonaldPllarr. The four touch on the degree of free will that, respectively, the book, film, and miniSeries permit Jack; the influence of naturalism on King; and King's depiction of children-all subjects of the foregoing essays. Making this wide-ranging, sometimes silly, dialogue the book's conclusion reinforces the laudable assumption underlying this collection. At its best, Discovering Stephen King's "The Shining" suggests, criticism is not a succession of set pieces but an ongoing conversation among_people in love with their subject. .. J LOYECRAFT REMEMBERED Samuel Vasbinder Cannon, Peter, ed. Lovecraft Remembered. Arkham House, Box 546, Sauk City, WI 53583, November 1998. xiv + 486 p. $29.95. 0-87054-173-0. Includes 10 black-and-white photos. Lovecraft lovers, rejoice! Peter Cannon has gathered sixty-five pieces-letters, essays, and commentaries that provide an incredibly detailed view of Love craft-grouped in sections titled "Neighbors," "Amateurs," "Kalems," "Ladies," "Professionals," "Fans," and "Critics." There was an amazing outpouring after Lovecraft's death in 1937 giving intimate details ofhislifdrom close friends, his wife (certainly in its candor one of the best pieces), his publishers, and others who admired him. The book's. chief virtue is. that it gathers some of the best of these commentaries and makes them available for the first time in years, decades after the Arkham titles appeared, Marginalia (1944) and Something about Cats. (1949). The complexity and diversity of Lovecraft the man and writer is made clear as those who admired him, lived with .. rum, published him, read him with attention, made their viewpoints public. They show that Lovecraft was a complex and sub tle personality who cannot easily be explained in one or two essays. There emerges a picture of a man born in the wrong. time, whose scholarship into obscure topics, particularly mythology, and whose career as a critic of beginning writer's work, is exem plary. Another plus is the balanced collection of material, scholarly in its exactness and choice but accessible to any interested reader. Each essay, letter, or article brings to light interesting facts about Lovecraft that fans and scholars will find full of in .. sights. [Cannon s H. P: Lovecraft, Twayne, 1989, provides a balanced overview of his subjects lifo and work. Cannon is an SFRA member. -Ed.] =l::.: .J ULTIMATE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FANTASY Neil Barron Pringle, David, ed. The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Fantasy: The Definitive Illustrated Guide. Overlook Press, 386 W Broadway, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10012-4302, May 1999. 256 p. $35.0-87951-937-1. Carlton Books Ltd., 20 St. Anne's Court, Wardour Street, LondonW1V 3AW, UK. December 1998. .99.1-85868-373-4. It's obvious that the principal authors of this guide (Pringle, Brian Stableford, David Langford, plus Tim Dedopulos, a freelance editor and designer active in role-playing games) wanted to create something quite different from The Encyclopedia of Fantasy (1997), to which the fIrst three contributed extensively. It's a colorful, oversize (9 x 11 inches) survey meant to be read, not simply consulted. I suspect (or hope) that the hyperbole evident in the use of "ultimate" and "defInitive" was sug gested by the publisher's promotion department, not the authors. These adjectives can be dismissed out of hand. It's also not an encyclopedia, which by general consensus includes entries and cross-references in alphabetical order.


