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SFRA review

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SFRA review
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Science fiction -- History and criticism -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Fantasy fiction -- History and criticism -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
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#1 April/lfay/lune100T Editor: Christine Mains Hanaging Editor: Janice M. Bogstad Nonfiction Reriews: Ed McKnight Fiction Reriews: Ed Carmien The SFRAReview (ISSN 1068-395X) is published four times a year by the Science Fiction Research Association (SFRA) and distributed to SFRA members. Individual issues are not for sale; however, starting with issue #256, all issues will be published to SFRA's website no less than 10 weeks after paper publication. For information about the SFRA and its benefits, see the description at the back of this issue. For a membership application, contact SFRA Treasurer Donald M. Hassler or get one from the SFRA website: . SFRA would like to thank the Univer sity of Wisconsin-Eau Claire for its as sistance in producing the SFRAReview. SUBMISSIONS The SFRAReviewencourages all submis sions, including essays, review essays that cover several related texts, and inter views.lf you would like to review non fiction or fiction, please contact the respective editor. Christine Mains, Editor Box 66024 Calgary.AB TIN I N4 Janice M. Bogstad, Managing Editor 239 Broadway St. Eau Claire WI 54703-5553 Ed McKnight, Nonfiction Editor I 13 Cannon Lane Taylors SC 29687 Ed Carmien, Fiction Editor 29 Sterling Road Princeton NJ 08540 Science Fiction Research Association SFIUI Re"ie., III ... HIS ISSUE: SFRA Business Editor's Message 2 President's Message 2 Special Features Approaches to Teaching Heinlein 3 Non Fiction Reviews Essays on Narnla 6 Evolution for Everyone 8 The Souls of Cyberfolk 10 Through Time I 2 Fiction Reviews Space Cadet 14 Farnham's Freehold 14 Radio Freefall I 4 Variable Star I 5 Starshlp Troopers I 7 The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress I g Spindrift I g Zenith 20 Sixty Days and Counting 22 Hydrogen Steel 23


) News Items: The inductees into the Science Fic tion Hall of Fame, housed at the Science Fiction Museum in Seattle, have been announced. The induc tion ceremony will be held on June 16 in conjunction with the presen tation of the Locus Awards. This year's inductees include: Gene Wolfe, Ridley Scott, Ed Emshwiller, Gene Roddenberry. The nominees for the Sunburst Award for Canadian Literature of the Fantastic have been named.The prize is presented annually for Ca nadian speculative fiction and incldues a cash prize of $1 ,000 and a hand-crafted medallion which in corporates the "Sunburst" logo, de signed by Marcel Gagne. fabrizio's Return, by Mark Frutkin; Keturah and Lord Death, by Martine Leavitt; The Droughtlanders, by Carrie Mac; Blindsight, by Peter Watts; Before I Wake, by Robert Wiersema. The nominees for the John W. Campbell Memorial Award have been announced. This award is for best science fiction and has been presented since 1973. It will be pre sented at the Campbell Conference Awards Banquet in Lawrence, KS the weekend of July 6-8. Titan, by Ben Bova;A Small and Remarkable Ufe, by Nick DiChario; Infoquake, by David Louis Edelman; Nova SWing, by M. John Harrison; Odyssey, by Jack McDevitt; The Last Witch(inder, by James Morrow; Uving Next Door to the God of Love, by Justina Robson; Dry, by Barbara Sapergia; Sun of Suns, by Karl Schroeder; Glasshouse, by Charles Stross; Rainbow's End, by Vernor Vinge; farthing, by Jo Walton; Blindsight, by Peter Watt.s ( SFRA BUSINESS EdHor's tlessaae Ed Carmien On behalf of Christine Mains and the SFRA Retiew staff, welcome to our Heinlein focus issue. Timed to coincide with our visit to Kansas City, where we are co-conferencing with the exciting Heinlein Centennial, much of the content touches on the work of one of science fiction's main movers and shakers. First, what don't we have in this issue? No full-blown Approaches to Teaching Heinlein article, unfortunately. Despite calls for such an item, nothing darkened our door. Kudos and appreciation go out to \V'arren Rochelle, Edra Bogle, James GU1111, and most especially Margaret McBride, however, who shared dlOUghtS and obser vations about teaching Heinlein. Clearly, we are thinking about teaching Heinlein, as the detailed and thoughtful comments we received show. As many of us report teaching Heinlein 111 our sCience fiction courses, it may have proved difficult to separate thoughts of teaching Heinlein from teaching science fiction in general. This reflects the size and depth of the critical shadow he casts on the field. That shadow extends into dle realm of contemporary publishing. It proved far easier to find Heinlein-related fiction to discuss in dlls issue. Just as politicians 111voke L111coln, edi tors and publicis ts invoke Heinlein to make a particular point about dle Wished-for reading experience. New authors are sold to the reading public With that magic word, "Heinlein" in the press release and back cover copy, and from dlat we readers expect-what? Some of our reviewers help answer that question. \'Iihether you're a Heinlein Centennial attendee reading a SFRA for the first time, or a long-time member, we think there is something here of 111terest and use here. Enjoy-and join the conversation. SFRA BUSINESS tlessaae Adam Frisch If, as Ken MacLeod claims in a recent issue of FOlllldation, "science fiction is an argument with the world" (Spring, 2007, p. 13), then the job of our associa tion is to re-search sf works in an attempt to clarify and highlight dle content and claims of dlOse arguments, dleir various strategies of debate, and the intercon nections that have arisen within the sf genre across the history of its discourse. Thus this summer's annual SFR..\ Conference in Kansas City, which joins the Heinlein Centerullal and Campbell Conferences in "Celebrating the Golden Age of Science Fiction," should help all of us re-discover our genre's ''baselines'' by re exam1l1111g many of our genre's classics. Such re-illumination has already begun for me, as on a recent Sunday e\Tn111g I read through the "\cceptance Speech sent to me by this year's Pilgrinl winner, :\lgis Budrys. "\ major writer and critic during sf's Golden Age, }Jgis is phYSically unable now to attend events like our Kansas City meeting. But he uses his Pilgrim opportunity to look back at one of the key figures of that era whom he knew personally, John Campbell. Reading his remarks, I began to see a differ ent John Campbell / Don Stuart than the author and editor I have so often presented to my students in dle past. BudI)'s sees Campbell as a much "wilier" figure dlan he is normally considered, who may have even suggested certain story hnes-such as the one underlining Clive Carmllll's famous "Deadline" story that )


( posits the secret development of an "atomic bomb" -as "test runs" to see what his wartime government was up to in the way of technology. The Rez7m' will reprint Algis's entire speech in its fall issue, but in this current issue there are already a number of reviews and reflections on Heinlein-related and other Past Masters-related material that celebrate sf's Golden Age and begin for all of us this same re-illumination process. W'hen I joined SFR.,\ back in 1978, it was with the attention to keep up to date with the latest trends in sf and sf scholarship, so that I might someday produce worthwhile academic appraisals of the latest arguments contemporary sf writers were having with our world. Little did I suspect that in my eager anticipation of sf's future I would, as Nick Carraway finds out at the end of Gatsf?y, be "borne back ceaselessly into the past." SPECIAL FEATURES Approaches to "eachina Heinlein Margaret McBride, Warren Rochelle, Edra Bogle, James Gunn Margaret McBride: I have taught works by Robert Heinlein a number of times at the Univer sity of Oregon. The majority of the students are not English majors and most have not read much science fiction. Below are a few comments on the context in which I taught his fiction and some of the questions I used to start discussion and to spark essays from the students. "\s can probably be told from the wording of the questions, I began the classes with discussion of terms, theories, etc. that could help someone new to the science fiction genre. A The Mool1 is a Harsh 1\1istress-used in a general junior-senior le\"el science fiction class. The focus was on how the novels presented government and political concerns. The 1\10011 is a Harsh 1\1istresswas taught in conjunction with Do Al1droidJ Dream of Electric Sheep? by Phillip K. Dick, The Disposse.r.redhy Ursula 1' LeGuin, Red Mars by Kim Stanley Robinson, and The Color of Distal1ce by "\my Thomson. The comparisons between dIese novels worked well to generate dis CUSSion. 1. Describe the society as depicted in the first 1/3 of me book. \X1Iat clues does Heinlein give as to how it evolved-language, history, etc.? What are some factors that determine how dIe culture works, what people cherish, how dIe)" dress, how they treat others, etc.? 2. Write a "character" description of Mike. 3. Heinlein has been given credit as one of dIe early SF writers who included different racial groups in his future, yet the people in this book use racial stereotypes. \Vhy do you think his characterization includes dIese aspects? 4. Heinlein gives lots of details about "little" things-food, dress, how marriage works, etc. \X'hat is dIe effect of this description-both on how you react to dIe plot, world and people and as a narrative device? 5. \Vrite a clIaracter description of me Professor-what he believes, how he treats others, how odlers feel about llinl, his foibles, how believable he seems, etc. 6. The book has a fairly large number of minor characters. Describe twohow mey are developed, how believable dIey are, what is their importance to plot or themes, etc. 7. In Chapter 22l\fan implies he is writing the story because the material in dIe history books is so wrong. \X'hat does that statement suggest about his character; what dIemes might Heinlein have been implying? ( The Theodore SturgeonAward for best short story will be presented at the Campbell Conference Awards Banquet in Lawrence, KS the weekend of July 6-8."Yellow Card Man;' by Paolo Bacigalupi; "Dawn, and Sunset, and the Colours of the Earth," by Michael F. Flynn; "Botch Town;' by Jeffrey Ford; "The Djinn's Wife," by Ian McDonald; "The Walls of the Uni verse," by Paul Melko; "A Billion Eves," by Robert Reed; "You Have Never Been Here Feeling Very Strange," by M. Rickert;''The House Beyond Your Sky," by Benjamin Rosenbaum; "Another Word for Map Is Faith;' by Christopher Rowe; Inclination," by William Shunn; "Lord Weary's Empire," by Michael Swanwick;"The Cartesian Theater," by by Robert Charles Wilson; "Julian:A Christmas Story," by Robert Charles Wilson. The Locus Awards will be announced at the Locus Awards Ceremony in Seattle, June 16th, during the Science Fiction Museum's Hall of Fame weekend. Best Science Fiction Novel: Blindsight, Peter Watts; Carnival, Elizabeth Bear; Farthing, Jo Walton; Glasshouse, Charles Stross; Rainbow's End, Vernor Vinge. Best Fantasy Novel: The jennifer Morgue, Charles Stross; The Last Witchfinder, James Morrow; The Privilege of the Sword, Ellen Kushner; Soldier of Sidon, Gene Wolfe; Three Days to Never,Tim Powers. Best First Novel: Crystal Rain, Tobias S. Buckell; The Glass Books of the Dream Eaters, Gordon Dahlquist; The Green Glass Sea, Ellen Klages; The Ues of Locke Lamora, Scott Lynch; Temeraire, Naomi Novik. Best Novella:"Botch Town",Jeffrey Ford;"Lord Weary's Empire", Michael Swanwick; "Map of Dreams", M. Rickert; "The Mars Girl",Joe Haldeman;"Missile Gap", )


