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Title:
SFRA Review
Alternate Title:
Science Fiction Research Association Review
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Serial
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English
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Science Fiction Research Association
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Science Fiction Research Association
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Eugene, Ore
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Science fiction -- History and criticism   ( lcsh )
Fantasy fiction -- History and criticism -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Science fiction -- Book reviews -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Fantasy fiction -- Book reviews -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
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non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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usfldc doi - S67-00098-n211-1994-05_06
usfldc handle - s67.98
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SFS0024513:00098


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SFRA Revle .... 1211, May/JuDe 1994 In THII IIIUE: IFRI ImRnll IFFIIRI: BFRAREVIEW laauI #211, may/Junl 1BBit President's Message (Mead) New Members & Changes of Address 1993 SFRA Conference Tentative Schedule (HuWFriend) Editorial (Mallett) BEnERIl miICEWny: Forthcoming Books (Mallett) News & Information (Mallett. etc.) FERTUREI: Feature Article: "'The Sense of Wonder' is 'A Sense Sublime'" (Robu) Feature Review: Coover. Robert. Pinocchio in Venice. (Chapman) "Subject Headings for Genre Fiction" (Klossner) REVIEW I: nl.f1ctJll: Anon. The Disney Poster: The Animated Film Oassics !Tom Mickey Mouse to Aladdin. (Klossner) Hershenson. Bruce. Cartoon Movie Posters. (Klossner) Levy. Michael. Natalie Babbitt. (Heller) FlctJll: Allen. Roger McBride & Eric Kotani. Supernova. (Stevens) Anderson, Dana. Charles de Lint & Ray Garton. Cafe Pw-gatorium. (Tryforos) Anderson, Poul. The Time Patrol. (Dudley) Anthony. Piers. Question Quest. (Riggs) AttanaSIo. A. A. Hunting the Ghost Dancer. (Bogstad) Banks. lain M. The State of the Art. (Bogstad) Barth. John. The Last VO}'Cige of Somebody the Sailor. (Larrier) Baudino. Gael. Dragonsword. (Kaveny) Baudino. Gael. Duel of Dragons. (Kaveny) Bradshaw. Gillian. Horses of Heaven. (Brizzi) Brennert. Alan. Ma Qw' and Other Phantoms. (Sanders) Brooke. Keith. Expatria. (Morgan) Brosnan. John. The FaD of the Sky Lords. (Morgan) Brunner. John. A Maze of Stars. (Sammons) Brust. Steven. The Phoenix Guards. (Hitt)

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SFRA Rene" 1211, Mayl June 1994 Bujold, Lois McMaster. Barrayar. (Bogstad) Cherryh, C. J., editor. Nights 7: Endgame. (lCaveny) Claremont, Chris. Grounded (Kaveny) Cook, Glen. Red Iron Mght. (Stevens) Hughes, Zach. The OmniJicence Factor. (Mallen) James, L. Dean. Mojave Wells-. (Mallett) King. Stephen. Needful Things. (Collings) Lawhead, Stephen R. The Paradise War. (Strain) Lindholm, Megan. Goven Hooves. CB9gstad) Lwnley, Brian. The House ofCthuJu. (Morgan) Lwnley, Brian. Necroscope v: Deadspawn. (Morgan) Shatner, William. TekLords. (Dudley) Shea, Robert. Shaman, A NoveL (lCaveny) Stackpole, Michael. Once a Hero: A NoveL (Strain) Stevermer, Caroline. A CoUege of Magics. (Strain) Talbott, Hudson. (Spivack) Waugh, Charles G. & Martin H. Greenberg. eds. The Mammoth Book of New World Science Fiction: Short Novels of the 1960s. (Marx) Wu, William F. Isaac Aslinovs Robots in Tline: Emperor. (Mallen) VlII.': Hata, Masami & William Hurtz. Little Nemo: AdventW"eS in Slwnberland (Klossner) Melford, George. The Special Spanish of Dracula. (lCIossner) Nathan-Turner, John. Doctor u-7Jo: The HartneU (lCIossner) Nathan-Turner, John. Doctor u-7Jo: The Pertwee (lCIossner) Nathan-Turner, John. Doctor u-7Jo: The Tom Baker (lCIossner) Nathan-Turner, John. Doctor u-7Jo: The Troughton (lCIossner) mllelll I.I: Thonen, John, ed. (lCIossner) 2

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SFRA RevJe.'211, May/JuDe 1994 SFRA INTERNAL AFFAIRS 'PXESJDf.NrS MESSAGE Dear Friends and Colleagues, I to tell you that Daryl F. Mallett has resigned as Editor of the SFRA ReVIew. The press of personal matters prevented Daryl from accomplishing the job he wanted to do. He will oversee the production and distribution of issues #208-211, the last of which you are holding in your hands. We deeply appreciate the effort that Daryl made during the last year, and we are glad that he intends to continue to contribute to the Review. I am happy to report, however, that Amy Sisson has volunteered to serve as Editor, beginning with issue #212. Amy IS an experienced newsletter editor and writer who lives in Grand Forks, North Dakota, as does B. Diane Miller, our nonfiction editor. Amy is a graduate of ofBucknell (BA in English and Economics) and earned an M.S. in Space Studies from the University of North Dakota, Grand Forks. She has written a correspondence course in Space Studies for UND's Department of Public Instruction, and edits a newsletter for a group of restaurants in the Grand Forks area. She and Diane are well-acquainted and expect to work effectively. Please write to: Amy Sisson 1850 S. 34th Street, #303 Grand Forks, ND 58201 and do what you can to help her get the new SFRA Review up and running. The annual meeting of the SFRA is scheduled for July 7-10, 1994 in Arlington Heights, Illinois. I hope you have made your plans to attend; Betty Hull tells me that she, Bev Friend, and a great group of helpers have organized a fine meeting with many excellent panels and activities, and a host of distinguished guest authors. I can tell you that we will honor outstanding Pilgrim and Pioneer Award recipients at the banquet Saturday evening, July 9. For room reservations at the Woodfield Hilton in Arlington Heights, call 800/344-3434 (or 708/384-2000 if you live in Illinois) before June 10 to get the conference rate of $79/night. Send your conferemnce fee ($115) to Elizabeth Anne Hull; Liberal Arts Division; William Rainey Harper College; Palatine, IL 60067. 3

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STRA Revlew'211, May/June 1994 I look forward to seeing you at the Annual Meeting. -Cordially, David Mead P.S. Peter Lowentrout, Muriel Becker, and Martha Bartter are the Elections Nominations Committee this year; please let them know if you'd like to run for an office, or if you'd like to nominate someone. Officer Elections will be held in the late summer and early fall. nEW mEmBERS Ii ADDRESS CHAnBES Daryl F. Mallett 717 S. Mill Avenue, #87 Tempe, AZ 85281 1883 SFRA COnFEREnCE UPDATE Here is your copy of the preliminary program of main eventsm for SFRA-25. If you are arriving at O'Hare Airport, be sure to request the courtesy car to the hotel, which has changed its name to the Arlington Park Hilton. Those who want to participate in the optional excursion to Medieval Times Friday evening to see the fine horsemanship and jousting (and dine on a game bird with your fingers) MUST reserve by June 20. Additional tickets for the PilgrimlPioneer Awards Banquet Saturday evening can be purchased at $35 per guest. Program participants have been asked to bring additional copies of their papers to accommodate conflicts caused by multiple-track programming. We are making arrangements to videotape panel discussions and authors' reading; so that those who want to attend paper discussions will be able to obtain copies of these sessions from the Science Fiction Oral History Association. All attendees are invited to bring thirty copies of a current SF syllabus for an exchange of course outlines. Many novels will be available for those who want to purchase books by the attending authors (and get them autographed). Alex EISenstein is assembling a special art show; we'll have a fund raising drawing for a group of books donated by Illinois authors to support our needy international scholars; and we're working on other wonderful surprises. Please let us know if you have special nees (vegetarian or otherwise restricted banquet meal, wheelchair access, etc.). We want everyone to enjoy the conference fully! -Elizabeth Anne HulVBeverly Friend 4

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SFRA Renew 1211, Mayl June 1994 SFRR COnFEREnCE TEnTRTIVE SCHEDULE Thursday. July 7 Registration.3:00p.m.-7:00p.m. Opening Session. 7:00p.m. Octavia E. Butler. Parable of the Sower Welcome Reception. 8:30p.m.-11 :OOp.m .. Hospitality Suite Friday. July 8 SESSION ONE 8:30a.m.-IO:OOa.m. IA Authors Reading: James E. Gunn. Sheri Tepper 18 Diana Pharoah Francis. "Social Robotics: Constructing the IC Ideal Woman from Used Ideological Parts" Frances D. Louis. "Looking Backward: Focusing on Forgotten Works by and about Women" Virginia Allen. "A Sense of Injury: Reconstructing Mary Shelley" Elaine Kleiner. "Science Fiction as a Theory of History" Veronica Hollinger. "Paradigms of Post modernism in SF" Brian Attebery. "Science as Metaphor in Hard and Soft SF" Friday. July 8 SESSION TWO IO:30a.m.-Noon 2A PANEL: SF FAN SUBCULTURE 2B Alex Eisenstein, Beverly Friend. B. Diane Miller. Frederik PoW. Leah Zeldes Smith ENGLISH SF ISN'T ALL. Elizabeth Anne Hull. Moderator Bud Foote. "SF in Russia" Van Wu, "SF in China" Johan Heje. "SF in Denmark" 2C Suzette Henderson. "A Very Mixed Blessing: Women. Immortality, and Gods Like Men in the Fiction of Roger Zelazny" Chris Brincefield. "No Fembots Here: Women of Power in Frank Herbert's Dune' Elizbeth Cummins. "Judith Merril: A Link with the New Wave-Then and Now" Friday. July 8 SESSION THREE I:30p.m.-3:00p.m. 3A Authors Reading: Joan Slonczewski. Joan D. Vinge 3B Cathy Peppers. "Dialogic Origins and Alien Identities in 3C Octavia E. Butler's XenogenesiS' Joe Marchesani. "Gender Polarity in Octavia E. Butler's Xenogenesis Trilogy" Francis Louis. "Saving Grace in Octavia E. Butler's Parable of the Sower and Sheri Tepper's A Plague of AngelS' Elizabeth Barette, "Mother Rongue: Invented Language" 5

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SFRA Revlew'211, May/June 1994 Diane Poirior, "Invisible Sight and Silent Speech: A Disc of Absence and Consequence in C. J. Cherryh's Downbelow Statiori' Friday, July B SESSION FOUR 3:30p.m.-5:00p.m. 4A Authors Reading: Lois McMaster Bujold, Jack Williamson 4B Margaret McBride, "Why a Farce?: Sheri Tepper's Use of Trojan Women" Donna Revtai, "Sheri Tepper's Feminist Adaptations of Myth and Literary Patterns in GrasS' 4C Karen Cerone, "Environmental Dystopia SF: Part of the Solution, Part of the Problem" Sheryl Hamilton, "Recent Feminist Separatist Utopias" Beverly Friend, "Time Travel as a Feminist Didactic in the Works of Octavia E. Butler, Phyllis Eisenstein, Marlys Milheiser, and Connie Willis" OPTIONAL EXCURSION TO MEDlEY AL TIMES, 6:30 p.m. Saturday, July 9 SESSION FIVE B:30a.m.-IO:00a.m. SA Teaching SF and SF Anthologies: Brian Attebery, Phyllis Eisenstein, James E. Cunn, John Huntington, Jack Williamson, Gary Wolfe 5B Lynn Williams, "Pamela Sargent's Venus of Dreams: Terraforming Utopia" Sheryl Hamilton, "Feminism in the Era of Cyborg;" Elizabeth Sarette, "Chaos in F and SF' 5C Michael Levy, "The Young Adult Science Fiction Novel as Bildungsromari' Lindalee Stuckey, "Children's SF Market: A Historical Overview" Joe Sanders, "Private Psi: Joan D. Vinge's CafSpav.! Saturday, July 9 SESSION SIX 10:30a.m.-Noon 6A Breaking Into Writing: Philip Jose Farmer, Jim Frenkel, Frederik PoW, Joan Slonczewski, Joan D. Vinge, Gene Wolfe 6B TBA 6C Bob Donahoo, Chuck Etheridge, Donald Lloyd, "HyperReader/Hyper-Writer: Postmodernist Perspectives on SF' Milton Wolf, Respondent Saturday, July 9 SESSION SEVEN 1 :30p.m.3:00p.m. 7A Judy Kerman, "Issues in the Aesthetics of Hypertext" 7B Joan Gordon, "Gene Wolfe's Mobius Fictions: Peeling Away the Veils of Maya" 6

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SFRA Revle ... '211, May/June 1994 Peter Wright, "A Conundrum Wrapped in an Enigma: Cosmic Conspiracies ana Hermeneutic Slights in Gene Wolfe's Fictions of the New SuIi' Hoda M. Zaki, "Orientalism in SF" 7C Milton Wolf, "The Machine in the Body: Bionic Intimacies" Maureen Krause, "'Your Breath, 0 Lord, Spoke from the Golum': Rudolf Lothar's Bizarre uterary Golem as SF' Edra Bogle, "Cats in SF" Saturday, July 9 SESSION EIGHT 3:30p.m.-5:00p.m. 8A Authors Reading: Octavia E. Butler, Gene Wolfe 8B TBA 8C Charles Gatlin, "Space Opera as Music Drama: SF, Film, and GesamtkunstwerJ(' Donald M. Hassler, "Hal Clement and Art: Fossil' Chris McKitterick, "James Gunn and His The Dreamers. Epitomes of an Evolving SF' Saturday Evening 5:00p.m.-6:00p.m. Autographing 6:00p.m.-7:00p.m. Cash Bar 7:00p.m. Banquet; Keynote Speaker, Sheri Tepper Presentation of Pilgrim and Pioneer Awards Sunday, July 10 SFRA Business Meeting, 9:00a.m. OPTIONAL BRUNCH AT ARLINGTON PARK RACETRACK, 11:00a.m. -Elizabeth Anne HulVBeverly Friend EDITORIAL Please consider this editorial my official resignation as SFRA Review Editor after the publication of #211 (May/June 1994), this issue you're reading now. I took on the job of SFRA Review Editor with lots of hopes and dreams, some of which I accomplished. One of my goals was to take what previous SFRAR editors had accomplished and build upon it to create an even better organ of the SFRA. Regardless of how certain members of the organization feel about the editorial content, I am of the mind that at least the production quality has improved immensely, turning SFRAR into a fine looking magazine. Due to the personal upheavals in my life, including a divorce, new job, and relocation, as well as the apathy of the general membership (with the exception of some very few members, to whom I extend heartfelt thanks), I find that, while I am able to do everything .. .! can't do everything by myself With the removal of Neil Barron and Michael Klossner, the inability of those who offered to step in, and the busy sched ules of those who wanted to assist, I 7

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SFRA Revlew'211, May/June 1994 was forced to rely on the able assistance of friends and colleagues who were not even SFRA members. But I find that I am unable to serve the best interests of SFRA or of my own career by continuing to bumble along alone as Editor. Plus with the recent sales in my professional fiction-writing career, I feel that my talents could best serve my own career by on fiction, and best serve the interests of SFRA by helping new Editor Amy SISSon as Associate Editor, continuing to provide information, reviews, and materials for SFRAR. but not trying to steer the helm alone. And also to provide the continuing excellence of SFRA Conferences, in the 1995 Conference to be held in either SoCaI or Phoenix, Arizona. I will continue to serve SFRA and remain a member, and hope to do so again in the future, when my life has settled down. Apologies for any inconvenience. But we go forth, with an outstanding forthcoming conference led by Betty Hull and Beverly Friend and tons of guests, with new projects and members, as we explore the strange new worlds, and interesting old worlds, of SF academe. A very warm, heartfelt thanks once again to those who helped me in this endeavor: Gavan McBride Albri&ht; Angel Enterprises; AnimEigo Inc.; Author Services Inc.; Baen Books; Neil Barron; The Borgo Press; Bridge Publications Inc.; Mary A. Charles N. Brown; Burgess; Elizabeth Chater; Chaos Inc.; DAW Books; The Dragon's Lair; The EC; E1fquest: Dale & Liz Gibbons; Golden Lion Enterprises; Ashley Grayson; Hal W. Hall; Mack & Sue Hassler; Linda & Michael Heilpern; Karen Hellekson; Jerry & Debbie Hewett; Highpoint Type & Graphics; Dan Hooker; Gary Kern; Michael Klossner; Lorimar Television; Malibu Comics; Annette, Briana, Jake, Luella, Masuko, Stacie, and William Mallett; Frank McConnell; B. Diane Miller; Michelle Montano; Gladys L. Murphy; Miriam Pace; Roger Palmer; Paramount Pictures; Wendy & Richard Pini; Pocket Books; Michele Riddle; Robert Reginald; Leonard, Theodora & Janice Replogle; Cornel & Joana Robu; Richard Rogers; Fururni Sano; George E. Slusser; Star Trek Books; Shoshona Stocking; Paula M. Strain; Nan Surnski; Russ Tate; Brian Thomsen; TSR Books; Van Volumes Ltd.; Barbra Wallace; Warp Graphics; Will Weisser; Scott Welch; Gary Westfahl; Milton Wolf; and Elsie & Betsy Wollheim; and countless others in many important ways. I am especially grateful to Clint Zehner, Arthur Loy Holcomb, and David Barber in these last days for uncountable support and encouragement, but most of all to Kimberly J. Baltzer for everything she's been through with me .... heartfelt thanks. Ad astra! -Daryl F. Mallett 8

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SFRA Revlew'211, May/June 1994 GENERAL MISCELLANY FORTHCOming BOOKS Date of publication as shown. (P)=publication confirmed, (R)=reprint. All unconfirmed dates are tentative, delays are common. Most original books have been or will be reviewed in these pages. These books listed here have never been reviewed in SFRAR .. REFEREDCE Bova, Ben. The Craft of Writing Science Fiction That Sells. Writers Digest Books, 1994. Bunson, Matthew. The Vampire Encyclopedia. Crown, Jun 1993 (P). Card, Orson Scott. How to Write Science Fiction and Fantasy. SFBC, May 1994. Chalker, Jack L. & Mark Owings. The Science-Fantasy Publishers: Supplement One, July 1991-June 1992. Mirage Pr. (P). Avail. to those who bought the base vol. Dozois, Gardner, et aI, eds. Writing Science Fiction and Fantasy: Twenty Dynamic Essays by Today's Top Professionals. St. Martin's, Mar 1993. Eighteen-Bisang, Robert. Dracula: An Annotated Blbliography. Transylvania Pr., Fal1994. Flaum, Eric & David Pandy. The Encyclopedia of Mythology. Gee, Robin. 1993 Novel &' Short Story Wnters Market. Writer'S Digest Books, Feb 1993. Hall, Hal. W. Science Fiction and Fantasy Reference Index, 1985-1991: An International Author and Subject Index to History and Crlticism. Libraries Unlimited, 1993 (P). Hall, Hal W. Science Fiction and Fantasy Research Index, Vol 10. SFBRI & Borgo Pr., Spr 1994. Harbottle, Philip & Stephen Holland. Bntish Science Fiction Paperbacks, 1949-1956: An Annotated Blbhography. Borgo Pr., Spr 1994. Hubbard, L. Ron. The Creative Wnting Handbook, Wnting for Pubhcation. Bridge, May 1994. Jackson, Guide M. Encyclopedia of Tradltlonal Epics. ABC-CLIO, Jun 1994. Jones, Stephen, ed. The Mammoth Book of Zombies. Carroll & Graf, 1993. [Reviewed by Ron and Jan Wolfe in The Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. For a copy, contact me. -D.F.M.] Lynn, Ruth Nadelman. Fantasy uterature for Children and Young Adults: An Annotated Blbhography. Fourth Edition. Bowker, Jun 1994. McOoud, Scott. Understanding Comics. Kitchen Sink Pr., 1993; HarperPerennial, May 1994. [Reviewed by Ron and Jan Wolfe in The Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. For a copy, contact me. -D.F.M.] 9

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SFRA Revle .. '211, May/JuDe 1994 Miles, Robert. Gothic Writing, 1764-18S0: A Geneology. Routledge, Jun 1993. Ochoa, George & Jeff Osier. The WrIters Guide to Creating a Science Fiction Umverse. Writer's Digest, Mar 1993. Ramsland, Katherine. The Vampire Companion: The Official Guide to Anne Rices The Vampire Chronicles. Ballantine, Oct 1993. Reid, Jane Davidson & Chris Rohmann. The Oxford Guide to Oassical Mythology in the Arts, 13OO-199Os. Oxford Univ. Pr., 1993, 2 v. (P). [Reviewed by Jack Perry Brown in library Journal. Sep I, 1993. -D.F.M.J Shippey, Christie & Tom, eds. The Good Science Fiction Gwde. Blackwell, Mar 1993. Slavicsek, William. A Gwde to the Star War.s-Umver.s-e, 2nd Ed .. BallantinelDel Rey, Mar 1994. Toufic, Jalal. Vampires: A Post-Modern Vis-Jon of the Undead in Film and literature. Station Hill Press, Mar 1993. HIBTDRH Ii CRITICiSm Alkon, Paul. Science FictJon Before 1900. Macmillan Twayne, Mar 1994. Andriano, Joseph. Our Ladies of Darkness: Female Demonology in Male Gothic FictIOn. Penn St. Univ. Pr., 1993 (P). Anon. The Enchanted World: Ghosts. Anon. The Enchanted World: The Lore of Love. Anon. The Enchanted World: Magical JustJce. Anon. World Mythology. Henry Holt & Co., 1993 (P). [Reviewed in American Libraries, Dec 1993. For a copy, contact me. -D.F.M.J Asher, R E. National in Renaissance France: Francus, Samothes, and the Druids. Edinbur Univ. Pr., 1993. Asimov, Isaac & Freder PohI. Our Angry Earth. Tor, Apr 1993 (R). Barr, Marleen S. Feminist FabulatJon: Space/Postmodern Fiction. Univ. of Iowa Pr., Nov 1992. Barr, Marleen S. Lost in Space: Probing Feminist Science Fiction and Beyond Univ. of North Carolina Pr., Nov 1993. Bloch, Robert. The Eighth State of Fandom. Wildside Pr. (P) (R of 1962 ed. w/new introduction and afterword). Bradbury, Ray. Zen in the Art of Writing. Third Edition. Capra Pr., Sep 1993 (P). Bukatman, Scott. Terminal /dentJty: The Virtual Subject in Postmodern Science FictJon. Duke Univ. Pr., Jun 1993. Calderwood, James L. A Midswnmer Mghts Dream. Twayne, 1993 (P). Canto, Christopher & Odile Faliu. The His-tory of the Future: Images of the 21st Century. Ronin Publishing Inc., 1993. [Reviewed by Gary D. Barber in library Journal. Jan 1994. -D.F.M.J Carpenter, Thomas H. & Christopher A. Faraone, eds. Masks of DJonysus. Cornell Univ. Pr., 1993 (P). Cassiday, Bruce, ed. Modern Mystery. Fantasy. and Science Fiction Writer.s-. Continuum, Dec 1993. Clareson, Thomas D. Under.s-tanding Contemporary American Science FictJon: The Formative Period, 1926-1970. Univ. of S. Carolina Pr., Dec 1992. Clarke, Arthur C. By Space Possessed: Essays on the ExploratJon of Space. Gollancz, Ju11993. 10

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SFRA Revlew'211, May/June 1994 Qarke, Arthur C. The Colours of/nJinity. Gollancz, Jun 1994. Oarke, Arthur C. How the World Was One: The Turbulent History of Global Communications. Gollancz, Jull993 (R). Coren, Michael. The Invislble Man: The Life and uberties of H. G. WelLs". Macmillan Atheneum, Aug 1993 (P). [Reviewed by Tony Moser in The Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. For a copy, contact me. -D.F.M.] Costello, Matthew J. How to Write Science Fiction. Paragon House (p). Cott, Jonathan. Isis and Osiris: A 5,OOO-Year-Old Love Story. Doubledar' Feb 1994. [Reviewed by Alice Joyce in Booklist, Jan 15,1994. -D.F.M. Cranch, Christopher Pearse. Three Children's Novels by Christopher Pearse Cranch, edited by Greta D. Little & Joel Myerson. Uniy. of Georgia Pr., 1993. Douglas, Adam. The Beast Within: A History of the Werewoll Chapmans VI<., Oct 1992. Fausett, David John. Writing the New World: Imaginary Voyages and Utopias of the Great Southern Land. Syracuse Uniy. Pr., Feb 1994. Goulart, Ron. The Comic Book Reader's Compamon. HarperCollins, Apr 1993. Guthke, Karl S. The Last Frontier: Imagining Othe Worlds, !Tom the Copermean Revoluaon to Modern Science FictJon. Cornell Uniy. Pr., Jun 1993 (R). Hall, Hal W. & Daryl F. Mallett, eds. Pilgrims and Pioneers. SFRA Press, 1994. Hanson, Bruce K. The Peter Pan Chronicles: The Nearly 100Year History of the "Boy MIo Wouldn't Grow Carol PublishinglBirch Lane, May 1993. Harbottle, Philip & Stephen Holland. Vultures of the VOla: A History of British Science Fiction Publishing, 1946-1956. Borgo Pr., Dec 1992 (P). Harger-Grin1ing, Virginia, ed. Robbe-Grillet and the Fantastic: A CoUecaon of Essays. Greenwood Pr., Feb 1994. Haschak, Paul G. UtopianlDystopian literature. Scarecrow Press, Spr 1994. Hasse, Donald. The Reception of Grimm's Fairy Tales; Responses, Reactlons, RevislOns. Wayne State Uniy. Pr., 1993. Hawk, Pat. Hawk's Author's Pseudonyms for Book CoUectors. Pat Hawk, May 1993. Heim, Michael. The Metaphysics of Virtual Reahiy. Oxford Uniy. Pr., Jun 1993. Hopkins, Andrea. ChromCles of King Arthur. Viking, Jan 1994. James, Edward. Science FictJon in the 1'wentJeth Century. Oxford Uniy. Pr., Spr 1994. Kadrey, Richard. The Covert Culture Sourcebook St. Martin's Pr., Sep 1993. Kadrey, Richard. The Covert Culture Sourcebook, 2.0. St. Martin's Pr., Oct 1994. Kumar, Krishnan & Stephen Barr, eds. Utopias and the Miflemum. Uniy. of Pr., Jun 1993. Lacy, NorrIS J., ed. Lancelot-Grail: The Old French Arthurian Vulgate and PostVulgate in Translaaon, Volume II, tr., by Samuel N. Rosenberg & Carleton W. Carroll. Garland Pr., 1993 (P). Lafferty, R. A. Adventures in Unhistory. Owlswick Pr., Feb 1993. Le Guin, Ursula K. Language of the Night. HarperPerennial, Jun 1993 (R). Mandelbaum, Paul, ed. First Words: Earliest Writin&y of 42 Favorite AmerJean Authors. Aigonquin/W orkman, Oct 1993. Manloye, Colin. ChristJan Fantasy!Tom 1200 to the Present. Uniy. of Notre Dame Pr., 1992 (P). 11

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SFRA Revle .. '211, May/June 1994 Matthews. John. ed. An Arthurian Reader: Selections /Tom Arthurian Legend. Scholarship. and Story. Aquarian Pr. (P). McGlathery. James M. Grimms' Fairy Tales: A History of Criticism on a Popular Dassic. Camden House. 1993? McKnight. Stephen A. ed. Science. Pseudo-Science, and Utopianism in Early Modern Thour.;ht. Univ. of Missouri Pr. (P). McRae. Murdo William. ed. The Literature of Science: Perspectives on Popular Scientific WrIting: Univ. of Georgia Pr .. 1993. Mogen. David. Wilderness Visions: The Western Theme in Science Fiction literature. Second Edltion. Borgo Pr . Feb 1994 (P). Nahin. Paul J. Time Machines: Time Travel in Physics, Metaphysics. and Science Fiction. American Institute of Physics. 1993 (P). Richards. Thomas. The Imperial Archive: Knowledge and the Fantasy of Empire. Verso. 1994. Roberts. Robin. A New Species: Gender &' Science in Science Fiction. Univ. of Illinois Pr .. Jul1993 (P). Roberts. Sheila. ed. Still the Frame Holds: &says on Women Poets and WrIters. Borgo Pr .. May 1993 (P). Rohrich. Lutz. Folktales and Reality. tr. by Peter Tokofsky. Indiana Univ. Pro (P). Ruddick. Nicholas. Ultimate Island: On the Nature of BrItish Science Fiction. Greenwood Pr.. Jan 1993. Scott. Walter. The Black Dwarf. edited by P. D. Garside. Columbia Univ. Pr . 1993. Segal. Howard P. Future Imperfect: The Mixed of Technology in America. Univ. of Massachusetts Pr .. Jan 1994. LReviewed by Mary Carroll in Book/ist. Dec 15. 1993. -D.F.M.J Server. Lee. Over My Dead Body: The Sensational Age of American Paperbacks, 1945-195S. Chronicle Books. May 1994. Sharman. Helen & Christopher Priest. Seize the Stars. Gollancz. Oct 1993. Shaw. Bob. How to WrIte Science Fiction. Allison & Busby UK. Jan 1993. Skal. David J. The Monster Show: A Cultural History of Horror. Norton. Mar 1993 (P). Slusser. E. & Eric S. Rabkin. eds. Fights of Fancy:" Armed Conflict in Science Fiction and Fantasy. Georgia Univ. Pr . 1993 (P). Smith. Karen Patricia. The Fabulous Realm: A literary-Historical Approach to British Fantasy. 1780-1990. Scarecrow Pro Smoodin. Eric. ed. Disney Discourse. Routledge. 1994. Steel. Gayla R. Sexual Tyranny in Wessex: Hardy's u.Jtches and Demons of Folklore. Peter Lang Publishers. 1994? Sterling. Bruce. The Hacker Crackdown: Law and Disorder on the Electric Frontier. Bantam. Dec 1993 (R). Stern. Roger. The Death and Life of Superman. Bantam Books. 1993 (P). [Reviewed by Ron and Jan Wolfe in The Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. For a copy. contact me. -D.F.M.J Sullivan. C. W. III. ed. Science FiCtion for Young Readers. Greenwood Pr .. Mar 1993. Tatar. Maria. Off u.Jth Their Heads!: Fairy Tales and the Culture of Childhood. Princeton Univ. Pr.. Dec 1993. Van Hise. James. Trek: The Next Generation. Second Edltion. Pioneer Books. Feb 1993. Veldman. Meredith. Fantasy. the Bomb, and the Greening of BrItain: RomanticProtest,1945-1980. Cambridge Univ. Pr . 1994. 12

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SFRA RevJew'211, May/June 1994 Verne, Jules. 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, translated by Walter James Miller & Fredrick Paul Walter. Naval Institute Pr., Sep 1993. von Franz, Marie-Louise. The Feminine in Fairy Tales, Rev. Ed. Shambala, Feb 1993. Weis, Margaret & Tracy Hickman. DragonLance: Leaves !Tom the Inn of the Last Home. TSR Inc., Nov 1993 (R). Wells, H. G. The War of the Worlds: An Annotated and Critical Edition. Indiana Univ. Pr., Aug 1993 (R). Whittier, John Greenleaf. Supernaturali5m of New England. Clearfield Co., 1993. [Reviewed by Anon. in LIbraryJournal, Jan 1994. -D.F.M.] Willard, Nancy. Telling Time: Angels, Ancestors and Stories. Harcourt Brace, Oct 1993. Wolf, Leonard. The Essential DracuJa. Penguin/Plume, Feb 1993. Wolf, Milton T. & Daryl F. Mallett, eds. Imaginative Futures: The Proceedin@ of the 1993 Science Fiction Research Association Conference. SFRA Press, 1994. Wolmark, Jenny. Ah'ens and Others: Science Fiction, Feminism, and Postmodern.i5m. Univ. ofIowa Pr., Mar 1994. Wolstenholme. Susan. Gothic (Re)Visions: Writing Women as Readers. SUNY Pr., Dec 1992. Zaki, Hoda M. Phoenix Renewed: The Survival and Mutation of Utopian Thought in North American Science Fiction, 1965-1982, Revised Edition. Borgo Pr., 1993 (P). Zipes, Jack. The Trials and TnbuJations of LIttle Red Riding Hood, Second EdItion. Routledge, Sep 1993. RUTHDR BTUDIES [Adams, D.] Gaiman, Neil. Don't Panic: Douglas Adams {I The Hitch Hiker's Guide to the Galaxy. Titan, Oct 1993. [Andrews. V.] Spignesl. Stephen J. The V. C Trivia and Quiz Book. Penguin/Signet, Mar 1994. [Asimov, I.] Asimov. Isaac. I. Asimov. Doubleday, Apr 1994. [Atwood, M.] Wilson. Sharon Rose. Margaret Atwoods Fairy-Tale Sexual Pohtics. Univ. of Mississippi Pr., Dec 1993. [Reviewed by Mary Ellen Beck in LIbrary Journal, Dec 1993. -D.F.M.] [Barker, C) Barker, Clive. Pandemom'wn II: The Worlds of Ch've Barker. Eclipse Books, Win 1993. [Barker, C) Jones, Stephen. ed. Clive Barkers in Eden: The Books, Films, and Art of Ch've Barker. Underwood -Miller, Sep 1993 (R). [Bloch, R.] Bloch, Robert. Once Around the Bloch. Tor, Jul1993. [Brown, C) Christophersen, Bill. The Appantion in the Glass: Charles Brockden Brown's American Gothic. Univ. of Georgia Pr., Jan 1994. [Reviewed br Charles C Nash in Library Journal, Dec 1993. -D.F.M.] [Burroughs, W. Harris. Oliver. ed. Letters of Wilham s. Burroughs, 1945-1959. Viking, Jun 1993. [Cabell, J.] MacDonald, Edgar. James Branch CabeU and Richmond-in VirginIa. Univ. of Mississippi Pr., Apr 1993 (P). [Campbell. J.] Anon. The John W. CampbeU Letters, Volwne 2: Asimov and van Vogt. AC Projects (5106 Old Harding Road; Franklin, TN 37064; $45+$2p&h. [Chater, E.] Mallett, Daryl F. & Annette Y. Mallett. The Work of Elizabeth Chater: An Annotated BIbhography and Gwde. Borgo Pr., Mar 1994. 13

