SFRA review

SFRA review

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SFRA review
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Science Fiction Research Association review
Science Fiction Research Association
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Science fiction -- History and criticism -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Fantasy fiction -- History and criticism -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
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Fantasy fiction -- Book reviews -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
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{oetIJior1. Haren Hellekson Crallg Jacobsen Honfiction leyielY! EtlJior: Neill Barron fiction leyielY! EtlJior: Crallg Jacobsen The SFRAReview (ISSN 1068-395X) is published six times a year by the Science Fiction Research Association (SFRA) and distributed to SFRA mem bers.lndividual issues are not for sale. For information about the SFRA and its benefits, see the descri ption at the back of this issue. For a membership application, contact SFRA Treasurer Michael M. Levy or get one from the SFRA website: . SUBMISSIONS The SFRAReview editors encourage submissions, including essays, review essays that cover several related texts, and interviews. Please send submis sions or queries to both coeditors. If you would like to review nonfiction or fiction, please contact the respec tive editor. The general editorial address for the SFRAReview is: . Karen Hellekson, Coeditor 742 N. 5th Street Lawrence,KS 66044 Craig Jacobsen, Coeditor & Fiction Reviews Editor 208 East Baseline Rd. #31 I Tempe,AZ 85283 Neil Barron, Nonfiction Reviews Editor I 149 lime Place Vista, CA 92083-7428 Visit Us At:


Sarah James, (ormerly o( 40 Boumedene, Potters Bar, Hert[ordshire, EN6 3EL, in the UK is now at 16 Caimhill Gardens, St Andrews, Fife, KY 16 8QX UK. Adam Frisch's e-mail address has been changed to . LSPRAGUEDECAMP DIES L Sprague de Camp, one o( the greatest voices o( the Golden Age o( Sdence Fiction, died Monday in Plano, Texas, three weeks short o( his 93rd birthday. de Camp was one o( the (ew writers elevated by the Sdence Fiction and Fantasy Writers o( America to the rank or Grand Master, an honor he received in 1978. de Camp's body will be cremated and his ashes will join those o( his Wife and collaborator Catherine, who died in April, at Arlington National Cemetery. SPSCHRONOLOGlO\L BIBUOGRAPHYOFSF CRIllasM:NOW or-.n..INE Rob Latham , coeditor and review editor o(Science Fiction Studies, notes that the updated version o( the Chronological Bibliography o(SF Critidsm (eatured in Science Fiction Studies 78 ljuly 1999) is now online on their Website. In order to increase its utility to scholars and students in the (leld, they have inserted links (rom a large number o( the entries to relevant reviews in our archive and to the Documents in the History o( SF series. The bibliography can be accessed at . Rob welcomes reports o( any problems and receipt o( suggestions. SFRA BUSINESS IIIERI'SFIIA .",GOIS Joan Gordon Immediate Past President, SfRA I am pleased to announce the following new officers for SFRA: President: Michael Levy Vice President: Peter Brigg Secretary: Wendy Bousfield Treasurer: David Mead Thanks are extended on behalfof the Boardfor all candidates who stood for deaian. EDITORIAL LAsrlssVE Karen Hellekson and Craig Jacobsen This is the last issue of the SFRAReview that we will coedit. The three years' editorship is up, and we are passing the torch to the new editors, Barbara Lucas and Shelley Rodrigo Blanchard, who will begin with the January 2001 issue. We wish them the best of luck! Thanks to everyone who has helped with the SFRAReview by providing copy to publish and endless support, particularly the Board members and N ei1 Barron, the nonfiction review editor. We're sure Barb and Shelley have some wonderful ideas, and it will be great to see the SFRAReview head off into some new and productive directions. Strangely, the SFRA Board is turning over at the same time as the SFRAReview editorship changes, an unusual occurrence, as Board members serve a two-year stint and editors a three-year stint, so SFRA members can look forward to new ideas with the turnover in leadership. We have received concerned e-mails from SFRA members whose SFRAReviews take what can only be described as a really, really long time to arrive. We have tracked the trickling-in of SFRAReviews to mailboxes that lasts (not counting overseas members) up to three weeks. It seems the U.S. Postal Service is handling bulk mail more and more slowly these days. We have responded by moving up the time copy goes to the printer's in an attempt to get the issues to members in one of the months listed on the cover. However, this means that the copy is prepared six weeks or more before it hits doorsteps, resulting in old news, calls for papers whose deadlines have passed., etc. While we hack at this problem (or-better yet-turn it over to Barb and Shelley), remember to check the SFRA Website every now and then; Webmeister Peter Sands is always putting updates up, and the news there is often more timely. It's been a great three years! THEORY AND BEYOND EDITED BY JOAN GORDON AND SHEllEY RODRIGO BLANCHARD IUlan Itratton Ecocriticism poses the same sort of challenge to anthropocentrism as feminist theory does to androcentrism or queer theory does to the centrality of heterosexuals. Even though attacks on humanism and dualistic thinking have become familiar in literary criticism, it may still be a challenge to contemplate Earth without perceiving humans as central to or at the peak of a hierarchy that places all other species beneath us. The same dualistic thinking that has posi-tioned "civilized" against "primitive," whites against persons of color, and


men against women has aligned humans and their culture against nature. To the extent that our animal nature is acknowledged at all, humanist and Christian traditions have assigned us a position of supremacy, with dominion over the rest of life on Earth. An ecocritical approach to literature adopts instead an ecological perspective that places humans in a web of life, in a relationship of mutuality with the rest of Earth's living beings. Ecocritics tend to be action oriented and focused on the real world. They are inspired by a sense of urgency about humanity's need to respond to the fragility of our ecosystem and are convinced that literature has the power to shape human impact on the ecosystem. An ecocritic says, "The most important function of literature today is to redirect human consciousness to a full consider ation of its place in a threatened natural world" (Glen A. Love, in Glotfelty 237), or to be ecocritical is to be" explicitly geared toward effecting change in the way we think about and produce the environment" (Simon Estok, in PMLA 1096), or "ecocritics expect to make a difference in the way others live their lives" {Lawrence Buell, in Literary History 709-10). The fundamental premise of all ecological criticism, Cheryll Glotfelty asserts, is "that human culture is connected to the physical world, affecting it and affected by it" (xix). William Rueckert, who coined the term "ecocriticism" in his 1978 article "Literature and Ecology: An Experiment in Ecocriticism, issued then a passionate plea to fellow literary critics: "How can we apply the energy, the creativity, the knowledge, the vision we know to be in literature to the human-made problems ecology tells us are destroying the biosphere which is our home? How can we translate literature into purgative-redemptive biospheric action ... ? How can we turn words into something other than more words?" (in Glotfelty 121). This real-world focus tends to position ecocriticism against the poststructura1ist models that have recently dominated literary criticism. Sueellen Campbell notes that deep ecology and poststructuralism agree that "there is no such thing as a self-enclosed, private piece of property, neither a deer nor a person nor a text nor a piece of land," but ecology insists that we pay attention not to the way things have meaning for us but to the way the nonhuman world exists beyond us and our languages (in Glotfelty 133). Ecocritics split, Campbell observes, between those who work in a poststructura1ist vein, looking at the meanings we create for" nature," "landscape," and "environment," and those who look for ways to remove the writer as far as possible from the recreation of the natural world, trying to let it somehow speak for itself instead of focusing on the human thought and emotion it evokes. The paradox of the latter approach is evident to most ecocritics: as William Howarth points out, "All writers and their critics are stuck with language, and although we cast nature and culture as opposites, in fact they constantly mingle" (m Glotfelty 69). The ecocritic is out to contest the bias of most literary criticism-its perception of a gap between culture and nature. In Jean Arnold's words, "to disregard the fact that human cultural production is embedded in the natural world is to entertain a selective vision that places humankind in a pre-Copernican position of centrality it does not deserve" (in LHC 1090). Lacking an explicit methodological paradigm, ecocritism is eclectic in its approach to literature. As Scott Slovic puts it, ecocriticism is "the study of explicitly environmental texts by way of any scholarly approach, or, conversely, the sautiny of ecological implications and human-nature relations in any literary text" (mELH 1102). Glotfelty, whose The EcocriticismReader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology effectively defined the rapidly growing field in 1996, describes ecocriticism simply as the "study of the relationship between literature and the physical environment" (xviii). Enumerating a variety of ecocritical projects provides a description, if not a defmition, of the field. Lawrence Buell lists some in his contributions to Literary History's special issue on ecocriticism (summer 1999) andPMLA's Forum on Literatures of the Environment (October 1999): 1. Consideration of some new synthesis of literary and environmental studies that would bridge the two cultures. 2. Textual, theoretical, and historical analysis of place in human EBRARYUPAND m.JNNING The follOwing was in a recent issue of The Write News Weekly and made the rounds on the Intemet Ebrary, an anline research resource, has announced a joint investment by Random House Inc., Pearson, and The McGraw-Hili Companies. Ebrary offers researclHJriented content, including books,joumals, maps, periodicals, and digitally archived material. Intemet users will gain access to this content without having to obtain a membership or pay subsaiption fees. Ebrary is located at . Ebrary also allows patrons to acquire information by enabling the copying of text or printing of pages for a photocopier-!ike fee. In this manner, ebrary provides publishers, authors, and information providers with new revenues. Partidpating publishers and information providers may determine the degree of access and costs assodated with each of their titles. In Joe Milida's review of Fantasy Girls that appeared in SFRAReview 248, Kent Ono's name appeared as Kent Negano. UTOPIAEXHIBITAT NEWYORKPUBI..lC I..IBRARY A comprehenSive exhibit devoted to many aspects of utopia opened at the New York Public Ubrary, 5th Avenue and 42nd Street, in micJ..October, a joint project of NYPL and France's Bibliotheque Nationale. The exhibit closes January 27,200 I. Full details about the exhibit are available from . The cyberspace portion of the exhibit is located at , and among the scholars quoted are James Gunn, Lyman Sargent, Brian Stableford, and Darko Suvin.


RECEl"-oITANDFORIH COMINGNONFICllON BOOKS [*Denotes book to be reviewed; if youre interested in reviewing it, write nonfiction review editor Neil Barron at . Fenner, Cathy, ed. Spectrum 7:The Best in Contemporary FantasticArt. Underwood Books, October 2000. Pohl, Frederik, ed. Chasing Science: Science as Spectator Sport. Tor, December 2000. Price, Hoffman. Book of the Dead: Friends ofYesteryear, Fictioneers and Others. Arkham House, March 2001. Zipes,jack. Sticks and Stones:The Troublesome Success of Children's Uterature from Slovenly Peter to Harry Potter: Routledge, December 2000. Stanton, Michael N. Hobbits, Elves, and Wizards: The Wonders and Worlds ofTolkien's The Lord of the Rings. St Martins Press, February 2001. Shapiro, Mark. J. R. Rowling: The Wizard Behind Harry Potter. St Martins Griffin,August 2000. *Kelleghan, Fiona. Mike ResniclcAn Annotated Bibliography and Guide to His Work. Farthest Star/Alexander Books, Summer 2000. Collings, Michael. Hauntings:The Official Peter Straub Bibliography. Overlook Connection,August 2000. Primary and secondary bibliography, plus interview. Forthcoming, date not known, is Storyteller:The Official Orson Scott Card Bibliography and Guide, to be (ollowed by books on Stephen King and Harlan Ellison. Details at . The Science Fiction and Fantasy World of TIm White. Paper TIger/ Sterling. October 2000. Reprint o( 1981 edmon. Ellis, Doug.john Locke, and john Gunnson. The Adventure House Guide to the Pulps. Adventure House, August 2000. More in(ormation at . *DanieJs, Keith Allen, and Ryder W. Miller, eels. Arthur C. Clarke and expenence. 3. Study of literature as a site of enviro-ethical reflection, including links between anthropocentrism and androcentrism, racism and classism. 4. Retheorization of mimesis and referentiality, especially as applied to literary representation of the physical environment. 5. Study of the rhetoric of any mode of environmental discourse. 6. Inquiry into the relationship of environmental writing to life and pedagogical practice. (New Literary History 703-9; PMLA 1091) Eafeminism Buell notes that "a particularly rich vein of ecocritical inquiry has been feminist study" (m NfflC Literary History 708). Feminists have contributed significantly to ecocriticism from its beginnings in the 1970s, when Joseph Meeker's The Comedy o/Suroi:ual (1974) and Annette Kolodny's The Lay of the Land (1975) were published Kolodny probed the discourse in American literature that feminized the land and invited masculine domination. Ecofeminism as a recognizable movement came into its own in the 1980s, when feminist recognition or the relationship between patriarchal domination of women and domination of the land joined the feminist and environmental movements conceptually. The activist movement grew initially out of opposi tion to nuclear arms as the most immediate threat to both human and nonhu man life on the planet. Some ecofeminists valorize the woman-nature connec tion and others challenge it, but all want a more woman-friendly, nature-friendly culture. Ecofeminist literary criticism is a very recent development. An article by Gretchen T. Legler and a collection of articles edited by Greta Gaard and Patrick J. Murphy, both bearing the title "Ecofeminist Literary Criticism" and published in 1997 and 1998, respectively, provide instances of such criticism, butthey refer to no earlier instances. Judging by citations, these critics draw on a wide variety of work in literary theory and many other disciplines, but the most frequently repeated citations are activists Y nestraKing and Linda Griffin, philosopher Val Plumwood, andDonnaHaraway. Connections between their work and that of feminist SF critics are visible especially in the attention paid by both to Haraway and to Ursula K. Le Guin's fiction, poetry, and essays. Ecocriricismand ScienceFiction That the key to ecocriticism is the science of ecology and that its impetus comes from concern about the probable future effects of current human behaviors demonstrate its comfortable fit with science fiction. Although ecocritics tend to focus on nature writing and collectively show little awareness of science fiction, there is mention of the importance of SF in both the New Literary History special issue on ecocriticism (Hayles) and in the PMLA Forum on Literatures of the Environment (1097). In fact, the sense of urgency that created ecocriticism has marked SF since the 1960s. "The precariousness of the human ecological situation has gradually but inevitably become one of the major themes of sf," Brian Stableford notes in the "Ecology" entry of Clute and Nicholls' Encyclapedia o/Science Fiction. His sketch of ecology in SF, from a mere sprinkling in the early pulps (he credits only Stanley Weinbaum in that period with "more than a rudimentary consciousness" of ecology) to "a constant theme" over the first few decades after World War II to "one of the major themes" by the 1990s, traces the rapid growth of the impact on SF of the science of ecology and its implications for our future. SF has proved to be a fruitful venue for explorations of environmental themes in such modes as the ecocatastrophe story, stories of alien ecologies-increasingly combined with terraforming projects-and portrayals of societies that are less environmentally destructive than ours. The ecological awareness that informs ecocriticism poses a useful challenge to SF's tradition of imperialism-use the local resources and move OD. As William Rueckert points out, "In ecology, man's tragic flaw is his anthropocentric .. vision, and his compulsion to conquer, humanize, domesticate, violate, and exploit every natural thing. The ecological nightmare (as one gets it in Brunner's The Sheep Look Up) is of a monstrously overpopulated, almost