C,--. __ Charles Stross. Best Novelette: "I, Row-Boat", Cory Doctorow; "The Night Whiskey", Jeffrey Ford; "Pol Pot's Beautiful Daughter (Fantasy)", Geoff Ryman;"The Singularity Needs Women!", Paul Di Filippo; "When Sysadmins Ruled the Earth", Cory Doctorow. Best Short Story:"How to Talk to Girls at Parties", Neil Gaiman; "In the Abyss of Time", Stephen Baxter; "Nano Comes to Clifford Falls", Nancy Kress; "Sob in the Silence", Gene Wolfe; "Tin Marsh", Michael Swanwick. The Sidewise Award for Alternate History recognizes excellence in alternate history writing. Long Form: Robert Conroy, 1862; Paul Park, The Tourmaline; Charles Stross, The Family Trade, The Hidden Family, The Clan Cor porate;HarryTurtledove, The Disunited States ofAmerica;Jo Walton, Farthing. Short Form: Stephen Baxter,The Pacific Mystery; Maya Kaathryn Bohnhoff, 0 Pioneer; Gardner Dozois, Counterfactual; Chris Floyd, History Lesson; Martin Gidron, Palestina; Brian Stableford, The Plu rality ofWorlds;AndrewTisbert, The Meteor of the War. This year's NebulaAwards were an nounced at the Nebula Banquet in New York on May 12. Novel: Seeker, by Jack McDevitt; Novella: Burn, by James Patrick Kelly; Novelette: Two Hearts, by Peter Beagle; Short Story: Echo, by Elizabeth Hand; Script: Howl's MOVing Castle, by Hayao Miyazaki, Cindy Davis Hewitt, and Donald H. Hewitt; Andre Norton Award: Magic or Madness, by Justine Larbelestier. The Arthur C. Clarke Award for best science fiction novel published in the UK has been presented to M. John Harrison for his novel Nova Swing. ( 8 .. -\nalyze the presentation of ideas about how to organize a society or what makes a good government. \V'hich ones make sense; which ones do you have problems with and why? 9. Some people have described Heinlein's view of human nature in this book as cynical. What evidence do you see for and against that idea? 10. Some critics consider this to be Heinlein's best book. \V'hat qualities do you see that deserve such praise or do you disagree? You can compare the book to other SF or to your standards for literature in general. 11. Heinlein's books, especially his later ones, have gotten a lot of criti cism because of issues with the way he depicts women characters and the rela tionships between men and women. Yet compared to other SF of his time, he had more women characters who are integral to plot and who are usually intelligent and competent women. \Vhat is your reaction to this issue for Tbe Moon is a HarsbMistress? Did you fmd yourself having trouble reading it with today's senslblittles or would you be more apt to praise his intentions? Be sure to analyze some specific incidents or characters. B. Red P!amt-for a freshman class examining science fiction about Ivlars. 1. How characterize the human society (government, family life, econorrucs, etc.)!' \X/hat clues does Heinlein give? 2. \'V'hat seems to be the role and character of women in the i'vlars human society? How might tllls characterization have been influenced by the time, the audIence, etc. tlnt Heinlein was writing for? 3. Describe the science and elwironmental aspects of Mars. Which ones seem appropriate for the time the book was written and which ones seem out dated even for the 40s? \X1hat effect is created by the elements Heinlein includes? 4. TIlls novel was intended mainly for teen male readers. 'W'hat thematic elements do you see Heinlein including and how-what makes a good society, how is a "man" supposed to behave, etc.-and how are tlley directed to that audience? .5. Of tlle tllemes and common tropes that have been a part of l\fars fictlon m what we have read so far, willch ones do you see Heinlein using and for what purpose? How does he shape/change tllem? C. You Zombies"-in a junior/senior level class on "classic" Science Fiction, written before 1965. 1. John Campbell, in commenting on the earlier writers he most liked noted their "remarkable technique of presenting a great deal of background and assoClated matenal WitllOut intruding into the flow of the story." James Gunn m a later essay quoting Campbell says this assessment applied most to Heinlein. .\nalyze how Heinlein evokes a new milieu in this story. \V'hat do you know about this new time/world and what is only hinted at? \V'hat things seem not to ha,-e changed? How do the nov-urns affect the plot, theme, etc.? Some critics have suggested that tlle story is a metaphor for being a wnter. \X1nt seems valid or invalid about that idea? If tlnt was intended, what might Heinlein be suggesting about writing-particularly SF writing? 3. "-\nalyze the ByLaws of Time. \'V'hat do they add to the story and what IS be111g extrapolated from? The narrator suggests they are less inspiring than when he was younger. \Vhat is inspiring about them and for whom/what rea son? Warren Rochelle: I was surprised to remember that I have only taught Heinlein onceback in the summer of 1998, when I was a post-doc teaching fellow at UNC Greensboro and teaching English 105 (Intro to Narrative Fiction) in summer )


( school because I needed the money. The theme of the class that summer was E,;} (no, I don't remember why I picked that one!) and one of the novels I taught was Podkayne of Mars. The evil that Podkayne faced, as anyone who has read the novel will remember, are those forces that are trying to get Senator Fries to vote a certain way at an upcoming conference on Earth-ifhe gets there at all. j\[rs. Grew is a wonderful evil old lady. Some questions we considered-I think-would be is Clark evil--he certainly seems amoral, or at least completely self-serving? How naive is Podkayne? Is dle universe benign or malevolent or indifferent? "\nd, in the end, which ending is the most true? j\[ost of the students, if I remember right, voted to keep Poddy alive. I am trying to remember other Heinlein works I have taugh t-as a teach ing intern, "The Roads Must Roll," but I didn't have direct responsibility for dlat. This semester, in a freshman seminar on utopia, wIllie I didn't teach Heinlein, I found myself referencing him when we talked about libertarianism. EdraBogle: Some years ago--<:juite a few-I used 'Star Maker' in a graduate-level course in Science Fiction as the first entire nm-el we read. (\\le also used an anthol ogy of short stories and had read a few items, such as Hawthorne or Verne, in chronological order.) \'\ particularly struck me was dlat during the rest of the semester the class found elements of the Stapledon book in many of dle odler tides they read, both full-length and short works. In particular such elements showed up in the books individuals chose from a fairly long list for a paper and brief oral report, one tide to a person. I had also described dle ideas in other Stapledon novels such as 'Odd John' and 'Sirius' and students referred to dlese books, too, as forerunners in their reports. I would have repeated the choice when, maybe five years later, I got another graduate level sf course, but the book was out of print at dlat time. (In undergraduate courses I didn't take a chronological approach, so it seemed less appropriate.) JamesGunn: One of the approaches dlat I acquired from my late, lamented colleague and team-teacher Steve Goldman was dle way in which Heinlein's hierarchical audlOrity issues are addressed in novels such as The Pllpper Alasters (one of the 25 novels I teach in alternate summers). Sam makes mistake after mistake in fue early chapters of the novel and is saved by dle Old Man's shrewd judgment but, as the novel proceeds, Sam learns wisdom from his fadler and gradually makes better decisions until he takes over dle interrogation of his wife, learns how to defeat dle Masters, and finally rescues his father from the Master and their roles become reversed. There are odler issues to be explored, such as the echoes of the Commu nist menace, dle way in which being taken over by a Puppet Master represents a fate worse than deadl to a Libertarian such as Heinlein, and Heinlein's treatment of dle Competent Person in a time of crisis and dle necessity to break dle bonds of bureaucracy and the incompetent people, but I find the role of dle old in tutoring dle young until dley become competent echoes throughout Heinlein's work and nowhere more dlan in The Puppet 1Ilasters, which also can be approached as a well-made novel on several levels. "\nd, as a curiosity, dle scene in which the Old Man persuades Sam to assume his Master once more has a fascinating parallel to dle scene in The Ajiicall Glleen in which "-\llnut goes back into dle leech-filled swamp. ( 5) The Science Fiction Research Association has announced thatAlgis Budrys is the recipient of this year's Pilgrim Award, given to honor life time achievement in SF and Fantasy scholarship. Michael Levy is the re cipient of the Thomas D. Clareson Award for Distinguished Service. Amy J. Ransom is the recipient of the PioneerAward.The awards will be presented at the SFRA Conference in Kansas City July 5-8. The Department of Homeland Se curity has called upon science fic tion authors Arlan Andrews, Greg Bear, Jerry Pournelle, and Sage Walker for suggestions as to how the next attack on the United States might occur. DHS has turned to SF writers after authorities were taken to task for a failure of imagination in the 9/11 Commission Report. A second scholarship fund has been established in the name of Jamie Bishop, author Michael Bishop's son who was murdered atVirginia Tech on April 16. The Jamie Bishop Scholarship Fund in GraphicArts will be offered at LaGrange College in Georgia, where Michael Bishop teaches. Beginning with the Fall 2007 issue, Extrapolation will be edited by a new team: Executive Editor, Javier A. Martinez; Andrew M. Butler, ; Michael M. Levy, ; SherrylVint, ; Patricia Melzer, Book Review Editor . )


) Recent and Forthcoming Nonfic tion (Spring. 2007) Abrams, Jerold J. The Philosophy of Stanley Kubrick. Kentucky Univer sity Press. Ashenden, Gavin. Charles Williams:AIchemy and Integration. Kent State. DeGraw, Sharon. The Subject of Race in American Science Fiction. Routledge. Dickerson, Matthew and Jonathan Evans. Ents, Elves, and Eriador:The EnvironmentalVision ofJ.R.R. Tolkien. Kentucky University Press. Glyer, Diana Pavlac. C.S. Lewis and J.R.R. Tolkien as Writers in Commu nity. Kent State. Grebowicz, Margret (ed.) SciFi in the Mind's Eye: Reading Science through Science Fiction. Open Court. Hazell, Dinah. The Plants of Middleearth: Botany and Sub-creation. Kent State. Joshi, S. T.lcons of Horror and the Su pernatural:An Encyclopedia of Our Worst Nightmares. Greenwood. Kane, Paul. The Heltraiser Films and Their Legacy. McFarland. McKee, Gabriel. The GospelAccording to Science Fiction: From the Twilight Zone to the Final Frontier. John Knox Press. Nevins, Jess. Pulp Magazine Holdings Directory: Library Collections in North America and Europe. McFarland. Newitz,Annalee. PretendWe're Dead: Capitalist Monsters inAmerican Pop Culture. Duke UP. Proucher, Jeff. Brave New Words: The Oxford Dictionary of Science Fiction. Oxford UP. Russ, Joanna. The Country You Have Never Seen: Essays and Reviews. Liverpool UP. Stableford, Brian. Science Fact and Sci ence Fiction: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ( NONFICTION REVIEW Essays on lIarnja Brett Chandler Patterson Bassham, Gregory and Walls, Jerry, Eds. The Chronicles of Narnia and PhiiosoPI?T The Lioll, the Witch, alld the Wor/dzielv. Chicago and La Salle, Illinois: Open Court, 2005. Paperbound, }""yi + 302 pages, $17.95. ISBN 0-8126-9588-7. Caughey, Shana, Ed. Rezisitillg Namia: Fallta-!)1, Myth, and Religion ill C. S. Lewis' Chrollides. BenBella Books, Dallas, Texas, 2005. x+31O. Paperbound. ISBN 1-932100-63-6. The popularity of Peter Jackson's Lord of the Rings @Ins gave an excuse for academics to publish new articles and books on Tolkien. \"Vhen @mmakers then shifted their attention to the work of Tolkien's friend C. S. Lewis with the @m version of The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe, it was natural to see new books on Lewis. Scholars who have long appreciated the work of Tolkien and Lewis were now given the chance to explain that love to a much larger audience. Both of the reviewed books should be considered within this pop culture con text both Open Court and BenBella have framed and marketed these books within that context. They are not expressly books for the well-seasoned reader of Lewis and Tolkien; the publishers have designed them for the larger audience of readers who have come to Narnia without any wider understanding of Lewis' literary or theological contribution. With that said, the books are an entertaining and insightful read: each is a collection of essays, and as such, each--particularly BenBella's--excels at presenting a variety of viewpoints on Lewis. Atheists and agnostics as well as Christians respond to the mythical world of Narnia: Lewis' mythopoeic project is put to the test. Despite these strengths, though, these works sometimes, as essay collections, lack coherence, and there is notable repeti tion from essay to essay. Even with these limitations, these books are worth our atten tion. Rm'sitillg Nal71ia is the more varied and accessible, though perhaps un even, book of the two. The editor has not grouped these twenty-five essays into any apparent order or overarching plan; it is a free for all on Lewis' Narnia. Eventual repetition prevents this book from being as varied as one might think, but it does run the gamut from militant agnostics to evangelical Christians. Some of the stronger essays certainly are a pleasure to read. Those interested in Lewis' conception of and use of "mydl" in Narnia will be drawn to Charlie Starr's discussion of moral instruction in fairy tales (and, Starr argues, @In), particularly important for dleir power to draw us in and to experience truths that would otherwise be overly abstract. This concreteness is what Lewis, influenced by his friend Tolkien, sought. Joseph Pearce's essay also helps us to distinguish allegory and myth in Lewis' thought, but Pearce argues that participation in Namia and even J\1iddle-earth requires leaps of the imagination that frequendy are allegorical. Pearce quotes Lewis's statement that myths should suggest allego ries and observes dlat Tolkien was more subde than Lewis on this point. Peter Schake! and \\'esley Kort (a former professor of mine) offer convincing argu ments for continuing to read the Chronicles in the order in which Lewis wrote them, rather dlan in the order dlat he later suggested and HarperCollins currendy publishes them, because The Lion, the Witch, alld the Wardrobe offers a better introduction to the theology in Narnia, as we slowly build to the encounter with :\slan. I(ort, in particular, highlights the significant difference theologically be tween starting widl a doctrine of redemption in LW &W rather dlatl the doctrine )


