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SFRA newsletter
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Science Fiction Research Association newsletter
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Science Fiction Research Association
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Science Fiction Research Association
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Eugene, Ore
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Science fiction -- History and criticism   ( lcsh )
Fantasy fiction -- History and criticism -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
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usfldc doi - S67-00081-n191-1991-10
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Thomas D. Clareson Arthur O. Lewis, Jr. Joe De Bolt James Gunn Patricia S. Warrick Donald M. Hassler William H. Hardesty Elizabeth Anne Hull Past Presidents of afi! Past Editors of the Newsletter Fred Lerner Beverly Friend Roald Tweet Elizabeth Anne Hull Richard W. Miller Robert A. Collins Pilgrim Award Winners J. O. Bailey Marjorie Hope Nicolson Julius Kagarlitski Jack Williamson I. F. Clarke Damon Knight James Gunn Thomas D. Clareson Brian W. Aldiss Darko Suvin Peter Nicholls Sam Moskowitz Neil Barron H Bruce Franklin Everett Bleiler Samuel R. Delany George Slusser Gary K. Wolfe Joanna Russ Ursula K. Le Cuin Marshall Tymn Pierre Versins Veronica Hollinger H. Bruce Franklin Pioneer Award (1970-76) (1977-78) (1979-80) (1981-82) (1983-84) (1985-86) (1987-89) (1989-90) (1971-74) (1974-78) (1978-81) (1981-84) (1984-87) (1987-89) (1970) (1971 ) (1972) (1973) (1974) (1975) (1976) (1977) (1978) (1979) (1980) (1981 ) (1982) (1983) (1984) (1985) (1986) (1987) (1988) (1989) (1990) (1991 ) (1990) (1991 )

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The SFRA Newsletter Publ ished ten times a year for the Science Fiction Research Association by Alan Newcomer, Hypatia Press, Eugene, Oregon. Copyright 1991 by the SFRA. Editorial correspondence: Betsy Harfst, Editor, SFRA Newsletter, 2357 E. Calypso, Mesa, AZ 85204. Send changes of address and/or inquiries concerning subscriptions to the Treasurer, listed below. Note to Publishers: Please send fiction books for review to: Robert Collins, Dept. of English, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431-7588. Send non-fiction books for review to Neil Barron, 1149 Lime Place, Vista, CA 92083. Juvenile-Young Adult books for review to Muriel Becker, 60 Crane Street, Caldwell, NJ 07006. SFRA EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE President Peter Lowentrout, Dept. of Religious Studies California State University, Long Beach, CA 90840 Vice-President Muriel Becker, Montclair State College Upper Montclair, NJ 07043 Secretary David G. Mead, English Department Corpus Christi State University, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 Treasurer Edra Bogle Department of English University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203-3827 Immediate Past President Elizabeth Anne Hull, Liberal Arts Division William Rainey Harper College, Palatine, Illinois 60067

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SFRA Newsletter #191 October 1991 In This Issue: President's Message (Lowentrout) ............................................................. 4 Conference Update (Lehman) ............. ..................................................... 5 A Conversation With John Kessel (Ingersoll & Kress) ................................. 6 News & Information (Barron, et aD ........................................................ 18 Non-Fiction Armitt, Where No Man Has Gone Before (Kramer) ..................................... 23 Barfield, Owen Barfield on C.S. Lewis (Collings) ........................................ 24 Byfield, Witches of the Mind (Collins) ........................................................ 25 Dixon, The Films of Freddie Francis (Klossner) ........................................... 26 Gilman, The Living of Charlotte Perkins Gilman (Levy) ............................... 27 Hasson, Fantasia & Ciencia Ficcion (Kreksch) ............................................ 29 Hasson, Los Fantasticos Pulps en Castellano {1939-1957} (Kreksch) ............ 30 Lagorio & Day, King Arthur Through the Ages (Williams) ........................... 31 Lambourne, et ai, Close Encounters?; Science and SF (Morrison) ................. 32 Le Guin, A Home-Concealed Woman: ............ The Diaries of Magnolia Wynn Le Guin, 1901-1913 (Smith) .......... 34 Leiber, Fafhrd & Me (Collins) .................................................................... 35 Lindstrom, Jorge Luis Borges: A Study of the Short Fiction (Herrin) .............. 36 Lucas, Video Watchdog: ............ the Perfectionist's Guide to FantasticVideo (Klossner) .................... 37 McGlathery, Fairy Tale Romance: ............ The Grimms, Basile, and Perrault (Bousfield) ............................. 38 Nollen, Boris Karloff: A Critical Account of His Screen, Stage, ............ Radio,Television, and Recording Work (Hicks) .......................... 39 Ringe, Charles Brockden Brown (Heller) ................................................ .41 Weaver, SF Stars and Horror Heroes: Interviews (Klossner) ................... .42 Williams, Letters to Lalage: ............ The Letters of Charles Williams to Lois Lang-Sims (Albinskj) ......... .43 Fiction: April, Berlin-Bangkok (Lehman) .............................................................. 45 Ashley, ed., The Pendragon Chronicles (Werbaneth) ............................. .46 Barthelme, The King (Carper) .................................................................. 47 Bear, Heads (Hellekson) ......................................................................... 48 Blair, A Landscape of Darkness (Brizzi) ................................................. .49 Cohen, Max Lakeman and the Beautiful Stranger (Carper) ...................... 50 Dickson, Young Bleys (Williams) ............................................................ 51 Edelman, The Gift (Brizzi) ....................................................................... 52 Gideon, Greeley's Cove (Villano) ........................................................... 53 Goulart, Skyrocket Steele Conquers the Universe (Levy) ......................... 54 Greenberg & Waugh, eds., Cults of Horror (Werbaneth) ........................ 55

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 3 Kerr, A Time of Exile (Strain) ................................................................... 56 King, Four Past Midnight (Sanders) ......................................................... 56 Lackey, Magic's Promise, Magic's Price (Strain) ...................................... 58 Leinster, The Forgotten Planet (Dunn) ..................................................... 59 McMahon, Vampires Anonymous (Hollinger) ......................................... 60 Rusch, Pulphouse, The Hardback Magazine (Levy) ................................ 61 Thompson & Carter, Firstborn (Zsarko) ................................................... 63 Von Gunden, StarSpawn (Dunn) ............................................................. 64 Weis, King's Test (Taormina) ................................................................... 65 Wilson, The Divide (Carper) ................................................................... 66 Womack, Heathern (Heller) .................................................................... 67 Young Adult: Non-Fiction Down (lie '{Pi PiisleslL ; ...... ; ........ .. ..... .................. 68 Pike, Witch /Regan, Jilly's Ghost /Klause, The Silver Kiss (de Lint) ......... :lW-Levy, Natalie Babbit (Attebery) ............................................................... 71 Lurie, Don't Tell the Grown-ups (Phy-Olsen) .......................................... 73 Rees, What do Draculas Do? (Sullivan) ................................................... 74 Young Adult: Fiction Bedard, Redwork (Nilo) .......................................................................... 75 Blackwood, Beyond the Door (Pagliaroli) .............................................. .76 Caraker, The Faces of Ceti (Strain) .......................................................... 77 Cook, Lords of the Sword (Jeremias) ....................................................... 77 De Lint, The Dreaming Place (Langer) .................................................... 78 Eschbach, The Scroll of Lucifer (Tryforos) ............................................... 80 Fleischman, The Midnight Horse (Rosenblutt) ........................................ 81 Griffin, Star Commandos: Mind Slaver, Return to War, Fire Planet (Hall) .................................... 82 ,//,,,' 1<:;-,'1) Guttenberg, Sunder, Eclipse & Seed (Barker) ... .. h ... i ... ; .. .I.k= ........ 83 Johnson, The Witch House (Mingin) ....................................................... 84 Katz, Whalesinger (Langer) ..................................................................... 84 Mayer, The Golden Swan (Sherman) ...................................................... 86 .. Noble-Hearted Kate (Sherman) ................................................ 87 Niles, Ironhe1m, (Riggs) ........................................................................... 87 .... Viperhand (Riggs) ..................................................................... 88 Service, Under Alien Stars (Dudley) ........................................................ 89 Smith, Wren to the Rescue (Sherman) ..................................................... 90 Yolen, The Dragon's Boy (Bartter) ........................................................... 91

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4 SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 President's Message: Kid S(tuf)F? If I could bilocate, I would surely have attended the "Adolescent SF" session in Denton. As luck would have it, I had conflicting conference du ties. Yesterday, while mulling over what I might have missed at that session, I found myself browsing through my nearly complete collection of sixties Tom Swift novels and recalling the time when I was ten and reading every Tom Swift, Tom Corbett and Danny Dunn SF adventure I could beg, borrow or buy. It is a little surprising now to remember how deeply those often poorly written novels affected me. On my eleventh birthday, I told my mother in all seriousness that I was determined when I grew up to be "just like Tom Swift." I read my first SF book, Space Ship Under the Apple Tree, when I was six, and the intense excitement I felt on reading that little book is still one of my most vivid memories of childhood. Nothing had ever af fected me like that book did, and I quickly ran through all the SF in my grade school library which to my disappointment was not all that much. There is excellent and challenging kid SF out on the market today but not enough. What good stuff there is too seldom taken as important by the adult SF community and given the attention it deserves. Think back to how formative your own first experiences of SF were. The future of every com munity is in its children, and while child and young adult readers of SF are seldom our biological children, they are ours, nonetheless. The Shakers were strict celibates, and they have now died out of our world, much to the satisfaction of art dealers and museum directors everywhere. Sf belongs in the gutters and on the sidewalks, not in museums. The twenty-third annual meeting of the Association will be directed by Steve Lehman and will be held just outside of Montreal at John Abbott Col lege. The LA Times travel section claims that Montreal is "the heart of Canada, its cultural and political center, the place where bars stay open until 3 a.m. and where even a city councillor can steer you to an illicit after-hours club ... Sounds promising. Montreal is the world's second largest Francophone city, and I've begun brushing up on my French a bit. I was once nearly fluent, but the last time I seriously used the language out here in SoCal was some four years ago when I happened to run into a family of befuddled, non-English-speaking New Caledonians at Disneyland. Start planning now to attend SFRA 23 in Canada it will be a great conference.

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SFRA News/etter, 191, October 1991 5 Our twenty-fourth annual meeting will be held in Reno, Nevada, and its director will be Milton Wolf. Reno is another city I've never been to, but I can't really believe the reputation it has around here as lithe Son of Sin City." We'll all have the opportunity to find out in 1993, though. We have fasci nating venues for our upcoming conferences in regions that are especially important for SF studies. Lodging and board at John Abbott and in Reno will be exceptionally reasonable, and these next two conferences promise to be exciting, indeed. Pete Lowentrout Conference Update: Twenty-Third Annual SFRA Conference The 1992 SFRA Annual Conference is tentatively scheduled for June 1821, the third week-end of June, 1992, at John Abbott College which is lo cated on the western tip of the island of Montreal. Participants at the 1991 Conference in Texas strongly suggested that two panels be continued in Montreal: Can SF Survive in Post-Modern, Megacorporate America? and The Cutting Edge of Science Fiction. Is any one interested in participating on these panels? Should they be combined since they are closely related? Let me know if these panels should continue, be combined, or if you want to participate as a panelist or a chair? Send other proposals to me as soon as possible so that we can publish proposed topics/themes. Consider combining the Conference with a summer vacation tour for the family. The area is filled with exciting things for family fun. I'll have more information about places to see and things to do in a future entry. Be sure to send those proposals to me at home: 4319 Esplanade Street (2), Montreal, PQ H2W 1T1 Canada; or at the college: Box 2000, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada H9X 3L9. Steven Lehman Conference Director

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6 SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 7997 Writing for the love of It: A Conversation with John Kessel By Nancy Kress and Ear/Ingersoll In addition to numerous short stories which have appeared in the well known magazines in the field, John Kessel is the author of the novel Good News from Outer Space and the co-author, with James Patrick Kelly, of the novel Freedom Beach. His novella "Another Orphan" won the Nebula Award in 1982. He teaches English at North Carolina State University at Raleigh. Nancy Kress is the author of five books of fantasy or science fiction. Her SF novel Beggars in Spain is forthcoming from Avon in 1992, and Arkham House will publish a collection of her short stories. In 1985 she won a Nebula for "Out of All Them Bright Stars," and she has been a Nebula and Hugo nominee for other stories. Earl Ingersoll is the editor of Margaret Atwood: Conversations (Ontario Review Press, 1990) and Conversations with May Sarron, forthcoming from University Press of Mississippi. He is at work on a collection of interviews with writers of fantasy and science fiction. Ingersoll: I'm always interested in where novels come from. What was it that got you started with the writing of Good News from Outer Space? Kessel: I would have to say that a number of things got me started. This is probably true for a lot of novels. There are at least three different things that got me going on this particular book. One was a conversation I had with science-fiction writer Michael Swanwick at a convention a number of years ago. We were talking about reports of people who have had out-of-body experiences while they were clinically dead. Michael pointed out that some of these people, after they were resuscitated and came to consciousness in hospitals, acted a little bit remote for a couple of days. The reason was that they were not entirely sure that they were still alive. Since they knew that they had died, they thought this might be some kind of strange afterlife they were in and it was only after a while that they were convinced that they were in the real world. Well, this fascinated me, and I thought, What would happen if you had some one in this situation who came back and who was never really entirely sure that he was back in the real world? That turned out to be a rather minor thread in the novel, which does in clude medical revival of people who have been dead for short periods of time. The second thing was that I'm very interested in religion; par-

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SFRA News/etter, 191, October 1991 7 ticularly in the '80s when we saw a rise of t.v. fundamentalism. I have my problems with fundamentalism, but I could see the impulse behind it was a legitimate one. So I wanted to deal with a television preacher of the future, who is predicting the approach of the end of the world, as he thinks is predicted in The Revelation of John in the Bible. And there are, of course, many preachers who do think that we are in the last days. Well, I don't believe that, and yet I wanted to try to deal with such millennialism in a serious way, because I think it could affect many things in the world. The third thing that influenced me was my love of Herman Melville, and in particular his novel The Confidence-Man. Melville's The ConfidenceMan is a novel set on a Mississippi riverboat where, in the course of a single day, various characters on this boat are gulled by a confidence man who seems to change disguise with every chapter: he runs through about ten disguises in the course of the novel. At the beginning of the book he comes on as a white-haired deaf mute; in the second chapter he's a crippled Negro, who's crawling around on the ground, sort of like Eddie Murphy in "Trading Places," and in each chapter he manages to bilk some different person. One of the many things I like about the book is that it attacks all of the things people put "confidence" in. The word "confidence" becomes very threatening in this book, as time goes on. It occurred to me that this had an affinity to a classic science-fiction theme that had been done many times before, the idea of shape-chang ing aliens-aliens who can assume any human guise. We've seen this in movies like "Invasion of the Body Snatchers." I thought, This is inter esting. You could use this old science-fiction idea in the same way that Melville used the confidence-man in the novel, to try to expose, attack, question the things people put their belief in. That was fascinating to me, to combine this science-fiction idea with this literary conceit. That was one of the main ideas. I knew I was going to have shape changing aliens in my story who could duplicate anyone and in the course of the story they were going to challenge the ways of living, the belief systems, the moral delusions that various characters had all across the country. Kress: You've been very faithful to those same themes in your short fiction as well: people not knowing which reality they're in and the clash of realities I see in "Another Orphan," and in "Invaders," and in "Buffalo." And, of course, the love of Melville in "Another Orphan," where the character finds himself transported back into the reality of Moby-Dick. Kessel: Right. Kress: And what was the third theme you mentioned? Kessel: The idea of fundamentalist religion. And also the revival from the dead and not knowing what's real.

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8 SFRA News/etter, 191, October 1991 Kress: And with the idea of religion goes the idea of something that will guide them through their lives, some kind of belief system to hang onto. In the story you read the other night, "Buffalo/' that's a major theme. It seems you have a certain number of themes that you return to obses sively. Kessel: I think that that's definitely true. I think it's true of most writers; whether they know it or not, there are certain themes that they return to obsessively. I've come to consciousness, actually, of these themes by writing about them. Sometimes I wrote stories without knowing exactly why I wrote them, but later I could look back and say, Ah, this is what I was writing about, or I could see that between stories there was some thing in common. This business of belief systems is very central to me. I think that there are two dangers: if people try to live totally without beliefs, they don't have much to hold onto, especially in a time of crisis; on the other hand, I think there's the danger of having too rigid a belief system that doesn't allow you to cope with change, or cope with things that don't fit into that system. Kress: The Flat Earth Society. Kessel: The Flat Earth Society, or fundamentalist Christianity, or fundamen talist Islam, or hardcore atheism, or free-market capitalism, or orthodox Marxism. All of these belief systems can become rigid and confining; and they also tempt you to try to make other people who don't fit into your system conform. Since this is a Scylla and Charybdis situationyou can't go either way-we have to live somewhere in between these extremes. So I'm continually coming back to: I don't want you to have too rigid a system, but I don't think you can live without a system, with out a belief-it's a paradox, yet it seems to me that that's the human condition. I'm very attracted to these paradoxes. Ingersoll: Your future in Good News is a quite near-future and not a very happy one. Your society is falling apart, fundamentalist Christianity seems to be a major threat. Since you published that book two years ago, have you had any second thoughts? Do you think that this strain of fundamentalism, if you were writing the book today, would be as strong, or stronger? Kessel: I think, actually, that question speaks a little of a misconception. I don't necessarily believe that anything I write about is going to come to pass. Some things, I think, are more likely than others. The idea of medical revival of the dead, for instance, isn't I ikely in the next ten years. Yet certain other trends in the '80s when I wrote the book offer the pos sibility of disastrous things happening. Since I was writing satire, I ex aggerated them, I pushed them even farther than I might have thought was reasonably credible. It's funny, though, when I was writing the novel some things I made up as possibilities that would contribute to

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 9 difficulties actually happened-for instance, the stock market crash. I thought there'd be another stock market crash, and wrote this into the book before the market dropped 500 points that day a few years back. Of course, the outcome hasn't been the same as what I imagined in my book. My point is, I guess, that I was just presenting possibilities, rather than predictions. I don't really think that fundamentalism is necessar ily a threat so much as it is one of many typical human responses-not very helpful responses, but understandable ones-to serious problems we have in our society. Kress: Many of the themes we've been talking about are also themes that authors have worked on in "mainstream." What attracted you to science fiction, John, and why do you write that instead of "mainstream"? Kessel: Thars a good question. I've always been attracted to science fiction. I have since childhood. I've always liked stories that in some way de part from reality as we know it. When I read these stories as a kid, it was pretty much for escape. I'm still attracted to the oddness of SF-I'm more interested in realistic fiction, but I really like the opportunity that fantasy and science fiction gives you to look at things in a new way. You make something strange and that causes commonplace things to be more visible. If you want to deal with questions of whether our lives are worthwhile or not, to propose a situation where you can be brought back from the dead immediately causes you to start to examine these issues, various moral, ethical, life-choice issues. Kress: Were you one of those children who always knew you wanted to be a writer? Kessel: I don't think I knew consciously I wanted to be a writer, but I always wrote. Looking back on it, it seems strange to me now. I wanted to be a scientist, an astronomer. I even studied astrophysics in college. But when I was a kid, I also wrote stories. I remember in fifth grade I got my friends to write stories and I made them into a magazine, which I cop ied over and illustrated. Then when my parents gave me a typewriter in seventh grade I did a typed magazine where I wrote just about every thing in it, illustrated it, had various pseudonyms. It was an obsessive hobby. And I sent my first story off to the Magazine of Fantasy and Sci ence Fiction in 1963, when I was in eighth grade; and yet I never thought writing was going to be my career. I thought writing was going to be my avocation while I was off doing astronomy. Ingersoll: You're a fairly unusual writer of SF, in the fact that you're an aca demic. How do you relate to other science-fiction writers who aren't academics? Kessel: I was a science-fiction writer before I became an academic. I was always interested in science fiction. I never thought I was going to be

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70 SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 7997 a college professor. I didn't know I was going to get a doctorate in English, even after I was well into graduate school. I always thought I was studying literature simply because I was interested in it, but the thought of being a literary scholar never really was my goal. Kress: There's a strong streak of anti-academe in science fiction; I think that's what you're referring to, Earl, and how do you, John, feel about that? Do you think that we are impoverishing each other by this constant antagonism-academe and SF? Or, do you think, as some do, that it's to SF's good to stay out of the academic world? Ingersoll: ... "in the "gutter," as Judith Merril, among others, has phrased it. Kessel: ... where it belongs." Right. Once again, I don't think either extreme is accurate. I've experienced as a writer much of the condescen sion or ignorance that you get from literary people about science fiction. They don't know what it really is today, but they presume to judge it even though they haven't read it. On the other hand, I think that the au tomatic hostility toward academics and English professors by the sci ence-fiction community doesn't serve the community well. There really are more and more in the academy who do know science fiction and love and respect it. I would like to find a middle ground. I am an aca demic. I love literature-all sorts of literature, science fiction and non science fiction. I don't see that that's an impossible situation: I'm in it. I want to welcome the rest of us into this world where you can love Melville and also love Alfred Bester, or Philip K. Dick. Ingersoll: Why do you suppose some academics have such disdain for writers of SF? Kessel: Well, I think that a lot of them don't have an appreciation for any form of popular literature. Something that is commercially viable is al ready suspect in the academy. Also, in literature departments there is a kind of rule of thumb that the older the literature is, the more accept able or more respected it is. In the 1930s if you wanted to study Faulkner or Thomas Wolfe in a university you would be considered at the best "slumming," and at the worst they would say, This is not appro priate. You should be studying Milton, or Browning. So the more con temporary something is, the more suspect it is, and most of science fic tion is contemporary, although it has a long history. The other thing, as someone said, is that science fiction is judged by its worst examples. I often make a kind of facetious analogy between the way science fiction is viewed and the way women and blacks have been viewed. Blacks frequently have been characterized by the behavior of their worst examples: to say that all blacks are shiftless and lazy, to say that all blacks are criminals or drug addicts. We know this is not true, but this is a pervasive perception, just as people will say, All women

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 11 don't know how to do mechanical things, all women can't do math, all women are overemotional. Then if we meet a black who's a success ful businessman, or a woman who's a Ph.D. in math, rather than revise our conception of the potential of blacks or women, we say they're ex ceptions. This is true of science fiction: people say, All science fiction is like "Star Wars," or "Star Trek," not being aware of other works. And even if they're aware of other works, they're considered exceptions. If you read Ursula Le Guin, you say, Oh yes, The Dispossessed is a won derful novel, but it is not really science fiction. Kress: It's true; we don't judge "mainstream" by Sidney Sheldon and Danielle Steele. We judge it by John Updike and Toni Morrison. Kessel: Exactly. Ingersoll: I wonder too is it anything of the "science" in the term "science fiction," some aversion of people in the arts and humanities to anything scientific? Kress: C. P. Snow's "two cultures," still? Kessel: I think there is at least a perception that science fiction is about sci ence and technology, and those who are intimidated by or unhappy with science don't like science fiction. The fact is, and I think Nancy would agree, much science fiction today has little or nothing to do with sci ence. It has more to do with sociology, with society, with any number of other things, and even if science or technology appears in the story it's used mostly as a means to deal with other topics. So I think this is a misperception of modern science fiction. Kress: How would you characterize your own science fiction with regard to science? You have a degree in physics, and yet you don't use a lot of science in your work. Is it because you don't think it's important? Kessel: When I started writing I tried consciously to incorporate what I knew about science into my stories, but I found they weren't very good. The human element of the story wasn't well worked out. And as I studied literature I got more interested in working out that human element, and I let the science go. The main reason the science takes a back seat, however, is that scientific discovery by itself does not inspire story ideas in me. Story ideas come to me when I have a human interaction or human dilemma. Science or technology may have something to do with that, but that's not the beginning place. Ilike science, I'm interested in it; I think I understand it to a degree. But it's not the main thing that goes into my work. Ingersoll: I wonder too if some of the aversion to SF writers isn't that many are successful in supporting themselves as writers-and honest about their work. We were talking earlier about academics speaking about getting an article "accepted," while writers speak of "selling" a story.

