SFRA review

SFRA review

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SFRA review
Alternate Title:
Science Fiction Research Association review
Science Fiction Research Association
Place of Publication:
Eugene, Ore
Science Fiction Research Association
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Subjects / Keywords:
Science fiction -- History and criticism -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Fantasy fiction -- History and criticism -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Science fiction -- Book reviews -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Fantasy fiction -- Book reviews -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
serial ( sobekcm )


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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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Resource Identifier:
S67-00040-n279-2007-01_02_03 ( USFLDC DOI )
s67.40 ( USFLDC Handle )

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SFRA review.
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Science Fiction Research Association review
Eugene, Ore. :
b Science Fiction Research Association
c January-March, 2007
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x History and criticism
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Fantasy fiction
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Book reviews
Fantasy fiction
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#1T. Editor: Chrisiine Mains l1anaging Editor:Janice M.Bossiad NonfictionReriews:Ed McKnishi FictionReriews:EdCarmienScienceFictionResearchAssociation SFIUI Rerie""1415IIITHISISSUE:FictionReviewsDeliverer 22 TheAndroid'sDream 23 Gradlsll 24 Rollback 25 SunofSuns 26 10 202 23 SFRABusinessEditor'sMessagePresident'sMessageMinutesofExecBoardNonFictionReviewsAllenConstructions g FanFiction&FanCommunitiesAllenTheoryI 2 CapedCrusaders101SupermanontheCouchFantasybyLobdell 16 LiteraryGalaxyofStarTrekChristineMains,Editor Box 66024 Calgary,ABTININ4TheSFRAReview(ISSN 1068-395X)ispublished four times a yearbytheScience Fiction Research Association(SFRA) anddistributedtoSFRAmembers.Individualissuesarenotforsale; however. starting with issue#256.allissueswillbepublishedtoSFRA'swebsitenoless than10weeks after paper publication. For informationabouttheSFRAand its benefits. see the descriptionatthebackofthis issue. For a membership application.contactSFRATreasurer DonaldM.HasslerorgetonefromtheSFRAwebsite: .SFRAwouldliketothanktheUniver sityofWisconsin-Eau Claire for its as sistanceinproducingtheSFRAReview.SUBMISSIONSThe SFRAReviewencouragesallsubmis sions, including essays, review essays thatcoverseveral related texts, and inter views.Ifyou wouldliketoreview non fictionorfiction. pleasecontacttherespective editor. JaniceM.Bogstad, Managing Editor 239 Broadway St.EauClaireWI54703-5553 EdMcKnight, Nonfiction Editor I13Cannon Lane TaylorsSC29687 EdCarmien, Fiction Editor 29 Sterling Road PrincetonNJ08540


)NewsItems:TheBritishScienceFictionAssociationAwardswerepresentedatthe2007Eastercon. Novel:EndoftheWorldBlues,byJonCourtenayGrimwood;ShortFiction:"TheDjinn'sWife," byIanMcDonald;Artwork:Angelbot, by Fanghorn.Thewinnerofthis year's PhilipK.DickAwardforbestpaperbackoriginalhasbeenannouncedasChrisMoriarty'sSpinControl.A Special Citation was issuedforElizabethBear's novel Carnival.Theinductees intotheScienceFictionHallofFame,housedattheScience Fiction MuseuminSeattle, havebeenannounced.Theinduc tionceremonywill be heldonJune16inconjunction withthepresentationoftheLocusAwards.Thisyear'sinducteesinclude:GeneWolfe, Ridley Scott,EdEmshwiller,GeneRoddenberry.ThewinnersoftheTiptreeAwardhavebeenannounced.HalfLife,by Shelley Jackson;TheOrphan'sTales:IntheNightGarden,byCatherynneM.Yalente. Spe cial MentionforJamesTiptree,Jr.:TheDoubleLifeofAliceB.Sheldon,byJulie Phillips.TheLambdaAwardnominations,givenforGay,Lesbian,Transgendered, and bisexualwriting havebeenannounced.ThefinalistsintheSci-Fi/Fantasy/HorrorcategoryareCarnival,byElizabeth Bear;Mordred,BastardSon,byDouglas Clegg;AStrongandSuddenThaw,byR.WDay;IzzyandEve,byNealDrinnan;SpinControl,byChrisMoriarty.(SFRABUSINESS Edlltor'sMessage ChristineMains \Vbw, it's dlat time again? As farasI can tell,wejust celebrated Christmas! .\nd nowwe're well into dleNewYear.Thatmeans,amongodler d1i.ngs, a new executive committee, whose contact infomlationisonthe back pageof me SFRARetielv.Itmeans a new conferenceisalmostuponus, and President Adam Frisch encourages everyonewhocan make it to Kansas City to make dleir plans soon. Sadly, I won't be seeing you meredUs year (toomuchteaching in Spring term),butI am verymuchlooking forward to 2008 in Dublin. And now it's timefordle broken record again.Indle last issue, we were able to include a contribution to me Approaches to Teaching series by Neil Easterbrook, and we (still) hope to include a pieceon Approaches to Teaching Heinlein in dle next issue (andifyou have any thoughts atallonteaching Heinlein in dle classroom,whedlerit's a few sentences to share your own experienceora coupleofparagraphsonwhat you would doifyou could, pleasecontactme). \Ve'd love to be able torun someming in me "\pproaches series in every issue, soifyou have anydlOUghtsonany aspectofteaching science fiction, any experiences you'd like to share, pleasedropmea line. And on dlat note:Ifyou have ever had any trouble emailing me, please emailanyoneoftheodler SFIL\ Editors to pass along a message tome .\ppar endy dlereisa very occasional and very weird glitch in my email (somedlingmyISPisunable to track down) that responds to a very few emails with a note mat I am not accepting callers (or some such wording to mat effect). I really do want to hear from SFRA members widl dleirdlOUghtsand ideasondle Review, so pleasedon'tlet a little technologicalgnomestand in me wayofourcommunication.SFRABUSINESS PreslldentsMessage AdamFrischDuring dle coming two years your SFRA Executive Committee will con tinue to emphasizeourorganization's groWdl. New teclmiques we are putting in place inorderto maintain and increaseourmembership range from dle creationofattractive SFIL\ wristbands advertisingourorganization's name (available beginning dlissummerat Kansas City) to dle additionofLomsmagazineasa readily available new subscription/ renewal option for SFIL\ members s tarring in 2008. SFIL\ VP. Lisa Yaszek and Secretary Shelley Rodrigo are also updatingourrecruitment brochure for this summer's meeting.Inaddition,aspartofherrecmitment responsibilities Lisa has begun a systematic searchofSF-related pub lications and conference presentations for new contact nmnes +a systematic search for previous memberswhomight once again be interested in renewing meir memberships. i\llofdlese initiatives should help widenourorganization's ap peal and effectiveness. TIle one major changeallmemberswillnoticewillbe dle earlier renewal dates for 2008 membership. Initial renewal-request letters for 2008 willgooutduring the first couple \veeksofSeptember (rather than between Thmlksgiving mld Christmas, \vhen everyone's short on cash), widl follow-up reminders in early Nm-ember.Oneob\-ious advmltage of tillS earlier renewal calendarisdlatallmembers who re-up by Dec. 1 can be promised uninterrupted joumal subscrip tions, without mlY ofthose irksome (mld tmlgential) postcards sent direcdy from)


the publishers warningofimpending termination. "\1so,SFR.c-\ will have fewer costs sendingoutback issues to members who renew late (you'd be surprised the hassle andcostthat late renewals entail), and future secretaries and VP's will have an easier task identifying and attempting to re-establishcontactwith memberswhodon'trenew. Meanwhile, your executive committeeiscontinuing to search for and implement improvements that should make networking with colleagues ever more efficient and useful.By tlus summer's meeting changes to the SFR.c-\ website should be in place, including a password-protected area where tile 2008 "-\nnual Directory can be posted online (you'll still get your hard copyoftile Directory in tile fall) witllOut being accessible to those nasty web cra\vlers looking to expand theEmpireofSpam. We also arehopingto update tile SFR.c-\ websiteona more regular basis; we're looking for a volunteer who will take anhourorsoofIus/hertime once amonthto scourourListserv and a fewothersources and tllen sendour\Vebmaster Sam informationontile latest SFR.c-\ news, awards,papercalls, projects, etc. to updateourwebsite. For tllis smallbutvery useful sen-ice tile volunteer will be able to augmenthis/herresume witll tile titleof "SFR.c-\ \\'ebContentDirector," nominoraddition in what oneofmy former students called the"doggy-dogworldofacademics." (Letmeknowifyou're interested in tllis new position.) "\nd speakingoftile Listserv, the executive comnuttee continues to takeallappropriate steps to assure tile free exchangeofrelevantS.F.informa tionontllis wonderful site. Finally,SFR.. -\ has confirmed commitments for its annual meetings tl1rough 2010 (after Kansas City thissummerthere will be mcetings in Dublin [2008], Atlanta [2009], and Phoeni..:;[2010]), ,md we ha\-e already received prelinu nary inquiries about anotllerEuropeanmeeting site for 2011, detailsof wluchwe hopeto present to tile membership at the Kansas City annual meeting. So comeondown (up? over?) to l-":'ansas City in July. It'saneasy-to..reach and relatively inexpensive venue, and conference director David Mead isdoing a wonderful job"me slung" oursessions withalltllOsecelebrity sessions tile Heinlein Centennial folks are paying for. Notonly will you get to interactWitllyour colleagues, hear some fine papers and panel presentations, plus eat too much,buton Friday evening you're guaranteed to be challenged by and delighted witil the remarksofour2007 Pilgrim andour2007 Pioneer winners.Hopeto see you tllere.SFRABUSINESS Minuies 0' Execuiive BoardShelleyRodrigoScience Fiction Research "-\ssociation Executive Board MeetingDates/Times: January 26,2007; 6:00pm-9:15pm January 27, 2007; 8:00am-12:00pm; 1:00pm-3:30pm Attending: "-\dam Frisch, President Lisa, Yaszek, Vice Presidcnt Shelley Rodrigo, Secretary Donald M. Hassler, Treasurer DavidG. Mead, Immediate Past PresidentROLES&RESPONSIBILITIES \X!e startedWitlla discussionoftile agenda for thc wcckend ,md revicwed thc rolesofeach officerasdictated by the organization's by-laws. \\'c noted the official recruitment and advcrtising responsibilityofthe Vice Prcsidcnt ,U1d dccided that wlOfficially related to that roll was overseeing the wcbsite. \\'e also discussed the time and labor intensi\-e natureofthe Treasurer's roll sinces/heisrcsponsiblc for((TheCrawfordAwardforthebestdebutfantasybookhasbeenpresentedtoM.Rickertforhercollec tionMapofDreams.TheDellMagazineAwardforun published fiction by anundergraduatewaspresentedtoNattyBokenkampofStanford University;TheLordRuthvenAwardrecognizesexcellenceinvampirefiction. This year,awardswerepresentedtoBarbaraHamblyforhernovel Renfield: SlaveofDraculaandBruceMcClellandforSlayersandTheirVampires:ACulturalHistoryofKillingtheDead.Thenomineesforthis year'sHugoAwardshavebeenannounced.Novel:Blindsight,PeterWatts;Eifelheim,Michael Flynn;Glasshouse,CharlesStross;HisMajesty'sDragon,NaomiNovik;RainbowsEnd,Vernor Vinge. Novella: "A Billion Eves,"byRobertReed; "Inclination," by Will iamShunn;"Julian: AChristmasStory,"byRobertCharlesWilson;"LordWeary'sEmpire,"byMichael Swanwick;"TheWallsoftheUni verse,"byPaul Melko. Novelette:"AIi theThingsYouAre,"byMike Resnick;"Dawn,andSunset, andtheColoursoftheEarth,"byMichaelF.Flynn;"TheDjinn'sWife,"byIanMcDonald;"PolPot'sBeautifulDaughter"by Geoff Ryman;"YeliowCardMan,"byPaoloBacigalupi.ShortStory:"Eight Episodes,"byRobertReed;"TheHouseBeyond YourSky,"byBenjaminRosenbaum;"HowtoTalktoGirlsatParties,"byNeil Gaiman; "ImpossibleDreams,"byTimPratt;"Kin,"byBruceMcAliister.John W. CampbellAwardforBestNewWriter:ScottLynch, SarahMonette,Naomi Novik, BrandonSanderson, LawrenceM.Schoen,)


)TheNebulaAwardnominations list hasbeenannounced.Novels:ThePrivilegeofthe Sword,by Ellen Kushner;Seeker,byJack McDevitt;TheGirlintheGlass,by Jeffrey Ford;Farthing,byJo Walton;FromtheFilesofthe Time Rangers,byRichardBowes;ToCrushtheMoon,byWilMcCarthy.Novellas:"Burn,"by James PatrickKelly;"Sanctuary,"byMichaelA.Burstein;"TheWallsoftheUniverse,"byPaul Melko;"lncli nation,"byWilliam Shunn. Novel ettes:"TheLanguageofMoths,"byChrisBarzak;"WalpurgisAfternoon,"byDelia Sherman; "Journey intotheKingdom," byM.Rickert; "Two Hearts,"byPeterS.Beagle; "Little Faces,"byVonda Mcintyre.ShortStories:"Echo:'byElizabeth Hand;"HelenRememberstheStorkClub;'byEstherM.Friesner;"TheWomaninSchrodinger'sWaveEquations," byEugeneMirabelli;"HenryJames, ThisOne'sForYou,"byJack McDevitt; "An End ToAllThings,"byKarina Sumner-Smith; "Pip andtheFairies," byTheodoraGoss.RecentandForthcoming(Spring,2007)Abrams, JeroldJ.ThePhilosophyofStanleyKubrick.Kentucky Univer sity Press. Ashenden, Gavin.CharlesWiJliams:AIchemyandIntegration.Kent State. DeGraw, Sharon.TheSubjectofRaceinAmerican Science Fiction.Routledge. Dickerson,Matthewand Jonathan Evans.Ents,Elves,andEriador:TheEnvironmentalVisionofJ.R.R.Tolkien.Kentucky University Press.(pkeepingallofthe membership data and dispersingasneeded (which includes a lotofindividuals: secretary,VP,the editorsofallthe publications, etc.). 2007 ANNUAL CONFERENCE (I<:ansas City, held simultaneously with dIe Heinlein Centennial Conference) As ofthe meeting, Dave I\fead (conference organizer) had 12 paid conference registration fees/memberships. $60 dollarsofeach conference registrationfeegoes to the Heinlein conference; however, dley are giving us useofpresentation rooms in dIe hotel. Daveishopeful we will have many people since itisearly in dIe registration process.He dUnks we'll get enough to pay forourguests, and thatisallwe need! Philip Snyder and Carolyn Wendle are organizing dIe presentation sched ule. Leslie .-\nn Swagart said she willputdIe program togedler.Ourawards presen tations and speeches will beonFriday evening soasnotto conflict with dIe Heinlein banquet.Nodinner will be served atouraward event, so it will probably run from 6-7:30 pm., letting attendeesoutearly forodleractivities. Adam will announce dIe winners at Saturday's banquet. Currendyourguest authors include: Steele, PoW,&Gunn. \Ve may have odlers; Heinlein conference has lotsofauthorscomingaswell. \Ve are offeringouraudlOrs rooms, conference participation, and $300 for travel.TheHeinlein organizers maycompSFR.. \. someofdIose rooms for dIe audlOrs. There will benoseparate SFR..\. bookroom. Dave mentioned that the Heinlein conferenceismanaging technology in Kansas City, and he doesn't dlink they will be billing us. Dave's tentative program: Thursdayafternoon-12:00registration; 3:00pm couple setsofpapers; general meeting in dIe evening with guest writersupfront Friday papers; 6-7:30pm .\.ward Presentation (no food) in evening; local First Friday art galleries (open until9) Saturday: papersupto Spm; announce award winners at Gala Some concerns and ideas: \Ve wonderedifpeople assume dlatifthey are registering foroneevent and dnt they are automatically signed up forourconference? Inthe past SFR..\. goodfor hangingoutw/ audlOrs; what willhappenat this event? I\faking surenomajor conflicts widl dIe "big" Heinlein events?Getgeneral oudineuponwebsite/outso people know whatisdoing. Give people dnt propose papers earlygoodtime slots and advertising for dleir papers / panels, even in dIelistserve prior to dIe conference. Have Carolynputtogedler panels and announce them early \Vill ourschedule be in dIe general Heinlein program book?Needto have a moreprominentlink from dIe Heinlein conference website toourconference website. Dowe need to schedule a trip?OTHERUPCOMINGCONFERENCES 2008:Dublin-setfor Trinity College, Dublin; Farall I\fendlesohn organizing 2009::\danta-setfor Georgia Tech; Lisa Yaszek organizing 2010:PhoenL,/Tempe-setfor Tempe; Shelley Rodrigo & Craig Jacobsen orgalllzlllg 2011: Pawel Frelikis plalming to submit a proposal for Polalld; there are potentiallyothersites being proposedaswell \\'e briefly discussed whetherornotwe needed to change processes, including front money, costs, and dIe manual. Dave had a copyofthe manual andissending copies to Lisa & Shelley. \Ve also mentioned that oneofthe strengdlsofourconferencesisthe variety in style, organization and structure. \Ve want to suggest and supportconference orgallizers to build in a "arietyofevents, trips, andodleractivities that take advantage oftheir location and strengths as conference organiz ers.SFR.. \."\W\RDCOi\L\fITTEES\Ve discussed dIecurrentmake upofeach jury and gave some suggestions for future 2008 replacement members. \Ve emphasized the need to reconfirm alld/ orreestablish theduee year rotationalleach committee. \\e agreed that dIe President should have the ability to makeupthe committeesWitJlOutdirect executive com-)