of creation as in The Magicialls Nephelv. Numerous writers (Kort, Starr, Sammons, Como, Duriez, and others) illuminate Lewis' desire to try to recapture the won of eXlstence that modern Western culture (and its narrow-minded empiri clsm) has effecnvely squashed. Other essays explore the origins of evil in Narnia a feminist critique of how women are often the personi ficanons of evil, as Lewis draws on the Lilith mythology he inherited from George MacDonald (Zettel and McSporran). Others comment on Lewis' con cern for animals (Newkirk), his Platonic perception that this world is a shadow of the real world God has in store for us (Schall), his creative use of time between Narnia and our world (McBride), and his portrait of God in :\slan as a lion .who is not tame (Dalton). Mamatas offers an Orthodox critique of the verSlOn of substitutionary atonement often seen is } .. slan's sacrifice; :\loi sug gests that Narrua offers neo-pagan readings in the inclusions of witches and elements from Greek and Roman mythology; and Markos suggests how Lewis' work can help redeem the postmodern world. This varied collection should spark some valuable discussion about Lewis' work. The Chronicles ofNamia alld Philosophy offers, on dle whole, essays with more mmcate arguments, and the editors have organized them into four rela tively coherent parts, respectively emphasizing Lewis' portraits of faith/knowl edge, morality, reality, and the transcendent. The first section is a collection of e.ssays that carefully delineate dle epistemological elements in Lewis' presenta non the relanonship between faith and knowledge. Kevin Kinghorn argues that m Narrua fatth leads to knowledge more than knowledge leads to faith; a number of characters, like Uncle "wdrew, miss this lesson, and Calillot see/ understand the truth about what happens to them in Narnia. Thomas Sennor analyzes the logic of Professor Kirke, who tells Peter atld Susan early in LU;'"1F that they should trust Lucy even though her account of a mystical on the other side of the wardrobe goes against the way they have been taught to under the wurld. Senor draws dlC cxplicit connections to how we should today Judge those who speak of religious experiences showing dlat dlere is another option between Lucy is lying and Narnia is true: that Lucy is mistaken, dlOugh she .believes lt to be true. Weighing evidence, though, we should see validity in from people we trust. Furthering the discussion of Lewis' portrait of fatth, Steven Lovell connects Puddleglum to Pascal and T ames. Bruce Reichenbach us that Lewis critiques dle modern world's acceptance of positiv lsm and argues for a renewed appreciation of the wonder of dle world each in our own way (knowledge is perspectival). Even though Lewis argues the acquisition of truth requires a commitment on our parts, he still believes (as Tim Moesteller argues) that dlere is a standard of morality built into creation (Lewis called this standard dle Tao). There are values and virtues dlat we all must face -as Laura Garcia observes Narnia often shows that dlere are things worth dying for. Children face lenges where they risk their lives in ballie and in other contexts to save Narnia from various evils. Bill Davis highlights dle journey through moral education that the children take, particularly in their various encounters widl :\slan, and Gayne .wacker and \'Vendy Hamblet suggest how reading the Narnia books to shape .the moral imagination of the readers, particularly children thelr persuaslve power behind a mask of playful pretense" (144)). Karin Fry, though, faults the vision of Narnia for its unsympathetic handling of "femi nine" characteristics, particularly in the rejection of Susan. The third major section of the book does not cohere as well as the previous, containing i\1atthews' discussion of Platonic dlemes in The Sill'f:r Chair and The Last Battle, Cleveland's locating of identity in point of view to say that ( Tuerk. Richard. Oz in Perspective: Magic and Myth in the L Frank Baum Books. McFarland. Weaver. Brunas and Brunas. Universal Horrors: The Studio's Classic Films, 1931-1946. McFarland. Willis. Martin. Mesmerists, Monsters, and Machines: Science Fiction and the Cultures of Science in the Nineteenth Century. Kent State. Wilson. Eric G. The Strange World of David Lynch: Ironic Religion from Eraserhead to Mulholland Dr. Continuum. CfPs: WHAT:The Postcolonial Wondrous: Third World in Science Fiction and Fantasy TOPICS: Postcolonial Studies has emerged as one of the most pro ductive and Significant academic dis ciplines of the late twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Despite these lively debates. one area is largely un touched -that of Science Fiction and Fantasy literature and cinema which uses or is about the so-called Third World as the non-Western "Other." Yet, the concepts of empire-building. various forms of governance. colonization. and power and cultural relations between different speciesl races have been central to SF/F ever since the inception of these genres. Both in the quests of Fantasy and exploring space frontiers of Science Fiction. the dilemma of responding to encounters with the "Other" is resolved in various ways ranging from the most retrogressive to the utopic.This book aims to fill this la cuna in both postcolonial and science fiction and fantasy studies. Possible areas of research include (but are not limited to): the impor tance of SF/F in prOViding forums for examining third world issues; in-


(8 ) tersections of postcolonial theory and SF/F; analyses of third world characters in Western SF/F (includes case studies); the imperialist tradi tion in Western SF/F this may be with special reference to constructions of race, gender, class, sexuality, culture, and so on;Western SF/F that confounds or avoids stereotypical representations of the third world; case studies of third world SF/F authors and filmmakers; third world adaptations/variations/parodies of Western SF/F; SF/F traditions in third world countries outside of the West; representations of the West/first world in SF/F produced in the third world. SUBMISSIONS: 3500-6000 words CONTACT: Ericka Hoagland Reema Sarwal DEADLINE: 31 July 2007 WHAT: Demanding the Impossible WHO: The 3rd Australian Conference on Utopia, Dystopia, and SF WHEN: 5-6 Dec 2007 WHERE: Monash University, Clayton Campus, Melbourne, Australia SPEAKERS: Tom Moylan, Lyman Tower Sargent, Lucy Sussex. TOPICS: In December 200 I the Uni versity ofTasmania hosted a success ful conference around the theme of Antipodean Utopias. In December 2005, Monash University hosted a second conference, around the theme of Imagining the Future, to mark the long-awaited publication of Archaeologies of the Future, Fredric Jameson's full-length monograph on utopia and science fiction.This third conference will return to the ques tion of how we imagine the future and whether such imaginings remain open to the unforeseeable. Jameson famously concludes that utopia is 'a ( characters remain the satne through different forms (children age to adults in N arnia and then return to childhood in our world, Eustace is transformed into a dragon, etc.), i'.Ienuge's analysis of Lewis' critique of secular modernism (which might fit better in the first section of the book), and Petersons' detailing of Lewis' creative use of time. The final section turns more explicidy to the metaphysical and theological. Here we learn from Namia that encounters with divine goodness, represented in :\slan, can be painful (Wielenberg) and that Asian's welcoming of Emeth the Calormene into his country in LB is inclusivist, not universalist or pluralist (Sennett: "There is no ultimate source of divine favor except Asian. However, :\slan's lm"e for all creatures, Narnian and Calormene alike, often moves him to work through whatever means the temple of Tash itself-to try to bring those creatures to him" (243).). Taliaferro and Traughber reinvigorate a discussion of dle ransom theory of atonement by bringing Asian's sacrifice in L!VlP in conversation with John Lucas' critique of the ransom theory. In an insightful and entertaining essay, Victor Reppert effectively argues that Lewis did not (as biographer :\. N. Wilson argues) revert to children's literature because he could not handle apologetics after Elizabeth Anscombe put him in his place in dle infatnous 1948 debate (and that dle Green Witch is not a disguised jab at Anscombe), for apologetics is frequendy incorporated into the mythology of Narnia. Then closing the volume, Gregory Basshatn highlights Lewis' sympa dletic treatment of anin1als and his dleological musings about dle lack of souls in atumals to argue dut Lewis did not open the door to heaven far enough (in LB only talking animals make it to "-1.slan's country). Bodl books, once again, are worthy additions to the growing collection of books atlalyzing the contributions of Lewis (and Tolkien). Both suffer and benefit from being a collection of essays from various contributors. Perhaps it is best to the essays individually and not worry about an overarching structure. There are odler studies out there to give us that kind of an assessment of Lewis' work. But dlese volumes do help bring dle depth of the discussion of Lewis' vision to a wider audience. Such is to be commended. NONFICTION REVIEW Evoluialon for Everyone Thomas J. Morrissey Wilson, David Sloan. Ewlutioll for Et'eryone: HOJlJ Danvill's Theory Call Challge the W?q;' [Fe Thillk AbOllt OIll'Lim. NY: "-1. Delacort Book (Bantatn Dell), 2007. Hardcover. 390 pages. $24. ISBN: 978-0-385-34021-2. Is your uncle a monkey? Are you holding on for dear life to the slippery links of the Great Chain of Being? Of the earth-shaking discoveries of science over dle last four hWldred years, none has challenged our view of ourselves more dlatl Darwinism. It was bad enough when we were told that our planet is not the center of dle universe. Then we learned dut the earth is much older than Dick Clark, dlat what goes up does not necessarily come down, and dut there may be matl}' more dimensional directions thatl up and down. But the idea that we are a recent atld not necessarily permanent marcher in dle parade of life forms is just too much for some to bear. If you have an aversion to dle possibility of simian forebears, then you will probably not like El'ollltioll for El'eryo!le, dlOugh dut will be your loss. If, on the odler hand (how lucky for writers that we evolved two hands!), you are )


( excited, as I am, by the application of evolutionary theory to great issues in our lives, then you will like this book very much. Evolutionary biologist David Sloan Wilson, author or co-author of four previous books dealing with Darwinism, is not at all bothered by the revolutionary revelations that continue to distress many Americans. In fact, he sees Darwinism as a rational and comprehensive theory that when fruitfully employed can tell us a great deal about who we are and why we do things the way we do. Wilson is distressed that recent polls suggest that a majority of Americans do not believe that humans evolved from other animals, but he is appalled that even among those who accept this idea Darwinism is a vague and unusable concept. "\s the subtitle of this volume suggests, \,(!ilson's goal is to show that natural selection has shaped us as a species and that that shape has a definition we must confront, understand and accept if we are to benefit long-term from our most powerful adaptation, our intelligence. Et'Oiutioll for Eteryone consists of 36 chapters, each of which reads like a mini essay. A comprehensive index and a bibliography of print and web sources and resources rounds out the text. Moreover, tile book's overall coherence and cohesion are remarkably tight. If Wilson lectures with the clarity and precision he demonstrates in this text, then he must be very good behind a lectern. He must be fun to listen to also because his prose is graceful, lively and engaging. His goal is that his readers learn to think evolutionarily, that they accept and internalize Darwinism as a new and vital paradigm. TIus is a daunting but terribly important task, for what he wants us to do is to replace the old metaphors tint have consciously or unconsciously shaped our thinking (the Great Chain is a good example) Witll a new one that he elucidates from the first to tile last chapter. "\s Wilson writes, "It is not yet common to think of human behavioral diversity as like biological diversity, but it just nlight become the new common sense." Wilson's project is to define Darwinism, explain tile workings of natural selection, describe scientific experiments tllat support Darwinism, and, through anecdotes from the world of science, show how those who actually do the experi ments-himself included-have come to regard Darwinian thinking as the best way to frame reality. In developing his argument, \\'ilson is happy to acknowledge the giants on whose shoulders he stands, most notably E. 0. Wilson, the founder and sage of sociobiology. However, tile tone of this book, though intelligent, is not academic in the stuffiest sense of the word. \Vilson describes experiments that almost anyone Witll patience and time on his or her hands could undertake. He uses the experiments to build Ius case for tile undeluability of Darwinism, but he also employs them as a celebration of human intelligence, self-awareness, and open-mindedness. "\fter introducing tile scientists he knows personally, he refers to tllem by their first names. It is important to him that readers see tllese men and women as curious humans ratller than distant icons. One apt example is the story of graduate student Kris Coleman's four-year study of pumpkinseed sunfish, which included a description of her spending long hours lying facedown in what Wilson describes as a "glass coffin" watching tile fish in a pond below. The book's tlleme is the applicability of Darwinism, but its central mes sage is tint natural selection manifests itself in a ,-ariety of ways and tlut com-en tional thinking often falls short of what an evolutionary approach to tile world nlight yield. Wilson gives us a quick synopsis on tile increasing complication of life forms since the first RN"\ strands floated in tile primordial waters. He dem onstrates that the evolution of cells and multi-cellular life forms is a story of cooperation and symbiosis. TIus implies tint DN.\ is a master control system that unites disparate cells and organs in producing and sustaining life. It also implies that cooperation among cells, organs and organisms is how fitness comes ( 0) meditation on the impossible, on the unrealizable in its own right'. Hopefully, the conference will play some small part in prompting similar such meditations on the impossible. Its key note speakers will be:Tom Moylan, author of Demand the Impossible and Scraps of the Untainted Sky; Lyman Tower Sargent, founding editor of Utopian Studies and co-editor of The Utopia Reader; and Lucy Sussex, author of A Tour Guide in Utopia. The confer ence invites papers from scholars, writers and others interested in uto pia, dystopia and science fiction. CONTACT:Queries and submissions to DEADLINE: 30 Sept 2007 INFO: conferences!utopias3! WHAT: Life, the Universe, and Ev erything XXVI WHO: The Marion K. 'Doc' Smith Symposium on Science Fiction and Fantasy WHEN: February 14-16, 2008 WHERE: Brigham Young University TOPICS: Guests include Gail Carson Levine. We are especially interested in papers in the following areas: lit erary criticism!analysis of sf&f and re lated literature (medieval, renais sance, mythology, magic realism, etc.); Science and technology (especially new or unusual);Analysis of sf&f re lating to poetry and!or theatre; Mor mon culture. literature. and society in relation to sf&f; Serious analysis of sf&f in cinema, television, radio. and other media SUBMISSIONS: Submitfull papers fto . Papers submitted without contact informa tion will not be considered. DEADLINE: November 16. 2007. INFO: )