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72 SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 7997 Kessel: Right. The idea that if you "sell" your work you're in the world of commerce, you're producing a "commodity." Of course, we don't think of that as being very "artistic." I don't think the line should be so hard and fast between art and commerce. Ingersoll: Who were some of the writers that you read who were particu larly important to you in coming to the writing of science fiction? Kessel: Well, as I said, I was a stone science-fiction freak when I was a kid. I read all the writers that are best known now-Robert Heinlein, Isaac Asimov, Arthur Clarke-they were my favorites when I was a teenager. There were other writers I grew to like who are not as well known Alfred Bester, Philip K. Dick, Cordwainer Smith, Edgar Pangborn-sadly, they're not that well known today by the general public-Theodore Stur geon. They appealed to me a lot. Then when I went to the university I began to study literature. I'd read some of the classics in high school, but I hadn't really devoted myself to it, but at the university I would go through phases where I would become a big fan of various writers-like Conrad. I was a big Conrad fan for a while-or E. M. Forster, or Flannery O'Connor. I ended up with these two pantheons, on the one hand, of science-fic tion writers going back to Bester, Dick, Ursula Le Guin-I was a big Samuel Delaney fan at one time-writers of that sort-Gene Wolfe, Thomas Disch-and then on the literary side the writers I've mentioned and many others. Looking back on it now, it seems that the writers I liked in the mainstream tended to have something in common with the sci ence-fiction writers: either they wrote about exotic locales, like Forster's A Passage to India or Conrad's stories, or they were surrealists like Nathaniel West or Kafka, or they dealt with moral or ethical dilemmas Conrad does this a lot. Or Melville. They say that science fiction is the fiction of ideas. Well, Melville's novels are all novels of ideas. If you try to judge him by the standards that you apply to Henry James-the standards of social observation, interaction between the sexes, realistic characterization-Melville really is a weak novelist. Evidence of that is the fact that Henry James didn't think anything of him at all. Yet if you judge him by his ideas, he's the most brilliant of novelists. So in a way I always think of Herman as being a science-fiction writer under the skin. If he were alive today he would very likely have written some science fiction. In fact I wrote a story called "Herman Melville, Space Opera Virtuoso," which supposes that he was born in 1904; he ends up writing for pulp science-fiction magazines-writing the same stories but in science-fiction terms. Kress: It's amazing the number of literary figures, and historical figures, that we've co-opted. Norman Spinrad wrote a novel in which Hitler became a science-fiction writer and satisfies his megalomania. Barry Malzberg

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 13 did a short story in which Hemingway, instead of trying to get into main stream, is trying to crack John W. Campbell's Astounding and never can quite do it. Kessel: Right. I've read those stories. Maybe it's because we want to have some of their greatness rub off on us. Those of us who write science fiction do feel somehow that we are invisible to the larger world. But, you know, Melville was invisible to the larger world. He could not sell a book after 1858, and he died in 1892. That's a long period of rejection-something a science-fiction writer, I think, can relate to. Ingersoll: Science fiction is in essence a literature of ideas, then, you would say. Kessel: Not simply ideas. But let's put it this way: ideas do seem to fuel a lot of science fiction. There is science fiction today which is just as powerful and subtle in its characterization and in its portrayal of interper sonal relations as any other sort of fiction. But there still is a tradition in the field, that science-fiction writers tend to deal with large, abstract concepts. Kress: You teach the writing of science fiction at North Carolina State, and of course that's what we've been doing here this week teaching at the Brockport Writers Forum Summer Workshop. This may seem a little late in the week to ask you, but a lot of people think writing can't be taught. You obviously do think it can, that it's a skill that can be acquired. Kessel: Right. I'm very cognizant of the craft of fiction writing. There is an art of fiction-writing too, but in order to be an artist you first have to be a craftsman. The great artists have all had to learn their craft. My father was a carpenter, and I've always thought of myself as wanting to be a skilled "carpenter" of stories. I want to learn how to do these things how to dovetail the joints, how to finish the wood, how to drive a nail properly-and those things, I think, can be learned. I think I'm evidence of that. In my first creative-writing class at the University of Rochester I did o.k. I got a "B" in the class. The teacher was very helpful to me, did not object to me writing science fiction, but was very uncomfortable with it. And I was not, by any means, the most brilliant student in that class. I don't know what became of the other student-writers; a number of them had more than enough talent to go on to successful writing careers. But I know that I, through dint of hard work over the next six or eight years, got better. I learned the craft. And I think that I can help students to learn the craft if they have the willpower or the incentive. I don't know that I can make them great artists; that's something inside that you can't teach. Ingersoll: So you don't fear that too much knowledge of the craft will make the writer self-conscious. I'm sometimes curious after these interviews what they do to your view, or Nan's view, of the writing itself when you sit down to write again.

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14 SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 1997 Kessel: Well, I think that is a danger, actually. You can become too self conscious. I've had more difficulty in recent years because I'm not as easily pleased with my work-although when I finish it I always end up liking it, to a degree. You always have your problems. I'm always glad I've written it. But you can become such a good critic that you're harder to please, less satisfied, more critical of your own work. A writer in order to produce fiction has to turn off that critic, at least in the very early stages. On the other hand, knowing the craft, when I'm faced with a problem, I usually have several ways to attack it and see if I can come out with a solution to it that a beginning writer might not even recognize. Kress: Do you work on any schedule? Kessel: I've tried during the school year to write three mornings a week, and I tend to want my classes scheduled in the afternoon. So I might work Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday mornings. This does not always work out, depending on my responsibilities at school. During the summer I try to write every day. When I was writing Good News, it was summer writing, sometimes seven days a week, and it was tremendously exhila rating. Kress: This sounds like somebody who wants eventually to be a full-time writer. Kessel: I have that desire at times, although I do enjoy teaching a lot. Actually I enjoy teaching literature classes as much I do creative-writing classes. I love to teach American literature, especially to sophomores. Facetiously I'll say, I can impress a sophomore. I don't know about a graduate student. I really enjoy teaching Melville, Twain, Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Flannery O'Connor, Emily Dickinson to students who have the opinion they won't like them. I think most students can like these writers if they're taught well. Kress: Do you ever teach science fiction as literature at N. C. State? Kessel: Yes, pretty much every year. That's also a class I enjoy greatly. I have sort of the reverse situation there. I have students coming into the class thinking they know all about science fiction already and it's going to be just fun. And then I try to persuade them that it is a serious and challenging intellectual proposition, and they have to write the same kind of papers they might write in an English lit. class. Ingersoll: Speaking of science fiction as a field, do you see any "directions," as we move into the '90s? And you haven't mentioned cyberpunk. Could you speak about that? Kessel: I'm very aware of the cyberpunk writers. I like most of their work. You know, there was a debate in the 1980s between the cyberpunks and, it seemed sometimes, everyone else. They were picking a fight. I was identified as one of the people who was theoretically in opposition

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 15 to the cyberpunks, the so-called "humanist writers." It turns out that it is not as much of an opposition as it seemed to some people at the time. I think the cyberpunk movement was good in that it focused attention on the hard-science end of science fiction and suggested we might rethink some old ways of doing things, some old concepts. On the other hand, I think there's plenty of life in non-hard science fiction, and there's a lot of work that's published as science fiction now that is not by any stretch of the imagination real science fiction, but it is worthwhile fic tion. It's contemporary fantasy, magic realism, whatever you want to call it-soft science fiction-and that is just as worthy of respect as cyberpunk fiction. As far as directions in the '90s, I think that those writers, like Nancy and I, who came into our own in the '80s now are becoming the middle aged writers of the field. Kress: [laughter] Speak for yourself, John. I don't even feel I've come into my own yet, much less "middle-aged." Kessel: The point is that there is a new generation of writers coming along that I'm not very familiar with, and I think they may take things in new directions. I think we've done a lot of good work and I don't think we're written out. In fact, we're just coming into our own-writers like Nancy and I, and Jim Kelly and Karen Fowler and Bruce Sterling, William Gibson, Michael Swanwick, Connie Willis. We have really gotten to a stage where we know how to write this stuff, and we have a lot to say, and we're very skilled. The next ten years is going to produce our best work, actually. Ingersoll: You just spoke of the cyberpunk movement in the past tense. Do you feel it's run its course? Kessel: I definitely feel that it's run its course, and anyone who's hoping to get on the bandwagon doesn't realize it left the station four years ago. If you try to reproduce what William Gibson did in Neuromancer in a novel today, you're simply following, and there's no point to it. William Gibson isn't even interested in doing a Neuromancer any more. Kress: They've all moved on. Kessel: Right. In the sense that cyberpunk was an effort to bring intellectual rigor, counter-cultural attitudes, and literary flash to hard science fiction, then this movement goes on. But it's not the cyberpunk movement any more: it's just writers attempting to make it new. Ingersoll: It's a very lively, very vital field that both of you work in. I have the sense of innovation and an interest in doing something other than what has been done. Kress: I think that's very true. What have you been doing that's new? Are you working on another novel, John?

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16 SFRA Newsletter, 791, October 1991 Kessel: First, I have a story collection that's coming out next year from Arkham House, a small press. I'm very happy with that, because I think I've done much of my very best work at short lengths and it will have most, if not all, of my best stories in it. It's called Meeting in Infinity. It should be out in mid '92. I am working on a new novel. It's not off to a stunning beginning, but I tend to be a very slow writer. My tentative title is "Corrupting Dr. Nice." It's a time-travel romantic comedy, which may well have some more serious overtones. The serious overtones come through whether I intend them or not. The theme, I don't have to worry about that, it just happens-as Nancy said this morning. It comes from trying to realize your materials. Right now I'm trying to understand screwball film comedies of the '30s and '40s. I've always been a fan of those. I've written a few comic sto ries. I'm trying to see if I can treat romantic comedy in a science-fiction background in a way that might have some political import. Kress: Boy, that's a tall order. Kessel: That's maybe why I'm stuck right now. Kress: Let's ask one final question, John. What advice would you have for beginning writers who want to become science-fiction or fantasy writers? Kessel: There are several simple things you could say. There is a long an swer to this, but I'll try to give the short one. One is that you should be familiar with what's being written now. You should read Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine, Fantasy and Sci ence Fiction, The Year's Best Science Fiction, edited by Gardner Dozois, and know what's being written right now. And read some of the most popular or most challenging novels. Two, you have to sit down and write. It's good to start with short stories because it doesn't take as long to write a story as a novel, although if you find the novel more congenial, do that. Work on your fiction, finish it, send it off to the magazines, send it off to publishers and give it a chance to be accepted. My experience was that it was a long road, from the beginning until I had my first story accepted. Kress: It took you eight years, didn't it? Kessel: Well, if you count the story I sent in in eighth grade it took me al most fifteen years. My first story was sold when I was twenty-five, but it never appeared because the magazine went out of business. The first story I sold that came out appeared when I was twenty-seven years old. And I'd been writing fairly steadily since I was about twenty.

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SFRA News/etter, 191, October 1991 17 Ingersoll: What kept you going during those years when the system wasn't saying yes to you? Kessel: There were times when I would get very discouraged and I would stop writing for six or eight months. But then I would always seem to come back to it. I had a love for it. And I felt that I was getting better. And the editors gave me some encouragement. Instead of getting the form rejection slips, I started getting little notes of rejection, so I thought, Well, I'm getting closer. But I still didn't sell anything for a long time. I just had to keep at it. When it comes down to it, people who write are not outer-directed; they're inner-directed. If you want to go into writ ing to make a million dollars, it is barely possible to do that, but there are a lot of easier ways to make a million dollars. If you're going to write, you have to be motivated from within. Kress: And you write for the love of it. Kessel: I do write for the love of it, although I certainly want to get paid for it when I get done. Ingersoll: But you do have to be ready for those rejections. I don't know whether Nan has brought in her box of rejection slips yet this week; she used to do that and spread them out on the table so that students have the awareness that a successful writer has to eat a lot of rejections before she or he gets work accepted. Kessel: Right. You have to not take it as personally you might, although it still hurts to be rejected. If I were to give advice to a young writer, I'd say, Talent is important, but persistence counts for more than talent, if you simply want to get published. Kress: Well, we're certainly glad you persisted. Thank you for being with us this afternoon, John. Kessel: Thank you both. The preceding text is an edited transcription of a videotape conducted on July 11, 1991, for the Brockport Writers Forum and Videotape library of SUNY College at Brockport. Copyrighted 1991 by SUNY. All rights re served. Not to be reprinted without permission.

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78 SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 7997 News and Information: Free LASFS List The Los Angeles Science Fantasy Society is, I think, the oldest continu ous SF fan club in the world. I was a member of "LassFass" in the early 1950s and met a number of writers prominent then or soon to be-Bradbury, Heinlein, Kuttner, etc. The present quarters in the San Fernando valley, over the hills from Hollywood and central Los Angeles, house a more than re spectable library of SF books and magazines. In an effort to promote read ing and help fight illiteracy the society's members have put together an SF reading I ist for ages nine and up. For a free copy send a self-addressed stamped long (business) envelope to Recommended Reading List, LASFS Inc, 11513 Burbank Blvd, North Hollywood, CA 91602-2309. [Thanks to Michael Klossner for this information.] NB Science Fiction Eye Relocates Steve Brown, editor of Science Fiction Eye, one of the more interesting and outspoken journals of commentary. has moved from Washington, DC to Box 18539, Asheville, NC 28814, effective last August. Part of this new address is listed in the market survey included in Newsletter 190, Septem ber 1990. I'd sent him the entry for his magazine in the survey, and he re marked: "It seems a bit odd to see what I think of as a huge sprawling diverse monster reduced to such a few words." NB Forthcoming Borgo Press Publications Rob Reginald, owner of Borgo Press, says the following books will be published by year's end (more specific dates will appear in one of the Recent & Forthcoming Books lists). The most comprehensive listing of fantastic fiction/film awards, domestic and foreign, has been compiled by him and SFRA member/reviewer Daryl Mallett. Reginald's Science Fiction and Fantasy Awards lists winners (only) for more than 124 awards, from the Pilgrim to the Hugo. Its approximately 250 pages dwarfs the 64 Page 1981 fi rst edition. Philip Harbottle & Stephen Holland continue their bibliography of British publishing in Vultures of the Void: A History of British Science Fic tion Publishing, 1946-1956. Readers of The New York Review of Science Fiction have seen segments from Greg Cox's The Transylvanian Library: A Consumer's Guide to Vampire Fiction, a chronological, annotated bibl iog raphy of Engl ish language vampire fiction, short and long. Darrell

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SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 7997 79 Schweitzer collects interviews with supernatural fiction writers in Speaking of Horror. The first book-length study of modern SF's most influential edi tor is Albert I. Berger's The Magic That Works: John W. Campbell and the American Response to Technology. Other books include an essay collec tion by James Gunn and bibliographies of Brian Aldiss and Katherine Kurtz. Reginald submitted camera ready copy in August to Libraries Unlimited of the Reference Guide to Science Fiction and Fantasy (tentative title), a 465 page work with 551 detailed descriptive and critical annotations of works having reference value. In addition to bibliographies, dictionaries, encyclo pedias and similar works, he covers fan publications, periodicals with refer ence value, and non-genre materials of interest to a SF researcher. The manu script for his two volume supplement to his Gale general bibliography will be submitted in 1992. SFRA Members' Current Projects BILLY, Ted: Book on 19th Century American Gothic. BURKE, Rusty: R.E.H. Publications for Necronomicon Press. NB DONAWERTH, Jane: With Carol Kolmerten, eds., just finishing a collec tion of essays on utopias and sf by women as a continuous literary tradition. FRANCAVILLA, Joseph V.: History of science fiction; study of Edgar Allan Poe and Franz Kafka. GABILONDO, Joseph: SF film 1968-1985. KRULlK, Theodore: The Amber Sourcebook-an encyclopedia of Roger Zelazny's Amber novels. LANDON, Brooks: The Aesthetics of Ambivalence: Rethinking SF Film in the Age of Electronic (Re)Production. LATHAM, Robert A: Received Minton Foundation grant to develop and teach a course in horror fiction during 1991-2. Am concentrating on theme of vampires in Anglo-American literature. do NASCIMENTO, Robert Cesar: A catalogue covering all SF published in Portuguese (written in or translated into), Brazil and Portugal, 18951990. Edra Bogle

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20 SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 Contributors to Scholars Support Fund The following people contributed to the Scholars Support Fund via the donations for the leather Cowboy Hat Drawing at the SFRA Conference in Denton: Muriel Becker, Edra Bogle, Liz Cummins, Bradley Denton, Mildred Dixon, Charlotte Donsky, Bob Ewald, Jim Frenkel, Adam Frisch, Beverly Friend, Charles Gatlin, Joan Gordon, Jim Gunn, Betsy Harfst, Ernie Harfst, Andy Hilgartner, Earl Kemp, Brooks Landon, Art Lewis, Peter Lowentrout, Bullitt Lowry, Dave Mead, Fred Pohl, Kennedy Poyser, Jack Williamson. Additional checks contributed to the Fund have been from Betsy & Ernie Harfst, Elizabeth Anne Hull, Arthur Lewis, and Peter Lowentrout. This fund is being used to provide SFRA memberships for international scholars who have economic difficulties and who are desperately seeking a window on the SF world which SFRA membership provides Edra Bogle Two New Writers' Magazines Two new magazines, New Writers'Forum and Storybook have been created to increase the recognition and viability of new writers' works. Accord ing to Maura Collins Titone, the editor, these magazines "of the writer, by the writer, for the writer." For a "minirnal contribution, aspiring writers can create and consequently spread not only their own works, but those of thousands of other writers, in addition to benefiting from the experience of read ing what other writers are writing. The magazine will be distributed as ex tensively as finances will allow free of charge." Contact Maura Collins Titone, 504 W. White St., 2nd fir., Champaign, IL 61820 or phone: 2173563518 for further information. Maura Collins Titone Long-time SFRA Member Passed Away Word has been received that Milton Subotsky, one of SFRA's interna tional members died recently. He and his wife, Dr. Fiona E. Subotsky, lived at 20 Stradella Road, London, SE24 9HA. Edra Bogle

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5FRA Newsletter, 791, October 1991 27 Membership Update Secretary David Mead has forwarded the names on new and renewed members which should be added to the 1991 SFRA directory. BARCELO, Miguel La Mina 55 Porta 7 S. Cugat Valles Bar 08190 Spain BURKE, Russell 12510 Manor Court Houston, TX 76072 CASTER, Jeffery P.o. Box 135 DeSota, KS 66108 De CAMP, Catherine Crook 3453 Hearst Castle Way Plano, TX 75025-3605 De CAMP. Sprague 3453 Hearst Castle Way Plano, TX 75025-3605 Do NASCIMENTO, Roberto Cesar Caixa Postal 2209 Ag. Central 01060 Sao Paulo SP Brazil FIELDS, Carl C. 149 Inwood Dr. Aiken, SC 29803-5614 FRANKO, Carol S. English Dept., Denison Hall Kansas State University Manhattan, KS 66506 JIANZHONG, Guo Foreign Languages Dept. Hangzhou University Hangshou ZBG 310028 LOWRY, Bullitt 1500 Angelina Bend Drive Denton, TX 76205 MACDONALD, Alex Campion College University of Regina Regina SAS 545 OA2 Canada MERRIL Collection of SF, Speculation and Fantasy c/o Toronto Public Library 40 St. George Street Toronto ON M5S 2A4 Canada MOYLAN, Tom English Dept. George Mason University Fairfax, Va 22030 NORWOOD, Warren 500 Green Tree Weatherford TX 76087 OKOLONA Branch Library 7709 Preston HWY. Louisville KY 40219

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22 POIRIER, Diane M. Box 572 Raquette Lake, NY 13436 ROBU, Cornell Str. Prof. Ciortea. NO.1 BLOC H, SC.2, AP18 3400 Cluj-Napoca Romania SAWYER, Robert J. 118 Betty Anna Drive Willowdale ON M2N IX4 Canada SF RA Newsletter, 191, October 7997 SENIOR, William A. 1130 NW 75th Terrace Plantation FL 33313-5954 T ARR, Judith E. 92-94 Foster St., No.3 New Haven, CT 06511 WU, Yan Educational Admin. Institute Beijing Normal University Beijing 100875 P.R. China Best of Science Fiction Lois McMaster Bujold's latest tale about overcoming physical weakness with smarts won her the 1991 Hugo Award for best science fiction novel. The book, The Vor Game, is the latest in a series of novels describing the adventures of a man born with birth defects who gets into the Space Force and defends his fellow beings, overcoming his handicaps with wit. The author, a writer from Columbus, Ohio, claimed the Hugo-science fiction fans' highest award-at the 49th World Science Fiction Convention in Chi cago (Chicon V). Bujold also won a Hugo last year for her novella The Mountains of Mourning" and was nominated again this year for another novella. Some of the other Hugos went to: Joe Haldeman for his novella, The Hemingway Hoax; Mike Resnick for the novelette The Manamouki; and Terry Bisson for the short story Bears Discover Fire. Orson Scott Card won a Hugo for the best non-fiction book for How to Write Science Fiction and Fantasy. Film director Tim Burton won for best dramatic presentation, for the movie Edward Scissorhands. BH/ed. Errata: Less Cents/More Sense It appears that the IBM of your editors and the Mac II of Hypatia Press decided to de-hyphen pay rates and reporting times in the marketing survey. Don't count on 12ft a word until you see the whites of the contract. Better yet re-read the article and add a dash of hyphens.

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 23 Non-Fiction Reviews: Various Feminist SF Approaches Armitt, Lucie, ed. Where No Man Has Gone Before: Women and Science Fiction. NY: Routledge, April 1991. 234 p. $59.95. 0-415-04447-2; $16.95pb. -4448-0. Above Georgia O'Keefe's cover painting of an elongated female pelvis is this title: Where No Man Has Gone Before. Freud, vaguely remembering an old home, might disagree, but Captain Kirk, more used to dealing with the wrath of Ricardo Montalban, would be unnerved to hear a parodic echo in the old creed. Appreciative of parody in most of its forms, I was a little un nerved by the parody of male homosocial academe: there are no essays by men; Lisa Tuttle, though tongue-in-cheek, writes of "Man" and "the male principle." There are three sections: individual author studies, broader cultural studies of SF discourse in film and writing, and personal essays by writers and readers of SF. The first section includes essays about the polarization of male and female in the work of Charlotte Haldane and Katherine Burdekin; c.L. Moore's gender subtext, Lessing's feminism despite her anti-political com ments, and Le Guin's revision of American culture. The Le Guin essay (Susan Bassnett) is weakest, consisting primarily of linked (often reductive) com ments by Le Guin on her own work and of unexamined cultural generalizations-like "the rise of religious fundamentalism as opposed to spirituality." My bias is towards the rigorous essays in section two. Jenny Newman adeptly moves back and forth between joumals, letters, and Frankenstein to give a convincing reading of Mary Shelley's monster as sometimes a helpmate. This complements and inverts Susan Thomas's analysis of how the intelligent machine in Short Circuit and Tron fundions as a surrogate for the male viewer and as an entry point for female social demands upon the adolescent male. The essays in this section certainly go boldly into previous scholarship. Witness the second paragraph in Lisa Tuttle's essay: "Indeed, a reading of Claude Levi-Strauss implies that, in symbolic terms, the difference between men and women is far more profound than that between men and animals." Erica Sheen, writing on women as fidional and historical subjects in Hollywood SF, sets a postmodem epistemol ogy in place and then doubles over that construction from a feminist point of view. Although Sheen pretends to ignore the rhetorical situation of the essayist's voice (she refuses any stake in the liberal humanist self), her article is neverthe less the best in the collection, joining intellectual history to the popular produc tions of Hollywood. Particularly intriguing is how she connects the micro-nar ratives of individual films to a historical narrative about how women were kept from the forces of production in the post-war period.