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SFRA Renew 1211, Mayl June 1994 [Garke, Al McAleer, Neil. Arthur C Darke: The Authorized Biography. Contemporary, Aug 1993 (R); Gollancz, Jul 1993 (R). [Garke, Al Welfare, Simon & John Fairley. Arthur C Darke's Mysteries: From AtlantE to Zombies. HarperCollins UK, Nov 1993. [Collins, W.l Peters, Catherine. The King oflnventors: A Life of Wilkie Collins. Princeton Univ. Pr., Nov 1993. [Dahl, R.l Tregiown, Jeremy. Roald Dahl. Farrar Straus Giroux, Apr 1994. [Delany, S.l Delany, Samuel R. The Motion of light in Water. Richard Kasak Books. [Reviewed by Anon. in LIbraryJournal, Jan 1994. -D.F.M.l [Dick, P.l The Selected Letters of Philip K. Dick, 1972-1973. UnderwoodMiller, Feb 1994. [Dick, P.l The Selected Letters of Philip K. Dick, 1975-1976. UnderwoodMiller, May 1993. (P) [Dick, P.l The Selected Letters of Philip K. Dick, 1977-1979. UnderwoodMiller. Spr 1993. [Dick. P.l Sutin. Lawrence. Divine Invasions: A Life of Philip K. Dick. HarperCollins UK, Feb 1994. [Donaldson. S.l Barth. Melissa. Stephen Donaldson. Borgo Pr . 1994. [Effinger. G.l Indick, Ben P. Ceo. Alec Effinger: From Entropy to Budayeen. Borgo Pr . Jul1993 (P). [Evans, M.l Hassler. Sue Strong & Donald M. Hassler. eds. Arthur Machen and Montgomery Evans: Letters of a LIterary Friendship, 1923-1947. Kent State Univ. Pr .. Feb 1994. [Haggard. H.l Pocock, Tom. Rider Haggard and the Lost Empire. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. distributed by Trafalgar Square. Jan 1994. [Reviewed by John Mort in Booklist, Jan 1. 1994. -D.F.M.l [Henson, J.l Finch. Christopher. Jim Henson: The Works". Random House. 1993. [Reviewed by Gordon Flagg in Booklist, Jan 15. 1994. -D.F.M.l [Herbert, J.l Herbert, James. James Herbert's Dark Places. HarperCollins UK. Nov 1993. [Hubbard, L.l Widder. William J. L. Ron Hubbard: A Comprehensive Blbhography and Reference Guide to HE Published and Selected Unpublished Fiction. Bridge/Author Services. May 1994. [Jackson. S.l Hall, Joan Wylie. ShirleyJackS"on: A Study of the Short Fiction. Twayne. 1993 (P). [King, S.l Beahm. George. The Stephen King Story. Warner UK. Mar 1994. [King, S.l Herron, Don. ed. Reign of Fear: The Fictlon and the Films of Stephen King. Underwood-Miller, Spr 1993. [King. S.l Lloyd, Ann. The Films of Stephen King. St. Martin's Pr., Oct 1994. [King, S.l Magistrale. Anthony. ed. The Casebook on The Stand Starmont House/Borgo Pr., Sep 1992 (P). [King. S.l Murphy, Tim. In the Darkest Night: The Student's Gwde to Stephen King. Borgo Pr .. 1994. [King, S.l Underwood. Tim & Chuck Miller. Fear Itself: The Early Works" of Stephen King. Underwood-Miller. Nov 1993 (R). [King. S.l Underwood. Tim & Chuck Miller. Feast of Fear: Conversations Utlth Stephen King. Warner. Oct 1993 (R). [Koontz. D.l Greenberg. Martin H .. Ed Gorman & Bill Munster. The Dean Koontz Compamon. Berkley, Mar 1994; Headline UK. Jan 1994. [Kurtz. K.l Garke. Boden. The Work of Katherine Kurtz: An Annotated Blbhographyand Gwde. Borgo Pr .. Feb 1993 (P). [Le Guin. U.l Cummins, Elizabeth. Understanding Ursula K. Le Guin. Univ. of S. Carolina Pr .. Dec 1992. 14

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SFRA Revlew'211, May/June 1994 [Lewis, C.] Green, Roger Lancelyn & Walter Hooper. C S Lewis: A Biography. Revised Edition. Harcourt Brace, Jul 1994. [Lewis, C] Hooper, Walter & W. H. Lewis, eds. Letters of C S Lewis. Harvest/Harcourt, Nov 1993. {MacDonald, G.] Sadler, Glenn Edward, ed. An Expression of Character: The Letters of George MacDonald. Eerdmans, Jan 1994 (P). [Machen, A] Hassler, Sue Strong & Donald M. Hassler, eds. Arthur Machen and Montgomery Evans: Letters of a Literary Friendship, 1923-1947. Kent State Univ. Pr., Feb 1994. [McCaffrey, A] Nye, Jody Lynn & Anne McCaffrey. The Dragoniover's Gwde to Pern. Ballantine/Del Rey (R, P). [Moorcock, M.] Davey, John. Michael Moorcock: A Reader's Gwde. Author (P). 36 p. booklet. [Niven, L] Stein, Kevin. The Gwde to Larry Mven's Ringworld. Baen, Feb 1994. [Orwell, G.] Gottlieb, Erika. The OrweD Conundrum: A Cry of Despair or Faith in the Spirit of Man? Carleton Univ. Pr., 1992 (P). [Orwell, G.] Ingle, Stephen. George OrweD: A Pohticallife. Manchester, 1993 (P). [Ovid] Mandelbaum, Allen. The Metamorphoses of Ovid. Harcourt, Nov 1993 (P). [Poe, E.] Anderson, Madelyn Klein. Edgar AUan Poe: A Mystery. Franklin Watts, 1993 (P). [Polidori, J.] Macdonald, D. L & Kathleen Scherf, eds. "The VamPJTe" and ''Emestus Berchtold, or The Modern Oedipus': CoDected Fiction of John Wilham Pohdon: Univ. ofToronto Pr., 1994. [Pynchon, T.] Berressem, Hanjo. Pynchon's Poetics: Interfacing Theory and Text. Univ. ofillinois Pr., Jan 1993. [Radcliffe, A] Rogers, Deborah D., ed. The CrItical Response to Ann Radcliffe. Greenwood Pr., Dec 1993. [Renault, M.] Sweetman, David. Mary Renault: A Biography. Harcourt Brace, Jul1994. [Robinson, S.] Robinson, Spider. Off the WaD at CaDahan's. Tor, Feb 1994. [Roddenberry, G.] Alexander, David. Star Trek's Creator: The Authorized Biography of Gene Roddenberry. Penguin/Roc, May 1994. [Roddenberry, G.] Engel, Joe\. Gene Roddenberry: The Myth and the Man Behind Star Trek. Hyperion, Apr 1994. [Serling, R.] Sander, Gordon F. Serling: The Rise and Twih"ght of Television's Last Ang1}' Man. PenguinIPlume, Jan 1994. [Shelley, M.] Blumberg, Jane. Mary SheDey's Early Novels: 'This Child of Imagination and Misery'. Univ. of Iowa Pr., Apr 1993. [Stoker, 8.] Senf, Carof A, ed. The CrItical Response to Bram Stoker. Greenwood Pr., Dec 1993. [Strugatsky Bros.] Howell, Yvonne. Apocalyptic Realism: The Science Fiction of Arkady and Boris Strugat.sky. Peter Lang, Jul 1993. [Takei, G.] Takei, George. An American Begmning. Pocket, Nov 1994. [Tolkien, J.] Tolkien, J. R. R. The War of the Jewels: The Later Silmarilhon, Part Il Houghton Mifflin, Fal 1994. [Vance, J.] Hewett, Jerry & Daryl F. Mallett. The Work of Jack Vance: An Annotated BIbhographyand Guide. Borgo Pr.!Underwood-Miller, Mar 1994. [Vance, J.] Temianka, Dan. The Jack Vance Lexicon: From Ahulph to Zipangote. Underwood-Miller (P). 15

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SFRA Revlew'21l, May/June 1994 [Verne, J.] Taves, Brian & Stephen Michaluk Jr. The Jules Verne Encyclopedia. Scarecrow Pr., Spr 1994. [Verne, J.] Teeters, Peggy. Jules Verne: The Man MJo Invented Tomorrow. Walker, Jan 1993. [Wells, H.] Coren, Michael. The Invisible Man: The life and liberties of H G. Wells". Athenuem, Aug 1993. [Wells, H.] David Y. & Harry M. Geduld, .eds. Annotated and Critical Edmon of The War of the Worlds. Indiana Uruv. Pr., May 1993 (postponed from Fal 1992). [Wells, H.] Philmus, Robert M., introducer and annotater. The Island of Doctor Moreau, by H G. Wells". Univ. of Georgia Pr., Feb 1993. [Wilde, 0.] Willoughby, Guy. Art and Christhood: The Aesthetics of Oscar Wilde. Farleigh Dickinson, 1993 (P). [Zelazny, R.] Lindskold, Jane M. Roger Zelazny. Macmillan/fwayne, Nov 93. FILm Ii TV Ii THERTRE Archer, Steve. WiUis O'Brien: Special Effects Gerulli. McFarland, Sum 1993. Carrou, Bob. Momters and Aliem /Tom George Lucas. Abrams, Oct 1993. Champlin, Charles. George Lucas: The Creative Impulse, an IUustrated History ofLucaslilm s First Twenty Years. Abrams (P). Chunovic, Louis. The Quantum Leap Book. Carol Publ. Co., 1993. Copjec, Joan. Shades ofNoir. Verso, distributed by Routledge, 1994. Cornell, Paul, Keith Topping & Martin Day. The Avengers Program Guide. Virgin, Jan 1994. Cox, Stephen. The Flintstones: A Modern Stone Age Phenomenon. Turner, May 1994. Creed, Barbara. The Momtrous-Feminine: Film, Feminism, Psychoanalysis. Routledge, 1994. Drake, Chris. The Making of UFO and Space 1999. Boxtree, Apr 1994. Ellison, Harlan. Harlan Eflisons Watching. Underwood-Miller, (P) (R of 1989 ed.). Erlich, Robert. Dockworks: A Multimedia Blblio{JTaphy of Works Useful for the Study of the Human/Machine Interface m SF. Greenwood Pr., Jul 1993 (P). Everman, Welch D. Cult Horror Films: Offbeat Thrillers /Tom Attack of the Fifty Foot Woman to Zombies of Nora Tau. Carol Pub. Group, 1993. Farrand, Phil. The Nitpickers Guide for Dassic Trekkers. Delta, Nov 1994. Farrand, Phil. The Nitpickers Gwde for Next Generation Trekkers. Dell, Nov 1993; SFBC Jan 1994; Titan Nov 1993. Finch, Christopher. Jim Hemon: The Works. Random House, 1993 (P). [Reviewed by Ron & Jan Wolfe in The Arkamas Democrat-Gazette. For a copy, contact me. -D.F.M.] Flynn, John L. The Films of Arnold Schwarzenegger. Carol Pub. Group, 1993. Fury, David. Kings of the Jungle: An IUustrated Reference to Tarzan on Screen and Television. McFarland, Sum 1993. Gross, Ed & Mark Altman. Star Trek: Captains Log Supplement. Boxtree, Feb 1994. Gross, Ed & Mark Altman. Star Trek: Deep Space Nine Logbook. Boxtree, Mar 1994. Hardy, Phil, ed. Aurum Film Encyclopedia VoL 3: Horror. Aurum Pr., Oct 1993. 16

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SFRA Revle .... '211, May/June 1994 Hardy. Phil. ed. The Overlook Film Encyclopedia: Science Fiction. Overlook Pr . Jan 1994. House of Dracula. MagicImage Filmbooks. (P). Howe. David J. Doctor Mlo: Timefi'ame: The IUustrated History. Doctor Who Books UK. Oct 1993. Howe. David J . Mark Stammers. & Stephen James Walker. The Doctor Mlo Handbook: The Fourth Doctor. Doctor Who Books UK. Dec 1992. Howe. David J . Mark Stammers. & Stephen James Walker. Doctor Mlo, The Handbook: The Sixth Doctor. Doctor Who Books UK, Nov 1993. Jameson. Richard T . ed. They Went Thataway: Redefining Film Genres. Mercury. distributed by Consortium. Feb 1994. [Reviewed by Benjamin Segedin in Booklist, Jan IS. 1994. -D.F.M.] Kalmus. Herbert T. & Eleanore King Kalmus. Mr. Technicolor: An Autobiography. MagicImage Filmbooks. (P). Kinnard. Roy. ed. The Lost World of WiUis O'Brien: The Original Shooting Script of the 1925 Landmark Special Effects Dinosaur Film. McFarland, Sum 1993. Klein. Michael. Seven Minutes: The Life and Death of the American Animated Cartoon. Routledge. Chapmann & Hall. Dec 1993. Lentz. Thomas M. III. Science Fiction, Horror and Fantasy Film and Television Credits, Supplement 2: Throu!!h 1993. McFarland. 1994. Lichtenberg. Jacqueline. Sondra Marshak (3 Joan Winston. Star Trek Lives! Titan. Oct 1993 (R). Lopez. Daniel. Films by Genre: 77S Categories, Styles, Trends, and Movements Defined with a Filmography for Each. McFarland. Sum 1993. Mank. Gregory William. HoUywood Cauldron: Thirteen Horror Films fi'om the Genre's GOlden Me. McFarland. Sum 1993. Marinaccio. Dave. All I ReaUy Needed to Know I Learned From Watching Star Trek. Crown. Jun 1994. Maxwell. Thomas. The Trek Umversallndex. Boxtree. Apr 1994. McCarty. John. Psycho: Ninety Years of Mad Movies, Mamacs, and Murderous Deeds. Carol Publishing Group. May 1993. Nance. Scott. The Spirit of Trek. Pioneer. Nov 1993. Nance. Scott. Trek: Deep Space Nine. Pioneer Books. Feb 1993. Nemecek. Larry. The Star Trek: The Next Generation wmpamon, Revised EditIon. Pocket. Dec 1993. Okuda. Michael. The Star Trek EncyclopedIa. Pocket. Apr 1994; Simon & Schuster UK. May 1994. Parish. James Robert. Ghosts and Angels in HoUywood Films: Plots, Critiques, Casts and Credits for 262 Theatrical and Made-forTelevisIon Releases. McFarland. 1994. Paul. William. Laughin[f. Screaming: Modern HoUywood Horror and wmedy. Columbia Uruv. Pr .. May 1994 (P). Peel. John. The OfliCIal Thunderbirds, Stingray. and Captain Scarlet Programme Gwde. Virgin. Dec 1993. Ramsland. Katherine. The Witching Hour wmpamon. Ballantine. Nov 1994. Reeves-Stevens. Garfield & Judith Reeves-Stevens. The Making of Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. Pocket. Oct 1994. Quarles. Mike. Down and Dirty: HoUywood's ExploitatIon Filmmakers and Their Movies. McFarland. Sum 1993. Salwolke. Scott. Nicholas Roeg Film by Film. McFarland. Sum 1993. Schelde. Per. AndrOIds, HumanOIds, and Other Science FictIon Monsters: Science and Soul in Science FictIon Films. New York Univ. Pr.. 1993 (P). 17

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SFRA Review 1211, MaYI June 1994 [Reviewed by Ron & Jan Wolfe in The Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. For a copy, contact me. -D.F.M.] Schoell, William & James Spencer. The Niffhtmare Never Ends: The Oflicial History of Freddy Krueger and the Nightmare on Elm Street Films. Citadel Pr. (P). Sevastkis, Michael. of Love &' Death: The Dassical American Horror Film of the 1930s. Greenwood, Mar 1993 (P). Siegel, Don. A Siegel Film: An Autobiography. Faber & Faber, Nov 1993. Silver, Alain & James Ursini. More Things Than Are Dreamt Of: Master Tales of the Supernatural-From Mary SheUey to Stephen King-Transformed on Film. Limelight Editions, Apr 1994. Skal, David J. The Monster Show: A Cultural History of Horror. Norton, May 1993. Slavicsek, William. A Guide to the Star Wan' Um'ven'e, Second Edition. BallantinelDel Rey, Mar 1994. Story, David. America on the Rerun: TV Shows That Never Die. Carol Pub. Group, 1993. Thompson, Frank. Tim Burton's Nightmare Before Christmas: The Film, the Art, the Vision. Hyperion, Oct 1993 (P). Van Hise, James. The Dassie Trek uew Book. Pioneer, Oct 1993. Van Hise, James. The Next Generation TrIbute Book. Pioneer, Sep 1993. Van Hise, James. Sci Fi TV /Tom Twilight Zone to Deep Space Nine. Pioneer, Jun 1993. Van Hise, James. Trek: The Next Generation uew Book. Pioneer, May 1993. Van Hise, James. Trek: The Printed Adventures. Pioneer, 1993. Van Hise, James. Trek Ven'us Next Generation. Pioneer, Nov 1993. Walker, Stephen James & Mark Stammers. Doctor MJo: Decalogue. Doctor Who Books UK, Mar 1994. Westmore, Michael & Joe Nazzaro. Star Trek: The Next Generation: Make Up Effects Manual. Titan, Nov 1993. Willard, Nancy. The Sorcerer's Apprentice. ScholasticIBlue Sky Pr., Oct 1993. Willingham, Ralph. Science Fiction and the Theatre. Greenwood Pr., Dec 1993 (P). Wright, Bruce. Yesterday'S Tomorrows: The Golden Age of Science Fiction Movie Posten'. Taylor Publishing, Apr 1993. ILLUBTRRTlDn/COmICB Addams, Charles. The World of Charles Addams. Random House/Knopf, Dec 1993. Alighieri, Dante. Paradiso. Random House, Nov 1993. Anderson, Wayne. Throuffh the lookinG. Glass. Paper Tiger/Avery, Apr 1993. Andersson, Max & Rickard Gramfors. Pixy. Fantagraphics, 1993. [Reviewed by Gordon Flagg in Booldist, Jan 15, 1994. -D.F.M.] Anon. The Pop-Up Mickey Mouse. Anon. The Pop-Up Minme Mouse. Anon. Wild Cartoon KinF?dom No.2. Anon. The Worlds ofTSR: A Journey Through the Landscape of/magination. TSR, Aug 1994. Bantock, Nick. The Egyptian Jukebox. Viking, Sep 1993. Bantock, Nick. The Golden Mean: The Extraordinary Correspondence Continues. Chronicle Books, Oct 1993. 18

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SFRA Revle ... '211, May/JuDe 1994 Barker. Give. Clive Barker IUustrator 11: The Art of Clive Barker. Eclipse Books. Win 1993. Barks. Carl. Carl Barks' LIbrary Album #23. WALT DISNEY'S CoMICS & STORIES. Barks. Carl. Carl Barks' Library of Gyro Gearloose Stories #6. Bok. Hannes. A Hannes Bok Treasury. Underwood-Miller. May 1993. Borst. Ronald V .. Keith Burns & Leith Adams. eds. Graven Images: The Best of Horror, Fantasy. and Science Fiction Film Art. Grove Pr . Oct 1993. Bradbury. Ray. RayBradbwyChronicJes. VoL S. Bull. Emma. The Princess and the Lord of Night. Harcourt Brace. Mar 1994. Calle. Paul. Paul CaUe: An Artist's Journey. Mill Pond Pr . Oct 1993. Ciruelo. The Book of the Dragon. SFBC. Aug 1993. Day. David & Alan Lee. Tolkien's World: of Middle-Earth. HarperCollins. 1992. De Berardinis. Olivia. Let Them Eat Cheesecake: The Art of Olivia. Orone Productions. Sep 1993. Delamare. David. MermaIds &' Magic Shows: The Art of DaVId Delamare. Paper Tiger. Feb 1994. Edwards. Malcolm & Robert Holdstock. Realms of Fantasy: An IUustrated Exploration of the Most Famous Worlds of Fantasy Fiction. Collier Macmillan. Mar 1993 (R of 1983 ed.). Fabian. Stephen E. Ladies &' Legends. Underwood-Miller. Aug 1993. Finch. Christopher. Jim Henson: The Works. Random House. Nov 1993. Flynn. Danny. The Art of Danny Flynn. Paper Tiger. May 1994. Foster. Hal. Prince Valiant/Manuscript Press. VoL 1 (1937)-2 (1938). Gerani. Gary. New VLSIOns: The Art of Star Wan' Galaxy. Underwood-Miller. Mar 1994. Godwin. Malcolm. The Holy Grail: A Legend of Our Time. Viking. May 1994. Gurney. James. Dinotopia. Turner. May 1994 (R). Gurney. James. The Dinotopia Pop-Up Books. Turner Publishing. Sep 1993. Kerrod. Robin. NASA: VLSIOns of Space. Ketcham. Hank. The Merchant of DennLS the Menace: Hank Ketcham. Kirby. Josh. The Josh Kirby DLScworld Portfoho. Paper Tiger. Nov 1993. Kirschner. David & Ernie Contreras. The Pagemaster. Turner Publishing. Nov 1993. Lee. Stan. Jack Kirby & Dick Ayers. Avengers Masterworks. Volume 1. Lohan. Frank J. The Drawing Handbook Maitz. Don. Dreamquests: The Art of Don Maitz. Underwood-Miller. Nov 1993; SFBC. Apr 1994. Malloy. Alex G. Comic Book ArtLSts. Chilton Book Co .. Nov 1993. Marigny. Jean. Vampires: Restless Creatures of the Mght. Abrams. Spr 1994. Matthews. Rodney. The Second Rodney Matthews Portfoho. Paper Tiger. Nov 1993. McCloud. Scott. Understanding Comics: The InvisIble Art. Kitchen Sink Pr.!fundra Publishing. 1993. [Reviewed by Philip Martin in The Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. Feb 11.1994. -D.F.M.J Medding;. Derek. 21st Centwy VLSIOns. Paper Tiger. Nov 1993. Moench. Doug. Kelley Jones & John Beatty. Batman: Dark Joker-The Wild. Morrissey. Dean. The Ship of Dreams. Mill Pond Pr .. Spr 1994. Potter. J. K. HorripilatIons. Paper Tiger. Nov 1993. Pratchett. Terry & Stephen Brigg;. The Streets of Ankh-Morpork Corgi. Nov 1993. Schwertberger. De Fs. Heavy LIght: The Art of De Es. Morpheus International. Nov 1993. 19

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SFRA RevJew'211, May/June 1994 Server, Lee. Danger is My Business: An IDustrated History of the Fabulous PuJpMagazines, 1896-1953. Chronicle Books, May 1993. Simmons, Gary. The Technical Pen. Simonson, Walt, Gil Kane & George Perez. Jurassic Park. Spiegelman, Art. Maus. Whalley, Joyce Irene & Tessa Rose Chester. The Bright Stream: A History of Children's Book lDustration. David R. Godine, Dec 1993. Whelan, Michael. The Art of Michael Whelan. Bantam Spectra, Oct 1993. Wiater, Stan & Stephen R. Bissette. Comic Book Rebels: Conversations with the Creators of the New Comics. Donald I. Fine, 1993. Yerka, Jacek. The Fantastic Art of Jacek Yerka. Morpheus International, Nov 1994. Yerka, Jacek & Harlan Ellison. Mind Fields: The Art of Jacek Yerka-The Fiction of Harlan Ellison. Morpheus International, Feb 1994. BOOKS on TAPE, CD, VIDEO ab Hugh, Dafydd. Star Trek: Deep Space Nine: FaDen Heroes. Simon & Schuster, May 1994. Read by Rene Auberjonois. Boucher, Anthony & Denis Green. The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, Volume 22: Murder By Moonlight and The Singular Affair of the Coptic Compass. Simon & Schuster, December 1993 (P). Read by Basil Rathbone & Nigel Bruce. Boucher, Anthony & Denis Green. The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, Volume 23: The Gunpowder Plot and The Singular Affair of the Babbling Butler. Simon & Schuster, February 1994. Read by Basil Rathbone, Nigel Bruce & Tom Conway. Boucher, Anthony & Denis Green. The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, Volume 24: The AccIdental Murders and The Adventure of the Blarney Stone. Simon & Schuster, June 1994. Read by Basil Rathbone, Nigel Bruce & Tom Conway. Crispin, Ann C. Star Trek: Sarek. Simon & Schuster, March 1994. Read by Mark Leonard. David, Peter. Star Trek: Revelations, A Captain Sulu Adventure. Simon & Schuster, September 1994. Read by George Takei and others. David, Peter. Star Trek: The Next Generation: Q-Squared. Simon & Schuster, July 1994. Reader TBA. Dickens, Charles. A Christmas CaroL Simon & Schuster, October 1993 (P). Read by Patrick Stewart. Duane, Diane. Star Trek: The Next Generation: Dark Mirror. Simon & Schuster, December 1993. Read by John DeLancie (P). Friedman, Michael Jan. Star Trek: The Next Generation Final Episode. Simon & Schuster, June 1994. Reader TBA. King, Stephen. The Mist in 3-D, Sound CD. Simon & Schuster, September 1993 (P). Koontz, Dean R. Mr. Murder. Simon & Schuster, December 1993 (P). Read by Jay O. Sanders. Mack, John. Abduction: Human Encounters with Aliens. Simon & Schuster, May 1994 (P). Read by Josef Sommer. Rice, Anne. The Oaiming of Sleeping Beauty. Simon & Schuster, August 1994. Reader TBA. Sommer, Bobbe & Mark Falstein. Psycho-Cybernetics 2000. Simon & Schuster, January 1994. Read by the authors. 20

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SFRA Revlew'211, May/June 1994 Stern. David. Star Trek: TrallSformation. Simon & Schuster. February 1994 (P). Read by George Takei. Dana Ivey & Daniel Gerroll. -Neil Barron & Daryl F. Mallett 21

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SFRA RevJell"'211, May/June 1994 22

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SFRA Revlew'211, May/June 1994 NEWS 61 INFDRMATIDN CRLLS FOR PRPERS Alex Eisenstein is working on a book on the art of Ed Emshwiller and is seeking cover paintings and interior art by this SF master. and one-time Dean of Cal-Arts. to photograph for the book. Please pass on names of collectors who might own pieces by this artist. SFRA 1994: The Science Fiction Research will hold its 1994 annual conference. "Science Fiction Out of Hand." July 7-10. 1994 at the Arlington Park Hilton; 3400 W. Euclid (at Route 53); Arlington Heights. Illinois. Authors Sheri S. Tepper and Octavia E. Butler will be special guests. Other authors and editors attending include: Gene Wolfe. Jack Williamson. Joan Vinge. Joan Slonczewski. Frederik Pohl. James Gunn. Philip Jose Farmer. and Phyllis & Alex Eisenstein. The SFRA's Pilgrim and Pioneer Awards for distinguished contributions to SF and fantasy scholarship will be given during the conference. Regarding the theme ofthe conference. directors Elizabeth Anne Hull of William Rainey Harper College and Beverly Friend of Oakton Community College comment: "Science fiction. the literature of change. is also a literature that makes connections among pasts. presents. and many possible futures. SF fragments our present and reassembles it in new ways. Will the center hold? How have writers in this speculative field viewed the components of human experience-individual. family. community. nation. world-singly or together?" The directors welcome papers on any component in this SF "hand." They especially invite papers dealing with the works of the special guests and the other authors. The deadline for paper proposals is March 1. 1994. Two copies of any proposal should be sent to Dr. Hull at the Div. of Liberal Arts; William Rainey Harper College; Palatine. IL 60067. The advance registration fee for the conference is $1l5. which includes admission to all sessions. the Saturday night awards banquet. and the SFRA Hospitality Suite. The rate rises to $130 after June 10. 1994. Optional activities include a Friday night excursion to Medieval Times ($30) and a Sunday brunch ($25). Send registration fees to Dr. Hull. Hotel rooms at the Arlington Park Hilton will be $79 per night during the conference. Reservations must be made prior to June 10th. To make reservations. contact the hotel directly; phone the toll-free number 800/3443434 from outside Illinois; within Illinois. call 708/384-2000; or write to the Arlington Park Hilton; 3400 W. Euclid; Arlington Heights. IL 60005-1052. 23

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SFRA Rene." 1211, Mayl June 1994 For your information: Founded in 1970, the Science Fiction Research Association is the oldest professional organization for the study of science fiction, fantasy, horror/Gothic, and utopian literature and cinema. The association's goals are to improve classroom teaching, to encourage and assist scholarship, and to evaluate and publicize new books and magazines dealing with fantastic literature and films. The SFRA's members come from many countries and include instructors at all levels, librarians, students, authors, editors, publishers, libraries, and readers with widely varied interests. For more information, contact Dr. Hull or call her at 708/925-6323. -Leah Zeldes Smith; William Rainey Harper College Comics Studies Anthology: Peter Coogan and Solomon Davidoff are planning a book on MallS titled, Here Our Reflections Begin: Commentary and Criticism on (and (1) Art Spiegelman's MallS. Articles and proposals from a wide range of theoretical, and disciplinary approaches, including previously published material, will be considered for inclusion. In general, abstracts should be between 200-250 words and articles from 20-30 double-spaced pages, including notes and appendices. Manuscripts may be submitted on paper, through electronic mail (ASCII text), or on computer diskette (Macintosh format, ASCII text, or Microsoft (TM) Word). Please enclose an SASE with all correspondence. Contact Peter Coogan; Comic Art Studies; MSU Libraries; East Lansing, MI 48824-1048; 517/485-8039 (H); 517/353-4858 (B); email cooganpe@student.msu.edu -Peter Coogan & Solomon Davidoff Midwest Popular Culture Association and the Midwest American Culture Association: The Comic Art & Comics Area of the MPCNMACA is soliciting papers for presentation at the 21st Annual Conference of the Midwest Popular Culture Association and the Midwest American Culture Association to be held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Friday October 7 to Saturday October 8, 1994. Deadline: June I, 1994; Format: 75-word abstract. The Comic Art & Comics Area welcomes presentations from all academic disciplines. Submissions from scholars unaffiliated with a college or university, as well as graduate students and undergraduates are encouraged. Proposal sheets should include all the following information: name, home and work addresses, home and work phone numbers, email address and FAX number if you have these, Presentation Title, 75-word abstract, audio/visual equipment needs, day/time preference. For information or submissions, contact Peter Coogan; Comic Art Studies; MSU Libraries; East Lansing, MI 48824-1048; 517/485-8039 (H); 517/353-4858 (B); email cooganpe@student.msu.edu For information on other areas, or on the MPCNMACA, please write: Carl B. Holmburg, Executive Secretary, MPCNMACA; Popular Culture Dept.; Bowling Green State University; Bowling Green, OH 43403; 419/372-8172.; cholmbe@andy.bg;u.edu -Peter Coogan Third Annual Comic Arts Conference: The Third Annual Comic Arts Conference is accepting papers to be presented at a joint meeting of comics scholars and professionals at the Chicago ComiCon on Saturday, July 2, 1994. 24

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SFRA Revlew'21l, May/June 1994 Papers may be on any area of comics research including. but not limited to: Comics Scholarship, Teaching Comics and Teaching with Comics, History of the Medium, Creator Biographies, Comics Theory and Aesthetics, Audience Studies/Fan Culture, IndustriaVEconomic Analysis, Gender Studies, Scott McOoud's Understanding Comics. Faculty, students, and those outside the university community are encouraged to make submissions. Professionals interested in making slide (or other) presentations and/or serving as respondents for papers are encouraged to make submissions as well. A 50-100 word abstract must be submitted no later than April 1, 1994. Notification of acceptance will be sent on April 10. For citation and bibliography, use a style recognized by your academic discipline. Each completed paper should include a one-paragraph biographical sketch of the author(s). Completed papers should be to the program coordinator by June 3, 1994. Inquiries, abstracts, articles, and registration forms for this should be sent to Peter Coogan; Comic Art Studies; MSU Libraries; East Lansing, MI 48824-1048; 517/485-8039 (H); 517/353-4858 (8); email cooganpe@student.msu.edu -Peter Coogan MILLENNIUM'S END AS STORY AND MOTIF? I am compiling a list (with a view to assembling and editing an anthology) of stories that focus on this century's and this millennium's end (i.e., on the years 1999, 2000, or 2001), such as James Blish's "Turn of a Century" (Dynamic Science Fiction, March 1993), or novels in which that topic constitutes a significant motif, such as Robert Silverberg's The Stochastic Man (1975). He would be grateful for any title suggestions. If you have any, please write to Dr. David Ketterer; Dept. of English; Concordia University; 1455 de Maisonneuve Boulevard West; Montreal, Quebec, H3G IM8 CANADA. All correspondents on this subject will be acknowledged in any consequent publication. -David Ketterer I am preparing a special issue of LIbrary Trends dealing with speculative fiction in the libraries. Topics can be general or specific, targeting cataloging problems, storage facilities, preservation, specific difficulties in this field, lack of information, miscataloging, purchasing & ordering, ILL, or more. Please query or send a prospectus/abstract to me at: Daryl F. Mallett; 11461 Magnolia Avenue #251; Riverside, CA 92505. -Daryl F. Mallett THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA GALACTICA: I've been engaged by Prentice Hall to produce The Encyclopaedia Galactica, a reference work consisting of three cross-referenced volumes called The Encyclopaedia Galactica, Fantasia, and Horrifica. The project survived a change of staff at the publisher as a number of irreconcilable creative differences between myself and myex-collaborator, Michael Kurland. Each volume will feature the following articles/appendices: 2S