completely polluted, all but totally humanized planet. These nightmares are all iflthen projections" (in Glotfelty 113). Also useful is the ecocritical challenge to SF's tradition of heroic individualism-the lone space ranger, the troubleshooter, the technofixer. Ecology is interrelationa1; humans are utterly dependent on and intertwined with other species, from the mitochon dria in our cells to the plants that generate our oxygen and food. To quote ecologist Neil Everenden, "There is no such thing as an individual" (m Glotfelty 103). SF critics have been slow to respond to the importance of ecology and its impact on SF. A survey of critical articles published in Science Fiction Studies, Extrapolation, and Foundation 1984-1988 and 1994-1999 (thanks to Tara Hyland Russell for research assistance) tums up many that make reference to environ mental devastation or ecology or overpopulation, but only very few (three) and recent (1997) ones that are centrally focused on what SF textS reveal about perceptions of humans' place in our natural world. Critical studies of human alien relations in SF are not aimed at reflection on terrestrial relations between humans and other species. Critical studies that refer to attitudes toward the environment or ecology do so en route to some other point. The work of ecocriticism promises to suggest new approaches to the study of SF or extended application of little-used approaches. SF critics might be asking the following: In what ways and to what effect does SF reflect possible responses to the environ mental crisis? To what extent does an SF text represent a world as an active subject and not just a resource? Are the ideas and attitudes expressed in an SF text consistent with principles of ecology? What constitutes "nature" or "the natural" in various SF texts? What is the role of language in constructing the relationship between self and other, culture and nature in SF texts? Prriam.Y The first ecocritical pedagogical text was Frederick O. Waage's Teaching EnvironmentalLiterature (1985). In addition to articles on contexts, environmental literature in the classroom, nature writing, environmental literature in the field, and regional studies, it has several appended lists of resources. Even earlier (1978), William Rueckert was urging formulation of an ecological poetics and promotion of an ecological vision in the classroom. He suggested thinking of poets and green plants as engaged in similar creative, life-Sustaining activities: "To charge the classroom with ecological pwpose, one has only to begin to think of it in symbiotic terms as a cooperative arrangement which makes it possible to release the stream of energy which flows out of the poet and into the poem, out of the poem and into the readers, out of the readers and into the classroom, and then back into the readers and out of the classroom with them, and fmally back into the other larger community in a never ending circuit of life" (m Glotfelty U1). The "poems" he mentions teaching include Faulkner's Absalom, Absalom and Atwood's Surfacinf;, there is no reason they couldn't also include Brunner's 1be Sheep Look Up, Herbert's Dune, Benford's Tzmescape, Tepper's Grass, Robinson's RedMms, Slonczewski's The 07iJdren Star, etc. A recent resource is Greta Gaard and Patrick D. Mwphy'sEcofeminist Litermy Criticism: Theory, Interpretation, Pedagog;y (1998), which includes two articles specifically on teaching. John Paul T assoni's article suggests a dialogical approach. in introductory literature classrooms designed to accommodate both his desire for his students to become ecofeminists"active forces in the construction and maintenance of ... heterarchical, wholistic societies" -and his desire to avoid imposing his values on his students. Among other things, he wants to call into question his students' assumption of human superiority over other species: "It is doubtful if humans can construct and maintain dialogic relations with nonhuman nature so long as they assume their superiority" (217). Science fiction tends to assume that superiority can be measured strictly in terms of intelligence; if we were to invite students to question this assumption, we might bring SF's explorations of human-alien relations closer to home. Greta Gaard's "Hiking without a Map: Reflections on Teaching Ecofeminist Literary Criticism" describes in detail her creation of an advanced literature seminar designed to incorporate green values and ecofeminist C. S. Lewis:A Correspondence. Anamnesis Press, December 2000. *Fritz Leiber's Moons and Stars and Stuff, edited by Keith Allen Daniels and justin Leiber.Anamnesis Press, May 2001. Butler, Andrew. Cyberpunk Pocket Essentials, UK, 2000. Aurich, Rolf,Wolfgang jacobsen, and Gabriele jathro. Artificial Humans: Manic Machines Controlled Bodies. joris Verlagsburo, Berlin, 2000. Published in connection with the Berlin Intemational Film Festival. Kim, IIqu. Umbs of Ufe: Uterature of PostmodernAnthropomorphic Technology and Cosmology. Ph.D. thesis, Texas Tech University, 2000. *Gavin,Adrienne E, and Christopher Routledge, eds. Mystery in Children's Uterature: From the Rational to the Supernatural. St Martin's Press, February 200 I. *Robbins, Ruth, and julian Wolfreys, eds. Victorian Gothic: Death, Dis Ease, Desire and DOUbling in Nineteenth-Century Uterature and Culture St Martin's Press, November 2000. Maybe it's appropriate that Gary Dahl, the "inventor" of the pet rock, back in 1975, won the 2000 Bulwer-Lytton award for this gem: The heather-encrusted Headlands, veiled in fog as thick as smoke in a crowded pub, hunched precariously over the moors, their rocky elbows slipping off land's end, their bulbous, craggy noses thrust into the thick foam of the North Sea like bearded old men falling asleep in their pints. Equally of interest in the winner in the SF category by a guy from Manassas, Virginia: The night (like every night on Beta Forensis Epsilon [known to members of the Star Guard ground station as BFE] where the 30degree axial tilt, 12-hour rotation and ferocious radiation


from Beta Forensis' F5 perpetual thermonuclear blast churned the atmosphere like a rookie's stomach during zero-gee training) was dark and stormy. Uncle Hugo is alive and well. Are you listening, Hal Oement? Neil Barron writes:Volume 19, no. 4, issue 52, says spring 2000, but it arrived the second day of fall, a leisurely schedule I like. Editor A Langley Searles says it's irregular. It's the mixture as before: articles, verse, and reviews. Four articles deal with RobertAW. Lowndes (1916-1988): a moderately detailed profile by Mike Ashley, a brief letter by a contributor to his magazines, a remembrance by his younger sister, and comments by Frederik Pohl, a lifetime friend. More letters recall Sam Moskowitz, whose part 2 (of three parts) article recalls the return of Gernsback for his shortlived Science Fiction Plus. Most interesting to me was the mail interview of Everett Bleiler, who provides considerable detail about his education at Harvard and Chicago, his later wartime service, and his career at Dover Books from 1955 to 1977. Following his interview is a useful and interesting list of his books, both authored and the many he edited for Dover, with those with Significant introductions starred. He is as refreshingly outspoken as ever. Four of the poems are by Bruce Boston, who's well regarded in the field of SF poetry. One of his poems would qualifY for the New Yorker's "Poems We Never Finished Reading" fillers. "Curse of the Star-Pilot's Husband" begins, "In the vast involucrum of sidereal power." Boston should consider contributing to the Bulwer-Lytton contest, discussed elsewhere in this issue. Issues are $5, four for $18, from A Langley Searles, 48 Highland Qrde, Bronxville, NY 10708-5009. ideas about the importance of community and relationships. The texts she chose and juxtaposed evoked a set of questions to explore. Some might be expected in any ecocritical course: "What constitutes 'nature' or 'the natural' in a text?" or "What is the role oflanguage in constructing or in healing the relationship between culture and nature, Self and other?" Others might be less obvious: "How is the act of eatingponrayed, and what does its portrayal reveal about specific human! nature relationships?" "In what ways do the various aspects of human identity-particularly gender, race, class, and sexuality-shape human! nature relationships?" and "Where is the erotic (earlier defmed as Audre Lorde's "assertion of the lifeforce of women" [228] expressed in the text? What kind of power relations inhere in its expression? Is the erotic welcomed, celebrated, repressed, orfeared?" (244-45). Gaard concludes that ecofeminism's fundamental realization is that "our cultural, economic, and ecological crises stem from a separation of self from other," and her hope is that an ecofeminist will make literary criticism effective in helping to heal this alienation (245). Gaard's commentary shows how the passionate purpose of ecocritics can be brought into the classroom. Many of us who teach science fiction feel a similar passion for helping to bridge the gap between scientific and humanist perspectives or for helping to avert potential disastrous futures. Ecocriticism can revitalize such passions for both our critical writing and our teaching of science fiction. R.tferena5 Gaard, Greta, and Patrick D. Murphy, eds.Ecofeminist Literary Criticism: 1heory, Interpretation, Pedagogy. University of illinois Press, 1998. Glotfelty, Cheryll, and Harold Fromm. 7heEcocriticismReader: Landmarksin LiteraryEcology. University of Georgia Press, 1996. Legler, Gretchen T. "EcofeministLiterary Criticism." InEcofeminism: Women, Culture, Nature, edited by Karen J. Warren. Indiana University Press, 1997. Special issue on ecocriticism. New Literary History 30, no. 3 (summer 1999). Forum on Literatures of the Environment. PMLA 114 (October 1999): 10891104. FrederickO. Waage,ecl TeachingEnvirrmmentalLiterature:Materia1s,Methods, Resources. Modern Language Association of America, 1985. FEATURE AN INrERrnE'H' fiVlrH YERN.R YI.6E Conducted by Karen Hellekson, July 8, 2000 I met with Vernor Vinge the day after he won the Campbell Award for his novel A Deepness in the Sky (1999), which is a kind of prequel to the ambitious and dense novel A Fire upon the Deep {1992}. Vinge was in Lawrence, Kansas, to accept the award, and attended the Campbell Conference the next day, where I caught up with him after the conference had ended. Vinge, a professor of mathematics at San Diego State University, is planning to move to full-time writing. His novel-length works include T atja Grimm's World (1987), the Wztling (1976), Trne Names (1981), and the Realtime sequence, comprising 1bePeace War (1984), "The Ungoverned" (1985), andMaroonai in Realtime (1986). Vinge is most recendy known for his far-flung space-opera texts, which takes place in a galaxywide setting. Karen Hellekson: Your two most recent books were A Fire upon theDeep and A Deepness in the Sky, and they are set in the same universe. Let's start easy. Let's talk about world-building fl.rst. Vernor Vinge: The background world-building of those two novels arose from the fact that I wanted to write a space opera. I personally think that it's very likely that within the next thirty years, the way technological progress is going, that humans will not be on top anymore-that the concerns of the most