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24 SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 7997 The third section of the book, like Le Guin interviews, suffers from the personal voice. Gwyneth Jones makes the writing of teenage SF sound as formulaic as the minutes of an annual business meeting. Lefanu (on femi nist hard SF and horror) and Nickianne Moody (on Arthurian fiction) may appeal to the general reader, but their essays suffer from brevity and a lack of scholarly apparatus. For example, Moody, who speculates interestingly about readers, also converts the poorly documented time between Roman and Christian Britain (ca. 410 A.D. to 597 A.D) into a matriarchal golden age. Cultivate history, Moody. Of course, literature and feminist criticism have both relied upon the personal voice as counterbalance, and the final essay, by Josephine Saxton, shows the autobiographical tradition of the familiar essay at its best. I will not give away her arresting conclusion, but suffice it to say that her memoir comments symbolically and precisely on the larger narratives of both SF and feminism. This edition of 13 essays by British women illustrates the wide range of approaches to SF that feminism can offer, and is recommended for both general and academic libraries. It shares with Sarah Lefanu's In the Chinks of the World Machine: Feminism and SF the difficulties of simultaneously introducing and analyzing feminist SF, of appealing both to the general reader and to the academic, but, because of the variety of approaches, Armitt's collection negotiates the terrain better than Lefanu did. Rheinhold Kramer c. S. lewis and Owen Barfield Barfield, Owen. Owen Barfield on C. S. Lewis. G.B. Tennyson, ed., Middlebury, CT: Wesleyan University Press., 1990, xx + 172 p. $19.95.08195-5233-x. As the imprint suggests, this collection of essays and interviews by Owen Barfield is not just another coffeetable book on C. S. Lewis intended for Lewis's fans and general readers. Instead, Barfield delves into Lewis's philosophical backgrounds, into knotty theological issues, into intriguing and continuing areas of mutual interes!...and divergence. Encompassing Barfield's mitten statements on Lewis since 1964, the book defines Barfield's responses to Lewis and to the synergy they shared. In his introduction, G. B. Tennyson notes that ... hereafter students of Lewis must take Barfield's assessments into account. Indeed, students of Lewis will henceforth have to consider not only Owen Barfield's assessment of his intellectual agreements and disagreements with C. S. Lewis but also Barfield's assessments of Lewis. While admittedly personal and reflective, the essays and interviews Tennyson collects are illuminating-and often

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 7997 25 difficult. "Either: Or: Coleridge, Lewis, and Romantic Theology," for ex ample, broaches the issue of Coleridge's influence on Lewis in terms that demonstrate simultaneously the complexities of philosophical discourse, Barfield's attention to subtlety and nuance in his own prose, and Lewis's sometimes contradictory stances. "c. S. Lewis in Conversation" is more accessible in defining the quality of Lewis's wit by analysis and by example. The remaining essays include "c. S. Lewis and Historicism," "Some Reflec tions on The Great Divorce." "Lewis, Truth, and Imagination," "Lewis and/ or Barfield," and "The Five C. S. Lewises." The volume concludes with "Conversations on C. S. Lewis" (interviews with Walter Hooper, Clifford Monks, and G. B. Tennyson), "c. S. Lewis in Barfield's Fiction and Verse" (two poems and an excerpt from Barfield's This Ever Diverse Pair, contain ing a fictionalized word-portrait of Lewis). The volume works admirably in suggesting the dynamics resulting from interactions between two men of genius, wit, and humor. It avoids the idola try often associated with appreciations of Lewis, while showing an intellec tual toughness and strength that makes it challenging and convincing. Readers will not find intimate, day-by-day accounts of Lewis's life-for that kind of background, there are sufficient other books. Instead, readers will be forced to grapple with the intricacies of Lewis's intellect, with the give-and take that characterized Barfield's relationship with Lewis through their most productive years. The book is highly recommended for serious students of Lewis, and usefully supplements Lionel Adey's C. S. Lewis's "Great War" with Owen Barfield (1978). Michael R. Collings A SUPERB ACHIEVEMENT Byfield, Bruce. Witches of the Mind: A Critical Study of Fritz Leiber. West Warwick, RI; Necronomicon Press, 1991. 76p. $9.95pb. 0-94088-435-6. Byfield's Witches of The Mind is the only book I've ever read for which the hype on the back cover proved to be gross understatement. "An engag ingly professional, scholarly, and insightful job," says Justin Leiber, Fritz's professorial son. Yes, indeed, but it's better than that. "The best thing ever written about Leiber," says S.T. Joshi, but considering the competition, that's not high enough praise. The book is a revelation, simply superb! Leiber's oeuvre has always seemed scattered to the category conscious publishing industry and its fans. Some of it is "horror," some of it is "fantasy" (sword & sorcery), some of it is "science fiction," some of it is "criticism." The ar tistic sensibility behind it all seemed elusive, though few serious readers

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26 SFRA News/etter, 191, October 7997 doubted it was there. Witches of the Mind clears away the genre precon ceptions, focuses on the artist, his life and thought. Patterns, the parameters of a creative imagination, come clear, and the oeuvre not only makes sense, it gains grandeur. Byfield has done what only the best of critical biographers bother to do: he has recreated, following clues in Leiber's letters and essays, the personal, intellectual and artistic inner struggles of the artist. He has read the books that helped to shape the artist's thinking, tracing the results in his works. Finding the three major influences on Leiber's thought to be H. P. Lovecraft, Robert Graves, and Carl lung, he has nevertheless been always conscious of the distinctive, highly individual intelligence which received and trans formed these influences. The resulting portrait is marvelously impressive. Though I have included Leiber's books on my syllabus for years, I now feel ashamed of my feeble efforts to understand them. I, like most fans, was too blinded by genre preconceptions to see the figure in the carpet. I have only one regret about the publication of this book: Necronomicon has produced it in a format that almost guarantees that it will miss its proper readership. It looks I ike all the other esoterica in the Lovecraft cottage industry-tiny type in columns too wide to read comfortably (one keeps miss ing the beginning of the next line through visual tracking errors), wrapped in an eighty page, saddle-stapled soft paper edition with fannish cover art by Robert Knox, a book that no librarian will want to shelve. This is a substan tial book (in standard format it would run around 200 pages), and I don't think it's for fans. It is, as loshi says, "the foundation of Leiber studies for the future." If there is any justice, it will be picked up and reissued by a univer sity press and channelled to the audience it deserves. Byfield's book is so far superior to Ungar's 1983 study by Tom Staicar (which I remember as si multaneously obtuse, fannish and condescending-I have no wish to read it again) that it would be the cruelest of ironies if Staicar stayed in the library catalogs while Byfield was banished through an accident of venue. Excellent primary and secondary bibliographies. Absolutely essential for libraries and serious students. Robert A. Collins A Reluctant Horror Director Dixon, Wheeler Winston. The Films of Freddie Francis. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1991. xiv + 304 p. $37.50. 0-8108-2358-6. Since 1947, Freddie Francis has photographed films in his native Britain and in Hollywood, winning two Oscars and a reputation as one of the world's finest cinematographers. In addition to many mainstream works he

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SFRA News/etter, 191, October 1991 27 shot Jack Clayton's The Innocents (1960) and David Lynch's The Elephant Man (1980) and Dune (1984). From 1962 to 1975 Francis gave up cinema tography and directed twenty-four films, mostly low to middle budget British horror movies, including three of Hammer's black-and-white "psycho logical thrillers" (also called "mini-Hitchcocks")-Paranoiac (1962), Night mare (1963) and Hysteria (1964); two of Hammer's gaudy color GothicsEvil of Frankenstein (1964) and Dracula Has Risen from the Grave (1968); four horror Or. Terror's House of Horrors (1965), Torture Gar den (1967), Tales from the Crypt (1972) and Tales That Witness Madness (1973); two watchable oddities-The Skull (1965) and the highly original Mumsy, Nanny, Sonny & Girly (1969); as well as some stinkers, such as Trog (1970). After returning to cinematography in the 1980s, Francis directed two more horror films, one of them The Doctor and the Devils (1985), based on a 38-year-old screenplay by Dylan Thomas. Twelve decent films out of twenty-six is a good average for genre work but Francis is dissatistfied with his directing career. His two interviews with Dixon (totaling 150 pages) make clear that he feels no affinity for horror and regrets being typecast in the genre. A sym pathetic Dixon claims that much of Francis's work is dark drama or comedy "masquerading as horror." Francis recalls his fans with distaste. "They really didn't understand about normal films, but they didn't even understand horror films. All they understood was horror." The interviews devote a few pages to each film, emphasizing deal-making, personalities and technical work. Neither Dixon nor Francis probes very deeply. The director disavows hidden meanings in his work. "I think people often look far too deeply into these films." He merely claims that his direction often "transcended the script visually." This limited self-revelation by a reluctant, over-qualified practitioner belongs in large media collections. Michael Klossner Historically Important Autobiography Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. The Living of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press, April 1991. Lii + 341 p. $37.50, 0-299-12740-0; $13.95 pb. 12744-3. Ann J. Lane, a professor of history at the University of Virginia, brought out her biography of Charlotte Perkins Gilman, To "Herland" and Beyond, to considerable critical acclaim in 1990. She has now shepherded back into print Gilman's own quirky autobiographical work, The Living, which first appeared immediately after her death in 1935 and which was later reprinted

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28 SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 7997 in both 1972 and 1975. The original edition of the Living sold very poorly, only 808 copies in the six months after it saw print. Gilman, a world-re nowned figure at the turn of the century and immediately thereafter for such non-fiction works as Women and Economics (1898) and The Home: Its Work and Influence (1903), was by the time of her death largely forgotten. The two editions of the book published in the 1970s also met with little success. Since that time, however, critical attitudes toward biography, women's biography in particular, and Gilman's own work have changed radically, and a new edition of The Living is clearly apropos. For those who know Charlotte Perkins Gilman only as the author of one masterful horror story, "The Yellow Wallpaper," (1890) and a pioneering feminist utopia, Herland (1915), it's something of a shock to discover that fiction was essentially a sideline for her, something that she turned to in between lecture tours and serious writing projects. Her/and doesn't even rate a reference in The Living's index. Gilman saw her life as one long struggle for women's rights, not merely as part of the suffrage movement, but on a broader plane. Her battle, one which she fought with increasing bit terness as the years went by, involved the need to establish the economic and moral validity of women's work, whether in the home or outside of it. Equally important to Gilman, although she probably never stated it as clearly was the need to establish not merely the validity of women's viewpoints on the various important issues of the day, but the very right of women to have such viewpoints. Gilman did not really want to write an autobiography and tended to dislike the kind of looking within that such a venture requires. She knew very clearly, however, that she had done important work and that the facts of her life needed to be preserved. She tried desperately to prevail upon her friend, the author Zona Gale, to tell her story, but Gale refused and eventu ally convinced Gilman to take up the project herself. Gilman wrote all but the last chapter of The Living in 1926, when she was sixty-six years old. She finished the autobiography, quite literally on her death bed, nine years later. Suffering from terminal cancer, she took her own life before the book saw print. The Living is far from a literary masterpiece, being marred by Gilman's own uneasiness with the form, and it does not delve very deeply into its author's psyche. Thus, as Ann Lane, Gilman's biographer, states, the book's value must lie in its being "useful and significant," and indeed it is. The Liv ing serves both as a useful companion piece to the more engaging Lane biography and as a significant historical document in its own right. Those who would read Gilman at her best, however, should go to her fiction and to the great works of social commentary like Women and Economics.

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 29 This new edition of The Living of Charlotte Perkins Gilman features both Zona Gales's Foreword to the original volume and Ann Lane's thoughtful introduction, which attempts to place Gilman's book within the tradition of women's autobiography. Michael M. Levy SF & F in Chile Hasson, Moises, et aI., Fantasia & Ciencia Ficcion: Cinco Conferencias de Literatura de Fantasia y Ciencia Ficcion. Sociedad Chilena de Fantasia y Ciencia Ficcion y Departamento de Culture, 1989, 54 p. Trans. Ingrid Kreksch. This book reports on five articles on Science Fiction and Fantasy: "Intro duction to SF Literature in Chile," by Moises Hasson; "Science Fiction and its Branches," by Marcelo Valasco Morande; "How to Write a Script for a Comic Strip," by Adrian Roca; "E.T.A. Hoffmann, Father of Fantastic literature, or When the Devil Started to Make Mischief," by Carlos Raul Sepulveda; and "SF and Pulps in Spanish," by Moises Hasson. In the first essay a panorama of Chilean SF is discussed, starting in 1878 and continuing up to our days. For the time between 1878 and 1950, 13 writers are mentioned. The second lapse is called "the prodigious time (be tween 1959 and 1969) and authors and works which are now known as Classics of Chilean SF are described and discussed. Other authors of that period are also mentioned and one specific paragraph is devoted to the description of works which include religious and moral implications. The conference ends with the period of crisis and renaissance which began in 1971 and is still underway. In any case, there has been a steady interest for SF in Chile. In the second article, Marcelo Velasco seeks to classify the heteroge neous field of SF by defining soft and hard SF and discussing its develop ments throughout history. Next he refers to Space Opera, the New Wave and topics exploited for the first time during the Sixties. This he follows by mentioning Sword and Sorcery and finally, he concludes with reference to SF and horror, mentioning H.P. Lovecraft as its most important representa tive. This conference gives the impression of being rather uncentered from a chronological point of view as well as that of the classification used, i.e., mixing cinema and literature and at the same time leaving out all mention of fantasy and confusing Sword and Sorcery with SF.

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30 SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 7997 The third review has as its main goal: the ways and means of writing scripts for the comic strips. The main message is that scientific explanations have to be passed on to the reader differently in this kind of presentation (in a more visual form than it is in the usual book form). This brief text is very amusing because it is narrated in an anecdotal way. The fourth essay is on E.T.A. Hoffmann, Father of Fantastic literature. This is a somewhat historical text which starts with an explanation of the romantic period, then continues discussing Hoffmann, his life and work; next it mentions the MARCHEN (fairy tale) and the devil, which is the character he introduced in his fairy tale. The last article is on SF and Pulps in Spanish. Moises Hasson here presents the Pulp by describing its characteristics and listing its topics and he makes mention of the major publications of this kind in Spanish. Hasson also suggests that modern SF magazines are not a natural evolution of Pulps but an "imitation of this North American process." This book is in a small format and it represents a strong effort to dissemi nate information about SF literature in Chile. Ingrid Kreksch On Hispanic Pulps Hasson, Moises. Los Fantasticos Pulps en Castellano (J 939-7 957). Santiago: Edicion Provisional, 1990, 56p. More than a book, this is an index of issues and stories published. It includes: Narraciones Terrorificas (Argentina), 76 issues between 1939 and 1952; Hombres del Futuro (Argentina), 3 issues in 1947; Los Cuentos Fantasticos (Mexico), 45 issues between 1948 and 1954; and Enigmas (Mexico) 16 issues between 1955 and 1957. This work represents five years of research and includes approximately 70% of the total number of issues. For each publication Hasson includes information referring to the magazine, a description of the cover and the content, and finally an index of short stories. At the end, the author gives some short comments on pulps and includes some bibliography on Hispanic pulps. Probably the most interesting fact about this volume is that it is provi sional and therefore the author is still seeking information, and he asks the reader to help him add titles to his listing. Ingrid Kreksch

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SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 1991 31 New Arthurian Compilation Lagorio, Valerie M. and Mildred Leake Day. King Arthur Through the Ages. NY: Garland Publishing, 1990, Vol. 1, xv + 327 p. 0-8240-7143-3; Vol. 2, xvi + 335 p.0-8240-7144-1. $38 each. Thirty-two years have passed since the appearance of Arthurian Litera ture in the Midd/e Ages (Oxford, 1959). Edited by Roger Sherman Loomis at the end of his distinguished career and written by the most famous schol ars of the day, it provided a broad survey of the Matter of Britain which im mediately became the basic reference tool for Arthurian scholars. It ap peared at just the right time: the popularity of Arthurian legend has been growing exponentially ever since. Every MLA meeting has its Arthurian sec tions, critical editions and journal articles multiply, reference books like the Arthurian Encyclopedia go into second editions, and new material is con stantly brought to light. At the same time the legends of the Round Table have made a great impact on popular culture, inspiring books for children and adults, films, musical comedies, reenactments, and even comic books. It would therefore seem more than appropriate that a successor to ALMA should appear. Volume I of this new compilation is indeed devoted to the traditional material covered by Loomis, but it should in no way be considered a sub stitute for ALMA. Instead, it can be seen as filling in some of its omissions, introducing areas not discussed in ALMA, and occasionally bringing it up to date. The articles vary greatly in approach and in quality; some are broad surveys, some deal with specific problems. Much has been learned since 1959. There have been some surprising additions to the canon such as Arthurian works in Hebrew and Yiddish, and there are also new discussions of areas like "King Arthur and the Medieval English Chronicles," "King Arthur in Scandinavia," and "King Arthur and the Saints" in a format similar to that of the earlier volume. Some writers bring us up to date on scholarship, such as Jeanne T. Mathewson's critical survey of some of the odder opinions voiced on Gawain and the Green Kniqht. In general the focus is narrower than that of ALMA, though readers will find Heather Arden's discussion of Chretien's Lance/ot and Charles Moorman's linking of the twelfth century Arthurian material with the Norman Conquest of considerable interest. The volume ends with R. M. Lumiansky's important reprinted essay reassessing Eugene Vinaver's theories about the relationship between the Winchester MS and Caxton's edition of Malory and expressing his doubt that the author of Le Morte Oarthur was in fact the "knight-prisoner" Sir Thomas Malory of Newbold Revel.

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32 SFRA News/etter, 797, October 7991 It is in Volume 2, however, that the greatest divergence from Loomis appears, since it is devoted entirely to post-Malory developments of the leg end, material intentionally not covered in ALMA. On the whole I found these essays the most stimulating, though that on "Avalon to Camelot" by its publisher Freya Lambides struck me as fannish. The Victorian era is well represented; there is an article on the scholar Sir Frederick Madden as well as ones on Tennyson, Swinburne, and Morris with an excellent reading of the ambiguities of "The Defence of Guenevere." The visual arts are also well represented with good surveys of book illustration, comic books, and films. It's nice to know I'm not the only one who thinks "Prince Valiant" was high art. Twentieth century authors studied in detail include E.A. Robinson, Charles Williams, Walker Percy, and Thomas Berger. There are also three survey articles on modern Arthurian literature, including science fiction, fantasy, and children's reading. These overlap considerably and, given the overwhelming amount of material, can be little more than lists of names and recommendations. Raymond Thompson, author of the article on science fiction and fantasy, has in fact written an entire book on modern Arthurian literature and even then could not include everything. Much more could be said. I believe that readers and libraries with a serious interest in Arthuriana will wish to consider purchasing one or both of these volumes, but not be fore acquiring the original Loomis compilation. Incidentally, I paid $9.60 for my copy of ALMA back in 1960-King Arthur Through the Ages will cost you $76 for the two volumes, with roughly the same number of pages as Loomis and not nearly as well printed. Lynn F. Williams Close Encounters of the Worst Kind Lambourne, Robert, Michael Shall is, and Michael Shortland. Close Encounters?: Science and Science Fiction. NY: Adam Hilger, lOP Publishing, 335 E. 45th St., 1990.xiii + 184 p. $26 pb. 0-85274-141-3. As a practicing scientist and long-time reader/teacher/critic of SF I greeted this book with keen enthusiasm. Its avowed topic-the role of sci ence in science fiction-raises questions that are fundamental to SF as Iitera, ture and to the perception of science by the publ ic. Its range is vast: SF in fiction and film from the prehistory of the genre to the present. Its authors include lecturers in physics, in the physical sciences, and in the history and philosophy of science. But in the event, Close Encounters? is deeply disap pointing, an opportunity lost. Reading it is like looking at a cathedral through

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 33 a dense fog: you sense the presence of a beautiful edifice, but neither the shape nor the details are clear. Even on a first reading, one is struck by its unevenness. Chapters range from excellent (a witty, knowledgeable analysis of the rise of the SF film during the '50s) to adequate (a sketchy 33-page history of SF from the ancient Greeks to the present; a survey of ways in which the language, images, and concepts of science appear in SF) to rambling and ill-focused (chapters on religion in SF and on the relationship between the "real" world and the world as represented in SF) to painfully superficial and unintegrated (chapters on time and ecology in SF). On reflection, one is struck by its incoherence. Together, these occasion ally insightful chapters fail to constitute a coherent analysis of science in SF; rather, they're like loosely linked essays that touch, directly or tangentially, on the ostensible topic. Of the specific questions identified in the introduction-how the scientist is portrayed in SF and how SF renders science as activity-the second is addressed only fleetingly. And, for reasons unclear to me, the authors devote the lion's share of this book to portrayals of the scientist in '50s SF films, a narrow focus that ignores recent, highly relevant films such as Marshall Brickman's The Manhattan Project (1986). This unevenness and structural incoherence also infects the book's prose. With the notable exception of an excellent chapter on political and social attitudes towards the scientist in such '50s films as The Day The Earth Stood Still (1951) and Phantom from Space (1953), the writing ranges from utilitarian to painfully awkward. That chapter shows what the authors are capable of, and it's saddening that they did not undertake the final rewrite to raise the rest of their manuscript to that level. So, notwithstanding some interesting discussions, a useful bibliography, and a reasonably complete filmography, I can't recommend this book. Its closest competitor, The Cosmic Dancers: Exploring the Science of Science Fiction by Amit Goswami with Maggie Goswami (McGraw Hill 1983) suffers from awkward prose, narrowness, and a tendency towards pedantry. Peter Nicholls' wider-ranging The Science in Science Fiction (Knopf, 1983) aims for (and achieves) different goals, using SF largely as a springboard for illuminating, well-written discussions of science and pseudoscience. All three leave the cluster of fascinating, important issues surrounding the roles of science in SF (generative, metaphorical, constraining, etc.) largely unex plored. Michael A. Morrison

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34 SFRA Newsletter, 791, October 7997 The Essence of a life Le Guin., Magnolia Wynn. A Home-Concealed Woman: The Diaries of Magnolia Wynn Le Cuin, 7901-1913. Charles A. Le Guin, ed. Athens: Uni versity of Georgia Press, November 1990, xxxvi + 374 p. + 8 p. plates, $24.95, 0-8203-1236-3. Of tangential interest to SF readers because it includes a short foreword by Ursula K. Le Guin, A Home-Concealed Woman reveals the life of a ru ral middle-class southern woman at the beginning of this centu;ry. Magnolia Le Guin (grandmother of Ursula Le Guin's spouse, Charles, who painstak ingly edited the diaries) wrote unfeignedly about childbearing and child rear ing, cooking, cleaning, washing, ironing, sickness, health and seasonal change. She also wrote affectingly: we are saddened by her burdens and illnesses, distressed by the racism infecting her relations with Negroes, touched by her affection for parents, husband, children, and heartened by the will to survive that sustains her through more than a decade of intensive household labor. Magnolia'S rigorous life in Georgia contrasts markedly with the fictional, nostalgic rural America imagined in Ray Bradbury's stories; more obviously, Heinlein's character, Maureen Johnson (To Sail Beyond the Sunset, 1987), is an old man's sexual fantasy figure when she claims to have been "bubbling with happiness the whole time as she bore eight children in the decade 1907-1917. Fearing for her health and life, Magnolia painfully bore nine babies, eight of whom survived, between 1894 and 1910. Though she dearly loved her children, she prayed not to be pregnant. Irreparably injured by the doc tor who delivered her first child, she was plagued by problems of health and by exhaustion from overwork. By age 32 she had lost all her upper teeth. She worked from dawn until dark, regretting that she was less than able to provide pleasure and good cheer to visitors "all because I must drudge and overtax my strength so far that I'm fagged out mentally and physically." In August 1906 she confided, in writing that conveys her exhaustion it is eli sions, "Help me My Creator or I can't struggle on. How hard it all seems to me. What rough time I do have. What a life! Sometimes it is rough indeed. I am so tired now I must go and try rest a few moments." Instead, she went on to list the 116 people "who have visited her this Summer." Magnolia wrote about her happiness and pleasure, too. She loved to read and write; she was fascinated and delighted by her new telephone. She took great joy in children and flowers, and especially loved October's relief from the enervating heat of summer. She used her diaries as a kind of therapy for the demands of her near-incarceration at home; she recorded her