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SFRA Rerie .... 211, May/JuDe 1994 1. Biographical profiles of authors, artists, and editors. 2. Bibliographies of all the author's fiction books (giving publication dates & awards received) listed in series/alpha order, plus up to five nonfiction books or articles as well as produced screenplays and for tv series experience (including animations). Noteworthy stories will be covered within each biography. Forthcoming books will be listed as well as works in progress. 3. Ephemera-board and computer games, etc. 4. Films Reviews-About 100 per volume. 5. Professional and fan organizations and awards. 6. Photos by Christine Valada, who is responsible for the "Wall of Fame" shown at WorldCons. 7. Publishing-small presses, prozines, fanzines, Science Fiction Book Oub, series (e.g., Ace Science Fiction Specials, Ballantine Adult Fantasy, Forgotten Fantasy). 8. Signature Pieces (see article on same). 9. Topics-Articles on everything from Space Travel to The Living Dead to Arthurian Fantasy. Signature Pieces: Some of the field's finest writers were invited to contribute. The result: these original articles: Fantasia: "Dragons, Unicorns and Elves: Avoiding Cliches," by Marion Zimmer Bradley; "The Fall and Rise of Fantasy," by L. Sprague de Camp; "Defining Magic Realism," by Charles de Lint; "Women Warriors in Fantasy," by Andre Norton; "Weapons in Fantasy," by Gene Wolfe. Galactica: "Why a Quark? Humor in Science Fiction," by Alan Dean Foster; "Consultants: The Use and Treatment Thereof," by Anne McCaffrey; "Science Fiction: Puips ... and Prophecy," by Frank Robinson; "SF and the Beasts," by Norman Spinrad; "The Fiction in Science Fiction," by William Tenn. Horrilica: "The Golden Age of Horror Films," by Robert Bloch; "Dark Theatre of the Mind: Horror on Radio," by William F. Nolan; "The Horror Writer as Grendel," by Dan Simmons. I'm looking for other professional writers and researchers interested in contributing author profiles and/or specific theme entries of one paragraph to 2.500 words. Please write to me at 8740 Penfield Avenue; Northridge, CA 91324-3224 for rates, guidelines, and master list. You can also send e-mail via al}Y of these on-line services: AOL (LydiaM); CompuServe (70720,604); and GEnie (LMaranoI). -Lydia Marano CoMIC BooKS AND LIBRARIES: For the journal Popular Culture in LJbraries. Anyone interested in writing articles examining any aspects of comic books or related materials (comic strips, big-little books, etc.) in relation to libraries, 26

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SFRA Rev.#ew.211, May/June 1994 should contact issue editors: Doug Highsmith; University Library Reference; California State University, Fullerton; Fullerton, CA 92634-4150; 714/7732976; FAX 714/773-2439, or Allen Ellis above. Deadline for submission of manuscripts is June 30, 1994. -Neil Barron JOURNAL OF THE FANTASl1C IN THE ARTS: Editor Carl B. Yoke is seeking papers for a special issue on alienation and the figure of the outsider in the fantastic, 3,000-6,000 words in length, following the current MIA style manual. This special issue will appear in late 1993 or early 1994; submit immediately to 1157 Temple Trail; Stow, OH 44224-2238. -Neil Barron I am putting together a collection of essays on the fiction of R. A. Lafferty, to be called The Astrolabe Papers. I'm looking for original scholarly essays on all aspects of Lafferty's fiction. Papers can be about a specific story or novel, recurring themes, almost anything that relates to the work and career of R. A. Lafferty. I'm paying $35.00 plus two copies of the book. Submissions and queries should be sent to Steve Pasechnick; Edgewood Press; P.O. Box 380264; Cambridge, MA 02238. -Steve Pasechnick SFRA ANTHOLOGY: Daryl F. Mallett and I have been asked to edit a new SFRA anthology of short stories to be used for teaching in college and university science fiction classes. The present anthology, published by HarperCollins, is badly out of date and the publisher appears to have no desire to revise it. Therefore, we are selecting ideas about what you liked in the old anthology and what you would like to see in a new one. If interested in assisting us in this endeavor or just in making suggestions, please contact either of us soon. -Milton T. Wolf INTERNATIONAL EATON CONFERENCE: An international conference on the topic" The Time Machine: Past, Present, and Future," will be held July 2629, 1995 at Imperial College, London, England. Sponsored by The H. G. Wells Society and The J. Uoyd Eaton Collection of Science Fiction and Fantasy Literature at the University of California, Riverside, the joint international symposium will be held to celebrate the centenary of H. G. Wells's The Time Machine. Outline proposals for the following areas are particularly welcomed: The Time Machine as Text; 17M and the Iin-de-siecle; 17M and 19th century science; 17M and the Int'l Development of Modern SF; 17M and Modern Cosmology: The Coming Together of Biology and Physics. Proposals should be sent to Dr. Sylvia Hardy, H. G. Wells Society, Dept. of English, Nene College, Moulton Park, Northhampton NN2 7AL ENGLAND, FAX: 011/44/604-720636 and to Dr. George E. Slusser, J. Uoyd Eaton 27

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SFRA Rel'iew'211, May/June 1994 Collection, Rivera Library, University of California, Riverside, P.O. Box 5900, Riverside, CA 92517 USA, FAX: 909/787-3285. -George E. Slusser "I am preparing to edit THE DICTIONARY OF liTERARY BIOGRAPHY volumes on British science fiction and fantasy authors. If SFRA members are interested in contributing an/some essay/s to these volumes, please send me a list of author/s by preference and a summary of your related expertise. I shall be happy to give any additional information as needed. Send replies/queries to Darren Harris-Fain; 113 Paces Run Court; Columbia, SC 29223-7944. Please note new address." -Darren Harris-Fain "I have been appointed editor of a Special Issue of SHA W which will be concerned with "Speculative Fiction and George Bernard Shaw." I am interpreting that loosely enough to invite articles on late 19th century speculative literature which may have influenced GBS and the English culture of the time. There will be a panel on this subject at both the next IAFA meeting in March and at the SFRA meeting in Reno. I welcome proposals for both the and the publication. There is plenty of lead-time, so give it some thought." -Milton Wolf GREENWOOD PRESS: Call for monograph proposals in science fiction and fantasy. Greenwood Press is seeking proposals for book-length, single authored scholarly volumes in its CoNTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF ScIENCE FICl'ION AND FANTASY series, edited by Marshall B. Tymn, Donald E. Palumbo, and C. W. Sullivan III. Proposals should include a brief prospectus, a table of contents, a one-paragraph description of each chapter, and a curriculum vitae. Proposals on science fiction and fantasy are invited in such areas as film studies, other popular culture studies, art, science fiction, fantasy literature, mythology, and folklore. Please send proposals that deal primarily with film, other popular culture studies, art, or science fiction to Donald E. Palumbo; Dept. of English; East Carolina University; Greenville, NC 27858. Please send proposals that deal primarily with fantasy literature, mythology, or folklore to C. W. Sullivan III; Dept. of English; East Carolina University; Greenville, NC 27858. -Donald E. Palumbo & C. W. Sullivan III SFRR mEmBER WORKS In PROBRESS Becker, Muriel. Clifford D. Simak, a revised edition of the bibliography. Cannon, Peter. Scream for Jeeves, a collection of parodies combining the styles ofH. P. Lovecraft and P. G. Wodehouse. Crawford, Gary. A bio-bibliography of J. Sheridan LeFanu for Greenwood Press. 28

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SFRA Revlewf21l, May/June 1994 Crossley. Robert. A biography. Olaf Stapledon: for the Future. to be published by Syracuse Univ. Pr. in the U.S. and by Liverpool Univ. Pr. in the U.K. in June 1994. Cummins. Elizabeth. A Judith Merril Bibliography for Borgo Pr. Eisenstein. Alex. Book on the art of Ed Emshwiller. Elsbree. Langdon. Have just completed a mss. on anthropology and SF. with special focus on rites of passage and liminality in Oarke. Sturgeon. Golding. Le Guin. and Gibson. Erlich. Richard. Oockworks 2, The Sequel: A Database of Human/Machine Works. Returned to work on a book on Le Guin. Gordon. Joan. Book on the relationships realism. speculation, hallucination, and metaphor in science fiction, Wlth the working title of Mobius Science Fiction. Harris-Fain. Darren. Editing Dictionary of Literary Biography volumes on British SF and fantasy; Book on American SF since 1970. Landon. Brooks. Science Fiction Since 1900 for Twayne Genre Series. Levy. Michael. Article on YA SF as Editing the long-delayed SF&'F Book Review Annual. 1992. Lewis. Anthony R Collection of Barry Malzburg's recursive SF stories; Second Edition of BIbliography of Recursive SF. Mallett. Daryl F. SFRA Review (-#211). Several screenplays (w/Kimberly Baltzer. Elizabeth Chater. and Luis Valdez). Several teleplays (w/Kimberly Baltzer. David M. Alexander, David C. Barber, and Arthur Loy Holcomb). Several novels (wlKimberly Baltzer, Arthur Loy Holcomb. Robert Reginald, David C. Barber. and more, including Black Destroyerw/A. E. van Vogt). Pilgrims &' Pioneers w/Hal Hall. SFRA 1993 Proceedings w/Milton Wolf. Magazine index w/Hal Hall. A special issue of LIbrary Trends, and MORE! Short stories appearing in Other Worlds and Star Wars: Tales !Tom Jabba's Palace. edited by Kevin J. Anderson. Pastourmatzi. Domna. Working on a bibliography of fantastic literature (SF/FIHIMystery) of translated authors in the Greek language, with possible publication Summer 1994. Sanders. Joe. Revisions of Zelazny bibliography and Smith author study (Borgo/Starmont); SF Fandom (Greenwood); Functions of the FantastIC (Greenwood). Shirk. Dora & Douglas. Compiling the most "complete" bibliography about SF/F/H ... all help welcome. Slonczewski. Joan. Novel in progress. The Children Star, about a colony of children on a planet inhabited by creatures with protein-backbone DNA. Tatsumi. Takavuki. Books just published include Meta5ction as Ideology (Tokyo: Chikuma. 1993) and A Manifesto for JapanOJds (Tokyo: Hayakawa, 1993). Umland. Samuel J. Philip K Dick: Contemporary Critical Interpretation, Greenwood Pr . 1994. Winnington. G. Peter. Mervyn Peake bibliography. BRRHRm BOOKH This (20 January 1994) list supercedes that in SFRAR #206. Books listed here were unsold at the Reno SFRA Conference. pious books received since then, all at savings of 40-60% off list price. All books listed are hardcover except as 29

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SFRA Review 1211, May/June 1994 noted (tp=trade paperback), are new, often with publisher information laid in, with jackets if issued. Year of publication is 1992-94 except as noted. List price appears in parentheses, selling price in boldface. USPS surface shipping costs: $1.50 first book, $1.00 each additional book, with books shipped free for any order totaling $100.00+. (Figure two mass market paperbacks = one book). Make all checks payable to NEIL BARRON, 1149 Lime Place; Vista, CA 92083; 619/726-3238 (after 6:00 p.m. Tue.-Thurs., Sun., anytime Fri. or Sat.). Please list alternates; a refund check will be immediately sent for any books previously sold. A portion of the revenue li"om the sale of these books wiU be donated to SFRA. Reference: Barron, Neil, ed. Anatomy of Wonder: A Critical Gwde to SF, Third Edition. Bowker, 1987. Hugo Award Nominee. The 200+ pages devoted to SF not translated into English from thirteen languages will be dropped from the fourth edition, and many books will be dropped, 900 p., ($44.95), $38.61. Barron, Neil, ed. Fantasy Literature: A Reader's Gwde and Horror Literature: A Reader's Gwde. Garland, 1990. Similar in format to AOW, 600+ pages each, ($55.00 each), $44.00 each. None of these titles is ever sold at less than Jist. Cassidy, Bruce, ed. Modern Mystery, Fantasy. and Science Fiction WnteJ:S". Continuum, 700 p., ($75.00), $40.00. Kies, Cosette. Supernatural Fiction for Teens: More Than 1300 Good Paperbacks to Read for Wonderment, Fear, and Fun. Libraries UnIimited, ($24.95 tp), $12.00. Rosenberg, Betty & Diana Tixier Herald. GenreOecting: A Gwde to Reading Interests in Genre Fiction, Third &iJtion. Libraries Unlimited, 1991, ($33.50), $17.00. History & Criticism: Aertsen, Henk & Alasdair A. MacDonald, eds. Compamon to Mlddle English Romance. VU University Press, ($34.95 tp), $12.00. Barr, Marleen S. Lost in Space: Probing Feminist Science FictIon and Beyond University of North Carolina Press, ($14.95 tp), $8.00. Bradley, Marion Zimmer. The Necessity for Beauty: Robert W. ChambeJ:S" & the Romantic TraditIon. T-K Graphics, 1974,45 p., stapled tp. Long OP. $4.00. Caidin, Martin S. Natural or SupernaturaL A Casebook of True, Unexplained Mysteries. Contemporary, ($12.95 tp), $5.00. Filmer, Kath. Scepticism and Hope in Twentieth Century Fantasy Literature. Popular Press, ($13.95 tp), $8.00. Heller, Tamar. Dead Secrets: Wilkie CoUins and the Female Gothic. Yale University Press, ($25), $12.00. Kendrick, Walter. The Thrill of Fear: 2S0 YeaJ:S" of Scary Entertainment. Grove, ($12.95 tp), $8.00. Ketterer, David. Canadian Science Fiction and Fantasy. Indiana University Press, ($27.50), $16.00. Kies, Cosette. Presenting Young Adult Horror Fictlon. Twayne, ($19.95), $9.00. 30

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SFRA Renew '211, Mayl June 1994 Le Guin, Ursula K. The Language of the Mght: Essays on Fantasy and Science Fiction, Revised Edition. HarperCollins, ($20.00), $14.00. Carl D. Worlds Apart: Narratology of Science Fiction. Indiana UruversityPress, ($22.50), $12.00. McGillis, Roderick, ed. For the Childlike: George MacDonald's Fantasies for Children. Scarecrow Press, ($29.50), $14.00. McKnight, Stephen A., ed. Science, Pseudo-Science, and Utopiarmm in Early Modern Thought. University of Missouri Press, ($37.95), $16.00. Milbank, Alison. Daughters of the House: Modes of the Gothic in Victorian Fiction. St. Martin's Press, ($39.95), $18.00. Morse, Samuel, Marshall B. Tymn & Csilla Bertha, eds. The Celebration of the Fantastic: Selected Papers !Tom the 10th Annual International Conference on the Fantastic in the Arts". Greenwood Press, ($49.95), $24.00. Murphy, Patrick D., ed. Staging the ImpossIble: The Fantastic Mode in Modern Drama. Greenwood Press, ($49.95), $22.00. Myers, Arthur. A Ghosthunter's Gwde to Haunted Landmarks, Parks, Churches, and Other Public Places. Contemporary, ($12.95 tp), $5.00. Ordway, Frederick & Randy Liebermann, eds. Blueprint for Space: Science Fiction to Science Fact. Smithsonian, ($27.95 tp), $14.00. Price, Robert M., ed. Black ForbIdden Thin8Y: Cryptical Secrets" !Tom the "Crypt of Cthuihu. Starmont House/Borgo Press, ($11.95 tp), $4.00. Sampson, Robert. Yesterday's Faces: A Study of Series Characters in the Early Pulp Magazines, Volume 6: Violent Lives. Bowling Green University Press, ($18.95 tp), $10.00. Scholnick, Robert J., ed. American Literature and Science. University Press of Kentucky, ($28.00), $13.00. Slusser, George E. & Eric S. Rabkin, eds. Styles of Creation: Aesthetic Technique and the Creation of Fictional Worlds. University of Georgia Press, ($20.00 tp), $12.00. Sterling, Bruce. The Hacker Crackdown: Law and Disorder on the Electromc Frontier. Bantam, ($5.99 mass market paperback), $3.00. Sullivan, C. W. III, ed. Science Fiction for Young Readers. Greenwood Press, ($49.95), $22.00. Wunderlich, Roger. Low Living and HJgh Thinking at Modern Times, New York. Syracuse University Press, ($34.95), $15.00. Author Studies: [Campbell, R] Joshi, S. T., ed. The Count of Thirty: A TrIbute to Ramsey CampbeD. Necronomicon, ($6.50 stapled tp), $3.00. [Carroll, L.] Rackin, Donald. Ahce's Adventures in Wonderland and ThrouRh the Looking Glass. Twayne, ($21.95), $11.00. [Oarke, A] McAleer, Neil. Arthur C Oarke: The Authorized Biography. Contemporary, ($25.00), $13.00. [Dunsany, L.] Joshi, S. T. & Darrell Schweitzer. Lord Dunsany. A BIbliography. Scarecrow, ($42.50), $22.00. [Gilman, C.] Ceplair, Larry, ed. Charlotte Perkins Gilman: A Nonfiction Reader. Columbia University Press, ($20.00 tp), $10.00. [King, S.] Magistrale, Tony. Stephen King: The Second Decade. Twayne, ($20.95), $12.00. [Lewis, C.] Howard, Thomas. C S. Lewis. Man of Letters: A Reading of His Fiction. Ignatius, ($10.00 tp), $6.00. [Lewis, C.] Manlove. Colin. The Chromdes of Narm8: The Patterning of a Fantastic World. Twayne, ($22.95), $12.00. 31

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SFRA Revle.'211, May/June 1994 [Lewis. C.] Walker. Andrew & James Patrick. eds. A Christian for All Christians: Essays in HonorofC S Lewis. Regnery. ($10.95 tp). $6.00. [Orwell. G.] Orwell. George. The War Commentaries. ($8.95 tp). $4.00. [Poe. E.] Meyers. Jeffrey. Edgar Allan Poe: His Life & Legacy. Scribners. ($30.00). $17.00. [Rushdie. S.] Harrison. James. Salman Rushdie. Twayne. ($20.95). $11.00. [Sendak. M.] Sonheim. Amy. Maurice Sendak Twayne. ($20.95). $10.00. [Shelley. M.] Blumberg. Jane. Mary Sheffey's Early Novels. University of Iowa Press. ($27.95). $14.00. [Silverberg. R.] Elkins. Charles L. &. .Martin H. Greenl;>erg .. eds. Silverberg's Many Trapdoors: Crmcal Essays on HJS ScIence FictIOn. Greenwood Press. ($47.95). $22.00. [Stoker. 8.] Lorinczi. Marinella. Nel Dedalo del Drago: Introduziona a Dracula. BuJzoni Editore. ($25.00 tp). $8.00. [Verne. J.] Jules Verne: The Man MJo Invented Tomorrow. Walker. ($14.95). $6.00. [Wells. H.] Hammond. J. R H. G. Wells and Rebecca West. St. Martin's Press. ($39.95). $20.00. [Wells. H.] Hammond. J. R H. G. Wells and the Short Story. St. Martin's Press. ($39.95). $20.00. [Williams. C.] Howard. Thomas. The Novels of Charles Williams. Ignatiud. ($10.00 tp). $5.00. Film &1V: Clover. Carol J. Men, Women, and Chain Saws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film. Princeton University Press, ($12.95 tp). $8.00; ($19.95 cloth). $12.00. Greenaway. Peter. Prospera's Books: A Film of Shakespeare's The Tempest. Four Walls, Eight Windows. ($24.95 tp). $10.00. Landon. Brooks. The Aesthetics of Ambivalence: Rethinking Science Fiction Film in the Age of Electromc (Re)production. Greenwood Press. ($45.00). $23.00. Marrero. Robert. Dracula: The Vampire Legend on Film. Fantasma. ($12.95 tp). $6.00. Marrero, Robert. Vintage Monster Movies. Fantasma. ($12.95 tp). $6.00. Nottridge. Rhoda. Horror Films. Crestwood. ($12.95). $5.00. Pilato. Herbie J. The Bewitched Book The CosmIC Compamon to TV's Most MagIcal Supernatural SituatIon Comedy. Delta. ($14.00 tp), $6.00. Renzi, Thomas C. H. C. Wells: Six Scientific Romances Adapted for Film. Scarecrow. ($29.50). $14.00. Schultz. Wayne. The MotIon PICture Serial: An Annotated BIbliography. Scarecrow. ($42.50). $20.00. Schoell. William. ComIC Book Heroes of the Screen. CitadeVCarol. ($29.95). $14.00. Shapiro, Marc. MJen Dinosaurs Ruled the Screen. Image. ($12.95 tp). $6.00. Staskowski. Andrea. Science FiCtIon Movies. Lerner. ($13.95). $6.00. Weaver. Tom, ed. Creature from the Black Lagoon. Magicimage. ($20.00 tp), $12.00. Wiater. Stanley. Dark VisIOns: ConversatIons with the Masters of the Horror Film. Avon, ($10.00 tp), $6.00. 32

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SFRA Revle ... '211, May/June 1994 Illustrations & Comics: Benton, Mike. The Comic Book in America, Edition. Taylor, ($19.95 ea.), $10.00. ToJkien, J. R R & Christopher ToJkien. Pictures by J. R. R. Tolkien. Houghton, ($40.00), $18.00. Hardcover Fiction: Hazel, Paul. The Wealdwife's Tale. AvoNovaIMorrow, ($20.00), $8.00. Jablokov, Alexander. A Deeper Sea. AvoNovaIMorrow, ($22.00), $10.00. Jablokov, Alexander. Nimbus. AvoNovaIMorrow, ($22.00), $10.00. Mann, Phillip. Wulfsyarn. AvoNovaIMorrow, ($22.00), $10.00. McAuley, Paul J. Eternal Light. AvoNova, ($22.00), $10.00. Morrow, James. The Continent of Lies. Holt, 1984, ($15.95), $10.00. Norton, Andres. Brother to Shadows. AvoNova, ($20.00), $10.00. Norton, Andre. Golden Trilhum. Bantam, ($21.95), $11.00. Paxson, Diana L. & Adrienne Martine-Barnes. Master of Earth and Water. AvoNovaIMorrow, ($22.00), $9.00. Pellegrino, Charles. Flying to ValhaUa. AvoNovaIMorrow, ($22.00), $9.00. Rohan, Michael Scott. The Gates of Noon. AvoNovaIMorrow, ($20.00), $8.00. Weis, Margaret & Tracy Hickman. The Hand of Chaos. Bantam, ($21.95), $9.00. Trade Paperback Fiction: DeHaven, Tom. The Last Human. Bantam, ($11.00), $3.00. Ford, John M. Growing Up Weightless. Bantam, ($11.95), $5.00. Kerr, Katharine. Days of Blood and Fire. Bantam, ($11.95), $6.00. Lewis, Philip. Life of Death. Fiction Collective, not fantastic, ($8.95), $3.00. MacDonald, Ian. The Broken Land. Bantam, ($11.00), $5.00. Volsky, Paula. The WoffofWinter. Bantam, ($12.95), $6.00. Wilson, Robert Charles. TheHarvest. Bantam, ($12.00), $5.00. Mass Market Paperback Fiction: Asimov, Isaac & Martin H. Greenberg, eds. The Ugly Litde Boy. Bantam, ($5.99), $2.00. Barker, Clive. The Thiefof Always. Harper, ($5.99), $3.00. Donaldson, Stephen R A Dark and Hungry God ArISes. Bantam, ($5.99), $2.00. Jones, Diana Wynne. A Sudden, Wild Magic. Avon, ($4.99), $2.00. Mann, Phillip. Wulfsyarn. Avon, ($4.99), $2.00. Niven, Larry & Jerry Pournelle. The Gripping Hand. ($5.99), $3.00. Silverberg, Robert. Kingdoms of the WaD. Bantam, ($5.99), $3.00. Simmons, Dan. The HoUow Man. Bantam, ($5.99), $3.00. Stephenson, Neal. Snow Crash. Bantam, ($5.99), $3.00. Willis, Connie. Impossible Thin@. Bantam, ($5.99), $3.00. Zindell, David. The Broken God. Bantam, ($5.99), $2.00. The following mass market paperbacks are most list-priced at $4.50-$4.99 and are uniformly priced at $1.50 each. Publishers are omitted: Amason, Eleanor. Changing Women. 33

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SFRA Review .211 MaYI JUDe 1994 Asimov. Isaac. Lucky Starr and the Moons of Jupiter! Lucky Starr and the RinSS of Sa turn. Asimov. Isaac. Lucky Starr and the Oceans of Venu$ Lucky Starr and the Big Sun of Mercury. Bischoff. David. Ahens: Genocide. Sova. Ben. Sam Gunn Unlimited Bredenberg, Jeff. The Dream Bredenberg, Jeff. The Man in the Moon Must DIe. Cole. Adrian. Blood Red Angel Cole. Adrian. ThIef of Dreams. Cole. Adrian. Warlord of Heaven. DeHaven. Tom. The Last Human. Deitz. Tom. Wordwril!ht. Frost. Gregory. The PUre Cold Light. Gerrold. DaVId. Under the Eye of God. Geston. Mark S. Mirror to the Sky. Gravel. Geary. Batman: Duel to the Death. Gravel. Geary. Batman: Mask of the Phantasm. Gravel. Geary. Batman: Shadows of the Past. Green. Sharon. The Hidden Realms. Greenberg. Martin H . ed. The Further Adventures of Superman. Greenberg. Martin H . ed. The Further Adventures of Wonder Woman. Greenberg. Martin H . ed. Isaac Aslinovs Umverse. Volume 3: Unnatural Diplomacy Greenland. Colin. Harm's Way Grimes. Lee. Retro Lives. James. L. Dean. Summerland Jeffries. Mike. HaD of Whispers. Jeter. K. W. Ahen Nation #2: Dark Horizon. Keith. W. H. Warstrider. Kerr. Katharine. DaggerspeD. Kerr. Katharine. A Tline of Omens. Lawhead. Stephen. The Silver Hand. Leigh. Stephen. Dinosaur Planet. McDonald. Ian. Scissors Cut Paper Wrap Stone. Moran. Daniel Keys. The Last Dancer. Obendorf. Charles. Testing. Perry. Steve & Stephani Perry. Ahens. Book 3: The Female War. Robeson. Kenneth. The Forgotten Realm. Rohan. Michael Scott. Chase the Morning. Sarabande. William. The Edge of the World Skipp. Charles & Craig Spector. Animals. Turner. George. The Destiny Makers. Vornholt. John. The Fabulist. Weis. Margaret & Tracy Hickman. The Hand of Chaos. Willis. Paul J. No Oock in the Forest. Willis. Paul J. The Stolen River. Wu. William F. lsaac Aslinov's Robot City: Warrior. Audio: The Diamond Lens. performed by George Gonneau. music by Brad Hill. Spencer library. ($10.00). $5.00. 34

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SFRA Revlew'211, May/June 1994 The FaD of the House of Usher, performed by Uoyd Battista, music by Brad Hill. Spencer Library, ($10.00), $5.00. Fanzines: Approx. 50 specimen issues of recent fanzines, including many from Necronomicon Press, list-priced from $2.50-$6.00; $1.00 each, list upon request. Comics and Graphic Novels: A handful ofthese, all dirt cheap, list upon request. -Neil Barron mRRRZInE/CRTRLOR nEWS The Brinke Stevens Newsletter No. 8 (Summer 1994) available from the Brinke Stevens Fan Oub (8033 Sunset Blvd, Ste. 556; Hollywood, CA 90046) contains recent and forthcoming appearances by this scream queen, as well as ongoing projects such as Brinke of Etermty. a new comic book featuring the raven-haired beauty. Extrapolation, Vol. 35:1 (Spring 1994), edited by Donald M. Hassler (Dept. of English; Kent State University; Kent, OH 44242) contains "Editor's Pad: Thomas D. Oareson, 1926-1993," by Hassler; "Judith Merril: Scouting SF," by Elizabeth Cummins; "Scottish Fantasy," by Colin Manlove; "The Man Who Oidn't Write Fantasy: Lord Dunsany and the Self-Deprecatory Tradition in Light Fiction," by Jared C. Lobdell; "J. G. Ballard: Time Out of Mind, by Peter Brigs; "Robert Asprin: The Man Behind the Myths," by Jane M. Lindskold; and "The Cyclopean City: A Fantasy Image of Decadence," by Tom Henighan. Vol. 35:2 (Summer 1994) includes "Editor's Pad: Chaos and Old Night," by Hassler; '''This Unique Document': Hugo Gernsback's Ralph lUC 41 + and the Genres of Science Fiction," by Gary Westfahl; "Gender, Power, and Conflict Resolution: 'Subcommittee' by Zenna Henderson," by Farah Mendelsohn; "The Role of Women in Contemporary Arthurian Fantasy," by Jeanette C. Smith; "Back to the Future: Childhood as Utopia," by Roger Neustadter. Gryphon Publications (p.O. Box 209; Brooklyn, NY 11228-0209) sends their latest catalog. a one-sheet, with information about exciting new releases and old favorites. Included: Vampire Junkies by Norman Spinrad; 3 for Space by William F. Nolan; The Sinister Ray by Lester Dent; Science Fiction Detective Tales by Gary Lovisi; Double Your Pleasure: The Ace SF Double by James Corrick; A Guide 711rough the Worlds of Robert A Heinlein by J. Lincoln Thorner; The GarqoyJe by Gary Lovisi; Prince Raynor by Henry Kuttner, as well as PB gwdes, Sherlock Holmes stories, and hard-boiled detectives. Most of the SF titles are available in hardcover from The Borgo Press (p.O. Box 2845; San Bernardino, CA 92406). Magic Realism, Vol. IV:2, No.8 (Summer 1993), edited by C. Darren Butler (Pyx Press; P.O. Box 620; Orem, UT 84059-0620), contains fiction by Jessica Amanda Salmonson, Jeff WnderMeer, Brian Skinner, Daniel Quinn, and Robert Pope, and poetry by Tom Riley and Elizabeth Hillman, among others. 35

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SFRA Renew 1211, May/June 1994 Vol. IV:3, No. 9 (Spring 1994) contains fiction by John Satriano, Bruce Holland Rogers, Vernon Frazer, and Beaver Levesque, poetry by William John Watkins, Will Inman, Chns Tanniund, and Deruse DeVnes, among others. Science-Fiction Studies No. 62, Vol. 21:1 (March 1994), edited by Mullen, Evans, Hollinger, and contains articl7S by H. Bru
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SFRA Revlew'211, May/June 1994 projects include Samurai and Dragonforce for Aircel Publishing and Planet of the Apes for Malibu Graphics. Hidden YeaT.S' #12 also marks the return of Effquest co-creator Wendy Pini as regular cover artist. According to Wendy, who is writing the comic along with Elfquest co-creator Richard Pini, the decision to return to doing covers was motivated by the content of the "Shards" storyline. Completing the new lineup on the title are colorist Suzanne Dechnink and letterer Gary Kato. -Conrad L. Stinnett III, Warp Graphics COLLinS COmES RBoRRo RT WRRP BRRPHICS North Carolina based writer Terry Collins has signed on as the regular writer for Warp Graphics' Effquest: Blood ofTen ChiefS comics series. A craftsman who prides himself on his versatility, Collins has written stories in every comics genre from pulp horror to funny animal, with stories appearing in Doc Savage, Looney Tunes, Lost in Space, Tazmama, Anne Rice's The Witchfn/l. Hour, Quantum Leap, H P. Lovecraft's Cthulhu, Archie's Pal Jul!head, Lucifer's Hammer, Tiny Toon Adventures, The Man From U.NClE, and a host of anthologies, including Negative Burn and W71at The? No stranger to the Effquest universe, Collins' work previously appeared in the 1992 and 1993 Effquest: New Blood Summer SpeCIal;, as well as New Blood #8. He will be involved in generating new stories in the ongoing saga of the Effquest Wolfriders' past, as well as adapting existing prose stories from the Tor Books anthologies of the same series name. Collms will debut on the title with issue #8, scheduled to ship July 22. -Conrad L. Stmnett III, Warp Graphics smlTHSoniRn nEWS "More stuff for the 'nation's attic," a.k.a. The Smithsonian Institution. Museum officials report 1993 acquisitions include the postal uniform worn by the 'Oiff Clavin' character on the long-rurming TV show Cheers; a syringe and infusion bag used in the first human gene therapy experiment at The National Institute of Health; nearly 500 small items of Buck RogeT.S' and Flash Gordon memorabilia; a meteorite that probably comes from Mars; twenty dish towels made from feed sacks and embroidered with kitchen themes in the late 1940s by an Aurora, IL farm woman; and a flight suit, prison suit, fur hat, diary, unpublished journal, and rug made by or belonging to U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers during his incarceration in a Soviet prison." -Michael Klossner 37