powerful entities on Earth will be quite unintelligible to us. This idea I think is held by a number hard science fiction writers who want to write space opera. Hard science fiction is science fiction where you are honestly trying to extrapolate.trends. Well, if you believe that the human enterprise as a central enterprise ends in thirty or forty years, and you want to wnte space opera, and you want to be true to your idea of technology, you have to have some sort of gimmick. This has been the driving mechanism behind several families of space operas by several authors. (That's my guess, derived from reading others' stories, not from direct conversation.) My gimmick was essentially one magical assumption, and that was the assumption that yes, it is possible to make computers that are smarter than people-but not where we're living. I came up with the idea ofthe Slow Zone, where you can't make anything that's smarter than a human, and I decided to make this a certain area of the galaxy. Outside of that area of the galaxy-and since 1'd already made the assumption, I thought 1'd go sort of whacko about it-you still can't make superhumanly intelligent critters, but you can have faster-thanlight drive. That was modestly connected with the first supposition, because my space drive involves very fast computations. And then in the area of the galaxy beyond that, you can make superhumanly intelligent critters and they can exist. In all, I have four zones: the Transcend, the Beyond, the Slow Zone, and the Unthinking Depths. The Unthinking Depths are a zone inside ours where human intelligence is not possible. That's a rather inaccessible area.. This division of the galaxy into zones has alot of similarities to Pohl Anderson's Brainwave. One big difference, though, was in Brainwave, when you left the Slow Zone, your IQ automatical1ywent up. The idea was that evolution somewhat compensated for the fact that thinking was hard. In my version, if you exit the Slow Zone and go the Transcend, you still are just as dumb as you were-that is, still of human intelligence-but once in the Transcend, you could make superhumanly intelligent devices. In fact, this outermost region that 1'm calling the Transcend is what I personally think the universe is. The books as a whole, I think, have been called the Zones of Thought series. The Zones were the largest category of my world-building. KlH: It's more than world-building; it's universe-building. VV: Right. That gave me the following sort of possibilities. First of all, if you allow that magic-the magic of the Zones-then I can claim to be writing hard science fiction, regardless of which Zone I set the story in. Larry Niven wrote a future history in which he has stories about a civilization within our solar system who created slow boats (a slower-thanlight civilization extended out to several nearby star systems), and then eventually faster-than-light drive, when we discover faster-than-light ourselves or are given it. Finally, he has an era of faster-than-light. This is over a period of time; the human race moves through these phases. With the Zones, it's as though this is all turned on its side, and all these different environ ments coexist at the same time. I don't believe it, of course; this is fiction. In principle, then, these Zones have existed throughout human history and they're there right now, and there can be interactions betWeen the Zones. If you're one of the god creatures, as you go inward, you can't come into the Beyond, the faster-than-light area, without dying or becoming nonthinking. We can't go inward from where we are because you can't be of human intelligence; we would lose it. We can travel outward, but since we don't have faster-than-light travel, it takes us a long time to get to the Beyond. So there are real barriers to communication and moving, but still there can be some interaction. That was the background. A Fire upon the Deep is set mainly in the Beyond, and we see what one of the godlike creatures might try to do if it were a bad guy. It can't come directly in, but it sure can cause a heck of a mess. The countermeasure against that bad guy was the driving McGuffm [an object whose loss triggers a search for it, but the object lacks intrinsic meaning] there. As for world building in the Beyond, I had one fairly interesting item, a large-scale rubble field that was a was one fairly interesting large scale asteroid belt that was a cross between the rings of Saturn and an asteroid belt. There actually was a some amount of astronomical thinking in this: If you were out in the middle of our solar system's asteroid belt and you didn't happen to be near an asteroid, you'd have to be very clever to spot an asteroid. It looks just as empty as anywhere else, unless you know where to look (or are lucky). On the other hand, if you are inside Saturn's rings, they are only a couple of hundred feet deep, and if you were in among them, it would be almost like a being in a lava lamp. The relative speeds are very low. I don't know what the lower size of the rocks are, but plenty of rocks are on the order of the size of basketballs or beach balls, and they are all drifting slowly. It seems plausible that you could have structures that involve low-velocity collisions, so you'd get sort of clumped snowballs. So what I did was, I said, let's suppose this solar system's asteroid belt was like Saturn's rings-but very, very large, so large that there are millions and millions of ring-lets. They're not stable in the long term, but in the short term, you could have contiguous arcs of boulders, bumped together in long entrainments. train cars get hooked up. That was a novel thing, and I was able to use a small amount of information about tides and stuff like that to make some of it plausible. KlH: What about the OnOff star in A Deepness in the Sky [which regularly grows dim and bright over the course of many years]? Is that really something that we've observed from Earth? VV: No. That is completely without any scientific support. At the time of the story, and in the world of the story, several of these objects had been seen. We, on Earth, in this era, have seen no evidence of anything like this. In fact, I worked out the chronology. InA Deepness in the Sky, this star is actually close enough to the Earth so that right now, if it were in its dim stage, we could easily see it. If it were in its bright stage, we probably would have noticed it in the last fifty years. The thing is, when it's dim it's lost among the myriads of brown dwarfs. It would be hard for us to pick out. But


nowadays, our computers and our tdescopes are good enough so that we could see it. So my hypothesis, unspoken in the story, is that in the year 2000, it's coming to the end of one of its dim stages, and then it brightens early in this century and is defmitdy seen. It still wouldn't have been seen if we didn't have the computers to watch for sma1l differences, but it's seen, and that's why in the story, I say that it's been known forten thousand years or so for humans. KLH: See, which is why I thought maybe it really was an honestly real phenomenon that we had looked at. So I was fooled! I was fooled! VV: I had to put it at the edge of what could possibly be seen and then say that the newest bright period hasn't started yet. Otherwise, it's something we should have seen, but we haven't. That was entirdy made up. The part about the planet: I assumed an object, the OnOff star, which is essentially turned off-it's not generating much energy in any visible way that we could ever see. It's off for about 215 years or so. Then it's on for about 35 years. And when it's on, it actually starts out quite bright -much brighter than the sun-and then comes down, and for ten or twdve years, it's about as bright as the sun. Then it dims and goes back to being very dark. If you read carefully, you can see that the parameters of the planet are somewhat like Earth's, except it doesn't have a metallic core like Earth's does. The real question is, what would it be like if you turned the sun off and then you turned it on later? I thought about Fritz Leiber's story" A Pail of Air," where the sun goes out and only a few people survive. The Earth's atmosphere starts to rain out. The research I did, which is certainly not up to scientific standards, indicated that fIfteen years would not be enough for the atmosphere to rain out, because there is a lot of internal heat that has nothing to do with the sun. But we would all die, no doubt. KLH: We also can't hibernate, the way the Spiders do in your book. But of course, in addition to devdopingthe planet, you also devdoped an entire culture that was attuned to live on this planet-whole social structures completdy based on the fact that the sun is only on for a while, and people don't want to have children out of phase. That's a big deal for them. VV: It came out that apparendy, this on-off behavior was quicker in the past. If you extrapolate it back, there was a time when the flicker was so fast that it had no special effect. So it had about 60 million years to slow down. In that time, as you say, the natural life that was there slowly adapted. If the sun turns off for a day, that's maybe not a big deal. If it tums off for a week, you begin to see thermal effects. But this slowness is happening over millions and millions of years, so that by the time the story happens, intdligent life has arisen and the intdligent life, even before it's technologically equipped, is capable of surviving the dark just by natural cryonics. I did think about the thermal stuff, as I said. I fIxed it up a litde bit. This planet has a cold core-which, by the way, is almost as amazing as the OnOff star itself. It does not have a hot core. Then I wave my hands some, and in my scenario, after the sun turns off, it takes about 200 years before the atmosphere rains out. I hope I did that consistendy. I hope I'm within shouting distance of physical reality. There are guys who have done atmospheric modeling code that could probably be used to do a good version of this, but it would mean enlisting the full-time support of some people who are otherwise doing global warming stuff-much more serious stuff. KLH: At the end of the novd, you set it up for a sequd. Are you going to write a sequd to this particular book? VV: Ah! The answer is not a secret, but it is an open question. My publisher would like the next one to be a near sequd, where Pham goes to the Worlds of the Emergency. KLH: That is an awfully good story. I like to think that he'll do his ladylove a favor and kill all the evildoers and free her people. VV: So you would vote for that as the sequd? KLH: Not necessarily. Actually, I don't know. That's an excdlent question. I also really like the notion ofthe Spiders and humans working together. I wouldn't mind seeing the Spiders as Traders. It would be great to have them join the QengHo. How do you pronounce that? VV: I pronounce it "Cheng Ho." KLH: Having them join up and be friends. I think they're an interesting species, and it's not until close to the end of the book that you show us what they look like to human eyes. You humanize them throughout the novd, and of course we fmd out that it's T rixia [a translator] who has been tdling the story in some ways. VV: That's a spoiler! I am actually doing market research for whatthe next thing I write should be. One thing I'm thinking of, following a suggestion of David Brin: you write something lightweight after you break your neck trying to write something heavyweight. That's attractive right now. KLH: A Deepness in the Sky was many years in the writing, it sounds like, and it required all this research, plus it's been years since A Fire upon the Deep came out. I was surprised you went back in time with the sequd. VV: My story about that is this. This is a fIb. Great minds move in the same general direction. George Lucas had the same insight. Sequels are never as good as the original, right? So I wrote a prequd. KLH: Of course, now you have to follow it with something. VV: Maybe another prequd. KLH: InA Deepness in the Sky, what do you think the role of war is? There's war among the Emergents and the


Traders, and there's war among different factions on the Spider world as well, and I think we see the Spider's technology go really far over the course of the book, which of course spans many years. VV : We see the Spiders' technology, in the time they are awake, go through what it took us on Earth fifty to sixty years to do. They do cover an awful lot of ground. They go from something a little better than W orld War I technology to about 1995. There were two reasons why I had them go that fast. They had actually figured out a lot of things, but they figured them out very late. For instance, because of the astronomical nature of their solar system-one planet, one star, no moons, no nothing-mathematics, which in my opinion came most directly out of astronomy, they didn't have the required mathematical basis. They hadn't discovered calculus until the equivalent of our year 1830 or something like that. But once they had it, they began figuring out stuff very quickly; in our case, it got spread out. Their physics and chemistry had gotten ahead of their math but in an ad hoc way. That's one reason they went so fast all of a sudden, when the math caught up. You asked about the nature of warfare in these two groups. KLH: I was thinking that might be one reason why they expanded so quickly, technologically speaking. Our protagonists are, of course, on the winning side of a war, and the novel opens with them having a great adventure when they go out when they're supposed to be hibernating. They perform some sabotage in an attempt to set the bad guys back a few years, so that when they wake up when the star turns back on, they will be at a disadvantage. I assume that's why all the money was poured into these very expensive things that Underhill [the Spider scientist -genius] was working on. The king was funding him. VV: The equivalent of World War I that the Spiders had showed them that technology was a winning thing, almost as strongly as technology coming out of our World War II convinced us that technology was a winning thing. So yes, war is a reason for their quick technological advance. Otherwise, though, the nature of warfare among the Spiders is very much like that of nation-states. There are some big differences: they weren't democracies, monarchies, or fascist; but the nature of war, and the nature of mutual assured destruction-those are all very similar to what we experienced in the twentieth century, except in away, the Spider situation was worse. They had a hard deadline. In the case of us and the Soviet Union, there was a notion that we were getting ourselves into a bind in a mutual assured destruction sort of situation. In the case of the Spiders, they had a hard technological deadline because the sun was going out, and whoever was able to stay awake the longest was going to kill everybody else and take over-or at least, that's what you attribute to your enemies. The Spiders are much like twentieth-century humans. In some ways, they're more like humans than the humans in the novel. The human cultures, both of them, are very different than ours-especially different from the twentieth century. At first glance, though, the humans in this story, if they wanted to learn, could know as much about twentieth-century culture as you and I do. And their technology is significantly better than ours. At first glance, we relate to the humans as our center viewpoint. But their view of reality is very different from that of the Western twentieth century. They have been more or less stagnating, technologically. Even the Qeng Ho, who are the most gung-ho of the humans, are limited. At one point, one of the characters says, "Those humans! They think they know what's impossible, the poor bastards!" They think they have all this freedom, but in fact, they're living in an invisible cage that they built for themselves. The whole situation with the humans is an alien situation. The conflict between the Qeng Ho and the Emergents is not so much like a war as it is an ambush or a crimehome invasion or robbery that goes bad. Except the robbers stay in the home and make the family do the chores! KLH: Speaking of making the family do the chores: the idea of the zipheads [slaves conditioned to work obsessively on a single task] intrigued me. So did the role of artwork, because the Emergents forced the zipheads to painstakingly make huge swaths of artwork out of a huge solid diamond. This task reminded everybody that they were in charge and that their aesthetic ideal stood, but the artwork was also representing a huge victory they had had. VV: Which was a huge lie. KLH: It was a lie! I was just wondering what you were thinking. Could you just talk about the whole artwork thing and what you were hoping to do with it? VV: The artwork is pointillism [small strokes or dots of color placed so that from a distance, they seem to blend together]. It fit their culture, because their culture was slave-based, and it was slave-based in a very peculiar way in that they could actually create drudges. They could tum a creative person into a creative drudge. KLH: But a creative drudge who loved doing it! Slaves who loved being enslaved! VV: "Loved being enslaved" is not quite the right phrase. It's like a created psychopathology that makes them do things compulsively, again and again. But they do want to do it, that is true. There are two theories of creativity in this book. One is the idea of genius and that the heart of genius is flightiness: the ability to change target, think about something else, and eventually bring everything together. I have seen that characterization of people who are certified major thinkers in our culture. I believe it. There are people like that. The other extreme is also common, and that is people who are recognized as being very creative and the underpinnings of society, but the reason they got there is not necessarily that they are actually smarter than the average person, but they don't have a life. They spend all their time pounding on this one thing that they've been working on their whole lives. That is an archetype that almost all of us are familiar with, if we've read biographies of some of these people. That's the