elO ) WHAT: Extrapolation TOPICS:We invite papers on all ar eas of speculative culture, including print, film, television, comic books and video games, and we particu larly encourage papers which consider popular texts within their larger cultural context. We welcome papers from a wide variety of critical approaches including but not limited to literary criticism, utopian studies, genre criticism, feminist theory, critical race studies, queer theory, and postcolonial theory. Extrapolation promotes innovative work which considers the place of specu lative texts in contemporary culture. We are interested in promoting dia logue among scholars working within a number of traditions and in en couraging the serious study of popu lar culture.We welcome submissions on all areas of science fiction and fantasy, and are particularly inter ested in the following areas of study: Racial constructions in speculative genres; Children's andYA sf and fan tasy; Sexualities; Fantastic motifs in mainstream texts; Gender and speculative texts; History of sf and fantasy; New weird fiction; Remakes, rewriting and retrofitting; Pulp sf and fantasy; The body in speculative texts; Posthumanism; Political sf and fantasy; Non-Western speculative traditions;Technoculture SUBMISSIONS: Essays should be ap proximately 4000-9000 words, writ ten according to MLA standards and include a 100 word abstract. Neither embedded footnotes nor gen erated footnotes that some software systems make available should be used. Electronic submissions in MS Word are encouraged. CONTACT: Javier A. Martinez, Department of English, University of Texas at Brownsville, 80 Fort Brown, Brownsville, TX 78520 ( about, but it also suggests a metaphor that allows for some pretty interesting observations. For example, \Vilson describes the hive intelligence of bee colo nies. There is no doubt that the bees of a hive work together in ways that give the collective a far greater intelligence than any single individual. He also relates ex periments in which groups of humans perform tasks better when they work in groups. "\lthough we are each smarter than tl1e average bee, our social nature allows us to be smarter than the sum of a social unit's parts. Cooperative intelli gence enhancement predates our species' genesis by many millions of years. \Vilson also stresses the importance of experiments that show intelligence in individual animals, such as the work done on the language capacities of primates and birds. \Vilson consistently emphasizes that we must never think of our selves as apart from tl1e rest of the natural world and that we must not forget that all of our inherited traits are manifestations of an ancient gene pool. Of course Wilson knows that we are individual human beings, and his text consistently reveals the autllOr's personality .At the same time, the idea that our bodies are superbly coordinated collections of cells leads naturally to the notion that our societies are complex collections of individual selves. Our closest genetic relatives, the chimps, live in small bands and practice complicated intra group politics. We used to live in small groupings, but of late (since tl1e inven tion of agriculture) we have developed much larger groups, including continental nation states. For \Vilson, understanding social evolution that unfolded over the long millennia of hunter-gatherer existence offers clues that might help us to surVl\"e tl1e awesome destructive power that our high intelligence has created. Like many SF writers, Wilson questions whether our intelligence and psychology will lead to harmonious societies or to extinction. Do we need Oarke's Overlords, Butler's Oankali or Nancy Kress' pribir to come to earth and save us from oursekes, or can we, by understanding our biological and social origins, learn to make good collective choices that will secure our future without outside intervention? \Vilson closes chapter 27 by suggesting that we can kill ourselves off or "steer ourselves into the future like Captain [

( in the mind-body split, the naturalness of a life lived in close proximity to technology, the dis embodiment inherent in navigating cyberspace, and the tran scendence found in the technological sphere. Although the book is marketed to those in the field of cultural studies, its content means that the audience will range far. In his introduction, Foster makes it clear that he does not attempt to "treat cyberpunk as a postmodernizing of science fiction." Rather, he wants to read "cyberpunk ... as a form of vernacular theory" (>lviii), one that informs a particular cultural moment concerned with such things as gender, race, and class. Technology has made the question of what it means to be human much more difficult. Cybernarratives express this cultural moment's worries about---{)r the valorization of --dis embodiment, the place and role of the soul, and the essence of humanity. He succeeds in his aim: the book is an excellent synthesis of a variety of disciplines that in tum leads to new, insightful readings, and Foster's connections between spheres of knowledge is impressive. These connections also permit multilayered readings that touch on large social issues, and the book is a good example of praxis. Chapter 1, "The Legacies of Cyberpunk Fiction," links the ideas of some of posthumanism's greatest thinkers (including Hayles, Moravec, Wiener, and Fukuyama), particularly in terms of consciousness divided between the human mind and a technological extension, to several cyberpunk texts by noted science fiction authors (including Greg Egan, Ken McLeod, Pat Cadigan, and Nancy Kress) that feature embodied cognition, dis embodiment, and technological transcendence and self-transformation. This chapter defines the broad field of play in popular and scientific terms, and it sets up the terms of the arguments for the rest of the book. The chapters that follow focus on single topics within this realm: embodiment (chapter 2), fetishism (chapter 3), gender and performativity (chapter 4), race and performativity (chapter 5), trauma and white masculinity (chapter G), and new cthnicities (chapter 7). Chapter 2, "Meat Puppets or Robopaths," is a close reading of that foundational cyberpunk text, William Gibson's Nellromallcer(1984), and of David J. Skal's novel Antibodies (1989). The texts consider dle mind-body split in different terms, but Foster mediates both readings by positing a durd mode of experience, one that genre permits. 111is dlird way grows out of the cyborg resistance (following Haraway) and the desire for postmodern culture to "ideo logically recontain that potential for disruption" (57). In chapter 3, "The Sex .\ppeal of the Inorganic," Foster moves away from literature and into odler cultural expressions of cyberpunk and posdmman embodiment. In an analysis of sexual representations that include disembodiment, including "seA)' robot" artworks by Hajime Sorayama, Foster meditates on dle nature of fantasy and sex, and their relationship to (female) subjectivity. He concludes, in part, dut desire of dle technological forces a differ ent kind of desire dlat does not rely on a male subject reading his lack onto a female body. Chapter 4, "Trapped by dle Body," discusses virtual reality and embodiment, following .\llucquere Rosanne Stone's work, in written texts by three women, including i\IaureenMcHugh, that use gender cross-identification. In works widl gender play (drag, butch-femme, camp), dle sex of dle participant does not necessarily correlate widl the gender performance, and dus rupture also plays out in texts thematically concerned with gender and technology. In chapter 5, "The Souls of Cyberfolk," wluch again follows dle work of Stone, among others, play becomes reconstituted as racial performativity. The tide comes from dle 1990 Deatblok comic published by i\farvel, which is about an African American cyborg. Panels from dle comic are reproduced in black and ( WHAT: Special Issue on Geoff Ryman WHO: Extrapolation WHEN: Summer 2008 TOPICS: Ryman is increaSingly recognized as an important writer in the field of science fiction, the author of six novels and numerous other works and the recipient of the James Tiptree, Jr. Award, the British Science Fiction Association Award, the Philip K. Dick Award, and the John W Campbell and Arthur C. Clarke awards (the latter twice). His writing inspires con sideration as science fiction, especially in the contexts of gender, sexuality and embodied technologies, but also compels us to consider questions of generic convention and definition, particularly in the intersections between science fiction, fantasy and history. Indeed, Ryman's brief discus sion at the end of Was of the importance of using fantasy and history against each other has been widely taken up in the discussion of sf and fantasy more generally. The editors of this issue invite consideration of any aspect of Ryman's work, includ ing his hypertext novel 253, and his involvement with the 'Mundane SF' movement, which calls for an empha sis on near future and present day 'realist' sf. SUBMISSIONS: Essays should be approximately 4000-9000 words, written according to MLA standards and include a 100 word abstract. Neither embedded footnotes nor generated footnotes that some software systems make available should be used. Please send an electronic submission in either MS Word or WordPerfect CONTACT: Wendy Pearson or Susan Knabe at DEADLINE: 15 October 2007 )


C_I_2 __ WHAT:Women in the Sciences Area WHO: Film & Science: Fictions, Documentaries, and Beyond WHEN: Oct 30-Nov 2, 2008 WHERE: Chicago, Illinois TOPICS: When former Harvard President Larry Summers asserted that women lack the scientific mettle to compete with men, he provided only the latest example of misogyny in the sciences.Women continue to face real obstacles, even at research institutions like WISELI (Women in Science and Engineering Leadership Institute). Unfortunately, the occa sional appointment of women to high-ranking positions at technical universities (such as MIT and Lehigh) does not offset these cultural hurdles, which draw so much of their weight from film and television. Ranging from early the book-to-film successes of Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring" and Diane Fossey's "Gorillas in the Mist" to the solution-seeking documentaries "The Gender Chip Project" and "Women Who WalkThrough Time," from sexed-up television fantasies fea turing bionic women, crime science investigators, spaceship personnel, and aliens to the questioning heroine embodied by Marlee Matlin in "What the Bleep?!.," this area will examine the portrayals of women in the sciences or science fiction. How has the feminist movement been incorporated, represented, revised, or rejected within these constructs? Are there other social, cultural, or ideo logical movements that have served to undermine or support the female presence in science? Does the future for women appear to be brighter through these lenses? SUBMISSIONS: 200-word proposal CONTACT: Sally Hilgendorff, Chair, Women in the Sciences Area, DEADLINE: November I, 2007 white. Three forms of embodiment are at play here: a (black) human body, control over a (raceless) cyborg body, and a (disembodied) presence in cyberspace. These forms raise questions about the location of race, the location of the soul, and transcendence. Chapter 6, "Replaying the Riots," moves its discussion of race from black to white, with "white" constituted as a race rather than as the human default, a movement permitted in part by trauma. This tum toward trauma (which follows the work of Hal Foster as well as Cathy Caruth) "might be read as [a mode] of resistance to fantasies of dis embodiment and of mobilities unconstrained by the limits of the physical body" (174). The author considers the Rodney King video that sparked the race riots and dle music video for "Shock to the System," by Billy Idol, in terms of race and violence, with trauma cutting across racial lines even as the cyborg figure permits a reassertion of victim ized white masculinity. The last chapter, "Franchise Nationalisms," extends the nature of race by consldenng transnational forms of political economy. Neal Stephenson's Silo/V Crasb (1992) epitomizes Foster's concerns, and Foster analyzes it following Mark Poster's notions of "virtually mediated forms of ethnic identity" (207). The group, not the individual, becomes dle concern. In dle conclusion, which also uses Silo/V Crasb as its exemplar text, Foster analyzes the analogies inherent in posthuman narratives and posthuman critiques, dms emphasizing the ambiva lence inherent in the genre. Is the mind-body split dlat cyberpwlk is so concerned with just a metaphor for something else? Are machine and human, code and language actually the sanle thing? How does dus relate to identity? Foster con cludes by not concluding: the questions raised don't really have answers, but the debate is the important thing, because it provides a model for further analysis of tcchnoculture. This book is a must-read for any scholar working on cybernarratives, whether they be text, film, comics, or still artworks. It's particularly relevant for people who work with science fiction, that genre oflilerature so concerned with the intersection between humanity and technology. Despite Foster's smooth wnting style and his ability to clearly layout his argument, the text is too academic-too nuanced in its arguments, too densely packed with meaning alluding to huge realms of knowledge staked out by other critics-for use as a textbook for an undergraduate course. However, dlOse very features make it ideal as a selection for graduate-level classes in anything from cyberpunk literature to women's studies to cultural studies. NONFICTION REVIEW Throush Tllme Karen Hellekson .-\ndrew Cartmel. Tbrollgb Time: All Ullalltborised alld UllofJicial History 0/ "Dottor Wbo. "New York: Continuum, 2005. 0-8264-1733-7. $59.95 HC Cartmel, Dottor U7bo scriptwriter and novelist, here turns his attention to a history of the iconic and long-running British children's SF pro gram, which first aired 111 1963. It serves as a compallion of sorts to his Senpt Doctor: The Imide St0l]' 0/ "Doctor Wbo" 1986-89, Cartmel's memoirs of his time on the show, also published in 2005. The publication of both books was timed to coincide with dle show's resurrection in 2005 after its cancelation in 1989. As an insider, Cartmel's authority and credibility are beyond dispute: the BBC hired him 111 1987 as scnpt editor for Season 24 of DOltor Wbo, and he was responsible (as he notes 111 his 111troductlOn) for selecting writers and crafting the show's arc. He