5)Russ,joanna.TheCountryYouHaveNeverSeen:EssaysandReviews.LiverpoolUP.Proucher,jeff.BraveNewWords:TheOxfordDictionaryofScienceFiction.OxfordUP.Newitz,Annalee.PretendWereDead:CapitalistMonstersinAmericanPopCulture.DukeUP.Nevins,jess.PulpMagazineHoldingsDirectory:LibraryCollectionsinNorth America and Europe.McFarland. McKee, Gabriel.TheGospelAccordingtoScienceFiction:FromtheTWilightZonetotheFinalFrontier.john Knox Press. Hazell, Dinah.ThePlantsofMiddleearth:BotanyandSub-creation.Kent State. Kane,Paul.TheHellraiserFilmsandTheirLegacy.McFarland. Grebowicz, Margret (ed.)SciFiintheMind'sEye:Reading Science through ScienceFiction.OpenCourt. Glyer, DianaPavlac.C.S.Lewisandj.R.R.TolkienasWritersinCommunity.Kent State. Stableford,Brian.ScienceFactandScienceFiction:AnEncyclopedia.Routledge. Tuerk, Richard.OzinPerspective:MagiCandMythintheLFrankBaumBooks.McFarland. joshi,S.T.lconsofHorrorandtheSupernatural:AnEncyclopediaofOurWorst Nightmares.Greenwood.(mittee input. We clarifieddlat ilie chairsofdle awardcommitteesdonotnotify dle winners, ilie presidentdoes so. \V'e also agreed iliat weshouldinstitute a practiceofsending iliank you notes to ilie committeemembersso dMt dley can savedlemfor tenure files.2007 Award Committee Members 1.PilgrimJury a. Dave Hartwell(c)b.CharlieBrowncF.BrettCox2.PioneerJury a. Lisa Yaszek(c)b.Chris tine i\fains cJanice Bogstad3.ClaresonJury-\Vediscussed iliat JoeSanders (Cleveland) has ilie award specs. a. b. Mack Hassler(c)Neil Easterbrookc i\[ardM Bartter-wewerenot100%positiveandwill followupwidl Mardla. 4. j\[aryI<:ay BrayJury-\V1l111ers receive a check$100& Mike Levy might have a certificate templateonfile. a. Ritch Calvin(c)b.Philip SnydercTom j\[orrissey 5.Graduate StudentPaper-\Vinnersreceive SFR..-\ membership for a yeara. Sarall Canfield Fuller(c)b.Paul BrianscPawelFrelik-wewerenot100% positi,re and will followupwidl Pawel. GO"\LS OF INCOj\lINGBO"\RI)j\lEj\lBERS 1.Dave Mead, the ImmediatePastPresident, wants toexpandourmembershipthroughcross pollination withodlerorganizations; for example, by exchanging advertisements in organization publications.Otherideas includedconstructing a Second Life community.Hewants to make surethat every singlepersonwhoinquiresaboutSFR.. -\ isgenuinely welcomed. Finally, he wanted to make sure dlat we were systematically archivingallofourmaterials (especially conference programs) widlourarchivist at dle Uni,-ersityof l-'=an sas.RichardClementUniversityof I-'=ansas Special Collections I-'=enneth Spencer Research LibralTUninrsity of l-'=allSaS Lawrence: KS 66045 2.Shelley Rodrigo, the Secretary, WalltS to see more strategically plalUled (alld documented) recruitment strategies thatl11clude all updated website alld the eventualconstructionof all online database. She suggested that we begin dialogue with Digital arts and Gallling organizations. Finalh", she suggested dMt weconstructconference recruitment packets dlat include brochures, sodlatSFR.. -\ memberscan readily request them to take tootherconferences.3. Mack Hassler, the Treasurer, emphasized his100-eofthe continuedrehlmofmembers; thatSFR.. -\ gathenngs are like homecomings. HO\"ever, he believes dlat electing ne,\' officers alld keeping some tumO\Tr in the executi,-e boardishealthy for the organization. Finally, he would like to see a dedicated his to riall/ chroniclerofthe orgallization. 4.Lisa Yaszek, the Vice-President, agrees with the desire to grow themembership; however, she wants us to retainoursenseofidentity ,Uldcommunit\. She would like to look backwards in old to try toentice pastmembersbackaswellaslookforward and try to enticebothgraduate ,md wldergraduate shldents. She also thinks it would be usefulif we \\-ere to create visible tracks at i\[L-\ and other conferences. She would like to see usdo( )


CfPs:Weaver, Brunas and Brunas.UniversalHorrors:TheStudiosClassicFilms,1931-1946.McFarland. Wilson, Eric G.TheStrangeWorldofDavidLynch:IronicReligionfromEraserheadtoMulhollandDr.Continuum. Willis, Martin.Mesmerists,Monsters,andMachines:ScienceFictionandtheCulturesofScienceintheNineteenthCentury.Kent State.31,343.00 513.47 700.00 278.79 62,684.41 95,519.67 375.00 743.19 352.00 8915.10 400.00 1000.00 100.00 79.68 40.92 50.00 4300.00 5144.00 5144.00 2528.00 2731.50 880.00 425.00 622.00 33,886.70 61,632.97Duesand subs (328 members)(since paypal takes %, amounts arenoteven) Royalties Scholarsupportgifts Bank interest Carryover from12/31/05TotalIncomeExpensesPresident Office (copies at conference) 56.31 VP. Office (ad inChronicle)Secretary Office Treasurer Office Conference inNY(1000 seed, plus motel) Travelsupport(NY conference) UIUV; ofKansas(Gunn AboutSF) Bray "-\ ward Clareson Award Pilgrinl Award J\femorial for wifeofPeterBrigg Review and Directory Science Fiction Studies Extrapolation N'r'RSF Foundation JE-\FEJ\fSPEC J anual)' exec meeting (advanced)TotalExpensesOnhand12/31/06 FIN.-\NCL-\Li\L-\TfERS DuesStructure i\fack mentioncdthatboth FOllndalion and FelJJ.lpecneeded to raise dleir rates.Hetoldbothwecouldnotdoso for '07; however, rates for dlOse journals will be raised in dle '08 dues structure. Adal!! iJ10gelin101ld)IlJilhFoundationto verifywhatneeds to be changed. \\'e bricfly discussed the possibilityofadding an unemployed category; howcvcr, i\fack reminded ushowcomplex the dues struc-somethingwith the largeamountin savings. Finally, she wants us to figureoutan incentive to (re)joinontime,withouthavingtopunishthosewhodonot.5. Adam Frisch, the President, wants to retain the casualenvironmentthatincludes the ease with which people can join, the friendlynatureofthe peopleandourmeetings, and usewhatpluses we have (includingmeetingworking writers)aspromotional materials.Overthe next two yearshewantsgrowthemembershipclose to 400 individuals,bemoreinteractive with international organizations, and overallbecomeamoreproactive organiza tion with amoreproactive executive committee. TREASURER'S REPORT "-\s ofDecember31, 2006, SFRA has $61,632.97 dollars in dle bank. Mackmentioned someofdle differences from earlier years' expenses, including an ad inTheChronicleofHigherEd,and someofdle Secretary's costs.Theconference in \Xlhite Plains was about a $9,000 loss.Theconference hostshadmentioneddle possibil ityofpublishing aproceedingwidl FineToothPress to helpmakeupsomeofdle loss.TheReview and "-\nnual Directory appear tobeundercontrol.Hementioneddlathandlingallofdle pass-dlrough moniesfortheodlerjournalsisa tedious task, especially since he has to supply all dle names and addresses. Mack also mentioned dlat dle executive board meeting would cost approximately $1,700. We were excitedaboutdle surplus amoilllt, especially in lightofourconstructionofexplicit"Supporta Scholar" programs; however, we alsodonotwantto only take from dus amount. \Ve learned from Planes and know weneedto have a reserve sitting for emergencies.Income)WHAT:ThePostcolonialWondrous:ThirdWorldinScience Fiction and Fantasy TOPICS: SincethepublicationofEdwardSaid'sinfluentialbookOrientalism(1978) andtheseminalstudyTheEmpireWritesBack:TheoryandPracticeinPost-ColonialLiteratures(1989)by BillAshcroft,GarethGriffiths, and HelenTiffin,Postcolonial Studies hasemergedasoneofthemostproductiveand significant aca demic disciplinesofthelatetwentiethand twenty-first centuries.Theconceptsofempire-building, various formsofgovernance, colonization, andpowerand cultural relations betweendifferentspecies/raceshavebeencentraltoSF/Feversincetheinceptionofthesegenres. BothinthequestsofFantasyandexploringspace frontiersofScience Fiction,thedilemmaofrespondingtoencounterswiththe"Other"isresolvedinvarious ways ranging fromthemostretrogressivetotheutopic.Thisbookaimstofillthislacunainbothpostcolonial and science fiction and fantasy studies.Thebookiscomprisedoftwomain sections:thefirst dealing withrepresentationsofthethirdworldinSF/Fliterature and cinemaoftheWest,andthesecond(0()


ture alreadyis(and how difficult itisto track). We agreed to continue with offering general scholar support insteadofadding an wlemployed category. \V'hile discuss ing benefitsofmembership, J\Iack mentioneddlat having dleoptiontoget]FAisnice; however,notmany people are choosing dlat option.Itwasproposedto consider replacing dle optionof]FAwidlLoCliS. \Ve need to explore ilie possibil ity wiili dle editorsofLocus and discusshow me logistics and finances might work. Since ilie organization currendy has a surplus in savings, we decided we definitely didnotneed to increase dle general dues amount. \X1e did spend a lotoftime discussing renewals. Currendy dley are basedona calendar year and dle rhydlm we are in, especially wiili rolling membership,isdifficult to manage. \X1e areconcerned iliat hard-line renewals might make me actualnumberofmembers drop. \Ve have decided to slighdy revise dle renewal letter and bill format widl a litde more"bite"to motivate people to renewontime. \X1e also decided to moveupdle timeline: SeptemberiO-startsendingoutrevised renewal notices Novemberi-sendanodler roundofrenewal notices Novemberis-requesteddeadline December i---emphasized deadlineFor iliis to be ready to go in early fall, we need to pin down dle rates forallmembership options by dle Swnmer conference. TIle Secretary will needtorecon struct ilie renewal notices and dues/billing foml."Support a Scholar" FundCurrendy dle"Supporta Scholar" fundisonly used for tra,-elsupportrequests and occasional membership benefits for scholars who needodlersupport. \\e decided dut dle useofdlese funds needed to be more clearly defined. \\e agreed to institute duee official programs: SFRA ResearchGrant-forpeople to use to collect resources, tra,-el to archi"e collections, etc. \\c need to organize a proposal, review, and approval process. SFR..\ TravelGrant-Currendypeopleapply/ask the president and he ap proves and tells dle treasurer. \Ve may need to organize a proposal, review, and approval process in dle future. SFR..\ MembershipRelief-Currentlyscholars whocan'tafford member ships, especiallynon-Nordl"\merican/Intemational scholars, maybe apply/ ask dle president and he approves and tells the treasurer. \\e may need to organize a proposal, review, and approval process in the future. However, we donotwant to whitde aw'ay ourresources, so we will establishanendowmentline item in dlebudgetto pay for the three items. Togetstartedwewill purchase a $30,000 CD, and use its interest to fund this line item. \\e also briefly discussed how we can more aggressivel:' ad"ertise for donations to tlle"Supporta Scholar" fund, and possibly even pursue an endowment.SFRA Tax StatusCurrendy we are a not-for-profit, 7C status where dues arenotdeductible. (3C status allows deducting dues.) The instihltional stahlSisin the stateofOhiofor dle next 4-S years. \\'e are currently ingoodstanding with both the state and the IRS. Bruce Rockwood looked into pursuing 3C stahlS and suggested itisnotwordl dle headacheofall invoh-ed.. -\damisgoingto verih' with Bruce one last time and dlen let sleeping dogs lie for a while.MEMBERSHIP SFR..\ had 328 members in 2006 ("\dam will write a letter to Peter Brigg telling him his goalofgetting a membership over 300wasmet.) ..\dmll's goalistoget400 members(anumberthe organization was at in the mid '80s). \\'e then dis cussed stmldard retention proceduresofrenewal reminders. \\e spent a lotoftime discussing recruitment procedures, with a focus on the Brochure. \\e agreed it needed to be updated and discussed the following typesofideas: .\dd tothe front that we shld,' "litera hire andothermedia" \Ve liked the history, maybe it more dynamic, bring111tothe present (orgmlized, continue, expmlded) Discussourrestruchlringofsupport a scholar, research grmHsiUld otherexciting changes J\Iake the tableofdues "ery clearc(exploringSF/Fproducedfromthethirdworld.Possibleareasofresearchinclude(butarenotlimited to):theimportanceofSF/Finprovidingforumsforexamining thirdworldissues;intersectionsofpostcolonialtheoryandSF/F;analysesofthirdworldcharactersinWesternSF/F(includes case stud ies);the imperialist traditioninWesternSF/Fthis maybewith specialreferencetoconstructionsofrace, gender, class, sexuality, culture, andsoon;WesternSF/Fthatconfoundsoravoids stereotypicalrepresentationsofthethird world;SF/Fthatinvestigates issues specifictoa par ticular thirdworldcountry/culture; case studiesofthirdworldSF/Fauthorsand filmmakers; thirdworldadaptations/variations/parodiesofWesternSF/F;SF/Ftraditionsinthird world countries outsideoftheWest(i.e., piecesthatillustrate a historyofSF/Foutsideof, and possibly pre dating,orconcurrentwith,theemergenceofWesternSF/F);explo rationofissues such as technology, ecology,reproduction,socialstructures,political systems, etc.inSF/Fproducedinthethird world;representationsoftheWest/firstworldinSF/Fproducedinthethird world. SUBMISSIONS: 3500-6000wordsMLACONTACT:ErickaHoaglandandReemaSarwal DEADLINE:31July2007)