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SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 7997 35 hopes and prayers, and chided herself for indiscretions such as speaking harshly to children and Negro servants. As Ursula Le Guin remarks in her preface, "in this endlessness of daily work and feeling is the essence of a life-but the fascination, the delight of reading about it, the pastime she gives us, must come direct from her own delight in writing it, the relief, release, and freedom she had in doing what she loved best to do." Philip E. Smith II Corrupted Text Leiber, Fritz. Fafhrd & Me, ed. John Betancourt. Newark, NJ: Wildside Press, 37 Fillmore St., 1990.96 p. $9.95 pb. $25. he. Fafhrd & Me is a collection of eleven very significant Leiber essays, all of them discussed in Byfield's superb critical study (see this issue). The col lection was originally prepared, according to the introduction, for Philcon 1990, where Leiber was principal speaker, but all students of Leiber's career would be delighted to have them collected if the text was decent. It's not. Anyone who quotes from it must choose between silent emendations and a sea of sics. My guess is that the text was sloppily keyboarded by fans with desktop publishing software (or perhaps they used an optical scanner?), and to fix the resulting mess somebody ran an automatic spelling correction program, without paying much attention to the results: the text is littered with wrong words, correctly spelled but out of context. Thus we have "good" for "food," "contract" for "contrast," "locked" for "licked," "lone" for "long," "lovely" for "lonely," "around" for "arouse," "wither" for "whether," and so on. Some of the effects are howlers, like "Ten" Sturgeon. Some are puzzles: it takes a few minutes to figure out that a paragraph that begins "Bring the twenties ... ought to have read "During the twenties .... The mis-corrections of bigger words are disconcerting, but the repeated substitutions of "or" for "of," "at" for "an," and most annoying, "possible" for "possibly," "simple" for "simply," and vice-versa, all the way through, is irritating and inexcusable. One can blame the spell-checker for most of it, but not all: somebody thinks that the possessive of Robert Graves is "Grave's." Fannish minds will find this nitpicking, but after all what is the use of a collection if you can't trust the text? Since any scholar who tries to use it will have to trace every quotation back to its source anyhow, why not hunt up the original in the first place? Having edited Leiber's copy for Fantasy Review for several years, I know the errors are not his fault. John Betancourt is listed as editor of this collec-

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36 SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 tion, but it's hard to believe he read proof on the book. Not recommended for any library. Robert A. Collins [Betancourt said in a note accompanying the review copy that there were 300 paperback copies and 200 hardcover copies, both probably sold out by the time this review appears; inquire before ordering. -NB, edl Borges Explicated Lindstrom, Naomi. Jorge Luis Borges: A Study of the Short Fiction. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1990. x + 174 p. $20.95. 0-80S7-8327-X. Borges (1899-1986) was born in Buenos Aires, living in Switzerland and Spain while growing up. Returning to Buenos Aires at 22, he soon became a leader of the South American avant-garde. This was a smaller coterie than in the United States or Europe, but very influential on later Latin American writers. Borges abandoned the avant-garde after about 10 years. He soon began experimenting with biographical essays, anthologies, and the short story. Naomi Lindstrom is a professor of Spanish and Portuguese at the University of Texas at Austin. With a thorough, methodical approach and ex cellent writing, she traces the beginnings of Borges' stories, including those collected in Universal History of Infamy, Ficciones, and EI Aleph. Accord ing to Ms. Lindstrom, after shunning the avant-garde movement he helped found, Borges turned to mysticism and spiritual research. The Aleph presents ... the cosmos so that it can be seen simultaneously, though not in any ordered or synthesized form." This theme is true for much of Borges' other works as well. Ms. Lindstrom traces Borges' fascination with religion, fanati cism and characters he creates. Borges is a very difficult and often confusing author. Ms. Lindstrom has carefully grouped the central themes of this complex man into a single timeline. In the first part is the study of Borges and his fiction. The second contains a fascinating interview of Borges by Fernando Sorentino. The third includes two critical essays by Carter Wheelock and David William Foster. As a systems analyst and not an academic, I was apprehensive about reading this book, the sort that is required reading in college, usually dreaded by students. Lindstrom's interesting and well-written analysis pleasantly surprised me. I recommend it highly, for it clearly explicates the many com plexities of one of this century's more important writers. Ben Herrin

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 37 Vidiot's Delight Lucas, Tim, ed. Video Watchdog: the Perfectionist's Guide to Fantastic Video. Box 5283, Cincinnati, Ohio 45205-0283: 1990, Bimonthly, $18 for 6 issues, $24 (outside US). The first magazine devoted to fantastic films recorded for home viewing is concerned with all the problems that beset the video collector-vJriant versions, multiple titles for the same material, video quality, cuts by censors and distributors, "Ietterboxed" vs. "cropped" formats, speeded-up play and copyright law. Each issue has dozens of short, intelligent reviews of videocassette and laserdisc releases, with emphasis on obscure and foreign titles. One issue even reviews five Chinese movies. The erudition is staggering. For instance, we learn that in Psych-Out (1968) Susan Strasberg's "climatic STP trip features the sound FX used earlier by 'AlP for The Medusa in The Medusa Against the Son of Hercules. Longer essays consider in minute de tail the differences between the theatrical film Aliens and the laserdisc Aliens: the Special Edition; variations between two versions of the 1973 cult film Ganja and Hess; and scenes found in the screenplay but not the release print of Blue Velvet. Equally learned letters from as far away as Italy correct any errors or omissions. Of the two issues seen, No.3 printed two corrections of errors in No.2; No 4 had seven errata for No.3. I found an error in No.4, but I am utterly confident it will be corrected promptly in No.5. Also included are book reviews; studies of two European directors, Italy's Pupi Avati and Spain's Narciso Ibanez Serrador; and a two-part (!) article on the cannibalization of a 1962 Yugoslav thriller by Roger Corman and a young Francis Coppola. Aimed at the most knowledgeable and insatiable fans, Watchdog would probably be accused of obsessive scholarly overkill by more casual readers. However, the articles and reviews are well-written and free of unnecessary jargon. The pieces on Ganja and Hess, Avati and Serrador call attention to little-known films that the authors convinc ingly claim are important; all three could be printed in any serious film periodical without embarrassment. Watchdog belongs in large film libraries and in the hands of fans striving to build the perfect video collection. Michael Klossner

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38 SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 7997 Folktales from Three Time Periods McGlathery, James M. Fairy Tale Romance: The Grimms, Basile, and Perrault. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, February 1991, 226 p. $29.95hc. 0-252-01741-2. Fairy Tale Romance explores the portrayal of erotic passion in three collections of literary folktales of varying national1ties and time periods: Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm's Kinder und Hausmarchen (nineteenth-century Germany); Giambattista Basile's /I Pentamerone (early seventeenth-century Italy); and Charles Perrault's Contes (late seventeenth-century France). Most folktales, McGlathery contends, concern a young woman who overcomes obstacles to marriage. Her fathers or brothers often harbor incestuous feel ings for her, while older women, identifying with her youth and beauty, either assist in the courtship or jealously attempt to thwart it. Her prospec tive bridegroom may initially appear as a frog or other beast, suggesting the apprehension with which the inexperienced young woman anticipates the sex act. Because, through the ages, folktales have been told to children, often to indoctrinate desired social values, these taboo sexual elements are presented ambiguously. Various magical devices became a shorthand for erotic desire. In the first chapter, the author defines the "literalized folktale" as a genre with unique conventions, and suggests that folklorists, anthropologist, eth nologists, and psychoanalysts are mistaken in regarding it as unselfconscious art. Though the narrator of the folktale, in both its literary and oral forms, pretends naivete, commenting neither on the emotional content nor the sig nificance of experiences central figures undergo, McGlathery contends that folktales are complex, sophisticated works of art that reward literary prob ing. McGlathery's own interpretations are based on careful study of the texts themselves, of a European folkloric tradition going back to the Middle, Ages, and of the literary and social cultures of given periods and countries. One of McGlathery's most provocative observations is that those fairy tale characters who have become integral to twentieth century American popular culture reflect our own era's notions of appropriate gender roles. Among the Grimms' heroines, Cinderella, Snow White, and Sleeping Beauty are remarkable for their extreme passivity during courtship; yet they are more familiar to us than the more numerous ladies who aggressively pursue the bachelors of their choice. Similarly, McGlathery speculates, twentieth cen tury Americans ignore the many folktales involving young men who seek to avoid marriage, because we resist the idea that heterosexual males are either indifferent to women or have fears about their own sexual performance.

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SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 7997 39 Despite an interesting subject, Fairy Tale Romance is drier than it needs to be. While McGlathery exhorts folklorists to move beyond merely classifying motifs, his own mode of examining the folktale is to create a taxonomy of stock relationship and character types. The first three chapters are devoted to erotic symbolism in relationships: "Brothers and Sisters," "Beauties and Beasts," "Fathers and Daughters." The three following chapters examine stock characters of particular ages, sexes, and marital status: "Hags, Witches, and Fairies"; "Fetching Maidens and True Brides"; and "Bridegrooms and Bachelors." This organizational principle means that the discussion of any given tale is spread throughout the book. In each chapter, MCGlathery sum marizes only those plot elements that pertain to the character under discussion. It is frustrating to the generalist that the author assumes familiarity, not merely with the stories of Cinderella, Rumpelstiltskin and Rapunzel, but with lesser known tales as well. McGlathery's approach to his material is cautious and oddly uninvolved. The tone of Fairy Tale Romance is strikingly at odds with the passionate polemics of feminist critics, who maintain that the fairy tale's inflexible gen der roles cripple young women. While the Freudian approach to child de velopment that informs The Uses of Enchantment seems dated today, one wishes, nevertheless, that McGlathery shared Bettelheim's passionate belief that what we read has profound social and psychological consequences. Although he evenhandedly cites feminists, Freudians and other critics with strongly held critical biases, McGlathery has no critical ax of his own to grind, a circumstance that is at once a strength and a weakness of this scholarly work. Wendy Bousfield A New Standard Critical Biography of Boris Karloff Nollen, Scott Allen. Boris Karloff: A Critical Account of His Screen, Stage, Radio, Television, and Recording Work. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, May 1991. xiv + 473 p. $39.95. 0-89950-580-5. Two significant studies on Boris Karloff appeared in the 1970s: Cynthia Lindsay's Dear Boris: The Life of William Henry Pratt a.k.a. Boris Karloff and Paul M. Jensen's Boris Karloff and His Films. Although these books make important contributions to our appreciation and understanding of Karloff's career, both are more or less critically inadequate. Lindsay, who assumes no scholarly pretenses, offers us a popular biography, but we learn more about Lindsay from her entertaining work than we care to know because of her familiar manner. Jensen furnishes us with considerable insight and some

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40 SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 7997 scholarship, yet we must wonder what else he could have included in his book, because it seems less than satisfactory. Such accusations cannot be made against Scott Allen Nollen's Boris Karloff: A Critical Account, which now replaces Jensen's study as the standard critical biography of Karloff. Nollen points out that no "serious examination of all of Karloff's best work in the horror genre" exists. He then endeavors to provide us with a comprehensive discussion, "a sound historical and critical analysis," of Karloff's major stage and screen achievements. Nollen is successful because he discusses the theatrical, cinematic, and other artistic accomplishments of Karloff with insight, sensitivity, and intelligence. Nollen uses the accepted principles of modern biography, and he sympathetically examines his sub ject without mean derision or blind adoration. Even though he suggests that Karloff is the auteur of his works, Nollen consistently acknowledges the necessary implications of collaboration. This is a significant book for students of the cinema and its genre of terror. It is a book to be read again and again. Nollen's study contains a foreword by Ray Bradbury that praises Karloff's cinematic appeal. An extensive chronological discussion of Karloff's creative efforts is the primary concern of Nollen, and he appropriately directs our attention to the major works of his subject in the genre of terror. Of spe cial note are the chapters that consider Frankenstein, Bride of Frankenstein, Son of Frankenstein, the productions by Val Lewton (The Body Snatcher, Isle of the Dead, Bedlam), and Targets, which are particularly worthwhile because of their criticism. Each chapter begins with a narrative summary of the work or works under consideration, followed by a critical commentary. This repetitive strudure is, however, tediously predictable, because Nollen elects a chronological rather than a thematic discussion. The book also includes useful scholarly apparatuses which contain a wealth of information. The filmography is excellent, being more detailed, thus more helpful, than that provided by Lindsay or Jensen. Furthermore, Nollen provides appendices which list Karloff's appearances on stage, tele vision, radio, and recording. This material is new, and valuable information, contributing to our knowledge of Karloff's works. The book concludes with the appropriate notes, bibliography, and index. The index contains a few annoying errors. This is an important book and a major research tool for students of film and especially for those who are interested in the genre of terror. Highly recommended. james E. Hicks

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SFRA News/etter, 191, October 199 1 41 Extensive Revision of Introduction to Brown Ringe, Donald. Charles Brockden Brown. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1991. xii + 141 p. $22.95. 0-8057-7606-0. TUSAS 98. Charles Brockden Brown is more interesting and fun to read than one might expect of a minor, relatively unknown eighteenth century American novelist who pumped out six novels in four years at the end of the century as a small episode in a short and active public life. Donald Ringe rightly characterizes these novels as uneven in qual ity and somewhat rough, and notes that they might be dismissed as derivative from such better known English contemporaries as Radcliffe and Godwin. However, especially in Wieland (1798) and Edgar Huntly (1799), Brown produced exciting, read able novels that presented themes, explored potential story-telling tech niques, especially for the psychological exploration of the characters, adapted established conventions, especially those of Gothic fiction, to American materials, and introduced American materials-all of which would prove influential in the development of American fiction. Brown's influence can be traced through Cooper, Poe, Hawthorne, Melville, James, and Twain, just to name a few. While it would be exciting had Ringe radically revised his view of Brown since the first edition of this study appeared in 1965, on the whole Ringe's judgments and interpretations have not changed very much. Ringe has re vised the first book extensively. His work during three decades on Brown's younger contemporaries and on his book, American Gothic: Imagination and Reason in Nineteenth-Century Fiction (1982), has seasoned and enriched his understanding of Brown. He has reviewed recent criticism and includes an updated bibliography, but he still draws support for his readings mainly from the same sources he used in the first volume. One negative result of this approach to revision is that the reader does not learn how Ringe might re spond to recent interpreters of Wieland, for example, who would argue that the lack of closure is not a flaw but a necessity of its implied world viewsee for example my own discussion in The Delights of Terror (1987). Ringe continues to use as a standard of judgment an idea of closure that seems inappropriate after more recent studies of Gothic fiction. Ringe's book remains, nevertheless, an excellent introduction to Charles Brockden Brown, with solid and rich information about Brown's career, thoughtful and well-informed interpretations of his major works, and a useful bibl iography. Terry Heller

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42 SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 Fan Magazine Interviews Weaver, Tom. Science Fiction Stars and Horror Heroes: Interviews With Actors, Directors, Producers and Writers of the 1940s through 1960s. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, May 1991. xiii + 448 p. $35. 0-89950-594-5. This collection of interviews "previously published in abridged form" in the fan magazines Fangoria, Starlog and Filmfax is very similar to Weaver's Interviews with B Science Fiction and Horror Movie Makers (McFarland, 1988, $29.95). Of the twenty-eight interviewees, only three (actresses Kim Hunter and Janet Leigh and writer Richard Matheson) are well-known for work outside the field of B-movies or television. Weaver is a very knowledgeable interviewer who has not only seen all the films but has read all previous print accounts. The interviews are highly anecdotal; the producers and directors generally offer more interesting information than the actors on how the films were made. Weaver usually spends only a page or two on each film, although he takes two pages to discuss the classic Carnival of Souls (1962) with its director Herk Harvey. The films range from Lost Horizon (1937) to The Slime People (1962). Most interviewees are cheerful about their work in low-budget films, but some of the actors claim they were hurt by their B-movie experience. Most have pleasant memories of their co workers, although several are bitter about cheapskate Roger Corman-and especially about the absence of medical personnel at his locations. Writer Robb White calls director William Castle "absolutely the coldest, most ruth less con man I ever met" and Matheson disparages every icon in sightCorman, George Romero, Barbara Steele, Hammer, AlP and even Edgar Allan Poe. The book is thoroughly indexed and includes dozens of black and white illustrations, mostly posed publicity shots rather than film stills. Besides their moderate value to the study of genre film history, Weaver's interviews are quite entertaining. He fishes for funny stories and has caught dozens of them. Acquanetta, even more immodest than Matheson, asserts that she was a quality actress, that she would have been a big star if she had not scorned the casting couch-and that she is pyschic. It's great to find that Phyllis Coates is as feisty and full of wisecracks as her Lois Lane character on TV's Superman. For good-sized film collections and anyone who ever wondered what kind of articles lurk between all the gory pictures in Fangoria. Michael Klossner

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 43 Suspect Saint Williams, Charles. Letters to La/age: The Letters of Charles Williams to Lois Lang-Sims, ed. Lois Lang-Sims, intro. Glen Cavaliero. Kent, Ohio: Kent State Univ. Press, 1990. 89 p. $16.50 pb. 0-87338-398-2. Interspersed with the editorial commentaries of Lois Lang-Sims, these letters between the older, established writer and the young reader who ques tioned his views of idealized love reveal his perverse and troubled inner life. She was troubled by the exclusion of individuality implicit in the complete objectification of the "other" that permeated his work. In the spirit of inquiry, Lalage's letter initiated this correspondence; in the spirit of despair she ended it by rejecting the role allotted her by Williams, that of the slave girl Lalage, subservient to his Taliessin the court poet. As cribed this role in Williams' personal mythology at an early point in their relationship, she then found herself undergoing a gradual process of depersonalization of the kind that she had questioned. Increasingly, "Lalage" replaced Lang-Sims, and the slave girl was subject to Williams' discipline, increaSingly the subject of the letters, and in their infrequent meetings manifested in erotic beatings. The letters alternate between the subject of Divine Love, and Lalage's role as page/schoolgirl/highness. It is an unpleasant mixture, the more so as the allegorical power relations of the mythology paralleled those of reality. However, there were carrots laid beside the stick. To the heady excitement of correspondence with an admired writer, Williams could also give advice and help to her own aspiring career. On behalf of Oxford University Press he accepted her children's book for a reading. Of course, after her rejection of "Lalage" her ms. was returned, and we assume that for the Bosworth Pro fessor of AnglO-Saxon she ceased to exist -had never really existed. Reading this small volume brings two questions to mind. Is it mislead ing to accept Lalage and Taliessin as proper examples of a creative, divinely inspired relationship, and why has Lois Lang-Sims eventually published these letters and commentaries? Far from being divinely inspired, the relationship was one of power and exploitation. The decision to publish the letters may be justified as being essential to "a just assessment of the man as he really was." Lang-Sims' autobiography, A Time to be Born, with its "incomplete and restrained account" of the relationship between the two was "almost unanimously condemned." The decision to publish his letters after 46 years is a courageous one. They do indeed show the man "as he really was," particularly as Lang-Sims notes that her relationship with him was one of a series that served to stimulate his creativity; one pities the "Lalages" and others who did not speak out, however late. This book will also act as a

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44 SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 warning to young women caught up in the nimbus of someone "akin to a saint" -who can use his power to force upon them a false and destructive relationship. The introduction by Glen Cavalerio discusses the literary psychology of Williams, and places it in context with that of his contemporary John Cowper Powys, though defending Williams "remarkably little interest in the actual daily concerns of his correspondent" as being part of "a priestly function." Lang-Sims in her foreword introduces the mutual acquaintances of the man who drove her to the brink of physical and mental breakdown and whom she yet calls "a great human being and something akin to a saint." The judgment on Charles Williams comes from his letters, not from the words of others, and few who read them will be prepared to grant sainthood to this sinner. Nan Bowman Albinski SUPPORT THE SCHOLAR'S SUPPORT FUND

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 RECRUIT A FRIEND FOR THE SFRA Fiction: Implications for the Future 45 April, Jean-Pierre. Berlin-Bangkok. Montreal: Editions Logiques, 1989, 341 p.2-89381-009-8. Published the year before the wall fell, this meandering modern love story predicts the reunification of Germany. The action moves back and forth between a near future, super technological Berlin and a Thailand which remains on the cutting edge of erotic merchandising. The hero is a burned out junior executive of a multinational pharmaceu tical corporation whose career is threatened after twenty years by a myste rious breakdown. The company prescribes marriage as the treatment for his condition. This union is to be arranged through the cybernetic interface of his own extensively catalogued psychological profile and the ample inven tory of eligible Tai women.

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46 SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 The female lead has survived a childhood of poverty and abuse to carve out a successful career as a Bangkok prostitute. When she pops up on the screen, love at first Sight ensues. The marriage is soon consummated through the assistance of a chemically designed elixir of love under development by Deutsch Drug. Our hero's employer leads a Consortium which is apparently attempt ing to wrest political control of love and marriage away from the Church and State. The novel ends with a good humored affirmation of the two individuals. They attain at least a momentary union of their own not programmed, or pharmaceutically induced, by any outside center of authority. Fictional values are not as well handled in this novel as the ideas. Only the two main characters are at all well developed. The internal logic of the plot is not tight, and it is advanced too often through abstract description, too seldom through action and dialogue. Finally, the absence of AIDs as a fac tor in this vision of the future of eroticism might be considered a thematic defect. Nevertheless, what April has accomplished here is considerable. Ber lin-Bangkok provides a brilliant analysis of the possible future effects of in formation and pharmaceutical science on our most personal concerns. It explores the implications of control by the technological West of the means of reproduction, as well as the means of production, in the third world. Steve Lehman Impressive Labor of Love Ashley, Mike,ed. The Pendragon Chronicles. NY: Peter Bedrick, 1990,417 p. $18.95 hc. 0-872-26335-5. In the English-speaking world, there are no legends so strong as those of King Arthur and Camelot. Robin Hood might get an honorable mention at best, but definitely he lacks the power and resonance of the King. The Pendragon Chronicles is a collection of short Arthurian fiction, of a consistently high quality. Equally important, it presents the full scope of the variations on the Arthur legend, and the numerous interpretations of them. In fact, one friend borrowed my copy of the anthology and, upon returning it, complained that it did not adequately present the "real" Arthur. But, as The Pendragon Chronicles show, they all can be the real Arthur. Mike Ashley provides short but excellent introductions to each selection, clearly establishing its place in the Arthurian scheme. Furthermore, he in cludes a Dramatis Personae of major characters, including alternate spellings and roles. Finally, at the end of the book there is an extensive bibliography of Arthurian fiction.