only type of genius that the Emergents really recognize. Some of their apologists would even say, "We've always had these poor people with us. Now we've managed to organize this powerforthe good of society." In fact, you could even imagine people to use it as a form of conscription, if it could be reversed. In this story, the people who do not have technical training are set to the task of making this huge artwork. Their particular version of art is this method that just drives the artist into the ground, so they had these gangs of artists who were going down these tunnels millimeter by millimeter, executing this mosaic. KLH: It just exemplifies the horrible waste of human life that the Emergents espoused. But I also noticed how Pham was seduced by the zipheads. He was really intrigued by the idea. Of course, he had his own imperialist expansionist idea too. VV: And his imperialistic expansionist notions were very idealistic. The backstory, you know, goes all through this. He had fInally realized that he could not have a real interstellar empire, because to do so, he would need gods who were also slaves-or at least people of human intelligence who were slavishly focused on keeping the empire working. We would think of computers to do this work, but he's in the Slow Zone, so that's not possible. But the zipheads allowed him to become within shouting distance of the missing ingredient that had prevented him from having an interstellar empire. I don't think it would have worked. But Pham is extremely attracted by that. This underground that he has created to overthrow the Emergents is ultimately dedicated not to gerting rid of the slaves but to redirecting them. At one point, when his conscience is especially bothering him, he thinks, "Can my goals really justify using such a terrible evil as this [enslavement technol-ogy ]?" Then, like a Steve Martin comedy monolog, Pham concludes: "Yes!" Besides, he thinks, "I'll be nice. I won't ruin people's lives by having them do these pinpoint sculptures in diamond walls." KLH: "I'll only have them do things that are important!" VV:Right! KLH: I really liked the zipheads. I thought it was a really excellent idea, and unfortunately I can probably see people developing something like it in the future: altering the brain chemistry of people in order to focus them to obsess on a particular thing that they do to the exclusion of everything else. VV: I would like to think that slavery, as the term is normally meant, is impossible in a situation where you need lots of highly trained workers and you also have automation. But something like this could actually be an economically viable form of slavery, even in a high-tech area where there was no need for routine manual labor. So that actually is quite scary. KLH: One theme that I've noticed in your last two books: you do talk a little bit about a single genius who drives a civilization. It's Woodcarver inA Fire upon the Deep, and inA Deepness in the Sky, it's Underhill. Is that your view of the historical process? Do you ascribe to the genius theory, that a single person has the power to direct the role of history? Or is it just a device to focus a story? Are you making a big historical comment about a single person driving history? VV: In my stories, there are situations where single people make an enormous difference. I do not believe that a single person drives everything. There seem to be two extremes of viewpoint on this; one is the steam engine theory, or economic determinism-and that notion has a lot of plausibility. But it is also true that an individual at the right place at the right time can make an enormous difference. That's most 0 bviously true for certain types of technical things. I don't think steam power is an example of that. Steam would not have needed aJ ames Watt. There were all sorts of people doing it. But there are situations where you have one person or one leader who can make an enormous difference. So to that extent, I credit this theory enough to have characters like the ones in the stories. However, Woodcarver was a very peculiar thing. It was like having Winston Churchill for six hundred years. You have a person who is that strong and can hang around for a time, then I think the argument could be made even more strongly about the importance of a single person. Although Woodcarver had his or her problems. She had several children who had her characteristics but were even more extreme. That drove most of the evil things in A Fire upon the Deep. KLH: Right. It was her offspring who led the packs that were her nemeses. One thing you do discuss a lot, in all your books implicitly, is the evolution of humanity. In the Realtime sequence, this is articulated by the characters' coming out of the bobble [a force field-like structure that suspends time within 1 which is like coming into our future, and everyone is gone. VV: Yes, something's happened. KLH: It's because humanity has moved on, and they left some people behind Oops! Yes, something's happened. In A Deepness in the Sky, the humans who make up the Emergents and the Qeng Ho are unrecognizable. What motivates them is very strange to us. The Spiders, as you've noted, are more like us. InA Fire upon theDeep, the children are the representa tion of humanity. They are our bridge into this time's world, and they're the most human of the characters you created, because they're the ones that allow us to acknowledge and have access to this very alien race. Do you want to talk about the evolution of humanity and where you see us going? Why the heck are we still here? VV: I think it's very plausible than in the next thirty years, we will create our successors. At the meeting here today [the Campbell Conference at the University of Kansas, Lawrence], we danced around those issues. But if we face the question directly, then it seems to me that that makes it very difficult to talk about what happens afterward. In the Realtime series, I took a different kind of out from the one I used in the Zones books. I said, "OK, it happened," but I wanted to have a story that took place afterward. I made what happened unintelligible, but I made its manifestation visible: namely, no


one was home any more. Everyone was gone. There's an afterword to this novel that spells this out. I have no reason for saying that that's what things would look like afterward, except for one small thing. In a way, that's the time line version of the mystery we do see. When we look out into the stars, we are plenty capable of detecting people like ourselves right now out to a range of a couple of hundred light years. If there were anybody around who wanted to make louder noises, it's plausible they could. We don't see any evidence of that. We don't see any evidence of large engineering projects, like Clarke's diadem of stars. What we're confronted with in the stellar universe is the Earth scene that our time travelers in the, Realtime stories see when they come back. That was a symmetry that bolstered my vision in Marooned in Realtime. It was, in effect, another look at the thing I call the technological singularity: the possibility that we and our artifacts can become something more than we are. I've written several stories that creep up to the very edges of that. In the Realtime series, basically, I look at it from the other side. It's still this gaping chasm that no one can see the bottom of. KLH: The Encyclopedia a/Science Fiction says your work sees individual lives as "bleak and often brutish." I think we see some of that inA Fire upon the Deep. What do you think about this characterization? VV: I don't think my stories are downers! Into each life some rain must fall! KLH: In A Deepness in the Sky, I'm thinking of Ph am 's discussion with Larson, the guy who owns the little troglo dyte creature, Fred; I think Pham learns something. His life is long, but he spends time engaging the people whose lives he perceives as bleak and brutish, and the person who really sets him straight is Larson, who says that in fact it's not like that, they're not bleak and brutish but quite long, but it's just that he's awake infrequently and sees the universe on a much larger scope. VV: Larson really rakes him over the coals. He says, "In fact, we're both living the same number of years, and in fact, I have access to books about what the rest of the universe is like. You are basically living in a Ruritania of the mind." Pham is not familiar with the term Ruritania [an enclave both within and beyond normal civilization 1 but he gets the message! I think John Clute either wrote that thing you quoted or was the coeditor of it, right? KLH: I don't know who wrote the entry, but he coedited the volume. VV: He also wrote a review of A Deepness in the Sky in which he said something like, "It may have been the most ironic science fiction I've read. It's so ironic that you can read the whole thing and not realize it's ironic." The hard thing about A Deepness in the Sky is that overtly, you have most of the high-tech wonders that people talk about, but if you read it carefully, and especially if you've read the other novel, you realize how trapped these people are. They are really in a bleak situation. The universe as a whole, it turns out, is not bleak, but they're in a bleak situation. They don't know it. Their idea of a happy ending is actually a pretty unhappy thing. All through the story, Pham vaguely realizes that. He's trying to make the universe better, and he's banging his head against the fact that there are constraints. He doesn't know they' re in the Slow Zone. I think in particular, A Deepness in the Sky-although overtly it has one of my happier endings-the characters are massively fooled. KLH: I'm also thinking inA Fire upon the Deep, there's a scene where some characters are pushed temporarily into a slower part of space, and they are just terrified. They think, "0 h, my God, we're going to be trapped." They can't think of anything worse that could happen. VV: In effect, they're being pushed down to the level that A Deepness in the Sky spent its whole time in. I have not been lurking lately, but somebody sent me some Usenet stuff, and one of them was little essay about "what Veroor Vinge means by a happy ending." They went down through all my stories, picking out the low points, and said, "Wow! That's terrible! That's so depressing!" I don't think my stuff is that depressing, although I have noticed in reading other people's stories that a writer can be much more depressing than he realizes. It's very easy to offload one's angst and general unhappiness, and it feels so good when you do. KLH: Those are most of my questions. Do you have any final comments? VV: No, except I am all up in the air about what's happening next. If I were up to it, there would be an obvious third novel that would take place in the Transcend. I had one in the Beyond and one in the Slow Zone, and so I need one set in the Transcend. The architecture is such that it's even clear how the title would scan. It's clear what the overall plot architecture would be-not what the plot would be. The only trouble with writing something set in the Transcend, essentially, is the very reason I put it there: so I wouldn't have to talk about superhuman intelligences. KLH: And then wouldn't it just be an lain Banks novel? VV: It would look a lot like an lain Banks novel. lain Banks basically avoids the superhuman stuff by various techniques, but in Excession, he looked at them more up close. So I'd have to do something even more extreme, and I think both he and I would agree that that's where things get tough-when you're trying to write about superhumans when neither the author nor the readers are superhumans. Kill: They're so difficult to understand on any level. Their motivations are inexplicable. VV: I suspect it will be a while before I can do that thing that we can see the silhouette of: a novel set in the Transcend. KLH: It would be a great project, and good luck with your next book. VV: Thankyou.


NONFICTION REVIEW 6ENRE Fl'SSI Joshua Barr, Marleen S. Genre Fission: A New Discourse Practice for Cultural Studies. University ofIowa Press, 100 Kuhl House, Iowa City, IA 53342-1 000, June 2000. xviii + 272 p. $27.95, trade paper. 0-87745.-7034. "Idiosyncratic" is not necessarily a tenn of disapproval. Used to describe Genre Fission, the tenn, more than anything, embraces and celebrates Barr's unique methodology and discussions. It's an appellation I think Barr herself would welcome. Barr attempts to destabilize our inherited distinctions-be they figurative or literal-and replace them with an amorphous, constantly circulating nonsystemic system. Similar to the explorations of Gayatri Spivak and Michel Serres, Barr does not show her homework to us. This makes her discussions stimulating, fast-paced, and explosive, but it also can sometimes be difficult to fully understand the direction she's heading or the twists and turns within a particular line of criticism. This would also be considered a positive thing by the author, and rightly so. As she repeatedly states throughout her discussions, her "heterotopia" is one of the diverse discourses, where "words cannot be controlled" and the outcome is, although never fully determined, deflIlitely not "the fixed deflIlitions and conservative notions" of the past. The first third discusses possibilities for nontransgressive interminglings between the public and the private, the male and the female. Focusing primarily on written works, Barr rereads literary history with an eye toward writers working against patriarchal discourse. In doing so, she moves from Poe to Max Apple and Saul Bellow, from Lynn Redgrave's reinterpreta tion of her father's performances of Shakespeare to Jackie Kennedy Onassis's enacting of a "new myth" for women. She deftly discusses the final episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, then the "coevolution" of male and female social relations among the works of seven writers such as Margaret Atwood, Joyce Carol Oates and John Updike. She never gives just one reading or one all-encompassing narrative. The middle third moves from the private spaces of written texts to the "public displays" of "sexed spectacles," including the women within the windows of Amsterdam's Red Light district and a Stedelijk Museum exhibit. She also examines objects that are made into gendered bodies-the moon and the Apollo program, the stamp created for the program's twenty-flfth anniversary, etc. She repeatedly shows how the sexism in the Cold War still "seeps" from the past into today. The flnal third considers the impact of more diverse constructions for cultural studies. Barr expands her gender duality to include issues of race, class, ethnicity, and religion. Among the many authors whose works are discussed are Le Guin,Julia Alvarez, Ana Castillo, and Cristina Garcia. The exploration then moves to the works of writers such as Pamela Zoline, Lem, Butler, EricaJong, etc. Her aim throughout is to explode inherited categories of social and cultural distinction. She concludes with an examination of time travel stories in the context of the Holocaust, looking at work by Jack Dann, Martin Amis, E. L. Doctorow, and others. This is a fascinating text. Whether one agrees or disagrees with Barr's critique of a particular text or object, it's her juxtapositions and startling, sudden shifts which are of most interest to cultural critics. She shows that there is no one path to progressive cultural criticism, that onI y multiple, disparate, and nontotalizing avenues of inquiry will allow us to move beyond the myths and narratives of or from the past. NONFICTION REVIEW Andrew Gordon Schwam, Stephanie, ed. The Making 0["2001: A Space Odyssey. The Modem Library, 299 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10771, March 2000. xviii + 326 p. $15.95, trade paper. 0-375-755284. Wheat, Leonard F. Kubrick's ": A Triple Allegory. Scarecrow Press, 4720 Boston Way, Lanham, MD 20706,June 2000. vi + 179 p. $32.50. 0-8108-3796-X Just as 1984 was a year for extensive reassessment of Orwell's classic novel, so 2001 will be a year for revisiting Kubrick's classic film, for judging how accurate the fIlm was as prophecy and how well it stands up after thirty-three years as science fiction film, cultural artifact, and vision. There have been many critical volumes already that focus on 2001: Jerome Agel, editor, The Making a/Kubrick's 2001 (1970), Carolyn Geduld, The Lost Worlds 0/2001 (1979), Piers Bizony, 2001: FJming theFuture (1994), and David G. Stork, editor,Hal'sLegacy: 2001's ComputerasDreamandLegacy (1997). Schwam's book, the first in a new Modern Library fIlm series whose general editor is Martin Scorsese, is a valuable addition to the