( thus straddles the roles of producer and consumer, uniquely positioning his critique. Cartmel did not write a general history of the TV program-indeed, it would be impossible to write a truly comprehensive history because many epi sodes have been lost, and secondary texts that address these missing episodes usually refer not to the aired episodes but to scripts. Rather, he hits what he considers to be the high points of the show, all from the point of view of a script editor, so discussions of structure and motivation predominate. TI1e book moves chronologically and includes a brief discussion of the 1996 TV movie, as well as a discussion of d1e first half of me new :W05 ,-ersion starring Christopher Eccleston as the Ninth Doctor. _-\lthough knowledgeable \'(,'110 fans will have no trouble following the discussion, for od1ers, a metatext, such as a relevant \Vikipedia entry or a full-fledged episode guide to the entire show's long run, may be helpful to provide a contextual framework. Cartmel does his best to provide that framework by beginning the chro nologically arranged nine chapters with a discussion of what was going on in d1e world at the time the episodes under discussion aired, ald10ugh only rarely does he make overt links between current events and DOltor Wbo d1ematic concerns. Casting decisions and important plot elements are addressed, including d1e no tion of the Doctor's ability to physically regenerate, and the Doctor's backs tory. Cartmel also consulted reference books for insight into some of d1e players in d1e \Vho universe-he prm-ides tidbits about actors, writers, producers, and science advisors-although the bibliography at the end seems dun, and d1e lack of an index makes it difficult to find dlings. TI1e structure of story arcs is described in general terms: we leam, for example, d1at an adventure story has characters repeat edly separated and reunited, or d1at writers will insert a j\fcGuffin to push the plot along. In fact, so repetitive is d1e formula of a classic rFbo adventure that :1.ppen dix Two provides a "Do-It-Yourself Doctor U;;'bo Plot," a wonderfully accurate algorithm complete wid1 exhortations to "repeat d1e abm-e section as necessary." The discussions combine interesting tri,-ia with plot summary and reac tions to success or failure of individual episodes, but d1e word alla!J'tical would be inappropriate to describe any of d1em. Cartmel pokes good-natured fun at the program: he is willing to call a pie plate a pie plate, even if it's pretending to be a flying saucer. Still, d1e dense use of pithy, often amusing adjectives illunlinates not the stories Cartmel describes, but rad1er Cartmel's opinion -\nd if one hoped that Cartmel's invoh-ement in d1e last three seasons of Dortor U7bo would result in a deeper, more multilayered analysis, one's hopes would be dashed, because dlls section is indistinguishable from the od1ers in terms of insight or chattiness. Appendix One, a spot-on but shockingly short "Recommended Viewing" list, boils down d1e best of the best, concluding d1at d1e following stories are essen tial: "Unearthly C1111d" (1963), "The Dalek Invasion of Earth" (196-1-), "The \\'ar Games" (1969), "Spearhead from Space" (1970), "Inferno" (1970), "The Talons of Weng-Chiang" (1977), "The Curse of Fenric" (1989), "Ghost Light" (1989), and "The Unquiet Dead" (2005). TI1e appeal of ThrrJIIgb Time lies not in d10ughtful analysis or insight, but in sheer joy: it's funny, witty, and idiosyncratic, focused on story arcs and behind the-scenes personalities, all filtered d1rough d1e mind of an insider. TIus short history complements d1e longer Ius tories, such as d1e books by Da,;d.J. Howe et al. organized by decade (e.g., Dortor IFho: Tbe Si.Ytie.r, 199-1-). j\fedia scholars work ing wid1 Dot1or W/;o will find little new here, ald10ugh it bridges the gap of the program's eighteen-year hiatus and helpfully discusses the new in the same terms as d1e old. However, fans of d1e show will enjoy its exuberance and well-placed adjectives. ( WHAT: Science Fiction in British Film and Television WHO: 2008 Film & History Conference WHEN: Oct 30-Nov 2.2008 WHERE: Chicago. Illinois TOPICS: The consistent quality of science-fiction films and television programs in Britain has won audiences for generations. both in the UK and around the world. One rea son for this sustained popularity lies in the ability of British cinema and TV to constantly reinvent the genre. keeping it socially and philosophi cally elastic. What makes science fiction film and television in Britain distinctively "British"? This area treats the last century of science fiction productions. Presentations may feature analyses of individual films and!or TV programs. surveys of documents related to their production, analyses of history and culture as explored through a set of films! TV programs. or comparisons between two or more science-fiction productions. Paper topics might include utopian and dystopian films! TV programs. future warfare. cen sorship. representation of non-hu man life forms. politics. the Cold War. science-fiction after 9!11. ethics and morals. representations of science and scientists, myths and legends, terrorism. early science fiction. ad aptations. comedy. government and institutions. disasters. environment, gender. ethnicity. race. class. etc. SUBMISSIONS: 200-word proposal CONTACT: Tobias Hochscherf DEADLINE: November I. 2007 )


( ) FICTION mini-REVIEW SpaceCade-c Ed Carmien Heinlein, Robert. Space Cadet. Orb, 2006 (1948). 223 pages, paper. $12.95. ISBN 0-765-31451-7 One of many Heinlein novels still in print, Space Cadet follows the familiar Heinlein middle-.-unerican young male character through the early stages of becoming a Space Patrol officer. In this early, soft-hued version of Starship Troopers that also echoes i-jare Spacesllit, Will Trm'e/, I\fatthew Dodson reports for testing to Terra Base. Successfully passing a number of challenges designed to weed out those without a strong IQ and an equally strong sense of morals, Dodson travels to space to begin his training, and here the real bildungsroman begins, as he wrestles with math, the same bugbear Juan Rico faces in S/mThip Troopm, and his decision to remain in the service of all humanity as the guardian of orbital nuclear weapon platforms and solar-system peace officer. The Space Patrol is a solely male preserve, a fact that reflects the late-1940's origin of Space Cadet. There are only two minor female characters: Dodson's naive, sheeplike mother and an out of reach attractive woman the cadets meet briefly on a space station while on leave. If taught with an awareness of the book's inherent gender imbalance, this text serves as an interesting precursor to Heinlein's career-spanning theme of maturity via military training. FICTION mini-REVIEW Farnham's Freehold Ed Carmien I-Icinlcin, Robert. Famham's Freehold. Baen, 1994 (reprint edition). 352 pages, paper. ISBN: 0671722069 In this 1964 novel Heinlein crafts one version of the classic time-travel tale in which a present-day person travels to the future, is hornfied, tllen returns with a strong urge to change the present. \\lhile sin1ilar in broad respects to The Door Into Slimmer, Farnham's Freehold comes later in Heinlein's career and is more controversial. Farnl1am is a practical patriarch at a fan1ily gathering attended by himself, his spouse, his son, his daughter, his daughter's friend from college, and a house servant who happens to be "\fricatL\merican -\n alarm sounds and Farnl1am ushers everyone into the bomb shelter. Some confluence of atomic affairs shunts tllem into the future, where in tile manner of a lifeboat captain Farnl1am takes absolute command and they begin life anew, tllinking they are the only humans in the world. They are far from alone, however, and after his daughter dies in childbirtll are soon captured by tile black-skinned people who rule the globe and keep as slaves (and use as a food supply) those with white skins. Farnham's reaction to this dystopia is predictable, but he is unable to escape to the past with his entire lifeboat party: his wife gives in to a life of drugs and leisure, his son volunteers to be castrated so he too can enjoy the soft life, his former servant re\'els in his new status as a member of the ruling elite, thus leaving only Barbara to return to the past where fuey survive nuclear war and strive to build a future different thatl tile one they have seen. Farnham's Freehold is of critical interest because of the way it handles race--does Heinlein reflect a typical racist view or does he lampoon then present-day racism? The obvious comparison to The Sixth CO/llmll might lead to an answer as regards Heinlein's views on race (see also Space Cadet), but his views on sex are also worth reviewing. Three years after Strallgerill a Strange Land it is not too surprising to hear Farnham's daughter propose that he is the logical father for her future children (she starts the story pregnant by another); this presages more explicit generation-hopping romance in Heinlein's later novels. FICTION mini-REVIEW Radllo Free'all Ed Carmien .Iarpe, '\[atthew. Radio Freefall. Tor, 2007.320 pages, hardcover. $24.95. ISBN 0-7653-1784-2 In this first novel marketed by Tor as containing "wild riffs of Heinlein" in tile "tradition of The Moon is a Harsh Mi(tll:.I.I," a middle-aged rocker, alias :\qualung, fights for freedom against an encroaching info-dictatorship. Set in a burgeon-)


( ( IS) ing information dystopia masterminded by a Gatesian figure close to world domination, the comparison to Heinlein's 1966 work is appropriate if somewhat unfortunate for Jarpe, as Tbe 1110011 is a Har:sb 1I1istress showcases Heinlein's talents at or near their peak, wIllie this is unavoidably a first novel. This is no more clear than in the complex distributed plot J arpe offers, par for the course for novels of tlus type in recent years, as four significant actors in the story wend tlleir largely separate ways to the conclusion. Had this novel come along later in Jarpe's career it may well ha,'e been three nowls, one detailing the rise to power of Walter Cheeseman, the spider-puppeteer of Radio Freefallwho serves as a tinny info-despot. :\nother nm-e1 might have been made of Quinn Taber's rise as Cheeseman's apprentice, fall as disgraced genius who identifies an actual artificial intelligence living in the wild of the web, and redemption as he fInds true love and overcomes his dysfunctional upbringing. }\nd finally, the story of political rebellion in an Earth orbit space station deserves its own story: Jarpe's speculative powers here given free rein as he imagines how a lughly regimented society of scientists li,'es in space (three jobs each, four hours a day per job, and someone has to be tlle roach wrangler) and ultimately comes to rebel against Earth autl1ority. Even without the elbow-room such a tale could use, Radio Freefallis still agood read, largely due to Jarpe's use of music as mode of political expression. His wit and humor come tluough a sharp lens of pop-culture mastery--each chapter begins with a quoted lyric, and he is consistently "on" with his cultural observations. Yes, it is true: kids today watclung "Kim Possible" on the Disney Channel will someday rock out to a band called "Naked Mole Rat." Jarpe is one to watch, and though his fIrst novel may suffer in comparison to one of Heinlein's fInest, expectations in tlle world of publisl-ung ha,-e grown over the decades, makingJarpe's first undoubtedly a better read than Heinlein's first. FICTION REVIEW Variable Star Bruce A. Beatie Robert :\. Heinlein and Spider Robinson. Va/iable Star. Ne" .. York, NY: Tor, September 2006.318 pages, $2-+.95. ISBN 0-765-31312-X. Spider Robinson's gives us the crucial fact about tllis novel: "On November 1-+, 1955, ... Robert Anson Heinlein sat down at his desk in Colorado Springs and wrote an outline for a novel he first called The S!a/:r Are il Clock .... His outline filled at least eight extremely dense pages: single-spaced ten-pica type with absolutely n-unimal margins on all four sides and very few strikeovers. He also filled fourteen 3X5 index cards with extensi,'e handwritten notes relating to the book .. \ad tllen, for reasons only he could tell us, he closed tlle file and put it in a drawer, and ne,'er got around to writing tlnt particular book." (310-311) For anyone who knows Heinlein's juveniles, however, tlle reason is clear: between Nm'ember 11 and December 1 of 1955, Heinlein wrote tlle book published in 1956 as Time for tbe Stars (I\Iajor, Helllleills Childrel1, 2006, 281). Lea\-ing out details, the plots of both T "a/iable Star and Time for the Stan are as follows: a starship limited by light-speed sets out from eartll to look for planets that can be colonized; contact witll earth (instantaneous, like LeGuin's ansible) is maintained by telepathic twins, but witll a constantly-growing age differential because of relati,-istic effects; wIllie under way, the sublight starship is caught by an FTL starship invented after the first ship left eardl; tlle first-person narrator, in Ius late teens, marries a girl who was much younger when the starship left, but \vho is now the proper age because of tlle relativistic time differential. It is unlikely that Heinlein's publishers would ha,-e accepted two nm-els with such similar premises at roughly the same time. Ifboth Robinson and I\Iajor are correct in tlleir dates-of-writing, Heinlein began Timefor tbe Sta/:r tluee days before writing tlle outline and notes for Van'able Star, but botll ob,'iously proceed from tlle same stimulus. TIle effects of relativistic time dilation were apparently on Heinlein's mind in late 1955: two of '1lalf a dozen altemate titles" 310) he'd noted on tlle outline were Tbe Stars Are a Clock and Doctor EillJteill:r Clock-and "time" is of course the first title word of the book he filushed and published. TIlere are, of course, some crucial differences in tlle two novels. How did Robinson come to finish a nm'cl tllat Heinlein had sheh'ed in 1955? He was on a panel discussing "rare and obscure" works of Heinlein at Torcon 3 in 2003, and when Dr. RobertJames mentioned "an outline for an entire novel that no one knew about," an audience member, Kate Gladstone, shouted "You should get Spider Robinson to fInish that novel." 311-312) Following tlle conference he was im;ted by :\rt Dula, trustee for the Hcinlein estate, to submit sample chapters and a proposal-\vhich led to two years of hard \vork and the novel T "a/iable (It is worth )