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SFRA News/etter, 797, October 7997 47 This book is obviously a labor of love, and the results are very impres sive. Moreover, it is a sterling example of discriminating editing, and the anthologist'S art. james P. Werbaneth Magic Surrealism Barthelme, Donald. The King. NY: Harper & Row, 1990, 158p. $16.95 hb. 0-060-195-7. At its best, Donald Barthelme's fiction always flaunted a hyperbolic re ality closer to the heart of science fiction than that of most of its genre prac titioners. His clean, spare style scraped away complexities until little more than the nerve ends of a situation would be displayed, and these he would tickle for our delectation. The result would be an otherworldly look at our world, illuminated surrealism, and the heady sense of eavesdropping on bodiless voices from other dimensions. Barthelme's conceits are very much on display in The King, his last-and his most accessible and probably greatest-novel. The King is Arthur himself, strung with the cares of fighting World War II and the ceaseless machi nations of the whole legendary crowd: Guinevere, Mordred, Launcelot, and a veritable rainbow of colored Knights: socialist Red, melancholy Blue, multi-talented Black (seemingly the inspiration for Morgan Freeman in Robin Hood-Prince of Thieves). The war is going badly, Ezra Pound and Lord Haw-Haw broadcast daily descriptions of Guinevere's indiscretions, and the King can't quite get the hang of this newfangled parliamentary government. A new Grail is needed and an unseen Merlin magically drops hints to propose one-the atomic bomb. Though it sometimes threatens to turn into a one-joke book, The King is constantly being redeemed by its vividness, its flashes of mordant wit (one does not wear brown armor on a black horse), and the depth of compassion Barthelme shows for his characters (lobsters, Arthur notes, are the only things most people kill with their own hands in the modern world). Fresh life is pumped into the rather wooden stereotypes Arthur and his court are wont to become in modern dress. Remarkably for a book told entirely in dialog (except for a few expository sentence fragments), the whole vast troupe takes on three-dimensional life. Think of it as a prose play, right down to the Greek chorus of peasants commenting on the actions of the nobles. Barthelme's theme is the anachronism of knightly virtues and peccadillos in the modern world of excess and it gives nothing away to say that at the book's climax Arthur rips up the equations for the bomb. Not sporting, you

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48 SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1997 know. Arthur, too, we sense, will soon cease his extraordinarily long life, there being no place for him in our world, our world being the poorer for it. The King is Barthelme's elegy as well. We will never see another like him. With superb wood engravings by Barry Moser. Steve Carper Shades of Real Life Bear, Greg. Heads. NY: St. Martin's Press, September 1991. 125 p. $14.95 he. 0-312-06367-9. Illus. by Fred Gambino. When Mickey Sandoval's sister Rho buys a bunch of frozen heads and brings them to the Moon, she thinks only of the scientific possibilities: she thinks she can read the information stored in the heads' brains, though re viving them is not yet scientifically possible. And two of the heads belong to their ancestors, so the Sandovals are personally interested. Neither Mickey nor Rho has any idea that this innocent purchase would throw the entire Moon into chaos. Their family becomes the target of a power struggle and witch hunt as various Earth groups pressure the Sandovals to return the heads to Earth. But who is influencing these groups, prompting them to make their accusations? It's not until they discover that one of the heads is that of K. D. Thierry, the founder of the Logology religion (a powerful religious force on the Moon), that they begin to understand what the fuss is about. Thierry had himself frozen; he did not ascend into heaven as religious myth has it. Af ter Mickey learns what Thierry's last thoughts were, his suspicions are con firmed: Thierry was a fake. The Logologists's leaders don't want that gener ally known, and apparently will go to great lengths to get the heads out of their hands. Bear writes a story of politics, betrayal, and religious and scientific zeal-and it's also a darn good read. The combination of hard science and well-drawn characters works well. It's also a coming-of-age story for the main character, Mickey Sandoval. This book doesn't have a particularly happy ending; Bear works with the complexities he created in the book instead of smoothing them out at the end. On the jacket cover, Locus is quoted as saying, "Heads deserves to sweep all the awards." Locus is right. Karen Hellekson

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 7991 49 Well-Shaped First Novel Blair, John. A Landscape of Darkness. NY: Del Rey/Ballantine, 1990, 247p. $3.95 pb. 0-345-36517-8. A Landscape of Darkness is a well-shaped, carefully styled first novel that shows the writer's background as a poet. In it, a mercenary soldier named John Clay (the symbolism of the initials is a bit blatant foreshadowing his later role as savior) is shanghaied into investigating a superweapon used on a low tech planet. The Eurasian colonials who inhabit the planet could not have developed such a sophisticated weapon. Clay and his team are tracked by a yamabushi warrior who is possessed by a raging passion to kill for honor. The yamabushi succeeds in slaying two members of Clay's team, but Clay ultimately defeats him and discovers that an alien born with a twisted body has control of machinery that allows him to rule the minds of the planet and destroy at whim. The alien adopts the persona of the Shinto war-god Hashiman, so that those who kill and die at the alien's instigation, in Hashiman's name, identify their demonic possession with religious fervor. Blair's characterization merits praise. Though the plot at times resembles a pulp war novel or a novel of martial arts trial, the hero is at all times com plex. For him, the death of a warrior is tragic but honorable, yet he refuses to drag civilian innocents into the slaughter. At the end of the novel, he discovers that his career as a soldier of fortune can come to an end, because he has fulfilled his purpose in life by neutralizing the Hashiman/alien. Greene, the female mercenary, is also well drawn, although at times her macha-woman image suggests a cliche from the movie Alien. The seasoned veteran, Rankin, adds a touch of fatalism, like an old soldier in Macbeth or Lear. The Yamabushi, Tind, is a frightening yet pitiful slave of hate. Even the Hashiman/alien has a personality and a history that explains his venge ful bitterness, though Blair never makes it clear whether the alien is really a human--else why does he choose a human god as his emblem? Blair's plan etary settings are vividly drawn, although some details of planetary ecology seem inconsistent. Blair is a fine craftsman and stylist whose work throughout the novel is at least competent and at times highly suspenseful. This novel suggests a growing talent; his next novel should be one to watch for. Mary Turzillo Brizzi

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50 SFRA News/etter, 191, October 1991 Fantasy Meets Reality Cohen, Jon. Max Lakeman and the Beautiful Stranger. NY: Warner Books, March 1990, 21 Op. $16.95 hb. 0-446-51533-7. Mainstream and genre are not merely publishing categories: they are states of mind. Dan Simmons' Phases of Gravity had no sf content, yet was immedi ately recognizable as a genre product. Max Lakeman has distinct fantasy ele ments yet couldn't possibly be accepted as genre. It's simply told differently. For many people, the pleasures of mainstream lie in the texture and reality of the world and people portrayed, the denseness of detail and insight into be havior that lies behind what is referred to as three-dimensional charaderization. Jon Cohen understands this and has worked hard to create that most pleasurable of protagonists, the ordinary person-next-door with the quirks, crochets, contra didions, and contentiousness of the people in our own lives. Max Lakeman's eponymous hero is a family man and a dreamer, a home town boy who is con tent to luxuriate in the everyday excellence of mowing lawns and maintaining his machines without letting his narrow confines squeeze him into shallowness. He has a nurse wife with whom he is very much in love, two believable children, doting parents and a life whose history is bound up in his every present day adion. Cohen eases us into Max's life with wit and imagination and all goes fine. At first. Then the fantasy element enters. A numinous redhead appears to Max, lit erally out of nowhere, a perfed woman we eventually learn has been conjured out of Max's imagination because of emotional needs that are nowhere evident in the detailed pidure of Max's inner life that is the first half of the book. The woman-a Mrs. Zeno, yet-is a fantasy: the ideal woman fantasy that is the embodiment of the standard male mid-life crises, taken diredly out of a therapy session's notes. As a device, the fantasy works to the extent that it is reductive, stripping away all the complications of real-life liaisons. But once Mrs. Zeno seduces Max the book loses its special aura and becomes just another novel about adultery. And Cohen has nothing more to say about the subject than that cheating hurts the other spouse and you can only hope to earn forgiveness and be taken back. In the end Max Lakeman remains a mainstream novel, albeit one that has interesting things to say about the power and the necessity of imagination. It is also a first novel of uncommon narrative ability, characters with edges and corners, and compassion for the everyday lives that the vast majority of us live. It has none of genre's strengths, none of the special illumination of aspects of re ality that only genre can provide. But to quote that wise master, Van Morrison, "What you gain on the hobby-horses, you lose on the swings." Max Lakeman's hobby horses are worth the ride. Steve Carper

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SFRA News/etter, 797, October 7997 57 The Education of a Supervillain Dickson, Gordon R. Young Bleys. NY: TOR Books, April 1991. 456 p. $19.95 he. 0-312-93130-1. As everyone in the SF community knows, Gordon Dickson has been de veloping his Childe Cycle of novels since the 1950's. In this complex "fu ture history," humanity has spread out among the stars, colonizing sixteen inhabitable worlds, each with its own distinct culture, of which the most important are the "Splinter cultures/' the militaristic Dorsai, the narrowly religious Friendlies, and the mentalist Exotics. As the series draws to a close, humanity is on the verge of mutating into a superior new species-that is, if genetically groomed hero Hal Mayne is not defeated by his equally tal ented enemy Bleys Ahrens. To the main novels of the cycle, Dickson has added a group of subsidiary novels such as Lost Dorsai. Young Bleys, a sort of "prequel" to his previous novel, The Final Encyclopedia, is one of these, an attempt to explain how the villain got the way he is. Accordingly we follow Bleys Ahrens' life from the time he is eleven and escapes from his mother by deliberately insulting her so that she will send him away until his early twenties and his takeover of his brother Dahno's secret organization. Unlike most of Dickson's novels, which are enjoyable on their own, young Bleys does not make much sense without the other books. Important things happen offstage, such as the childhood traumas and abandonments of Bleys' first eleven years with a selfish, unloving mother which make it impossible for him to trust or feel close to other people. The genetic back ground of his father, a central matter for a mixed-breed superman, is ignored. The relevance of his years on his Uncle Henry's impoverished farm and his search for God is entirely unexplained. As a result, Bleys does not become a believable character. Too much of the book is spent on flat summaries instead of well-realized scenes, as if Dickson hadn't bothered to flesh them out. At one point, for example, we are told that Bleys realizes he is "attrac tive to women." How could he know when (except for a couple of faceless secretaries) there haven't been any in the story up to that point? Other scenes run on much longer than necessary; Dickson devotes more than fifty pages to a detailed account of Bleys' infiltration of an opposing organization-a minor plot development that could have been handled in a paragraph. The end of the book is meaningless unless one has read The Final Encyclopedia. The writing also shows more carelessness than I remember from Dickson's earlier books, although some of the incomplete sentences and so forth may be the result of poor editing. The style is stiff, with an unconvincing narra tive voice. Unlike earlier novels, which if not well-written were filled with exciting scenes, this one makes dull reading. One wonders if Young Bleys

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52 SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 was not constructed from outtakes left from earlier drafts of The Final Ency clopedia, interesting as part of Dickson's overall vision but not really shaped into a novel with an independent existence. Hard core Dickson fans will want this novel for the insight it provides into Bleys' character-others can pass it by. Lynn F. Williams Psychologically Complex Novel Edelman, Scott. The Gift. NY: Space and Time, July 1990, 187p. S7.95 trade pb.0-917-05308-7. Scott Edelman is author of several film scripts and numerous short stories published in science fiction and fantasy. He published and edited Last Wave, a respected magazine of experimental fiction. He has also been a columnist. Typically, Edelman's fiction has been quirky and disquieting. His psychologi cal horror has frequently been too off-beat for the science fiction prozines, but he has received acclaim for his small press stories. The Gift is his first novel. It was a nominee for the 1991 Lambda Literary Awards for Gay Men's Science Fiction/Fantasy. In The Gift, Peter, a painter, and Joseph, a novelist, are lovers. They purchase a mysterious old house near a town of bigots who persecute them for their sexual orientation and their connection with the house. Soon they discover that their house was once owned by a vampire, Jeremy Thorpe, who sleeps nearby with a stake through his heart. After some conflict, Peter liberates the vampire, who offers them both eternal life as vampires. The catch is that they will lose their creative powers. When Peter is beaten to death by the townspeople, Joseph pleads with the vampire to restore him to life. The question is whether Joseph, too, will accept this unholy gift. The Gift is not, really, a conventional vampire novel. It is a psychological novel showing the narrator's agonized conflict as he chooses between love and art. The horror/dark fantasy setting is a necessary premise, but it is not the point of the novel. As with Edelman's short fiction, exploration of psychological states and choices and the damage done by humans to each other through their interaction-these are the point. Edelman's gay couple is depicted sympathetically and without a hint of stereotype. Peter and Joseph are believable, fundamentally normal people, destroyed by a twisted society and offered a twisted choice to save their lives and love. Because of its unconventional treatment of the themes of creativity, love, and immortality, this novel will draw greatly varying responses. Edelman's complex themes flourish in the longer form. This first novel suggests that subsequent work will be well worth reading. Mary Turzillo Brizzi

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 53 Daemonic Possession Gideon, John. Greely's Cove. NY: Berkeley, March 1991.422 p. $4.95 pb. 0-151-508-2. All humans must dream, say the dream specialists; yet, in Greely's Cove, to dream is a horror that may bring people closer and closer to death or something worse than death. Here, the Giver of Dreams is the flesh-eating demon, Anubis-Anubis, who seeks another human entity to serve him at the time that he will.awaken and procreate. Destined before his birth to be such a slave is Jeremy, the autistic son of the divorced Lorna and Carl Trosper. Jeremy, who had been cared for by his artist mother for thirteen years is now miraculously cured by a mysterious clinical psychologist, Dr. Hadrian Craslowe, early revealed to be a steward to Anubis. Yet, the Giver of Dreams could not mask his evil, and all who come close to Jeremy sense something wrong. First, his mother Lorna inexplicably, commits suicide. Then his father Carl, laden with guilt for having been repelled by the child and therefore abandoning his wife and child, returns to Greely'S Cove. He soon begins to believe Jeremy may have some connection to the mysterious disappearances that are occurring. Lindsay Moreland, Lorna's sister; Hannie Hazelford, a white witch and Lorna's best friend; and Stu Bromton, the po lice chief and one of Carl's oldest friends all sense the evil emanating from Jeremy. Even a forensic psychic, Robinson Sparhawk, called in to help, must force himself to stay. They fear that Robinson's psychic powers, Hannie's magic, Stu's determination, and Lindsay's and Carl's love for Jeremy may not be enough to save Jeremy and all of Greely'S Cove from the evil will of the Giver of Dreams. Greely'S Cove could have moved a little faster. I appreciated the welldeveloped main characters. I particularly liked being forced to change my appraisal several times about whether or not certain secondary character were in the thrall of Anubis. What I resented were Gideon's detailed descrip tions of superfluous minor characters and of trivial daily activities that slowed my reading of this lengthy horror novel. Indeed, I had to exert great control not to skip sentences and paragraphs in my desire to unravel the mysteries especially to learn whether good or evil would be the winner. I certainly didn't want to miss any of the passages that vividly portray human sacrifice, cannibalism, or necrophilia in this exquisitely horrifying, thought-provoking, and totally satisfying novel. Messina Villano

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54 SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 Still Wacky After All These Years Goulart, Ron. Skyrocket Steele Conquers the Universe and Other Media Tales. Eugene, OR: Pulphouse Publishing, August 1990. 100 p. $4.95 pb, $25.00 hc, $50.00 signed leather he. Author's Choice Monthly, Issue 11. In his introduction to Skyrocket Steele Ron Goulart confesses that he "didn't even make an effort to choose [hisl favorite stories" for this collection. Indeed, such an effort would have been largely a waste of time. Goulart has published some 200 pieces of short fiction and more than 100 novels, and his genre work at least is all rernarkably of a piece. The author also refers to himself as "earn ing [hislliving as a hack writer," and a look at his bibliography gives some cre dence to this, especially when one considers the three Battlestar Galactica novels, the six Vampirella books, the three Flash Gordon novels and the three Laverne and Shirley novelizations published under his Con Steffanson pseudonym, the dozen or so Avenger books written as Keith Robeson, and so on. The thing is, though, Goulart's huge productivity, although partly arising out of a need to pay the bills, is also the result of an enormously fertile imagination. Although he has produced little science fiction that will achieve classic status, just about all of his work is highly readable. Goulart remains one of our genre's most successful and enduring humorists. The five stories appearing in Skyrocket Steele have two things in common. All are previously unreprinted and, as the book's subtitle states, all are in some sense "media tales." That is their protagonists are involved in movies, television, or advertising. Two of the stories, "Hello from Hollywood" and "Groucho," are fantasies concerning characters who, having reached the level of their incompe tence, ala the Peter Principle, need supernatural help to stay on top. In the former story, a TV executive with a knack for picking winning shows must call up the ghost of a noted Hollywood gossip columrlist to help him with scheduling. In the latter a hack TV writer can't make it without his recently deceased partner and also resorts to raising the dead. In "Street Magic" yet another hack, a nov elist this time, finds hirnself under a curse after he gives a bad but honest review to a bestselling novel. The two stories in the collection that I liked best, however, are both science fiction. "Skyrocket Steele Conquers the Universe" is based on the old rumor that Erroll Flynn was a Nazi spy. Yet another of Goulart's hack writers, while work ing on the script for a Captain Videolike serial, accidentally uncovers the reason why the acting of Hollywood superstar Shawn Glory has been so mechanical of late and foils a plot to replace Franklin Roosevelt with a Nazi-controlled dupli, cate. In "Crusoe in New York" a novelist has an unnerving run in with a mys terious young woman who knows the smallest details about his life and has read virtually all of his books, even some he hasn't published yet. Although not as memorable as some of the other entries in Pulphouse's Author's Choice series, Skyrocket Steele is an enjoyable read and should appeal to Goulart's many fans. Michael M. Levy

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SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 7997 55 More Work Needed Greenberg, Martin and Charles G. Waugh, eds. Cults of Horror. NY: Daw, August 1990, 350 p. $4.50 pb. 0-886-77437-3. Editing an anthology is not as easy as it might look. Anyone can fill the space between the front and back covers with material; the real task is to make selections that maintain a level of consistency and coherence through out. Greenberg and Waugh fail to do this with Cults of Horror, a confused mishmash of stories supposedly dealing with cults, diabolical and otherwise. Actually, it seems that the only criterion for inclusion is that a story just mentions a cult. For example, Edward Wellen's excellent "Overkill" deals with a national lottery in which the winner gets to kill the victim of his or her choice. As it happens, the first target just happens to be a cult leader. Though a well-written and provocative treatment of legally-sanctioned mur der, .a familiar theme, "Overkill" has no business being selected for Cults of Horror. Though the book is billed as a horror anthology, this and too many other installments are not horror stories, even by the loosest definition of the term. Perhaps the best, and most appropriate, story is "Sticks" by Karl Edward Wagner, a piece of hardcore horror with the heavy Lovecraftian influence expected in Wagner's work. It is distinguished by both a novel and thor oughly spooky treatment of evil art, and an excellent ending. Another highlight is Jack London's story "The Red One." This concerns a traveler stranded on the (then) obscure island of Guadalcanal, where the natives worship a strange, unearthly artifact. London's examination of the stark alienness, between cultures and the human and alien, is again similar to Lovecraft. On the other hand, "The Red One" is dated by an unabashedly racist portrayal of the islanders as apelike and, at best semi-human, which surely distracts the modern reader. Thus Cult of Horrot's problems do not lie in bad fiction, just fiction that does not really belong. This might have been diminished had the editors used introductory notes to establish the appropriateness of their choices, but they did not see fit to do this. The only supporting material is a short, sen sationalist and superficial introduction of Frank D. McSherry, Jr., which does not support the book at all. Therefore the stories are left to fend for them selves, and that is too bad. James P. Werbaneth

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56 SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 A New Deverry Novel Kerr, Katherine. A Time of Exile: A Novel of the Westlands. NY: Doubleday, A Foundation Book, 1991. 434 p. $12.95 pb. 0-385-41463-3. liThe fifth novel of Deverry," according to its dust jacket, should be read only by readers of the previous four. In this, they will pick up the tale of Rhodry Maelwaedd thirty years after he became Gwerbret Aberwyn, and of Jill, his lover who left him to study magery with Neryn. Half-elven Rhodry's failure to age is about to pose a problem of succession and stability for his country. The actions taken to prevent a crisis make up the prologue and epilogue to the book and assure readers they will learn more about the two major characters in succeeding volumes. The body of A Time of Exile is about Aderyn, Neryn's first pupil, as Wise Man for the elves of Westland. However much a new Kerr reader may enjoy her depiction of a Celtic society in the era of sword and bow, he is likely to be confused by the lack of clear connection between the stories of Rhodry and Jill and of Aderyn, by the many characters who enter and leave the Aderyn story and by the ratio nale of the transmigration of souls that is an integral part of that story. Kerr's characters are believable within the framework she has created, and all readers will appreciate this, even though the new reader will not grasp the past history of the characters or see the wider tapestry Kerr is weav ing. In her previous Deverry books, she has dealt almost entirely with the human half of the world. Now she is moving her action into the unhuman or fairy half, and the transitional volume, while meaningful to a long-time reader, may not satisfy the first-time one. Best he waits for the sixth Deverry book to pick up the story then. Deverry fans, read and enjoy! Paula M. Strain Formulas at Work King, Stephen. Four Past Midnight. NY: Viking, 1990. 763p. $22.95 he. 0670-83538-2. King's latest book is a four-pack of novellas, noodlings during what he intended to be a vacation from writing. King's introductions to each story explain how a phrase or an image caught his fancy and started developing, reaching deeper and turning darker .... No surprises there; the pleasure is in seeing how much freshness King can bring to these casual exercises. "The Langoliers" has a terrific opening-a few passengers on a late-night air trip awakening to discover that they're alone; everyone else on the plane has vanished in mid-flight and it's full of the solid, convincing details that King always uses effectively. As the story goes on, though, it gets sillier and sillier, winding up as the equivalent of one of those energetic but brain-dead

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SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 7997 57 sf-horror flicks from the 50's. Maybe King wants to direct another movie; this would make a fitting successor to Maximum Overdrive. "Secret Window, Secret Garden" is a lot more restrained and effective. It made me uncomfortable enough to stop reading for a couple of weeks. The story shows a successful writer haunted by John Shooter, a stranger who accuses him of plagiarism and demands Justice. It feels like a sidebar to The Dark Half, but in some ways it's a better version of that tale. In the novel, the relationship between the hero and the murderous character he had created in his writing is clear to readers before the characters catch on; in the novella, we grope along with King's main character as he tries to figure out how his nemesis Shooter can be almost omniscient and omnipotent. The action's explanation/resolution is a little flat, as such things often are, but this still is a skillfully disquieting work. "The Library Policeman" describes a man pursued by a kind of fear-vampire who poses as a small town librarian so she can terrorize her patrons. As a story, it falls somewhere between the first two. It's definitely cinematic in form, like "The Langoliers," but it's less of an FIX show. On the other hand, like "Secret" it mingles interior and exterior horrors, though other people can see the things that menace the hero. The real horror here lurks in suppressed childhood memory, in essence the memory of being a child and feeling helpless at the mercy of mysterious, adult forces. The symbols King finds for that dread may seem trivial at first, but the feeling is real. "The Sun Dog" is probably the most successful story in the book. It's not that the gimmick-a Possessed camera that produces a sequence of snapshots of the same attacking demon dog-is any more imposing, hut this story features one of King's patented adolescents, sensitive, responsible, and al together more "mature" than the grownups around him. It also helps that this story has a believable human antagonist in sly, homespun Old Pop Merrill, who tricks and manipulates the characters for his own ends. (Note to those curious about the difference between sf and fantasy: If this were a Heinlein story, Pop Merrill would be the hero.) This one lingers in memory. King is an immensely skillful writer. He is a pleasure to read, and it's interesting to watch his characters continue to grapple with the questions that began disturbing us as adolescents-Where do I belong? What can I do? Unfortunately, most of what King does so well in these novellas-tapping the concerns, developing the characters, etc. was done just as well in his earlier works. A reader becomes aware of formulas at work in this collection. Granted, they are formulas that King developed or at least remade into his own; they still are formulas. Well done as these stories are, they don't feel as surprising and exciting as King's earlier work. Joe Sanders

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58 SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 7997 All Mage Mysteries Explained Lackey, Mercedes. Magic's Promise. NY: DAW Books, 1990. 320p. $4.50. _Magic's Price. NY: DAW Books. 1990. 350 p. $4.50. Each volume of The Last Herald-Mage series opens from ten to a dozen years after the preceding volume, and follows a few months or years of Vanyel Ashkevron's career as Herald and Mage in Valdemar, some centu ries before Lackey's other tales of that country. Magic's Promise opens with Vanyel, now one of the limited circle of Herald-Mages who guard Valdemar's borders, preparing to go on a long postponed visit to his family. His brief tragic romance with Tylendril in Magic's Pawn has left him bitterly lonely for a decade. Book Two is prima rily about his home leave, in which he wins the respect and acceptance of most of those he considered his enemies in Book One, though his father still rejects Van's homosexuality. Van is tempted by and rejects two potential adolescent lovershis bastard nephew Medren and the unhappy Tashir, suspected mass murderer and heir to a border territory disputed by a neigh boring ruler who uses magery in his attempt at conquest. Magic's Price finds Vanyel holding even greater responsibilities for Valdemar and being the object of seduction by the young Bard Stefan. How Vanyel comes to accepts a lifebond with Stef and how Van's father finally comes to terms with Van's lifestyle and openly returns his love are the ma jor events, though not the climax, of this volume. Lackey has focused on Vanyel's personal story in "The Last Herald Mage" series rather than on the conflict between good and bad magic, though that is also included in the plotting. She concentrates so strongly on Vanyel, his honor, and his emotional needs that she fails to develop fully his relations with other major characters, such as his aunt Savin. While magery and the blue-eyed Companions have their place in both of these volumes, it is not first place. There are different wicked mages in both. Vedric uses magic to win Tashir's little country in Magic's Promise. The briefly-on-stage "Master Dark" in Magic's Price may be the villain be hind the villains of Books One and Two but we are given little evidence on the point. Some readers will be disappointed by the reduced part of magic in the novels. This trilogy explains most of the mysteries of Valdemar which appeared in her earlier Heralds of Valdemar and Vows and Honor series. The Hawkbrothers of The Oathbound have parts in all three volumes of this tril ogy. We also get to see Vows and Honors kyree at home and to meet a female shaman of the tribe. The guarding net that lets all Heralds share in stantaneous knowledge of the fate of any Herald and the method which

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 59 keeps foreign mages out of Valdemar are created by Vanyel in Magic's Price. Even how the Forest of "Sorrows" came to be is explained. Some of us think Valdemar was more interesting when its mysteries were not shown plain; other readers will not share that regret. Valdemar fans will enjoy all three books. Paula M. Strain Children of Icarus Leinster, Murray. The Forgotten Planet. NY: Carroll & Graf, 1990. 209 p. $4.95.0-88184-616-3. Murray Leinster's The Forgotten Planet was published in serial form in pulp magazines from 1920 to 1953. This places it early in Leinster's career which ran from his first publication in 1919 to his death in 1975. In that time, he won the Hugo award for the novelette "Exploration Team" and had one of his stories admitted to the Science Fiction Hall of Fame. This com pilation, though dated in places and bearing many marks of its original pub lishing form, still remains a pleasant reading experience and in addition gives insight into the roots of science fiction. This is the story of the planet that has no name. In the human race's reach into space their probe ships searched out and marked planets for pos sible terra-forming procedures. The first ship to visit the planet, the Tethys, makes out a card for the planet (a sign of the pre-micro computer network writing of this book) earmarking it for terra-forming. The process is begun, and we are quickly sped through many centuries of development, until a card lost during the transfer of files from one planet to another causes the planet -still unnamed-to be forgotten, its terra-forming incomplete. The higher forms of life are never delivered to prey upon the insects and vegeta tion originally deposited and they grow unchecked to gargantuan propor tions. Now enter human kind once again when the spaceliner Icarus crashes near by and life boats set its crew down on this named Edenic Hell. Seeking only to survive in this horrid landscape inhabited by spiders three times a man's size, the crew of the Icarus devolves down almost to the level of animals and is nearly wiped out. Several generations later the few descen dants of the survivors of the Icarus are living beneath the giant mushrooms hunted by hundreds of insects. They have become little better than animals. They have forgotten culture, technology, and even that they come from a better place, and they probably would have remained so if one of their tribe, Burl, had not had an inspiration. He makes a spear, and so begins cultural evolution anew.