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SFRA Renew 1211, May/June 1994 RDlmEIBO DEWS Coming from AnimEigo Inc. (p.O. Box 989; Wilmington, NC 28402-0989; 910/251-1850) in July 1994: Urusei Yatsura TV Volume #14: "First appearance of Kotatsu cat, the giant white half-ghost kitty. Jariten meets Kotatsu and invites him home. Upon seeing a kotatsu, a heater table, in the house, Kotatsu cuddles up beside it, blocking the stairway. Sakura and Cherry arrive to expel Kotatsu and find out that Kotatsu died of cold many years ago, and that is why he wants the heat. Also includes Lum-chan's Great Year-End Celebration episode." August titles are Oh My Goddess! #4: Evergreen Holy Night and Oh My Goddess! #5: For the Love of Goddess. In #4, are descending from Heaven, and the closer Belldandyand Keiichi get, more ofthem pop up! And if that isn't bad enough, the Chairman of the BOard gives Belldandya notice of recall! Are our two lovers starcrossed after all?" And in #5, "Having been recalled by the Big Boss of Big Bosses himself, it looks like Belldandy will never see Keiichi again! Can they discover the cause of their troubles before it's too late?" Laserdisc release is Urusei Yatsura, Movie #6: "A love potion, by any other name, would taste as awful! A theatrical film produced three years after Urusei Yatsura Kanketsuhen. Ataru's flirtatiousness hasn't changed in the slightest. Lupica, princess of space, appears and abducts Ataru. Lum chases after them in her spaceship. Lupica's goal is to obtain the greatest love-potion in the galaxy, which she intends to use to induce Rio, her sweetheart, to tie the knot. To get it, she needs the possessor of the weatest lust in the universe-now you know why she needs Ataru Moroboshi ... And August's LD release is Oh My Goddess! #2, a compilation of Episodes 4 and 5. -AnimEigo Inc. 1883 TOUR STORES TO RECEIVE ORIBIORL ElFQUE6TRRT The thirty retail locations which hosted Warp Graphics' 1993 FANTASY WITH TEETH Tour will receive a page of original E1fquest art by E1fquest: New Blood writer/artist Barry Blair. The art pages are from E1fquest: New Blood #13 and #14, which comprise the opening chapters of the "Forevergreen" storyline currently being serialized in the title. Each fully colored page is autographed by Blair. Unlike a previous giveaway, in which randomly selected stores received art from New Blood # II, Blair's debut issue, the destinations for this latest giveaway were deliberately chosen. The recipients are: Jelly's Comics (pearl Kai & Honolulu, HI); Stalking Moon Bookstore (Glendale, AZ); Page After Paae (Las Vegas, NV); Golden Apple Comics (Los Angeles, CA); Moondog's (Chicago, IL); Heroes Aren't Hard to Find (Charlotte, NC & Spartanburg, SQ; Mile High Comics .Colorado Littleton, & Aurora, CO); Steve's COmic Relief (Philadelphia, PA & Toms River, NJ); Dark Star Books and Comics (Yellow OH); Fantasy Books (Livermore & Santa Rosa, CA); Lee's Comics (Palo Alto, CA); Einstein's Comics (Rowlett, TX); Heroes (Ft. Worth, TX); 38

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SFRA RevIeIF '211, May/June 1994 Paper Heroes r:v;aco & Killeen, TX); New England Comics (Allston & o.uincy, MA); O'leary's Books (Tacoma, WA); Zanadu Comics (Seattle, WA); second Genesis (portland, OR); Oxford Bookstore (Atlanta, GA); Silver Snail (Ottawa & Toronto, CANADA); and Great Escape (Louisville, KY). -Conrad L. Stinnett III, Warp Graphics no nEW nAmE FOR THE BIB BAnB "Carl Sagan, the astronomer who helped judge a Sky [I Telescope contest to rename the Big Bang creation theory, said the following entries show why it won't be changed: Allness, Bob, Bursting Star Sack, Doink, Go God!, Hey Looky There at That, Hot Hurl, Jiffy Pop, Let There Be Stuff, OK Fine, Stupendous Space Spawning, and The Whole Enchilada." -Michael Klossner LIBYAn lEADER BADHAFI AS SF WRITER? An SF writer of unusual clout may be on the horizon. According to Chuck Shepherd's syndicated column, "News of the Weird," The Toronto Globe Mail reported in December 1993 "the imminent publication of Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi's first collection of short stories, to be titled, The ViUageThe ViUage, The Land The Land, and The Astronaut Commits Swcide." -Michael Klossner TOlKIEn AnTHOlOBY Poems and Stories, by J. R. R. Tolkien (Houghton Mifflin, 1994,342 p., $24.95; ISBN 0-395-68999-6) collects six pieces-three stories, "Leaf by Niggle," "Smith of Wootton Major," and "Farmer Giles of Ham"; one long poem, "The Adventures of Tom Bombadil"; one verse play, "The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm's Son"; and one essay, "On Fairy-Stories." -Michael Klossner TDlKIEn, lEWIS, AnD BREEns Meredith Veldman's Fantasy, the Bomb, and the Greening of Britain: Romantk Protest, 1945-1980 (Cambridge University Press, 384 p., $54.95, cloth; $17.95, paper) links Britain's tradition of romantic protests against industrialized society with the popularity of Tolkien and C. S. Lewis, anti nuclear protests, and the Green movement. -Michael Klossner 39

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SFRA Revlew'211, May/June 1994 8THI "EX: DEEP 8PHCE RIREComlCB Malibu Comics has announced that August issues of its Star Trek: Deep Space Nine and Star Trek: Deep Space Nine: Hearts and Minds miniseries will be running an exclusive sneak-preview of the Malibu/DC crossover. The Star Trek: Deep Space Ninel Star Trek: The Next Generation crossover is scheduled for October 1994 release. The preview will include interviews with writers Mike W. Barr and Michael Jan Friedman. It will also include special sneak-previews of artwork for the crossover by Gordon Purcell and Terry Pallot. The previews of the crossover will appear in Star Trek: Deep Space Nine # 13 and Star Trek: Deep Space Nine: Hearts and Minds #3. -Malibu Comics WILLIRm BIB6on, Rno DOLPH LUnoBREn? Yes ... Henry Rollins will take to the movie screens again. This time he'll be working with Dolph Lundgren and Ice-T in William Gibson's Johnny Mnemomc ... -Info taken from Concrete Corner. May 1994 ELFQUE8TFERTUREo In comic BOOK Warp Graphics. the Poughkeepsie. New York-based publisher of the Elfquest line of comic books and illustrated graphic albums. has announced that characters from the popular fantasy epic will appear in a comic book to benefit the Make-A-Wish Foundation of Central New York. The story. "Wish Upon A Star" tells how astronomer Stevie. while battling a life-threatening disease. is able to fulfill his dream of visiting a major observatory with the aid of the Make-A-Wish Foundation and elfin stargazer Skywise. Written by Elfquestco-creator Richard Pini and illustrated by Elfquest: New Blood writer/artist Barry Blair. the eight-page comic will sell for $2.00 with proceeds benefiting the Make-A-Wish F"oundation. According to Pini. this is the first time that Elfquest characters have been used to help promote a national charitable program. Tha Make-A-Wish Foundation was begun in 1980 with the fulfillment of the desire of a seven year old boy. suffering from leukemia. who wanted to be a policeman. Officers from the Arizona Department of Public Safety granted his wish. presenting him with a custom-made uniform. helmet. badge. and even giving him a helicopter ride. That one child's delight in the realization of his dream provided the inspiration for the Foundation. Headquartered in Phoenix. Arizona. the Make-A-Wish Foundation of America Inc. is the largest wish-granting organization in the world. -Conrad L. Stinnett III. Warp Graphics 40

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SFRA Revle .. '211, May/JuDe 1994 VAmPIRE mOVlE& Fantasma Books (419 Amelia St.; Key West, FL 33040) announces the forthcoming release (September 1994) of Vampire Movies, by Robert Marrero. The author of Giant Monster Movies and Vintage Monster Movies presents here a 176-page nonfiction book with 150 color and black-and-white photos detailing vampire movies from the famous to the infamous. -Furumi Sano 00880FlURI Defiant Comics released issue 1 in DoBY of War, a spinoff from another Defiant series. Inked by a number of talented artists like Georges Jeanty, Bob Downs, David Miller, George Roberts, and James Brown, and written and developed by Jim Shooter and Arthur Loy Holcomb, it features xenogenetically-engineered army soldiers who have returned from the far reaches of space to fight evil here on Earth. -Furumi Sano mfTlOPOL/8 A& "AUDIO mOVlE" Ziggurat Productions: Third Ear Radio Theatre (p.O. Box 292; Topanga, CA 90290) announced the forthcoming release of as an "audio movie." Previously released was A E. van Vogt's classic novel SIan. These productions go beyond "books-on-tape," complete with soundtrack, special effects, and more. -Daryl F. Mallett 41

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SFRA Rene .. '211, May/June 1994 42

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SFRA Revle .... 211. May/JuDe 1994 FEATURE ARTICLE liTHE &En&E OF WOnOER" 1& "R &En&E &UBLlmE" A common denominator for the whole of SF, which would serve as a basis for a really unifying and all-embracing definition, has proven difficult to find. The capturing of the animal1 called "science fiction" seems to stand more chances of success using the intuitive practices of a stalking hunter rather than the scientific taxonomic criteria of Linne or Brehm. We know IT is there, we know what IT is, but we can't tell explicitly WHAT exactly it is, we can't conceptually formulate a satisfactory definition of that WHAT which we intuitively grasped to the full: Si quaeres nescio, said St. Augustine so many centuries ago about another of the numerous "animals" of this kind, swarming in this selva oscura which forever has been the world. 'What is time indeed? Who could explain it, briefly? Who could comprise it in thought or express it in words? And yet what notion is more familiar, better known when we talk about it, than time? (Because when we talk about it we understand, and it is the same when we hear someone else talk about it.) What, therefore, is time? If no-one asks me, I know. If I am asked and try to explain, I don't know."2 What, therefore, is science fiction? Si quaeres nescio... However, empirically there is a general, widespread consensus, shared not only by scholars, but also by writers and fans (which is very unusual!), a consensus concerning the specific kind of aesthetic pleasure that only SF can offer: it is the famous "sense of wonder" (or "sensawonda" or "sensawunda"). A definition of SF based on it hardly seems possible logically, since 'the sense of wonder" itself is difficult to define. It can be a starting point, though. As many writers have grasped-among them Damon Knight, Peter Nicholls, Alexei Panshin-'the sense of wonder" is, essentially, an emotion of the sublime, it is the same thing as "a sense sublime," which Wordsworth was speaking about as early as 1798. This could mean that the old aesthetic concept of the sublime may be the long-sought common denominator of SF, of hard SF at least. Science fiction could thus be defined as a literature of the sublime, as the contemporary reification of the sublime, perhaps the most privileged and characteristic of our times. "It provided a language for urgent and apparently 43

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SFRA Rene.'211, May/June 1994 novel experiences of anxiety and excitement which were in need of legitimation.'03 ***** The endless and apparently worthless controversies over the definition are not just luxuries or a scholarly whim, but a vital condition for the existence of SF. In defining its own specific character as literature, SF is confronted with its own difficulties, some of which are the same, but most are different from those occurring in the case of mainstream literature. What was a specific difference there becomes a proximal genre here, for which a new specific difference must be identified. This one, in its turn, becomes a new proximal genre (SF), for which another specific difference should be sought (hard SF). A secondary difficulty, although it becomes the primary one in the immediate reality of literary life, where SF is obstinately underrated, lies in the difference of social status and "respectability" between the object of literary theory and the object of SF theory: literary theory proper encompasses the "mainstream" literature, the "grear' literature unanimously validated and acknowledged as spiritual activity worthy of all respect, while SF theory is circumscribed to a "ghetto," to a field where outside validation of values is absent, where theoretical and critical acknowledgement is still to be won, since SF pieces and masterpieces have not gained unanimous recognition by the very fact of their existence. The solution to this last difficulty can only be the consequence and a corollary of the solution to the first difficulty. The SF theory is still literary theory, because SF is literature. But in order that the literary status of science fiction should be acknowledged, which would grant it legitimate rights within literature, its identity must be proven first: it must be defined, delineated, separated, and named. But here we face an even darker jungle than the genological one Darko Suvin speaks about4 (it is the same in fact, but seen from another angle). It is enough to consult some reference works5 about the definition, or definitions rather, to be thrown into chaotic confusion by the multitude of definitions and criteria, which lead the most diligent and neutral observer to the conclusion that the "subject" cannot be defined. "If the test of a good definition is that the terms it uses to define its subject should be clear, readily understandable, and themselves capable of accurate definition, then few of these offerings pass. Those which are clearest are, alas, the least definitive.'06 No approach of a certain theoretical scope can avoid the delicate problem of the aesthetic status of SF, of its nature and essence, identity, and even identity crisis. It Became Necessary to Destroy the World in Order to Save It? It became necessary to conquer fear and repulsion from the "Procrustean bed" which any unifying theoretical principle may turn into. That stalking hunter mentioned in the beginning could easily train us how to prevent the risk. On the other hand, there is also the opposite risk. Reading of SF through the structuralist or semiotic grid, for example, induced a vivid rejection reaction, first of all from the writers themselves, but also from critics and even theoreticians. The reason is that such an approach is feudatory to a doctrine, to a "reductionist" ideology which disregards the concrete individuality of the 44

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SFRA Revie .. '211, May/June 1994 literary work, whose textual indicators it extends or contracts, whose face it disfigures to the point where it can no longer be recognized: Both the theoretical critic and the semiotician are likely to have some trouble in showing that science fiction, as they would define it, is the same animal as the genre which goes under that name for its writers and readers.B Nor could the concept of "cognitive estrangemenr' offered by Darko Suvin9 as theoretical key for the whole of SF escape the accusation of reductionism, the objection that it was "an idea derived from the Russian Formalists and Bertolt Brecht rather than from firsthand contact with science fiction.1O What, therefore, is science fiction? What is its true identity? What is its quiddity, its essence, which will be necessarily the basis for the theoretical definition of this kind of literature, as well as the critical criterion of characterization and valuation of the individual works? To say that the critical criterion is actually the same as the aesthetic criterion, and both are identical with the valuation criterion would be just gross tautology which would not take us any further. Giving the illusion of having reached the much desired common platform, this tautology has limited, in Romania at least, all critical and theoretical opinions expressed about science fiction. It is a limitation and stopping of critical thinking, in a general climate of ambiguity and indifferent general complicity, which everybody seems to revel in and wish nothing more. As regards the definition of SF, at least its "proximal genre," there is a unanimous agreement, aesthetically warranted: SF is literature, nothing else, nothing more but, equally, nothing less. The place of science fiction is inside literature, not outside it. SF is science fiction, not science fact, not a bank of scientific ideas and non-materialized technical inventions. SF is not vulgarization of science, nor nuclear or ecological warning, it is not futurology, UFO-logy, ESP-logy, it is not dianetic, scientology, or any other religion. At the most, science fiction could become a religion of the sublime, in the sense that art, including literature and poetry, is currently said to be a religion of the beautiful, a secular cult of pleasure. "If you ask what kind of pleasure then I can only answer, the kind of pleasure that science fiction gives: simply because any other answer would take us far afield into aesthetics, and the general question of the nature of art."11 Those who cannot enjoy this kind of pleasure, who consequently do not accept it as supreme aim in literature are aesthetically infirm-they banish themselves from the sphere of literature. Irs true that nobody succeeded in finding the perfect definition of literature (here is another si quaeres nescio, another "animal"). All the same, the term "literature" is fully operative. If there is no unanimous theoretical agreement concerning literature, there is a critical one, whose ultimate clauses--explicitly stated or only tacitly accepted-are the aesthetic pleasure and, ipso facto, value. These ultimate clauses are in force in the case of SF as well, granting it legitimacy inSIde literature. Value, yes!-it is the banner uniting us all, only to fight one another in order to gain possession over it! Not unusual, if we think of the many other 45

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SFRA Revlew'211, May/June 1994 banners such as this and even more intolerant fronts (political, ideological, philosophical, religious, and so on). What does everyone understand by ''value'' and "aesthetic pleasure'? What kind of value and aesthetic pleasure does everyone require from science fiction? Does SF share with the "great" literature merely the presence itself of a generic aesthetic pleasure? Isn't the aesthetic pleasure supposed to be different in the various kinds of literature? Or is an ad litteram sameness required, leveling and detrimental, and in fact impossible? In what direction should we look for value, and what arguments would prove its existence when we think we have found it? The opinion of the majority is directed-explicably, if not acceptablytoward what is already currently acknowledged as value in "great" literature, pleading or claiming for this ''what'' in science fiction as well. The labels most frequently invoked as valuating criteria in SF are a few well-known and accepted concepts, "borrowed" from outside SF: the fairy miraculous-"fairy tale of the cosmic era" is a stereotype compliment for an SF film or book; then there are the concept of the fantastic and the concept of mimesis, the latter including a lot of exigencies which are derived from realistic or naturalistic fiction (complex characterization and profound psychology, for instance). It would take too much now to discuss extensively all these implications.12 A simple and elementary theoretical distinguo could solve the problem. Postulating the existence in itself of value as general requiSite in literature and art, one can easily notice that there is more than one way to fulfill this requisite. Aesthetic pleasure is the general condition of value in literature and art; nevertheless, this generic aesthetic pleasure, although single as an effect, may be originated with more than once cause. Not only the beautiful may be the source of aesthetic pleasure, but also the sublime. Therefore, a value criterion derived from the sublime is perfectly possible and legitimate. A criterion both aesthetical and critical, and at the same time an organic criterion of an irreducible and irrefutable identity, is the criterion of dignity and aesthetic justice in science fiction. Why "dignity," I don't think I need to explain. No need to comment the deplorable aspiration to mainstream assimilation at any cost, even at the cost of giving up one's own identity. Unfortunately, this uprooting or apostasy of the SF writer is not just a purely theoretical and hypothetical risk. There are so many real cases, more or less illustrious, but...nomina odiosa! To place science fiction under any '1oreign" aesthetic jurisdiction is both ethically and aesthetically frustrating. Aesthetic justice, like any justice, is undividable, isn't it? Science fiction, too, has the right, like any other kind of literature, to have its own and adequate literary status, hasn't it? And which would be the aesthetic concept able to ensure such a status, such a statute, for SF? What is that quiddity which can be found in SF only and through which this is what it is? What does its identity come from? * * It comes mainly from the fact that science fiction is a fiction of science. The anchoring into science, the assimilation and appropriation of the Image of the Universe as It results from the Incessantly developing twentieth-46

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SFRA RevleIF'211, May/JuDe 1994 century science, ensures for SF unlimited resources to figure infinityresources out of reach of other forms of literary expression. "Forty-two powers of ten so far span our firm knowledge; we have only brave hints and conjectures beyond that. We do not yet know, though we can argue about it, whether infinity lies within the real world as it lies within the mind's reach"-certify Philip and Phylis Morrison in "a book about the relative size of things in the universe and the effect of adding another zero."13 At one end of this span-scale are magnitudes of the order of 1 ()25 meters (the farthest galaxy ever seen is five or ten billion light-years away); at the opposite end are magnitudes of the order of 10-15 meters (the quarks, particles never yet seen on their own); in the middle, between galaxies and quarks, the "human scale" covers only a dozen powers of ten (from 1()9 meters, the distance to the Moon, to 10-3 meters, the tiniest screw of a fine watch). In Lilliput and Brobdingnag, Gulliver ''visited the two neighbouring powers of twelve."14 "Different perspectives dependent upon changes of scale are central to many of the satires recognized today as works of proto science fiction, most notably Swift's Gulliver's Travels (1726) and Voltaire's Micromegas (1750)."15 Infinity plays a key role in the understanding and definition of the sublime ever since the eighteenth century, from Burke, Kant, and Schiller to the present; but even Burke noticed, as early as 1756, that ''there are scarce any things which can become the objects of our senses that are really and in their own nature infinite. But the eye not being able to perceive the bounds of many things, they seem to be infinite, and they produce the same effects as if they were really SO."16 Kant also defined the sublime as ''what is absolutely great,"17 and, in our century, the German philosopher Nicolai Hartmann defined it as ''the overwhelming" or the "overwhelmingly greaf'; and "everything that is overwhelming is meaningful by itself," added Hartmann.18 In science fiction, this meaningfulness is provided by the conceptual breakthrough 19 which is triggered by fictional distortion or transposition on the scale of magnitudes (static or dynamic) in the Universe. It is also provided by extrapolation, juxtaposition, and/or oscillation between great and small,2o the reference point being the "human scale," human standard dimensions available to senses. On the scale of spatial magnitudes-cosmos and microcosm, ''the great infinity" and ''the small infinity," the huge and the minute, ''the two abysses" of Blaise Pascal,21 are conceivable and perceivable by reference to the human body size range (as, for instance, in E. C. Tubb's story "Evane" (1966), or, oppositely, in Richard Fleischer's film and Isaac Asimov's novelization, Fantastic Voyage (1966)). On the scale of temporal magnitudes-the infinity of time, instantaneousness and eternity are conceivably and perceivably by reference to standard "ephemeral" human lifespan (as, for instance, in Poul Anderson's story "Kyrie" (1968)). A certain overwhelming potential is also involved in ''the third spatial infinity," which Pierre Teilhard de Chardin pointed 47

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SFRA Revle ... '211, May/JuDe 1994 out;22 this infinity or "corpusculization" in the Universe, of inexhaustible complexity and variety located at 'the human scale," theoretically implies an infinity of virtual lifeforms which SF fictionally filled up with its alien biology and robot fauna. Available to the senses and common macroscopic perception, by its "average," "human" size, this 'third infinity" can be, nevertheless, no less overwhelming to human finitude, by its very kaleidescopic polymorphism and inexhaustible Otherness. (To give just one example, a memorable achievement of extrapolation on the scale of alien complexity of life may be found in F. L. Wallace's story "Student Body" (1953}). In scinece fiction, science enforces the sublime, for science is what makes us think the infinite and seize the magnitude, which become accessible to our senses by fictional proceedings (analogy, extrapolation, juxtaposition, transposition, oscillation, distortion, etc.). For not only 'the science in science fiction," but also 'the fiction in science fiction" contributes convergently to the same unique effect: experiencing the aesthetic pleasure of sublime. The mechanism of extrapolation itself, defining in SF, necessarily leads to overwhelming escalades and accumulations as compared to the limits and fragility of the human being. But still, this is not enough. Even when understood in its milder sense, mentioned above-as "absolutely great' (Kant), or as "overwhelmingly grear' (Hartmann}-infinity can hardly, if at all, be "represented" to the senses, which work at 'the human scale" only. However, it may be the most successfully (i.e., with the greatest artistic effect) '1igured" in a concrete manner and brought to our intuition by SF-literature or cinemarather than by any other literary or artistic form. More exactly, SF may, up to a certain point of course, '1igure" intuitively the very incapacity of intuition to represent infinity concretely: and this is precisely how that underlying intellectual mechanism of the sublime, which precipitates "a pleasure that is only possible through the mediation of a displeasure,"23 is triggered in SF. (This is, in fact, the last application so far of that "analytics of the sublime" definitively performed by Immanuel Kant as early as 1790, in his classic Critique of Judgement) In SF, as everywhere in the sublime, the specific and defining effect, aesthetic sublimation of pain into pleasure, is produced only if and only when human reason acknowledges its own freedom from and qualitative superiority over the quantitatively overwhelming nature, real or imaginary. Overwhelmed by the immensity of the physical Universe, Man is compelled to resort to non-physical reaction, to the idea of his free mincl-a faculty standing above the senses, irreducible to nature and above it: "Still the mere ability even to think the given infinite without contradiction, is something that requires the presence in the human mind of a faculty that is itself supersensible."24 It is not an easy task, maybe it is even an impossible one for SF writers, as maintained by one of the most famous and skilled of them: 48 It must be admitted that the universe presents the "peak of indigestibility" for fiction writing in the whole field of our

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SFRA Revie ... '211, May/June 1994 experience. For what can you do as an author with the central subjects of cosmology-with the singularities? A singularity is a place that exists in the continuum just as a stone exists here; but there our whole physics goes to pieces. The desperate struggles of the theoreticians, going on for several years now, have only the purpose to postpone this end of physics, its collapse, by yet one more theory. In fiction, however, things like that cannot be domesticated. What heroic characters, what plot can there be where no body, however strong or hard, could exist longer than a few fractions of a second? The space surrounding a neutron star cannot be passed closely in a spaceship even at parabolic velocity because the gravity gradients in the human body increase without a chance that they might be stopped or screened, and human beings explode until only a red puddle is left, just like a heavenly body that is torn apart from tidal forces when passing through the Roche limit. Is there therefore no way out of this fatal dilemma: that one must either be silent about the cosmos or be forced to distort it?"25 In Ancient Greece, the philosopher Zenon of Elea brilliantly demonstrated, in his famous "Eleatic" paradoxes, that motion is impossible; but Diogenes, the Cynic philosopher, tried to overthrow Zenon's subtle demonstration simply by rising and walking, the fact being in itself a sufficient proof: "Look, I walk, so motion exists." In his well-known Critique of Judgement (1790), Kant brilliantly demonstrated that the hypothesis of ''Worlds inhabited by rational beings" couldn't ensure a valid support for experiencing the emotion sublime;26 but the writer Stanislaw Lem memorably invalidated this, in his masterly novel, Solaris (1961). In his striking essay "Cosmology and Science Fiction" (1977), the same Lem also brilliantly demonstrated that the literary figuration of a cosmic "singularity" is impossible; but the essayisfs demonstration had been invalidated beforehand, as early as 1968, by the writer Poul Anderson in his marvelous story "Kyrie." (Needless to say is that the ipso facto argument does not have the same validity in the case of a philosopher and in that of a writer. The former produces ideas, which can only be invalidated on the level of ideas; the latter produces unique "aesthetic objects," aesthetic "singularities," which cannot be legitimated, but nor can they be invalidated, on the level of ideas: they can only be so as singular objects. And, for an object, the very fact of its existence means there is a sufficient reason for it to exist. Provided it has value, of course, in art unlike in nature.) In Poul Anderson's "Kyrie," the captain of the spaceship Raven, exploring a developing singularity, is fully aware of the indomesticable situation described in Lem's essay: This is the first time anyone's been close to a recent supernova. We can only be certain of so much radiation that 49

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SFRA RevleIF'211, May/June 1994 we'll be dead if the screenfields give way. Otherwise we've nothing to go on except theory. And a collapsing stellar core is so unlike anything anywhere else in the universe that I'm skeptical about how good the theory is.27 Whatever his character, the writer finds the fictional solution to perform the quadrature of the circle, to bring in front of the reader's eyes what the human eye cannot see, plus in front of his mind what his senses cannot perceive. Linking several '1heoretical breaks"28 into one Oumps in space-time, telepathy, "magnetohydrodynamics" as a base of an alien biology, etc.), the writer succeeds in domesticating the singularity, in intuitively figuring time dilation, which equals instantaneousness to eternity, ephemerally to immortality. Aesthetically, the keystone of the story is an excruciating cathartic effect. Namely, not a tragic catharsis, but a sublime catharsis, which is the supreme aim in science fiction: a catharsis "sublimed" not from the suffering caused by Man to Man, as in tragedy, but from the suffering caused to Man by the Universe-cosmos and microcosm-overwhelming Man by dimensions, magnitude, force, speed, duration, complexity, etc. A catharsis "sublimed" from the very fact that the physical universe, such as disclosed by this century's science, is not made commensurate with Man, it does not wait for Man, does not know of Man and of the cosmic loneliness of Man marooned in this strange and indifferent Universe. From the viewpoint of the sublime, a humanistic SF appears as an oxymoron, because of the very fact that "a sublime is an oxymoron," as stringently demonstrated by the American scholar Thomas Weiskel in his his unique work The Romantic Sublime (posthumously appeared in 1976).29 Exasperated by this oxymoron, Lem said that a humanistic, "anthropocentric" SF was rather an "onanistic" SF.30 But at its best, science fiction certainly isn't so. If Anderson's "Kyrie" is onanistic, then Sophocles' Antigone is onanistic, too. The paradigm of plot and characters' relationship is similar to a certain point (Antigone = Eloise Waggoner; Creon = Captain Teodor Szili; Polynikes = Lucifer). The aesthetic effect is the same, catharsis is in both of them, but a tragic one in the ancient tragedy, while a sublime one in modern science fiction. There is catharsis in this paragon hard SF story, and there is suffering, there is pain, from which this catharsis results; but what kind of pain is it, what is its cause, its source? Ooes this pain come from human beings (including the self), or does it come from "gods," like with ancient Greeks? Is there a hybris of Man, the jealousy or anger of the gods, or an ill fate, a moire!? No, there is only the cosmic loneliness or Man and his otherness in front of his indifferent, though not hostile, cosmos. "Loneliness and otherness can come near breaking you out here, without adding suspicion of your fellows"-the same spaceship captain thought. There is no need, in science fiction, for pain coming from humans, from fellOW-beings, nor from gods, whose existence has become a dispensable hypothesis not only to science, but also to science fiction. It is enough to have an intuitive short circuit, a sudden shift or transposition on the scale of magnitudes in the Universe, a striking 50

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SFRA Rene.'211, May/JuDe 1994 juxtaposition of two or more orders of size located on this span-scale at large distances from one another, in order to precipitate the effect of "cognitive estrangemenr031 or "conceptual breakthrough,'032 operated in SF by analogy or, even more frequently, by extrapolation (Le., prOjection into the imaginary). It is enough to make the senses perceive the pain of being so small in a Universe so immense, or of being so immense as compared to the microcosm so minute, or of being so ephemeral as compared to the great cosmic duration, or of being so weak in front of the great cosmic forces, or of being so irrevocably confined within ontological and biological limits, the pain of being so much stranger and lonely as compared to everything that exists or can be imagined to exist in the physical Universe. The indifference of this Universe is enough, there is no need for its "anger." The Laws of the Universe are quite absolute indeed-and ruthlessly just. Obey them scrupulously, and they work for you; defy them, and you get crushed quite casually, without the slightest bitterness, or anger, or concern. ...Perhaps there is no God after all. But there is One Universe, and its laws are absolute, unswerving, unyielding, and enforced on us without argument.'033 Yet here is a fact, perhaps too obvious and unwieldy to make much of: in the history of literary consciousness the sublime revives as God withdraws from an immediate participation in the experience of men. The secondary or problematic sublime is pervaded by the nostalgia and the uncertainty of minds involuntarily secular-minds whose primary experience is shaped by their knowledge and perception of secondary causes.'034 In the tragedy Agamemnon, 'the chorus, in a series of wonderful chants, express the quintessence of Aeschylus' thinking: Zeus shows man the path of wisdom by making him learn through pain (toi pathei mathos). Thus, the gods, forcing men's will, do them good.'035 There is catharsis in science fiction as well, resulted equally from toi pathei mathos, but the gods no longer exist: there is no one in the Universe to be concerned about Man's existence, no one to acknowledge Man's presence, no one to do him good or evil, to cause him pleasure or pain. There is pain in science fiction, but it is of a different nature: it is a pain concrescent not with the tragic, but with the sublime. And the aesthetic pleasure cathartically distilled by the pain, by that "pleasure in pain" which belongs not only to the tragic, but also to the sublime, is also a different aesthetic pleasure: the aesthetic pleasure and emotion of the sublime. ***** 51

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SFRA Revlew.211, May/June 1994 But the sublime is perhaps too strong an essence, too concentrated to be administered as such in individual cases. As an aesthetic concept, it certainly has a theoretical function, not a critical one. For the critical use, we have ''the sense of wonder": it is (as Peter Nicholls was the first to notice)36 the same thing as "a sense sublime" which Wordsworth spoke about in 1798, in his well known poem, popularly though somewhat inappropriately known as ''Tintern Abbey";37 nevertheless, it is, so to speak, a diluted solution of this theoretical essence of the sublime. The "sense of wonder" provides a more diffuse, more "softened" and critically more pliable expression of the same old concept and eternal aesthetic experience known under the name of "emotion of the sublime." Thus, the ''wild'' theoretical concept is tamed to become a current critical instrument. And it is indeed used by SF critics and reviewers as a current and efficient critical tool. The phrase "sense of wonder" emerged, seemingly, as a spontaneous and anonymous product of the English language, having no certified paternity (to my knowledge, at least). However, it practically became hard currency in SF criticism. It is currently and naturally used in commenting on SF books: it has almost become a critical cliche. To say, in a critical review of a book or an author, that one can express this indefinite or even indefinable "sense of wonder" is undoubtedly a superlative: it is like granting the book or author free-entry to the "genre SF," or, even more, it is equal to a judgment of value, an unreserved crticial endorsement. It is what Donald A. Wollheim, for example, did in The Universe Makers (1971), when referring to Ray Cummings: He completed Verne's work. He did not venture into sociology. He did not impair our balance by social predictions. In him, the old Sense of Wonder was at its best.38 Similarly, in 1973, when Arthur C. Clarke's Rendezvous with Rama appeared, Theodore Sturgeon wrote, in The New York Times: There are perpetual surprises, constant evocation of the sense of wonder, and occasions of the most breathless suspense.39 More recently, in The Atlanta Constitution, the following could be read about Gregory Benford and David Brin's Heart of the Comet(1986): 52 This is "hard" science fiction at its best. It brings us to the cutting edge of current scientific research, but always keeps the human issues forefront of the story. We see the best and worst of human nature in how the different colonists react to the hostile world of the comet. At the same time, the novel provokes that "sense of wonder" that has been the hallmark of "hard" SF.4o