study of the film. Wheat's volume, unfortunately, is a waste of time and money. s volume is carefully compiled, offering complete coverage of 2001, including a good introduction by Jay Cocks, detailed accounts of the preproduction process from Clarke and others; accounts of the fUming and postproduction fn;>m and Douglas Trumbull and others who contributed to the fUm? press releases and 1968 reviews; long interviews Wlth Kubnck and Clarke; contemporary reassessments; and a complete Kubnck filmography. The collection traces the film from the first meeting between Kubrick and Clarke in 1965 to the release of the film in 1968 and gives a generous sampling the va:ied responses since then of reviewers and critics. Although the book duplicates material from Agel, Geduld, and BlZony, It adds a lot of new material, so it represents the most current, thorough, and indispensable guide to the movie. It is interesting to read that the first public screening of 2001 was a catastrophe and that most of the New York reviewers despised the flim. But it was embraced by young audiences, who found it mind-blowing. As Annette Michelson writes in her reprinted seminal essay, "Bodies in Space: Film as Carnal Knowledge," 2001 exposed a "generation gap" in the audiences. "Positing a space which, overflowing screen and field of vision, converts the theatre into a vessel and its viewers into passengers." I can testify to the fUm's visceral impact: in 1968, word quickly spread that it was the ultimate "trip" movie, so I came prepared, in an altered state. As I waited in line at the wide screen theater in San Francisco, I watched the young crowd from the previous screening filing out, their eyes glazed or dilated, some of them exchanging knowing glances with me. I sat in one of the front rows and was transported During the intermission, I wondered how the audience could walk around the lobby without benefit of spacesuits. Yet Arthur C. Clarke was very annoyed when a well-wisher at a SF convention thrust LSD in his hands, "in gratitude, I suppose, assuming that 1'd used it for 2001 and needed some more for my next project. Clarke said, "I've never taken drugs ... And as far as I can tell drugs are consciousness-shrinking, not consciousness-expanding." Kubrick, not as disapproving as darke, said, "Drugs, intelligently used, can be a valuable guide to this new expansion of our consciousness," but added, "I believe that drugs are basically of more use to the audience than to the artist." But he thought, "There should be fascinating drugs available by 200 1." In that respect, as in many others, Kubrick proved a poor prophet. But, as Kubrick said of the movie, "It's not a forecast, it's a fable." And darke said, "I've never tried to predict the future. My stories are not predictive. They're extrapola tive and imaginative." Alexander Walker notes, "A retrospective look at 2001 from thirty years later confirms that it has much more impor tance as a work of art and science, one that changed audience's perceptions of how @ms could be viewed, than as a prediction of things to come .... 2001 draws its power from the deepest and most primitive fears and hopes of mankind Despite its title, it will never become dated. Kubrick refused to explain the metaphysical meaning of 2001: "It's not a message that I ever intend to convey in words. 2001 is a nonverbal experience .... I tried to create a visual experience, one that bypasses verbalized pigeonholing and directly penetrates the subconscious with an emotional and philosophic context .... I intended the film to be an intensely subjective experience that reaches the viewer at an inner level of consciousness, just as music does; to explain' a Beethoven symphony would be to emasculate it." Would that Leonard Wheat had heeded Kubrick' s advice. He spends 179 pages explaining the movie to death: "More than an allegory, 2001 is a triple allegory-three allegories on one." The first is a "symbolic retelling, in far more detail than has been imagined, of Homer's epic poem The Odyssey. The second is an allegory about the failure of man-machine symbiosis (the story of HAL). The third allegory replays the main themes of Nietzsche's Ibus Spake Zarathustra. There is nothing wrong with any of these interpretations-and nothing very novel, either. But Wheat hammers them home with tedious, repetitive detail, and never tries to amalgamate these disparate approaches. His writing is also annoyingly condescending. His bizarre treatise reminds me at times of a term paper by an earnest freshman who's just discovered that literature and flim contain symbols, by god, and is determined to prove that every word in a text -indeed, every letter-was placed there for its symbolic meaning. Thus we get this sort of blather: "Look closely at the boldface particles in Heywood R Floyd. They seem to blink on and off like neon signs. He suggests Helen-Helen of Troy. Wood suggests wooden horses-The Trojan horse. And oy suggests Troy." "Oy vey," says I! If you take Wheat's book as elaborate spoof or parody, a Swiftian satire on scholarship, it may provide a few chuckles. But don't take it seriously. NONFICTION REVIEW FAIII'1I'ASYARr: Walter Albert Walotsky, Ron. Inner Visions: The Art of Ron Walotsky. Paper Tiger, London, 2000.112 p. .99, trade paper. Distributed in the United States by Sterling Publishing, 3887 Park Avenue S, New York, NY 10016, $21.95. 085585-77 4-x. U.S. orders to (800) 367-9692.


Eggleton, Bob. Greetings from Earth: The Art of Bob Eggleton. Paper Tiger, London, 2000. 112 p. .99, trade paper. Distributed in the United States by Sterling Publishing, 3887 Park Avenue S, New York, NY 10016, $21.95. 0-85585-662-X. U.S. orders to (800) 367-9692. Sudworth, Anne. Enchanted World: The Art of Anne Sudworth. Paper Tiger, London, 2000, hardcover. Distributed in the United States by Sterling Publishing, 3887 Park Avenue S, New York, NY 10016, $29.95. 0-85585-830-4. U.S. orders to (800) 367-9692. Paper Tiger recognizes three artists at different stages in their careers. Walotsky is the old guard (his first magazine cover dates from 1967), with an extensive record of covers for books, magazines, paperbacks, and records. Eggleton's earliest work appeared on Baen Books in 1984 and, in a meteoric rise, he has received five Hugos since 1994 as well as the Chesley in 1999. Finally, Anne Sudworth, a young British artist, was first recognized for her realistic paintings, but since a 1993 exhibi tion, she has become increasingly known for her fantasy art. Inner Vuions presents examples of W alotsky' s work from the 19605 to the 19905. His style is usually thought to be characterized by a heightened, almost hallucinatory sense of color, but one of his most familiar pieces is the 1981 cover for Thomas Harris's Red Dragon, a silvery rendition of William Blake's "Red Dragon" starkly and dramatically posed against angry, menacing background. And a cover for a recent anthology, The Crow: ShatteredLives, Broken-Dreams (1998), catches a crow in guarded flight, doubled by a shadowed reflection, posed in the midst of a creamy background that shades into a blue, repeating the color of the crow's shadow. Some of his most haunting images are of elaborately decorated masks: in an elaborate variation on the mask motif for The Benedictions o/Pan (1992), a head-almost entirely covered with an intricate network of flowers and plants among which lurk a myriad of fantastic shapes-looks directly at the viewer. And there are the innumerable canvases teeming with alien sculptures, landscapes, and creatures, phantasmagoric cornucopias that seem to spill from W alotsky' s restless yet poised imagination. The book also includes a checklist of covers and brief, appreciative comments by fellow artists, and collectors such as Jane and Howard Frank, as well as commentary by the artist. On the front cover of Eggleton's Greetings from Earth, a flying dragon circles back to a man standing on the roof of a still-burning house. Eggleton, who "loves" dinosaurs, has in recent years painted both dragons and prehistoric dinosaurs. The colorful, impressionistic landscapes against which he displays them shimmer with both heat and cold. A series of oils and watercolors recall the seascapes of Turner and the American Hudson valley l?ainters, whereas a panoramic "planetscape" evokes the lunar landscapes of Bon estell. Romanticlandscapes (castles and ruins) vie for attention with interstellar paintings through which spaceships, of varied and beautiful design, race and soar. His richly colored vibrant paintings are also marked by humor. Anne Sudworth's work is the quietest, the most traditional (in her use of pastels instead of the more brilliant acrylics) and, perhaps, the most mysterious of the three. Her favorite place seems to be the fairy wood (also the title of a 1997 painting), a magic place visited at night, but illuminated at its center by golden hues that seem to rise from the ground. There's something of the English fairytale tradition, but the fairies are seldom glimpsed. She's the only one ofthe three artists to come from outside the modern book and magazine milieu where so many artists flourish. Her early work was realistic (horses are a favorite subject), and even when figures that could have come from some tale appear, they seem startled to be discovered there. None of the three artists seems particularly adept at incorporating human figures into their frames, but in "The Sorceress" (1997) and especially "Waiting" (1995), Sudworth introduces figures from some untold Gothic tale, rare intrusions of fragmentary narratives into her pastel mysteries. (For more information, see < http://> .) All books include comments by the artists. Nigel Suckling provides a connecting text for Inner VISions, and an essay by John Grant accompanies Enchanted World. The British-based Paper Tiger continues its longstanding commitment to publishing books on contemporary fantasy art and commendably includes two well-known American artists alongwith a tribute to a promising young British female artist. NONFICTION REVIEW Walter Albert Merrill, Hugh. The Red Hot Typewriter: The Life and Times of John D. MacDonald. Thomas Dunn/St. Martin's/ Minotaur, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010, August 2000. 256 p. $24.95. 0-312-20905. During his lifetime, John D. MacDonald published seventy novels and more than five hundred short stories, and