WHAT: South Atlantic Modern Lan guage Association (SAMLA)WHEN:November9-11,2007WHERE:Atlanta, Georgia TOPICS:TheScience Fiction and Fantasy DiscussionCircleinvites papers addressingtheroleofspace and placeinworksofscience fic tionorfantasy.The intentionofthis panelistoexploresomeofthefan tastic, other-worldly, and transfiguredlocationsofthesetwogenres,inparticularthepolitical and ideo logical implicationsofcreations such as Middle Earth (Tolkien), Arrakis (Dune), andNewCaprica (Battlestar Galactica).Howdospaces motivate conflictsinsJ. and fantasy?Whatat titudestowardstheinhabitation and useofspace dominate?Howdofic tional places participateinthecon structionofidentities such as race, class, and gender?Whatnewpoliticalpossibilitiesorformationsdospeculative spaces allow? Papertopicscouldaddressbutarenotlim ited to:-Thepoliticsofexploration and colonizationSpacesoutsideofcapitalism andthenation-stateUto pias and dystopiasGlobal empires, interplanetary federations, and post nationalgovernments-Representationsofecological disaster andthepoliticsofotherNatures-Visionsofthecity-Thehomeofthefuture, andthefutureofhomemakingConven tional topoi such asthelostciviliza tion andthepost-apocalyptic waste land-Thepolitical implicationsoftechnologiessuch asspaceships andteleportation-Virtual spaces, other-dimensional spaces SUBMISSIONS: 300-500wordabstractand updated CVCONTACT:AndrewReynolds DEADLINE:May15,2007(8) Take dle restoutofafter"membertype," we can followupwidl dlem to get dnt information Lisa, dle Vice President,ischarged willi revising dle brochure by the 2.007 confer ence in KansasCity.Otherideas for recruitment included making officer appeals in llie Review, espe cially from dle President and Vice President, exchanging advertisements widl oilier organizational publications and linksonorganization websites, and being sure toprintdle membershipformonthe backofthe RetieliJ. It seems like llie advertisementrunin dleChronicledidnothave any results and wasnot worlli dle cost. .-\dam isgoing to check willi Chrissie about any exchange agreements we might already have. \Ve discussed more targeted recruitment strategies. First, members should take brochures to local conventions and tootherconferences widl memberships dnt mightbe interested in dlem. We discussed writing per sonalnotes to people dlat we read an essay by that are not already members. (Lisaisgoing to look into getting note cardsand/orpostcards printed for more casual communication.) discussed possibly sending thank you cards to conference presenters, maybe evenallconference attendees. \Ve discussed the hard sciences folksasa potentially neglected group and brainstormed ideasofasking scientists to each conference todobrownbags with dlemes like "\\1lat isdleeventhori zon like dlese days in science?" Lisa suggested Sydney Berkowitz for2.007. \Ve also discussed high school teachersasa possible audience and discussed targeting dlem at llie National CouncilofTeachersofEnglish conference (Shelley may be going in November) and build themastargeted individuals for the travel grants. Finally, we discussed asking \Vendy Bousfield and Leslie Swagger about how to better engage widllibrarians and archivists. SFR.-\PUBLIC-\TIONS WebsiteThewebsite doesgetrandomGooglehilS U1al produce cOlllIllunications with individuals outside dle organization. TIle board believes itiscurrendy easy to read, easy to negotiate, and aesdletically pleasing. \Ve discussed dnt we have multiple audiences with different needs, including members, prospective mem bers, and possibly teachers looking for materials to help teachSF.Currently llie site map suggests materials lliat arenotpresent. Some ideas we discussed were to include sample syllabi, noticesofmembership achievements (upcoming books and awards), a password protected section formembermaterials (especially llie membership directory), and switchingalltlle"@"symbols to""so dlat bots willnotspam anyone whose email addressislistedonthe website. \Ve also discussed creating a "\VebsiteContentReviewer" position.Thatperson would review dle website once amondl,solicit materials, and then provide copy and suggestions for changes to dle webmaster.ThePresident willcontact dle webmaster to discuss dle reviewer position and the possible changes.ReviewTheboard wanted to recognize Chrissie Mains andJanBogstad for getting dle RelieJI' outontime, especially with the constant struggle to obtain materials. \Ve discussed various melliods for helping obtaincontentfor the publication. We first wanted to make sureallthecurrenteditors are still happy to serve intllOsepositions. We wanted to discuss with the editors possibly rekindling llie .-\p proaching series, motivate members to write with the Mary Kay Bray award, explicidy soliciting material (especially for the approaching series), possibly have a special issue connected to dle Heinlein conference. TIle Presidentisgoing to send a message to tlle membership about acti\Tly contributing rcvicw items and news.Listserv \Ve discussed the fact that some pcople are having problems gctting and staying on the listsenc\Ve also notcd tl1at there ha\'e been a fcw inappropriate messages. \\e agreed thatwedid not W

stractCONTACT:DEADLINE:30Sept2007INFO:, Dystopia,andSFWHEN:5-6Dec2007WHERE: Monash University, ClaytonCampus,Melbourne,AustraliaSPEAKERS:TomMoylan,LymanTowerSargent, Lucy Sussex. TOPICS:InDecember200ItheUni versityofTasmaniahosteda successfulconferencearoundthethemeofAntipodeanUtopias.InDecember2005, Monash Universityhosteda second conference,aroundthethemeofImaginingtheFuture,tomarkthelong-awaitedpublicationofArchaealogiesoftheFuture,FredricJameson'sfull-lengthmonographonutopiaandsciencefiction.Thisthirdconferencewillreturntothequestionofhowweimaginethefutureandwhethersuchimaginings remainopentotheunforeseeable.Jamesonfamouslyconcludesthatutopiais'ameditationontheimpossible,ontheunrealizableinitsownright'.Hopefully,theconferencewill playsomesmallpartinpromptingsimilar such meditationsontheimpossible.Itskeynotespeakerswill be: Tom Moylan,authorofDemand theImpOSSibleandScrapsofthe UntaintedSky;LymanTowerSargent,foundingeditorofUtopianStudiesandco-editorofTheUtopiaReader;and Lucy Sussex, authorofATourGuideinUtopiaTheconferenceinvitespapersfrom scholars,writersandothersinterestedinutopia, dystopiaandscience fiction. SUBMISSIONS: 100-150wordab-Femspec SFRA has given $500ofseedmoneytoFemspecfor four years,butit still appears the journalishaving troubles staying solvent. \Ve agreed we would continue to list the journal; however, we wouldnotprovide anymoresubsidies.Theeditor asked that the SFR../\. President contact Lexington Press about the issue that she paid forbutwhich, however, they arenotreleasing. \Ve briefly discussed that maybe dIe journal needs a scholarly home.Italso mayneeda reinvigorated focus.OTHEROLDBUSINESS \Ve wantto make sureourarchive at least has a dlOrough recordingofmaterials that we should be able to systematically check: dIe Riew, conference programs, etc.ThePresident will send a message to dIe listserv and in the ReI'lew for members to donate materials.\X!ealso need to checkon,vhat programs and issuesofdIe Reden are already there, so we can workonmaking full runs.NEWBUSINESS We discussed dIe current membership database whidlisan extremely large .\Iicrosoft Access database fIle.l\Iaintaining the databaseis tinle consuming. \X'e mentionedthat we wouldsupportthe treasurerifhe wanted togeta work study student to do someofthe data entry. Shelley discussed looking into altemati,-es; howe,-er, dlisisamajorshift and we willnotdo anydling radical in dIenearfuture.NONFICTIONREVIEWAlien Constructions JaniceM.BogstadMelzer, Patricia. AlienCOl1Stmctiol1S.S,iellceFidion andFeministThollght. .\ustin: UofTexas Press (w\\o\, 2006. Paperbound, 336 pages, $24.95. ISBN-13: 978-0-292-71507-9 Itisin many ways a pleasure to read i\Ielzer'sAlienConstmctio/IJ as a continuation and expansionondIe dynamic interaction between dIe bestoffemi nist dleo1)T and the bestoffeminist science fIction which has engaged dIesfcritical community for almost two decades. "\, she reexamines worksofOctaviaBuderboththose which have alread\, received extensive critical attention like Kin, dredand The series (Lilitl/r Brood),and dlOse which have not, likeSlIm 1"01', a personal favoriteofminebutleast fa,-oriteofdIe author. Yet another pleasureisdIe careful integrationofthe bodyofpost-colonial feminist theory into dIe discussionsoffeminist theory and feminist science fIction. OrdIe insis tenceonexamining global, gendered, constructionsofsocialpowerthrough the appropriationofthe female body.Thelistofsfauthors,aswellassfcritics,bothfrom the larger critical community and thesfcritical community,isextensi\-e ,md fascinating, althoughnotsurprising except for a few notable absences ..\reas oflllquiry which focusonsexualityasperformativity through androgyny and sex roles would seem to be a reference to Nathalie ROSlllSb"s early work in this area,a.nd,in this era when dissertations are widely available through Di.rsertafion.-J.bJfrJdJQnljllt and a \'ery large bodyofwork, beginning in 1992, has focusedonButler's \\'ork, itISsurprisi.ngdlat noneofthese are cited.ThatthiSlackisa lamentable absenceinformal critical work, due to pre\'ious inaccessibility ,md uill"eliabilitT isne\-ertheless puz zlingin dIe workofa feminist scholar whoISalso fmniliar with the early banicrs to publishingoffeministsfCliticism. Ne"ertheless, i\Ielzer's workisexciting in adding the postcolonial ,md media criticism toherexplorationsnotonlyofwhat feministtheon' Gmcontlib ute tosfCliticismbutalso whatsfcan contribute to femilllst theon'.Her explora tionofbodiesofpowerthrough the postcololllal in Butler's.\II17i/'01"haslongbeen needed mId inspired someof my early essays onButler.Herarticulations ,mdexemplifIcation ofthe difference between cyberfeminism (\\'hich she negati\TlY ( 9) ( )


WHAT: H. G.Wells, Science and Phi losophyWHO:TheH.G.Wells SocietyWHEN:28-29Sept2007WHERE: ImperialColiegelConwayHall, London TOPICS: Proposalsareinvited for this year'sH.G.Wells Society Annual con ference.The conferencewillbe hostedbybothImperial College,London(onthe28September)andbyConwayHall, Red Lion Square, London(onthe29September).Thefirst dayoftheeventwill include a ple narylecturebythescience fiction writer, Stephen Baxter.Theconferencewillfocuson'Wells, Science and Philosophy'. Proposals maycentreoneitherWelis and scienceorWelisand philosophy exclusively,ormight ex aminetheintersectionofbothscienceand philosophyintheauthor'swork.Proposals might focus on,butarenotlimitedto:Welisand evolutionarybiology; Wells and Physics; Wells and Darwin/Huxley;Welis andAstronomy;Wells and Plato; Wells and Liberalism. SUBMISSIONS: 300wordproposalsCONTACT:StevenMcLean

encefiction adaptedtochangesinthepolitical and social climateoraffected national policyorcivic char acter?HowhaveSFfilmsand televi sion programs represented Britain's concernsaboutthepresentorfutureorabouttheuse and perceptionofhistory?Whatmakes science fictionfilmand televisioninBritain distinc tively "British"? This areatreatsthelast centuryofscience fiction produc tions, from MauriceElvey'sTheTunnel(1935)andWilliamCameronMenzies'ThingstoCome(1936)tothelandmarkTVproductionsThe Quatermass Experiment(1953), 1984 (1954),AforAndromeda(1961), andthelatestDoctorWho.Presentationsmayfeature analyses of individualfilmsand/orTVprograms, surveys of docu ments relatedtotheir production, analysesofhistory andcultureasexplored through asetoffilmslTV programs,orcomparisons betweentwoormorescience-fiction produc tions. Paper topics might include uto pian and dystopian films/TVprograms, future warfare, censorship, rep resentationofnon-humanlifeforms, politics,theCold War, science-fiction after 9/ II,ethics and morals, repre sentationsofscience and scientists, myths and legends,terrorism,early science fiction, adaptations, comedy,governmentand institutions,disasters,environment,gender,ethnicity, race, class, etc. SUBMISSIONS: 200-word proposalCONTACT:TobiasHochscherf DEADLINE:November1,2007INFO:www.filmandhistory.orgarticles have appeared tint movetile discussion in different directions.One0 d10se booksisFanFictionalldFallCommllllitiesilltheAgeoftheIlltemet(2006),a collectionofessays edited by Karen Hellekson and Kristina Busse. In tile preface to d1e volume, d1e editors announce tlwir intention to place tlleir work"attile intersectionoftile fannish community and academic discoursesonfanculture"(1),encouraging d1eir contributors to take an autoetl1l10graphical approach tllat would make useoftlleir fandom experiences. The resultisa fascinating collectionofessays taking a varietyofapproaches to a varietyoffan productions.Intile introduction, d1e editors provide definitionsoftermscurrentin fan discourse and used repeatedly tl1roughout tile essays, andpro"ideabriefoverviewoffandomontileInternetandoftile historyof fan studies.Theyinclude a comprehensive and useful bibliographyofcritical works for further reading. Following tile editors' introductory remarks, contributor Francesca Coppa provides abriefhistoryofmedia fandom, in a chronological introduction to severaloftile works d1at commonly inspire fan response and are discussed in the essays.Theessays d1emselves are divided into four sections. The essays in part 1 place fan fiction in tile contextof otller genres, exploringpossible ways to define fan fiction by examining its relationship to botll tile media source texts and to otller typesofliterature. In ""\rchontic Literature: .\ Definition, a History, and Several Theoriesof Fan Fiction," .-\bigail Derecho pro poses replacingcurrentdefinitionsoffan fiction asderivative orappropriative literature witll a new definition, archon tic literature, derived from Derrida's discus sionof d1e archive, a bodyofwork "ever expanding and never completely closed"(61).Derechoexplains tllat tile archiveof an archontic text includesnotonly the source text(inmedia fandom, tile television series itself)butalsoalltexts related to it (sequels, prequels and spin-offs, tie-in novels, fan-produced work).Derechogoesonto explore archontic literature from tile seventeentll century on, making a strongcase that, at least intetIDSofliterary production, fan fiction should be considered a similar formofstorytelling as, for instance, tile Jane Eyre archi,-e which includes Jean Rhys's IVide SargassoSea and other,vorks inspired by the original novel. Catherine Driscoll's"OneTrue Pairing" looks at the links between pomography (usually considered a masculine interest), romance novels (described by some critics as "women'spornography"[80]),and sexually explicit fan fiction, including tile much-studied slash fiction. Slash, defined by the editors as stories focusedon a same-sex relationship (predominantly between two male characters suchas I...:irk and Spock, tofallbackonthe most-used example),isalso the subjectofElizabetll \'('oledge's essay "Intimatopia." \\'oledge narrowsherinterests to worksofslash fiction that deal with male intimacy, noting that the same subject matter appears111published works by authors suchas i\fary Renault. 11lis section does an admirable jobofdrawing connections behveen the fictionproducedb,"fansontileInternetand the fictionproduced bv profeSSIOnal authors.Part2, subtitled Fan FictionasLiterature, includes essm"s that focusonclose textual analysis rather than the more usual sociolOgical approach. In "TheToy Soldiers from Leeds" i\fafalda Stasi uses themetaphorofthe palimpsest in placeofthe usual pri"ilegingofsource text o\"(rEU1l11sh interpretationsofthe source,notingthe intertextualityoffan fiction and the communal natureofits production. Stasi also argues that fan fiction,as a genre,"P0111tsback to tech niquesmorecommonlyused in poetn",orin genres suchas folkt;tles or m\"tho logical cycles" suchassymbolismorthe mediev;tl allegoric:tl code (122-3).Debontll Kaplan's essay explores character construction in fan fiction, and Ika \,(illis. 111"KeepingPromises toQueerChildren," looks at positive usesof the much maligned Mary Sue character in relation to EveI"'::osofskvSedgwlCk's model ofqueerreading, seeing the writing of EU1 fictionas a means of "reSIS tling] the docile (II)( ....... _----------------------)