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60 SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 The story shows many signs of its episodic production. The chapters all follow about the same pattern; resolution of the problem set up in the pre vious chapter followed by setting up a cliffhanger problem to be solved in the following chapter. Though this occasionally distracts the reader from the flow of the novel, it works as a whole because of Leinster's masterful use of tension and suspense. He also maintains interest with thrilling action se quences. The story is the second evolution of man, showing our resilience even under the worst of circumstances. Though there are many scientific and sociological questions left unanswered, one should enjoy this book if sl he suspends disbelief an extra stretch. Thom Dunn Undead to Die For McMahan, Jeffrey N. Vampires Anonymous. Boston: Alyson Publications, (40 Plympton St.) May 1991,253 p. $8.95 pb. 155583-183-4. The first time I started Vampires Anonymous, I only managed about 20 pages before deciding that I had better things to do; I reluctantly began it again a couple of weeks later because this review was due and damned if I didn't find myself reading a really good book this time. The trouble with Vampires Anonymous-what tripped me up on the first reading-is that, like Andrew-the-Vampire who is its central character, it is sometimes just too cute for its own good. Fortunately, both Andrew and this book are more than just good-looking; both have more depth than they're sometimes willing to admit, as well as a certain penchant for witty lines that are frequently-although not always-right on the mark. Alyson Publications is a gay press based in Boston, who have published, among other books, Worlds Apart, a collection of science-fiction stories which explore alternative sexualities. Andrew-the-Vampire, like all his friends-and all his enemies-is part of the gay nightlife of a small college town in California. McMahan first introduced him in a short-story collection, Somewhere in the Niqht, which won a Lambda Literary Award in 1990 and, now, as they say, Andrew is back. Vampires Anonymous, as the name suggests, is a self-help group which meets regularly in an abandoned church-"Hello, my name is Pablo, and I'm a vampire." All, however, is not as innocent as it seems at first, and Andrew, ever the skeptic, and not one to indulge in self-imposed fasts, soon finds himself involved in a sinister plot to destroy-not just to reform-the local fly-by-nights. Things get even more complicated when Andrew's nem esis, Stephen-Old-Boy, ex-bartender turned maniac vampire hunter, and his reluctant partner, Eddie Cramer, boy-in-cop's-clothing, suddenly turn up-

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 61 literally after Andrew's head. Somewhere in all the confusion, Andrew also finds himself playing designated father to baby-bat Ryan, as well as being the amorous target of hunky undead John Studnika, familiarly known as "the Stud." When Andrew and his friends transform themselves into giant bats and take to the skies, "cruising" takes on a whole new meaning. Believe it or not, the whole thing works. Everyone is handsome to die for, Ryan is too cute for words, and it seems as if no one, certainly not An drew, can resist comments like "Another bat wings an unusually straightpardon the expression-line after me." But as the plot thickens, the main characters come to life-pardon the expression-and so does the book. There's enough action to keep the pace up, enough sex and violence to sat isfy most readers, and just enough existential angst to give things an edge. McMahan also draws some very neat parallels between the various kinds of otherness portrayed in Vampires Anonymous, not least through his depiction of an organization whose method of "curing" vampires is to destroy them. And he manages to do this without losing the light touch which gives the book so much of its character, which is no mean feat. As I hope I have made clear by now, I strongly recommend this book. Veronica Hollinger Fine Magazine/Anthology Hybrid Rusch, Kristine Kathryn. Pulphouse, The Hardback Magazine. Issue 8 (Sum mer 1990). Eugene, OR: Pulphouse Publishing, 1990. 243 p. $20.00 trade; $60.00 leather/signed. Editor Kristine Kathryn Rusch and publisher Dean Wesley Smith call the Pulphouse volumes magazines, but they really have more of the feel of an thologies. Perhaps its the sheer quantity of fiction included, perhaps its Rusch's penchant for choosing stories that work together thematically. Maybe I'm simply being influenced by the series' qual ity hardcover construc tion. The February 1991 Locus contains that magazine'S "Recommended Reading List" for 1990. Oddly, although Charlie Brown and company rec ommended Issues 7 and 9 of Pulphouse devoted to horror fiction and dark fantasy respectively, Issue 8, centering on science fiction, wasn't mentioned. The other two volumes may be stronger (I haven't read number 9 so I can't say for sure), but Pulphouse 8 contains quite a few fine stories and deserved to make the list. It also graphically illustrates why the versatile Ms. Rusch was an excellent choice for the editorship of The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction.

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62 SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 7997 In general the best fiction in Pulphouse 8 is on the quiet side. The stories tend to be understated, ambiguous, lacking in pyrotechnics. Typical of Rusch's taste is Patricia Anthony's "Lunch with Daddy," the story of a middle-aged woman attempting to come to terms with her famous diplomat father. Esteemed by his government, the man was nonetheless a domestic tyrant, physically abusing both his wife and daughter. Now, however grow ing old, he has undergone an operation in which much of his brain has been replaced by a microchip. Although still recognizably himself, the father has lost most of his emotions. Nothing seems to remain but a kind of absent minded wistfulness. His daughter, who has never recovered from the emo tional scars of her childhood, still finds herself unable to understand him. The narrator of Jonathan Lethem's liThe Buff" is similarly embittered by his past. Resurrected through means unknown at the Bar at the End of Time, he finds himself in the company of aliens from a number of different planets. One of his non-human barmates, it turns out, is an afficionado of 1960's Americana, none of which he ever gets quite right, all of which he trivializes. The story is likely to have a powerful effect on any sixties-generation person who has recently been weirded out by teenaged-Grateful Dead fans with peace symbol earrings and no first-hand memory of the war in Viet Nam. Also particularly successful are: Greg Egan's liThe Moral Virologist," in which a fundamentalist Christian scientist decides to go AIDs one better; Charles de Lint's "A Tattoo on Her Heart," which concerns the backfiring of a repressive government's attempt at mind control; Jack McDevitt's lilt's a Long Way to Alpha Centauri," a very unusual twist on the old kidnapped by aliens idea; Jane Yolen's hilarious fictional essay "Creationism: An Illustrated Lecture in Two Parts"; and the very powerful liThe Forbidden Words of Margeret A." by L. Timmel Duchamp, in which a television reporter achieves her life's ambition by gaining an interview with a political prisoner whose every word has been banned by the government. Other solid contributions to Pulphouse 8 come from Kif Johnson, the presumably pseudononymous P.M.S. Faught, Paul Di Filippo, Thomas F. Monteleone, R. Garcia Robertson, George Alec Effinger, S. A. Stolnack, and S.P. Somtow (the former Somtow Sucharitkul). The volume also includes an introduction by editor Rusch and Jon Gustafson's column liThe Gimlet Eye Returns," which discusses sf magazine illustration in the 1920's and 30's. Although Pulphouse 8 may not be quite the equal of the year's best major-press sf anthologies, Universe I, for example or Alien Sex it sets a higher standard than one is likely to find in any single issue of AnaloB, Fantasy and Science Fiction or perhaps, even Asimov's. Operating on only slightly more than a shoestring, Kristine Kathryn Rusch and the Pulphouse Publishing folks have done a great job, both with this volume and with the series. Michael M. Levy

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SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 7991 63 Elves, Elves, Everywhere Thompson, Paul B. and Tony R. Carter. Firstborn. Lake Geneva, WI: TSR, February 1991. 305p. $4.95 pb. 1-56076-051-6. [Dragon Lance SagafThe Elven Nations Trilogy: Vol. 1.1 "They both shall wear crowns" is the prophecy about twin brothers, Sithas and Kith-Kanan, princes of the Elven House of Silvanesti. Sithas, the firstborn,concerns himself with politics and the opulence of the elven court, while Kith-Kana, the younger, is forced to face the reality of the outside world and the well-being of all the people. Once, as close as twins could possi bly be, the brothers' relationship has been breech ed, never to be mended: the cause of their rift, their common love for a beautiful but manipulative elven girl. When Kith-Kanan spurns elven law, he is exiled. Consumed with anger and loss, he flees to the woods to deal with his personal tragedy. Though he later returns, he is no longer comfortable with the elven ways at court. Meanwhile Sithas rules. Then, when their father, the king, dies, KithKana is given command of a legion consisting of Elves, Dwarves and Humans in an attempt to quell tension on the elven borders. At court, Sithas half hopes his brother will perish doing his duty, thus ending the many ten sions felt. Firstborn relates to another trilogy in the Dragon Lance world, the fantasy world begun in the Dragon Lance Chronicles. The earlier stories tell of the lives of the elves before the split of the elven house, of the wars between brothers and between and among the elves, humans, dwarves, and other races who participated in that segment of history-always a struggle for peace in a world of strife. The forecast now is that the present time in Silvanesti, with its focal point on the twin princes, will affect the outcome of the continuing battle between good and evil. Kith-Kanan must not die in battle. The prophecy must be fulfilled. Although the Drayon Lance stories have become commercialized into board games not unlike Dungeons and Dragons, the novel Firstborn is a fresh, engaging, fascinating tale in itself, as are all the others in the related series. Firstborn particularly brings to life the elven race and their loves, hates, and internal conflicts. Untouched by the outside world, the reader is brought into the action, becomes part of the chronicle. Young and old alike will enjoy this high fantasy so unlike the many repetitious fantasy novels on the market today. If you enjoyed anyone of the earlier Dragon Lance nov els, then Firstborn is a "must read." If you have never read any, then get started. Jenne Zsarko

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64 SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 7991 Arthropods With a Prime Directive Von Gunden, Kenneth. StarSpawn. NY: Ace, Jan. 1990. 250 p. $3.95. 0441-46992-2. Because there has been so much published in the fields of Fantasy and Science Fiction, it is extremely hard to find a novel that is totally original. Kenneth Von Gunden's Starspawn may not seem original at first glance. There are the old fantasy cliches of the chivalric knight and the fire-breath ing dragon, and science fiction's favorite alien archetypes, the insect-race and the parasitic-spore race. The innovative and intricate mixture of these elements, and the original characteristics they display make StarSpawn an original, cI iche-transcending read. The Rz'uwlians are a space-faring race of intelligent insects. They travel via warp drive from planet to planet gathering specimens for their research and observation. The Queen, as with many species of Earth insects, is the supreme leader of the hive, and all males are workers. Rz'uwlians begin in a larval stage and evolve to higher stations as needed by the hive. They in stantly conjure up the image of the creatures from Alien and for that reason inspire at first the reader's fear. This story, however, takes many cliches in new directions-the aliens turn out to be explorers and zenobiologists with strict rules never to interfere with the evolutionary processes of an intelligent species. Their involvement in the story and the lives of its characters is due only to accident and extreme necessity. Another old feature in SF given new emphasis in StarSpawn are the Jinui. We have seen their like in Star Trek, Invasion of the Body Snatchers, and countless other stories featuring the mind-controlling, parasitic, self-propa gating, invasive, life form bent on universal conquest. Of all the familiar characters of this story, they are the only ones true to their nature. They begin their conquest by escaping from the Rz'uwlian ship while it is set down in medieval England for repairs, taking with them other creatures that escape into myth and legend. Their plan is a good one-but they do not count on their host being a chivalric knight! Morrough, one of our representatives from typical fantasy literature, is a chivalric knight of some considerable skill; he has fought in the Crusades at the side of King Richard the lionhearted. When he is invaded by a parasite who tries to placate him by activating his pleasure centers, he sees it obviously as the work of Satan. This mixing of genres helps make this book a success. The Jinui are unprepared for a race for whom the feeling of pleasure is sinful. They have always used their manipulative ability over the nerve impulses of the brain to bring any protest against their bodily invasion under control, but Morrough, who sees himself as demonically possessed, will not stand for it.

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 65 Many such original scenes make the book work. Moreover, the story is new and the characters are handled well; we begin to care for the plight of the RZ'uwlian Captain, who has a strong burden of guilt and a deep concern for the "primitive" people of this (our) planet. We also get an insight inside the mind of the parasite, something we find rarely in Invasion. .. The Captain's ethical problem may remind one of the symbiotic burden in Hal Clement's classic, Needle, whose care for all Earth creatures puts our own gluttonous nature to shame. Thorn Dunn A Worthy Sequel Weis, Margaret. King's Test. NY: Bantam, April 1991,450 p. $4.59 pb. 0553-28907-1. (Star of the Guardians, 11.) Intrigue and illusion continue in this second volume of the story of Dion Starfire, legitimate heir to a galactic empire and focus of a convoluted struggle to overthrow a corrupt republ ic. The story picks up where The Lost King (1990) left off, with the Warlord Derek Sagan and the Lady Maigrey Morianna, last of the Guardians pledged to the emperor still vying for con trol over Dion and still ambivalently attracted to and distrustful of one an other. To consolidate their power, Sagan and Maigrey each independently seek a universe-rending space rotation bomb being held by interstellar arms dealer Snaga Ohme. Also in pursuit of this ultimate weapon is Abdiel the mind-seizer, commander of a formidable army of zombies and the real power behind the current galactic government. Meanwhile Dion Starfire himself attempts to move out of the shadow of his elders and put his own powers to the test. Weis keeps her large cast of characters moving throughout a fast-paced plot, but also takes the time to flesh out their strengths and weaknesses, desires and fears. She continues to develop her complex characterizations of Sagan, Maigrey, and Starfire and never flinches from portraying the dark sides of their personalities. One need not be familiar with The Lost King to enjoy this sequel, but both volumes are skillfully written and thoroughly entertaining, space opera at its best. Start at the beginning, then wait with anticipation for the comple tion of the trilogy. Agatha Taormina

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66 SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 7997 Human Superman Wilson, Robert Charles. The Divide. NY: Doubleday Foundation, January 1990, 249p. $19.95 hb. 0-385-24947-0, pb. 385-26655-3. Bantam Spectra Special Editions are about the only guarantee of literate and literary science fiction that the field has in paperback these days. Wilson's first two novels debuted in that line and his current appearance in hardcovers only acknowledges his worth. The Divide is still solidly literate, with the usual small cast of driven and quirky characters, all of whom seem on a perpetual quest for a lost piece of their souls. John Shaw is 25 and not completely human. His RNA was tampered with in the womb in an attempt to produce a superior human being. He is smarter in every way intelligence can be measured, competent at reading people's faces to the point of telepathy, capable of beating a weight-lifting thug to a pulp. He is not quite sane. He is dying. The cliches of the superman among us are many and Wilson is certainly aware of his predecessors, to the point of making puns on Stapledon's Odd John. In sf, an author can ride with the cliches, and assure himself an au dience, or subvert them, and create art. Wilson throws the cliches in our faces. John is both created and creator, superman and everyman, driven and pursued. John's dual lives start at an early age. His scientist "father," Max Kyriakides, fecklessly gives the five-year-old John up when his government funded experiment is terminated. But John quickly receives a foster father, a man so frightened by and furious at John's abilities that the boy creates Benjamin, a secondary personality of surpassing gentleness and ordinariness. Long abandoned, Benjamin is now beginning to reassert himself, possibly a symptom of John's impending death. The book's plot turns around the people enmeshed in the lead character's two lives. Susan, troubled by her feelings for her own dead father; Amelie, the woman who lives with Benjamin, though not John; Roch, Amelie's brother, as much an alien in the normal world as John. And Max himself, seeking to expiate his guilt for abandoning the boy he created. Quiet and introspective, the novel will not appeal to those who must have noisy daring-do in their leisure reading. For others, the book will capture their attention from the opening and portentous lines, "Such an ordinary house. Such an ordinary beginning." The Divide is in no way ordinary. Steve Carper

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 67 SF Mystery Thriller Womack, jack. Heathern. NY: TOR, 1990,215 p. $16.95 he. 0-312-85078-6. In an author's note at the end of jack Womack's Heathern, he recom mends going on to read Ambient (1987) and Terraplane (1989) in that order. He explains that he is writing a six-part "ensemble" of related works in the same extrapolated future. The next volume will be Elvissey. Heathern is set in New York City in the late 1990s. The main world economies and political orders have collapsed, falling to the control of giant multinationals. Thatcher Dryden and his wife, Susie, having amassed tremendous wealth and power in the illegal drug trade, have taken advantage of this chaos to create one of these corporations. In Terraplane, which takes place about half-a-century later, essentially two rival megacorporations remain vying for world control. In Heathern, Dryden's Dryco owns or con trols all the power structures in the Americas. New York City is a microcosm of this world, policed by the army, cowed by poverty and by manufactured interurban warfare and terror into accepting Dryco rule through a puppet government. The novel is structured as a mystery thriller. The narrator and main character, joanna, is Dryden's mistress and one of his top assistants. Hav ing followed her talent and ambition into Dryco, she has become increas ingly horrified at Dryden's mad, brilliant viciousness, and is trying to find a way to escape these entanglements. Her growing awareness and her search for escape are complicated by an assignment to bring into the company and cultivate Lester Macaffrey, a man who has begun performing inexplicable miracles on the Lower East Side. Dryden believes a messiah might be use ful to the corporation. Womack weaves these elements into the story of Dryden's scheming to extend his power and to remove real, potential, and imaginary rivals. At the center of this power conflict is Dryden's plot to gain computer technology from the japanese, whom he hates, without giving up any real advantage in their rivalry. In Heathern, Womack is fairly successful at making some of his characters interesting. Thatcher Dryden and his associates are mainly caricatures of the twisted, the vile, and the ruthless-drug lords as rulers. The relation ship between Lester and joanna is developed enough that readers are likely to care about them. Further, they represent the only remnant of traditional morality that seems connected with any kind of power, here the power of some sort of miraculous, perhaps divine intervention. This dark novel ends with a promise that a sufficient power may arise to oppose Dryden and his various counterparts. Terry Heller

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68 SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 Young Adult: Non-Fiction At the SFRA Conference in Denton, Texas, one of the discussion panels focused on young adult literature. Since this issue features that same topic, it seems appropriate that these critical commentaries open this Young Adult section. IBH. ed.J Walk Down the Y A Aisles Pike, Christopher. Witch. NY: Archway, December 1990. 225p. $3.50 pb. 0-671-69055-8. Regan, Dian Curtis. Jilly's Ghost. NY: Avon/Flare, October 1990. 137p. $2.95 pb. 0-380-75831-8. Klause, Annette Curtis. The Silver Kiss. NY: Delacorte, October 1990. 198p. $14.95hc. 0-385-30160-X. If you think that the way the proponents of splatterpunk and quiet hor ror often badmouth each other is depressing, consider the poor authors of those novels that bear the marketing tag of "Young Adult". Everybody dumps on them. Adult readers-and a lot of younger readers who don't want to seem uncool--consider them to be just kid's stuff. And yet, at least when it comes to fantasy, some of the stuff that appears as YA is so complex and mature I really wonder at the YA tag. Consider the intricacies of Diana Wynne Jones' Fire and Hemlock (1985), Margaret Mahy's The Tricksters (1986), Patricia A. McKillip's Stepping Through the Shadows (1982) and the like. Or, if the above titles are unfamiliar to you, how about Jonathan Carroll's The Land of Laughs (1990)? Can you bel ieve that it was originally marketed as a YA? But there you go: I'm just as guilty of preconception even while I'm try ing to tell you not to be. I cite the above as not part of the norm, but the exceptions. And perhaps they are exceptions, for they're certainly excep tional books, but then isn't that the case with the horror field in general? How many of all those books published each year would you really want to re read, or even read once? But I'm digressing. To get back to the point, I decided to pick a random selection of three YA horror novels just to see what exactly is happening with them. About the only preconception I was left with when I'd finished read ing them was that YA books tend to be shorter than adult ones and, probably due to the sheer economics of producing a shorter book, carry a cheaper cover price.

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SFRA News/etter, 191, October 1991 69 As I said above, I picked these books at random. What struck me first was just how well-written they were-the actual prose reads far more smoothly and carried far greater assurance than a great many of the adult horror novels I've started and not finished because the author just couldn't string words together in anything other than a leaden style. The second thing is that there's a fairly romantic bent to them, but this shouldn't be a surprise-nor is it as annoying as you might think. Consider: the characters of these books are usually teen-agers. Can you remember what one of the prime motivating factors of your teen-age years was? If you an swered, "the opposite sex", go to the head of the class. Let's face it, while we're going to (hopefully) continue to be attracted to our preferred kind of sexual partner throughout our lives, there's no other time than the teen-age years when it is such an all-consuming passion. The blossoming of sexuality is a confusing, frightening, exhilarating, wonderful, desperate time in our lives, so is it any wonder that the authors of VA books-to remain true to their youthful characters--concentrate on this aspect to such an extent? Within the context of the stories, it works. And it certainly creates be lievability. The surprise was how frankly sensual one of these books wasKlause's The Silver Kiss. My third expectation was that the preternatural elements of the books would be kind of hokey, or at least not so intense. But the authors of all three books played fair with such elements and in two cases that intensity was as vivid as anything in an adult horror novel, which leads us to my fourth ex pectation: that violence, or rather graphic depictions of violence, would be considerably played down in these books. Not so. But let's move away from generalities now and explore these titles individually: One of the principal protagonists of Christopher Pike's Witch is, as the title so simply states, a witch. Julia Florence is a good witch, however, ca pable of healing people and using water as a divining medium to view events that are happening anywhere else in the world. She does the latter in a lake near her home-but always in the sunlight; to do so in the moonlight is to beg from trouble. Naturally, admittedly by accident, Julia looks into the lake on a moon lit night and is shown a vision of the future in which an attractive stranger has been shot in a holdup and is, in the vision, dying in her arms. When later that same evening she joins her best friend Amy at a school football game, she discovers that Amy's new boyfriend Jim is the stranger from her vision. Disturbed by her attraction to him, and desperate to make sure that the events of her vision don't come true, she inadvertently makes things worse.