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SFRA Rene ... 1211, May/June 1994 I don't know, unfortunately, who the author of these assertions is, but I think he or she is right. The sense of wonder is indeed a hallmark of hard SF and, from my point of view, it is only natural to be so. Although, practically in all major SF topics and motifs, belonging to both hard and soft SF, a certain overwhelming potential is involved, as mentioned above, it is more directly and strikingly operating in "hard" themes and topics: black holes, computers, faster-than-light velocities, the fourth dimension, gravity, nuclear power, power sources, rockets, space flight and ships, stars, technology, terraforming, time paradoxes, time travel, a.o., or any other topics derived from the "hard sciences" (astronomy, cosmology, cybernetics, mathematics, physics, a.o.)41 Of course, not only the "soft sciences," but also "pseudo-sciences," and even "imaginary sciences" can provide overwhelming factors (e.g., Isaac Asimov's "psychohistory" and "positronic" brains of his robots; A. E. van Vogfs "nexialism"; Ursula K. Le Guin's ''terolinguistics'' and "ansible"; Bob Shaw's "slow glass"; and so on). All the same, the "overwhelmingly grear' and, consequently, the sublime, are at home especially in hard SF. It is ''the science in science fiction" that ultimately establishes the relationship and basic delimitations between science fiction and realistic fiction, between science fiction and pure fantastic fiction, between science fiction and science fantasy, between hard science fiction and soft science fiction. The feeling of credibility guaranteed by "hard" science is necessary in SF not only, and not in the first place, for creating ''that willing suspension of disbelief' which Coleridge spoke about,42 that flimsy but indestructible "realistic illusion" on which the ''versimilitude'' of any mimesis is based. All these fictional achievements are always welcome in SF, of course, as everywhere in literature. But it is not the essential here. The essential is that in science fiction, science enforces the sublime. Sublime's pleasure in pain appears, Kant says, when ''the subjecfs very incapacity betrays the consciousness of an unlimited faculty of the same subjecr';43 but, Schiller adds, "it must be something serious, to the senses at least, for reason to seek support in the idea of its freedom.'>44 And it is exactly this "serious" support or alibi of the aesthetic emotion that is provided by the science in SF, in hard SF more than in soft SF. For, the "harder" the science, the more "serious" it seems; and, consequently, the more efficiently it operates as a triggering, precipitating factor. ***** The fact that nowadays the "sense of wonder" is claimed as a hallmark for hard SF in the first place may mean that we witness a resurgence of hard SF after a period, starting in the late '60s, during which it has retreated in front of soft SF and the "New Wave." However, it should not be forgotten that the "sense of wonder" had been used and abused in SF criticism before the '60s. It even reached a level of maturation and sickness, reserve and condescendence, expressed by the "corrupf' forms "sensawonda" or "sensawunda," used in fan circles. But we shall also find this kind of reserve and condescendence clearly declared: SF criticism often talks of a "sense of wonder" that the field is 53

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SFRA Rene .. '211, May/June 1994 supposed to generate, but upon close examination that ''Wonder'' divulges its close relationship to the tricks of a stage magician," said Lem in 1977 in the aforementioned essay.45 'We sometimes speak of a sense of wonder as if it were one of the great good things-an automate credit in the crtic's account I?OOk," said Peter Nicholls in 1972,46 in a review that surpasses by far the theoretical level of such a scope. ''The trouble is that a sense of wonder is often confused with a sense of gUllibility: the ooh's and ah's at the sideshow pitches of any second rate carnival demonstrate a sense of wonder at its most depressing level. ... The phrase 'sense of wonder' includes so much. It may include the feeling of natural awe felt by a Wordsworth in a clean, empty landscape: ... And I have felt A presence that disturbs me with joy Of elevated thoughts; a sense sublime Of something far more deeply interfused, Whose dwelling is the light of setting suns, And the round ocean and the living air, And the blue sky and, in the mind of man: A motion and a spirit, that impels All thinking things, all objects of all thought, And rolls through all things. That is to put it at one of its highest pOints. It may include, differently, the exhilaration Einstein must have felt when it first occurred to him to question the static Cartesian framework which had been used up to his time to give mathematical expression to the shape of an entire universe. But that sudden romantic expansion of the mind is a very different thing from the momentary little frisson we get when we read that a cow gave birth to a calf with two heads .. .'047 Even so, "tired and misused'048 as it is, '1hat old critical phrase 'a sense of wonder,' familiar to all SF fans'049 remains useful and functional, Peter Nicholls admits, it "is as good an 'open sesame' as any for getting into the question I am broaching.'050 And this is important: delimitation of ''the areas where the science-fictional imagination is very strong, and those where it is weak.'051 Among the former ones, there is obviously "hard science fiction-that surprisingly small but important branch of the genre in which the science is central and not simply decorative.'052 And the two novels reviewed here by Nicholls-Paul Anderson's Tau Zero (1970) and Larry Niven's Ringwor/d (1970)-"deserve their reputation as landmarks (spacemarks) in the history of hard science fiction.'053 Despite its high incidence and empirical action, the phrase "sense of wonder" remains relative and ambiguous; there are very few attempts to confer it the conceptual denotation and univocal clarity required by the logic of a true definition. Even the all-embracing and all-covering The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, edited in 1979 by the same Nicholls54 lacks the entry which the "sense of wonder" would have deserved. The phrase seems also untranslatable: in Ugo Malaguti's review, Nova SF, for instance, the phrase 54

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SFRA Rene ... 1211, May/JuDe 1994 "sense of wonder" was left untranslated in the middle of the Italian text.55 But if it cannot be translated from English into Italian, or from English into Romanian, it cannot be translated from English into English either. On the other hand, some intuitive approximations are available. 'What we get from science fiction"-said Damon Knight decades ago in his In Search of Wonder (1956), which became a classic of SF criticism-''what keeps us reading it, is not different from the thing that makes mainstream stories rewarding, bu;t only expressed differently. We live on a minute island of known things. Our undiminished sense of wonder at the mystery which surrounds us is what makes us human. In science fiction we can approach that mystery, not in small, everyday symbols, but in the big ones of space and time. ... Science fiction exists to provide what Moskowitz and others call 'the sense of wonder': some widening of the mind's horizons, no matter in what direction-the landscape of another planet or a corpuscle's-eye view of an artery, or what it feels like to be in rapport with a cat...any new sensory experience, impossible to the reader in his own person, is grist for the mill, and what the activity of science fiction writing is about."56 This is the "classical" definition of the undefinable "sense of wonder," almost four decades old and yet the best so far, as shown by its frequent quoting. It is not logically rock-solid, of course it is rather a metonymical approach of the subject, but the live intuition guiding these metonymical suggestions is perfectly valid, even after four decades. (Which, in the turmoil of SF criticism, represents a true record.) "Landscapes of another planet" abound in SF books and films; anyone can choose freely as many examples as one wishes. "A corpuscle's-eye view of an artery" we saw in the film Fantastic Voyage (1966), directed by Richard Fleischer. The odyssey of blind navigation, plunged in darkness, of hemoglobin cells under the obscure vaults of the blood pipes could also be watched nonfictionally on television, in straight-scientific films, impressive by their technical performance of in vivo filming. But...''what it feels like to be in rapport with a car? A mere eccentricity escaped from the tip of the pen, without actual coverage? Not at all. In the film, The Incredible Shrinking Man (1957), by Jack Arnold, after Richard Matheson'S novel, the gentle housecat becomes a fierce, threatening monster for its human master, whose body is submitted to an irreversible shrinking process. The "rapport with a cat" is entirely differnt in Cordwainer Smith's story, "The Game of Rat and Dragon" (1955), where the relationships between man and cat are amiable and even more, fused in a sui generis telepathic link, the only one able to generate the superhuman reaction speed required by "pinlighting"-the deadly fight against the dark monsters of the cosmic void, known as "Dragons." But...enough of these non-theoretical digressions, which I shouldn't have mentioned if they hadn't been concrete cases of the "sense of wonder." As regards the paternity of the phrase, Knight throws no light. There is slightly more to be found from Alexei Panshin, for instance, though it is uncertain we have got to the farthest end: It was Sam Moskowitz, writing about the sterility of the Fifties' science fiction, who first brought up the sense of wonder. Moskowitz borrowed the term from the psychologist Rollo May: 'Wonder is the opposite of cynicism and boredom: it indicates that a person has heightened aliveness, is interested, 66

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SFHA Revlew'211, May/June 1994 expectant, responsive. It is essentially an 'opening' attitude ... an awareness that there is more to life than one has yet fathomed, an experience of new vistas of life to be explored as well as new profundities to be plumbed."057 Even this seems to Panshin too little as compared to his own experience, his own living of the indescribable "sense of wonder," which, to him, is a devastating revelation, an "epiphany" in the supreme aesthetic sense given by James Joyce to the term borrowed from theology:58 What first inspired me was the sense of wonder, and the sense of wonder is not merely what Damon Knight and science fiction held it to be ... It was this that I felt that day when I was twelve. A sense of a different dimension of being asserting itself and erupting into ordinary life. It was a revelation of new vistas of life to be explored, an awareness that there was more to life than I had yet fathomed. It was not Knighrs mere ''widening of the mind's horizons, no matter in what direction." It was not merely that the amount of science fiction that I knew to exist became fifty times larger in an instant. What I felt was something else. It was awe, and fear, and power and truth, as though a goddess had for a brief moment lifted her veil before me.59 There is no mystical revelation here, of course, irs just aesthetic epiphany, for it can also inspire verbal exaltation when the words try to describe the indescribable: the only thing really worthy to be said in a ''work of art' deserving this name. Irs not less true, though, that the sense of wonder loses its specific relevance for science fiction when equaled to generic aesthetic epiphany, to any aesthetic pleasure, which can be given by any art form. It loses this way its function and legitimacy as differentia specifica. For the fine sensors tuned in on the specific SF wavelength, and fused under the name "sense of wonder," will not detect in science fiction an "epiphany of beauty," like with Joyce, but "merely" an "epiphany of the sublime." We should not let ourselves be taken in by the common meaning of "beauty," whose semantic area tends to include the area of the "sublime," with some people, at least, who don't bother to analyze their own feelings. For most of them, the immensity of the starry sky is plainly "beautiful," despite the fact that it is one of the first immemorial experiences of the sublime on Earth, a "classical" example of emotion of the sublime of nature in textbooks of aesthetics. But what intensity is more paroxysmal than the awe inspired by the stars as seen not from the Earth, but from a spaceship wholly exposed to them, and to someone who has never seen stars before in his life: 56 "Now," said Joe, "I'm going to show you the stars!" Faithfully reproduced, shining as steady and serene from the walls of the stellarium as did their originals from the black deeps of space, the mirrored stars looked down on him. Light

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SFRA ReFie .... 211. May/June 1994 after jeweled light, scattered in the careless bountiful splendor across the simulacrum sky, the countless suns lay before him, in every direction from him. He hung alone in the center of the stellar universe. "Oooooh!" It was an involuntary sound, caused by his indrawn breath. He clutched the chair arms hard enough to break fingernails, but he was not aware of it. Nor was he afraid at the moment; there was room in his being for but one emotion. Life within the Ship, alternately harsh and workaday, had placed no strain on his innate capacity to experience beauty; for the first time in his life he knew the intolerable ecstasy of beauty unalloyed. It shook him and hurt him, like the first trembling intensity of sex.60 No, it is not an "ecstasy of beauty," but an "ecstasy of sublime," and this is one of the most impressive descriptions of it in all science fiction, even if it is mislabeled. A similar objection could be made to Suvin's theoretical construction, focused on the concept of "cognitive estrangement,"61 intended to grasp the essence of science fiction and making possible its definition as a genre. But even if we limit ourselves to Viktor Shklovski's finding (from whom Suvin borrowed the concept of "estrangemenr'), that we "come across estrangement almost wherever image exists,"62 it is clear that this concept of estrangement may serve as "proximal genre," but not as "specific difference." In order to find this specific difference, Suvin introduces the notion of "cognition" which, in its turn, postulates the change of that novum,63 to which the respectability of "specific difference" in the SF definition is transferred. This novum itself cannot be defined theoretically, supertemporally, categorically, as Suvin himself points out. It can only be grasped in its concrete, historical, individual hypostases. From this cul-de-sac, this obscurum per obscuris (as this flaw of definition is called in logic) one can escape much more simply, by accepting magnitude (static or dynamic, spatial or temporal) as specific difference in science fiction, by accepting ipso facto that not any "cognitive estrangemenr' is defining for SF, in the same way that not any "epiphany" is defining. Specific and defining for SF is only that "cognitive estrangement' which is triggered by the shift on the scale of magnitudes in the Universe, in the macroand microcosmos, the reference point being ''the human scale" of magnitudes directly perceivable to senses. Similarly, on the scale of temporal magnitudes, placed between instantaneousness and eternity, the reference point is "ephemeral" human lifespan. If there is a "new quality of moral judgment ariSing from size alone,'064 there will also be a new quality of aesthetic judgment arising from size alone. It is true that ''the effects of scale go well beyond perception in engendering novelty,'65 but this implies a novelty engendered by the changes of scale themselves, and moreover by the large and sudden changes of scale. 57

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SFRA Revle.'211, May/June 1994 Only this "conceptual breakthrough"-this short circuit of the mind by the sudden shift on the magnitude scale, by juxtaposition perceptible to senses of magnitudes, dimensions, durations, forces, degrees of complexity in the Universe etc. at immense distance from one another on the scale of magnitudes in the Universe, and even more in the Universe as revealed by contemporary science-only this "intellectual vertigo"66 is specific and defining in SF; in hard SF at least-this should be emphasized again and again. Viewed through the prism of the aesthetic concept of the sublime the whole SF territory, especially its central, vital zone, its "hardcore," is rearranged and ordered coherently to give a comprehensive general image, the uncovered subregions being minimal and non-defining. The virtual danger of a new dogmatism, or reductionism, cannot be excluded. But this reductionism is inherent and it is accounted for by the necessary minimal "esprit de geometrie' involved by any theory (including literary) deserving this name. Any generalizing and unifying principle risks to become a reductionist and repulsive "Procrustean bed," as warned against above. This risk is directly proportional to the degree of essentiality the principle is endowed with, to its unifying, all-embracing and implicitly reductive scope. The more essential the principle, the greater the risk of being abused, the more aggressive and totalitarian it seems when confronted with concrete, individual facts which it is called to put in a coherent order. However, this is a necessary evil, a necessary risk. For there is another risk, much greater and more serious: the magnetic needle is only useful if it points to the North. And in science fiction, the North is the sublime. -Cornel Robu BIILlDIRRPHICRL BURVEY In SF criticism, Sam Moskowitz is said to be the first who coined ''the sense of wonder"; memorable descriptions of it offered Damon Knight (In Search of Wonder, 1956; revised edition, 1967) and Alexei Panshin (''The Profession of Science Fiction, XIV," in Foundation no. 14 (September 1978)). The first to grasp the idea of the sublime in connection with SF and "sense of wonder" was Peter Nicholls (in his reviewing of Poul Anderson's Tau Zero and Larry Niven's Ringwor/d, in Foundation no. 2 (June 1972)); he was followed by Wayne Connelly ("Science Fiction and the Mundane Egg," in Riverside Quarterly no. 20 (April 1973)); David Ketterer ("Science Fiction and Allied Literature," in Science Fiction Studies no. 8 (March 1976)); Bart Thurber (''Toward a Technological Sublime," in The Intersection of Science Fiction and Philosophy, edited by Robert E. Myers, 1983); and Cornel Robu ("A Key to Science Fiction," in Foundation no. 42 (Spring 1988)). As for the "systematic" aesthetics of sublime, the foremost remain ''the founders" in the eighteenth century: Edmund Burke (A Philosophical Inquiry Into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, 1756); Immanuel Kant ( The Critique of Judgement [Krllik der UrteilskratfJ, 1790); Friedrich Schiller (with some of his "minor" philosophical writiogs: "About the Sublime" ('Vom Erhabenen"), "On the Pathetical" ("Uber das Pathetische"), 1793, 1801; "On the Sublime" ("Uber das Erhabene"), 1801, a.o. In our century, first mention 58

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SFRA Rene" 1211, Ma,1 JUDe 1994 should be made of Nicolai Hartmann with his Aesthetics (Astheti/9, written in 1945, first published in 1953, and Thomas Weiskel, with The Romanhc Sublime: Studies in the Structure and Psychology of Transcendence, 1976; Second Edition, 1986. 1. Comparison taken from Patrick Parrinder, See Note 8. 2. The passage from St. Augustine's Confessions is translated into English from a Romanian version included in AntoJogie IiJosoIic<1 Filosoli straini (Philosophical AnthoJocy, Foreign Scholar!), by N. Bagdasar, V. Bogdan & C. Narly. Bucharest: Casa Scoalelor, 1943, p. 177-182. 3. Weiskel, Thomas. The Romantic Sublime: Studies in the Structure and P.syr:hology of Transcendence. Baltimore, London: The Johns Hopkins Univer.iity Press, 1976; Second Edition, 1986, p. 4. 4. Suvin, Dano. "SF and Genological Jungle," in Metamorphoses of Science Fiction: On the Poetics and History of a Literary Genre. New Haven, London: Yale Univer.iity Press, 1979, p. 16-36. 5. See Stableford, Brian & Peter NichoUs. "Definitions of SF," in The Encyr:Jopedia of Science Fiction: An IUustrated A to Z; edited by Peter NichoUs & John Oute. London, Toronto: Granada Publishing, 1979; Second Printing, 1981, p. 159-161; See van Herp, Jacques. "Definitions et jugements," in Panorama de Ia science-fiction: Les themes, Jes genres, Jes tfcoJes, Jes probJemes. Verviers, Belgium: Marabout Universite, 1975, p. 385-390; See Manolescu, Florin. "SF ca definitie" ("SF as Definition,,), in LiteJ7ltura SF (SF Literaturt!). Bucharest: Editura Univers, 1980, p. 25-32. 6. Stableford, Brian & Peter NichoUs, quoted entry in Encyclopedia ... p. 161. 7. The mentioning of this film here may be arbitrary, I admit that, the more so as I have not even seen it. Nevertheless, I hope the title in itself, as a mere phrase, is appropriate, even more as it is very striking and paradoxical. 8. Parrinder, Patrick. Science Fiction: Its Criticism and Teaching. London, New York: Methuen, 1980, p. xviii. 9. Suvin, Dano. "Estrangement and Cognition," op. cit., p. 3-15. 10. Slusser, George E. ''Who's Afraid of Science Fiction?" in Foundation: The Review of Science Fiction no. 42 (Spring 1988): 11. 11. I do apologize for this "Iudus scholasticus" (confer Johan Huizinga, Homo 1rxJens, 1938) and please read the restored quotation as follows: "If you ask what kind of pleasure then I can only answer, the kind of pleasure that poetry gives: simply because an;y other answer would take us far afield into aesthetics, and the general quotation of the nature of art." (T. S. Eliot. 'The Social FWlCtion of Poetry" (1945), in On PoeIIy and Poets. London: Faber & Faber Ltd., 1957, p. 18; See also the American edition of the same book: New York: Farrar Straus and Cudahy, 1957, p. 18.). 12. My first attempt to tackle these problems is to be found in my essay, "A Key to Science Fiction: The Sublime," in Foundation: The Review of Science Fiction no. 42 (Spring 1988). As I said there, elucidation of these problems would require a further examination of both proand contra-arguments. 59

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SFRA Rene .. '211, May/June 1994 13. Monison, Philip & Phy\is Monison. of Ten: A Book About the Relative Size of Things in the Universe and the Effect of Adding Another Zero. New York: Scientific American Books, 1982, p. 11. 14. idem, p. 12. 15. Stableford, Brian. "Great and Small," in the quoted Encyr:Jopedia of Science Fiction, p. 203. 10. Burke, Edmund. A Philosophicallnquify Into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1750), in The Wolfs of the Right HOl1OruabJe Edmund Brute, 3 vols. London, New York: Oxford University Press, 1913. THE WORLD'S CLASSICS Vol. I, p. 123. 17. Kant, Immanuel. The Critique of Judgment (KJitik der Urteilskra/tJ, 1790, translated by James Creed Meredith, in The Critique of Pure Reason. The Critique of Practicill Reason and Other Ethical Treatises. The Critique of Judgment. Chicago, London: William Benton Publisher.;, Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 1952. GREAT BoOKS OF TIiE WFSfERNWORLD no. 42, p. 500. 18. Hartmann, Nicolai. Asthetik. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1953, p. 375. 19. The intellective and aesthetic pleasure supposed to accompany, implicitly and unfaiJingly, the mind's ''breakthrough'' of the mystery of the world, of the barrier of the unknown, immeasurable, infinity, etc., "the shift from one paradigm to another," may be considered "the essence of SF," its specific and defining element: Such an altered perception of the world, sometimes in terms of science and sometimes in terms of society, is what SF is most commonly about, and few SF stories do not have at least some element of conceptual breakthrough. . .No adequate definition of SF can be formulated that does not somehow take this theme into account. (peter Nicholls. "Conceptual Breakthrough," in the quoted Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, p. 134-130.) This entry is in fact the most complete and knowledgeable theoretical and historical elucidation of the theme of "conceptual breakthrough," from its mythical roots (Prometheus, Dr. Faustus) to the most remarkable SF achievements of the '50s, 'oOs, and '70s. 20. See Note 15. 21. Pascal's Pensees (1070) are a milestone in the history of the idea of sublime and, consequently, "Pascal's Terror" involves a structural affinity with modem SF, especially hard SF, as certified by Gregory Benford in his essay, "Pascal's Terror," in Foundation: The Review of Science Fiction no. 42 (Spring 1988): 18-20. Stanislaw Lem also invoked in this regard the siJentium universi, "those eternally silent abysses of which Pascal spoke with horror," in his essay discussed here below (See Notes 25, 26, 30). 22. In twentieth-century SF, and the sublime, Man is no longer "sustained between two 60 infinities," as expressed by Pascal in the seventeenth century; Man is now sustained ''between three infinities" or four, if we also consider time: Even if we do not take into account the depths of Time-that is in an instant section of the Univer.;e-there is a third abyss: that of Complexity... Thus it is not on two (as often considered) but on three infinities (at least) that the World is spatially built. The Minute and the Immense undoubtedly. But also (rooted like the Immense

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SFRA Reviewf211, May/June 1994 in the Minute but foUowing its own course) the immensely Complicated." Which means, added the French thinker Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, "just what we caU Life" (La place de l'homme dans Ia nature: Le groupe zoologique humain. Paris: Albin Michel, 1949, 1962, p. 26-27). In SF, this third infinity is equaUy if not more productive from a quantitative point of view than Pascars two infinities. 23. Kant, p. 502. 24. idem, p. 500. 25. Lem, Stanislaw. "Cosmology and Science Fiction." in Science-Fiction Studies Vol. 4:2, No. 12 (July 1977): 110. 26. "So, if we caU the sight of the starry heavens sublime. we must not found our estimate of it upon any concepts of worlds inhabited by rational beings, with the bright spots, which we see Iilling the space above us, as their suns moving in orbits prescribed for them with the wisest regard to ends. But we must take it. just as it strikes the eye, as a broad and aU-embracing canopy: and it is merely under such a representation that we may posit the sublimity which the pure aesthetic judgement attributes to this object." Immanuel Kant, op. cir., p. 507. Kant was referring here to the so-caUed doctrine of the "plurality of inhabited worlds," which was already developing in his time and continued to develop for a while in a stuff of nonfiction writings, forgotten today (fanciful essays, comments and speculations at the boundaries of astronomy, philosophy, religion, etc.). These writings offered, at the best. a static and lyricist contemplation of the presumed "plural inhabited worlds" and not the narrative movement and epic substance of fiction. SF would break this deadlock by specifically literary solutions, each of them unique and irreproducible, of course, as everywhere in genuine art. A wonderful solution, a true "quadrature of the circle" was found by Stanislaw Lem in his masterpiece Solaris (1961): not an "inhabited world" proper, but a whole-thinking world, an alien "one-brain planet," a superhuman "nollS-planet." Needless to say, what an unparaUeled overwhelming potential lies involved here. 27. Anderson, Poul. "Kyrie,"in Black Holes and Other MaJVe/s. edited by Jerry PourneUe. London. Sydney: An Orbit Book. Futura Publications, Macdonald & Co., 1978, p. 95. As specified by the editor, Anderson's story was first published in The Far Reaches. edited by Joseph Elder. New York: Trident Press, 1968. 28. "A rough count in a good local SF shop suggests that something like 80% of the material on sale is fantasy, replete with dragons. swordsmen, warlocks and what-have-you. You may like this genre-though personally I don't-but I think that most of us would deny that it is SF. Yet SF, almost by definition. requires at least extrapolation from, if not a definite departure from, current Scientific knowledge and theory. So what is aUowed? No many may lay down the law; but I am attracted by Poul Anderson's rule, which he put forward in an interesting essay attached to Vilgin Planet. This was that the writer may allow himself one theoretical break. but otherwise must limit himself to reasonable extrapolation. (Incidentally, we must acknowledge that he foUows his own precept pretty faithfully.)" M. Hammerton. "SF and Accurate Science," in Foundation: The Review of Science Fiction No. 47 (Winter 1989/90): 70. I unreservedly agree with Hammerton, although Anderson's Vugin Planer unfortunately wasn't available to me so far. When it will finally be (dum spiro spero.?, I could possibly examine this highly 61

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SFRA Revlew'211, May/June 1994 promising "Ander.;on's rule" as a criterion in defining hard SF; (not the only one of course: just as a necessary condition, not the sufficient one, of this possible and muchdesired definition). 29. The essential claim of the sublime is that Man can, in feeling and speech, ttanscend the human... Without some notion of the beyond, some credible discourse of the superhuman, the sublime founders; or it becomes a "problem." This is as true in Romanticism as in antiquity. "The beautiful," says Schiller, "is valuable only with reference to the human being. but the sublime with reference to the pure demorl' in Man, "the statutes of pure spirit." A humanistic sublime is an oxymoron, Thomas Weisk.el, op. cit., p. 3. See Note 3. 30. 'The SF of today resembles a 'graveyard of gravity' in which that sub-genre of literature that promised the cosmos to mankind, dreams away its defeat in onanistic delusions and chimera5--{)nanistic, because they are anthropocentric." Stanislaw Lem, quoted essay, p. 109. See also Notes 21,25,26. 31. Suvin, Darko, op. cit., passim. See also Notes 4, 9, 61, 63. 32. Nicholls, Peter, quoted entry in 77re Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. See also Note 19. 33. Campbell, John W. "God Isn't Democratic," in Analog: Science FictionlScience Fact Vol. 73:2 (April 1964): 97. 34. Weiskel, Thomas, op. cit., p. 3-4. 35. Frenkian, Aram M. IntelesuJ suferintei umane la EscM. Sofocle si Euripide (77re Meaning of Human Suffering with Aeschylus, Sophocles and Eun'pideSj. Bucharest: Editura pentru Uteratura Universala, 1969, p. 33. 36. Nicholls, Peter, reviews of Poul Ander.;on's Tau Zero (1970, 1971) and Larry Niven's Ringworld (1970, 1972), in Foundaoon: The Review of Science Fiction No. 2 (June 1972): 44. 37. Wordworth, William. "Unes Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Alley: On Revisiting the Banks of the Wye"; the poem first appeared in Coleridge and Wordworth's Lyrical BaUads(1798). 38. Since an English edition of Donald A. WoUheim's 77re Universe MakelS (1971) was not available to me, the passage quoted here is rettanslated from a French version: 11 (Ray Cummings, i.e.) a complete Ie ttavail de Verne. 11 ne s'est pas aventure. dans la sociologie. 11 n'a pas fait vaciller notre .equilibre par des predICtiOns SOCIales. En lw, Ie Vleux Sens du Merveilleux joualt a plein. Donald A. Wollheim. Les FaiseUlS d'Univers. ttaduit de l'americain par Pierre Versins. Paris: Editions Robert Laffont, 1974, p. 53. La sciencefiction aujourd'hui. 39. Theodore Sturgeon's lines published in The New Yolf Times are reproduced as a blurb on the cover of the Pan paperback edition (974) of Arthur C. Clarke's Rendezvous with Rama (973). 40. The quoted passage is also reproduced as a blurb on page iii of the paperback edition (1987) of Gregory Benford and David Brin's HealT of the Camet 0 986). 41 This survey of the "hard" themes and topics is drawn out from Peter Nicholls and John Clute's Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (1979; second printing, 1981). 62

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SFRA Revlell"'211, May/June 1994 42. Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. Biographia Literaria (ISI7), edited with his Aesthetical Essays byJ. Shawcross. London: Oxford University Press, 19b5 (fir.;t edition, 1907),2 vols., chapter XIV, Vol. II, p. b. 43. Kant, Immanuel, op. cit., p. 502. 44. Schiller, Friedrich. Vom ErlJabenen: Zur weitem AusfUIuung einiger Kantischen Ideen (About the Sublime: To Further Development of Some Kantian IdeaS), 1793. 45. Lem, Stanislaw, quoted essay, p. 109. 46.-53. Nicholls, Peter, quoted review. See Note 3b. 54. In his Encyclopedia, Nicholls is likely to transfer much of his ideas concerning the "sense of wonder" to the account of "conceptual breakthrough," synonymous to a certain point, and which he seems to feel especially fond of. 55. '''!'uttavia, iI vero "sense of wonder" du cui parlano Clarke e molti altri sta neU'esplorazione di quei mondi esotici, spesso ostili." Thomas D. Clareson. "La solitudine cosmica di A. C. Clarke," in Nova SF (Giugno-Settembre 19Sb), Anno II, numero b (nuova serie) (xx-48). Bologna: Perseo Ubri, p. 135-154. Otalian version of the chapter ''The Cosmic Loneliness of Arthur C. Clarke," from the volume C/aJte, New York, 1977). 5b. Knight, Damon. In Searr:h of Wonder. EssaJ15 on Modem Science Fiction, Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Chicago: Advent: Publishers, 19b7, (I95b), p. 4, 12-13. The roots of "sense of wonder" are deeply grown into intuitive critical perception, into the "impression of reading" of concrete works. Symptomatically, these roots are evidenced here by the fact that this famous book. a Hugo Award winner in 195b, is "merely" a collection of book reviews published between 1952-5b in Infinity, The Magazine of Fantasy &' Science Fiction. and other magazines. 57. Panshin, Alexei. ''The Profession of Science Fiction, no. XIV: Why I No Longer Pretend to Write Science Fiction," in Foundation: The Review of Science Fiction No. 14 (September 1975): 24. 5S. James Joyce coined the aesthetical meaning of "epiphany" fir.;t in Stephen Hero (posthumously appeared in 1944) and then, without expressedly mentioning the term, in A Portrait of the Anistas a Young Man (191b), in both of these variants of the novel, many samples of "epiphany" being incorporated. 59. Panshin, Alexei, ibidem. bOo Heinlein, Robert A. "Universe," in Astounding Science-Fiction Vol. 27:3 (May 1941): 27 bL Suvin, Darko, op. cit., p. 3-15. See Notes 4, 9. b2. The concept of "estrangement" ('ostraneniye' in Russian) was coined by Viktor B. Shklovslti in his essay "Iskusstvo ((ak priyom" ('Art as a Device',), 1917. Since an English version of this essay was not available to me, the passage quoted here is translated from a Romanian version: "Arta ca procedeu," in the anthology Ce este bteratura?: Scoala formala rosa (What is 1.Jterature?: The Russian Formal School). Bucharest: Editura Univers, 19S3, p. 391. b3. Suvin, Darko. "SF and the Novum," op. cit., p. b3-84. 64. Morrison, Philip & Phylis Morrison, op. cit., p. 12. See Note 13. b5. idem, p. 13. bb. "InteUectual vertigo" ('vertij intelectual" in Romanian) is a phrase coined by Voicu Bugariu, one of the foremost Romanian SF writers and critics, in an attempt to grasp 63

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64 SFRA Rene .... 211, May/JuDe 1994 and describe the same indescriba ble "impression of reading" which engendered such English phrases as "sense of wonde ... or "conceptual breakthrough," discussed above.