)intertext, the continuity which wouldkeepmeaningsinline"(168, emphasis hers). In keeping with the editors' desire to bring together the fannish and academic selvesoftheir contributors, \Villis usesherownfan fiction stories as objectsof analysis. InPart3, a section focusing particularlyonthe communityofreaders and writersoffan fiction, a collaborative essay by EdenLackner, Barbara Lynn Lucas, and Robin .\nne Reid does something similar."CunningLinguists" explores the processofcreationof a particular workofRPS,orReal Person Slash,asit evolved (andisstill evolving) asa dialogue between twoofthe authors (in chat,onLivejournal, and in person) and, more broadly,asa conversation in which their online readers participated. TIle resultisa fascinating peek into a creative process shaped in part by new communication technology,aswellasa convincing argument against the over-simplifying approaches to slash as produced by"straigbt IIJOlllenJJIJ7tinggqymen" (194, emphasis original).Otheressays in tllis section include Angelina Karpovich's look at tile roleofbeta readers similar tobutnot, as Karpovich demonstrates, the same as, literary editors, and I<:ristina Busse's "My Lifeis a \v1P onmy iTwllich focuses on tile performanceofqueerness by tile coffilnwlity offan fiction writers and readers asa formof play and play-actingnottllat different from tile RPS stories tllat they write. Busse argues tint recognizing the performative aspectsof "reality" pointsuptile false dichotomy between reality and fantasy, between fan fiction about fictional characters and tint about real-life celebrities, between online interaction and face-to-face interaction. Part 4, titled Medium and Message, deals more extensively with the issueofperformance, acknowledgingnotonly tile exis tenceofotherformsoffan production aside from fan fiction,but also aspectsofperformativity unde'rlying textual fan fiction. Francesca Coppa's "\Vriting Bodies in Space" proposes that fan fiction be considered in tile lightofperformancetlleory ratller than,orat least in addition to, literaryorsociological tlleol)" Coppa believes tllat suchananalysis helps to explain someofthe generic featuresoffan fiction derided as flaws by mainstream critics, suchasits focusontile physical bodiesoftile actors and its repetitive nature; after all, she observes, "in theatre, tllere's a value to revising tile sanle text inorderto explore different aspects and playoutdifferent behavioral scripts" (236).Thefinal two essays in tile book look at different typesoffan production. Louisa Ellen Stein's "'This Dratted Thing': Fannish Storytelling tl1rough New Media" explores tile"newmodesofstorytelling" enabled by technology, suchasblog-based role playing games, and tile kindsofnarratives tllat can be created using the gameTbeSims. And in"FromShooting l\Ionsters to Shooting Movies," RobertJones looks atmacbinima,"fan-created manipulationsofvideo game images" (31) usually tile workof male fans, in tile lightoftheoriesofmedia fandom, generally tile provinceoffemale fans.:\.11in all, tllis anthologyis a useful and tllOught-provoking addition to tile library ofany scholar interestednotonly in media studiesorfandom studies,but also in tile practicesof stol)'tellingas itisshaped by tile episodic natureofsequels and television series,bythe world-building concernsofscience fiction, by ever-changing teclUlological capabilities. Fan fiction and fandom cultureisanareaofgrowing academic interest, and a site whereourstudents are already working and playing. Hellekson and Busse's bookwastile first one Iputonmy syllabus for my upcoming courseonFan Cultures and tile Internet, and I highly recommendit.NONFICTIONREVIEWAlienTheoryEdHigginsPatricia l\Ionk,AlienTbeol]: Tbe Alien as Ard;efJpe intbe ScienceFictiolJ SbOl1 StOI]. Lanham, Maryland:TheScarecrow Press, Inc. ( Paperbound, 424 pages, $49.95. ISBN: 0810857464. Patricia Monk's wide-ranging, intelligent, well-documented, and interesting study readily servesasanexemplary bitofscholarship and literary criticism in handling a very large and extensivesftopic. From tile considerable meritsof AlienTbeOJ] one hopes Dr. l\Ionk's recent retirement from Dalhouse lhliversity classroom and otller duties meansthereismore scholarly work yet to come, especially with a focus onsf.Butlest I gush overly much in Professor Monk's direction, I do have some complaints later inm!'review. Di\"ided into SC\Tn chaptcrsunderthe three topic scctionsof"Conceiving the .\lien," "\Vriting the "\lien," and "Reading the .\lien," i\[onkmO\TS throughbothan extcnsi\"C thcory-related o\"Crview and a literary-folklore tracingofthe .\Iien as archetype underp1l1ning her own esscntiallyJungian approach. Initially, she traces the historyoftheOtherin folklore ,md ma1l1streamliterahlre gcnera]]!", then movestoexplore various concephlal frameworks insftexts offering archetypesofalicn alterity. I ler final section examines and applies scvcral typologiesofcharacterization used insfstories for tlleir various( )


((science-fictional purposes and effects. l\fonk's titleissomewhat misleading, indicating a more narrow focus tllanher study actually offers. \\hile her primary concemis mainly Witlltile alien in short fiction,herPreface itself expands tllis focus: "TIle discussion deals only with written science fiction, concentratingon me shortertexts (short stories, nm'ellas, and novelettes), altllOugh some nm'els will bementionedin passing"(ix) .-1..nd indeed novelists suchasLeGuin,Benford, Gibson, Brin, andPoul.-\nderson, alongWitllotllers, are given significant attention,orat least passing application.ButMonk'sconcentrationremainsontheshortstory treatmentsofthe .-\lien/Otller, \vithherdeclared attempt to demonstratehowtlleoretically and practically storytellerspresentplausible, credibly constituted aliens. She explores story constructs which in tlleirtum serve asardletypes/tropesofintelligence and sentience reflectingboththe "Otller-strangeness" and tilemirroredpervasivenessofhumanness that attracts (or in some cases repels) us insfstoried forms. Readilyconceding me obvious popUlarity ofthe alienasoneoftilemostpopular tropes in science fiction, :,[onk exanunes several ways in which tlus trope functions to encode meaningwitllin gi\'en story texts. \\1lile sheiscertainlynotnew to such observations, she points to various ways in which fearofthe Otllerasan effectiw plot device can also de\'oh'e into a moral tropeas"amirrorpresenting ways of recogIuzing inherentandimportanttrutll abouthumans." .-\nd assuch, she asserts, alien alterity providessfwith various kindsofdidactic elements relating to tile unknown. Here she drawsonfeminist tile 0 1)' and readingsofsfas "sigIlificantly shifted from tile old androcentric encodings toward tile new feminist encodings" since "botll inmetaphorand beyond mere metaphor, woman(self)infoonsall narratiws ofthe .-\lien in feminist science fiction" UO).Monk is especially interested in the different types ofalien portrayals which she examinesunderthe temlS"humanoids, berns, little green men, and potentiated aliens," and how they ha\-einfonnedtile ideaofthe alien insCIencefiction,as\\'ellashow such imaginative characters present formsof"OtherSelnessor alterity." I found tllis oneoftile more interesting dlapters inher study. Despite the varying quality ofsfwriters' useoftllese techniquesofcharacterization, "'[onk, after examining quite anumberofpulp magazine publishedstories-ande\'en in some cases, fum \',mations--concludes,"'i'et, foralltile creationsoftileOtllerortile OtherSelf, regardlessoftile quality oftheir conceptionor literary modeling, the questionof why such creations should be presentedmuststill be answered"(260).Theanswer for "'[onk lies in the trope's complexity and pervasivenessas viewed through the lensof.lung's general theory ofardletypes..-\nd that lens,ofcourse,iswhat l\[onk, I believe convincingly, holds up for us topeerthroughastile raison d'etre ofherentire study. This seemsbothtile main strengtllaswellassometimes limiting weaknessofherargumentsconcemingthe .-\lien/Other. So, beyond mostly gushing and myowrallfamrable impressionofherinteresting study, I do have n\'o l1lggling complaints. l\[onk's introductory, theoretical chapter overuses a frequently opaque, acadenuc, ,mdarcme languageofJungian analytical pSyd1010gical tlleory. Such phrases and repeated termsas "alterity," "allomorphic," ".(opholl!," "problematized," "cognitive estrangement," "l/ece.f.faJJ'al!elil)',""<"O!I.I"C!I.I"!lu!/DPo!," "idiopathogenic," "the numinous archen'peispotenti ated," "tile potentiated alien," "proleptic acti\'ityofimagining the Self in theOther,""psychological substrate," etc., are in warehouse abundance .. -\fter a while 1 found myself rolling my e\'es at tllisowrload, especialh' \\hen the jacket blurb declared thebookto be"ofinterest to academics ,md shldentsaswell as general readers." Idon'tknow \\hat general readers might wade through such dense prosebut e\-cn shldents, I suspect, \\"ould ha\'e to beon ;mad\',mced graduate In"el..-\s\\"ell,I suspect,mostacademics' patience with the psycho-jargon \\ill wane..-\Iso, I did sometimes findherrepeating herself in too frequent precis ofwhat had already beenset forth in earlier chaptersorsections. This, too, seemed O\Trdone, sothat a quitelongish four-hundred nventy-four pages could 11;I\"ebeen trimmed bv one-tllird, at least. But perhaps tllis is an unfair quibble given tile considerable rangeofMonk's topic;or maybe reflects just my own time constnunts wishing for a quicker read. Still, less would havebeenmorefor this reader. Finally, a considerably detailed and, I think, particularly useful bibliograph\"of -t(, pages attends \[onk'ssh,dy (alongWitllcopious, infoonati\'e notes ending each chapter).Ofparticular interestisherthorough scouringofpulpmagaz111earticles, interviews, editorials, fiction pieces, etc. that cOI1\Tl1lenthlocate otherwise difficult material to track down. Others111tllissf study area will be saved notable time andmuchspade-work here, I'msure. \\11ile reading A!imThem)' I couldn't helpth111kingof l"':'ingslev .-\mls's groundbre;lking ,\'CII'.\1,1'.(ojHeI! (1960)inwhich .-\mis opens by poetically obsen'ing: \\11;1t makes us ro\'e tha ts tarIitcorndor l\[ay be the impulse to meet face to faceOur\'ice and folly shaped into a thing, .-\nd so at last ourseh-es ....)


) Monk, asisto be expected, quotes Anus anumberoftimes-althoughnotfrom thepoemwhich gives Amis's bookitstitIe. But I believeherstudy similarly bringsusverymuchin scholarly critical fasluon face to face witIltIlevice/follyofwhatisa major shapingoftIleory and explication for tIle alien insfstorytelling. I for one have foundmuchhere tIlat translates into useful classroom material for teachingmyownsfcourse-nowifonly Icanfind a way past thatmorearcane psycho-jargon formystudents.NONFICTIONREVIEWCapedCrusaders101VanNorrisJeffrey Kallatl atld Stanley Stewart.CapedCmsaders101:CompositiollThroughComicBooks.Jefferson, NC: MacFarland (www.mefarlatldpuhcom), 2006. Paperbound, 208 pages, $35.00. ISBN 978-07864-2532-7. In the ratIler sparse fieldofcredible acadenuc studyonsuperhero narratives tIus concise, affordable volume by Jeffrey Kahatl atld Statlley Stewart proves to be a very welcome addition.Gracedby a pastiche Gil Kane cover, tIus rationalisationofmainstream comic books via a ratlge ofelevated acadenuc tIleories appearsasmuchgeared towards validating the subjectmatterasproviding an undergraduate window into areasofliterature, Ius tory, psychology atld philosophy. In thiscontextI'drecommend tIus tome be used witIl Coogan's excellentSuperhero:Oligillsofa Gmre (2006)asa compatlion piece.BOtIlenrich a discipline defined by a paucityofsolid analysis tIlat eitIlerfallsinto form-focused metIlOdolo gies(asembodiedwithin Carrier's philosophical/ art-basedTbe Aesthetics of Comicsatld i\feCloud's UllderstalldillgComics:The A 11)orsimplistic list-style reference works. Kal1atl atld Stewart (rightIy) assert tIlat for many students text/narrative focused work appears toconnectmosteffectively atld oftenfacilitates an entrypointto allow undergrads to access tIlemoreesotcric and abstract issues alluded to explicitIy atld implicitIy witIlin tIle prose. "\s apartoftIlis explorationofcomic narratives the spreadofpertinent literary/socio/psychological/lustorical/cultural paradigms presented here also servesasa useful and all-importatlt culturalgroundmapfor students, onethathelpfully encapsulates atld 'fencesoff'somewhat over familiar topics within undergraduate comic research and notably suggests possible appropriate avenues for further explora tion.ThemessuchasCorporateRespollsibi!i0!,TheP,isOIlS)'stem,Homosexual Idmti0', 9/11andDemocraC]'areallillustrated with a ratlge ofkey heroic narratives from a varietyofcomic lustories atld backed by a solid rationale. Selected pagesofcontextual artwork arereproducedthroughoutwhich also go towardscementingtIle linksbetweenmature investigation andtextual/primary work. For me someofthe positivealldnegative aspectsoftIlebookare exemplified atld summarised by tIle discussionofproblematic racial representationsofBlack characters within i\Iarvel comics atld the obvious correlation betweenLukeCage, BLn>ploitation atld broader socio/political issues that are outlined here. W1ule tIle chapter seems to skip atlY rcaldeconstructionofthe stereotypes proffered it does at least supply a hatldy counterpointto COOgatl'S exhaustive assessmentoftIlis character, whcre 'genre'is(Iuite rightly given credenceasa crucial factor in evaluation. Itishere also that the recurrent, rather scattershot approach to 'overview' dominates atld overrides toooftenamorefocused approach to individual atlalysis. Thisismarried to a prose tIlat,(astlle writers tllemselves admit), in attempting to match the \'ita.lityofthe comic books lmder study often sacrifices clarity for a good lineortIlrowawaygag:In layingouta model for academic writing practice, then offeringasmodel for Liberalism, "Cap (Amelica)scettJsfilleIIJalkillgdOl1J1lastreetthathasfalafel IJllfi dimslim..."simply plays into undesired review-like registersofwriting. Itisalso apparent that the autllOrs seem less happy whenmarrying geo-political contextasthe listofslightIy clumsy ,malogies that are foundthroughoutthe less successfulTheComicBooks,Cold IPun {lIIdDeser/S/ontJJchapterdemonstrates. 'TIle positingofDr.Doomasa"moralequi\'alent"ofSaddanl Hussein occasionally veers into the puerile atld lughlights when this methodology Catl backfire. Conversely their musingsonmorality, (meat atld potatoes withlll superhero atlalysis surely) supersedes m,U1y pre\-ious efforts in this field suchasthe rather disconnected, patchy 1'..1o1'Osatld Morris 2005 collec tion, c)lIperheroeJaJld PhilosophyTmth,.Jlls/ice aJld theSoml/ic Irq)'..\t least here the senseofattachment to tlle COnllC mediumistransmitted with clarity ,md they ncgotiate smartly through f;uniliar territoryascovered by the likcsofFingerotll in SlrjJCI7tJall Oil/heCOllch (200-1), which sees the book succeed well WIthin in its stated panU1lctcrs. To conclude I ha\T to say the basicconceptofthe 'thinking, debating, writing' tasks posed at the endofeachchapterdoes go towards reinforcing theopen-endednatureofthe analytical processbutpcrhaps falters when removed from the( )