( ) noting that in 1940 Heinlein himself turned an unpublished story by John W Campbell into the novel Sixth Column.) How much of the story-line belongs to Heinlein? Robinson had said (quoted above) that the outline "ran at least eight pages"-but only seven survive. These pages "establish the fiction-Roben's term for the time-and-place in which a story is set. They create vivid characters and their back stories, especiallyJoel,Jinny, and her grandfather. They describe the basic antinomy that impels Joel to emigrate, discuss the economics of interstellar colonization, and sketch in some of his early adventures after he leaves. "\lid then they chop off in midsentence, and midstory." 313) So the outline mar have given Robinson the story-line through, perhaps, chapter 14 of the 22 chapters. The ending is all Robinson's. In it, (a) two of the five Relativists (whose mental gifts operate the quantum ramjet that powers the Shiffield) die, leaving the surviving three under tremendous stress, (b) the telepaths learn that earth's sun has exploded (perhaps has been exploded by some alien force), leaving an expanding cosmic-ray wave-front chasing the ship and threatening all earth's colonies, (c) a third Relativist commits suicide, leaving the Shiffield traveling at over 99% of light-speed and no means of slowing down, and finally (d) the rTL ship that catches them had barely escaped the explosion, and is owned by Richard Conrad, Jinnla's megabillionaire grandfather who intends to betray the Sheffield and its people (as .linnI', Joel feels, had betrayed him), simply usmg the Sheffield as a means of resupplying his FfL ship and arriving at one of the colonies in a position 0 strength. 'nle novel nonetheless "feels" very like one of Heinlein's later juveniles. Robinson has got the "voice" of a Heinlein late-teens narrator down cold, and the novel is full of echoes of other Heinlein novels. From The Jo.1001l is a Harsh Mistress, for example: -'inny's autopilot car enters traffic "with minimal huhu" (14); notified by Paul Hattori, ship's banker, of his sudden and unexpected wealth, Joel says "Somebo4J had to be getting swindled for it. T"\NST"\FFL" (136); and Joel's temporary girlfriend I":'athy enters "a group or line marriage." (190) The novel's last words are an almost over-the-top echo: Joel and Evelyn Oinny's baby sister, whom Joel married) are traveling from colony to colony warning of the threat of both the wave-front and the possible star-destroyer, and Joel as narrator concludes: "The narrator of an ancient poem by Tennyson 'held his purpose form, to sail beyond the sunset.' ]\Iy wife and I-all of us-have actually done that. It's going to get illlere.r!illg now." (308) l\Iore extensively, however (and 1l.Q1 typical of Heinlein's juveniles), the novel is set within Heinlein's Future History. ror example, Jinny's family, the Conrads "wielded wealth, puwer, and influence comparable to that of ... Harriman Enterprises in their dar" (25) learnlngJinny's identity and fleeing in a drunken stupor to Tampa,Joel tlUnks "the high speed slide walks ought to get me back to Vancouver in no more than seventeen hours or so." (JO) "\lid it is a post-Prophet world .. \t the end of the Sheffielctr first year, Joel as narrator comments: "The mores and customs we had all been raised in, fmits of the Covenant, continued to work tlleir unlikely magic .... (203) The Prophet himself had been mentioned casually on pages 76 186, but the most significant reference to Scudder comes when everyone aboard the S hiffieldis in total fugue because of the explosion of the sun and the suspicions that it died of unnatural causes. Hideo Itokawa, the zen Relativist, makes a long speech tl1at turns people around, arguing that "Both fear and its cover identity, anger, are notorious for producing spectacularly bad decisions ..... I will offer," he says, "only a single example: the Terror Wars that led inexorably to the .\scension of the Prophet. Shortly after Captain Leslie LeCroix returned home safely from tlle historic first voyage to Luna, fanatical extremist l\[uslims from a tiny nation committed a great atrocity against a Christian superpower. Suicide terroris ts managed to horribly murder thousands of innocent civilians." (263) He goes on to describe exactly what the Bush adminis tration has done as reaction to 9/11 and concludes: "they ignited a global religious war that threatened to literally rehlrn the whole world to barbarism." In reaction, "Nehemiah Scudder became the Holy Prophet of the Lord, smote the false prophets, and darkness fell." (264) Unless I am misremembering the early stories of the Future History, Robinson has here introduced a stimulus for the rise of the Prophet that has more to do with our own time than with Heinlein's fictional or real time. This is something Robinson docs regularly, making his novel much more than just a realization of a Heinlein outline. There are such casual contemporary references as Joel's "Life is going to continue to such until somebody finds the Undo key." (19) Joel as narrator notes that the 'luaI1tum ramjet powering tlle ShefJieldwas "first proposed by H. David Froning (an engineer!) back before the Collapse" (107)-and Froning's article "Propulsion Requirements for a Quantum Interstellar Ramjet" appeared in the Jill/mill (1/ the 13,i!i.rh lll!crplil/le!ill]' Soa"e!y in 1980. \X'hen l\Iatty Jaymes talks of the possibilities of intelligent life in the uni\Trsc, .loci responds: "Didn't someone settle this back before the Dark .\ge? Webb? \X'rote a book listing forty-nine possible solu tions to Fermi's Paradox-and demolished tllem one by one, leaving only the fiftieth solution, namely: we're alone." (185) Stephen \\'ebb's If the Universe Is Teeming with Aliens-Where Is Everybody? Fifty Solutions to the )


( ( 17) Fermi Paradox and the Problem of Extraterrestrial Life appeared in 2002. And the therapy Joel undergoes in the Sim (the Sheffields holodeck) after a violent episode is based on "a series of paintings ... by a PreCollapse artist named Alex Grey" (170) The two series of paintings Robinson mentions, "Sacred I\1irrors" and "Progress of the Soul," are discussed on .\lex Grey's website, alexgrl!)'.collT, born in Columbus, Ohio, in 1953, his "Sacred Mirrors" series "take the ,-iewer on a journc,' toward their own divine nature" (website). That last reference points to still another, perhaps more significant non-Heinleinian aspect of the nm-el: the impor tance of the arts. In the opening chapter, Joel and .linny are dancing in the Hotel Vancom-cr, and their dance is described 111 a way that Heinlein, for whom the arts seem to have been a closed book (pace Rhysling, the blind poet of the spacewa\"S!), never could have managed, but which reminds inevitably of Robinson's Starda!lce. T /aJiable Star is full of music. Joel is a saxophone player, and when the deaths of two of the Relativists puts a third, Sol Short, into a profound depression, Joel pays the debt he owes Sol ("an original composition of at least fifteen minutes, on the baritone sa."\:, with his nanle 111 the title" 222) for acting as his advocate when he'd gotten in trouble, Witll a composition (done witll "circular breathing" 225) entitled "Sol keeps Shining." (228) The book is well-edited. I caught no typos, but the paragraph at tlle bottom of page 81 has a missing initial clause. And there is perhaps a Robinsonian oversight Joel notes that he had met I(anlal Zogby, "on the morning of my second da\' aboard the Sheffield--but found now that I had almost no memory of the event, or tlle man" (120), but there is no earlicr reference to this meeting, TIlere is much more tlut is fascinating about this postmortem collaboration, but this re,-iew has already gotten overlong. Inviting Robinson to consider the task, Dula had told him: "I do !lot want you to try and do tlle litcrary equivalent of a Rich Little impression of Robert Heinlein. I want you to take his outline and write tlle best damn Spidcr Robinson novel you're capable of." C\fterword," 316) T/aJiable Star IS a damned good novel, and a credit to tlle canons of bOtll writers. FICTION REVIEW S-C:arshllp "roopers Jason W. Ellis Heinlein, Robert Starship Troopers. New York: 2006. 288 pages, trade paperback, Sl+'00. ISBN 0-1--1-1 01-1-1OU. It's fascinating looking back at tlle 48-year history of Heinlein's seminal military SF work, StaJ:rbip Troopen. LTpon its publication in 1959, it set tlle standard for military SF, because Heinlein went where otllers feared to tread by elaborating on the operation, training, and structure of a future war making machine tllrough tlle eyes of an indi,-idual soldier developed by personal misconceptions and instilled prejudices of tlle alien otller. The novel became THE lightning rod for many autllOrs to strike against and in response to during tlle intervening years of real life war and military build-up. In fact, the 2006 US edition cover sports tlle tagline, "TIle controversial classic of military advcnture," wlule futuristic armored troops scurry over tlle barren landscape while drop slups akin to George Lucas' 'Republic attack gunslups' roar past Q\-erhead. the 2005 UK edition cover proclaims it, "The Science Fiction Classic," and "\Vinner of the Hugo and the COHr is devoid of action besides a distant landing craft and a slug-like alien watclung from tlle foreground. Tlus juxtaposition rc,-erus the difference in which readers from tllese two COWl tries approach and consider tllis work of SF Starship Troopen is a first person narrative told by Juan ']0Iu111ie" Rico, an a,-erage Filipino student from a \\'erutl1\' fanlily that goes against his family'S wishes and elects to join tlle Terran Federation I\fobile Infantry in approximately tlle 28th century. He dons a "powered suit" that looks like "a big steel gorilla" to do battle Witll encroaching alien forccs. Chapter one begins with a "drop" or attack on an enemy planet, chapters two tllrough ten are a flashback explainingJoh11lue's education as a civilian in History and Moral Philosophy and his progression from enlisted to officer training. The first thread of thc story is resumed in chapters eleven tllrough fourteen, which ends witll a drop on the dire enemy's home planct. The ambiguous ending questions Jol111nie's future as well as tlle ultimate resolution of tlle war. Starship Troopers is historically located at tlle apex of tlle first phase of tlle Cold \"ar. The nm-el was originally published six years after tlle end of tlle Korean War, fi,-e years before tlle Gulf on Tonkin Incidcnt, and the samc ycar as thc Cuban Revolution and the founding of tlle National Front for tlle Liberation of South Vietnam. Strictly speaking, this is a )