more than 70 million copies of his books were sold. His first sale was to White and Hallie Burnett's well-regarded Story magazine in 1945, but his early success was to be in the pulp magazines, beginning with the sale of a story to Detective Tales in 1946. By 1950, MacDonald had published more than 200 stories in the pulps. In 1951, he placed his first novel, The Brass Cupcake, with Fawcett Gold Medal books, a paperback imprint. Much of his fUture output would be published as paperback originals, a format which-like that of the pulps-received little critical attention. The publication of TheExecutioners in hardcover by Simon and Schuster in 1957, and its sale to Hollywood and success as the original Cape Fear, brought MacDonald the kind of attention that he had been denied. In spite of this success, the first thirteen titles in the Travis McGee series, which was to bring him his greatest acclaim and success, were still published as paperback originals. 1974 saw the first hardcover McGee, The TurquoiseLament, with hardcover reprints of the earlier titles beginning soon after. MacDonald's work was first recognized by New York Times mystery columnist Anthony Boucher, who compared his fiction-in its range and craftsmanship-to that of George Simenon. In 1965, Len and June Moffatt, longtime SF and mystery fans, began publishing the JDM Bihliophile, the first fanzine devoted to a mystery writer. It's still published, currently edited by Edgar W. Hirshberg, author of a 1985 Twayne book on MacDonald. And by MacDonald's death in 1986, he had received the Grand Master award from the Mystery Writers of America and the Grand Prix de Literature policiere for the French edition of his novel, A Key to the Suite. Although Merrill generously refers to Hirshberg as MacDonald's biographer, Merrill's detailed portrait brings the reader closer to MacDonald's often difficult personality and underlines the melancholy that only deepened with age. In addition, MacDonald's passionate concerns for subjects such as the environment and an impersonal world increasingly dominated by machines give his narrative voice a distinctive flavor that Merrill is particularly good at identifying. David Geherin' s JohnD. MacDondd (Ungar, 1985) still offers the best commentary on the Travis McGee series, and Hirshberg gives a somewhat fuller treatment of MacDonald's SF and fantasy than either Geherin or Merrill. Although all three writers underline the importance of MacDonald' s pulp fiction, their treatment-given the extent of those writings-is cursory. Merrill's knowledge of that area seems somewhat remote, and his statement that "by the 1920s, there were hun dreds of pulp magazines" is both extravagantly inflated and incorrect in detail, because many of the magazines he lists were not published until the 1930s. With its extensive use of the University of Florida manuscript collection and interview transcripts, Merrill's study can be considered a definitive biography. And in its meticulous documentation of MacDonald' s unwavering professionalism and skill it is also a tribute to writers too often undervalued because of their work in the critically defmed fictional ghettos of the pulps and paperback originals. NONFICTION REVIEW ANEIUCAN A. Langley Searles Oakes, David A. Science and Destabilization in the Modern American Gothic: Lovecraft, Matheson, and King. Greenwood Press, Box 5007, Westport, CT 06881. vi + 144p. $49.95. 0-313-31188-9. Orders to {800} 225-5800. "Gothic" has traditionally referred to a type of fiction appearing during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century described as medieval and romantic rather than classical than in nature. It began with Horace Walpole's The Castle ofOtranto in 1764, and most critics agree that by 1824, the genre had petered out in Britain in the sense that by then it no longer attracted writers of talent. It lingered somewhat longer in America, where the works of Poe and Hawthorne marked a later demise. In recent years, however, a few dissenting voices have claimed that gothic literature did not end then. It continued to exist, they argue, identifIable and significant, and has so existed during the entire twentieth century. To support this claim, they cite the presence of the same elements and devices in both older and modem works. Among these are stock characters (Innocent heroines, evil villains, and mysterious scientists), haunted castles, descents into underground regions, unexplained disappearances, and the like. David Oakes, who advocates such an extended outlook, lists numerous other elements in his comprehensive introduction. Revisionists also hypothesize that modem works have the same effect on readers as did (and do) The Cast1eofOtranto, The Monk, Wzeland, Frankenstein, and their ilk. Like their predecessors, later works are said to focus on the darker aspects of society, reflecting its common concerns and fears. As Oakes puts it, "Gothic fiction is a literature of destabilization." To demonstrate this he analyzes selected works of three writers: H. P. Lovecraft, Richard Matheson, and Stephen King. If original gothic elements were indeed found unchanged {or even only slightly updated} in modern works, it would indeed lend credence to the genre as an important and lasting literary form. But they are not. Take the castle, which I chose because it has been termed absolutely essential. In the contemporary works cited, it is actually almost always absent. To get around this, substitutions for it are posited. One might accept a haunted house as a reasonable equivalent, but Oakes


claims that castles can be represented by wilderness areas, underground caverns, lost cities, automobiles-even flying saucers! Similar substitutions appear in place of all the other traditional devices, too. When, according to need, anything can be made equivalent to anything else, skeptics are understandably liable to remark that what we are seeing is not a bona fide extension of a recognized literary for, but simply a device to lengthen academics' curricula vitae. There are other problems as well. The interpretations imposed by this new gothicism necessarily conflict with other frameworks that have long been generally accepted as useful and revealing, ones that I doubt most critics would be willing to jettison. Oakes also makes much of a fear of science being omnipresent in society. In fact, such fear has never been continuous. The public's attitude toward science was positive during much of the period under discussion, in the first half of the century decidedly so. "Better things and better living through chemistry," for example, was actually a DuPont advertising slogan then. Finally, one measure of the worth of any; new hypothesis is that it can add to our insight. But I find no significant additions here. Fiction need not be gothic for its readers to be made disturbed, frightened, and horrified (or "destabilized"). Indeed, extending the gothic label can be analytically reductive. Take, as does Oakes, Lovecraft's stories. Lumping them with those of other writers encourages overlooking not only the unique quality, the cosmicism, possessed by certain ones, but the fact that these differ markedly from those of Lovecraft's Poesque and Dunsanian periods. We have thus not taken a step forward in literary criticism, but rather two steps back. Where does all this leave us? Oakes has done his best for a losing cause. He writes well and seems sincere, but his efforts have been fatally hobbled by a flawed premise. NONFICTION REVIEW H.1'f, A. langley learles Lovecraft, J. P. Lord of a Visible World: An Autobiography in Letters ofH. P. Lovecraft, edited by S. T. Joshi and David E. Schultz. Ohio University Press, Scott Quadrangle, Athens, OH 45701, August 2000. xix + 385 p. $49.95.0-8214-1332-5, $24.95, trade paper, -1333-3. Orders to (773) 568-1550. We have two formal biographies of Lovecraft to date. That of 1975 by L. Sprague de Camp, himself a writer in the field of fantasy, has been criticized by some as being basically unsympathetic to his subject's lifestyle; more importantly, perhaps, his biography seems dated, for inevitably it does not embody much information that has accumulated in the quarter century since publication. The much lengthier 1996 biography by Joshi corrects the latter failing; but because its author has so closely identified himself with his subject, the text skews any prejudice in the opposite direction. Lord of the Vzsihle Warld falls somewhere between. Exactly where will depend on readers' individual casts of mind and personal responses to Lovecraft's own letters, which make up the bulk of this new book. Although the editors do provide a measure of guidance and direction, which is not entirely without bias, their book is still largely a do-it-yourself biography. In contrast to the five collections from Arkham House, where Lovecraft's letters were carefully excerpted to exhibit his positive, laudable qualities, the ones here seem more typical, truer to the everyday average of his correspondence. They show him more candidly-wars and all. Many are printed complete, or nearly so. When read thus in bulk, so to speak, they lead us to conclusions heretofore avoided or viewed as unlikely, and on occasion even unprecedented. For example, I have never heard either Lovecraft's devotees or detractors refer to his letters as boring. But some of these certainly are. Pages are devoted to the purchase, division, and consumption of a loaf of bread, a can of beans and a chunk of cheese; dithering over the purchase of a second-hand suit is stretched out to 2500 words; and on paper, some of the man's tireless peregrinations become simply tiresome plodding. Lovecraft lived with his mother until he was twenty-nine and with one of his aunts until he was thirty-five. His brief marriage was to an older woman--clearly a mother figure, as a psychiatrist once noted. His letters here confirm that until late in life they were the dominating figures in the relationships: "My mother was ... a person of unusual charm and force of character .... [Before her death,] much of my interest in things lay in discussing them with her and securing her views and approval." Thus the conclusion made by James W. Thomas half a century laterthat Lovecraft was a "mama's boy" no longer seems particularly controversial. Lovecraft's well-known xenophobic views, which have been excused as not unusual in his day, are documented as well. Although some writers have suggested that these lessened as hew grew older, which I once thought myself, the evidence here shows them still operative as late as 1936, a year before his death. One letter, in which he pokes fun at the Semitic heritage of Kenneth Sterling, a teenage fan who idolized his work, is one of the most painful pieces of writingI've ever encountered. None of these things diminish the man's intelligence, breadth of interests, or cosmic outlook, all of which the


amplyyerifies. But they do emphasize that was far from human being, truly an outs1der 10 his tlffie-which of course may be why he was able to wnte some of the fascmating and compelling fiction that he did. The physical characteristics of the book are all praisewonhy. The hardback edition is sturdily bound in cloth, and the SIZe and style of type used is comfortable to read. There is a general index, numerous notes on the text, a glossary of important names cites, and lists for further reading. I do have a few quibbles with their work. The date and name of the addressee of each letter should have preceded it in the main body of the text, as was done in the Arkham Selected Letters volumes. The entries are not all in chronological order; to judge their content one ought to know this, and the identity of the recipients, before reading them. Having to refer constantly to a separate listing in the back of the book is inconvenient and tiresome. In some cases, the footnotes might have been expanded. Comparing the purchasing power of money now with what it was when Lovecraft wrote would have been helpful (determined readers can do this by checking < lbu21inflateCPL.html > and plugging in the variables). And the editors should certainly have informed readers that recent research has shown that Lovecraft's recounting of his early paternal history is not based on any genealogical research of his own at all, but on family legends that are largely fanciful. These points aside, let me say that I enjoyed Lord of the Visible World and recommend it. Most of the letters are new to print or appear in expanded form from what we have previously seen, and in their entirety, the letters come closer than any other assemblage to showing Howard Lovecraft as the person he was. They not only make interesting reading, but consti tute a valuable reference for scholars. Broderick, Damien. Transrealist Fiction: Writing in the Slipstream of Science. Greenwood Press, Box 5007, westport, CT06881,June 2000. 195 p. $65. 0-313-31121-8. Orders to (800)225. Transrealist Fiction could serve as a companion to Broderick's Reading by Starlight (Routledge, 1995), in which he attempted to construct a theory of postmodern science fiction using Samuel R Delany as an exemplar. In this study, he continues his examination of postmodernism in SF by proposing the evolution of a bifurcated model of SF: first, the Star Wa7:S, Star Trek (and the like) novel tie-in branch that produces more complex, serious (for want of a better word), and experimental texts. The dismissal of both branches by mainstream scholars has often been based on the frequently inaccurate perception that the genre is plot and setting driven, with resulting poor characterization. If this take on contemporary SF sounds familiar, it is, as it has been proposed earlier by, among others, Silverberg and Aldiss. However, Broderick extends the definition of porno SF by offering the concept of transrealism originally posited by Rudy Rucker as "writing about your immediate perceptions in a fantastic way ... [with] characters ... based on actual people." In other words, transrealist writers employ the apparatus of SF and fantasy to describe their immediate reality, or their peculiar perception of it, because SF is the most valid lens through which they can depict their personal experience. As a result, they are thereby freed to create dynamic, rounded characters. Perhaps this, too, is restating and redefining the obvious. Broderic's two most substantive and closely argued chapters focus on Philip K. Dick and Rudy Rucker, whom Broderick identifies as models for transreallst writers. He argues that Dick continually mined his personal experience, including failed marriages, drug abuse, religious euphoric, and haunting childhood incidents for material in earllEovels such asEyeintheSky(1951) and TheBrokenBubble(ca.1956) through his later Valis (1981) and The Transmigration oj limotby Archer (1982). Dick's characters frequently mirror himself or the dark-haired girls who fascinated him. As Dick admits, he was "making use of what I went through and saw to feed back into my life as a writer, so that it was not wasted in that respect." Most of the biographical information was gleaned from Anne Dick's The Search for Philip K Dick (Mellen, 1995) and Dick's essays collected in The Shifting Realities of Philip K Dick (Vintage, 1995). Rucker's chapter is deeply informed by autobiographical information provided through what appears to have been a lengthy and frank corresponcb1ce between him and Broderick. It includes a table that identifies the character representing Rucker in each of his stand-alone works and series as well as the period in his life, from the early 19605 through the late 1990s, that each text portrays. Rucker admits that many of his characters are composites of family members and other people he knows (as in the Ware series), but in most of his work, "the main character is modeled on me," as in White Light (1980) or Saucer Wzsdom (1999). However, the difficulty of claiming the centrality of complex characterization would be difficult to read as such without intimate knowledge of the writer's life, and most writers withhold those details from us for reasons of privacy and even modesty. Furthermore, the danger of reading too much transrealist autobiographical detail into dynamic,


