SFRA Review

SFRA Review

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SFRA Review
Alternate Title:
Science Fiction Research Association Review
Science Fiction Research Association
Place of Publication:
[Eugene, Ore
Science Fiction Research Association]
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Science fiction -- History and criticism ( lcsh )
Fantasy fiction -- History and criticism -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Science fiction -- Book reviews -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Fantasy fiction -- Book reviews -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
serial ( sobekcm )


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Place of publication varies.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
S67-00112-n226-1996-11_12 ( USFLDC DOI )
s67.112 ( USFLDC Handle )

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glin'Review == Issue #226, November/December 1996 IN THIS ISSUE: PUBLISHERS' ADDRESSES ............................................... 4 SFRA INTERNAL AFFAIRS: President's Message (Sanders) .............................................. 5 Membership Directory Updates ........................................... 6 SFRA Members & Friends ...................................................... 6 Letters (Mallonee, Hall, Bousfield) ....................................... 7 Editorial (Sisson) .................................................................... 8 SFRA ANNUAL CONFERENCE UPDATE .................... 10 NEWS AND INFORMATION .......................................... 11 CURRENT & FORTHCOMING BOOKS ........................ 15 FEATURES Special Feature: "The Art's The Thing" Hearn, Michael Patrick, W. W. Denslow: The Other Wizard of Oz; Seuss, Dr., The Secret Art of Dr. Seuss; Barlowe, Wayne, The Alien Life of Wayne Barlowe; Giger, H.R., Species Design; and [Potter, ].K.], [Horripilationsj: The Art of J.K. Potter. (Albert) ............................................................... 19 Special Feature: "Breathing New Life into Old SF" Dumas, Alexandre. Tarry Till I Come. (Stevens) ....... 25 Owings, Mark (Editor). Orphans of Time, Volume 1. (Westfahl) ................................................ 26 Williams, Frank Purdy. Hallie Marshall: A True Daughter of the South. (McKnight) ......................... 29 REVIEWS: Nonfiction: Fowler, Roger. The Language of George Orwell. (Kelleghan) ...................................................................... 33 Hill, Mary A. (Editor). A Journey from Within: The Love Letters of Charlotte Perkins Gilman, 1897-1900. (Miller) ....................................................... 35 SFRA Review #226, page 1


Ledoux, Trish and Doug Ranney. The Complete Anime Guide: japanese Animation Video Directory and Resource Guide. (Klossner) jointly reviewed with McCarthy volume ...................... 36 McCarthy, Helen. The Anime! Movie Guide. (Klossner) jointly reviewed with Ledoux & Ranney volume ............................................................... 36 Pederson, jay P. (Editor). St. james Guide to Science Fiction Writers (Fourth Edition). (Barron) ........................................................................... 39 Rushing, janice Hocker and Thomas S. Frentz. Projecting the Shadow: The Cyborg Hero in American Film. (Davis) ................................................. 42 Russell, Sharon A. Stephen King: A Critical Companion. (Bousfield) ................................................ 45 Sammon, Paul M. Future Noir: The Making of "Blade Runner". (Blackwood) ................................................... 46 Squier, Susan Merrill. Babies in Bottles: TwentiethCentury Visions of Reproductive Technology. (Henderson) .................................................................... 48 Tohill, Cathal and Pete Tombs. Immoral Tales: European Sex and Horror Movies 1956-1984. (Klossner) jointly reviewed with Wright volume ............................................................................. 51 Wright, Bruce Lanier. Nightwalkers: Gothic Horror Movies, the Modem Era. (Klossner) jointly reviewed with Tohill & Tombs volume ........................ 51 Valentine, Mark. Arthur Machen. (Harris-Fain) ............ 53 Fiction: Anderson, Poul. All One Universe. (Chapman) ............. 57 Bujold, Lois McMaster. Dreamweaver's Dilemma: 5;]JOrt Stories and Essays. (Taormina) .......................... 59 f\[orrow, James. Blameless in Abaddon. (Kelleghan) ...................................................................... 61 Oberndorf, Charles. Foragers. (Hellekson) .................... 63 Robinson, Kim Stanley. Blue Mars. (Kelley) ................... 65 SF CAPSULES .................................................. 68 SFRA MEMBERSHIP INFORMATION & APPLICATION ............................................................... 71 srRA RevielV #226, page 2