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SFRA Renew'211, May/June 1994 FEATURE REVIEW Coover, Robert. PmoccbJo m VenJce. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991,330 p., cloth, $19.95; ISBN 0-671-64471-8. As most students of _rious literature know, Coover ia not a conventional fant_iat, but a poatmoderu litel'lll'f "fabulator" or author of "metafiction," who h_ satirized numerous Americau cultural icons from the babysitter to Richard Nixon. Even before he wrote the supreme text for Nixon haters lD The PublJc Bur.alDl, Coover had cauterized small town hypocrisy and wacky relillous fanaticiam lD hia first novel, The Or/gbJ of the Brun16ts, which won the Wllllam Faulkner award for 1966. That w_ followed by Coover's high-spirited satire on theology, which portrayed the ChriatlllD God the ultimate player of fant_y baseballlD The UnJvenal Baseball AssocJatJon (1968). Numerous metafictional exerciaes and titles followed, along with awards, honors, and gnmts. Coover, who grew up lD Southern IlllDoia, the son of a small town newspaperman, h_ spent a lot of energy and talent battling the forces of ignOrllDce and lDhumanity, and trylDg to exorciae the demons who have stymied the progre .. of twentieth century liberal humaniam. Coover's position lD litel'lll'f hiatory a political satlrlat and an lDnovator lD fictional technique are assured. Whatever positive goals Richard Nixon accompliahed, Coover's The PublJc Bur.abJg, portraying Nixon's role lD the McCarthy Era and the Rosenbera: will always rank probably the best of the boob that captured Nixon's moral hypocrisy-at le_t for those, like me, who remember Nixon's presidency mostly a __ on lD hell. Similarly, Coover's collection of early postmoderu stories, PrJckso.Dg1l and DesClUJts (1969), will surely rank one of the Influential collections of "metafiction," Robert Scholes and other scholars have argued. But to see Coover merely a satlrlat or a prankiah lDnovator, however, ia not to gnmt him the stature he deserves an artiat. Perhaps Coover's predUection for lDtellectual slapstick and farce h_ probably proven a handicap here: unle .. you happen to be a contlDental writer, or Samuel Beckett, it cau be hard to be a metaphysical comedian and retalD the final accolades of some contempol'lll'f Americau academic critics or votlDg members of the litel'lll'f establiahment, not to mention the committees who choose the Nobellaureates. There also h_ ariaen a curious latter day response to Coover on the part of some the very readers who should admire hia work the most: not long &&0, a sensitive liberal academic 65

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SFRA Rerle .... 211, May/June 1994 poet who liked Coover's satire on Nixon complained to me privately that he found the "presence of too much violence aeain.t women" in Coover'. work troubling. Aside from ignoring the .atirical or mimetic context of such events in Coover, I have to wonder if the "poUtica1ly correct" among u. have ever heard of Henry James' principle of allowing the artist to have his .ubject. At any rate, PlnoccbJo In VenJce will probably add luster to Coover's reputation .. a mature artist with a penonal vision, though his audience is always likely to be llmited to academic .cholars, other highbrow critics, and the small audience of nonprofeuional readen of po.tmodern fiction. This Pinocchio novel reworks many of the pratfalla and slapstick devices he h_ been u.ing for two decades, well the priapic and scatological metaphon; but instead of tara:eting a particular institution or penon, the novel offen a commenton mortaUty and the llmitations of human achievement. In PlnoccbJo, the cluaic chUdren's fant_y by Carlo Lorenzini (which he published under the pseudonym of C. COLLODI, using the name of his native village), the main character w_ a wooden puppet whose energy and mischief created a series of comic misadventures, including an ill-advised form with commedJa dell'lUte marionettes, a miserable time when he w_ transformed into a donkey, and a perUous undenea trip in the .tomach of a monstrous fish. But when Pinocchio developed a conscience and a sense of compassion, the Blue Fairy granted his desire to become a "real boy." Of course, in the Disney movie venion, the story is sentimentaUzed and the satire w_ blunted. Despite some fine innovative animation for the early '4Oa, the Disney people made Pinocchio into a lovable Uttle waif and the Blue Fairy became an animated blond vaguely resembling Betty Grable. Lorenzini's original .tory is much tougher in tone, and his Pinocchio fairly bounces with folly and mischief, not to mention a Uttle maUce. Of course, sophisticated readen should have no trouble recognizing that Lorenzini's fant_y, like most Victorian chUdren's fant_ies, is a fable about growing up, with a fairly Victorian theme about the importance of acting responsibly. Likewise, scholars of Uterature have noted the influence of commedJa dell'lUte characten and Lucius Apuleis' Golden As. on Lorenzini'. story (influences Coover calla attention to). But once Pinocchio became a human, how did he use his Ufe? And, being human, he w_ of course subject to aging and mortaUty like the rest of u., though we seldom bother to think about that. In PlnocchJo In VenJce, Coover h_ revened the plot of Lorenzini' tory. In his ninety years of Ufe a human, Pinocchio h_ followed the Blue Fairy'. wishes all too well, and after emlerating to America, he h_ become Dr. Pinenut and devoted his Ufe to the highest achievements of .cholarahip in ae.thetics, phUosophy, and theology, winning not one, but two Nobel prizes. Now, in his nineties, he return. to Venice .. a distinguished emeritus professor, hoping to find the proper concluding chapter for his l_t book and to see the Blue Fairy once more. 66

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SFRA Review'211, May/June 1994 As Coover's tale unfolds, Pinocchio once again falla upon hard times, meeting the same characters who conned him, befriended him, or betrayed him nearly a century ago. Gradually, however, Pinocchio Is losing his flesh and returning to the condition of wood; but he suffers many other indignities and misadventures, being tricked by the fox and the cat again; meeting the commedia deH'arfe puppets again (now performing as a punk rock band); and being deceived by his friend Eugenio, who wants to industrialize the decaying city of Venice and make it a rival of such choice environments as New Jersey. The reader soon comes to realize that Pinocchio is in search not only of the Blue Fairy, his surrogate mother, but of his lost innocence. In his zeal to become a responsible citizen, Pinocchio has lived an overly cerebral life, and now the most satisfying thing he can do is to renew his acquaintanceship with the underside of existence which he has repudiated. Finally, the aglng professor succeeds in finding the Fairy, and one of the three wishes she grants him is to have his old puppet body returned to life as his human self expires. In the literary background of this novel, there is much more than Lorenzini's fable; one august model for Coover is Thomas Mann's Death in Venice, and occasionally Coover's Pinocchio may remind us of a more comic Gustave Von Aschenbach. However, not even Aschenbach suffered the humlliations of losing baggage, clothes, and even parts of his body, as Pinocchio does, and Aschenbach was spared farcical episodes of Coover's "carnival" sequence, where a visiting count makes a spectacle of himself and bestows on the city the gUt of a lost painting called the "Madonna of the Organs," which depicts a virgin with her Insides hanging out. (Clearly, Coover can imagine something more grotesque than the self-exposures of a certain American rock icon.) Although Coover's intellectual fantasy is audaciously conceived, and narrated with meticulous attention to detail, its action remains curiously abstract. Like many postmodern authors, Coover employs the present tense for his narrator, but his style is so elaborately baroque, relying heavily on asides and endless subordinate clauses, that the telling of the story sometimes suggests a Faulkner who has read Joyce's Ulysses once too often. Another feature of the novel which may drive off all but the most dedicated and mature readers of postmodern fiction is the obsessive inversion of religious imagery Into sexual and scatological references. The publisher's blurb speaks of Coover's work as being "deliciously Wicked," but there may be a little too much of a good thing in this slapstick "wickedness." Nevertheless, as a meditation on aging and mortality, Coover's novel succeeds in spite of its excesses. Moreover, some of Coover's best comic touches come at the expense of academia. As a professor at Brown University, Coover has plenty of experience in this realm. It's hard not to like a novel where the protagonist's metaphor for boredom Is a long faculty meeting discussing tenure, and where the Ivy League universities are 67

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SFRA Renew '211, MaYI June 1994 referred to as the "I. V." institutions because they are said to have Introduced the concept of education as "Intravenous feeding." -Edgar L. Chapman 68

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SFRA Revlew'211, May/June 1994 BUa.lECT HEADINIiIS FDR IiIENRE FICTIDN Libraries do not usually provide subject access for most works of fiction. The lists below are presented for two purposes. First, to help library users decide whether to ask libraries to expend extra time enhancing subject heading; for fiction. Second, as suggestions for anyone who needs genre fiction subject heading; for personal projects. The heading; SCIENCE FICfION, HORROR TALES, and FANTASTIC FICfION are already authorized in The LIbrary of Congress Subject Headings (LCSII) list, but are usually applied only to anthologies, not to novels. The same heading; with the subheading; -HISTORY AND CRITICISM, -BIBLIOGRAPHY, or -AUTHORSHIP are used for nonfiction works. Two recent books have suggested improvements in subject heading; for fiction. Gwdelines on Subject Access to IndiVIdual Works of Fiction, Drama, Etc., an AMERICAN LIBRARY AsSOCIATION CoMMITIEE REPORT written by Barbara Berman and others (ALA, 1990) and Steven Olderr's Olderr's Fiction Subject Headings (ALA, 1991) both list existing LCSH heading; they believe should be applied to novels, and additional heading; of their own devising which they believe are needed. Librarie.s today usually have clerical staff perform "copy cataloging" of materials using bibliographical records from the OCLC database. Most OCLC records for works of fiction are created by the LC and have few or no subject heading;. Enhancing subject heading; would require extra work by a local library. It would probably mean shifting the cataloging of fiction from clerical staff to more highly trained, better-paid personnel capable of analyzing the contents of a work of fiction and deciding what heading; are needed. Libraries are unlikely to make this change unless library users demand it. However, if enough libraries decide they need enhanced fiction subject heading;, the LC may agree to change its policy and provide fiction heading;, shifting the burden of work from local libraries to itself. Berman's and Olderr's lists attempt to cover all fiction genres. The excerpts below include only heading; relevant to SF, fantasy, and horror. "L" denotes a heading already authorized in LCSH (but not now usually applied to individual works of fiction); "B" is a heading on Berman's list; "0" is a heading on Olderr's list. Both Berman and Olderr urge the use of heading; for names of characters and setting;, such as TARZAN (FICfITIOUS CHARACfER) and DUNE (IMAGINARY PLACE). Berman (but not Olderr) includes heading; which could be applied to video and sound recordings, such as SCIENCE FICfION FILMS, FANTASTIC TELEVISION PROGRAMS, and HORROR RADIO PROGRAMS. Note that whenever a topical heading is followed by the subheading -FICfION, the same heading could be used with the subheading; -DRAMA, -POETRY, or -JUVENILE FICfION and applied to appropriate works. 69

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SFRA Rene ... '211, MaYI June 1994 ALTERNATIVE HISTORIES (B) ANIMALS. MYTHICAL-FICrION (L. 0) ANIMATED FILMS (L. B) ANIMATED TELEVISION PROGRAMS (B) APOCALYPTIC FICTION (0) ARTHURIAN ROMANCES (L. B. 0) COMIC BOOKS. STRIPS. ETC. (L. B. 0) DEMONAIC POSSESSION-FiCrION (L. 0) DOPPELGANGERS-FICrION (0) DYSTOPIAS-FICTION (L. B. 0) EXORCISM-FICTION (L. 0) EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION-HCTION (L. 0) EXTRATERRESTRIAL BASES-FICTION (L. 0) EXTRATERRESTRIAL BEiNGS-FICrION (0) FABLES (L. B. 0) FAIRY TALES (L. B. 0) FANTASTIC FICTION (L. B. 0) FANTASTIC FICTION. HUMOROUS (0) FANTASTIC FICTION. SWORD AND SORCERY (0) FANTASTIC FILMS (L. B) FANTASTIC POETRY (L. B) FANTASTIC RADIO PROGRAMS (B) FANTASTIC TELEVISION PROGRAMS (L. B) FOLK LITERATURE (L. 0) FOLKLORE (L. B) FOURTH DIMENSION-FICTION (L. 0) FUTURE-FICTION (0) GHOST STORIES (L. B. 0) GIANTS-FICTION (L. 0) GOTHIC NOVELS (B) GOTHIC REVIVAL FICTION (0) GRAIL-FICTION (L. 0) HAUNTED HOUSES-FICTION (L. 0) HORROR COMIC BOOKS. STRIPS. ETC. (L) HORROR FILMS (L. B) HORROR PLAYS (L. B) HORROR RADIO PROGRAMS (L. B) HORROR TALES (L. B. 0) HORROR TELEVISION PROGRAMS (L. B) IMAGINARY HISTORIES (L. 0) IMAGINARY WARS AND BATTLES (L. 0) INTERPLANETARY VOYAGES-FICTION (L. B. 0) INTERSTELLAR TRAVEL-FICTION (L. 0) JINN-FICTION (L. O. for genies) 70

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SFRA Revlelr'211, May/June 1994 LEGENDS (L, B, 0) UFE ON OTHER PLANETS--FICfION (L, 0) MAGIG-FICfION (L, 0) MAGIC REAUSTIC FICfION (0) MAGICIANS--FICfION (L, 0) MAN, PREHISTORIG-FICfION (L, 0) MONSTERS--FICfION (L, 0) MOTION PICfURE SERIALS (L, B) MYTHOLOGY (L, 0) NEANDERTHALS--FICfION (L, 0) NUCLEAR WARFARE-FICfION (L, 0) OCCULT FICfION (8) OUTER SPACE---FICfION (L, 0) PARALLEL WORLDS--FICfION (0) QUESTS--FICfION (0) SATANISM-FICfION (L, 0) SCIENCE FANTASY (0) SCIENCE FICfION (L, B, 0) SCIENCE FICfION COMIC BOOKS, STRIPS, ETC. (L, B) SCIENCE FICfION, CYBERPUNK (0) SCIENCE FICfION FILMS (L, B) SCIENCE FICfION, HARD SCIENCE (0) SCIENCE FICfION, HUMOROUS (0) SCIENCE FICfION, LITERARY (0, proposes this heading for "works of science fiction that seek to transcend the lighter aspects of the genre and use a literary style to deal with the philosophy and universal themes of human existence." Library catalogers are not accustomed to making such judgments.) SCIENCE FICfION, MILITARY (0) SCIENCE FICfION PLAYS (L, B) SCIENCE FICfION POETRY (L, B) SCIENCE FICfION RADIO PROGRAMS (L, B) SCIENCE FICfION, RELIGIOUS (0) SCIENCE FICfION, SOCIAL SCIENCE (0, proposes this heading for "works of science fiction writen from the viewpoint of the social sciences; emphasis is placed on the sociological structure of civilizations and the relations of members to their society.") SCIENCE FICfION TELEVISION PROGRAMS (L, B) SEQUELS (LITERATURE) (L, 0) SPACE COLONIES--FICfION (L, 0) SPACE FLiGHT-FICfION (L, 0) SPACE STATIONS--FICfION (L, 0) SPACEWARFARE-FICflON (L, 0) SUPERHERO COMIC BOOKS, STRIPS, ETC. (B) SUPERHERO FILMS (8) 71

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SFRA Revie ... '211, May/JuDe 1994 SUPERHERO RADIO PROGRAMS (B) SUPERHERO TELEVISION PROGRAMS (B) SUPERNATURAL----FICTION (L. 0) SURREALISTIC FICTION (0) SURVIVAL AFTER NUCLEAR W ARFARE---FICTION (0) TALL TALES (L. B. 0) TELEPATHY-FICTION (L. 0) TIME TRAVEL----FICTION (L. 0) UTOPIAS-FICTION (L. B. 0) VAMPIRES-FICTION (L. 0) VOYAGES. IMAGINARY (L. B. 0) WEREWOLVES-FICTION (L. 0) WITCHCRAFT-FICTION (L. 0) WIZARDS-FICTION (L. 0) Note that Berman and Olderr use different terms for the same concept at least twice. Berman uses ALTERNATIVE HISTORIES where Olderr and LCSHuse IMAGINARY HISTORIES. Berman uses GOTHIC NOVELS where Olderr uses GOTHIC REVIVAL FICTION The list below is from Bryan Senn and John Johnson's Fantastic Cinema Subject Gwde: A Topical Index to 2.500 Horror. Science Fiction and Fantasy Films (1992). Heading; such as CATS. MACHINES. and PLANTS refer to mms about malevolent cats. machines. or plants which threaten the protagonists. Although Senn and Johnson's categories do not follow LCSH patterns. equivalent terms to most of their heading; could be found in LCSH. ABOMINABLE SNOWMAN ALIENS-INVADERS ON EARTH ALIENS-ENCOUNTERS IN OUTER SPACE ALIENS-BENEVOLENT ALLIGATORS AND CROCODILES ANIMAL GIANTS ANTHOLOGIES APE GIANTS APES AND MONKEYS ATLANTIS BATHORY. ELIZABETH BATS BEARS BIGFOOT BIRDS BLOBS BRAINS-DISEMBODIED BRAINS-LIVING HEADS 72

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SFRA Revlew'211, May/JuDe 1994 BRAINS-BRAIN SUCKERS BRAINS-BRAIN TRANSPLANTS BUG GIANTS BUG-PEOPLE BUGS CANNIBALS CARS AND VEHICULAR VILLAINS CAT-PEOPLE CATS CAVEPEOPLE COMIC BOOK FANTASY HEROES COMPUTERS CRABS AND CRUSTACEANS DEMONS AND DEVILS DINOSAURS DOGS DOLLS DREAM KILLERS FISH FISH-PEOPLE FRANKENSTEIN'S MONSTER FREAKS FUTURES ON EARTH-AFTER THE BOMB FUTURES ON EARTH-UTOPIAS AND DYSTOPIAS GENIES GHOSTS GRAVE ROBBERS GRAY. DORIAN HANDS HUMAN GIANTS HYPNOTISTS INVISIBILITY JACK THE RIPPER JAPANESE GIANT MONSTERS JEKYLL. DR. AND FAMILY MACHINES MAD SCIENTISTS MADMEN MAGICIANS MARS MOON MUMMIES MYTHOLOGY PHANTOMS PLANET OF THE APES'SERIES 73

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SFRA RerieIF'211, May/JuDe 1994 PLANTS POE FILMS PSYCHIC ABILITY RATS REINCARNATION ROBOTS SEA MONSTERS SHRINKAGE SINBAD SNAKES SPACE TRAVEL STATUES COME TO LIFE (includes the Golem) SWORD AND SORCERY TIME TRAVEL TWO-HEADED CREATURES UNDERGROUND WORLDS VAMPIRES-DRACULA AND FAMILY VAMPIRES-OTHERS VENUS VOODOO WAX MUSEUMS WEREWOLVES WITCHES. WARLOCKS. AND CULTS ZOMBIE FLESH EATERS ZOMBIES A few other possible heading; which come to mind are: ARABIAN NIGHTS FANTASIES EVIL CHILDREN HORROR COMEDY LEPRECHAUNS LOST RACE FICTION LOST WORLDS 74 -Michael Klossner

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SFRA Review '211, Mayl JUDe 1994 NDNFICTIDN REVIEWS Anon. The Disney Poster: The Animated Film Qassics /Tom Mickey Mouse to Aladdin. New York: Hyperion, 1993,95 p., cloth, $35.00; ISBN 1-56282-924-6. Hershenson, Bruce. Cartoon Movie Posters. West Plains, MO: Hershenson (p.O. Box 874; 65775), 1993?, 96 p., paper, $20.00; no ISBN. From the silents to the mid-1950s, Hollywood produced thousands of short cartoons. Amazingly, many of these shorts had their own posters, which were displayed alongc;ide posters for the liveaction features the cartoons supported. Hershenson's beautiful book reproduces 391 posters and lobby cards from 1911-72. Most advertised shorts; a few dozen posters for animated features are included. Hershenson estimates that at least 1,000 more posters for U.S. animated shorts existed. He notes with regret that Warner Bros., the only studio to rival Disney, produced few cartoon posters, but most of the major characters from the other studios are well-represented. The sparse text of Cartoon Movie Posters is informative, but the major source on U.S. cartoon history is Leonard Maltin's Of Mice and Magic, Second Edition (1987). Hershenson lists the names and cities (but, strangely, not the addresses) of the major dealers and collectors in cartoon posters. The Disney Poster includes about 100 pieces, mostly posters for shorts. Art for only fifteen Disney features is included. Hershenson has about as many examples of Disney art as the Disney volume, with little duplication. The DISney Poster has no Fantasia (1940) art; Hershenson has five Fantasia posters and eight lobby cards. Among the many pieces in The Disney Poster and not in Hershenson are two strikingly contrasting Beauty and the Beast (1992) posters. One emphasizes the dancing teacups and an exuberant Belle and shows the Beast's far-from-frightening face; the other (used much less in theaters) is a disturbing image of a tiny girl dancing with a huge Beast whose face is hidden in shadows. Books on posters for liveaction fantastic fi!ms include Robert Brosch's two Color CoUectors Guides (1990, 1993; SFRAR #206); Bruce Wright'S Yesterday's Tomorrows (1993, SFRAR #206); Ronald Borst's Graven Images (1992, SFRAR #204); and Alan Adler's Science-Fiction and Horror Movie Posters in FuJI Color (1977). Both The Disney Poster and Cartoon Movie Posters are gold mines of colorful, delightful, and often powerful images. Hershenson's book is the first choice because of its greater variety, but both volumes are recommended for collections on either film advertising or animation. -Michael Klossner 75

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SFRA Revlew.21l, May/JuDe 1994 Levy, Michael. Natah"e Babbitt. New York: Twayne, 1991, xv+137 p., illustrations, cloth, $24.95; ISBN 0-8050-7612-5. TwAYNE UNITED STATES AUTIiORS SERIES #573. Natalie Zane Moore Babbitt (I932) is a respected author and illustrator of children's fantasy and picture books. Her best-known works are novels for 912 year olds, Tuck Everlastinq (I975) and The Eyes of Amaryllis (I 977). The Devils Storybook (I 974) and The Devils Other Storybook (I987), collections of folk-like tales are favorites with children, though Levy sees them as less substantial. Babbitt has also written one interesting adult novel, Herbert Rowbarge (I982), as well as several of other respectable youth novels, and she has produced acclaimed picture books for younger children, notably The Search for Dehcious (I969) and Nellie-A Cat on Her Own (I 989). Levy's book, the first on Babbitt, is a well-written and informative survey of her life and work. Following the TUSAS format, Levy provides a biographical sketch nicely enriched by his correspondence with Babbitt and her gracious cooperation, followed by a descriptive survey of her works and a brief discussion of her relationship to contemporary children's fantasy. Having lived in more than twenty houses in her lifetime, Babbitt sees herself and her writing as significantly formed by experiences of loss and reconstruction. A key event in her life was reading Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique in 1964, which led her to break out of the fairly restricted feminine role she had somewhat reluctantly accepted after her sraduation from Smith College and begin her illustrating and writing career m earnest. She began thinking of herself as an illustrator, but soon found she was also a writer. Levy articulates several main themes that will help readers appreciate Babbitt's works. She deals often with children finding themselves apart from their adults, so most stories involve a child forced to take responsibility and make difficult decisions by herself. Often the child must decide what to believe and what should count as evidence for belief, a problem complicated by realizing adult fallibility. Other common themes include how to deal with the weight of the past, how to balance the imagination as a source of joy with the need to be practical, and how to deal with loss. Levy characterizes Babbitt's work as pastoral fantasy, as distinct from the two most popular trends in children's literature during her career. New realism describes authors such as Judy Blume, who write stories in contemporary setting; that deal frankly with the more serious social and personal problems of modern children. Heroic fantasy describes works such as THE EARTHSEA TRILOGY of Ursula K. Le Guin and The Lord of the RinsY. Pastoral fantasy, in the tradition of Lewis Carroll tends to use small-scale setting; for stories of "humor, characterization, and moral development rather than action," occupying a sort of middle ground between new realism and heroic fantasy. Readers of Babbitt and students of children's literature will be grateful for Levy's clarity and careful work. -Terry Heller 76

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SFRA Revlew'211, May/June 1994 FICTIDN REVIEWS Allen, Roger McBride & Eric Kotani. Supernova. New York: Avon Books, October 1991,345 p., paper, $4.50; ISBN 0-380-76060-6. Disaster novels have become commonplace, but this is the first to deal with the occurrence of a supernova in Sirius B that threatens the Earth. A young astronomer has discovered a flaw in the standard model of star; a flaw that points to a high probability of instability. The problem lies in getting his data accepted in the face of a long-standing belief in the star's stability. In the meantime, a fanatical new religion, commonly known as the Doomcultists, has secretly gained access to his data and has begun preaching the end of the world. As the scientific world begins to accept the reality of the approaching supernova and tries to predict the extent of the damage to Earth, the cultists begin planning to take over the world that remains after the disaster. The authors are both well known, and one of them is a scientist who has done research on supernovae, so the details in this novel are very realistic. Characterizations are well done, and several plot threads are interwoven to make a satisfying book. -w. D. Stevens Anderson, Dana, Charles de Lint & Ray Garton. Cafe Purgatoriwn. New York: Tor Books, A Tom Doherty Associates Book, July 1991, 279 p., cloth, $18.95; ISBN 0-312-85180-4. Cafe Purgatoriwn is a collection of three novellas in the horror genre by veteran Charles de Lint and two newer authors. The three are not linked thematically, but only by length and genre. The title novella, "Cafe Purgatorium," by Dana Anderson, is the weakest of the three. Anderson gives us nothing new in his tale of a man who buys a haunted bar and falls in love with one of its ghosts. Further, he doesn't give us characters we can care about. Ray Garton's "Dr. Krusadian's Method," a better effort, demonstrates once again that the most terrifying stories are those that can occur in daily life. Garton's crusading doctor metes out punishment to two drunken child abusers. The most terrifying scenes in the story are not those of the doctor's treatment, but the earlier scenes of child abuse. "Death Leaves an Echo" is the strongest of the three. Charles de Lint creates an eerie, tale of a man who wakes up from an apparent nightmare and finds his wife never existed. As he explores his predicament, he finds that he must choose between remaining in a dead woman's wish fulfilling dream, or returning to a life in which he is totally incapacitated. 77

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SFRA Revlew'211, May/June 1994 Charles de Lint is always worth reading, and we will read better thing; from Anderson and Garton, I am certain. Though there are good thing; in these novellas, Cafe Purgatonilm is not strong enough as a whole to warrant recommendation. -Laurel Anderson Tryforos Anderson, Poul. The Time PatroL New York: Tor Books, A Tom Doherty Associates Book, October 1991. 458 p., cloth, $21.95; ISBN 0-312-85231-2. This volume represents an omnibus collection of Anderson's tales of the Time Patrol, complete with a new short novel. Star of the Sea, and 1988's The Year of the Ransom (the "little known" prequel to the author's only full-length TIME PATROL novel, 1990's The Shield of Time). In Sea, agents Manse Everard and Janne Floris come upon an alternate volume of Tacitus which chronicles a temporal anomaly in AD. 70 in which Germanic barbarians nearly succeed in a revolt against the Roman Empire. Fueled by the charismatic prophesies of the sibyl Wael-Edh (servant of the war goddess Niaerdh), the resulting power shifts echo up the timelines and threaten to dramatically alter the course of coming centuries. Three major themes characterize this new work: first and most obvious are Anderson's abiding interests in history and culture, and his graceful use of language which elevates his subjects well above the usual stylistic trapping; of the genre. Just as importantly-and this applies to the entire TIME PATROL canon as well as to Star of the Sea-through Anderson's consideration of "variable realities" he adroitly confronts the treatment of time itself as one of two major elements (the other, of course, being space) which set SF off significantly from other literary forms. By breaking the tyranny of time (usually considered even by SF's most imaginative writers as an unbroken linear progression) and thus making peace with non-linear plot structure, Anderson is thus able to infuse his characters and their surrounding; with what Jack Vance refers to as a quality of "'nowness' and 'hereness"'-a sense of immediacy born of a direct and continuous interdependency between past, present, and future. My only negative criticism of Star of the Sea would be that, despite obvious attempts to flesh out the 20th century sections by introducing a romantic interest between Floris and Everard, these few sections-no more than a couple of pages when taken together-remain a rather flat sort of frame tale extraneous to the action of the main plot. However, the rich social and mythological traditions upon which the plot is built more than compensate for this one weakness, and the novel as a whole makes a fine addition to Anderson's TIME PATROL cycle. -Joseph M. Dudley Anthony, Piers. Question Quest. New York: AvoNova, 1991. 399 p., paper, $5.99; ISBN 0-380-10898-9. If I were back in junior high, I'd love this fantasy. 78

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SFRA Renew'211, May/June 1994 I can remember very clearly the overly intellectual, ectolendomorphic type, semantically witty and not yet quite publicly erotic, to whom this novel would have appealed (and probably still does). Richly ornamented with puns, usually of the groan-eliciting variety, the narrative is in a clear, conversational style, and the plot proceeds apace with sudden twists and miraculous turns explained with a light-to-flippant casualness. Quest is a predominantly mental story that seems to take place within a cosmic computer program. This is ultimately a novel about growing up and the effects (often long-delayed) of choices. As such, it is a good book for young teens painfully aware of being at odds with the" Adult Conspiracy" (capitalization his). There is also an uncharacteristically poignant tale about the magician's son gone bad due to parental neglect. The teasing references to sex, while irritating to me personally, may actually be appropriate for what I assume is the audience ("It was all right to see a girl bare, if she didn't mind, but panties were something else"). However, the way women are consistently depicted reinforces that such writing; are better transcended. '''Eeeeek,' MariAnn cried in perfectly feminine fashion, grabbing onto me." Again, "She tells the truth about everything except her age. That's not considered lying, in females." Finally, in the frame story, the 30-rear-old woman, Lacuna, is missing something in her life, and the magician 0 information tells her that, because she did not marry a certain man, then made her second mistake of turning 30, her third mistake "will be in turnine; forty, and that will finish you as a potentially worthwhile female human bemg." In fact, the Lacuna is magically filled by changing her past to one of marriage with three children, but this seems to me a ngidly conventional formula for "a JX>tentially worthwhile female human" existence. In many respects, Question Quest is entertaining and fil1s the needs of male juveniles for sugar-coated pills of instruction. I wish, however, that Anthony would not have coated some of those pills with the sugar-and-spice and-everything-nice that he evidently feels good about that little girls should be made of. -DonRigg; Attanasio, A. A. Hunting the Ghost Dancer. New York: HarperCollins, 1991, xxvii + 371 p., cloth, $21.95: ISBN 0-06-017909-0. Set in the prehistoric Europe of 50,000 years ago, Attanasio's newest foray into the edges of magic realism imputes a contact with mystical being;, both good and evil, to the proto human Neanderthal race. Like several now famous authors, the most noted to date being Jean Auel, Attanasio chronicles what seems to be the ascendancy of ero-Magnon over Neanderthal man, but attaches to it a religious fervor based on these supernatural being;, simply named the Dark Ones and the Bright Ones. According to his story of that transition, era-Magnon has been successfully pursuing and killing off his brutish predecessors because they are periodically possessed by dark spirits which turn them into vicious and deadly killers. era-Magnon, being unable to make contact with the dark and bright ones identify the results of this possession with the agents, their prehistoric enemies, hence the reason they are bent on assuring the destruction of this race. The reader, however, is 79

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SFRA Review 1211, May/JuDe 1994 expected to accept their existence, and that there are two types of possessing spirits, one who brings brightness and one who brings ravening bloodlust and superhuman powers to the prehistoric race. Apparently, when one is open to the Bright Ones, one is also vulnerable to the Dark Ones. The story is about three quests, all precipitated by the first in which the last of the Neanderthal men, called Baat, is trying to complete his death journey so that he can be joined at death to the Bright Ones, an uplifting overmmd best reached through a cave in the northern mountains. The second quest is by a Cro-Magnon avenger, Yaqut, whose tribe an family were brutally murdered by Baat's. His fervor to kill off the last of the Neanderthal allows him to show no mercy for his own kind or others. The third is by outcast members of another Cro-Magnon tribe for one of their members, a young woman named Duru who is kidnapped by Baat to aid him in his Journey. The story is a simple narration of these three quests, one for sublime release from the material form, one of revenge and one of rescue. The novel thus possesses many elements of adventure and wonder, in fact, all the elements found it contact stories by Auel and others. Its only new element is a replacement of the Bright and Dark ones for the spirit contacts in Lindholm's books or the racial memory of Auers. Added to this supernatural element is a rich panorama of prehistoric landscape and lifestyles that pull the reader into an alternative history of early human life-a rewriting visa vis the supernatural which is reminiscent of Attanasio's previous novel of the 17th century, Wyvern. -Janice M. Bogstad Banks, lain M. The State of the Art. London: Orbit, 1991, 182 p., cloth, .95: ISBN 0-356-19669-0. Banks has adopted his science fiction personae for this collection of eight beautifully crafted stories accompanied by often whimsical block-print illustrations. The eponymous story was also published as a separate novella in 1989, but is worth having in this edition. Like most of the tales, this reprinted story is set in the "Culture" of his ConsIder Phlebus and The Player of Games. "State of the Art" is the longest tale, about 100 pages, and deserves attention for its stylistic features, diction, method of presentation and typographic appearance. Ms. Diziet Sma is the first-person narrator reporting on a mission to observe the planet Earth. Her observations are punctuated by the fussy conections of the protective 'droid that has accompanied her to London, Paris, Berlin and other sites in Europe of 1977 and 1978. Humor is provided through these interruptions by the 'droid as well as Diziet's descriptions of pranks played by the intelligent spaceship, Arbitrary, and its manipulative tending of the crew. The ship sends her on one last mission which develops into a dialog between Diziet and one Dervley Linter, a second member of the culture who has decided to stay on Earth and give up the privileges of increased lifespan and technology-eased existence of the "culture." She cannot understand why he rejects the range of pleasures, including the possibility of changing physiological sex, in order to partake of the pathos of human existence, one for which he sacrifices his life. 80

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SFRA ReneII' '211, May/JuDe 1994 "A Gift of the Culture," and "Cleaning Up," are also set in that same universe. The "Gift" of the aforementioned piece is two-fold, an alien pistol and another escapee of the "culture" contact team who's lived on Earth for eight years. His actions in defense of an Earth lover betray the story's title as irony. The second of this pair describes the effects of other unwitting gifts. transported by mistake from a "culture" factory to an unsuspecting Earth. Another favorite of mine is the "found tale" called "Piece," and in honor of the Lockerbie tragedy and the Rushdie/.satamc VeJ:5es horror. All eight fictions partake of the sardonic humor and indeterminate significance that characterize Banks' writing in both mainstream and science fiction, but the seven short pieces read like homilies or parables. For example, "Descendent" features a robot spacesuit that convinces itself it is its human occupant in order to persuade itself to keep moving towards rescue. "Road of Skulls" narrates, from and undetermined voice, the visual aftermath of total social dissolution. The brief "Odd Attachment" presents alien first-contact through the eyes of a distracted, vegetable, lovesick alien. Each of Banks' fictions is an experience which is hard to represent and, like too little SF, an experience which changes with each rereading. These, while exceptional, are no exceptions. -Janice M. Bogstad Barth. John. The Last VOyc1ge of Somebody the .sailor. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1991. 573 p., cloth, $22.95: ISBN 0-316-08251-1. I usually like the works of Barth, but I have only one word for this novel...confused. I had to look at the jacket summary in order to find out what was going on in the story. That states that Simon William Bedler. aka Somebody the Sailor, is a journalist who has fallen overboard near Sri Lanka and somehow wound up in the medieval Baghdad of Sinbad the Sailor. Somebody (Bedler) then challenges Sinbad to a storytelling marathon in order to find out how he can return to his own time. Although the story jumps back and forth between the past of the fictional Sinbad and the present of equally fictional Bedler, the problem is that each section is not cohesive enough for the reader to follow. In each section, whenever a new character is introduced, there is a long digression into everything we probably don't need to know about the. This makes the narrative hard to follow because you try to make seense of how each character is to finally fit into the story before you can fully know what the is to be. It wasn't unitl about page 67 that I began to see that the mam character was from the future, and not part of the past. I then had to place. all the contemporary characters into their proper place without really knowmg how they fit into the storyline. By the time you are around page 11-116, you think you have the pieces together and can enjoy the story, but by that tune, Barth would have lost all but the most tenacious readers. Therefore, I can only say that this book is a good wrestle, but if you want a relazing read, you should go somewhere else. -W. R Larrier 81