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70 SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 7997 The level of violence in this book's quite high-and totally relevant to the story, I might add. The suspense and action are pretty well non-stop, but even on that rollercoaster Pike takes time to explore other sides of his char acters. The romantic textures work very well, but what was especially inter esting was the exploration of responsibility with which both Julia and Amy must come to terms. Pike has written quite a few YA horror novels and also, according to a blurb at the back of this book, an adult novel called Sati, available from Pocket Books in hardcover. On the strength of Witch, I'll definitely be searching out more of his books. Jilly's Ghost by Dian Curtis Regan was more in keeping with my expec tations of a YA horror novel, although again it, too, was very well-written. Regan's somewhat spare prose carries the story forward with warmth and enthusiasm, her characters are engaging and readily accessible, and she plays the supernatural elements against a young teen-ager's normal concerns with a deft hand. Jilly Milford has had a ghost in her backyard for all of her fifteen years. When she was younger her parents listened to her talk about it with good humor, but when they started calling it her invisible friend, she realized she couldn't let people know about it because they'd think she was crazy. Only her best friend Amanda shares the secret. When the book opens, Jilly is more concerned with boys and getting her first kiss, than she is with her ghost. But then a weird boy moves in next door and it becomes a race between Jilly discovering why her ghost exists, and what she can do to help it, and the boy next door revealing its existence because he wants to see his name in the papers and be on TV. Regan resolves everything fairly and the book's a fine example of its kind, but of the three I looked at, the least likely to appeal to adult readers. Buy one for a young friend or your children. The Silver Kiss by Annette Curtis Klause, like Mahy's The Tricksters and the other titles mentioned at the beginning of this review, is one of those timeless books that will appeal to readers of any age. The prose is rich and evocative and she has that enviable a knack for understanding characters and translating them onto the page in such a way that we, too, can easily empa thize with them. Half the novel is from the viewpoint of Zoe, a young girl who is trying to come to grips with the fact that her mother is dying of cancer. Her life has I become chaotic. She wants things to be as they once were, but knows they can't. She wants to be with her mother, but is frightened in her presence. And her only confident, her best friend Lorraine, is moving, leaving her no one with whom to share her grief and confusion.

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 71 The other half of novel is the viewpoint of a boy with white hair named Simon that Zoe meets in a park one night. As their relationship develops, Zoe soon realizes that he has as troubled a past as is her present. He's also a vampire. Troubled youth are a staple of YA books, but rarely have they been handled with such aplomb. The concerns of Klause's characters are imme diate and touching, but she never steps over the line into melodrama. For all the innocence of the romance between Zoe and Simon, their interaction is charged with sensuality, due in no so small part to Klause's deft handling of vampire lore. The few violent moments are startling in their intensitysometimes more for what's implied, at other times graphically "on screen." There are no easy answers in The Silver Kiss, and no pat solutions, but Klause still leaves the reader with an edifying understanding that resonates and lingers on long after the book is done, something that's rarely found in fiction, YA or adult. The next time the adult section of the bookstore seems a little stultifying, you might want to take a walk down to where they keep the YA books. I know I'll be back to explore it some more myself. Charles de Lint Major Children's Writer Levy, Michael. Natalie Babbitt. Boston: Twayne Publishers, TUSAS 573, 1991. xv + 135 p. $24.95, 0-8050-7612-5. This first book-length study of a major children's writer is a little like the work of Natalie Babbitt herself: there isn't much of it but what there is is good enough to leave you wanting more. The limitations of Twayne's format leave only 121 pages of text in which to examine both the author's life and work. In the case of Babbitt, that work includes illustrations as well as stories, and a fair bit of critical writing as well. Michael Levy lays down clear outlines for an examination of Babbitt's career, but does not fill them in as fully as he is undoubtedly able to. For biographical information, Levy is fortunate enough to have not only the cooperation of the subject herself, but also an unpubl ished autobio graphical sketch to draw upon. Like most writers, Babbitt has led a life of interior, rather than exterior, events. The details sketched by Levy include no violent conflicts, no extremes of wealth or deprivation, no burning am bitions or overt oppression. Reading between the lines, one might see a pattern of quiet resistance to the cultural demands made on middle-class women in the 1950s and '60s. Women of Babbitt's generation (she was born in 1932) did not establish themselves as artists without some kind of fight, but the route she took through first illustrating and then writing books for

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72 SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 7991 children was less an overt ad of rebellion than setting herself up as a painter or poet would have been. It may be that a single author study like this one is insufficient to demonstrate the pattern, but the career Levy describes in dicates that one could look at Babbitt in conjunction with other writers and illustrators active in approximately the same period, like Elizabeth Enright, Eleanor Cameron, and Ellen Raskin, to see what sort of strategies and insights develop among people who are asked to see themselves as wives and mothers first, artists only secondarily and in non-threatening venues, and yet who manage to produce strikingly original, demanding creations like Babbitt's Tuck Everlasting. In examining the fiction, Levy has more to work with than he does with the biographical detail. Since Babbitt's output has been sparse, he is able to examine each of her books in some detail, and argues convincingly for both continuity and growth from Dick Foote and the Shark (1967) to Herbert Rowbarge (1982). In her half dozen novels and handful of shorter tales, Babbitt offers the reader a blend of gentle humor, memorable characters, and intriguingly ambiguous moral dilemmas. The growth is largely a matter of giving the characters and their situations increasing resonance, without ever forcing them into conventional dramatic postures. Levy analyzes each story in terms of an ethical choice made by the protagonist, which provides a coherent framework for analysis but does not fully account for the sense of deeper implication present in Babbitt's stories. Perhaps only an extended examination of her language could account for this sense that there is always more to the story than can be pinned down on any page, or perhaps it is simply indefinable. Levy makes several useful observations along the way, each of which could, in a longer study, be developed into a major thesis. One is that Bab bitt is paradoxically the proponent of happy endings in children's literature and at the same time the perpetrator of some of its most troubling conclu sions. Another is that Babbitt's work tends toward the fantastic because of her conception of truth as something subjective, a compromise between unquestioning acceptance and blind denial. A final insight is that Babbitt, like Lucy Boston, Philippa Pearce, and Mary Norton, has been helping to create a tradition of fantasy that does not depend on "moral oversimplifica tion, wish fulfillment endings, and the use of violence to resolve difficulties.' This alternative tradition, which Levy follows Anita Moss in calling pastoral fantasy, instead makes use of circumscribed, isolated settings in which simple actions undertaken with quiet courage and compassion are the stuff of heroism. Levy's study is not the final word on this intriguing writer, but it is a competent beginning. Any student of children's literature and most readers of fantasy will find it worth consulting. Brian Attebery

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1 991 73 Literature for a Savage Tribe Lurie, Alison. Don't Tefl the Grown-Ups; Why Kids Love the Books They Do. NY: Avon Books. 229 p. $9.95. 0-380-71402-7. When a famous writer of mainstream adult fiction decides to share some thoughts on children's literature, she usually finds a respectful audience. The chapters of Lurie's book come largely from her lectures at Cornell Univer sity and from articles she published in Children's Literature and New York Review of Books. Though Lurie, as always, is a lively writer who shares witty and perceptive observations, adults familiar with children's books are not as likely to be startled and shocked by the material presented as she seems to think they will be. In fact, if there is a fault with the book it is its certain triteness, its man ner of presenting the evident as if it were a startling discovery. That children are "a savage tribe" who like as much sensationalism in their books as folk of other age groups should come as no surprise to those who work with young people. It is also apparent that the most successful children's books have always risen above the sentimentality and didacticism toward which the genre is prone. Mark Twain, Beatrix Potter and Evelyn Nesbit especially come to the minds of both Lurie and ourselves. And didn't we all know that a major appeal of the much maligned Nancy Drew was her freedom to carry a revolver and prowl country paths in her roadster without supervision. Children's literature is subversive both because children themselves are born rebels and because adults have sometimes not taken their literature seriously enough to be concerned about its messages. Most of the writers Lurie treats are British. Her discussions of Kate Greenaway and James Barrie are espeCially good. What she says about Frances Hodgson Burnett and Beatrix Potter is well worth hearing again. Though others have made similar observations, nobody has stated them more clearly and effectively. More praise for J.R.R. Tolkein is to be expected and, one supposes, continued commendation of A.A. Milne is unavoidable. Yet Lurie knows children's books, and she has the further advantage of un derstanding adult fiction as well. She makes appropriate comparisons of juvenile classics to the works of Henry James and Toni Morrison, though she modestly excludes her own fine fiction from any of these discussions. She also knows what popular culture-Mad magazine, Spider Man, the series books-is all about. Her insight into the art of children's illustration and acknowledgement of its importance adds even more credibility. The social contexts of fiction, whether juvenile or adult, are crucial. Victorian, Edwardian, and our own times are pleasingly elucidated by the works Lurie discusses. Her concluding chapter on liThe Folklore of Child-

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74 SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 hood," which presents in condensed form much material that can be other wise found in much longer studies, is alone worth the price of the book, as they always say. There is one more very important thing that Alison Lurie knows. She knows why many adults value children's books, purchase and explore them with children, or may even, without juvenile supervision, become closet readers. All in all, Lurie provides a stimulating discussion (in sixteen chap ters, with notes, bibliography, and index), essential for libraries and a sound addition to personal collections. The privilege of interacting on the subject of "kiddy lit" with one so bright and successful is much to be welcomed. Allene Phy-Olsen Challenging Essays on Children's Fiction Rees, David. What 00 oraculas Do? Essays on Contemporary Writers of Fiction for Children and Young Adults? Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1990. xii + 248 p. $27.50. 0-8108-2320-9. David Rees's third book of essays on fiction for children and young adults is meant to be a companion volume to his previous two, The Marble in the Water and Painted Desert, Green Shade, and like them it is actually a book of essays. Rees does not offer a carefully researched critical volume with numerous references and a long bibliography; in fact, his most-often quoted secondary source is Twentieth Century Children's Writers (St. Martin's, 1978). And when he does refer to that source or others, he provides no page references. What Rees does give the reader are his interpretations, and, more important, his opinions. On occasion, Rees's opinions are stated quite forcefully. "Madeleine L'Engle all too often sounds like a Sunday school teacher, not a novelist," or Maurice Sendak's Where the Wild Things Are is quite simply, the best pic ture book ever published." Throughout, he chastises writers and publishers for being unable or unwilling to deal realistically with intimate teenage relationships, homosexual and heterosexual, and the reading public for not being open to such materials. In a few situations, Rees's logic leaves something to be desired. His comment that William Mayne is "much more liked by critics than by chil dren" is based on "a recent check ... through the shelves of two libraries." Two libraries is a very small statistical sample, and the books there are bought by adults (who, presumably, would have read some of that favorable criticism). Moreover, he sometimes gets carried away in his attempts to show how much some writers have borrowed. He suggests, for example, that Roald Dahl borrowed "human beans" from Mary Norton when, in fact, each

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 75 could have been drawing separately on the folk speech of children whose folklore has contained "human beans" for generations. Rees discusses fifteen authors-including himself-ranging from the well-known (e.g. Maurice Sendak and Roald Dahl) to some less well-known (e.g. Ivan Southall) to American readers. I have to give this book a mixed recommendation. Rees is certainly challenging and interesting, and he comments on a very broad range of modern fiction for children and adults. He does, however, have his own agenda, and the opinions contained in What 00 Dracu/as 00 are very definitely his own. c. W. SuI/ivan 11/ Young Adult: Fiction More Pigman Then Alchemist Bedard, Michael. Redwork. NY: Atheneum, 1990, 261p. $15.95 he. 0-68931622-4. As did this Canadian novelist's earlier fantasy for young adults, The Darker Magic (1987), Redwork just misses being a superior occult fantasy. There just isn't enough of the supernatural. A reader becomes interested in whether or not the fifteen-year-old protagonist, Cass Parry, will survive be ing harassed by the neighborhood gang, will keep his job when the head usher is jealous of him, will strengthen his relationship with his friend Maddy, and, most importantly, not be evicted from the second floor flat into which he and his irresponsible thesis-writing mother have just moved. The sexy Maria, the peculiar owner of the Palace theatre, even the tricycle-riding little girl who pays the gang for protection from "old man Maggots" are each clearly depicted. Yet. the rumors of black magic and witchery, the arcane material on Will iam Blake, the subject of Cass's mother's thesis, and the pull of the house itself are not thoroughly developed. Cass has an affinity for the strange old house. From the moment he saw it, it drew him. The ouroboros he finds in the closet of his room fits perfectly on the wall. His weird dreams in the house are less strange than the Pal ace theatre where both he and Maddy work or the behavior of the ninety year old Mr. Magnus, the landlord living in squalor on the first floor and sneaking out each night to the garage from whence black smoke rises out of the chimney. When Cass and Maddy begin investigating the nighttime activities of the gentle hermit-like Mr. Magnus, they conclude that he is searching for the

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76 SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1997 Philosopher's Stone. They help the old man in many ways, even saving his life and that of his pet bird, but, as we learn from Cass's reading a book on alchemy, a crucible is most dangerous in its concluding third stage, the Redwork stage. With all its potential, in this fantasy the conclusion is bland. Giovanna Nilo Parallel World Adventure Satisfies Blackwood, Gary L. Beyond the Door. NY: Atheneum, 1991, 166 p. $13.95 he. 0-689-31645-3. Imagine if you will, a typical small town, with typical small town kids, and typical small town features. Now imagine a world without technology, primitive by our standards. Then picture two similar people, each in his own world. Finally, see a massive portal between these two worlds through which the two may journey to meet and thus share the strong quest for knowledge they hold in common. Scott Shaffer is one of the two. He is transported to Gale'tin, a parallel world that co-exists in the gaps between the space and time that our Ea'rth occupies. Though much like Earth, Gale'tin lacks the technology of modern day science. Thus, when Scott meets Tomeas, a man so much like him self in his desire for knowledge, the two set out to modernize Tomeas's primitive society. Unfortunately, the people of Gale'tin are somewhat reluctant to receive all the wonderful conveniences. They are simple people who, in the past, had shunned Tomeas for attempting to advance civilization. Nonetheless, despite the wishes of the people, Tomeas and Scott travel back and forth from Earth to Gale'tin, bringing books to aid them in their experiments. Undaunted, the duo attempt to create, in a couple of weeks, what it has taken mankind hundreds of years to accomplish. The plot of the story can be confusing at times, but it is always entertain ing. Its added charm is the assumption that time is particulate in nature and that there are minute spaces within actual time. As a scientific principle this may be far-fetched, but it does present interesting possibilities. Certainly, any reader age twelve and up will find Beyond the Door satisfies a desire for adventure, and for young female readers, Blackwood has even provided a heroine. Anthony Pagliaroli

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SFRA News/etter, 191, October 1991 77 Colonizing <;:eti, / f ,t' / !I/ t (.0-Ii Caraker, Mary. The Faces of Ceti. Boston. 1991, 201 p. $14.95. We meet Maya Gort, aged 12, a gleeful stowaway on the first module to land the break-away colonists to the twin planets of a sun in the Tau Ceti system, but her story covers the first six years of the colony's existence. Her group of colonists chose the smaller planet, Ceti, which is in synchronous orbit with its sun. The first six years on Ceti have all the usual elements of the colonization of space story: the split between liberal experimenters and the conventional majority who inevitably adopt a patriarchal dictatorship; the discovery (in this, on both planets) of sentient inhabitants and the reaction of both sets of colonists; the pioneering problems of supply, of unfamiliar conditions, of having to change culture. The story ends with Maya planning a house with her fiance, after having helped solve the colony's major problem of food supply. The story and its heroine will delight its intended audience, the junior high girl with an interest in space, Its science is too unsophisticated for more experienced readers of science-fiction. Paula M. Strain Colorful Young Hero Cook Hugh. Wizard War Chronicles: Lords of the Sword. NY: ROC, March 1991, 272p. $3.99 pb. 0-451-45065-5. [Great Britain: Colin Smythe, 1988]. In a world where a trench offire is the only thing that protects the land from the monsters of the Swarms, a youth unknowingly shapes his destiny. Recently turned seventeen, Drake Douay is not entirely serious about his apprenticeship to a master swordsmith. He spends most of his time study ing his own religion: alcohol, gambling, and sex. These extracurricular ac tivities do get out of hand, and he is forced to leave his homeland-a crimi nal; yet, each differing and increasingly dangerous adventure furthers his becoming a hero. Hugh Cook has created a world populated with a cast of wonderfully colorful characters. Every individual young Drake encounters enhances the air of magic and wonder that permeates this stylish fantasy. From the primitives to a green-haired captain of a pirate ship to a purple-skinned mission ary prince, each being has a special flair and unique personality. Rich not only with atmosphere but also with the excitement of high adventure, Lords of the Sword holds a reader's attention. Drake says what he feels and acts as he wishes. The arrogance that ironically drags the young

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78 SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 7997 protagonist deeper and deeper into danger can be recognized by youthful readers who will easily identify with Drake; yet, all readers looking for ad venture will follow Drake happily as he travels from one end of his world to the other, exploring little traveled lands and performing swashbuckling he roics on the high seas. The novel ends with a cliffhanger. Where will Drake go from here? How will he survive? If he survives [and we can assume he will since "Chronicles" implies more than a single novel], what further adventures will he have? These are questions the many readers drawn into the novel will seek to have answered in the successive Wizard War Chronicles. Joseph Jeremias Endangered Cousins De Lint, Charles. The Dreaming Place. Illustrated by Brian Froud. NY: Atheneum, 1990, 138p. $14.95 he. 0-689-31571-6. By shifting dual points of view in alternating chapters, Charles De Lint has crafted a complex and engaging novel, one lovers of high fantasy of any age should read. Nina Caravallo's somewhat "hippie" parents, had brought Ashley Enys from England after the death of Ash's mother, expecting the high school-age girls to adjust to each other and become as sisters. Unfortunately, though daughters of twin mothers, and therefore genetically closer than cousins normally are, the two have been reluctant roommates for three years. They counterpoint each other. Ash deprecates Nina as "a good little suck ... little Miss Sunshine ... with her just-so hair and magazine outfits, her sappy music, and her perfect grades." Ash, herself, is always angry with an anger she admits she cannot control. She wears "tight faded jeans torn at the knees," a T-shirt with ragged arms, and a leather jacket. Her grades are "dismal," and her hair is like"a black lion's mane." In fact, the only person close to being Ash's friend is Cassie, a black fortune-telling street woman in her late twenties-totally unlike Nina's best friend, the charming, normal Chinese American Judy Woo. The heroines-and the secondary characters also-are presented in depth. Readers will recognize them on a stage, on the street, or even within themselves. What is happening is that Nina has been dreaming, both asleep and awake. She feels she is "some disembodied spirit riding shot-gun in an al ley-cat's head." She believes she's been hexed by Ash, who's been studying the occult with Cassie and her juju man, the shaman Bones-Bones a

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 79 full-blooded Kickaha, an Indian from the same Algonquin tribe to which Nina's grandmother on her father's side belonged. Nina dreams she is immured in a succession of animal bodies: a cat on a garbage pail in an alley down which she is still able to see her real self sitting on a bench; another time a wolf; a rabbit; and so on. The empathic reader experiences Nina's horror since De Lint, recognized as a poet as well as a novelist, almost al ways limns images rich in sensory detail. Sounds "break in [the] ear like brittle crystal." There are phrases like "the smell of the snow." And De Lint's strong sense of rhythm allows him to construct paragraphs contain ing but a single word. Never, however, fastidious a writer though he is, does he for malize normal young adult speech. The young people's talk includes such expressions as "gross," "hanging out." "come on to," and "chickenshit." The young speakers split infinitives and subjects and verbs don't always agree. Nina "would kill" to have skin like Judy's. The hyperbole confirms her youth. Also expressions such as "essential essence" are cleverly mimetic of the teen tendency toward tautology. Yet, perhaps De Lint's most extraordi nary gift is kinetic sensitivity. For example, Nina, while dreaming she is a sprawling rabbit, feels "disproportionate" in body, her "peripheral vision so broad she could almost see behind herself." Trying to move, she tumbles and falls because "her rear legs are too long, [her] front legs too short." The dreams originate from an ancient Kickaha earth and winter spirit who seeks to nourish herself through Nina-the malevolent spirit aided in drawing Nina into the otherworld by Ash's negative emotions-her "unac countable anger" that her mother died-that "Nina got all the breaks. Her parents love her." Thus, for Ash, the passage through danger and self-sac rifice to self-knowledge, confidence and love is central. Nina changes as well. It is indeed remarkable how much relevant and fascinating detail De Lint has packed into a mere 138 pages, and Brian Froud of Goblins and Faeries fame is the perfect illustrator for this volume in Atheneum's new Dragonflight Series. Paying attention to high fantasy's omnipresent theme of good and evil, Froud chose not to depict on the book jacket, the evil Ya-wautse but, instead, we see the mysterious Lusewen who journeys with Ash in the spirit land. The writing is balanced and beautiful; the story is intricate and satis fying. Sybil B. Langer

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80 SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 Routine Conclusion Eschbach, Lloyd Arthur. The Scroll of Lucifer. NY: Ballantine, 1990, 242p. $3.95 pb. 0-345-32465-X. Lloyd Arthur Eschbach concludes his Gates of Lucifer Tetralogy with The Scroll of Lucifer. Each of his previous volumes (The Land Beyond the Gate, The Armlet of the Gods, and The Sorceress of Scath) follows hero Alan MacDougall through a door in a mysterious ruined tower in the Scottish highlands into a mythic world. This time MacDougall enters Avilion, which is ruled by fallen angel Lucifer and his lieutenant, the sorcerer Ahriman. MacDougall is aided by the bard Taliesin, and by the gods Enki and Inanna, who are imprisoned in a magical armlet. MacDougall is guided to four cities, each resembling an earthly civilization, to learn a mystical skill from its resident Master. Lucifer plans for him to return to earth and facilitate the possession of world leaders by his hellish minions, thus establishing a kingdom of hell on earth. MacDougall must resist Lucifer's plots and temptations, save his lady love, and find the gate that will return him to earth. Unfortunately, The Scroll of Lucifer seems more like a role-play ing game than a novel: MacDougall gains allies, attains skill levels, etc. The testing he endures reinforces this, and makes much of the action fall flat: the phrases "you have passed your test" and "all will be revealed in good time" appear too often. Further, the male char acters all speak alike, whether they are human or mythic. Women characters are shallow; at one point Eschbach reduces a queen, a princess, and an oracle to dancing girls. I kept waiting for something unpredictable to happen but was dis appointed. The only interesting scene occurred in Lucifer's sinister forest, with its wraiths and shape-shifting statue. Eschbach's attempts to make the story politically relevant, via anti-drug, anti-abortion and anti-apartheid speechifying, is similarly ineffective. Eschbach is a seasoned professional, but this novel is thoroughly routine. Though The Scroll of Lucifer may perhaps appeal to adven ture gamers or adolescent fans of sorcery tales, I do not recommend it. Laurel Anderson Tryforos

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 Ghostly Magician Saves Orphan (Childrens) 81 Fleischman, Sid. The Midnight Horse. Illus. Peter Sis. NY: Greenwillow, 1990, 84 p. $12.95 he. 0-688-09441-4. Award winning author Sid Fleischman has written another charming fantasy to follow in the tradition of his Whipping Boy, a winner of the 1987 Newberry Medal. In sharp pell mell prose, The Midnight Horse, reminiscent of Kidnapped retells the Horatio Alger Jr. myth. Touch, the protagonist, is a poor orphan boy attempting to escape the clutches and dastardly plans of his conniving great-uncle, Judge Wigglesworth, "The Infernal Grouch." Assisted by his evil cohort, Otis Cratt, Wigglesworth is attempting to defraud the heroine, Sally, of her ownership of the Red Raven Inn. Happily, Wigglesworth and Cratt are thwarted. In a typi cal Alger ending, villainy is dispatched, the hero claims his inheritance of exotic South Pacific pearls, and Sally retains ownership of her inn-all through Touch's resourcefulness and the ghostly magic of The Great Chaffalo, who has the unique ability to turn a bit of straw into a superb steed. Evident throughout are Fleischman's humorous touches, two in particular: first, when Touch convinces Cratt that he, Touch, can make Cratt invisible and second, in the chase scene, when Cratt becomes suspended over the river riding a "bit of straw and a touch of midnight." Where the tale falls short is in character development. Sally and Cratt, as well as Touch, are just puppets moved by the author. Touch is a standard, adroit young hero who thinks and acts with unbelievable adult intelligence, and Cratt is the typical master-mind's assistant. Only Judge Wigglesworth has depth. His singleminded pursuit of money, his total lack of redeeming qualities make him the most interesting character in the book. Nonetheless, this lightweight fantasy should appeal to independent readers in grades 3 to 6. It could also be used as a read-aloud book for younger children since the prose is excellent, the word images move the story along at a rapid pace, and Peter Sis's illustrations add to his humor, visualization, and magic. Indeed, reading this fantasy caused a ten year old friend to laugh out loud at all the right place. Sonia Rosenblutt