(15)(contextofa stated pedagogical framework. To be fair, expecting students to debate DodoI' Strange'sconceptionofGodin theirowntime with a local, QlOpefully very patient) clergyman smacksofutopianism. Despite theseminorreservationsCaped Crusade1:rreally should beamongnextsemester's cited key sourcesasa highlyrecommended,valuable contribution.NONFICTIONREVIEWSupermanon ihe CouchBrettChandlerPattersonFingeroth, Danny.Sliperman011theCOllch:IVhatSliperheroes Real!y TellUsabollt Om:relres andOllr SodelJ'. Continuum,NewYork,NewYork, 2004.Paperbowld,192 pages, $21.95. 0-8264-1540-7. A growingnumberofbookseach year analyzepopularculture, from films to video games tootherimages in the media.Thewide-scale successofanumberoffilms in the last decade baseduponcomicbookcharacters has brought attention to themuchneglected genre.Ofthe seriesofacademic books that I have seen addressing comic books, and the superhero genre in particular, Fingeroth'sworkisoneofthe best. Fingeroth, lecturer at Ne,v Yorklln i,-ersity,editorof IFiite""-011'.' magazine, andpastdirectingeditorof Marvel's Spider-man line,is em111entl:' qualified tocommentonthe topic. His style iseffective and subtlyprofoundand should appeal to those who are not,aswellasto tllOse who are, familiarWitlltlle worldofcomic books. In ten chapters Fingeroth lays outhis reasons why we should gi,-e superheroesourattention ..\fter giving us a senseoftlle originsofthis genre111tlle t\ventietll centur:', Fingeroth goesonto analyze tllecommonappearanceofdual identities, tllepreponderanceoforphanedheroes, tlle portrayalof .-\mazonian women,,-isionsoffamily life in these stra.nge scenarios, storiesofanger and re,-enge, tlle genre's appeal to adolescents, and the changing presentationsof"illainsoverthe years. Fingerotll's study isnotesoteric, an internal discussionamongcomic books fans; he uses these iconic characters tocommentonoursociety andonthehumancondition ..-\s Stan Lee remarks111the book's foreword,''Theconclusions [Fingerotll] reaches willbothsurprise and fascinate you ashe colorfully demonstrates tllat superhero writers and artists, likeallcreative people in every medium, have always, with surprising accuracy, reflectedoursOCIetyand the times \\'e li"e in" (10). Fingerotll begins by defining a superheroassomeonewith character, a systemof positin ,-alues, and a detemlina tion toprotecttllOsevalues through certain superhuman abilities.Notingthat this list couId also apply to ,-illains, he advllilCes fue definition by includingthatthesuperheromust"representthe \'aluesofthe societ\'tlut produceshim"; he knowswhattlle"rightthing"is llild does it (17). Here he exploreswhetheritishealthy foroursociety to be preoccupied '\'ith tllese archetypal heroes: are these stories mere escapist pulp? Here,ofcourse, Fingcrothmentions the infllillouS pS:'cluatrist Frederic \Vertham, who in the 1950s adllilllliltIy criticized comic books, including superhero stories, for ,-iolence, racism, llild sexism, llild pushedfor censorship. HO\ve'Tr, he goesonto sa\'tlut thereisnotmuch llilal\'sis inour socier:' today aboutthe effectsoftllese stories.Itis importllilt that we doso because societies, fllinilies, llild individuals find themseh-es shaped b:' the myths thatthey tell repeatedly. "-\lthough heroic fiction goes back forcenhuies,Fingeroth focuses his attentionon early t\\"Cntieth-cenhm' pulp writing. 1896 saw the first comic striprunin anewspaper ("The") and the first pulp magazine (The,'11:goD). Thetwo media wouldnotmeetuntil 1929. In these early years, se\Tral characters appeared: theShadO\\"Doc S

)superhero team would be public. Fingeroth then observes that many superheroes are orphans certainly notable heroes like Superman, Batman, and Spider-man. TIle traumaofdle lossoftheir parents feeds dleir quest to make dle world right. Fingerodl claims iliat dlese stories feed into the wish ful@lment, when we feel that we are alone, most often in adolescence (cutofffromourparentsaswellasourpeers), dut dlereissome payback against those who havehurtus.Theidea also feeds into dle .\merican myiliology:'We fightourown batdes, makeourown rules, defy those who would destroyus. \Ve are alone to succeedorfail, to triumphorsuccumb. \Ve makeourown destinies" (71).Butdleorphanmyth also brings guilt; Batman and Spider-man are haunted by visionsofhowthey could have saved dleir loved ones. Fingerodl's study illuminates dle sexism in previous generations,butlocates amodernturnthat presents anumberofstrong womenasheroines from Buffy dle Vampire Slayer to Lara Croft, Tomb Raider. Theone heroine that goes back to the early daysofcomic books, dlOugh,isWonder Woman. Fingerodl carefully highlights dle differences inherorigin story, created by the infamous psychologist William Marston observing thatherstory lacks dle "visceral quality"ofdle originsofSuperman and Batman, that sheisnotasinteresting a characterasBuffy. Fingerodllists dle numberofspin-off heroes (Batgirl, Spiderwoman, etc.), noting dlat it would take some time beforewomencharacters would develop some independence -butmanyofthese, like Jean Grey who becameDarkPhoenix,orSue Stormwhobecame Malice, often flirted widl dle"badgirl" image. Fingerodl holdsouthope dlatourgenerationisputtingoutmorecomplex heroines. Fingerodl further analyzes the familyofdle FantasticFourand dle family qualityofthe Justice League and dle X men(aswe escape family life, we often find ourselves attempting to recreate it;"whenyou are a freak, you need a familyoffreaks" (107, the expressionsofanger in dle Hulk and \Volverine (dle lashingoutofa berserker rage and dle cadurtic channelingofreaders' anger), thenumberofteen heroes from Spider-man to Robin (Stan Lee largely broke dle side-kick mentality and gave adolescence more substance in severalofhis creations.), and dle changing presentationofvillains (and dle values reinforced and challenged by their appearance in dlese stories). A numberofmore recent comics, from lJ/'atdJmen to POII'err, have questioned vigilante justice,butdle vast majorityofdle populace still envisions heroes and villains in opposition to eachotherwith tllecommonassumption dut dle universe which tlley inhabit will in tlle end validate tlle hero and punish the villain. The hero's values reflect the society's values. Fingerodl concludes that superhero myths havesoin@trated .\merican society that itisdifficult to avoid dlem. These myths are"metaphorsystems" dut appeal tomany. \Ve seem to be living in anageoftheir popularity (like the 1940s),butdlis ageismore in film and video games than in tlle shrinking comicbookmarket. \Vhatever the medium, though, Fingerotll argues tlut "superheroesasmetaphors and icons are here to stay" (171).NONFICTIONREVIEW,.hreeBookson Fan-casy byJaredLobdellBruceA.BeatieLobdell,Jared. The RiJeof To/kieniallFallta.ry. Chicago/LaSalle,IL:OpenCourt, 2005. Paperbound, xvi+188 pp. $21.95. ISBN 0-8126-9458-9. Lobdell, Jared. TheSdeJltifictiollNore!.r ofC. S.LelliJ.Space alld Time illthe RallJomStO/ieJ. Jefferson, NC: i\fcrarland &Company ( 2004. Paperbound, x+194 pp. $35.00. ISBN 0 786-1-1824-9. Lobdell, Jared. The IVorldof the RillgJ.Lallgllage, Religioll, alld Adrentllre ill To/kien. Chicago/LaSalle,IL:OpenCourt, 2005. Paperbound, xvi +188 pp. $22.95. ISBN 0-8126-9569-0. (Revised ed.ofEllg/alld alldAiJ}JtJ)'J:To/kieJlslJ70rld of the RillgJ,1981.) Bctwccn 2003 and 2005 Jarcd Lobdell, whose recordofpublished work on Tolkicn datcs backto1972, published four slim volumcsofcriticism centcred, to judge from their titles,onTolkien and his circle. TIle earliestofthese,A To/kimCO/llpa.rJ(2nd cd., Chicago,IL:OpcnCourt, 2003, orig. 1975),isa volumeofcritical essaysbyother hands, mostly conference papcrs, that I ,obdcll edited; since only his"Introduction"has been reVIsed and a "Postscript" added, I willnotcommentonit hcrc (though itisthc only oneofthe four focused solelyonTolkien's work).Thepublicationoffour books, twoofthem ncw editionsofcarlier publications, by a single author witllin three years was doubtless enabled by the successofPeter c')


(Jackson's ftlms. But the tluee books to be discussed here are closely interrelated, to the point that they constitute a virtual trilogy ofcritical study, and so merit discussion together.ThoughTbe N'se0/ TolkimiallFalltaS)' 0lereafter Rise) was published a year after TbeScimri{zctiollNOl'els0/ c. S. LeniJ 0lereafter Lewis),its chapters consist mostlyofconference papers writtenordelivered benveen 1983 and 1993;asthe earlier workbothin termsofits writing and its content, and because itisreferred to frequently in Lewis, I propose to discuss it first.TbeWorld 0/ tbe N'lIgS Olereafter If/or/d), published the same yearasRisebutconsisting mostIyofwork first written in 1979.ISin its origins tile "earliest"oftile tIuee;butfor reasons tIlat will, I hope, become apparent, it formspart tIuee oftile "trilogy." ITIle first chapterof Nse, "Farfrom tile Madding Critics" (1-20),isnew, written"attile suggestion--Dr should I sa\'command?--Df my friend Mack Hassler" who felt the original six chapters (2-7) were "riding madly offin all directions, mld worse,...tile horseman doing tile riding was headless." ("Preface," xiii) In it Lobdell argues that "tile stremn ofTolkieniml fantasy begins in tile medieval hills" (2), specificalIy witIl Langland'sPiersPlowmalland Bunyan'sPilglim:, Progress, mld the "stream"metaphorwill proyide a rhetorical (tIlOugh hardly a substmltial) structure linking the succeeding chapters. His goal istosupportthe thesis tIlat "Tolkien setoutto write an adventure story in the Edwardianmode"(19-thetitleoftlle first chapterof IVorM,deliyered asa conference paper in 1976). Chapters 2-7 seem to have been substantialIy revised from tlleir conference fOl1n:lengthened, the "stream" metaphor added, references to pre,'ious and subsequent chapters included,as welJ asto Ns'emld Lenis."Childrenof.\Iona: '.\IytIlOlog.:" and Things Celtic" (21--+0, delivered in 1987) follows tile streamofCeltic reyi"al begun WitIlRowlmld's 1723MOllaAllriqllu Restomta tllat tlows through Blake and .\forris. The"Lear"oftlle next chapter, "ChildrenofLear: Breaking and Remaking Reality (41-59, deli"ered in 1992), isnotShakespeare's kingbuttile 19t1l-century Ed'\'ard, whose nonsense yerse isrepresenta tiveofa separate stremn.TIle fourtIl chapter, "Pilgrinlage to the NortI1\yard: .-\d,'enturers.-\li" (61-80. deliwred in 1992). uses tile novelsofScott mldBuchml, andS.R.Crockett'sTbe Bla,kDOlzglm, to introduce tile themeof with pastoral, discussed in the second and especially the tllird chapters, oneofthe n\-o main generic motifs Lobdell arguesascen tral to the Tolkienian stream. Lobdell's discussionofthe stremn invoiYing humor mld the fantastic ("Blacks tick, PriglO, and 'IT': Comic and Fantastic," 81-98; deliyered 1111987) depends heavily onBakhtin's "distinction benyeen the cultureoforder ,md tile culhlreofcarnival" (98) mld focusesonThackeray's TbeNJJeulldrbeRilzg and the novels of ,-\ndrew Lang mld Edith Nesbit-the latter autllOr's Bastable stories were acknowledged by CS. Lewis asa model for the Narnia books.Thesixth chapteriscn'pticalh' entitled "I-.:aIeyard Gospel ,U1dKaleyard Gothick: George .\IacDonald," (99-118: it "combines partsofse,'emloftheother[chapters]," XlY) andisthe only one concentrating ona single author; the obscure teml "kale\"ard" (\dlich Lobdell assumes his readers know) refers, according to theOED,to "a groupoflate 19:J'-centun' fiction writers, inciudingJ.\1.Barrie, '\'ho described local town life in Scotlmld in a romantic ,-ein ,md "'itIlmuchuseoftlle ,-ernacular. I"ale"ard in Scots means literalh, 'kitchen. .garden.'" TIle titleofthe se,'en th chapter,"Et in .\rcadia Frodo" (119-1-+0,'Hitten for conferences in 1993-199-+, butnotdelivered), leads one to expect, finally, some direct discussionof"Tolkieni,U1 f,U1tasy," butin fact it concerns "the distinctionbetween "-\rcad:' [the world ofthe childJ and Olympus [the "'orld ofadults]" (119) in Grah,U11e,l...:ipling, and I Ienn'. ,-\nd 111tlle final chapter, ScentofOld-\'\'orld Roses: Tolkien ,U1d 'Fant,m'''' (1-+1-165.'Hitten for this yolume). Lobdell leaps oyer Tolkien's work to consider an example ofthe fantas" genre '\'hich Ole argues in passing) Tolkien'sLord of rbeNlzg.lestablished: Stephen I--:ing'sDurkTower series.The appendix, "Sequels in the Ed,,';udi,U1 .\Iode: .-\ Problem111Calquing" (167-175. delivered in 1983 and presented here as "prepared for publication111 198-+"[x,'J-but notpublished. according to the.\IL\ bibliography), uses Tom Shippe,"s notionofcalqu111gto discuss, oddh', ,d1\'TbeSiblul7lliol/ ,U1d ..bed"ide.l fail asselJllck it concludes with commentsonthe I-larry Potter Lobdell's sn'le isoften m1l10ying. The frequent addresses to the reader, especialh'inchapters 2-7, ma\"be relicsof thor originasconference papers,butthe equally frequent questions mld parenthetical reseryations about points just made would, I think, haye beenasirritating to a listening audienceas the\" are totlllSreader.111ebookisnotespecialh' well edited: I found anumberof n'pos,U1deyen grmlunatical errors (most egregioush', "tlm\"ll" asa past participleof "tlO\,"-,'150). 111ebookis, howeyer, fulloffascinating, If often idios"ncratic,commentsonEnglishIiteratureofthe 1 ()' and 21)' centuries, ,U1d demonstrates Lobdell's great breadthofknowledgeaboutthis literahlre.l'nfortunateh',the"stream" met