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SFRA Rerie ... '211, May/JuDe 1994 Baudino, Gael. Dragonsword New York: ROC, 1991,383 p., paper, $4.99; ISBN 0-451-45081-7. Baudino, Gael. Duel of Dragons. New York: ROC, 1991, 383 p., paper, $4.99; ISBN 0-451-45097-3. Baudino's two newest novels are part of a subseries set in the same imaginary fantasy world as other earlier novels of Solomon Braithwaite. Braithwaite is a divorced professor of Medieval British archaeology, principally 5th century. He finds himself drawn into another world by a mysterious dragon. On this world, he is the young warrior-king Dythragor Dragonmaster whose services are much needed by a people at war. This subseries is the story of his waning power and the establishment of a new Dragonmaster, this time a woman in her thirties, Suzanne Helling, who is Braithwaite's Teaching Assistant at UCLA. When Solomon is called back to Gryylth, his imaginary world, Silbakor, the dragon bring; Suzanne along. There, she is transformed from a plump, short woman into an Amazon warrior called Alouzon. Gryylth is one of several countries which seem to be perpetually at war. Through her efforts, the misunderstanding; that have opened and reopened these wars are sorted out in the course of the two books. While telling this story as a sword-and-sorcery adventure in a far off, fantastic land where earth magic is both powerful and accessible, Baudino intimates that Gryth exists because of unresolved psychological difficulties of both Solomon and Suzanne. They apparently knew each other during the 1970 Kent State riot and killing of four students and were on opposite sides of the Vietnam issue at the time. In the course of many battles between the peoples of Solomon's Grvvlth and the Dremonds of Corrin, Suzanne discovers that Gryylth is an incomplete land which is surrounded by misty nothingness. It is the embodiment of Solomon's dreams about 5th century England and hate for his estranged ex-wife. As Solomon's blind spots about the necessity of physical conflict lead to more and more bloodshed, Suzanne's origmal pacificism helps her to minimize some of those conflicts until Corrin and Gryylth eventually stop warring with each other in the first book. The second book introduces a third country, Vayyle, apparently sprung from Suzanne's psyche. The work opens with an apparently unprovoked attack on Suzanne and Solomon's ex-wife, Helen, by a huge white worm-
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SFRA Revle ... '211, May/June 1994 find themselves in. In general, however, the two books are rather long sword and sorcery fare. -Jan Kaveny Bradshaw, Gillian. Horses of Heaven. New York: Doubleday, May 1991, 448 p., cloth, $20.00; ISBN 0-385-41466-8. Bradshaw give us here a "slip-stream" work, a historical novel with just a pinch of the supernatural. Though her preface modestly proclaims the work to be mostly imagination rather than solid fact, it is immediately clear that Bradshaw is extremely knowledgeable about the classical world. The events of the novel take place in central Asia around 140 s.c., the narrator is Tomyris, a noblewoman of a tribe called the Saka, the real protagonist is a Hellenic princess of Bactria named Heliokleia. These women probably did not really exist, but the geographical units Bactria and Ferghana did, and Bradshaw knows as much about them as any modern writer can, down to language, religion, and custom. What she doesn't know, in terms of technology and everyday life, she extrapolates with remarkable vigor. The reason the book is a fantasy is that the resolution of the plot, in which protagonist and lover escape from sure death, relies on the intervention of a two-headed monster and a heaven-sent horse. Call these dei ex machina if you like; they still have a magical quality. Bradshaw's style takes a little getting used to. In the first place, she is a maximalist; every gesture, every emotion, every scene requires detailed description. After about three pages, one is willing to forgive her the excess, simr.ly because she does it so well. The shadings of emotion and imagery justify the adjectives. Another oddity is the point of view. Bradshaw starts scenes and episodes in Tomyris' first-person point of view, Tomyris being the serving maid of Heliokleia, then modulates into speculating on Heliokleia's feelings, and finally narrates in Heliokleia's third person point of view. This sounds more unsettling than it really is, but readers may accept such shifts of perspective somewhat grudgingly. The shifts are not careless, however, but obviously the result of a rather unusual artistic choice on Bradshaw's part. And it is well that Tomyris, the waiting-woman, is the first-person narrator rather than Heliokleia, because Heliokleia is a complex and mysterious character. Moreoever, if Bradshaw had used only Heliokleia's point of view, the heroine's nobility of spirit would have moved into priggishness. Indeed, even as it is, Heliokleia is sometimes infuriating in her love of religion (Buddhism, curiously) and devotion to duty. For example, her refusal to wear jewelry when she rides to meet her royal husband seems wrongheaded and irritatingly abstemious. Her later gelid submitting to his unpleasant sexual addresses make her a martyr, yes, but they also make one wonder why she doesn't have the common sense to tell him what he is doing wrong. Her frigid passivity whips the old king into a frenzy of jealousy; when she finally allows herself to feel passion for his son, the reader tends to feel pity for the old man, despite his lapses into violence. Ultimately, a book like this must be judged by whether it a world to life and tells a fine story within that world. Bradshaw accomplishes both these tasks. Her style is highly idiosyncratic, but in the end a joy. The 83

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SFRA Revlew'21l, May/JuDe 1994 ancient world comes alive; the characters engage US; the events satisfY. No reader can demand more. -Mary Turzillo Brizzi Brennert, Alan. Ma Qw and Other Phantoms. Eugene, OR: Pulphouse Publishing, February 1991, 103 p., paper, $4.95. AlJIlIOR'S CHOICE MONTHLY #17. Brennert is one of the notable people who've made the transItIon to mainstream writer without turning their backs on genre fiction. Most of his time nowadays seems to be spent on lV, but he presents here an interesting collection of older and brand new stories. Brennert's research for an episode of China Beach is used in "Ma Qui," published in F&SF in 1990. The finished/mangled lV program referred obliquely to the Vietnamese notion that when dead people aren't buried properly their souls wander about as agonized, very dangerous ghosts; the story shows one G.I.'s after-death discovery that everything he'd been told about the war-along with much Western idealism-IS mistaken. It's quite cynical and convincins. "Ghost Story" IS equally bleak but more confusing. The story seems to be describing degenerate survivors on Earth after starships have evacuated the rest of humanity, especially their bafflement at the projected messages left by the people who abandoned them. Maybe. Since the point is the characters' groping uncertainty, the story can afford to stay cryptic. "Stage Whisper," on the other hand, is about opening up, becoming less isolated from others and oneself. Even though it first appeared in the third volume of New Voices, this is a mainstream story; the ghosts that plague a dying Tennessee are a man's own memories and fears. The story is a pretty successful depiction of people growing under extreme pressure. The hitherto unpublished "Futures" takes this concern with human possibility into the fantastic, as the narrator begins seeing people around him as they'll be years in the future. But are these true visions? And could that mean his own future is already determined? Brennert makes it affecting and memorable. I've enjoyed Brennert's work in the past, and it's good to see him dipping back into fantastic literature. It would be nice if he'd contribute more writing to our small pool, but it's good to catch what he does produce as he glides through. -Joe Sanders Brooke, Keith. &patria. London: Gollancz, July 1991, 252 p., cloth, .99; ISBN 0-575-04921-9. This is the second novel by this young British writer and shows a degree of promise. The story is set on the planet of Expatria. The actual social set-up is a little hazy but appears to revolve around a number of clans which have primacy over particular areas, whether only a small part has been colonized or whether humans range over the entire landmass is not specified. The action here involves, in part, the rivalry between two particular clans for 84

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SFRA Revler'211, May/June 1994 territory. There is also a jumble of religious sects which add considerably to the confusion. On the whole, technology has been rejected in the Primacy controlled by March Hanrahan, a fact that pleases the Conventists greatly. Mathias, March's heir, is young and rebellious. He also has a talent for electronics and much of the trouble he into revolves around his passion for reading and experimenting. Then his father is murdered and Mathias is accused of the crime. When no one seems interested in discovering the truth, he takes the opportunity to flee the city. He tries to make a success of his life in the port of Orlyons, mending thing') and designing boats. He is forced to move on again when assassins sent by his half-brother, now Prime of Newest Delhi, catch up with him. He takes up the offer of Kasimir Sukui, who is in charge of the scientific projects supported by the Prime of Alabama, to join his team. As a result of the teams work, they bring technology back into use, the discover that there are not only people still living on the Ark ships that brought the colonists but a ship from Earth is also arriving immenently. There are a number of potentially interesting themes present here: the schism between those who want to reVIve technology and those who wish to repress it entirely, the separation those on the planet and those who stayed in space, the potential arrival of unknown factors aboard the Earth ship. None of these are explored deeply enough. The story, by concentrating mainly on Mathias' family problems, doesn't quite get to grips with any of these factors. This especially applies to the aspect since the Conventists turn out to be at the root of all Matthias' rrusfortunes, yet they take very much a minor role despite their devious machinations offStage. Perhaps this will be rectified in the second volume. Characterization is variable. Sukui comes across very well as the essence of scientific investigation with his meticulous notetaking and measurements and contrasts nicely with the intuitiveness of others who actually make the breakthroughs. Also some minor characters are nicely realized, like the Prime of Alabama. Others have been skimmed over even though they play important roles. Perhaps Brooke needs to be bolder in presenting his conflicts. Nevertheless, there is quite a lot which will interest an avid SF reader. -Pauline Morgan Brosnan, John. The FaD of the Sky Lords. London: Gollancz, October 1991, 284 p., cloth, .99; ISBN 0-575-O4381-? SKY loRDS #3. This concludes the SKY loRDS trilogy. The plot has branched somewhat since the first volume, The Sky Lords, in which Jan Dorvin was snatched from home by the giant balloon that demanded tribute from the town. And the world has opened out. Palmyra is a land-based community on the Australian coast. Like all similar towns, they are threatened by the encroachment of genetically engineered blight. Unlike the others, they are in contact with the people who live in an underwater habitat. They have exchanged food for items of abandoned technology. In orbit are several space habitats, one of which picks up radio signals from Palmyra, another is the home of a clone of Milo Haze. Below the Antarctic ice is the computer-protected home of the EIoi, where Inn is now trapped with her lover Robin. Floating in the skies of 85

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SFRA Renew 1211, May/June 1994 Earth are the remaining balloons controlled by the spoiled, childish computer program called Ashley and on one is another clone of Milo Haze. Events come to a focus in Palmyra as one of the balloons crashes into the sea nearby, the space dwellers decide to annex it, and Milo Haze (both of them) schemes to come out on top. The events of the book are only really comprehensible to someone who has read both the previous volumes. Throughout the series it is possible to trace a development. In The Sky Lords, there were the balloons and the tribute towns and the rest of the world was blight-infested. The story was told mostly from a single point of view. By the end there were hints that this was not the whole picture. Volume two, War of the Sky Lords, introduces new habitats, principally that of the Eloi, and as the field of view expands, fresh viewpoints are added. In the final volume, there is a far more complex interplay of places and events. Gradually, over the writing of these three books, Brosnan has developed his ideas and the final result IS a more comprehensive overview of the fate of future Earth than there was at the start. It also indicates his development as a writer. -Pauline Morgan Brosnan, John. The FaD of the Sky Lords. London: Gollancz, October 1991, 284 p., cloth, .99; ISBN 0-575-04381-? SKY LoRDS #3. This concludes the SKY LoRDS trilogy. The plot has branched somewhat since the first volume, The Sky Lords, in which Jan Dorvin was snatched from home by the giant balloon that demanded tribute from the town. And the world has opened out. Palmyra is a land-based community on the Australian coast. Like all similar towns, they are threatened by the encroachment of genetically engineered blight. Unlike the others, they are in contact with the people who live in an underwater habitat. They have exchanged food for items of abandoned technology. In orbit are several space habitats, one of which picks up radio signals from Palmyra, another is the home of a clone of Milo Haze. Below the Antarctic ice is the computer-protected home of the Eloi, where Inn is now trapped with her lover Robin. Floating in the skies of Earth are the remaining balloons controlled by the spoiled, childish computer program called Ashley and on one is another clone of Milo Haze. Events come to a focus in Palmyra as one of the balloons crashes into the sea nearby, the space dwellers decide to annex it, and Milo Haze (both of them) schemes to come out on top. The events of the book are only really comprehensible to someone who has read both the previous volumes. Throughout the series it is possible to trace a development. In The Sky Lords, there were the balloons and the tribute towns and the rest of the world was blight-infested. The story was told mostly from a single point of view. By the end there were hints that this was not the whole picture. Volume two, War of the Sky Lords, introduces new habitats, principally that of the Eloi, and as the field of view expands, fresh viewpoints are added. Iri the final volume, there is a far more complex interplay of places and events. Gradually, over the writing of these three books, Brosnan has developed his ideas and the final result IS a more comprehensive overview of the fate of 86

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SFRA RevIe" '211, May/June 1994 future Earth than there was at the start. It also indicates his development as a writer. -Pauline Morgan Brunner, John. A Maze of Stars. New York: Del Rey BookslBallantine Books, July 1991, 393 p., cloth, $18.00; ISBN 0-345-36541-0. Sometime in a far future, on planet after planet throughout the inhabited parts of the galaxy, stasis reigns among humanity. In a last-ditch attempt to rekindle human dynamism, far-future scientists design and program a Ship, fill it with "atavistic" human colonists, then send it and them to the Arm of Stars, an uninhabited area of the galaxy. As the Ship traverses the Arm of Stars, it "seeds" likely planets with colonists. Reaching the end of its traverse, it returns to the beginning and goes through the seeding sequence again, observing and evaluating what has been happening. for the Ship's programming allows it to evacuate failing colonies and relocate them. A Maze of Stars takes place long after the initial seeding. Brunner alternates chapters dealing with specific planets with chapters aboard the lonely Ship, which has taken advantage of a programming loophole to evacuate not whole colonies but individuals who, for various reasons, are about to die. The novel's basic theme is one of Brunner's favorites: what it means to be human. And, typically for Brunner, he examines this theme by negative as well as positive statement. Like The Comp/eat TraveUer in Black (I971, expanded version 1989), A Maze of Stars explores the idea that "humans are seniuses at being no damn good." Here's the list, planets first: Trevithra, insanity leading to xenophobia (i.e., cosmic racism); Klepsit, socialistic monomania; Shreng, academic dogmatism; Yellick, excessive capitalism; Ekatila, eastern-style religious despotism; Sumbala, rugged individualism; the Veiled World, scientific imperialism; Zemprad, debilitating nostalgia. And on a planet aptly called "World With No Name," the colonists even lose their humanity completely, having been absorbed into the planet'S biosphere. Balancing all these different ways, the colonists become less than fully human in the Ship's struggle to become more human, poignant not only because the Ship is a machlne but also because its basic consciousness is not human but derived from a squid. So the Ship's struggle iterates another of Brunner's central ideas: we are most haman when we grow because of new experiences. A Maze of Stars is not a major novel. Sure, it has Brunner's trademark shifting points of view and a full complement of science-fictional themes: faster-than-Iight travel (via tachyonic physics), planet building, artificial intelligence, time travel, ecology, super-biology (e.g., gene armoring and molecular nanosurgery). But the novel also has several problems. The structure is tedious, reading like a series of short stories glued imperfectly together at the seams. The "Twenty Questions" format used over and over again in the colloquies between the Ship and each set of new passengers is tiresome. I also found overly precious the names Brunner makes up for each planet's flora and fauna: tagglefish, reddery, g1eeze, frang-for me, a little of this goes a long way. But most distressing is the final chapter, where Brunner, attempting to answer all his readers' questions, in fact ignores an important 87

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SFRA Revle .... 21l, May/June 1994 question, provides an answer inconsistent with the novel's major theme (e.g., the People actually guiding the Ship have transcended humanity, except for their thirst to explore a new galaxy), and raises different questions (e.g., about the claim that what seems time travel is in fact the People remembering the Ship's travels). Still, shining through this minor and flawed work is Brunner's attractive rational humanism. So Brunner fans will want to pick it up, even though I suspect even they will find it disappointing. SF readers who are new to Brunner, if there are any, should steer themselves to the major work first: Stand on Zanzibar, The Sheep Look Up, and The Shockwave Rider. Everything here is there, and more-much more palatably, too. -Todd H. Sammons Brust, Steven. The Phoenix Guards. New York: Tor Books, A Tom Doherty Associates Book, September 1991,331 p., paper; ISBN 0-380-85157-X. The jacket blurb of The Phoenix Guards says that Brust lives in Minneapolis and is "of Hungarian ancestry." This may indicate that English is Brust's second language. If this is the case, then it is understandable that his story reads like Dickens or Trollope or perhaps like the assembling instructions for toys written by Italian or Japanese native speakers. The language in convoluted, wordy, and difficult. Brust frequently appeals to the reader, which is distracting. Especially so because he does it to tell what he is not going to put in the story. The storyline, when it is possible to follow, is interesting but it is a challenge to keep up. Brust needs a firm editor with a solid hold on a blue pencil. -AnnHitt Bujold, Lois McMaster. Barrayar. New York: Baen Books, 1991, 386 p., paper, $4.99; ISBN 0-671-72083-X. Among a number of delightful books set in the same future intergalactic culture, Barrayaris one of the more delightful. Bujold has a talent for injecting humor into her tales of valor and adventure that transform them from the standard space opera into memorable works. This novel charts of origins of another of her memorable characters, Miles Vorkosigan, whose physical disabilities did not limit his scope in such novels as The Vor Game. Yet, in providing Miles with a believable background, she has also expanded on the character of his magnificent mother, Cordelia, who is in the forefront of Barrayar. Beginning before Miles' conception, the novel chart's Cordelia's introduction to her new husband's society, a militaristic patriarchal one. On one level, the novel is enjoyable because she sees the society of Barrayar from outsider's eyes, just as readers do. Her observations at the a bsurdities of Barrayaran social structures and practices are then passed on to the reader who easily can lose sight of the fact that Barrayar more closely resembles contemporary Western culture than does Cordelia's beloved native land. We laugh with her about the low esteem in which women are held, 88

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SFRA Review '211, Mayl June 1994 about the credulity with which the men of this planet greet her military abilities. about the assumptions that make as to her weaknesses. We triumph with her as she uses these misconceptions to explode a plot against her husband and son. and when her husband supports her against his colleagues and his father. A tyPical interchange occurs when she is sent to a doctor by her husband. haVIng just spent weeks on foot and horseback, in high mountains. hiding out with Barrayar's young prince. The doctor asks "What can I do for you." and she runs through several options in her mind. but doesn't answer. He says. "What is your problem." She says. "Exhaustion. I delivered a baby by caesarian just a few weeks ago." And he writes down "Postpartum Depression" and asks her if she has considered and exercise program. It never occurs to him that she may have been overexerted since women. in his experience. are sedentary being;. That she can buy a sword. defend her son. defy her husband and his father. plot a successful. creative. subversive strategy. are never suspected by the males of her husband's planet. but we are in on the secret. On the other hand. I find it equally as difficult to accept that so many men would be so dense as to accept Cordelia'S fascination with domesticity after the kind of life she has lead and the kind of talents she has pursued previous to her marriage. But then. I have never considered myself to be the paradigmatic reader and want to make it clear that Bujold's books delight me nevertheless. Barrayar is perhaps even a little more fun for the voyeur that Ethan of Athas. another of my favorites. And I have now read Barrayartwice. enjoying it thoroughly both tunes. -Janice M. Bog;tad Cherryh. C. J . editor . Merovingen Nights 7: Endgame. New York: DAW Books. 1991.308 p . mdex. maps. paper. $4.99: ISBN 0-88677-481-0. Cherryh created the setting for the shared-world anthologies of which this is the most recent in Merovingen Nights: Angel WIth the Sword Her background material is drawn from the origins of trading cities of the 12th and 13th centuries. such as the Prussian Hanseatic League. Merovin is constructed on a series of loosely connected islands with canals as main streets. making it reminiscent of 12th century Venice. While sole author of that first book. Cherryh has edited the subsequent six. including the fiction of authors Lynn Abbey. Nancy Asire. Mercedes Lackey. Janet and Chris Morris. Bradley H. Sinor. Leslie Fish. Robert Lynn Asprin. and Roberta Rogow. The first six authors on that list share this anthology with Cherryh. In general. each of the works can be read separately and without reference to the others without much disorientation. While the reader enters into ongoing feuds and relationships. they are basic enough to be understood as the normal fare for political and interpersonal relationships. In fact. the stories all assume that politics is really a set of interpersonal relationships which often cut across classes. An attribute of her editing style is that the stories share a very similar voice and can easily be read as different viewpoints on the same set of historical events. In #7. it is the dissolution of Merovin. a loose confederate of trading families. Internal corruption is helped along by a rival confederacy. Nev Hetteck. whose agents have taken key positions by marrying into the 89

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SFRA Rene ... 1211, May/June 1994 ruling family or by encouraging the children of the ruler, losef Kalusm, to consolidate power around themselves. One can almost see in this rivalry the historic Veruce and Genoa. The stories of old friends and enemies caught up, either as perpetrators or hapless victims, in this chaos are followed through the various writers. This seventh shared-world anthology is a braided set of stories. The narrative of one set of characters by one author is braided between that of others, presenting a shared chronology of days and nights. The work begins and ends with Cherryh's story, "Endgame," of 'tom Mondragon, a sort of agent provocateur who has been betrayed by his ambitious friend, and his hopeful lover, Jones, a denizen of the canals. Intermingled between these narratives are parallel stories of friends and lovers tying to locate and, in some cases, identify each other to prepare for the coming social destruction all are expecting. While there are six different stories, characters are shared between them, and this, along with the shared chronology, makes the whole read like one story with a lot of detail and local culture. However, it is clearly the events and setting, not the characters, that drive the narratives. The anthology should be read by those who enjoy event more than character. -Jan Kaveny Claremont, Chris. Grounded. New York: Ace Books, 1991,320 p., paper, $4.95; ISBN 0-441-30416-8. Very cerebral for a space-jockey novel, this second in what seems to be the continuing saga of Nicole Shea, ace pilot (of airplanes as well as spacecraft), is another mystery plot. In her inaugural adventure, FirstDight, Nicole set out with her first space command, a milk-run that turned into a battle with space pirates and an alien first-contact voyage. Having barely survived, lost friends and her first ship, communicated successfully with not-so-friendly aliens in feline form, Nicole is back on earth for most of the second novel. She has been declared unfit to fly, but her success with the aliens has earned her, partially at their insistence, a place as their facilitator. Oaremont's novels, despite a female protagonist who fills a stereotypical, young, male role as what some would call State of the Art flyer, this novel is a delight to enthusiasts in the history of fast planes and the beginning; of the space program. It is set at Edwards Air Force Base in the Mojave desert which became famous after the book and movie, The Right Stuff. One can indulge nostalgia as Nicole drinks at the bar, looks at the pictures of pilots who did not survive on the wall, uses the language of those men's men who broke the sound barrier and, often as not, died for the thrill of it. But there is also a mystery. Someone is trying to kill Nicole. And since she is politically.or it is some kind vendetta. Her Job, m addition to actmg as facilitator, translator for the aliens, IS to figure out who. Until she does, no one around her is safe and she presents an unacceptable risk to any starship on which she might serve. 90

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SFRA Renew.211, May/JuDe 1994 The novel contains lots of pure fun as well as nostalgia. Following Nicole's reasoning processes, watching her operate, about aliens and participating vicariously in the life of a military hot-shot pilot are all classic adventure positions for the reader. A techie feast with a real plot, this novel cannot be overly faulted for its predictable characters and stereotypical aliens because it falls so easily into a tried-and-true SF sub-genre. -Jan Kaveny Cook, Glen. Red Iron MiQJt. New York: Penguin Books, September 1991, 270 p., paper, $3.90; ISBN 0-451-45108-2. As the only human private eye in a world of gnomes, vampires, centaurs and other, even stranger, creatures, Garret gets some very weird cases. In this book, he's on the trail of a serial killer who kills young girls gruesomely, but leaves no blood behind. Gaffet manages to find the murderer fairly easily (people who have fiery green eyes and green butterflies coming out of their mouth tend to be noticed), although the killer gets killed in the process. Normally, that should wrap thing; up but, in this case, the killer just won't stay dead. There is a very old curse involved which keeps recreating the killer. The Garret stories, and this one in particular, show a lot of imagination. There appear to be enough possibilities to keep the series going for several more books, at least. -W. D. Stevens Hughes, Zach. The Omnificence Factor. New York: DAW Books Inc., January 1994, 253 p., paper, $4.99; ISBN 0-88677-588-4. Ah! Good old-fashioned pulp SF in novel form! The cover art by Martin Andrews reminds the reader of Galaxy or Analog covers a la the days of Frederik Pohl and John W. Campbell. And DAW's classy and distinctive packaging style enhances that image even more. Set in the far, far future, with a destroyed Earth and Terra II also in wreckage, the remnants of humanity have been brought together in a loose confederation. A group of "graduate students" go on a research mission to the Dead Worlds, a grouping of twenty or so planets in the universe without a trace of life left on them, and their cores are cold as well. On Planet One, a huge hieroglyphic message has been left on the side of the planet warning all who approach away ... or does it? When the crew of the Paulus begins to unlock the secrets ofthis sector of the galaxy, all hell may break loose. A gripping tale which took me back to my brittle pulp magazines lookinS for more stories in the same vein, Zach Hughes continues to amaze with his diversity. A good novel. -Daryl F. Mallett 91

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SFRA RevlellF'211, May/June 1994 James, L. Dean. Mojave Welk. New York: AvoNova, Avon Books, June 1994,276 p., paper, $4.99; ISBN 0-380-77324-4. L. Dean James is quickly developing into one of the top writers in the fields of science fiction, fantasy, and horror. Author of fantasy novels Sorcerer's Stone and Kingsiayer, horror novels Winterscream and Trickster, she now branches out into SF with Mojave Welk. When an eccentric professor takes one of his graduate student TAs into the California desert, the TA is metamorphosized, a la a Kafkaesque dream, into an alien lifeform. What follows in John Caldwell's incredible transformation is death, destruction, and the threatened existence of the very Earth and Mankind as a race. Set exclusively in Southern California (and another world), James paints an exquisite portrait of the desert clime, the SoCaI atmosphere. She painstakingly defines her characters, molding them into believeable people we come to care for. The story grips from the hero on the run from page one, through the mysterious deaths and painful physical changes, to the very end, a thoroughly compelling tale. I'm looking forward to watching L. Dean James undergo her own metamorphosis from neo-pro writer into the next Andre Norton or C. L. Moore of her generation. Unlike anything you've ever read before, this one is a must-read. -Daryl F. Mallett King, Stephen. Needful Things. New York: Viking, 1991, 690 p., cloth, $24.00; ISBN 0-670-839?3-1. What would happen if a contemporary Mysterious Stranger or Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg opened a shop in a small New England town and began selling dreams? In Needful Things, the result is a chain of horrors that leads to King's starkest confrontation between good and evil as he resolves terrors central to earlier stories (The Dead Zone, Cujo, The Body, The Dark Half. with echoes of Christine, The Talisman, and The Tommyknockers) in a place where love, belief and magic tricks can fight evil to a draw. We enter the novel mediated by an avuncular voice simply telling us a tale, one of King's most effective narrative stances. The main movement of the novel is carefully paced, with Castle Rock gradually drawn to the new shop, Needful A day before the store opens, a boy buys a rare baseball card for eighty-five cents and the promise to playa trick on someone later on. That establishes the pattern: townspeople come, find what they believe is their heart's desire, and purchase it at a bargain price, plus the promise of a small trick. Eventually, interlocking circles of purchases and promises magnifies the worst in the people: greed, superstition, selfishness, self-centeredness, cruelty, madness. Some become willing conspirators in their own destruction; several need only a final push to spiral into madness and rage. Others must be handled carefully, their needs and their secrets gradually revealed. But all are paced so that their fears explode in a single, cataclysmic day of mayhem and violence that destroys Castle Rock itself as friendship and civility dissipate under evil's manipulation. Husbands turn against wives; mothers abandon 92

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SFRA RevIew '211, MaYI June 1994 children; lifelong friends embrace jealousy and envy. Groups already polarized by prejudice degenerate into unthinking mobs. King adroitly intensifies his maelstrom plot by such references to Lovecraftian horrors as "The Plains of Leng" and "Yog-sothoth," and such aptly twisted literary allusions as a "Ray me/Snort me" parody of Alice in Wonderland. The result is a powerful tale of sin and redemption through trial and suffering and forgiveness, where horror, terror, fantasy, and magic define fundamental human states. King's climax relies on something as simple as Stanley Uris' bird book in It or the wad of red licorice in "The Library Policeman," yet at the same time, it is apocalyptic in the true sense of the word; King "uncovers" truth that alters his characters' perceptions of the world around them. If Needful 7J1in{!,) represents a capstone to a segment of King's career, it is an appropriate one, taking leave of a familiar landscape by imbuing it with a forceful, complex, and ultimately uplifting parable of good and evil. -Michael R. Collings [A substantially longer version of this review appeared in Mystery Scene 31 (October 1991 ); 1. Lawhead, Stephen R. The Paradise War. Oxford, Batavia, IL, & Sydney; A Lion Book, 1991,416 p. SoNG 01' ALBION #1. Only about a fourth of this is fantasy; the rest is a recreation of the society of painted C.eltic warriors of British pre-history. The recreation is so vivid it is, in itself, a fantasy of imagination, rather than fictional fantasy of magic and faery. Lawhead's Celtic society lacks fantastical elements except briefly at the bards' gorsedd and during the siege of Findargad. Lord Nudd of the underworld and his underlings also appear on stage for a page or two. The first quarter of The Paradise War tries to clairify the connection between this world and the Otherworld through a nexus, which may be accessed, in either direction, on certain days in the time-between-times (i.e., twilight). Book One of THE SoNG 01' ALBION opens in Oxford in the late twentieth century with the plexus connecting the nexus fraying, for unknown reasons, and allowing oddities to appear in both worlds. The first such oddity is a just-killed auroch that appears in a pasture in a remote part of Scotland. The news story brings two Oxford doctoral candidates-the over indulged, wealthy dilettante Simon Rawnson, and his wimpish American apartment-mate, Lewis Gillies-to the nexus. Simon goes through the nexus, to be followed some days later by Lewis, the narrator. Both arrive in the Otherworld of Albion, where time moves at a different rate, and the air, colors, and all else are more vivid and alive than in our world. Simon is already a leading warrior and confidant of Prince Meldrun of the LJwyddi. WimpISh Lewis, the newcomer, is sent by Meldryn Mawr, the king, to train as a warrior. The remainins three-quarters of the book tells of Lew's training, the disaffection of the Prmce as stirred by Simon, and the first phases of the Paradise War. Throughout the tale, Lew attempts to get both Simon and himself back to our world as a means of healing the plexus. The book concludes with the wily Simon's evading forced return and Lew's recognition 93

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SFRA Review 1211, May/June 1994 that he is now more nearly Llew Silver Hand, as a banfaith prophesied he would be, than Lew Gillies, and that he, too, belong; in Albion. Book Two will, no doubt, bring both Simon and Lew back to Albion, where we will learn more of Otherworld politics and society. The fantasy element may increase as we see more of Celtic life and myth. Perhaps the doltish Society of Metaphysical Archaeology (in today's Britain) will also have a part to play. Two faults made this book disappointing to me. The Paradise War is a long-winded introduction to the probable tale to be told by THE SoNG OF ALBION. The narrator, Lew, neither speaks,nor acts like the American doctoral candidate of today he is supposed to be. Even without a bolstering story, Lawhead's version of the Otherworld and its Celtic society is enjoyable. -Paula M. Strain Lumley, Brian. The House of Cthulu. London: Headline, February 1991, 309 p., paper, .99; ISBN 0-7472-3573-2. TALES OR THE PRIMAL LAND #1. This is not the same as the collection that was published by Weirdbook in 1984, quite. Two stories from the previous incarnation, "Isles of the Suhm-Yi" and "Curse of the Golden Guardians," have been omitted (to appear in later books of the same series) and one, the previously uncollected "To Kill a Wizard," has been added. They have all been written over a period between 1973 and 1988. The volume has an old-fashioned feel to it because of the form that it adopts. The introduction tells us that the author's friend, TheIred Gustau, discovered a box sealed within a sphere that had been hurled from the throat of the volcano on Surtsey. Within the box were a number of artifacts and a collection of written material. The box appeared to come from a period predating the dinosaurs. Before he disappeared under mysterious circumstances, Gustau translated many of the papers which has been sealed in the box by their author, a wizard called Teh Atht. The stories in this book are purportedlr based on those translations. One 0 the things that marks these tales is that the majority have dark endings. The principal character, usually a muscle-bound barbarian, comes to some kind of untimely end, often due to his over-arrogance. Stories that don't feature a Conan clone usually involve the machinations of sorcerers. They can also be classified as Lovecraftian as frequently there is the suggestion of nameless horrors lurking in the background. One of these is the god Cthulhu, who has a central role in two stories, "The House of Cthulhu" in which foolish pirates turn up at the god's temple looking for treasure and only succeed in the god, and "The Sorcerer's Dream," wherein Teh Atht attempts once agam to find the secret of imortality. The stories are all smoothly told but are not outstanding, and a number of them have predictable plots. The book will only appeal to those who enjoy this type of story and is not likely to convert new readers to the genre. -Pauline Morgan 94