rounded fictional characters might force writers to include personal disclaimers in their novels, as does Nicola Griffith at the close of Slow River. TransrealistFiction is alternately absorbing and frustrating. It also contains too many typos and a high price tag for 176 pages of text. Still, Broderick actively extends the boundaries of science fiction critical theory. It's a risk well worth taking, and Transrealist Fiction should be read by anyone interested in closely reasoned, cutting-edge criticism. NONFICTION REVIEW rERIIY lteven H.lilver Butler, Andrew M., Edward James, and Farah Mendlesohn, eds. Terry Pratchett: Guilty of Literature. The SF Foundation, 22 Aldington Road, Reading RG 1 SPT, England, May 2000. x + 183 p. /VS$16, trade paper, plus /$4 shipping. 0-903007-01-0. Although this is a collection of ten original essays that study the writings ofPratchett, it is clear that the authors worked together on both the structure and the content of the overall book, thereby ensuring that although contradictory viewpoints are presented, the book is not contradictory taken as a whole. The book opens with a general introduction and a discussion of coming of age in Pratchett's novels. V nfortunately, neither essay presents a strong argument. Cherith Baldry's discussion of his children's books manages to add some heft by tracing recurrent themes and examining multiple series and novels. This essay points out that Pratchett's ideology tends to be consistently represented in his various works, and the novels can be used to form a coherent ethical philosophy. Before delving deeply into the specifics of the Discworld series, Andrew Butler discusses several theories of humor that have arisen in the twentieth-century and how Pratchett's work can be taken to illustrate different and sometimes contradictory ideas. Once this groundwork is laid, the essays have a tendency to focus on specific aspects ofPratchett's work or on one sub series, and there is little tracing of recurrent themes elsewhere. The strongest essays are those tracing the growth of characters and themes in several books, as in Baldry's essay, Karen Sayer's discussion of the witches, and Edward James's essay about the City Watch. Because Farah Mendelsohn could draw on all ofPratchett's works, her closing argument about faith and ethics is the most fully realized essay. The essays onI y begin to speculate on their respective subjects. Many of the recurring characters in the books are ignored or given short shrift, ranging from the Luggage to, surprisingly enough, Rinceward. Some books are frequently cited for proof, whereas others are ignored entirely. The reader can only help that this first book on Pratchett will spark more in depth studies of the nature of and symbolism in Pratchett's writings. Primary and secondary bibliographies and an index are provided. NONFICTION REVIEW Pawel frelick Roberts, Adam. Science Fiction. Routledge, 29 W 3Sth Street, New York, NY 10001-2299,june 2000, ix + 204 p. $50. 0-415-19204-8; $14.99, trade paper, -1920S-6. London, and .99. V.S. orders to (800) 797-3803. The New Critical Idiom series attempts to provide "clear, well-illustrated accounts of the full range of terminology currently in use, and to evolve histories of its changing usage. A lecturer at the University of London and an SF writer himself, Roberts charts the past and present of SF in a manner that, by balancing its major concerns and some of the emergent discourses, makes his book a concise (albeit necessarily general) introduction to the genre, suitable for both interested readers and classroom students. The first of the five chapters covers the issues of SF's positioning in literature. Roberts juxtaposes several major definitions, notably those by Suvin, Scholes, and Damien Broderick, and tries to reconcile their theories by pointing out certain convergences between their disparate theoretical terminology. Chapter 2 examines both the genealogy of the genre and its focus on history per se in its simultaneous backward and forward gaze. In later chapters Roberts discusses what he sees as three dominant discourses of contemporary race, and technology. All chapters are also supplemented with case studies of exemplary texts, notably Dune, 1he Left Hand a/Darkness, and Neuromancer, and two films, Star Wan andMen in Black. A number of other literary works and films are mentioned more briefly, and there is a glossary of the most important terms. On the whole, Roberts sees SF as a literature that relies on and recycles several crucial tropes: a widely understood


encounter with difference, an interaction of historicity and futurity, and a performance of the imperial sensibility which he sees reflected in British and American SF. Compared with other introductory surveys, such as Mark Rose'sAlien Encounters (1981) or Patrick Parrinder's Science Fiction:A Critical Guide (1980), Roberts is less theoretical and more accessible to the general reader both in terms of his texts that have permeated the public imagination and therefore do not require extensive reading or research-Star Trek, for example. Science Fiction is therefore a valuable introduction for those whose knowledge of the genre is rudimentary. Such generality may be jarring to those who expect a more in-depth discussion or greater specificity. The survey dispenses with even a cursory mention of SF written outside the UK and the United States 01 erne is an exception). There is no discussion of prominent contemporary themes such as ecology or sexuality. Several careless errors should have been caught: Lucian, a second-century writer, is not a "novelist"; Spinrad's name is misspelled; the gender chapter appears to imply that women's SF is the same as feminist SF; Bruce Sterling is credited with the invention of the term "cyberspace"; and so on. But these are minor flaws which don't in the least compromise this very lucid and approachable introduction. NONFICTION REVIEW Cynthia Davidson Wolmark, Jenny, ed. Cybersexualities: A Reader on Feminist Theory, Cyborgs and Cyberspace. Edinburgh Univer sityPress,22 George Street, Edinburgh EH8 9LF, Scotland,July 1999. viii + 374 p. 0-7486-1118-5; .95, trade paper, -1117-7. Distributed by Colurnbia University Press, 61 W 62nd Street, New York, NY 10023,$75, $25. This book has three parts: Technology, Embodiment, and Cyberspace, Cybersubjects: Cyborgs and Cyberpunks, and Cyborg Futures. Jenny Wolmark, head of theoretical studies at the Hull School of Art and Design, wrote an essay on romance in postmodern science fiction and wrote afme introduction for each section. The essays in part 1 talk of the body in time and space, how perceptions of these have altered, how these perceptions relate to past and current theories in the sciences, and how they have been portrayed in the media, all with particular emphasis on how the feminine has been understood. The second part revolves around the "consensual hallucination" of cyberspace and its developing counterpart, virtual reality, with frequent references to the works of William Gibson, Bruce Sterling, et al., and the impact this movement has had on conceptions of femininity, as well as its largely unacknowledged debt to feminist SF. The third section is the most theoretical, focusing on responses to Donna Haraway' s work and its relationship to Marxist feminism, queer theory, and any cultural critique that raises the possibility of transgressive cultural constructions of otherness. This is a massive undertaking, and there were moments of sheer pleasure and useful synthesis throughout. Sadie Plant's ingenious "The Future Looms" depicts the veil dance of the simulating feminine through weaving and software design, spinning together Freud, Ada Lovelace, Luce Iragaray, and the Jacquard 100m into an Aracnian web of prose. Elizabeth Grosz summarizes the evolution of conceptions of space-time from Aristotle to Einstein, filtered through the sexuality theories of Freud, Lacan, Kristeva, and Iragaray, to show how dominant cultural and scientific paradigms are projected onto women's experiences. The essays about cyberpunk are particularly useful and readable, not only for feminists but anyone reading and writing about cyberlit. I especially liked Nicola Nixon' s critique of sexism in cyberpunk and Veronica Hollinger's overview of the entire movement, with a nod of recognition to its "absent mother," 1970s feminist SF (pointed out by Samuel R. Ddany). The challenging third section culminates with Haraway's ten-year-old essay, "The Promises of Monsters. "The other essays are either responses to Haraway's cyborg vision or extensions and modifications of it. Having these essays grouped together is both terrible wonderful and everything in between, as befits the contents. Chela Sandoval does her best to link cyborg feminism to every other form of "rnestizaje" or differential consciousness (mainly "third-world" feminism); Donald Morton's "Birth of the Cyberqueer" introduces (to some of us) the provocative term "post-gay queerity," which made me laugh. This was a welcome respite from the immensely serious tone of Haraway's writing. I do get the point, that Haraway wants not to enlighten-pull the "god-trick," as she calls it -but to screw around with such things, cast interference onto the false image of CultUral Unity. This book is best suited for an academic audience, those interested in technological and media theory; readers fond of Scott Bukatman's Terminaildentity,Joe TabbiandMi Wutz's anthology, ReadingMattm: Narrativein theNew MediaEcology, or Arthur and MarilouiseKroker's G TIiEORYWebsite are likely to enjoy it. It's also recommended for any twenty-first-century feminist with an interest in science fiction.


NONFICTION REVIEW OF 0% Neil Barron Baum, L. Frank. The Annotated 'Wizard of OzJ>: A Centennial Edition, edited by Michael Patrick Hearn. W. W. Norton, 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110, September 2000. xii + 16 unpaginated pages in color. $39.95. 0-393-04992-2. In 1970 the publisher of the first edition of Martin Gardner's 7heAnnotatedAlice asked him if he wanted to follow up with an annotated edition of the Baum classic. He said he didn't know enough about Baum and Oz. Some months later, the publisher received a proposal from Hearn and, with Gardner's blessing, accepted it. When he turned in the manu script, Hearn was a twenty-year-old graduate student at Bard College. He's since done annotated editions of A Christmas Carol and Huckleberry Finn, and in 1983 he edited a Schocken book that reprinted the Baum novel along with an excellent sampling of reviews and critical commentary. The 1973 Clarkson Potter annotated was 11 x inches, an odd size that required the original illustrations to be "squashed." This centennial edition is a more standard x 10 inches, scrupulously reproducing the 1900 edition's text, with all the masterful color illustrations ofW. W. Denslow, plus of course the extensive annotations, many new or revised, which are on pages facing the novel's text and set in smaller type. The color endpapers reproduce Baum's own maps of Oz and the areas surrounding the fabled land The reproductions of the color illustrations and black-and-white photos are much better here, and the paper's fmish is smoother. The jacket design by Chin-Yee Lai and Eleen Cheung is very handsome, effectively incorporating a handful of Denslow drawings in a period embossed jacket. Allowing for inflation, it costs about the same as the $15 1973 edition, and thus is very reasonably priced. The lengthy introduction incorporates the extensive scholarship of the past thirty years, as does the excellent 14-page primary and secondary bibliography. The 3-page index in the Potter edition was dropped, although a revised version could have easily been included on the six blank pages of the final signature. The sewn binding appears to be sturdy, although this edition is likely to be read more by adults, for whom Hearn says it is intended When the Oz books began to enter the public domain in the mid-1950s (fifty-six years was the former copyright limit in the United States), many reprints were published (the Dovertrade paperbacks are bargains). The Baum Bugle has been published since 1957 by the International Wizard of Oz Club. Although the reception of the Oz series by libraries has been decidedly mixed over the years, most own at least a handful of the fourteen titles Baum wrote, but I suspect few own the forty or more that have been published to date. Scholarship and appreciations continue, such as the well-illustrated piece in the June 2000 Smithsonian Magazine. Hearn remarks in a note that "there has grown up a peculiar literary sub-genre of adult novels drawing on the Ozmythology," such asP.J. Farmer'sA Barnstormer in Oz (1982) and Geoff Ryman's Was (1992), the second of which I highly recommend. Let's let Hearn have the last word about his book: "It should amuse the already avid and often purist Oz enthusiast. Those who know Oz only through Judy Garland may find Baum's story a pleasant surprise. For those who have long been self-exi1ed from Baum's domain, it may serve as an enlightening reintroduction to Oz. Children have never needed one, for they have known the magic all along." NONFICTION REVIEW fd McKnight Stockwell, Peter. The Poetics of Science Fiction. Pearson Education, Edinburgh Gate, Harlow, Essex CM20 2JE, England, April 2000. xi + 250 p. 0-582-36994-0; .99, trade paper, -36993-2. As Carl Freedman argues in Critical1beoryand ScienceFiction (reviewedinSFRAReview 247), the SF genre is ideally suited for most of the contemporary critical approaches to literature that are today often put together under the umbrella of critical theory-most notably deconstruction, psychoanalysis, and Marxism. But the poetics of SF-what we might more commonly call the stylistic analysis of the genre on the linguistic levelseems to be almost universally ignored. I can think of two possible (although mutually exclusive) reasons for this. First, the qualities that make SF distinctive from other genres exist entirely on the level of plot, theme, and-perhaps most impor tantly-setting. On the stylistic level, however-when we start comparing the proportion of gerunds to infInitives in an author's work, for example-there is nothing distinctive about SF as whole, and therefore very little point in studying it. Second, it is better to remain focused on the grand themes and exotic settings of the SF genre because there are enormous stylistic differences between SF and other literary genres that, when investigated, are just plain embarrassing for SF.