(18) Mikhail Bakhtin,NorthropFrye, Thomas Shippey and the ideaofthecalqlle,C.S.Lewis, Tolkien himself, Nikolaus Pevsner, historiansofpopularculture, practitioners like Buchan and Stevenson,OldUncleTomCobbleigh andall.Butthatiswhatisto be expected," he continues,"ifoneisconfronting aphenomenonoutside the boundsofcriticism and literary historyaswe know them."(7)ButdIe 1649 articlesonTolkien listed byJudidlJohnsonduough1984 a. R.R.Tolkim:SixDecades 0/Cn/idsm, 1986) donotseem to justify considering "dIe Tolkienphenomenon"(see my 1967 article in dIe JOllrnalo/Popular ClIlture)asoutside dlOse bounds. Lobdell's argument inRise,to dIe extent that one can pull it from his eddying streams,isnotconvincing, at least to me;buthis comments along dIe way gavememuchto dlinkaboutdlat hadnotoccurred tomebefore, and thatisa valuable contribution.IILobdell's "revival"(1)oftheterm"scientifiction" in the tideof Lewis (dlOugh only there:duoughoutdIebookhereturns to dIe morecurrentterm "science fiction'')isappropriate because,aswe shall see, dlereislitde in his analysis that touches on what membersofthe Science Fiction Research :\ssociation would consider pertinent to dIe current term (though Imustadd dlat twoofdIe chapters did appear in earlier forms inExtrapolatioll).In his"Preface"(1-6), Lobdell notes dlat he has "finally finished writing" the book"aftermore dlaIl dlirty years" (5), aIld indeed he published duee shortarticles in 1971-1973 dlat, from dleir tides, have contributed to thecontentofhis chapteron That Hideolls Strengtb (in OrC17st 6 aIld Blllletill 0/tbe Nell) lork C.S. LeIlJlSSode0J, 4).Thetideofthe first chapter, "TIle Ransom Stories in TIleir English Literary Context" (7-29), echoes dlatof all article Lobdell published in 1991, in which he had argued that dIe RaIISOm novels "werenota trilogy in the sense dlat dleyplayasingle dlemeorcenterona single concept." (3-4);butnow in dlis chapter he suggests that, together widl dIe unfinishedDarkTOIver(moreonthatlater), dley form partof"anintendedtetralogld'whose overriding theme involves "dIe moral imagination"(4)in a sense dlat derives from Coleridge.Heconcludes that four RaIISOm novels are in the fairy-talemode"(26), especiallyTbatHideolls Strengtb, which it may"beeasier for readersofthe trilogy to pageaIlt, ...ifdIe second volume \vereAllExcballgeill Time [Lobdell's alternate title for Tbe Dark TOllJelj radler dIanPerelalldra."(28)Thesecond chapter ("MalaCaIldra, orSpace Travel:Ollt 0/tbeSilentPlallet," 31-56) begins witll a prospectusofhis aIlalyses ofallthe novels: "}JI four books have a characteristic organizationorpattern, a characteristic 'fairy-tale' motion...;allhave a moral imagination so characteristically Englishasto defineorconstitute 'Englishness' (pevsner's sense[a COnstaIlt theme inRise]),and a characteristic attitude toward dIe interminglingofordinary aIld extraordinary--characteristic,illter aka, ofscience fiction."(31)OfOllt 0/tbeSilmt PlalletLobdell notes tellingly that"itseems tobear... all affinity to Eddison's TbeIf/oml Ollro/;oroJ,whidl (tlleoretically) takes place on I\Iercury, butisnotscience fiction atall."Elsewhere he places dIe novelin"dIe traditionofKepler, Godwin, and CyraIIO de Bergerac's satire" (35) aIld ofJonathanSwift (55); tllOugh he talksofscience fiction repeatedly, his aIlalysis (often fascinating) tends to identify it withothergenres. Lobdell's third chapter, "Tbe DarkTower,orAllE\:dJallgeill Time" (57-83), offers special problems. All earlier versionwaspublished in E... :trapolatiollin 2000as"Prolegomenatoa StudyofC.S.Lewis's /\rcadiaIl Science Fiction:How\Vould The DarkTOlI'erI-Ia\'eCome Out?' Thatearlier title indicates the problem: Lobdell in effect writes his own completionofLewis's torso, and then bases his aIlalysis on the "completed,"nottlle maI1Uscript version-atechnique he repeats in dIe second chapterof IValid. I had never read Lewis's 75-page fragment, published for dIe first timebyWalterHooperin 1977, fourteen years after Lewis's death, and I am fairly sure thatfewofdIemembersoftlle Science Fiction Research .\ssociation have done so. Lobdell argues that Lewis intended this novel, untitled in dIe surviving manuscript (Lobdell retitles itasAllExdJallgeillTime),asthe secondorthirdpartofa "RaIIsom tetralogia."Itistrue that Ratlsom andl\IacPhee (ofThatHideolls Strmgtb) areminorcharacters in The Dark aIld that the last wordsofLewis-as-narrator inOllt 0/theSilentPlallet are"ifdlereistobe any more space-tnl\Tlling, itwillhave to be tinle-travellingaswell...!" 0",Iacmillan 1977, 160) But the "chronoscope" dlatiscentraltothe actionofLewis's torso seems,asthe story develops, to facilitate traIlsdimensional ratller dlaIltraIlS temporal communication. Lobdell's highly imaginative aIld, to me, unconvincing speculationasto how Lewis would have completed the novel distracts from aIld vitiates his otherwise interesting commentsonthe torso, ,md does nothing to SubstaIltiate its proposed place within the RaIISOm nm"els. 'Ille titleofthe fourth chapter,"Perelalldm,orParadise Retained" (85-109), emphasized oneofhis arguments: thatPerelalldrais"Lewis's...answer to" I\Iilton'sPamdise Lost(94).ButLobdell's more final aIISWer to his own question "\Vhatis Perrlalldra?" (88)isthat itisa musically-structured religious pageant, He notes unpublished commentsbyJohn I-.:irkpatrick comparing itto \\'agneri;m opera; the last wordsofthe novel take him,saysLobdell, "beyond \\'agner" to BeedlOven's Ninth Symphony. (108-109)-;mdsee commentsonchapter n\!o of !rolidbelow. Lobdell provides a fascinating (aIld deeply felt)c)


((analysisofthe novel,butclearlyIIOtone that connects it to science fiction.Thereiscertainly alotofdiscussionofscience in Lewis's That Hideous Strength: the l'ational Instituteof Co ordinated Experiments purports to be a centerofscientific research,butits acronym,N.1.C.E. (by which Lewis always refers to it), suggests from the begilUung that its scienceisnotto be taken seriouslyquascience. Lobdell's analysis in the fifth chapter ("Thulcandra,orOurTimeunder That Hideolls Strength," 111-134) seems more disjointed thand1eod1er chapters; t\\-O sections have virtuallyd1esame subtitlesashis 1972 Omist articles, and seemnotto havebeensignificantly revised,orat an:' rate are notclearly connected to theothersectionsoftl1echapter. To the extent that Lobdell makes any generalizations aboutThat HideoNSStrength, his analysis underlines Lewis's subtitle j\Iodern Fairy Tale for GrownUps" and hiscommentin the"Preface"tod1enovel tlut itis"a'tall story' about dedry"(.\Iacmillan 1979,7). Intl1econcluding (thoughnottl1efinal) chapter, "Lewis's ,\rcadian Science Fiction" (135-160), Lobdell re\-iewstl1epatternhe sees inallfour Ransom novels, apatternapparent in his subtitles: "Expeditions in .\rcady,""TheThreatto Arcady," and"TheJourneyHometo Habitual Self."Thoughhe uses the term "science fiction" in the chapter title, his whole focus ind1etextisonthe novelsaspastoral Arcadian pageant;d1at,he concludes "perhaps...bringsusfurd1er intod1erealmsofmytl1." (160) And following from tlut, he addsasa final chapter his 1998 article in Eytrapolatioll, "c.S.Lewis and the .\Iyth in i\Iythopoeia" (161-182), apparently with little revision. ThereISa bibliography (183-189) and an ll1dex (191-194).LeMs isa muchmorecoherentand unifiedbooktl1anRiJe,and Lobdell offers many inSIghts indeed into Le\\-is's Ransom novels and their derivation from English literarytraditions--evenintod1eunfinished torso. But his arguments111fact generally contradict ratl1er tlun support Lewis's claim to be writing "scientifiction," much less science fiction. The style has fewerofthe tics I found annoying inRire,tllOugh there are still occasional sentences like ofthis gets usmuchforrader." (169) .\s wid1RiJe,the editingissometimes careless. To give only one exan1ple, quoting Lewis's Pere!andra tl1etext speaksof"tl1ewomen's breasts" (92) when thereis only onewomanonthe planet. "\n exampleofLobdell's own carelessness (that an editor should have caught): discussing That HideollJStrengtb,he notestl1at"\\'itherandFrostand Fe\ustonesUf\'i\'e d1edilu1er and are gi\'en another chance at sah-ation" (123);but Wither iskilled fleeing thedinner by d1ebear .\Ir. Bultitude (which Lobdell himself mentionsonthe next page),Frostdies in the subsequent fire, and Fe\'erstoneisne\'er mentionedasbeing present.IIITI1ecoreof IFon'd (chapters 2,3,and 5) \\'as "written stralght thefallof1979" \\'hen Lobdell\\"ISworkingonhis Carnegie l\Iellon ("Foreword," x\'i); these chapters, prefaced I)\' a revisionofLobdell's 1976 .\IL\ paper, were published in 1981asEngland and"4IJl'{l)'... ,and somuchofthecontentof lI"on'dhas beenaround since the late 1970s.TI1iseditionisalmosthalfagain longer (139\'S. 94 pages),mostofwhich comes in new sections. In this revision, the renamed "Foreword: England and .:\Iways" (ix-xvi) remains \'irtually unch,mged; it has a new epigraph (ix), and all added paragraph (xvi) sketches the differences between the old and new edition. ItsPOll1t was ,md remains to take issue with those criticswhodescribe The LoIY!oftbeRingJ'asa quest,asmedieval, ,md/ oras f,mtasy.111e titleofthe first chapter,"Defining The Lord o/tbe l\ing.cAll.\dventure Story in the Edwardiall .\[ode"(1-2+ unchanged from 1981),is al1 accurate summaryofitscontent. 11le main "Ed\\'ardiall" authors and works adduced by Lobdellasmodels for Tolkien are H.Rider Haggard'sKingSolo!JIon: ..MiIlCJ, S.R.Crockett's TheBla(kDOlIgld... (new in the re\'ision), GK Chesterton in general, al1d .-\lgernon Blackwood ingeneral-thoughnoneissuggestedasa model for the \\'holeof Th,' LordoftheRillgJ,only for specific motifs.]naddition to the discussionofCrockett, therensedchapter has some updated and new paragraphs.Oneaddition, perhaps inspired by Shippey's TheA.llthoroj (be Centllr)'(2002) isLobdell's statement that "I tl1ink it entirely possibletl1atTbeLord o/theRingJis the last great book that will be readasthe great booksofold were reac].fortl1e story andasa lens tllrough which to vie\\'ourexperience...." (23). ] h,1\'e no quarrel withtlllSJudgment,butIamnotconvincedofthe crucial import'Ulce of"the Edwardiml mode"inunderstanding Tolkien's creation.Thesecond chapter,"ThePhilologist's \\orld of The Lordof (he(25-47, firstofthe 1979 chaptCl"s),CO\Trs muchofthe s

(20 )argument, to show "why agoodChristian made a godless i\Iiddle Earth(it's Christian,allright,butIncarnation and Fall are still to come." (Richard Brookhiser,National RelieJIJ, 1-22-82,p.65).Thefew added paragraphs in tlus revision serve mainly to amplify comments made in1981.The most significant new material in this revisionischapter4,"Intile Far NortllwestoftheOldWorld"(71-93),butitisdisappointing.Forthemostpart, tile chapter consistsofLobdell's commentsonmany,ifnotmost,ofthe instances inTheLordoftheRingswhereoneoftile four directionsismentioned-includingtileodd nllsunderstanding that the jillgloSa.xon phrase "\VestU Theoden haI!" (Eomer's greeting to the revived Theoden, "Betll0Uwell, Theoden!" [Tivo TOJvers,2nded.,122])somehow relates to the fact tlut "theRolurrimunderTheodenride West" (76).His conclusionistllat"Itisatthe great set pieces in the narrative... tlut we seeNortllandEastandSOUtlland \Vest laidoutbefore us, infull-Imight even say almostheraldic-significance. "\nd we know that tlley arenotaccidental directions,butinherentin tile very natureofthe world's four corners....Each has its sacral,ifnotits sacred, value."(93)Tolkien would, I tIllnk, have considered tills rhetoric dangerously close to allegory.Thefifth chapter, "Tolkien's Genius: Mind, Tongue, Tale, and Trees"(95-114),istile lastoftile1979chapters. Minimally revised, it offers mostly a reiterationofpoints already made, now more from tile perspectiveofLobdellasreader and loverofthe text. He feels tllat"the past alive in tile present...isreally (in the forests) tile heartofTolkien's world...,asitistile heartofthe Edwardianmode."(97) Thisisechoedspecifically and personally in his concluding paragraphs. After noting that, in the recent films,"thatwhich we so greatlyfeared... has comeuponus-andnotsoilldone, somesay, as we had feared," he concludes tllat "somewhere...thereisacornerofourmind where itisalways1966,witll the Tolkiens at76Sandfield Road, and always tileGreatYears in tile Third "\ge ofMiddle Earth.Thetimelessmomentintersectsourlivesbothlives, inbothtimes."(113-114)Lobdell's new FromThird Age toOur "\ge" (115-122)ismostly a commentaryonthePeterJackson films, with side references to his ownRise.Intile fiftll chapter Lobdell had notedin an aside that Tolkien's storyis"froma world that has become so much part ofmy experience tlut I should like to write in it as well."(112)His A Sudden Coming, Being a StoryofLater Time"(123-131)isa curious effort to realize tllat desire, a short allegorical tale set implicitly in Minas Tirithinthe years after "\ragorn's death. The book concludes witll a listof"References"(133-134)and an "Index"(135 139.Twooftile reviewersoftile1981versionof IVorld noted Lobdell's acknowledgement tllat"1speak witll full recognitionofthe fact that I anl suggesting witllOut proof, by indirection, with nothing much to relyonbesides my own confidcnce that 1 understandTheLordoftheRingsbetterthan tllOseWitllwhomIdisagree-aconfidence sometimes shaken and not always a matteroflogic." (World, xv; repeatedl'erbatimfrom tile1981version). This confession applies equally, I feel, to L8117J and toRiJe. i\fy senseoffrustration witll tile first two books discussed here lies ingood part in disappointed expcctations aroused by the titles:Risesayslittle about Tolkien, and Lellis has little to do witll science fiction. Yet botllRiseandL811iJare, in spiteof my oftennegati"ecommcnts, well wortll reading for thcir unusual perspectiveson 19tJ,and20th-century English literature and on Lewis's Ransom novels. U70rld isan interesting updatingof a highly idiosyncratic viewofTheLordoftheRingJ.Even the points where one disagrees with Lobdell's arguments raise questions that provoke further tllOught. Each book, taken alone, offersasmany frustrationsasinsights; rcad together,as1 have done for tllis review, tlley constitute a subst;mtive,often provocati'T, and certainly idiosyncratic workofcriticism focusing moreontile history and natureoffantasy than onLcwisorTolkienascreatorsofit.NONFICTIONREVIEWThe LiteraryGalaxy 0' Star TrekJustinEverettBrodcrick,Jamcs F The LiteralJIGalo.'\)' of Star ]i-ek:an AnafysiJ of Riferences andThemesinthe Series andFilms. Jefferson, NC: i\fcFarLU1d and Company (w\,2006.Papcrbound,239pages, $32.00. ISBN0786425717. Star"Ji-ek, likc StarIVaI:r andothcrproductsofthe media-dnvcn "sci-fi" movement, has been much maligned by writers ;U1d critics alike.OrsonScott Card,ina2005LoJ/lngeleJTimeJarticlc, celebrated the"death"of Star Trek.YettllOseofuswho teach and write about "serious" science fictionareoften also closct f;ms, ase,-idcnced by thenumbcrofbooks, articles and college courses that focusonTrekasa popular culturc and literary phenomcnon. In this context it was witll great( )