Eiit!lReview Editor Amy Sisson Assistant Editor Paul Abell Assistant Nonfiction Editor -B. Diane Miller SFRA Review (ISSN 1068-39 5X) is published 6 times per year by the Science Fiction Research Association (SFRA) and distributed to SFRA members. Individual issues are not for sale. For information about the SFRA, see the description and application at the back of this issue. Please submit reviews, news items, letters, etc. to Amy Sisson, SFRA Review, 304 Fairfax Row, Waterford NY 12188; telephone (518) 237-4669; e-mail "sfraamy@aol. com". Submissions are acceptable in any format: hardcopy, e-mail, Macintosh disk, or IBM disk (must be saved as text-only or ASCII). E-mail or disks are preferred. Please note the SFRA Review has an agreement with the Science Fiction & Fantasy Book Review Annual (Robert Collins & Michael M. Levy, Eds.) under which reviews are exchanged between publications. If you do not wish your review to be submitted to the Annual, please indicate the same. Typeset by Amy Sisson on a Macintosh Performa 6205CD. Cover design by David Garcia. Printed by Century Creations, Grand Forks, North Dakota. SFRA Executive Committee PRESIDENT Joe Sanders 6354 Brooks Blvd. Mentor OI-I 44060 SECRETARY Joan Gordon 1 Tulip Lane Commack NY 11725 VICE PRESIDENT t>-liIton T. Wolf University Library/322 Univ. of Nevada -Reno Reno NV 89557-0044 TREASURER Robert J. Ewald 552 W. Lincoln St. Findlay OI-I 45840 IMMEDIATE PAST PRESIDENT David G. t>-Iead 6021 Grassmere Corpus Christi TX 78415 SFRA RevielV #226, page 3


PUBLISHERS' ADDRESSES/ ORDERING INFORMA nON Associated University Presses, 440 Forsgate Dr, Cranbury NJ 08512 Bucknell University Press, c/o Associated University Presses, 440 Forsgate Dr, Cranbury NJ 08512 Citadel Press/Carol Publishing, 600 Madison Ave, New York NY 10022 Dufour Editions, PO Box 7, Chester Springs PA 19425 Eastgate Systems, 134 Main Street, Watertown MA 02172 fairleigh Dickinson University Press, c/o Associated University Presses, 440 Forsgate Dr, Cranbury NJ 08512 Fantasma Books, 419 Amerlia St., Key West FL 33040 Garland Publishing, 717 Fifth Avenue Suite 2500, New York NY 10022-8101 Greenwood Press, PO Box 5007, Westport CT 06881-5007 (1800-225-5800) John Hopkins University Press, 715 N Charles St, Baltimore MD 21218 Mcfarland, Box 611, Jefferson NC 28640 NESFA Press, PO Box 809, Framingham MA 01701 (add $2 shipping & handling) Overlook Press, 149 Wooster St, New York NY 10012 Peter Lang Publishing, 275 Seventh Ave, 28th Floor, New York NY 10001-6708 Routledge, 29 W 35th St, New York NY 10001-2299 Rutgers University Press, 109 Church St, New Brunswick NJ 08901 St. James Press/Gale Research, 835 Penobscot Bldg, Detroit MI 48226 Scarecrow Press, 4720 Boston Way, Lanham MD 20706 Seren Books, c/o Dufour Editions, PO Box 7, Chester Springs 1'/\ 19425 Stanford Univ Press, Stanford CA 94305-2235 Tiger 1\lountain Press, P.O. Box 369, Issaquah WA 98027. Titan Books, 42-44 Dolben St., London SE1 OUP, UK. Twayne Publishers, Ivlacmillan Publishing Company, 866 Third Avenue, New York NY 10022 University of Chicago Press, 11030 South Langley Ave, Chicago IL 60628 University of South Carolina Press, 205 Pickens St, Columbia SC 29208 University Press of 1\lississippi, phone orders 1-800-737-77 88 Writer's Digest Books, 1507 Dana Ave, Cincinnati OH 45207 snn Rcvic\\: #226, page -+


li i i(;llnternal Affairs = The logo shown above was designed by SFRA member Alex Eisenstein for the Thomas D. Clare son Award for Distinguished Service, presented for the first time at the 1996 conference in Eau Claire, Wisconsin to Frederick Poh!. It has been proposed that this design be adopted as the official logo of the SFRA organization. Members are invited to comment on the design; please send comments to David Mead or to Amy Sisson c/o SFRA Review. PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE How to fill a column when not much has happened: There's been an interesting sequel to my comments on the need to be extra careful when doing electronic publishing. Looking through a recent issue of The New York Review of Science Fiction, savoring an essay I'd written on Michael Bishop, I was startled to notice that it didn't make sense -or at least not as much sense as I'd remembered. So I checked my file copy and found that a whole page had been left out. David Hartwell tells me that this happened during the scanning of manuscript to disk, meaning that this isn't a typo but a "scanno." Perhaps this mishap should make me happy because it vindicates my Review comments and reinforces an important concern. Even if that was God's intention, though, I'd personally have been satisfied with the omission of a few sentences or a short paragraph. Meanwhile, I'm preparing to bid for the SFRA conference in either 2000 or 2001, with the slogan CLEVELAND: YA GOT A PROBLEM WITH THAT?, and have run into the first dilemma. SFRA Review #22 6, page 5