Peter Stockwell, a lecturer in English at the University of Nottingham, bravely confronts both ofthese and in so doing demonstrates the falsehood of both. The obvious stylistic differences between Bester and Asimov, are not secondary to differena;s; in fact, one can be to shed light on the other. Nor are the stylistic differences between Bester and Hemmgway necessarily such that an apologLst for SF would prefer to ignore them. I first discovered the curiously illuminating relationship between linguistics and science fiction when I stumbled upon Walter Meyers' delightful 1980 book, Aliens and Linguists. Stockwell has, in a sense, picked up where Meyers left off. Rather than simply arguing that the science of linguistics is as important to SF as physics or biology, Stockwell also argues the reverse: that SF is an important field of study for the science of linguistics. One example of this argument can be found in his discussion of metaphor as structure mapping. In the phrase "Juliet is the sun," Juliet is regarded as the unfamiliar "target domain" that is described by being "mapped" onto a more familiar "source domain," namely the sun .As Stockwell points out, however, in SF this relationship is often reversed; the more familiar is described by means of the less familiar. This is the case in Gibson's famous opening line to Neuromancer. "The sky above the port was the color of television, tuned to a dead channel." Stockwell untangles this contradiction by arguing that Gibson "is neatly dramatizing in a single visible metaphor the technique of immersing the reader in the cultural assumptions and viewpoints of the future. The most readily accessible reading that resolves this metaphor is simply that the sky is a grey colour. But the metaphor also suggests that televisions are most basic and natural than day." Although Stockwell often uses linguistic analysis in this manner to shed light upon science fiction, he more frequently uses SF merely to illustrate the terms and techniques of linguistics. His chapter on neologisms reads like a catalog of linguistic terms: "borrowing," "derivation," "compounding," "shortening," and so on. The examples he uses to illustrate each type-"done," "tricorder," "terraforming," and "borg" -will perk the interest of the SF reader, but could just as easily be replaced with words from everyday speech. At its best, The Poetics of Science Fiction rises above simply using the genre to illustrate linguistic concepts and instead demonstrates the limits of current linguistic methods, and it suggests ways in which SF will playa role in pushing a new generation of linguists beyond those limits. NONFICTION REVIEW AItII'A,#;,srAltlIlRlrISN V".PIAS Len Hatfield Claeys, Gregory, editor. Restoration andAugustan British Utopias. Syracuse University Press, 621 Skytop Road, Suite 110, Syracuse, NY 13244-5290, June 2000. xxxvi + 271 p. $45, trade paper. 0-8156-2824-2. This collection of rarely published seventeenth-century utopian texts will be welcomed by most libraries and for scholars working in the field of English literature, English social and political history, and utopian studies. Claeys is an eminent social and political historian who has produced extensive work of interest to utopian scholars, including his previous collections, Utopians of the British Enlightenment (1994),Modern British Utopias, 1700-1850 (eight volumes, 1997), and The Utopian Reader (with Lyman Tower Sargent, 1999); editions of the writings of Robert Owens and Thomas Paine, as well as important studies of nineteenth-century socialism. This background clearly informed his selection of these eight short utopias, as well as his brief introductions and notes on the texts' provenance and authorship. The utopias indude Richard Hawkins, "New Atlantis ... Continued by R. H." (1660); Margaret Vavendish, "Descrip tion of aNew World, Called the Blazing World" (1668); Henry Neville, "Isle of Pines" (1668); John Shirley, "Discovery of Fonseca" (1682); Francis Lee, "Antiquity Reviv' d: Orthe Government of a Certain Island Antiently Call'dAstreada" (1693); John Bellers, "Proposals for Raising a Colledge of Industry" (1869); A. Philadept, "An Essay Concerning Adepts" (1698); and "The Free State of Noland" (1701). The collection ends with a short listing of known British and translated utopias from 1660-1700, and an index. The texts are lightly glossed to provide historical references and to clarify a rare term or usage, but Claeys preserves the variant spellings and capitalizations of the originals, which retains much of their spirit while presenting them in a readable, two-column format. Despite the good news of fresh access to these rare texts, several not previously reprinted, I suspect the $45 cost will keep most teachers from making it a required reading. But if it makes its way on to reserve reading lists, we'll have a new and welcome opportunity to get at important utopias long restricted to rare book collections.


NONFICTION REVIEW a.HR FrHE ""H 6-.".y Neil Barron Weinberg, Robert. HOTTor of the 20th Century: AnnZustrated History. Collector's Press, Box 230986, Portland, OR 97281, October 2000.256 p. $60. 1-888054-42-5. Orders to (800) 423-1848. This is a companion to Frank Robinson's Hugo-winning Science Fiction 0/ the 20th Century (1999; reviewed in SFRAReview 244) and 'rlls Pulp Fiction: The A rt o/FictionMagazines (1998; reviewed in SFRAReview 237). They're all picture books, 10 x 13-inch hardcovers, with the text, including the captions, occupying about 15% of the books. It's necessarily descriptive rather than analytical. The publisher claims there are 450 color illustrations, which I don't doubt. They're a mixture of book jackets, paper book covers, magazine covers (pulps and recent fanzines), of course ftlm memorabilia, mostly posters. The garish sex and violence cover is adapted from the reproduced British posterforthe 1958 Hammer film, Dracula, with Peter Cushing. Many of the fum images in all three books, plus hundreds of others, are found in Graven Images: The Best of Horror, Fantasy and ScienceFictionFilm Art from the Collection of Ronald V. Borst (1992). Borst owns Hollywood Movie Posters, wrote the very knowledgeable captions and text, and helped both Robinson and Weinberg. Most of the books and magazines are from the collection of Weinberg, who was a dealer for many years. His 1989 book, A Bibliographical Dictionary o/Science FictionandFantasy Writers, was a Hugo nominee and World Fantasy award winner, and The Weird Tales Story (1977) is an affectionate history. Contrary to the jacket flap, he's never won a Bram Stoker award for best novel; he shared a coeditor award in 1998 for best anthology. The arrangement is chronological. The classic gothic and the work of later nineteenth-century writers is illustrated mostly by reprints, since illustrated book jackets became common only in the early twentieth century. The full-page reproduction of the cover of Richard Marsh's 1897 novel The Beetle could have been taken from the gallery of BEMs appearing on the covers of pulps such as Thrilling Wonder Stories. The antiquarian ghost period, 1900-1930, also relies on reprints of works by M. R James, Wakefteld, the Bensons, Blackwood, Hodgson, Leroux, and Stoker. Early horror films range from The Cabinet o/Dr. Caligari to Britain's 1945 anthology fIlm, Dead o/Night. "Horror on a Budget" explores the cheap book editions of the Depression and, of course, the earlier pulps, notably Weird Tales. Margaret Brundage fans will be pleased. The repros of this lurid, formulaic junk, whose appeal was to adolescent males of all ages (why else the endless variety of semiclothed women threatened with an endless variety of indignities?) have an almost supernatural quality, with originals unblemished (no tom or worn covers, etc.). Arkham House gets considerable and justifted coverage for its pioneering books of the 1940s and 1950s. Radio series such as Lights Out are discussed. The minor paperbacks of this period are surveyed, plus several of the earlier horror comics, such as Tales 0/ the Crypt and other EC titles. The 1950s saw a revival of interest in horror flicks on the late-night Shock Theater. The Hammer horror fIlms began with 1957 s The Curse o/Frankenstein, and American International Pictures (Roger Corman) began releasing its fIlms. Ackerman's Famous Monster> o/Filmland found wide popularity among younger readers. Psycho debuted in 1960. TV series such as The Twilight Zone dramatized some horror. The era of graphic fIlm horror began in 1968 with Romero's Night 0/ the Living Dead. Blatty's TheExarcist was a 1971 bestseller, and the 1973 film, recently rereleased, was equally popular. King's Gmiewas published in 1974, and the popular fIlm followed in 1975. The era of brand-name horror had begun, and many other writers achieved wide popularity, such as Dean Koontz, Anne Rice, Whitley Streiber,J ames Herbert, and Clive Barker. New women writers emerged, such as Kathe Koja, Poppy Z. Brite, and N aney Collins. Horror became increasingly graphic, with erotic and sometimes pornographic elements often prominent. R L. Stein and Christopher Pike dominated the teenage horror novel. Images swamp ideas and subtlety in this expensive bit of eye candy. The text is too brief to provide a more serious reader with an understanding of the power of blackness. Forthat, individuals and libraries should instead consider books such as David Punter's The Literatureo/Terror(1980) or DavidJ. Skal's TheMonster Show:A CulturalHistory of Horror (1993). NONFICTION REVIEW I'IIItl'E Neil Barron Kelleghan, Fiona. Mike Resnick: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide to His Work. Farthest Star/Alexander Books, 165 Macedonia Road, Alexander, NC 28701, August 2000.480 p. $20, trade paper. 1-57090-109-0_ Lirnitedhardcovered.,$35,1-57090-112-O.


Resnick.s ftrst published books were pseudonymous softcore porn, romance and gothic books ("hun-dreds" says Kelleghan, mercifully not described elsewhere). He entered SF fandom about 1962, and his flrst books in this genre were derived from Edgar Rice Burroughs and published 1965-68. Non-SF editorial work and the raising of collies followed until the early 1980s, when he largely limited his writing to SF. He hasn't looked back since, and his primary book bibliography lists sixty-six titles through 2000 (the chronology, pp. 29-44, ranges from his birth in 1942 to books and stories to be published in 2002). Since 1989, he's won four Hugos and a Nebula for short ftction (some of his many stores connected with Africa, collected in Kirinyaga, 1988), plus a variety of lesser awards and many nominations. He and his wife, Carol, have been active in fandom and have contributed much writing to fan publications. When I learned of this book I found it hard to believe its length. When I received the review copy, I realized that it was originally intended for Borgo Press's author bibliography series, which attempted to be exhaustive; they were certainly exhausting. The citations are grouped into twenty-two followed by a 74-page index. The sixty-six books take 114 pages of small print to describe in excruciating (and needless) detail, and review citations are also included. Even their collies, named for SF stories, get 3 pages. This bibliography is itself listed. There are black-and-white photos of many of Resnick's publications, several simply ads for the publisher, Alexander Books. Resnick is obviously a popular author, although he wasn't among the sixty best SF and fantasy authors of the 1990s listed in the August 1999 Locus listing (but I suspect he was among the 125 receiving three or more votes). Resnick fans will probably want this, but I can't imagine who else. FEMSPEC an interdisciplinary feminist journal dedicated to critical and creative works in the realms of SF, fantasy, surrealism, magical realism, and the supernatural ... questioning gender across the boundaries of what is real and what is not real in a variety offeminist approaches, inclusive of ethnic and cultural diversity in an internationalist, multicultural perspective ... Upcoming themes, articles and authors: Native American speculative writing; real and imagined blackness; women in surrealism; Latino-Latina writings; Jewish women's magical realism; sffilm; horror; girls anime;Chinese fantastic women; Veronica Hollinger on utopianldystopian works;Robin Murray on Terri Windling 's Magical Realist Ecofeminism; Theresa Crater on the Triple Goddess. Batya Weinbaum, Editor Ritch Calvin, Associate Editor Paula Gunn Allen, Darko Suvin, Marleen Barr, Gloria Orenstein, Samuel R. Delany, Contribut ingEditors Octavia Butler, Joanna Russ, Marge Piercy, Suzy Charnas, Florence Howe, Pamela Sargeant, Advisory Board Subscribe: FEMSPEC, Department of English, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OR 44115 fems,


Scllence Fllctllon Research Assocllatllon www.s'ra.ora books,andletrm. TheRtviewaklprintsnewsaboutSFRAintema!aIfairs, fmrasy lirerarureandfilm Founded in 1970. rheSFRA was organized roimprove cillsforpapas, updaresonwoIksin books and dealingwithfmtlSticliteratureand film, reaching rre:hodsand rountries-5wdell1:S. n::u:has, prof=rs, librarians, fuwrologists. readers, authors, book sellers, editors, publishers, archivist:s, and scholars in many disciplines. Academic afliliacion is not arequirernent for rrxmbership. VISit the SFRA Website at>. Fora member:ship applicarion. rontaarhe SFRA Treasurcrorsee the website. SFRA Benefits Extrapolation. Four issues per year. The oldest scholarly journal in the field. with critical. historical. and bibliographical articles. book reviews. lerters. occasional special topic issues. and an annual index. Scimet-Fiction Studies. Three issues per year. This scholarly journal includes critical. historical. and bibliographical articles. review articles. reviews. notes. letters. international coverage, and an annual index. SFRA Annual Directory. One issue per year. Members' names. addresses. phone. e-mail addresses. and special interests. SFRAReview Stxis.-rues peryea.t This newslerrerljoumalindudes ooensive book reviews ofborh nonfiction and fiction. review articles, lisrings of new and forthcoming SFRA Optional Benefits Fount.Uztion. Discounted subscription rate for SFRA members. Three issues per year. British scholarly journal. with critical. historical. and bibliographical articles. reviews. and letters. Add to dues: $30 surface; $36 airmail. The New York Review of Science Fiction. Discounted subscription rate for SFRA members. Twelve issues per year. Reviews and features. Add to dues: $25 domestic; $34 domestic first class; $27 domestic institutional; $28 Canada; $36 overseas. SFRA Listserv. The SFRA Listserv allows users with e-mail accounts to POSt e-mails to all subscribers of the listserv. round-robin style. It is used by SFRA members to discuss topics and news of interest to the SF community. To sign on to the lisrserv or to obtain further information. contact the list manager. Len Hatfield. at> or>. He will subscribe you. An e-mail sent automatically to new subscribers gives more information about the list. President Alan Elms Psychology Department U of California-Davis Davis. CA 95616-8686 SFRA Executllve Commllttee Vice President Secretary Carolyn Wendell English Department Monroe Community College Rochester. NY 14623 SFRARerier Craig] acobsen 208 East Baseline #311 Tempe, AZ 85283 Adam Frisch 2308 Summit Street Sioux City. IA 51104-1210 Treasurer Michael M. Levy Department of English University ofWlSconsin-Stout Menomonie. WI 54751 Immediate Past President Joan Gordon 1 Tulip Lane Commack. NY 11725 PRESORTED STANDARD U.S. POSTAGE PAID TEMPE, ARIZONA PERMIT N0.45


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