(18 ) ( novel created in the midst of the Cold War as well as at the crux of some of the bloodiest 'hot spots' in the protracted conflict between Western and Eastern ideologies. Instead of presenting a reaction against prolonged and ambiguous wars, Heinlein presents a militaristic utopian future that glorifies the role of the soldier as one of the few professions leading to full citizenship and enfranchisement. Others deemed worthy of dlese privileges include individuals devoted to equivalent federal service, which reinforces and supports the military hegemony. Therefore, the novel is heavily embedded in the Cold War mythos and historical moment as well as Heinlein's personal views on utopian world building. Starsbip Troopers has remained in print throughout its history, which reflects its continuous popularity among readers. The book's uninterrupted run also reflects the constant state of fighting during the Cold War. However, Heinlein's novel extends beyond the era of its initial publication, and it carries meaning and engages ideas relevant to our here-and-now in a post-9/11 world embroiled in the Global War on Terrorism. The most obvious connection between Starsbip Troopers and the Global War on Terrorism has to do with the identification and conception of the enemy. Heinlein's two explicit enemy others in the story are labeled the 'Skinnies' and the 'Bugs.' The Skinnies (think alien 'greys' from The X-Files or Spielberg's Close Encounters of the Third Kind) playa minor, albeit significant part in the narrative by being the target of malicious destruction and in1molation in the opening chapter as well as providing Earth forces with intelligence data that supports Terran attacks against the Bugs. On the other hand, the Bugs are a much more formidable opponent for Earth's Mobile Infantry. Unveiled, Earth represents Heinlein's extrapola tion of an idealized militarist democracy, while the Bugs symbolize the author's contemporary enemy: Communism. In the middle of the novel, Johnnie describes the Bugs and their collective dms: "The Bugs are not like us ... They are arthropods who happen to look like a madman's conception of a giant, intelligent spider, but their organization, psychological and economic, is more like that of ants or termites; they are communal entities, the ultin1ate dictatorship of the hive." The enemy's derogatory name, 'Bugs,' itself implies a pest, which necessitates eradication. The multicultural and racially diverse J\[obile Infantry belies humanity's racial hatred and prejudice of the alien Skinnies and Bugs. Additionally, these eusocial arthropod-like organisms represent an evolved form of communism, which mirrors social Darwinian issues propounded by earlier audlOrs such as H.G. Wells in Story of the Days to Come" and The Time Machine. "-\dditionally, Johnnie's linking the Bugs to dle social behavior of ants and termites brings up the image of colonizing groups that go out in search of new resources. Furthermore, another colonizing arthropod is the bee, which conjures the image of the cell. The Bugs live underground, just out of sight, but they are observable by their burrowing sounds. Therefore, the identification of these BUb" with the undergrowld cell elicits the idea of the cell structure of contemporary terror groups operating independendy, but tangentially toward a common goal. Also, the Bugs' fighting behavior devalues the individual in ways that many persons feci about the use of suicide bombers. "-\nodler contemporary issue bound up with Heinlein's novel is the ambiguity and amorphousness of the Global War on Terrorism. In Starrhip Troopers,Johnnie either cannot or chooses not to explain the beginning of the human-Bug war. Skirmishes and small incidents are mentioned, but there's no indictment against one side or the other except when the war escalates following dle destruction of Buenos Aires. Additionally, the non-voting, but tax paying citizens of Earth are out of touch with the expansion of the war, which might point to dle identification of the Korean War as the "Forgotten \Var." I Ieinlein's future society labels of peace, state of emergency, and war are government mandated states of mind regarding the Terran Federation's engagement with the 'enemy,' and are analogous to the United States' Department of I lomcland Security National TIlreat Advisory levels. The novel's importance in dle web of cultural connections goes beyond its contents. Starship Troopers has spawned a mm-ie by Paul Verhoeven, a CG tele\-ision series, comic books, and roleplaying games. More importandy, it has provided the inspiration for derivative works as well as powerful reactions to the subject matter and Heinlein's ideological expression. Notable examples include dle novels: Joe Haldeman's The Foret'er War, John Steakley's Armor, and Jolm Scalzi's Old Man's IraI', as well as the popular video games: Halo and StarCrift. In dle current political and ideological milieu, the novel engages many themes found in the stories of Farah J\[endlesohn's edited collection, Glorifying Terrorism. Slm:rbip Troopm is obviously an important and enduring SF text that is one of the founding works of military SF. .-\Ibeit didactic, I leinlein's novel is a treasure trove of engaging Cold \Var, as well as contemporary, issues involving war, imperialism, and ideology. Furthermore, this novel is a postcolonial text, because Heinlein elucidates his theory of conflict due to population expansion, which implicates both Terrans as well as the Bugs in imperialistic growth. Race and gender are also explored somewhat through a combined human unity against the alien odler, which provides its own ironic message. )


( ( Heinlein's military SF masterpiece should be included in library collections, and its ,"aried themes, style, and length lend it to inclusion in a range of undergraduate courses. The novel's importance to the SF canon and its intersection with many cultural as well as historical elements of the Cold War establish its utility in research projects about that era as well as the contemporary Global War on Terrorism and beyond. FICTION REVIEW ,.he Moon js a Harsh Mjstress Alfred E. Guy Jr. Heinlein, Robert. The Moon is a Harsh Mistress. 1966. New York: Orb Books, 1997. 384 pages, paperback, $14.95. ISBN 0312863551. The Moon is a Harsh Mistress tracks the inhabitants of the Moon's penal colony as they plan a revolution for their freedom from Earth. The story of how ordinary folks become central figures in an interplanetary drama links to other important Heinlein novels like Double Star and Strallger il1 a Strallge Lalld; it also shares ,vith Starship Troopers a pragmatic and largely unromanticized perspective on the conduct of war. The novel's events are set in motion when the narrator, a computer repairman named Manuel Garcia O'Kelly Davis, makes two discoveries in quick succession: that the computer he's repairing for the Lunar has become self-aware, and that the mismanagement will drive Lunar society to depression and famine within five years. By enlisting the aid of the computer-whom he calls "Mike," Manuel and his friends lead a revolution that emphasizes propaga.nda and persuasion over brute force. \Vritten at the height of its author's powers, 1I1istress advances many of Heinlein's key themes and modes of thought, with touches of planetary romance, libertarianism, militarism, and hard science. The very harshness of the Lunar environment, and the lawlessness of its convict colonists, permit (in Heinlein's view) a Social Darwinism that produces a society superior to the corruption of Earth. Since .Mike's analysis and planning are legitimated by mathematics and logic, the rebels' libertarianism (one central character invokes .\ yn Rand approvingly) is "proven" to be more rational than bourgeois democracy. The rebels' campaign is a masterpiece of diplomacy by any rneans--overt, covert, economic, and military. :\nd perhaps most refreshingly for someone re-reading it forty years after its publication, the ballistic science matches the rigor of the best contemporaries in Hartwell's and Cramer's omnibus anthology-this last is perhaps unsurprising, given Heinlein's first career as a naval officer. After Troopers and Strallger, 1I1istress must be considered an indispensable title for any sf collection, as it exemplifies the rational optimism of Heinlein's early and middle career. FICTION REVIEW SpjndrjH Donald M. Hassler Steele, Allen. Spilldrift. New York: "\ce, 2007. 368 pp. Hardcover $24.95. ISBN: 978-0-441-01471-2. After finishing tills latest novel set in the future world of Allen Steele's colony on Coyote, fans ought to sense more than ever what a fine collaborative effort modem SF storytelling has become and how well Steele understands and makes good use of this literary fact. &hoes from Steele's earlier work and from so much else tint our memory holds dear since we first heard of the Nazi rocket program out of which has come our own genius, of Foundation, of Heinlein's own futurehistory for Earth and IllS T\NST.\AFL values, of first contact in Clarke and in IllS mentors out of the thirties, of Le Guin's Ekumen-all these images and ideas resonate and grow in our minds as we read tills powerful new tale of First Contact and of human colonies far from Earth. In short, this novel grows out of the literary tradition of hard SF, or speculative fiction, about the future of humankind and, similarly, ought to send tile reader right back to absorbed retllinking about all the great writers I list above. i\fy pet tllcory of genre, especially tills genre, is that it allows us to respect, preserve and conserve tile best Ideas, and even character types, from tile set of stones that make up tile genre. But this must be a review of Steele's new book, not a tlleory essay. Further, even though tllere is the hint in tllis story of mature aging and perhaps some sexual reality tllinking )


(20 ) (whatever we conclude that might be), the characters here, the tone of e>..-uberant voice and youthful voice, and most especially the huge themes or ideas make this book very much a juvenile story in the best Heinlein sense of the ambitious juvenile. Only when we are in our late teen years, even if that period could have been extended some as it seems to have been in charismatic leaders such as Jack I-'::ennedy or Bill Clinton, were we able to muster up the e>..-uberance really to read Thoreau and really to dream about what is needed to save the world-whether that might be new governments, or civil disobedience, or simply profound speculation about nature. Somewhere in Tunnel in the S-9, Heinlein's youthful hero says that the most important creation of humankind must be government. If we combine that huge general notion with the tough-minded and equally broad Heinlein notion that there are ne\'er any "free lunches," that the governing of ourselves must be learned, we see how impossibly "philosophic" youthful, or teenage, thinking has always been. Such is the tone and substance of this new Steele book. I t is wonderful, and it is also literary and generic because it keeps evoking earlier roots of ideas from the writers who came before him in hard SF. Not least in my mind after reading the book is an image of a future city light years away that crops up near the end where everthing the eye can see from horizon to horizon is steel, glass, and glorious architecture. This is Asimov's Trantor. But the main references and roots in this Steele story are more general, more governmental in the Heinlein sense, more purely philosophic. Here is the global and "juvenile" speculation that governs the action, both human and alien in the whole story: facing a universal death force that is called here "the Annihilator" but that we know, also, as Malthusian population pressure which, in turn, motivated J\[arxian theory, government must choose what to do. In this futurehistory one solution the humans pursue is the Frankentsteinian and cruel move to reduce population with a practical and efficient genocide. Two other solutions balance this fascism approach. One is a sort of pastoral escapism. The other is imaged in a fantastically crafted "lifeboat" that preserves as many individuals as possible. In other words, the novel suggests a broad contrast between horrid solutions that Swift jokes about in Modest Proposal" and generative and womblike solutions as we might read in Yeats's generation poems. -111en Steele manages to link the latter, generative and benevolent solutions to the inscrutable wisdom of an alien and m)'s terious species, actually a group of species that have joined together into a sort of special and wise fraternity that he calls "The Talus." TIllS very wise club of life makes contact with humankind in order to determine if we are "good enough" to join their fraternity. The clear emphasis here is on goodness of heart, goodness of character; and it is not clear at the end that our species has learned that goodness yet. "\ related "juvenile" theme is truth telling. The Talus insists on absolute candor and honest thinking, and the club has developed a clothing technology to monitor this. Such truth telling may be the most alien clement in this encounter for the humans, and Steele manages nicely to raise the issue of fiction itself versus the truth. \\'hen we tell ourselves stories about aliens such as The Talus, are we telling ourselves the truth or are we deceiving oursehTs? .\re First Contact stories reaching somehow for a truth, or are they deceptive entertainments? This is a further theme that seems both real juvenile and profoundly philosophic at the same time. If the strength of fiction lies somehow in its well-madeness, Steele realizes that too. His plot is never boring and moves well from one technological and astronomical wonder to the next. His best characters sound like Rod Walker in I Ieinlein or like Poddy in Podkay!le of Mars. They get right to the task. They like each other a lot. They have the youthful energy and the "right stuff" of good pilots like Poddy wants to become. l\nd then the problems d1eyare forced to confront are, indeed, the most basic human problems of how to govern, how to lead, how to be a "good" person which, in tum, must become the basis for good government and good survival in the face of death. This is a very serious and very juvenile story. '111e beauty of hard SF is that such a combination not onl)' is possible but also is continual wrapping around itself in generic repeats. In this sense, Lc Guin, .\simm-, Heinlein keep living; and genre is generational in keeping ideas reproducing and alive. FICTION REVIEW Zenj-C:h ( Thomas J. Morrissey BcrtagnaJulic. Zellith. London: Pan J\[acmillan Limited (Young Picador), 2007. Paperback, 339 pages, $19.99. ISBN: (nR-(l-230-0534--0. "They didll i thillk about the iuture, did thr;y? Thl!)' lIeT'Cr thought about us. ,,, Such is the justifiable and damning complaint of .Julie Bcrtagna's young heroine in Zel/ith, the engaging sequel to her well-received 2002 novel Exodus. Bod1 books depict life )