_ The Clute-Grant fantasy encyclopedia is precisely that, far more detailed (xvi + 1049 pages), unillustrated,and a trifle forbid ding with its invention of dozens of new terms designed, one assumes, to elucidate the nature and varieties offantasy. Pringle's guide concentrates on those kinds of fantasy "which have been the most recognizable, and have meant the most, to most people. Popular fantasy, a body of stories that deals in the marvellous,_ the magical and the otherworld js a fiction of the Heart's Desire" (p. 19). Following an eleven-page introduction is a twenty-one-page chapter analyzing eleven major story types: fairy tale; animal fantasy; Arthuriana; Arabian Nights fantasy; Chinoiserie; lost race tales; sword and sorcery; heroic fantasy; humorous fantasy; magic realism; and shared worlds. The next two chapters provide chronological surveys of fantasy in mm (fifty-one pages) and TV (thirty-three pages). A who's who of fantasy at sixty pages is necessarily extremely selective, omitcing_allrhe older, classic writers and most writers of children's fantasy and pulp contributors, but including a number of very new people whose books were published in the '90s at the expense of hundreds with more established reputations. Characters and crea tures are allotted forty-two pages, from Cinderella to unicorns to Wonder Woman. Fantasy games are surveyed in nine pages, and eight fantasy worlds (Middle Earth, Lankhmar, Narnia, etc.) in fifteen pages. Magazines, past and present, get nine pages, followed by a glossary of terms and an index, which is essential to locate specific information quickly or verify it's not in cluded. In summary, the Pringle survey helps us see the forest and some its more prominent component parts, such as the groves devoted to lost race or humorous fantasy, while-the encyclopedia's focus is more in individual trees, sometimes-even larger branches. Pringle's text is undemanding and accessible toanyone, and it's nota bad introduction to fantasy. More knowledgeable readers may find it too elementary and will need the encyclopedia or Pringle's St. James Guide to FantasyWrita.;:.a.;: ell;' .) DISTANT TECHNOLOGY Joseph Milida Tdotte, J. P. A Distant Technology: The Scimce Fiction Film and the Machine Age: Wesleyan UniversityPress, distrib .. uted by University Press of New England, 23 South MainSneetj Hanover, NH 03755-2048, January-1999; Xi' 218 p; $45 hardcover; 0-8195-6345-5; $19.95 trade paper, -6346-3. The "machine age" the subtitle refers to is a narrower band of time than some-readers might expect:-notroughly overlapping the industrial age but the interwar period, following The MachineAge inAmerica; 1918-1941 (1986), by Richard Guy Wilson et al. International in scope, the book examines a number of mms always cited in histories of SF movies butwith the major exception of Metropolis-rarely in depth: notably the SovietAelita; Fritz Lang's Die Frau im Mond; Clair?s Paris qui dort, and Gance's Le Fin du monde; in America, Just Imagine, The Invisible Ray; the 1931 Mysterious-Island and the serials of the '30s; and the British The Tunnel and Things to Come; After considering representations of and attitudestoward technology in each of these films (and inevitably Metropolis) as well), Telotte concludes with a look at that last hurrah-of the machine age, the 1939 New York World's Fair, and ata 1984 documentary on it, The World of Tomorrow. Thus in its cover age alone, but also in its thoughtful placing of the mms within cultural contexts, A Distant Technology provides a-valuable addition to SF film studies. The title is a pun on various levels. The technology on display now seems distant-that is, quaint-to us, but the films were always what Telotte calls dreams of distance and detachment. "Distance" is-often the films' literal subject matter, as in stories of space flight or transatlantic tunnels, but distancing/alienation is nearly omnipresent, beginning with the separation of social classes in Metropolis, the emotional detachment of technocrats and mad scientists in many fIlms, and Charlie Chaplin enmeshed in the gears of Modern Times. Of course, motion pictures themselves are a technology of distance, as Telotte points out: displaying viewers' desires and fears on a "distant" screen and bridging the gap between us and possible futures with spe cial effects. An important virtue of the book is Telotte's attention to significant national/cultural differences in his chosen mms. In Aelita, for example, he notes a unique Soviet ambivalence about technology as a rival to the "technology" of the Revolution and as something suspiciously allied to western ideology. In French fIlms, he Hnds the most easygoing acceptance of technol ogy, thanks at least in part to such French "monuments" as the works of Jules Verne, the sheer presence of the EiffeiTower, and the cinefantasies of Georges Melies. Other chapters are organized around a central theme: the American chapter stresses Guy Debord's notion of the "society of the spectacle," while the British chapter emphasizes the monumentality of the few British SF films of the era-indeed, perhaps overemphasizes the point by ringing changes upon the word "monumental" in