(excitementthat I anticipated reviewing abookwithsuchan ostentatious titleas The Literal]' Galax), ofStarTrek:All Alla!pi,.ofReJerences alldTbemesill theTelelisiollSelies alldFilms.I was,however,soonto be disappointed. James Broderick begins hisbookwitl1an apology.Heclaims to have avoided theshowand its fancultureand to only havereturnedtoitaftersomewhataccidentally discO\-ering its literary references.Thoughhe boldly claims that"StarTrekISliterature," he doesnotdiscuss its valueintermsofitsownliterarymerit(which, I admit,isdubiousattimes)butintermsof fue waysinwhich it addressesormirrorstl1etl1emesofthegreatworksof\Vestern literature. HisapproachcausesStarTreknottobe fue objectof inquiry itself,butamirrorfor reflectingonvarious worksof"canonized"literature. \'\1llie I learned somefuing abouttl1eplaces inStar Trekwheretl1egreatworks are engaged, Broderick'sbookdid little to enlighten the study ofStar Trekitself.Thefault may notlieasmuchintl1ebook's approachasin the tlunnessoftl1eanalysis.In233pages, theauthorcovers 24 separate "tl1emes." Tlus comes toabouteight pages dedicated to each"theme."Someoftl1ese"themes"are sigtuficant and would havebeenbetterservedif tl1ey hadbeenproperly researched and developed.Itwould ha\'ebeenfarbetterto discuss feweroftl1ese "tl1emes"ingreaterdeptl1 so tl1attl1ereader,,'auldcomeawa,'witl1a greaterunderstandingofthe textasopposedto the superficial and "top-of-tl1e-head"treatmenttl1ateachofthese topicsisgiven. Iwouldalso like topointout fuat notalloftl1ese are themes in the forn1al senseof, ofthought,idea,orlineofargument. ?\fany address motifs and otl1er elementsoffiction, tllOugh thereaderisnotinformedoftl1ese differences.Letmeposeoneexample.Chapter 5, "The \\'ay oftl1e \\est," isagoodexampleofa missed opportunity.Thechapterdoesnotaddress a theme intl1eformal senseoftl1eword,buttheplotandcharacterelements normally associatedwitl1the \Vestern.Eventhese treatments are superficial.Herewas theperfectopportunityfor theauthorto address m,uufest destin:', a fueme tl1at permeates .-\.merican literature andis played out sigt1ificantly throughoutalloftl1eincarnationsofStarTrek.111ischapterpresentstl1ereaderwitl1anotherflaw:tl1eglaringoverabundanceofplot summary0)oth ofworksof \\estern literature and indi\-idualStarTrekepisodes). \Vithin eachchapterthereismuch summar:and littleoftlle "analysis" promised bytl1ebook's subtitle. \\11at analysis does existisnotcontextualized within any recognizable critical tradition. Research clearh' didnot playa significant roleinthe writingofthis book.It was notjustStar Trekthatwas treated superficially in this book. \\11en literatureisminedfor its themes, the discussionsoftentake the forn1ofsummaries, followed by summariesofparallel treatments in TIl'k episodes.Incases where some analysis was prO\'ided, theinformationwas sometimes misleading.InChapter 20, "TheQuestfor Perfection," Broderick writes, "LikeUtopia,Star TIl'k oftenseeks to pro\-ide a blueprintfor abetter way ofliving," astatementwhich largely igtlOres fue ironic natureof ,,[ore's work.Thoughhe briefl" acknowledges differences between the two approaches, the anal,'slsisboefand disappointing.TheideaofL'topiaisadominantthemeinStar TIl'k,\duch--contran' topopularunderst,mdingofthis tl1eme intl1e TIl'k canon-istreated differently in various episodes. Some, like"111eParadise Syndrome," embrace the Ideaofutopia,whileotherspresentitasd"sfunctional.Ona final note, Iwouldlike tocommentonthe weaknessof style throughoutthis book.\\llileit seemsapparent that tl1eautllOr was attempting to address a lay rather than academic audience, Ius tongue-in-cheek style ,md occasionally awkward, blunderedsentences doesnotmake thebookmoreentertainingorreadable.Infact, I found that the style called attention toitselfto thepointofirritation.. \s I read each chapter, I anticipated with increasing dread"'hatcliched subtitles and a,,'b"ard sentences \vould lieonthenextpage.Thegreatestweaknessof TheLiteral]Gaia.\:J 0/Star Trek: All.'J.lla!)'.ri.r 0/ Refen'//(eJandThemeJ ill theTelt'1i.rion S e;ieJ andFilmsisperhaps that it attempts todotoomuch ..-\s a result,nosingle tl1emeistreated"'iththedepthand attention it desen-es.Anyoneofthesethemescouldhavemade a bookinitself. Icannotrecommendthisbookfor anyone whoisinterestedIIIserious inquiry into theStar TIl'k phenomenon,thoughitmightbe handy, in a superficial \vay, for identif:'ing themes forteachingpurposes.Iwouldalsonotrecommendtl1isbookfor undergt'aduate shldentsoutof a fear that srudents might emulatetl1esuperficialityofits discussions.TI11Swork,thoughit promisesmuch ,,-ith its bold title, Imustview asa missed opporrunity. c')


)FICTION REVIEWDelivererEdwardCarmienCherryh, CJ. Delirern: NewYork: DAW Books, 2007. 368 pages, hardcover, $25.95 ($32.50 C\N). ISBN: 978-0-75640414-7 In this the (felicitous?) ninth novelofCherryh's Foreigner series thereisonce again a threat to dle stabilityofthe Atevi government. Bren Cameron,humantranslator to dlatgovernment,isofcourse in dle thickof dungs, asis me irrepressiblygrumpyyet lovablegrandmotherofdle Atevi leader, Ilisidi.Onlyrecendyreturnedfrom space (along widl meAtevi leader's son, Cajeiri, who grew quite fondofhumans during his sojourn) and still recovering from un-couping dlecoup mat occurred while dley wereaway,it isn'tlongbefore dle main charactersmustconfrontdlOse naughty easterners who continue dle processofdestabilizing thingsbegun by theusurperI\furini, stillondlerunafter Tabini returns to power.Ifthis sounds like dle tipofan awfully big icebergofplotandcounterplot,one's ears donotdeceive.Delit'erercontinues the now episodic storyline established inForeignermore dun a decade ago; recent novels have become less complete novels in theirownright andmorecomplex chapters in anongoing story. Cherryh'smanagementofdlis shift to episodic fiction hasbeenuneven,asparticularlynotedinbook8, Pretendel; which suffered from underplotting and a lackofparticipa tion in ongoing interesting events by dle primary viewpoint characters. Happily,Delit'ererrepresentsa defter hand at dle wheel. Cherryh finally avoids presenting "here'swhathappenedin the past" material early in dle novel, a logical and very welcome choice.Inaddition to Cameron's narrative viewpoint we now are privileged toheardle story from Cajeiri's perspective. TIlisisa welcome addition to dle narrative flow,asit placesmoreaction into the reader's view. In addition, this allowsCherryhto provide dle reader widl Cajeiri's unique observations,asan atev!, about thehuman/atevi interface. BrenCameronhasspentalotoftime helping raise dle heir to dle \V'estern.\ssociation during their two years in space, andduring dut time dle boy formed strong ate vi-like (at leastonhis side) associations widl a !:,'TOUp ofhumanchildren.\X!hilehe snapped into his biologically destined roleasa focalpointforman'chi inPretender,accumulating two atevi followers, heisstill a child and misses his space-journeyhumanpals quite a bit. Suchhumanassociationisanadlema to more conservative atevi elements,ofcourse, so itislucky Ilisidi hashadsuch a strong hand in his political and social education, skills and knowledge. These things servehimwell in dle eventsofDelit'erer. .\side from Cajeiri's storyline (told with an entertaining flavordlatcomes from his exposure tohumanaction films),Brenisofcourse stilla player in dle game, and serves in a pivotal role in restoringharmonyto dle tangled worldofatevi governance. Readers familiar widl the series will be rewardedasusual with amentionortwoofBren's now long-term relationship with his bodyguard,Jago. In addition, dlereisa somewhat mechaIucal aIld predictable interaction widl his brodler, Toby. Ilisidi carriesoninherusual maI1I1er-naturally, mechieta (riding beasts) aIld adauntingjourney are involved.In maI1Y ofdlese, Cherryh's narrative restraint continues to operate. For exanlple, dlere are no steanly descriptionsofsex:describing dle ongoing andwarmstatusofBren aIld Jago's relationship seems to be sufficient. Even readers accustomed to this restraint may find dlemselves aI1I10yedby a choice Chen-yh makes here .\fterdaIlgling hint after hintthroughoutthe novel, a key!bing goes largely undescribed.Itwillcomeasno surprise dut thebookends widl a small-anllSfirefight in difficult terrain aIld conditions-suchisa stapleofthe Foreignerseries-butitisquite disappointing that the !bing, so painstakingly foreshadowedthroughoutthe book,is only vaguely described, despite having a pivotal role at a key momentofheart-pounding conflict.Thefact tllat what tllis !bing isechoesallthe way back to the very first novel in tlle series makes its fuzziness even more aggravating. Cherryh'sdeft haIld with palpably alien aliens (to readers steeped in a Euro-.-\meriCaIl perspective, at least) continues to attract,asdothe ongoing li'"esofhercastofcharacters in tlleroreignerseries.Iftoo many tllings seem to possess script immunit\, it may be tllat Cherryh, having now clearly ventured into the worldofseries fiction, may wish to review tlle lessonsofthe greatsinthis field.JohnD. i\fcDonald's Travis i\fcGee series, although now quite dated,isa good exampleofhow series characters GU1 live in a ch'U1ging world without losing appeal in the e\"Cs ofa reading audience. Tony HillermaIl's Navajo detectiYC books, featuring Lt. Lcaphorn ,md .lim Chee, arc aIlother such eXaIllple.\X11ile Flash may never be seen consummat111ghis Im'C for Dale, i\fcGee ages, Leaphorn "retires," Mary Russell grows up and marnesherHolmes,Hornblowergetspromoted,and so on.Evenwith a presumptionofscript immunity for key characters ,md plotclements, the finale hereisrousing, though()


(oneisroused within the strong confinesofVictorian-like restraint. Cajeiri's narrative and Bren's rejoin with droll abandon andoneisagain left widl a yen tomoveonto the nextchapter--errr,"book,"ofthe series, dlis time widl the added tensionofwonderinghowand where Cherryh will continue dle overarching story ofahumanenclaveonan atevi planet set in acomerofdle galaxy thatnowhasbodlfriendly and unfriendly parties in nearby space ..-\s I havementionedin se\'eral re\'iewsofbooks in this series,Delil'ererisnota suitable startingpointfor readers interested in CherI)'h, a prolific andimportantscience fiction audlOr. See Forezgllerinstead, still in print and availableonbookshelves. Howe\'er,oncehooked,beware: e\'entually,gendereader, you willendupinDelil'erersclutches .. .and be left afterdlatwith a yen towonderwhatwillhappeninbook10.FICTION REVIEW,.heAndrOid'sDreamJasonW.EllisScalzi,John. T1JeAlldroids Dream.NewYork: Tor,2006.396pages, hardcO\'er, $24.95. ISBN 0-765-30941-6.JohnScalzi, recipientofthe 2006John \V Canlpbell.-\ward for Best 0.'ew \\'riter in Science Fiction, pens a humorous,oftentongue-in-cheek,popculture laden anlalgamationofspaceoperaand cyberpunk with a dashof militaI)' action and law in his latest offering, The AlldroidsDream.TIle story re\'oh-es around Harris Creek, a computergeekturnedsoldier turned diplomat,burdenedwidl the dutyofprotecting a woman named Robin Baker, because sheisthe last remaining being carI)'ing DN.-\ from a typeofsheep known as TIle .-\ndroid's Dream.Herprotectionistantanlount to preventing a war betweenEarth and a reptilian species known as the 0.'idu, which are reminiscentof FarJmpe's Scarren mi.;;ed with the fanlliy-c1an cultureof Still' Trek'sI

)FICTION REVIEW Gradlisil BillDynesRoberts, Gradisif.London: Gollancz, 2007. 464 pages, trade paperback, $15. ISBN 978-1-59102-538-2. Roberts' latest novelis an engaging and dynamic near-future thriller. Ranging over three generations during the late21st and early 22ndcentury, the novel depicts the emergenceof"the uplands," near-earth orbit populated by wealthy hobbyists and enthusiasts,asan independent political body.Themen and womenstaking their claims in the uplands havecomeundertheir own power and without nationalorcorporate endorsement. \VealdlY hobbyists, reclusives, and refugees arenotpeoplewhoworkorplay well widl odlers. Yetasshifting political and economic developmentsonEarthbring long-simmering conflicts to a head, the wealth and the tactical strengthsofthe uplands begin to look like extremely tempting targets to the military powersofdIe United States and dIeEuropeanUnion. "-\gainst that historical backdrop, the novel follows three generationsofa family workingouta complicated patternofvengeance and power. The centerpieceofdIe storyisdIe enigmaticbutcompelling Gradisil, whose emergenceasthedejactoPresidentofdIe Uplandsbothdrives and isdriven by dIe growing tensions widl the "'1.merican military. Gradisil's mother, I..:lara, dominates PartOneofdIe novel.Herfadler was oneofdIe first hobbyists to begin settinguphousekeeping in dIe Uplands,butismurdered by a mysterious figurewhomayormaynotbe a notorious mass murderer. I(lara'sYOUdland the physical realitiesofthe Uplands, where scoresofkilometers separate neighbors and houses can be hidden simply by shifting orbit, make bringingherfather's killer to justice impossible,butshe never surrendersherdesire for revenge.InPartThree, Gradisil's sonsHopeand Sol seek their own revenge against dIemandley feel betrayed dleir modler. This multi-generational saga takes on the rich complexityofGreektragedy, and Roberts mines the emotional and psychological strata revealed here successfully. Gradiszi generally does agoodjob ofbalancing dIe dlriller mode widl hard-SF space opera. The growing confrontation bctween the United States and the Uplands encourages comparisons widl contemporary conditions, and here the novel occasionally edges into satire,notalwayseffectively.Odlerreviewers have noted dlat Vice-PresidentJohaIules Belvedere IIIisreminiscentofDick Cheney, and Roberts' characterizationofcoalescing military, industrial, and legal institutionsisbiting aIld funny, although this element CaII be distracting at times.Thefirstpartofthe novel, I..:lara's story,ismorepersonal aIld character-driven; before the Uplands become a tempting target, they are an unforgiving was tel aIld drawing adventurers aIldhel111its alike. I..:lara discovers dlat sheisisolated more byherprivate pain aIld aIlger dlaIl by dIe vast distaIlCes separating the colonists, she has to make difficult choices about just whereherloyalties lie. Roberts handles the space opera mode a bit more confidently dlaIl he does dIe political intrigue.Thenovel's title, dle n;mle ofits central character,isderived from the Norse mydlofdle \Vorld Tree Yggdrasill, which stretches from dle undcl'\vorld to the heavens. This becomes ametaphorfor the linesofmagnetic force branching from dleEardlwhich serve thc UpLmders asbothpath and power for reaching orbit. Eschewing the cosdy, clumsy rockets employed by NASA, dIe Uplandcrs havc developed "elemag" plaIleS that allow dlem to fly to aIld from their homes above dleEardlat will.Thetechnologiesoftraveling to aIld living in orbit are plausible enoughtobe richly intriguing, aIld Roberts makes the prospectofli\'ing in orbit comparableto.-\merican pioneers settling dle open stretchesofwestern prairie.Thespeculations about dle day to-day strugglesofliving in orbit are fascinating, especially when one principal characterfl11dshimself deceleratingoutoforbit wcaring nothingbutanincomplete spacesuit. Roberts deploys a nmge ofnarratorsoverdle courseofthis nO\'el, aIld perhaps thechiefcriticismofdle workasa wholeisthc mm11lcr in which these choices distmlCc the reader from tlle major characters. It's difficultto sympaduze fully widl anyofthe individuals we meet, and while this lends the nO\'e! depth, it does risk alienating dIe reader. I..:lara tells part one in her own voice that,asshe matures in the shadowofherfrustrated desire for rcvenge, becomes incrcasingly disaffected aIld cold.Thecentral scctionisshared bctwcen a third person narrator describing the military characters responsible for the.\mcricanassaultonthe 1 Tplmlds;md Paul Cauncs, Gradisil's husbmld. Thatwenevcr have direct access to Gradisil's thoughtsormotinsisundoubtedly ncccssary to Roberts' perccptionofthe rolc she has toplay,butPaul's complicated relationship with his wife and her cause oftcn makes lum seem petty ;md weak rather thml genuinely conflicted. I-lope, the central figureofthc third section,isnotmuchmore engaging, vacillating bct\veen rennge aIld forgi\Tness almost to dle pointofparalysis. Roberts also cxperiments with Lmguage for reasons thatarenotalwaysclear. l..Jara's sectionisrefreslungly free from the()