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82 SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 Mediocre Space Operas Griffin, P. M. Star Commandos: Mind Slaver. NY: Ace Books, 1990, 231 p. $3.50 pb. 0-441-78045-8 . Star Commandos: Return to War. NY: Ace Books, 1990. 247p. $3.50 pb. 0-441-78047-4 . Star Commandos: Fire Planet. NY: Ace Books, 1990, 186p. $3.50 pb. 0441-78334-1. Reviewing only books five, six, and seven of an established series pre sents numerous difficulties, not the least of which is the inability to comment on whether the quality of the series has attenuated over time. Even though no comparison can be made to the original Star Commandos, it must be said that Mind Slaver, Return to War, and Fire Planet are mediocre books. Apparently aimed at an adolescent audience, these books recount the adventures of a small commando team whose missions are essentially the mopping up operations after a galactic war. There's nothing new or inter esting in the scenario that P. M. Griffin uses and the characters are about as sophisticated as those in a typical Japanese animated SF/Adventure series. A brief excerpt from Mind Slaver will do more to show the limitations of these stories than any attempt to adumbrate their plots: Yarn Karl Sogan was a moderately tall man, slender of body with a soldier's carriage and a spacer's grace of movement. He had the strong, hard features of his race's warrior caste, and his hair and eyes were the same dark brown, a trait rarely found even in the Empire's highest ruling families, who alone displayed it. There was an authority on him that seemed his by right of birth and a reserve that set him apart from most of his species. The rest of all three books-I hardly want to call them novels-is simi larly graceless in prose, shopworn in characterization, and cliche'd in plot and manner. I must admit that at fifteen I read voraciously books that many would consider to be similar tripe. Poul Anderson's space operas come to mind, but further comparison would probably be a disservice to fond, two decades old memories of Dominic Flandry and Nicholas van Rijn. I hardly think that twenty years from now I will remember the character of Yarn Tarl Sogan. Peter C. Hall

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 83 Dream Wars in a First Novel Guttenberg, Elyse. Sunder, Eclipse & Seed. NY: ROC, Dec. 1990. 351 p. $4.95 pb. 0-451-45046-9. cJiu ,;'r{ / if L. Elyse Guttenberg's first novel in a proposed trilogy opens in a medieval like town. The heroine, Calyx, is dreaming, but it's not her own dream; it is her mother's memory/dream. A strange man, whom the reader soon will believe to have been the god Jokjoa, is in the bedchamber of the Lady of all Briana. He won't say his name aloud "lest [his] name be used against [her] and the child." The reader soon suspects the visitor was the god Jokjoa, and the child seeded that night Calyx. Now, fifteen, Calyx is much different from her sister and brother both in appearance and in her ability to read and experience dreams. She is a powerful jarak dreamer in a world in which people use their manifested dreams as the basis of decisions, and dream readers are important. Calyx's vivid dreams raise this heroic fantasy above the many that deal with fights between the gods which affect the lives of men. Other parallels to Greek mythology exist as well. Sunder, Eclipse, and Seed are three sister goddesses comparable to the three Fates; yet, different, for they argue. When Sunder (death) wins, lands become totally barren. There is also present the idea of a hero/savior of whom the Kareil clan sing: of Elan Sumedaro who "walked in dreaming! and in waking! Fought Edishu, dark Edishu/he who was the god's own nightmare." For many childish reasons, Calyx keeps her abilities secret. Yet, finally unmasked during a politically tense banquet, she is banished to the far north to live with the Sumedar priest. Here she thinks she will be able to develop her dream powers and to discover why the evil Edisyu harasses her in jarak dreams, but only one young Sumedaro priest shares his learning with her. Thus, she is still untrained when, to save her mother's life, she must battle the evil Queen Lethia and the god Edishu, who demands from Calyx that she obtain Jokjoa's seven tokens and give them to him so that he can escape his imprisonment in Kuoshana. Sunder, Eclipse & Seed is rich with poetry, magic, and myths. The hero ine is at first a self-centered, unappealing child in youth's awkward stage of self perception. As she matures, she becomes an interesting young woman, truly a princess, whose primary duty is to her world and whose dreams are effective ones. I eagerly await the next book of the trilogy. Cloria Barker

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84 SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 The Witch is Better Than Those Bats johnson, Norma Tadlock. The Witch House. NY: Avon Camelot, October 1990, 139p., 52.95 pb. 0-380-75789-3. The jones family-artist father, writer mother, Bella, Lance and 12 year old Ginny (who tells the story)-inherit a huge old house in Seattle from Great Aunt Maybelle. Despite claims from the local historical society that Aunt Maybelle wanted the house to go to them, and rumors that she was a witch, the jones, spunky and energetic, if not tidy or well-organized, move in. They are soon overburdened by the demands of the house and grounds and the children are scared by ghostly drafts, a sense of being watched and, finally, by the apparition of old Maybelle herself, who warns them to leave. After encounters with a less ephemeral spook, and a meeting between Ginny and the real ghost, the jones's problems with the spirit, the house, and the historical society are all resolved, and they settle happily into the neighbor hood. In The Witch House johnson repeats almost exactly the main plot out lines of her earlier book for children, Bats on the Bedstead, but Witch House, while still commonplace, is a giant step beyond its pedestrian and unconvincing predecessor. We are sometimes given too much detail, in a plodding, "and then next 1" sort of way. And that so much trouble, reach ing even beyond the grave, arises because an historical society needs a head quarters seems thin motivation for a flimsy plot. Why didn't Maybelle leave a will, making her wishes clear? Still, the joneses are likable, and the story is pleasant and moves along quickly. If johnson once more leaves holes in the plot, she has at least moved on from amateur (at least at YA novels) to beginning pro. William Mingin Opposites with One Edge Katz, Welwyn Wilton. Whalesinger. NY: Margaret McElderry/Macmillan, 1990, 212 p. $13.95 he. 0-689-50511-6. Despite its title, Whalesinger is neither science fiction nor high fantasy; it is, instead, a tour de force wherein two separate genres are linked: a rous ing adventure story about sunken treasure and an exquisitely sensitive account of the emotions and communications of a mother whale confronting the possible death of her late-born calf. The latter narrative proceeds from an act of imagination so powerful that it succeeds in balancing the former much lengthier one. The two link by the presence, in the human tale, of

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SFRA Newsletter, 797, October 7997 85 Marty, shy teenage baby-sitter for the two Nivens children, whose parents are marine biologists engaged in an erosion study around Point Reyes, CA, an area where treasure hunters still believe Sir Francis Drake, one of Queen Elizabeth's ablest mariners, on his historic voyage round the world (15771580), sequestered a small frigate loaded with treasure. Marty, whose intel ligence is somewhat skewed so she barely passed tenth grade, discovers latent treasure within herself: she can comprehend whale converse. Marty's co-protagonist is seventeen year-old, pre-college, computer skilled Nick Young, needful of his well-paying summer job as research assistant to Dr. Anderson, head of the erosion expedition. To Nick's dismay, however, he learns his father had procured the position for him by direct request; not only that, but the whole expedition is funded by Ray Pembroke's Conservocean Foundation-O-Pembroke, the man indirectly responsible for the death of Nick's beloved older brother. As the book opens, the mother whales's gray colleagues have already left on their seasonal migration north to the Arctic. The mother has not joined them because her calf is too sickly as yet to undertake the immense journey. To him she sings some of the bright and incrementally dark passages from the Song of their species. Aside from perhaps outmoded caveats against the pathetic fallacy and anthropomorphism, suspension of disbelief to accommodate the fantastic interchange between whale mother and calf is not for the moment required here. Katz achieves this by providing a specific vocabulary turned on the wheel of whale perceptions. Listen. The mother is teaching: ... the air-breathers ... move about on two legs and have no wings. See them gather food ... with their not-flippers-not paws ... See, calfling, see the two logs, each with pale wings flapping like flyers entangled in eelgrass. There are two-legged ones inside those logs. It is how they swim ... Now, digging with sticks into the water, they are going ashore. Meanwhile, research goes forward; the Nevins girls find a memorial statue of the anchor of Drake's ship in a wild meadow; they also find Dr. Pembroke consulting a magnetometer, a device normally used for locating metal; and Nick keeps trying to fight his strong attraction to Marty. There occurs a beautifully implicit sexual exchange between Nick and Marty implicit because only those who already know can understand it. In sum, everything-ichthyology, ornithology, archaeology, parent/child relation ships, love, morality, the anti-hero-combines to hook and maintain young adult interest.

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86 SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 While the mood of the whale story is elegaic, that of the humans is philo sophically comedic. They intersect each other just as, in life, tragedy may intersect comedy and vice versa. Comedy ultimately, having the greater magnitude, of course wins. So does any reader of this fine novel, composed of "two harmonies working together." Sybil Langer East Indian Romance Mayer, Marianna. The Golden Swan. NY: Bantam, November 1990, 64 p. $14.95 hc. 0-553-07054-1. There are no new stories under the gun. Versions of "Cinderella" are found in every story-telling culture and heroic maidens seek their enchanted lovers from the tundras of Scandinavia to the Jungles of the sub-continent. Marianna Mayer found the story of The Golden Swan in a section of the great Hindu epic The Mahabharata, but the most striking thing about it, to an adult reader at least, is its similarity to such fairy tales as "East of the Sun and West of the Moon" and "The Black Bull of Norroway." Young King Nala hears a troupe of wandering minstrels sing the praises of the princess Damayanti, said to be the most beautiful woman ever born on earth. He falls in love with her. A golden swan with red-tipped wings confirms that he and she are one another's destined mates, and acts as go between to arrange their marriage. Kali, god of misfortune, wants the girl for himself, and when he loses her to Nala, curses the couple with separation and misfortune. The success or failure of a book like this depends on how good the adapter is at maintaining a balance between the exotic and the comfortable. The broad outlines of the story of Nala and Damayanti are comparable to more familiar tales, but its details are exotic indeed. As long as the story stays on earth, the unfamiliar customs of Hindu culture add richness to the tale. But as the plot unfolds, the strangeness begins to get in the way of the story. Mayer is simply not capable, in 64 pages, of conveying the moral complexity of the Hindu pantheon, or the complicated code of honor that motivates many of the characters' actions. Why, for instance, was Nala obligated to play dice with his brother? Why would the bite of the Serpent-King weaken the hold of the Serpent-God over him? Fairy tales may not be required to make logical sense, but they are required to make emotional sense, and much of the middle of The Golden Swan does not. However, the central story, underlined by Robert Sauber's beautiful illustrations, retains its power. There aren't that many retellings of Indian mythology available to a young adult audience. Until there are, The Golden Swan will have to do. Delia Sherman

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SFRA Newsletter, 791, October 1991 87 Folklore Potpourri Mayer, Marianna. Noble-Hearted Kate NY: Bantam, November 1990, 64p. 514.95 he. 0-553-07049-5. Retellings of traditional fairy tales have been a staple of children's litera ture, certainly from the seventeenth century and probably before. "Beauty and the Beast," "Snow White," "Cinderella," and "Rumplestilskin," among others, have been told and retold in light of changing societies and cultures and literary fashions, proving with each retelling that a good story remains a good story, whatever its window-dressing. Marianna Meyer is the author of one of these redactions, a very successful picture-book retelling of "Beauty and the Beast." Now, for the Bantam Timeless Tales series, she has produced a chapter-book version of the Scottish tale "Kate Crackernuts" called Noble Hearted Kate. A queen with a beautiful daughter marries a king with a beautiful daugh ter. Although the girls themselves give the matter no thought, the queen is so tormented by the idea that her own daughter is the plainer of the two that she pays a witch to cast a spell of ugliness upon her stepdaughter. Meghan wakes up one morning with a sheep's head, and she and Kate run away to gether to search for the spell to take it off again. After adventures with a one eyed salmon and a hazelnut tree, they find work at a castle from which one of the young princes has disappeared, captured by the fairies. In breaking the spell on him, Kate also breaks the spell on her stepsister. Noble-Hearted Kate isn't a bad book. Mayer has a good ear for dia logue, and Winslow Pels' illustrations are as magical and beautiful as one could wish. The problem is that this retelling is too busy, too packed with incidents and themes. In 64 pages, Mayer takes up sibling affection, learn ing to accept a handicap, romance, and fairy lore. The narrative is episodic to begin with, and Mayer's disquisitions on British folklore, however inter esting in themselves, break it up further. If you want to read about Kate and her sheep-headed sister, read Katherine Briggs' Kate Crackernuts. If you want to see what Marianna Mayer is capable of, read "Beauty and the Beast." Delia Sherman Jaguars and Eagles and Dwarves, Oh MY! Niles, Douglas.lronhelm. Lake Geneva, WI: TSR, 1990, $4.95pb. 0-88038-903-6 Iron helm, book one of The Maztica Trilogy, sets in motion all (or most) of the characters and situations which will keep readers glued to their seats for the following books in the series. The action takes place in a (not quite) "forgotten realm" based fairly obviously on the historical encounter between Montezuma"s dying Aztec empire and Cortes' conquistadores.

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88 SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 Skillfully crosscutting among several subplots, Niles lead us through a series of cliffhangers, and it is this sense of constant crisis and near-miracu lous resolution that gives this novel a good deal of its energy. The prose is clear and moves swiftly, reinforcing this constant forward motion. From this point of view, lronhelm is a good novel-it reads well. In addition, some important material is presented in terms of a critical view of Western civilization; the lust for gold and the destruction of both the environment and more materially primitive cultures is touched upon in this book, and the bloodthirsty decadence of the Maztican people (e.g., human sacrifices to propitiate the war god Zaltec) balances this element. Unfortunately, I have a number of problems with the swift pace. New (and ancient) characters, races, and histories are introduced too abruptly, leaving the impression that they appear less because they are part of the rich weave of hidden interconnections than because some character needs to be extricated from dire straits. Granted, some material seems to be introduced now for use in later books, such as the Desert Dwarves encountered by the Eagle Knight Poshtil, but one also suspects such premeditation, much as when Darth Vader careens off into space near the end of Star Wars. I would like to see more of the characters' natures revealed impliCitly, as opposed to the at times excessive use of adjectives. Sentences such as "She would remember the pale, tall soldier, with his mighty prowess and his strange, burning sense of drive" obstruct the flow of the prose and do the reader's thinking for him/her. The sense of strangeness that each culture has upon encountering the other (culture shock?) is given somewhat more room to develop through the use of defamiliarized descriptions of horses and hot peppers (one example from each point of view), but, again, these are some what rapidly and awkwardly introduced and disposed of. lronhelm is a good, fast-paced entertaining novel that touches on signifi cant themes for a young (high-school) readership. For more literarily mature readers, it is like cotton candy. Don Riggs Bet You Can't Read Just One! Niles, Douglas. Viperhand. Lake Geneva, WI: 1990, $4.95, pb. 0-88038907-9. Like a bag of potato chips, it's hard to put the 2nd book of the Maztica Trilogy down. Viperhand shares the fast-paced sequences of cliff-hanger situations drawn from a number of crosscut subplots that characterize Iron helm. Some of these shifts nicely juxtapose contrasting (or parallel) at mospheres or personalities so as to emphasize similarities or differences

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 89 among the various situations that Niles has created. For those who like battle scenes, this volume has some particularly good massacres, and there seems to be an implicitly moral stance concerning both war in general and the conquest of the Aztecs in particular. Visualization of atrocities can, though, titillate the blood thirsty as well as horrify the nonviolent, and thus is a double-edged sword (so to speak). Like a bag of potato chips, Viperhand does not feel very substantial to me. My personal aversion to the overuse of adjectives is aroused by sen tences like: fl she was the cause of their ill-chosen path, selected to avoid human habitation and the bloodthirsty priests who strived [sic] to place her lithe body across a gruesome sacrificial altar." The omniscient narrator who informs us: "Kardam wanted to point out the folly of their venture, but he was afraid to speak. He hated the thought of the expedition into the unknown, but he hated even more the thought of being left behind. Besides, he knew that Cordell didn't take his warnings seriously." My ambivalent reactions to this text are summed up in Niles' phrase, "He thrilled to a sense of epic momentum." The novel certainly generates momentum, and it strives for epic proportion, but this reader has the sensa tion that the "epic proportion" has been built up by florid descriptions sur rounding characters of little more depth than corrugated cardboard. Don Riggs Subversive Children Service. Pamela F., Under Alien Stars, NY: Atheneum. September 1990. 214 p. $13.95 he. 0-689-31621-6. Earth has been invaded by the Tsorians, whose presence replaces the romance of a star-filled night sky with fear of constant observation. But even though the occupation has lasted for over ten years, there is still an active resistance effort attempting to rid the planet of its alien conquerors. Sixteen year-old Jason Sikes wishes to be part of this resistance, mostly to impress his friends at school. Soon, however, he finds himself thrust into Resister politics when he learns his mother is leading the plan to kidnap Tsorian com mander Rogav Jy. The kidnapping a success, Jason then discovers he must team up with Rogav's teenage bond-daughter, Aryl, in order to save his mother, her father, and the entire Earth as the savage Hykzoi attack from space. The novel dethrones patriarchy from the first page, emasculating the male order through the loss of the military (which is now under Tsorian con trol). In addition, race relations are viewed in terms of Tsorian culture vs. the "alien" planetary culture, with each position facilitated by its own point of

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90 SF RA Newsletter, 191, October 1 991 view. Aryl sees Earth people as primitive "natives," while Jason sees the Tsorians, with their three-fingered claws, uniformly gray hair, and maroon skin tones, as decidedly "Other." But as both Jason and Aryl discover, the only hope of surviving the Hykzoi attack is for each to accept and appreciate the various abilities which the other possesses. For example, Aryl, due to her athletic ability, is able to quickly pull Jason from a burning car as they are chased by an angry mob of Earthlings. Conversely. Jason's halting knowledge of Spanish enables him to alert the Tsorian fleet in a language the Hykzoi cannot translate. Set in the not-too-distant future, Under Alien Stars is an entertaining narrative which utilizes the inherent possibilities of the SF genre to their fullest, ques tioning at once political and social power structures, race relations. and gender perceptions within the framework of an intriguing tale. Highly recommended for young adult readers. Joseph M. Dudley Sense and Sensibility t Smith, Sherwood. Wren to the Rescue. NY: $15.95 he. 0-15200975-2 Wren to the Rescue is the story of an orphan girl and a threatened prin cess, a runaway apprentice mage and a prince with a secret. Its heroine belongs to the sisterhood of clever urchins who, like Joan Aiken's Dido Twite and Lloyd Alexander's Mickle, more than make up for their lack of size and strength with their common sense and intelligence. Its plot is pure quest romance, with Wren and her companions tolling through Tolkienesque land scapes to rescue the Princess Teressa. Its themes are among those traditional to children's adventure tales: overcoming individual weakness through cooperation, seeing a hard job through to the end, finding a place in the world. When Wren's best friend at the orphanage reveals that she is really a princess in disguise, Wren is delighted. And she is even more delighted to be invited to accompany Tess back to her father's kingdom as a companion. Then Tess is kidnapped by a wicked magician-king with a grudge against her father. None of the adults can seem to think of anything better than going to war to rescue her, and so Wren sets off to rescue her herself, collecting two companions along the way, one of them an earnest young magician out to prove himself and the other a rather tediously polite young prince. What sets Wren to the Rescue apart from a dozen similar fantasies is Smith's masterful characterizations of her child characters. Although there's never any doubt that they are competent to the task they've undertaken, these children are believable adolescents, self-absorbed, self-dramatizing,

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SFRA Newsletter, 191, October 1991 91 often sulky, and occasionally inspired to heights of wisdom and courage. Wren is a dreamer, but a dreamer with a remarkably practical attitude to wards life and a wicked sense of humor that shows itself in a gift for comic invective. The princess takes a more active role in both her captivity and her rescue than usual. It is true that the grownup characters are not very inter esting, that the mysteries are not very mysterious, and that some of the scenes are a little heavy-handed in their message of cooperation and mutual under standing, but these are small faults in a book that is both better written and more sensibly worked out than such fantasies commonly are. Delia Sherman Arthur's Boyhood Yolen, Jane. The Dragon's Boy. NY: Harper & Row, September 1990. $13.95 he. 128 p. 0-060-26789-5. In 1985, Jane Yolen published "The Dragon's Boy" in The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction; in 1986 she included it in her collection from Ace, Merlin's Booke. Its expansion into a young adult book both simplifies and amplifies the tale. It is, of course, yet another retelling of the boyhood of Arthur, the British version of the "hero with a hundred faces," the unac knowledged youngster on quest for family and self-knowledge. In Yolen's version, the young foundling Artos finds a cave apparently inhabited by a wise and friendly (if somewhat fierce) dragon. Given a choice of rewards, Artos chooses to acquire wisdom, and maintains his contact with the dragon over a period of time, during which he deals with his own fear, frustration, and impatience. From the dragon, Artos initially receives a rich jewel which he cannily trades for a sword from the blacksmith, neatly delivering the "sword from the stone"; his social status among the boys of the castle rises, due mostly to his own sensible behavior and prowess; and the lessons with the dragon take on a growing importance. The earlier version of liThe Dragon's Boy" forced adult readers to sup ply the Arthurian background; the young adult book gives more explicit ref erences but does not spell out the story. As always,O young readers may miss aspects of the story that more experienced readers will quickly notice; as always, this doesn't really matter. Young Artos' development into a compe tent adolescent and a thoughtful, caring person is much more clearly ren dered in this version. His final recognition of the role played by the dragonas well as his reaction to the identity so long concealed under the guise of magic-becomes more accessible and takes on a higher level of importance.

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92 SFRA News/etter, 191, October 7997 One textual change may sum up this difference: in the earlier version, as Artos carries Old Linn from his chamber, the old man shares with him Artos' gift of seedcake "with a gesture both imperious and fond." The boy is still in his care. In the book, Artos has explicitly recognized that the acqui sition of wisdom, while an important and unfinished task, is not sufficient: "How one used the wisdom was what really counted." Here, Artos takes the second piece of seedcake for himself, as he fully accepts the recognition: "/ am the Dragon's Boy." His growing-up process has become conscious and his future prowess seems assured. The Dragon's Boy can be enjoyed by children both older and younger than the stated ages of 8-12; as a read-aloud book it would provide enjoy ment for the reader as well as the read-to. Highly recommended. Martha A. Bartter

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Invite a Friend to Join Membership Application Please mail this completed form with your check for dues, payable to SFRA in U.S. dollars only. Mail to: Edra Bogle, Dept. of English, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203-3827. Dues Schedule: U.S. Canada Overseas**** Individual $60 $65 $70 Dues ----Joint* 70 75 80 Student** 50 55 60 Other --Institution 80 80 80 Emeritus*** 30 Total __ If you wish to receive t.be British journal Foundation (3 issues yearly), add $14 to your dues. Joint membership is for two members in the same household, who will have separate Directory listings, receive two copies of the Newsletter, but will receive one set of the two journals. ** Student membership rate may be used for maximum of five years. *** Emeritus receives only the Newsletter. **** For overseas air mailing of Directory and Newsletter only, add $15. This membership is for calendar year 1992. (This next information will appear in the 8'fi! Directory:) ___________________________________________ ___ Mailing Address: ____________________________________ Telephone: [Home) [Office) [Fax No.) LJ __ -__ (-)----(-)--BitNetNo. ____ GEnie Address: ____ My principal interests in fantastic literature are (limit to 30 words): ___ Repeat last year's entry. (This subscription form may be copied.) 7/91 (This is NOT a renewal notice)

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