( ( in an over-warmed world where hell and high water have killed or disrupted a sizable fraction of the Earth's population. Named after the biblical book of deliverance through aquatic miracle, Exodus follows the ill fortunes of ;'\fara Bell and the people of her doomed Scottish isle of \Ving as the seas rise at the turn of the next century. i\fara's people are not chosen; rather, like most humans they are dle random, hapless victims of a global catastrophe set in motion by dleir shortsighted forebears. The towering storm-proof citadels that house the select few and exclude all marine refugees not suitable for slaH labor are stronger than the walls of Jericho. "\nd dle accusation that Mara leyels against us is all too well deseryed. Zenith picks up where Exodus left off, with the orphaned r-fara leading a modey crew of marginalized survi,-ors on a northward voyage that she hopes will lead them to a de-glaciated promised land in the :uctie. Their perilous journey and near disastrous misadventures in Iceland are as harrowing as the plight of the Israelites. Like ;'\foses, "fara is a figure of destiny whose face appears in mysterious rock carvings, but unlike the biblical patriarch, she gets no help or ob,-ious messages from on high. Bertagna is a gifted storyteller whose often lush prose carries the reader along as surely as the tide. Her young protagonist is well drawn. Led on by fear, grief, and the almost blind faidl of youdl, r-fara makes mistakes that cost liyes and try her burgeoning sense of self. She is a natural leader widllimited experience, a young person forced at an early age to take on adult responsibility, the adults of the world ha,-ing squandered everyone's birdlright. .\nlOng dle refugees are bands of inarticulate feral children whose wild state is an element in Bertagna's indictment of today's adults. In both of dlese books the world is in terrible shape. Bertagna makes no effort to hide or diminish dle potential for global suffering awaiting dle inevitable rise in global temperature. \Ve know that whole nations have drowned and dnt dlose victims unlucky enougll not to be included in one of dle fabricated havens face the collapse ofland-based ci,-ilization are on their own. Even the URLs of the old world wide web have collapsed into piles of electronic rubble, a detail that is likely to resonate with YA readers for whom connectivity is a way of life. Dystopian narratives for young adult readers are problematic. Just how does one depict accurately the dismal state of world affairs widlOut seeming to point to a deadly future?;"1. T. "\nderson's award-winning novel Feedis an excellent case in point. Anderson wants his novel to ha,-e a positive message, to be a cautionary tale. The problem is that the e,-ents and imagery of the book seem to preclude almost any future, happy or odlerwise, for humans. Like :\ndersoll, I3erlagna slriYes to tell an inconvenient trudl. Like his character Titus, Bertagna's ;\fara is an appealing and reflective youdl. She suffers losses even greater than those sustained by Titus, but whether her efforts will actually sa,-e a subset of humanity or whedler things are too far gone, no one can tell from Zenith, the indetemlinate ending of which clearly demands a third volume. Bodl Exodus and Zenith endow ;\fara and her peers widl agency. Though we cannot know whether dley ,,ill make a go of it in dle far north, they are giying it dleir all, and there is reason to hope on their behalf. \\llen she and her small band emerge from a winter underground, "agreell }}illd blOin oZ"erlbe moulltaills," and hope seems to await them on dle horizon. In this sense these books remind me of Billy Joel's "\\e Didn't Start the Fire," an anthem for his and my generation as ,,e struggle to deal widl dle colossal errors to which ,,-e are heirs. ;'\fara and her troupe did not make dIe world in \,-hich they must struggle to survive. One comic and telling note is that sometime during the nventy-first century dle word "dubya" entered dle vernacular to mean someone decidedly stupid. Hence, dle dubyas of yesterday and today ha\-e sold out dle ;"faras of tomorrow. Those in power today who dunk dlat colOlual wars and oil company profits are more important than sa,-ing our descendents from climatic cataclysm desen-e \fara's plainti,-e rebuke. That rebuke makes Bertagna's global warming fictions cautionary as well as predictive. At the same time, dIe plot of Zel1llbis fast-moving and exciting. Like many of the best nuclear holocaust fictions, the action and prose style of Zenith serve to di,-ert attention from dle omnipresent realities. The young Glaswegian novelist has told another good an important story. )


( ) FICTION REVIEW Sjx-ey Days and Coun-ejng Bruce L Rockwood Robinson, Kim Stanley. Sixty Dqys and COllnting. New York: Random House Bantam Spectra, 2007, 416 pages, hardcover, $25.00, ISBN 978-0-553-80313-6 Si.\.!y Dqys and COllnting is the third book in Kim Stanley Robinson's Climate Change Trilogy, which began with Forty SZgllS o[Rain (2004) and continued in Fifty Degrees Befou) (2005). It brings the myriad themes and subplots of what is really one extended novel published in the traditional three-parts of SF publication to an optimistic if somewhat uncertain conclusion. i\[ajor personal conflicts that have been building in the first two installments are at least temporarily resolved, and the author leaves us with a hopeful prognosis for the ability of 21" century global society to address the political, institutional, economic and scientific challenges of realistically addressing the rapidly unfolding consequences of climate change. :\ccomplishing all this even in three volumes is a tall order, but Robinson has similarly tackled environmental themes with political overtones in The Mars T nifJgy and The California Tlikgy, and is adept at introducing complex scientific concepts and political insights through credible characters whose individuality is not lost amidst the exposition. His plot entwines the reconciliation of Tibetan exiles with a China threatened by ecological devastation, and the election as President of Phil Chase, a Senator whose values and determination seem a combination of FDR and .\1 Gore. \Vith the help of a fOl:,'1.le intellil:,'Cnce agent whose software leak is reverse engineered by clandestine associates of jugentine immigrant scientist I .\Ifonso, a black-Ops intelligence gathering unit fails in its attempt to steal the election by manipulating comput erized voting, and Chase's election is "unstolen." The black-Ops unit may be in league with establishment political figures reminiscent of Dick Cheney or I,-arl Rove. The scientist "\1fonso is motivated by his recollection of the dirty war in his own country (180-188) to help the main character in this final volume, Frank Vanderwal, protect both Chase's election chances and the agent, who is Frank's lover Caroline. Frank is a troubled academic on leave from UCjSan Diego's Department of Bioinformatics to work at the NFS, who finds himself homeless after the flooding that devastates \Vashington, nc. in the first book in the series. He then blends a feral life in a tree house or living out of his van, exploring his paleo-human nature wi th fellow homeless Washingtonians, with his day job as aid to the new White House Science Advisor in the Chase \Vhite I louse. I-Ie keeps tabs on various R&D projects around the world, and we see the changes and challenges through his eyes as he travels in his work. Other insights arc gleaned through the family life and crises of Charlie Quibler, a Chase environ mental staffer and primary care giver for his two young sons, and his wife "\nna Quibler, whose continued work at NSF aims to pro\"ide seed money and support for responsive science wherever she can. 'Ille uncertainty left open for our consideration is whether even with the right leadership finally in place in the llnited States after years of denial and neglect, and the coordination of scientific innovations with financial support from world governments, the World Bank (141-142), and the reinsurance industry there are still the time and resources available to stave off global disaster in tile next fifty years .James Lovelock, creator of the Gaia hypothesis, offers one answer to Robinson's uncertainty. He posits iliat it is already too late to avoid major dislocations, and argues for quick reliance on nuclear power to enable us to reduce our carbon dependence immediately or risk the loss of civilization, in The &mnge of Gaia: Climate Cnsis & the Fate of Humanity (N.Y.: Basic Books, 20(6). Elizabetil I,-olbert's investigative journalism in The NeJv Yorker, published as Field Notes From a CafaJfrophe (N.Y.: Bloomsbury llS.\, 2006) IS not much more optimistic. Robinson recognizes tilat even wiili Phil Chase as President, acting with redoubled \"igor to push his legislative agenda after surviving an apparent assassination attempt, we won't find solutions qUIckly. '''This is just a start,' Phil would say at ilie end of his press conferences, waiving away any lluestions that implied he had suddenly become more radical. '.\ll tilis had to be done. No one denies iliat, except for special mterests with some kind of horrid financial stake in things staying tile same. \Ve tile people intend to overturn iliose destructive tendencies, so grab this tiger by the tail and hold on tight.'" (323) 'Ille nO\"('1 concludes with Phil Chase finally helping Frank to run down Caroline's ex-husband and his fellow clandestine agents, who seemed hell bent on USl11g a frighteningly believable "total information awareness" system to control the country. There is enough ambiguity at the end to leave you wondering about Caroline's motives, and ilie work that remains to be done is as great, if not greater, tilan what faced the protagonists at ilie end of Sinclair Lewis's novel of a )


( ( fascist take-over in America, [tCall't Happen Here (1935). That is, the radical reconstruction of :\merican "alues is underway, but don't kid yourself into thinking that we are home free yet. Unlike contemporary commentators who see :\mericas's primary "enemy" as the "other" in foreign lands, whom we must confront through military might whether terrorists in the !'I1iddle East, or Robert :\. Heinlein's bugs in Starship Troopers (N.Y: Putnam, 1959) Robinson's novel reflects Pogo's insight that our greatest challenge is our own way of life. [One solution is suggested by the stabilization wedges ad,-anced by Robert Socolow at Princeton; see: -cmil 1 Throughout the novel, Frank makes use of philosophical reflections on Emerson and 1110reau from his "Emerson for the Day" web site to center himself as he struggles to overcome his increasing inability to make decisions, while the Quiblers ponder the meaning of the close connection their youngest son, Joe, de,-elops widl dIe I(hembalis (Tibetan) community. Robinson demonstrates sensitivity to issues of gender, race and sexuality in a variety of settings dlat stands as a rebuke to the shrill personal and political discourse of our present day. In dlat respect, his novel may be seen as an alternatiH view of our present situation, more utopian dIan dystopic, hopeful and understated. It would make a perfect Robert .-\ltnliUl movie. FICTION mini-REVIEW Hydrosen S-ceel Amy J. Ransom K. A Bedford. Hydrogen SteeL Calgary: Edge SF & F. 367 pp. trade paper $19.95. ISBN 1-8904063-20. Ffydrogen Steelis a powerful machine intelligence willing to destroy anything that dlfeatens dIe security of information it was progranlllled to protect: the truth about Earth's destruction. K. "-1.. Bedford's .-1.urealis-nominated dlird novel takes place in the same universe as his earlier works, Orbital Bum and Eclipse (dIe latter won "-1.ustralia's award for Best SF Novel). Retired homicide inspector Zette I\IcGee faces Hydrogen Steel as she investigates dIe deadl of an android ,,,"hose self consciousness she would normally consider anomalous, if she had not inadvertendy discovered her own questionably human status. Androids commonly fill professions requiring limited, progranllllable skill sets; referred to as "disposables," they are not considered self-aware in a fully human sense. 111is hybrid detective novel takes place in a far future human colonized, galactic space and contains some elements of hard SF. Its potential critical interest may lie in its contribution to robotl AI fiction. However, its very self conscious speculation about dIe nature of humanity offers litde beyond dlat found in Capek's R U. R Narrated in dIe first person by the (female) android police detective, dIe nm-el does alter the strategy of Dick's related text, Do Androids Dream if E!.ectlic Sheep. The novel interrogates dIe treatment of androids as dlings, a practice found, of course, in human slavery and engages, albeit in a minor way, the issue of postcolonial identity: not only is I\IcGee's Australian "identity" a progranlllled fiction, she discovers entire rogue colonies of self-conscious disposables. Of interest to libraries specializing in "-1.ustralian popular culture and "other" SFs. )


Science Fici:ion Research Associai:ion www.s'ra.ora The SFRA is me olcbr professional organization for mesrudy of science ficrion and fantasy literature and film. Founded in 1970, me SFRA was organized to improve teaching; to evaluate and publicize SFRA Optional Benefits new books and mag;rtincs dealing wim fantasticliterarure and film, teJChing merhcxls andmatcrials, and allicri media manymmtrics--srudmlS, me5, problrs, librarians, authors, hook. For a membership application, contaameSFRA Treasurt'Iorscemcwebsite. SFRA Benefits year: British rl10larly joumal, wim critical, historical, and bibliographical artide.s, reviews, and letters. Add to dues: $31.50 surface; $39 airmail. The New York ReviewofS:imce Fictian. Discountedsubsaiption rate fur SFRA members. Reviews andfuuutes. Add to dues: $26 domestic; $35 domestic first $28 domestic institutional; $32 Canada; $40 UK& Europe; $42 Pacific &Australia Journal ofihe FantI1.ftic in the Arts (fFAJ. Discounted subsaiption rate fur SFRA E:tTll{Jo/ation. Four ffiJcs pcr y= The oldest rl10larly journal in me fidel, wim critical, members. Four per year: Scholarly joumal, wim critical and bibliohi<;torical, and hihliographical artide.s, book reviews, letters, occasional special graphical artides and reviews. Add to dues: $30 domestic; $40 ove:neas. topic is>OC''i, and an annual index. FemsJxr. DiscountedsubsaiptionratefOrSFRAmembers. Biarmual publiGUion. Critical and creative works. Addto dues: $25. historical, and bibliographical articles, review article.s, reviews, notes, letters, international coverage, andan annual index. SFRAAnJ1ulliDirectmy.OneffiJepcryear:Members'name.s,aclch=,phone,e-mail andspo:ial interests. SFRAI.istseru TheSFRAliscrnrallows lRTSwim e-mail accounts to pa;te-mails to all subscribers of me listserv, round-robin style. It is used by SFRA members to clisaN; topics and news of interest to me SF community. To sign on to me listserv or to obtain further information, contact me list manager, Len Hatfield, at> or . Hewill suh School of Lit, Communication & Culture Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332-0165 Texas A&M Univ-Corpus Christi Corpus Christi, TX 78412 Treasurer Donald M. Hassler Department of English p. O. Box 5190 Kent State University Kent, OH 44242-0001 Science Fiction Research Association Secretary Rochelle Rodrigo 1522 E. Southern Ave #2003 Mesa Community College English Dept Mesa, AZ 81202


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