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SFRA RevJell"'211, May/JuDe 1994 lindholm, Megan. Goven Hooves. New York: Bantam Books, 1991,386 p., paper, $4.99: ISBN 0-553-29327-3. A beautiful and a painful work, lindholm's Goven Hooves is another surprise. It is both unlike anything else she has written and markedly a lindholm novel. It can be compared to WIZard of Pigeons, my previous favorite, for its casual inclusion of the mythical into captation existence. Evelyn, the hero of this allegory, is a secret wild-woman. Her childhood in Alaska was punctuated by her relationship with a wood-satyr, the "mythical" childhood friend who accepted her love of nature, wild thing; and solitude. She grows up and goes to college, where she form a close relationship with her eventual husband, Tom. The story she tells through this novel begins when she, Tom and their five year old, Teddy, are on their way to what is supposed to be a short visit to her in-law's farm. Her pain and self-discovery are rendered more poignant by the first-person narrative which places the reader at the center of her fantastic world-view. Evelyn is not looking, forward to this visit, feeling that she has nothing in common with Tom's family that he may all too easily be pulled back into their view of reality, the pragmatic, midwestern stereotypical acceptance of homogenized expectations for people, objects, and most especially, nature. As she fears, the visit gets extended longer and longer and her husband becomes less and less tolerant of her difference, of those very qualities of pure wildness that drew him to her originally. The family, Tom included, cannot see her reality and she cannot see theirs, but she, and her son, Teddy eventually, can see her Satyr, who comes to seduce, entice but mostly to support her in her difference. The reader is not encouraged to decide whether the Satyr is a symptom of Evelyn'S insanity or a eruption of the supernatural into our world. However, the shared reality of Evelyn, her Satyr, and even Teddy, is immeasurably more satisfying that the one Tom and his family have to offer. Like Wkard of Pigeons, this novel insists that the mythic dimension is just "there" for many people, even though others strive to deny its existence. And like earlier novel, it intimates the rest of the world is lucky that visionaries exist. However, this is a very realistic novel in its articulations of family dynamics. Evelyn was odd woman out even as a child, in .her birth-family. Having built a new place for herself with Tom, she watches It as he returns to his "place" in his own family while her uniqueness IS That he comes to accept his family's assessment of her and her relegation. to emotional sacrificial goat for their limited vision, is an accurate of a interpersonal dynamic that belies a currently prevalent sangume acceptance of family as a basic, positive value. Families can as often smo.ther us as individuals as well as nurture us. Thus when Evelyn escapes to a solitary life, the bittersweet sadness of her failed marriage is also the triumph of the self. This excellent, thoushtful and beautifully conceived novel is not classical SF nor fantasy. It is, and IS only, The Fantastic. -Janice M. Bog;tad 95

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SFRA Revle ... '211, May/June 1994 Lumley, Brian. Necroscope V: Deadspawn. London: Grafton, July 1991, 586 p., paper, .99; ISBN 0-586-20905-0. A necroscope is someone who can speak with the dead. The minds of the dead continue to be active long after their bodies have decayed. Unfortunately they have no one to communicate with, usually. In the first volume of this horror quintet, just called Necroscope, we were introduced to Harry Keogh who could and made the dead his friends. Conversations with the mathematician Moebius, who had continued his reseach after his death, lead Harry to acquire the ability to travel almost instantly from place to place using the Moebius Continuum. Also in this volume we were introduced to EBranch, the psychic department of government service and the Wamphyri, creatures living in a dominant syzbiosis with humans, turning their hosts into vampires. At the start of volume five, Harry, who has since become a vampire hunter, has discovered that he has become infected by a Wamphyr. He is determined to leave Earth and return to the homeworld of the Wamphyri once he is unable to control the parasite, but before he goes he needs to find the murderer of Penny Sanderson. The killer is someone who is capable of causing pain to the newly dead. As his time runs out, E-Branch start to hunt him. This covers part ofthe novel. The rest concerns events on the Wampyri homeworld. In earlier volumes, Harry helped defeat the Wamphyr lords and banish the survivors to the icy wastes. Here, Shaithis, and his ancestor, Shaitan, plot to regain thier power and revenge themselves on Harry and his allies. If anything, there is too much going on in this volume. There are too many strands to keep hold of and large sections ofthe book dwell with one set of characters to the exclusion of the others. This probably doesn't matter that much if you are familiar with them from other volumes, but it has the effect of breaking the tension. Basically there are two books here. Harry's desire to complete unfinished business on Earth and the Wamphyr's struggle to regain lost territory. This part could have been part of a dark fantasy novel or an exploration of the nature of SF aliens. If anything, Lumley does not make enough of the evil side of their natures and there is a danger that the reader may begin to sympathize with them. For those who like horror. this is a good read. -Pauline Morgan Shatner. William. TekLords. New York: Ace!Putnam. May 1991. 224 p .. cloth, $19.95; ISBN 0-399-13616-9. Starting more or less where TekWar left off. this novel finds Jake Cardigan. newly of the Cosmos Detective Agency. at once having to deal with a menacing synthetic plague that's decimating San Francisco, his teenage son's behavior problems at school. and the fact that he's being stalked by "reprogrammed" human wmbies. who. after unsuccessful murder attempts. immediately self-destruct. In addition. Jake and his partner learn that the 96

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SFRA Revlew'211, May/JuDe 1994 TekLords are planning to eliminate city after city in their campaign to gain total amnesty for the drug cartel as they pedal their electronic drug. Tek. and to facilitate this they've covertly arranged for the release of Dr. Gordon Chesterton. the plague's inventor. from the orbiting prison known as "the Freezer." Several bows to Gibson's Neuromancer imply Shatner is trying to write a cyberpunk novel-apparently he doesn't realize the movement's over-and setting; such as a mobster's undersea estate and an orbital gambling casino would be interesting if developed to their full potential; ultimately. however. the author's only real familiarity with the genre seems to be based on his Star Trek experience (there's even. at one point. the obligatory beautiful young woman dressed in flowing space-silk). Thus Shatner's Greater Los Angeles of the 22nd century becomes a technological nirvana where-unlike the bleak setting of Blade Runner (to which it's been compared)-inhabitants are totally pampered by their machines without paying moral or ethical prices and there's no real societal consequence for the abundance of technophile pornography. Additionally. dialogue is a major snag for a plot that absolutely plods along. as characters constantly regale each other with long-winded diatribes to reveal information that could've either been given in straight exposition or left out altogether. Also. the large number of robots and androids (and one particularly mouthy desktop computer) seem like pointless window dressing. since Shatner never really bothers to differentiate them substantially from their human masters (I did wonder. however. why they didn't revolt; they appear to outnumber the human population by at least five to one). Perhaps TekLab. the next novel in the JAKE CARDIGAN seriE'.5, will show Shatner to have matured as a science fiction writer; TekLords. however. demonstrates a host of narrative flaws which will doubtless be a hindrance to all but the most forgiving readers. -Joseph M. Dudley Shea. Robert. Shaman. A Novel New York: Ballantine Books. 1991.519 p .. trade paper. $9.95; ISBN 0-345-36048-6. Exploiting a growing acceptance of the spiritual dimension of what were formerly thOUght of as primitive cultures. Shea explores the 19th century struggles of Indian tribes to survive and maintain their spiritual contacts. The novel is set in Michigan territory of the 1820s through '30s and narrates the battles of Black Hawk and the Sauk people to keep control of their native lands against the wave of Western settlement supported by President Andrew Jackson and his successors. The battle at this point in history is over lands East of the Mississippi. and takes place mostly in Wisconsin. l11inois and Minnesota. It is based on historical accounts of the time. The story is told through experiences of a boy who grows to manhood. He is of mixed Sauk and French blood. White Bear/Auguste is the son of a French landowner held captive for several years by the Sauk a tribal medicine woman, Sun Woman. He lives his first fifteen years with his tribe. then six years as a white man. to return to his tribe before the beginning of Black Hawk's great 97

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SFRA Revle .... 211, May/JuDe 1994 legendary battles and back to the white settlement after Black Hawk's surrender. White Bear's narrative adds the spiritual dimension and the Indian perspective to what many of us know of only as historical dates. He has been chosen as a Shaman. his totem or spirit is a large white bear. He is also educated in Jesuit schools so that he is truly conversant with the Indian and the White world and, within his own body. carries the mediating forces that will allow survival. but not triumph. for his Indian people. This spiritual dimension and White Bear's function as a Shaman is integral to the story. The story unfolds largely through his thinking processes and experiences, although the perspective infrequentTy changes to that of his first wife, the Sauk woman Redbird, and their son, Eagle Feather. In this manner, Shea narrates the fate of the Sauk while also representing White Bear/Auguste's absences from the indian tribe and activities in the world ofthe White Man. At the end of his six years of education, Auguste returns to the frontier town of Victor and his White family's settlement of Vic to ire. He is considered an honorable man by his family. So much so that his father wills him the family estate over the protests of his indian-hating uncle, Raoul. When the White Bear's father dies, Raoul takes the estate by force and Auguste flees to the Sauk tribe. The family conflict and Raoul's hatred for Auguste, whom he feels has taken his place in the affections of the family, are woven into the Black Hawk wars in a plausible, if not documented, explanation of the hopeless Sauk attempts to retake their land East of the Mississippi. Raoul's refusal to accept the surrender of the Sauk early in the wars must represent the many whites who wished to wipe the indians off the face of the earth at any cost. Shea comments on the sources for his story in a postscript, identifYing the major players in the wars but failing to describe the historical accuracy of Auguste and his family. The fiction is absorbing for its attempts to present a dual perspective on the Indian wars not found often in history or literature even if the many insights imputed to White Bear/Auguste seem implausible. The book should be of interest to historians, those interested in Indian culture and religions as well as frontier life. -Jan Kaveny Stackpole. Michael. Once a Hero: A Novel New York: Bantam Books, May 1994, paper, $5.99; ISBN 0-553-56112-X. Once a Hero is unusual-a fantasy complete in one volume, with no hint of add-on volumes. It is also unusual in that alternate chapters report events 500 years apart which parallel each other and advance the single story of the last half-dozen chapters. While not all that unusual, Stackpole deals with a half dozen races, of which Man and Elf (one of the two First Races) provide major characters. Sixteen year old Neal of the Roclawz, who became Neal Elfward and Knight-Defender of the Empire by his thirty-fifth year, is attempting to claim a magical sword. Cleaveheart, from Tayashul, the Reithrese villain, as the story opens. Events 499 years in the future involve the sylvanestri Genevra, of Neal's elf friend, her lover Durriken, and Duke Berengar who has his own quest for the once-more-lost Cleaveheart. 98

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SFRA ReviellF'21l, May/JuDe 1994 The publisher's note gives Stackpole fourteen novels, including at least one fantasy. The characters and plotting show skill, but editing has been done unevenly, particularly in the early chapters. Does Once a Hero live up to the blurbs of the publisher and the author's friends? I began reading it on a flight from Kailua-Kona to San Francisco and finished it on the red-eye to Dulles that night. -Paula M. Strain Stevermer, Caroline. A CoUege of Magics. New York: Tor Books, A Tom Associates Book, March 1994,380 p., cloth, $22.95: ISBN 0-31285689.. Echoes themselves are worthwhile. Stevermer echoes respected writers in other fields, but is to be valued in her own right. Georgette Heyer, in novels laid in Jane Austen's time, echoed Austen's plots and humor so well that she created the Regency romance. A generation later, Stevermer echoes Heyer's style and plotting in fantasy. She may create another subgenre if she continues as she has here and Sorcery and Cecelia, written with Patricia C. Wrede (988). A CoUege of Magics is set in the early days of the twentieth century in a Europe that has, somewhere between Paris and Istanbul, a duchy of Galazon where winters are long and cold. Greenlaw College, on the English Channel, has for three hundred years been turning out withces, though students are forbidden to attempt magic while at the school, and magic is not taught there at all. The rebellious Faris Nallaneen arrives there as if sent to a finisbing school. The first two-thirds of the story shows Faris broadening her single minded ambition to become friends with Greenlaw classmates. SO little magic is apparent that it is only in retrospect, in the last part of the story, that we recognize its earlier appearance. Even in the climax, Faris' great accomplishment, healing the rift in the world's balance created by her grandmother, occurs more within her mind than in magical bravura. As Faris accomplishes the task, her real attention is focused on the fate ofTyrian. Stevermer's male characters are much like Heyer's-stereotypes. Like Heyer, she draws moody Faris and sensible Jane better. She also echoes Heyer in the remarks her characters make, that the careful reader will chuckle over though the characters do not. Neither Heyer nor Stevermer have Austen's genius, but their echoes of her style and wit reverberate musically. Readers of anyone of the three will enjoy the other two, though the genres in which they write differ greatly. -Paula M. Strain Talbott, Hudson. King Arthur: The Sword in the Stone. New York: Morrow Junior Books, 1991: ISBN 0-688-07403-1. Author and illustrator Hudson Talbott has written and designed a very attractive version of the Arthurian episode made famous by the Disney film. The text is straightforward, retelling the traditional events without modifying 99

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SFRA Rene ... '211, May/June 1994 them except for making all of the principal characters somewhat bener than usually depicted. Uther, for example, does not fall in love with Igraine until after she is widowed. Although intended for younger readers, the language in no way talks down to them. Words like "wrought," "avail," and "reassurance," may make it difficult. On the other hand, it makes for effective reading aloud by adults. The narrative has suspense, romance, and excitement, and even touches of pathos, as when the young Arthur, just learning that he is to be the king. sobs at the prospect of having to leave his beloved foster father, Sir Ector. The superb illustrations more than enhance the story, appealing though it is. Opposite the first page, the picture of the dragon sign which appeared in the sky on the night of Arthur's birth, is spectacular. A huge shimmering image against the dark blue sky, it dwarfs the figures of Merlin and Uther looking up from their tower. Several of the crowd scenes, such as the tournament, are exquisitely detailed, recreatin6 the vivid medieval panorama. Throughout the book the drawings are richly done in dazzling bright colors, and the close up portraits depict an array of emotions. Highly recommended both for the simple moving tale and for the dramatic illustrations. -Charlotte Spivack Waugh, Charles G. & Martin H. Greenberg, eds. The Mammoth Book of New World Science Fiction: Short Novels of the 1960s. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1991,506 p., paper, $9.95; ISBN 0-88184-702-X. This is the fourth in the MAMMOTH SHORT SF NOVELS series to appear from Carroll & Graf, the earliest volumes having been devoted to the "Qassic" 1930s, "Golden Age" '405, and "Vintage" '50s. The volumes were originally published in Great Britain and "New World" is apparently a euphemism for "American." The book contains no introductory or explanatory material, except for a brief reference to the "new wave" on the back cover, and the criteria used by Waugh and Greenberg in collecting these stories are unclear. Two of the novellas, "Soldier Ask Not" (I964) by Gordon Dickson and "Weyr Search" (I967) by Anne McCaffrey, were Hugo Award winners and a couple of the stories may have been award nominees, but others are relatively obscure. Thus, the volume can neither be described as a best of the decade anthology, nor as a collection of half-forgotten gems. "Soldier Ask Not" and "Weyr Search," of course, represent high points in two of the more important series in the history of science fiction, Dickson's DORSAl tales and McCaffrey's stories of the DRAGONRIDERS OF PERN. "The Eve of Romoko" (I 969), by Roger Zelazny, is an excellent piece of hard science fiction about the sabotage of a government project attempting to tap the Earth's magma. "The Night of the Trolls" (I963) by Keith Laumer, is a competent but hardly memorable installment in that author's long-running series about the Bolos, highly advanced fighting machines. Mack Reynolds' "Mercenary" (I962) is yet another piece of competent military science fiction, albeit one told from Reynolds' always iconoclastic leftist viewpoint. Rick Raphael's "Coce Three" (1963) is a solid, but, once again, routine story of 100

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SFRA Revle .. '211, May/June 1994 future police work. Much more memorable is Robert Silverbers's "How It Was When the Past Went Away" (I969) which involves the disserrunation of a drug that causes amnesia and the rise of a religious cult. Randall Garrett's "The Highest Treason" (I 961) is an unexceptional space adventure. Considerably better is Dean McLaughlin's "Hawk Among the Sparrows" (I968), which concerns the pilot of an advanced fighter plane who goes back in time in an attempt to influence the outcome of World War I. "The Suicide Egress" is an enjoyable episode from another important series, Philip Jose Farmer's Riverworld. When you think about some of the stories that could have been included in a volume subtitled Short Novels of the 19605, a fairly impressive list comes to mind, including Jack Vance's "The Druon Masters" and "The Last Castle," Philip Jose Farmer's "Riders of the Purple Wage," Robert Silverberg's "Nightwing-;," Roger Zelazny's "He Who Shapes," and Harlan Ellison's "A Boy anahis Dog." Even granted that the above stories are all award winners and are thus available in various Hugo and Nebula Award anthologies, I still can't believe that a higher quality selection of 1960s short novels wasn't available. If, as the back cover of the book suggests, "the 'new wave' started in Britain in the early 1960s and then spread to America, where it was hugely popular and changed the face of SF for years to come," why have Waugh and Greenberg chosen very little new wave work and instead filled their anthology with what is, for the most part, old-fashioned military science fiction? The stories in The Mammoth Book of New World Science Fiction are hardly losers. Each and every one of them is at the very least a good read. With a few exceptions, however, they simply aren't representative of the era's best fiction. This is a perfectly solid anthology is recommended for medium to large sized public libraries. It should especially appeal to relatively new genre readers of a conservative bent. -Marcia Marx Wu, William F. Isaac AsJinov:SRobots in TJine: Emperor. New York: AvoNova, Avon Books, June 1994, 227 p., paper, $4.99; ISBN 0-38076515-2. ISAAC AsIMOV'S ROBOTS IN TIME #5. Wu presents Book Five in the ISAAC AsIMOV'S ROBOTS IN TIME series. Packaged by Byron Preiss and named in honor of the late, great Isaac's Three Laws of Robotics, Wu describes the pursuit of component gestalt robots into humanity's past. In Emperor, MC 5 has transported himself under Third Law imperatives to the time of Genghis Khan. R. Hunter, together with Steve and Jane, pursue him, in turn pursued by roboticist Dr. Wayne Nystrom and R. Ishihara. Encountering the Khan himself, as well as Marco Polo, our heroes traipse across the Chinese countryside, encountering Chinese and Mongols, Arabs and Europeans chasing their.quarry. .... A delightful tale, one which Wu seems to relish telling, smce his delight in his ancestry and history is no secret. A good read. -Daryl F. Mallett 101

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STRA Revlew'211, May/June 1994 VlDED REVIEWS Hata. Masami & William Hurtz. Little Nemo: Adventures in Slwnberland. Hemdale Pictures. 1992. 85 min. Video by Hemdale Home Video. 1993. $24.95; ISBN 1-56920-000-9. Winsor McCay was a major figure in the early history of both newspaper comic strips and animated films. His little Nemo cartoons in The New York Herald (1905-12) were noted for the beauty and detail of their backgrounds. especially architecture and crowds of fantastic creatures. His ten short animated films. made 1911-21. were of course much simpler due to the meager budgets and primitive film techniques available to McCay. who produced the thousands of needed for each film either alone or with one or two assistants. His only Little Nemo film (191 1) has characters. but no backgrounds. Hata and Hurtz's little Nemo. a Japanese-U.S. co-production. the _gorgeous detail of the Nemo strips to the film screen for the first time. McCay':s fantastic environments-vast. often upside-down or underwater--are beautifully rendered by the Japanese artists and still fascinate the viewer after eighty years. The film's story and characters are generally bland. except for the irresponsible F1ip. voiced by Mickey Rooney. The villain, the Nightmare King. a character not in McCay's strips, looks almost exactly like the Demon in the "Night on Bald Mountain" sequence of Disney's FantaSIa. a livelier story would have been welcome, the film has enough visual nchness to satisfy both children and adults. Little Nemo was one of several non-Disney animated features released between Disney's two latest hits, Beauty and the Beast (1991) and Aladdin (1992). The only box-office success of the lot was FernguUy: The Last Rainforest. Flops included little Nemo. the British-drawn Freddie as FR07 and the U.S.-made. part live-action Cool World. The latter two deserved their grim fates. but Nemo is much better and has found success on videocassette. Vanety reported that 62.000 copies were sold during the first two weeks of the video release. A video anthology. The Best of Wlils'or McCay (Movies Unlimited; 800/523-0823). collects several of his animated cartoons. including Nemo (1911) and GertJe the Dinosaur (1914). perhaps the most famous silent animated film. A collection of many of McCay's Nemo newspaper strips is available from Dover. -Michael Klossner 103

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SFRA Renew'211, May/June 1994 Melford. George. The Special Spanish Vemon of Dracula. MCNUniversal Video. 1992. made 1931. 1 videocassette. 104 min .. with English subtitles. $14.99; ISBN 0-7832-0133-8. Early sound films were often notoriously dialogue-heavy. Studios assumed that if audiences wanted speech. they should hear a lot of it. Universal's Dracula. directed by Tod Browning. was bogged down by many stilted dialogue scenes but its striking atmosphere and Bela Lugosi and Dwight Frye's classic performances established gothic horror as a Hollywood genre. Studios were accustomed to selling silent films easily in foreign markets; only brief intertitles had to be translated. When silents were superseded by all-too-loquacious talkies. studios feared that foreign audiences would not accept either dubbing or extensive subtitles. Consequently. foreign-language versions of several major films were made in the early 1930s. Germany's UFA Studio made an English version of their 1932 SF film F.P.I Antwortet M'cht. While Browning and Lugosi made the English-language Dracula, Universal assigned George Melford to direct a Spanish version. using the same sets but different actors. Melford's Dracula is one of the few films made by a director who could not understand the language spoken by his cast. Universal's Spanish Dracula was considered a lost film for many years, until a print was found recently in a Cuban archive. Carlos Villarias (called "Carlos Villar" in the credits) as Dracula and Pablo Alvarez Rubio as Renfield are both excellent. though not in a class with Lugosi and Frye. The actor who plays Van Helsing is a wimp compared to Edward van Sloan. Nevertheless, although almost twenty minutes longer than the Browning version, the Spanish film is considerably less tedious than its rival, partly because Lupita Tovar ismore appealine; than Helen Chandler as the ingenue, but mainly because Melford's direction IS more imaginative than Browning's. Tovar, still vivacious sixty years after her work in Dracula. introduces the videocassette. Taken from a clean print, with legible English subtitles, the video presents a major version of Dracula which should be seen for its own merits as well as its historical interest. -Michael Klossner Nathan-Turner, John. Doctor lo: The HartneD Year.S'. BBC, Fox Video, 1991,1 videocassette, 88 min, $19.99; ISBN 0-7939-3403-6. Nathan-Turner, John. Doctor lo: The Pertwee Year.S'. BBC, Fox Video. 1991,1 videocassette, 88 min, $19.99; ISBN 0-7939-5732-X. Nathan-Turner, John. Doctor lo: The Tom Baker Year.S'. BBC. Fox Video. 1991,2 videocassettes, 170 min, $29.99; ISBN 0-7939-3493-1. Nathan-Turner, John. Doctor lo: The Troughton Year.S'. BBC, Fox Video. 1991, 1 videocassette, 84 min, $19.99; ISBN 0-7939-3402-8. The BBC's Doctor lo was the longest-running SF television series (1963-89). comprising 158 stories, most told in four or more half-hour episodes. These videos provide overviews of the work of the first four of the seven actors who played the Doctor. The tape devoted to the First Doctor, William Hartnell, begins with the first, untelevised version of the first episode of the first Doctor 104

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SFRA Reriew'211, May/JuDe 1994 Who story, An Unearthly Child. The complete story, as televised, is available on video in America. The differences between the two versions of the introductory episode are rather slight. Unlike An Unearthly Child, many of the early Doctor Who stories have been partly or completely lost. The HartneD Yea.t:S' includes the only surviving episode for two stories-The Crusade (1965), a representative Doctor Who historical adventure with no SF except the presence of time travelers; and The Celestial Toymaker (1966), a superior story reminiscent of The Twilight Zone. The tape features strong performances by Hartnell and by Jean Marsh and Michael Gough in guest parts. The Patrick Troughton tape consists of episodes from three Second Doctor adventures which did not survive in their entirety-The Abominable Snowman (1967), The Enemy of the World (1968), and The Space Pirates (1969). All are rather talky. The last two are pure space opera. Enemyis one of the earliest of many anti-military Doctor Who stories and features Trougl1ton in an unusual double role, as the Doctor and the villain. The first two Doctors' adventures were in black-and-white; all subsequent stories were in color. Almost all of Jon Pertwee's work as the Third Doctor has been preserved. The Pertwee tape includes the final episodes from three stories not available on video in the U.S.-Infemo(1970), The Daemons (1971), and The Frontier in Space (1973). These stories are more polished and faster-paced than the adventures of the earlier Doctors. Frontier includes excellent work by Roger Delgado, the better of the two actors who played The Master, the Doctor's most brilliant and persistent opponent. The only disappointing video is the two-tape collection on Tom Baker, the Fourth and longest-lived Doctor (1974-81). Instead of complete episodes, the tapes have short clips from all forty-one Baker stories, interspersed with the star's mostly trivial reminiscences. Many of the most memorable scenes from the Fourth Doctor's adventures are included, but many of my favorite scenes are missing, and some surprisingly ordinary clips are shown. This collections provides only a sampler for noVlces and a nostalgic treat for fans. The writing. dll'ection, and acting on Doctor Who was often of surpriSmgly high quality. Twenty-one complete Doctor Who stories are available on video in the U.S. The Hartnell, Troughton, and Pertwee compilations are recommended to anyone seriously interested in the program. -Michael Klossner 105

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SFRA Revle.'211, May/JuDe 1994 MISCELLANEDUS REVIElNS Thonen, John, ed. Vol. 1:1-. (Fall 1993). (7240 W. Roosevelt Rd; 60130) Forest Park, IL; Quarterly, $18.00/4 iss.; ISSN 1069-5095. Since 1970, Cinefantastique, edited by Frederick S. Oarke, has been the most serious magazine devoted to SF, fantasy, and horror film and television. However, with six issues a year, Cinefantastique cannot cover as much ground as the twenty-four issues of two more popular, fannish monthlies published by the Starlog GrouI>-Starlog; covering SF and fantasy, and Fangoria, specializing in horror. The balance was redressed in 1992 when Garke began publishing the slightly embarrassing Femme Fatales, edited by Bill George, a pin-up-and-interview magazine devoted entirely to actresses in fantastic films. Now, Garke has launched a third magazine, which at least is a more respectable companion to Cinefantastique than Femme Fatales. Editor John Thonen writes that will concentrate on "low-budget films, classic films, obscure titles and the people responsible for them," but not to the exclusion of major films and 1V productions. The first issue includes articles on Roger Corman, the British cult 1V show Red Dwarf. Japan's erotic horror animated feature The Wandering Kid, and four U.S. Bfilms, but also coverage of four new Stephen King film and 1V adaptations. Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, and Ahf!fl 3. Brief reviews assess ten B-films, one A-film (Body Snatchers), and a video game. Regular features are a "VideophiJe" column on foreign films on video by Craig Ledbener, editor of European Trash Cinema and a music column by Randall D. Larson. author of Musique FantastJque: A Survey of Film MUSIC in Fantastic Films (1985). Sharing the high quality of Cinefantastique, lmagi-Moyies should be considered by large film collections where Cinefantastique has proved useful. -Michael Klossner 107

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S'RA Revlew'211, May/JuDe 1994 '" MEMOR'AM: John James, writer, d. 10/10/1993 Rick Raphael, writer, 2/20/1919-1/4/1994 Frank Belknap Long, writer, 4/27/1903-1/9/1994 Pierre Boulle, writer, 2/20/1912-1/30/1994 Jack Kirby, comics artist, 1917-2/6/1994 Sheridan A. Simon, scientist, 1947-4/8/1994 Keith Watson, comics writer, d. 4/9/1994 Evelyn Conklin Zimmer, mother of Marion Zimmer Bradley and Paul Edwin Zimmer, d. 4/21/1994 John Preston, writer, d. 4/28/1994 Russell Amos Kirk, writer, 10/19/1918-4/29/1994 108

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SFRA Review 1211, May/June 1994 THE BCIEnCE fiCTIOn RESEARCH ABBDCIATlOn The SFRA is the oldest professional organization for the study of science fiction, fantasy, and horror/Gothic literature and film, and utopian studies. Founded in 1970, the SFRA was organized to improve classroom teaching, encourage and assist scholarship, and evaluate and publicize new books and magazines dealing with fantastic literature and film. Among the membership are people from many countries-authors, editors, publishers, librarians, students, teachers, and other interested readers. Academic affiliation is not a requirement for membership. SFRA BENEFITS INCLUDE: Extrapolation. Quarterly magazine; the oldest journal in the field, with critical, historical, and bibliographical articles, book reviews, letters, occasional special topic issues, annual index. Science-Fiction Studies. Trimesterly magazine; includes critical, historical, and bibliographical articles, review articles, reviews, notes, letters, international coverage with abstracts in French and English, annual index. SFRA Review. Bimonthly magazine; an organ of the SFRA, this magazine includes extensive book reviews of both nonfiction and fiction, review articles, listings of new and forthcoming books, letters, SFRA internal affairs, calls for papers, works in progress, media reviews, etc., annual index. SFRA Directory. Annual directory; lists members' names and addresses, phone numbers, special interests. Foundation. (For an added fee). Trimesterly magazine. Discount on subscription price; includes critical, historical, and bibliographical articles, reviews, letters. /IS A MEMBER YOU ARE ALSO INVITED TO: Attend our annual meetings, held in a different location each year. Members and guests-many of them professional writers-present papers, share information, and discuss common interests, all in a relaxed, informal environment. Much of the significant scholarly literature, available at discounted prices, is displayed. The Pilgrim and Pioneer Awards for distinguished contributions to SF or fantasy scholarship are presented at a dinner meeting. Participate in the Association's activities. Vote in elections, serve on committees, hold office, and contribute reviews to SFRA Review. Join the SFRA section on GEnie, where the SFRT (SF Round Table) has a private category where SFRA category where SFRA members meet in 'cyberspace' to conduct business, exchange information, or enjoy real-time discussions. Contribute to the "Support a Scholar" program. SFRA members help needy young scholars here and overseas continue their study of SF/F. [Annual membership dues cover only the actual costs of providing benefits to members, and reflect a modest savings over subscriptions to the publications listed above. Your dues may be a tax deductible expense.] 109

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SFRA Revle ... 1211, May/JuDe 1994 &FRA mEmBERSHIP APPLICATIOn Please mail this completed fonn with your check for dues, payabletoSFRA. in u.s. dollan only. please. to: Robert J. Ewald. SFRA Treasurer; 552 W. Lincoln Street; Findlay. OH 45840. Dues: U.SA Canada Oveneas Individual l $60 $65 $70 Dues Joinr2 $70 $75 $80 Student 3 $50 $55 $60 Other I nstituion 4 $80 $80 $80 Emeritus 5 $30 $35 $40 Total If you wish to receive the British journal Foundation (3 iss./year). add $17 ($20 for ainnail). 1 all standard listed benefits 2 two memben in the same household; two listings in the Din!ctolJ'listings. but will receive one set of journals 3 category may be used for a maximum of live yean 4 all priveleges except voting 5 receives SFRA Direct01J' This membership is for the calendar year 1994. This infonnation will appear in the 1994 SFRA DirectoIy. Name: Mailing address: Homephone: ____________________________________________ Businessphone: ________________________________________ ___ Faxnumber: __________________________________________ ___ Bitnet/Genie/other numbers: ________________________________ My principal interest" in fant.astic literature arc (limit to 30 words): ___ Repeat Last year's entry. 110

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UPC CALL FOR PAPERS STSF '94 An International Workshop on SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY through SCIENCE FICTION 22nd-23rd June 1994 -BARCELONA (Spain) Organized by: Coosdl Social (Board of Trustees) of UNIVERSIT AT POLrrECNICA DE CAT ALUNY A (UPC) In cooperarton with: Software Department (UPC) Physics and Nuclear En2ineerin2 Department (UPC) WORLD SF (Hispanic Chapter) THE WORKSHOP A good working definition of science fiction is "speculative extrapolation about the effect of science and technology on society". The aim of this International Workshop is to provide a forum for identifYing, encouraging and discussing research about science and technology, or their consequences, as portrayed in science fiction. The Workshop will bring together researchers, scientists, and other academics with science fiction professionals to share information and explore new ideas about the relationship between science fiction, science and technology. TOPICS OF INTEREST n. topics or iaterest laclude bloll an Dot limited 10: Bioteehnology, genetic engineering Computer science, robotics, artificial intelligence Ma.:rocngineering Nanotechnology Physics, astronomy, cosmology Professional activity of scientists and engineers Social impact of science and technology -TeaclUng science and technology with science fiction INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS Paper submissions must be in English and no more than 6000 words long. '[h. Procudings o/tht Workshop will b. publlsh,d by organ;:/ng institution. Authors uerequestcd to submitaull.roflnunlionwith the tiOe ofthc paper and a shan abSIraCI (less than one page) before NO"ember 30, 1993. Authors must submil five copies of each paper, before January 31,1994, 10 the: Program Chal'P',.,on: Miquel BARCELO Fatultat d'lnformltita Universitat de Catalunya PIU Gareallo, 5 E 08028 BARCELONA (Spain) Tel: 34.3.401.6958 Fu: 34.3.401.7113 E-mail: blo@lsi.upt.cs PROGRAM COMMIITEE Miquel BarcelO (Software Depl., UPC, SPAIN) Joe Haldeman sociale Professor, USA) Elizabeth A, Hull (SFRA pasI-president, USA) Frederik Pohl (SFWA and WSFpast-presiUSA) Vernor Vinge (Dept. ofMathScicn:cs. SDSU, USA) ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Miquel Barcel6 (Software Dept, UPC) Laura C.barroc:u mission: January 31. 1994 Notification of Accept onee: Marcb 15,1994 Camera Ready Paper> Due: April 30, 1994


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