(labored argot that marks so much recent space opera; typically the terminology SurroW1ding new technologiesorsocial practicesiseither readily apparentoradequately explained. Inpart two, set a few decades later, the characters' vocabularyisabitmore idiosyncratic, althoughnottod1epointofalienation. However, Roberts also begins changingd1espellingofsome words,droppinga letter from digraph pairs, so that "black" becomes "blak" and"what"becomes'\vat."Thisisconsistent across quoted speech, Paul's first-person narration, and the dllrd-person narrationofd1emilitary chapters. Tlus istaken a step furd1erinpartthree, in which thegerundending "-ing" becomes "-in'." Sinced1esoundsofd1ewords are affected only a little,ifat all, it'shardto understandd1epurposeof dlls choice; it does indicated1echanging time periodsofd1enovel,butit doesnotseem to accomplishmuchmore d1aI1d1at. Despite these concerns,Gradisiltells aI1 engrossing story, intertwining imageryofNorse saga,d1ed1ematic driveofclassicalGreektragedy, aI1d d1e technopllllia ofcontemporaryspace opera.Itisoneofsix novels nominated ford1e 2007 ArdmrC.Clarke A.ward, and certainly deserves d1at distinction.FICTION REVIEWRollbackGeethaBSawyer,Robert),Rollback,NewYork: aTomDoherty:\ssociates Book, 2007. $2-1-.95,320 pages. ISBN-10: 0-765 31108-9.Rollback,d1elatest nO\-elby theHugo aI1d Nebulaaward winning SF authorRobert)Sawyer, has a dlOroughly engaging story line evenwhenit dealswid1some ed1ical aI1d moral questions waitingonthe d1resholdofourtechnological advaI1Cements. Tl1e nO\-el dealswid1the implicationsof'rollback'-a hugely expensi,-e experimental rejm'enation procedure. Sawyer, knownfor his eXaInination ofphilosophical aI1d ed1ical problems thatcomewid1 ad'-aI1cing technology, tries to explore d1ese issuesonbod1 humaI1aI1d cosmic scales.Tl1enovelisset ind1enear future,d1eyear 20-1-8.4...D. Central tod1eplotisd1emessageofaliens from Sigma Draconis, first received in the year 2010.Now after38Eardl years, thereisanother message received b,' Earthin response to what Earth had sent back in 2010.-n1e protagQlustSaral1 Halifa..'\,aI1 ETresearcher,isthe Oll.h" persononEarth ,,-ho could decoded1e alien messaged1efirst time.Inresponse to the communication from the aliens, Earth had sent filled111questionnaires; oneofthe responses hadbeenSaral1's.E,-en after38years, at the ageof87years, she remains pi,-otal to all\" commulucation ,,-ith d1isalien raceasd1ereisnobod,around who CaI1 decoded1esecond message ..4..nd thatISthe reason for a 'rollback'onSarah .':otonh to decipherd1ismessage, but,ifsheisaround for38more years, she could still decode the message from Sigma Draconis and dlls chainofcommunication would continue. Otherwise, inalllikelihood, the message from the aliens mm' go unaI1s,\-ered. Tl1e humaI1 elementofd1eplot stems from the rejuvenationofSaral1that the wealthy 1I1dustrialist ,md SETIendmsiast McGann offerstopay for. Sarahisready togofor itonthe condition that dle procedureof'rollback'isdoneonDon. As1\feGavin has realizedd1e importaI1Ce ofSarah intl1lScommunication ,,-ith aliens, he agrees to pay forDontoo.However,in aI1 ironic twistofe,-ents, the procedure \\'orks onDonandnotonSarah.Throughthe flashbacks throughout the no\-el, we are told how 10\-ing a couple Sarah ,Uld Don han: been. Tl1eir sixn' yearsofmarried life ha,-e been spent111synch and nowDonbecoming once ag,un, 'ph"sicalhn\'en n' five' wi th high levelsoftestosterone, his libido high, there are issues now they ha'T toface. Yes. forDonit feels great to feel realh' 'ali\-e' once again; yet itisa bit depressingasSaral1nowcannotshare this lifeofhis;notrespond to his ITvi\Td appetite for sex.Tluoughd1eportrayal oflughly C\-ohTd characters Sawyer ex,U1llnes issues that crop upinsuch a situation.'111efeelingofguilt thatDonsuffers fromwhenhe gets invoked with Lenore -aSETIresearcher working in the same lab in which Sarah used to work years ago -is ,-ery real.Donalso fecls theburdenthat Lenoreisbeing \\Tongedinthis relationslllp due toIus inabilinto be hundredpercentinit.He breaks up when the guilt becomes toomuchfor him to deal with. Sarah. e\Tn \\'hen she has inklingsaboutd1erelationship, never makes it an issue.ThoughsheIS angnat the circumstances that forced such a n"ist to thl'lr relationslup, she perfectly underst,U1ds rejU\Tnated Don's needs for a lifeof sheer phvslCalin. In oneofher COll\Trsations withGunter,the housebot(essentially a robot), shePOllltSout th,lt If it had beenher ,md notDon ,,-ho had gotten rolled back, she would havelefthim b,' no,,'! Sawyer, noted for his attention to thede\Tlopmentofindividual characters. docs it well inRollbacktoo. Characters arenotsubmerged in the delugeofissuesof cosnuc scalc. ]':\TnJ,enore's characterISnotincidental. Don's rolled back lifeisintncately connected to hers andIIIthe last chapter. setinthe \"Car2U(J 7. \\"C see the plChlre perfectf

(26 ))Thehumaninterestisthuskeptalivethroughoutthe book.HoweverSa'wyer does more: he examines issuesoflargersignificance.Onesuchisthe questionofaltruism and communication with ET. Through references to the 'SelfishGene'theoryofRichard Dawkins' and discussions between Sarall andDonon"Encoding Altruism: The Art and ScienceofInterstellar i\lessage Composition", Sawyerisclose to expressing an opinion.Thebookpointsouthowencoding altruismisthe funda mental basis for SETI.Thediscussion dlen movesontohowevolution eventually gives rise to technology, which has a survival valueupto a point; once technologiesofmass destruction are readily available, the psychology dlat Darwinian engine forcesonlife forms almost inevitably leads to dleir downfall. Sawyer insightfully reasonsoutthat encoding altruism in communication widl aliens would be a deciding factor to have any furdler interactions widl ET. 'Dle book carefully handles two main science fictional ideas: the technologyofrollback and communication with ET. Sawyer mostly succeeds to sail betweenhumanand cosmic perspectives. However, dlere are instances when fue readerisnotfully convincedofdle logic.Onesuch instanceiswhen we are told fuat ofalldle fuousand different responses sent from Eardl, Draconians have found only Sarall's response to be close to their expectations -\1so,dle bit about dle second message that was meant exclusively for Sarah, dlat the idea fuat Draconians couldnottrust it with anybody else makes one somewhat skeptical. TIle only justification one can dunk ofis dnt a discussiononissues related to rollback necessitate Sarall to be pivotal in dle whole processofcommunication widlETand Sawyerisforced to take it up. "\nodler such instanceiswhenDonand Sarall try to figureoutthe reason behind Draconians' sendingofdle genome code. Itisreasoned that the Draclings would growupto be ambassadors from Sigma Draconis who once grownupwould send messages to dleir home planet.Onewondersifitispossible for fuem to retain a DracOluan perspective after having been broughtupbyhumanparents.Isitnotdifficult to resist dlehumaninfluence in theiroudookisa question wluch hasnotbeen answered in the book. Sarall (who manages to decipher dle genome coding) entrustsDonwidl the jobofbringingup fue Draclings modeled according to the coding sent by dle aliens. Sarall's pact wifu i\lc Gavin to provide foralldle expenses needed for dle buildingofdle artificial womb, the syndlesizingofdle DN.-1etc. keeps one wondering what business sense it makes to i\lc Gavin.Itseems sensible to ask whether communication widlETisworth dleeffortiffinally itisoneDon,aSarallorLenorewhowould have sole proprietorship! 111ere seems to be a confusion caused mainly due to dle juxtapositionofthe moral, ethical issues atbodltlle human and cosmic scales. "\11 in all, Rollbackisan interesting, well-told story widl beautiful characterization. TIle genuine attempt to discuss the moral conundrums makes it yet anodler engaging book by Sa\llyer that plays to tlle readers' intellectaswellasemotion. Sawyer believes in finishing the story widlOut any loose ends.FICTIONREVIEWSun.'SunsDominickGraceSchroeder, Karl. StillofStIllJ.New York: Tor,2006.320pages, hardcover, $24.95. ISBN-10: 0765315432.51111of51111.1',dle first volumeofthe Virga trilogy, was published in hardback inOctober2006, andisdueoutin paperback in Summer 2007. Schroeder'sfourthnovel and first foray into trilogy territoryisa lean and economical adventure story that focuscsonaction without skimping (much)onSchroeder's usual wild conceptsorcharacterization. Virgaisa constructed hollow world, a giantgasballoon powered by anartificial sun (referred to in dle tide) located in its center and inhabited by various communities living in constructed cnvironments, some incorporating asteroids. TIle far futurc technology required to create such a world takes a back seat to the more nineteenth-century-style (for fue most part) technologies these communities create.Theircities, for instance, are builtofwood and given artificial gravity via rotation powered by motorized "bikcs." Schroeder imagines a far-future steam punk world, widlmostofthe social and teclU1ological clements makingupthese communities reminiscentofearlier historical periods. The communities loosely resemble colonial powers, though theyarcmore like city-states thiU1 full-fledged nations, iU1d the vast air-spaceofVirgaislike nodung more dlall the seas such powers crossed to build their empires. Indeed, dleir vast fleetsarecalled navies, pirates proliferate, and the actionisreminisccntasmuchofC.S.ForesterorPatrick O'Briall asitisofclassic Space Opera. 'llle plotisdriven by conflicts bctwecn dlcse city-states. TIlenO\-elbegins widl a small one, .'crie, attempting to win independence from a larger one, Slipstream, that has absorbed it, by creating its own milll-sun, thcreby providing for itself a(


((powersource and freeing it from dependence. This planisthwarted, the new sun exploded, and the traitorsorfreedom fighters,dependingin one'spointofview, including the parentsofthe protagonist, Hayden Griffen, killed in the blast. :\ major narrative strand involves Hayden's infiltrationofthe Slipstream air na,)' in aquestfor vengeance against Chaisson Fanning,nowadmiralofthe fleetbutthecommanderofthe attack that killed Hayden's parents. Haydenis wry much in the Luke Skywalker vein,evenhaving a climactic sword duel with the true architectofhis parents' deadl, and the nm-elisreminiscentofclassic SpaceOpera(Ifound myself dlinkingofbooks like Jack \\'illiamson'sLegiollofSpacewhile reading it), somuchso dlat someofthe nods tocontemporarytaste(e.g.dle occasional profanity) seemed somewhatoutofplace. However, dlereismuchmore to dle novel dlan the basicgrOWdlto maturityofdle questing hero we follow in dle figureofHayden. }l1lOdler major characterisa visitor from outside Virga, a representati,-eofmore technologically ad,-anced cultures that live in what dle novel calls "-\.rtificialNature (a"reality" heady interpenetrated by virtual reality,asin Schroeder's previous novel, Lady' Her tme mission remainsunknownformostofdle book,butdle designsofdle outside worldonVirga will clearly feature prominendy in subsequent ,"olumes. \\llat ise,-identisdlat dle conflicting factions widlin Virga will face amuchlarger dueat ofabsorption and perhaps annihilation from without,astheir hitherto protected status (outsiders can visit,buttechnological interpenetrationisstricdy prohibited,as Virga ismaintainedasa kindofwilderness preserve/native resen-ation)ischallenged, an ironic contrast widl dle internal attemptsofdle different communities to take eachodlerover.Heredle novel adopts amorecomplex and interrogatory stance towards dle imperialist tropescommonin Space Opera. \v11i1e there are more and less admirable characters in dle novel, Hayden's initial ,-iewofSlipstreamasthe E,-il Empireiscompromised and ultimately undercut. Indeed, the irony ofhis ,"iew ofdle Slipstreanlers who destroyed.-\.erieas"traitors" foregrounds the extent to which concepts ofloyalty and betrayalareculturally specific; a Slipstreamer"'hofights for Slipstreamisnomorea traitor thanis(say) an Iraqi who fights [or Iraq. UUljuestioning lovalty to a causeisproblematizedasthe nm-el proceeds, with Hayden eventuallybecomingasmucha reluctant ally ofdle Slipstreanlersasanopponentto them.Forone dling, he recognizes that the Slipstream conflict withotherofthe city-states willnotsen-e dle interestsofre"i,-ing_-\.erieifSlipstream loses.. -\. majorbatde with Falcon Formation, oneofdleseodlercommunities, and possessedofa new super weapon (albeitnotcluite aDeathStar), takesupanother major narrative strand, in which Hayden's quest for re,-engeisside tracked into asortoftreasurehunt(complete with pursuing pirates) to acquire another super-,,eapon, this one ach-anced technology 0)y Virg,m standards) with which the Falcon fleet can be defeated. Furthernlore, by the endofdle novel, Ha\'den hasgrownbeyond somethingassimplisticasthe search for revenge (which the nm"el suggestsisassimplisticasunthinking nationalism), actually sparing dle lifeofanodlerkiller-akiller whose action was necessary to the sun-i,"alof Virga but"'hosevictim was dear to Hayden.Inshort, Schroeder here providesallthe eannarksofoperatic action and adventure, which he renders in experdy plotted and thrilling detail.Buthe also colors dle adventure with subtle explorationsofmore complex political and psycho logical issues.51111ofSmlsis by nomeans a philosophical tractorcharacter study (indeed, Schroeder seems to ha'-e taken some pains to have his characters speak in dle sortofwitty banteroftheaction/adventure genre),butitiscertainlymuchmore than a dlriller.Itisan exciting novel, constructed to keep the reader engaged and turning dle pages, bu t it offers pleasures beyond dle visceral, and it offers food for thoughtaswellasexcitement. .-\.dmirers ofSchroeder,aswellasofthe SpaceOperamodels in the worksofwriters suchasDavid BrinorDanSimmons should like dlis book,but any serious readerofSF should find it rewardingaswell.)


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