practically every paragraph. Telotte makes a great deal of use, carefully and generously acknowledged, of other studies of culture and film. Robert D. Romanyshyn's Technology as Symptom and Dream (1989) and Garrett Stewart's classic 1985 article '''The 'Videology' of Science Fiction" are among the more frequently cited. Although one learns much from Telotte's dialogue with other scholars, the text tends to the drily academic, with an occasional too-obvious statement. All the same, A Distant Technology is a worthy companion to Replications, Telotte's 1<)95 book on movie robots and androids, which covers a wider band of history but fea-CORRESPONDENCE LETTERS TO THE EDITORS Dear Editors and Readers of the SFRAReview, In a letter to the editor in the February 1999 issue; Ursula K. Le Guirr comments upon a line in a book review I wrote for the 1998 issue. The line in question from my review is "Since I know that most, if not all; of these comments are solicited with an added incentive (read: paycheck), I take themwith a grain of salt." The reference is to back cover blurbs, of which there are two sorts ... and herein lies the confusion. Ms. LeGuin appears to be upset because I mention that blurbs are paid for, and indeed, one sort of them generally are; The two types of blurbs are the anonymous blurb; which describes the plot in an engaging manner and the other sort is the review blurb, which comments on either the author, the author's past work or the current piece. The former is, as far as I have been informed by writers and by reference sources, always paid for in some fashion (there is in fact a booklet for sale that supplies information on how to "read books for money," and one of the ideas mentioned is writing similar blurbs). The latter sort is the signedblurb, where someone who has seen the book before publication offers comments. These are usually positive (I have never seen a negative blurb on the back of a book, except in the case of some Doonesbury collec tions that used them for ironic contrast), and I understood them to be often solicited. While I have been told by some authors that they have been remunerated for their efforts in writing review blurbs-{one also mentioned that he was not instructed to write a favorable review, but simply to comment), it was wrong of me to imply that most of these blurbs are taken care of in this fashion. It was an assumption based on the informacion I had, and evidently was an assumption that was false. I apologize for any confusion or aggravation this may have caused: Solomon Davidoff : Bowling Green State University President AlanElins Psychology Department U of California-Davis Davis, CA 95616-8686 Vice President Adam Frisch 2308 Summit Street Sioux City, IA 51104-1210 SFRA EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE Secretary Carolyn Wendell English Department Monroe Community College Rochester, NY 14623 Treasurer MichaelM. Levy Department of English University ofWisconsin--Stout Menomonie, WI 54751> Immediate Past President Joan Gordon 1 Tulip Lane Commack, NY 11725 For an application, contact SFRA Treasurer Michael M. Levy-or getorre from the SFRA Website:

SCIEIICE FIC,.IOII RESEARCH ASSO-CIA,.'OIi The SPRA is the oldest professional organization for the study of science fiction and fantasy literature and film. Pounded in 1970, the SPRA was organized to improve class room teaching; to encourage and assist scholarship; and to evaluate and publicize new books and magazines dealing with fantastic literature and film, teaching methods and materials, and allied media performances. Among the membership are people from many countries---students, teachers, professors, librarians, futurologists, readers, authors, booksellers, editors, publishers, archivists, and scholars in many disciplines. Aca demic affiliation is not a requirement for membership. Visit the SPRA Website at . An application for membership is avail able at this site. SPRA Benefits Extrapolation. Pour issues per year. The oldest scholarly journal in the field, with critical, historical, and bibliographical articles, book reviews, letters, occasional special topic issues, and an annual index. Science-Fiction Studies. Three issues per year. This scholarly journal includes critical, historical, and bibliographical ar ticles, review articles, reviews, notes, letters, international coverage, and an annual index. SFRA Annual Directory. One issue per year. Members' names, addresses, phone, e-mail addresses, and special interests. SFRAReview. Six issues per year. This newsletter/journal in cludes extensive book reviews of both nonfiction and fic tion, review articles, listings of new and forthcoming books, and letters. The Review also prints news about SPRA internal affairs, calls for papers, updates on works in progress, and an annual index; SPRA Optional Benefits Foundation. Discounted subscription rate for SFRA members. Three issues per year. British scholarly journal; cal, historical, and bibliographical articles, reviews, and letters. Add to dues: $27 surface; $30 airmail. The New York Review of Science Fiction; Discounted subscrip tion rate for SPRA members. Twelve issues per year. Re views and features, Add to dues: $25 domestic; $34 do mestic first class; $27 domestic institutional; $28 Canada; $36 overseas. SFRA Listserv. The SPRA Listserv allows users with e-mail ac counts to post e-mails to all subscribers of the listserv, round-robin style. It is used by SPRA members to discuss topics and news of interest to the SF community. To sign on to the listserv or to obtain further information, contact the list manager, Len Hatfield,-at dhat@ebbs.english.vt. edu> or>. He will subscribe you. An e-mail sent. automatically to new subscribers gives more information about the list. PRESORTED STANDARD US. POSTAGE PAID TEMPE, ARIZONA PERMIT NO; 45 SFRA Rey'e. ADDRESS SERVICE REQUESTED clo Craig Jacobsen 208 East Baseline Road #31 1 Tempe, AZ 85283 Email: Web:


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