Cleveland is, seriously, a great place to be right now. The downtown features new sports stadia, a new science museum, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and the restaurant and entertainment district in the Flats along the no-longer-burning Cuyahoga River. In addition, the NASA Lewis Space Center is a short drive away, as are world-class art and other museums. On the other hand, I have a real affection for meetings in a restricted area. Most recently at Eau Claire, it was a real advantage not to have attractions within strolling distance; we had some outings, sure, but most of the time we stayed around the motel: talking, listening, having a real conference. And, as it happens, there is such a site available -my own college. Lakeland Community College is located outside Cleveland, so it would be more difficult to reach the downtown attractions. The college has all the facilities we'd actually need for the conference, though; in particular, a lovely, huge old mansion is being rehabbed into a meeting center. So, since we have a bit of lead time, I'm soliciting your advice. What kind of setting for our conference do you prefer? One caveat: Wherever we actually meet, I can't promise to get enough Cleveland Indians tickets for everyone. -Joe Sanders MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY UPDATES Please note: hyphens at the end of a line are not part of the e-mail address. Bill Stevens has a new e-mail address: "Billstevens@wow. cOIn". Karen Hellekson has a new address: 742 N. 5th Street, Lawrence KS 66044. Her phone number has not changed. Her KU e-mail address still works, but she has a new work e mail address as well: "". Todd Sammons has moved back to his permanent location in Hawaii, and can be reached at: Professor Todd H. Sammons, Department of English, 1733 Donaghho Road, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu HI 96822; (808) 5282080 (home); 808-956-7619 (office). SFRA MEMBERS & FRIENDS Karen Hellekson is still a grad student in English at KU, but has accepted a full-time job at Allen Press, Inc., supervis STRA RevielV #226, page 6


ing copyeditors. Karen writes, "I love the job there and miss the academy only a little." LETTERS Dear Ms. Sisson: We appreciate Wendy Bousfield's excellent review of Vincent's Revenge in the July/August issue. She did a great job of picking up on the nuances of the book. Unfortunately, our addresses was incorrect, as we had just moved and we were not able to communicate the new address to you due to your own move. We would greatly appreciate it if you would print our correct address and phone number in your next issue. Thank you, Darrel Mallonee Baillie Caymar Publishing 1951 Port Edward Place Newport Beach, CA 92660 (888) 252-6361 Hi Amy in the Northeast, Last night, I read Gary Westfahl's "Nonsense of Wonder: On Teaching Science Fiction" in Science Fiction Eye (a good little magazine, but perhaps not widely read by SF teachers). It occurred to me that the SFRA Review might be a good ve hicle to reprint articles such as this, specifically on teaching sf, to get a bit more exposure to such ideas. What do you think? In the various incarnations of the SFRA Newsletter/Review (generally tied to who edited and their particular biases) the magazine has done different things, chosen different points of emphasis, or whatever. If you go way back, Extrapolation itself was a newsletter. What I would really like to see is for SFRA to use the Review, coupled with either a listserv, a Web Page, or both, to generate discussion on teaching, research, bibliography, the long-deSired "motif index" project, or what ever. IAFA-L does some of this, but the population is not the same, and the participation is variable. All we really need is a sawy computer jockey to set up the listserv and web page, SFRA Review #226, page 7


and a healthy dose of "give-a-damn" injected into each SFRA member. Better go to work, Hal W. Hall Amy: A quick response to your question in the last SFRA Review. I think it would be a very good idea to include contributors' institutions with their reviews. I think that one of the most important things that SFRA can do is to help us to engage in dialogue with people who make points or have interests that resonate with us. If other reviewers concur, I think it would be good to include e-mail addresses and institutional affilia tions with reviews. While I have your attention, here is a suggestion for an SFRA Review article. Why not have someone write a review of Science Fiction Web sites? In this day and age, it doesn't pay to be exclusively print-oriented, and I have visited some sites that are a lot of fun. I'm not necessarily volunteering for this task because others have a lot more facility with the Internet than I. However, if a number of SFRA members banded together to collect Listservs and Web sites pertaining to fantasy, horror and SF, I'd be very excited about contributing. Perhaps you or someone else could act as an editor or coordinator, who would weave the sites reviewed into a regular column. Thanks for considering! Wendy Bousfield Bird Library, Syracuse University I invite members to send any reviews of web sites to me for possible publication -and if anyone wants to go one step further and volunteer to provide short reviews of SF in cyberspace on a regular basis, so much the better! As for reviewers' institutions and e-mail addresses, I'd like a few m()re opinions to see if members generally agree with Wendy, so please let me know how you feel about it. -Ed. EDITORIAL Help Wanted! This encompasses my standing plea for more SFRA members to volunteer as occasional reviewers, but also SFRA Review #226, page 8


applies to current reviewers as well. Since I am working two jobs, I have less time to work on the Review, and would like to ask your help in making my editing job as simple as pos sible. First, please submit reviews via e-mail or on computer disk (saved in ASCII or text-only format, so my computer can translate) if at all possible. I certainly will continue to accept hard copy reviews, but I'm extremely grateful for those re views which I don't have to retype. Secondly, please submit reviews by the agreed-upon deadline. The time I have to spend tracking down overdue reviews could be better spent on other editorial tasks. I should also remind reviewers that all books remain the property of SFRA until such time as a review is submitted and accepted. When I specically request books from publishers, they have the right to expect a timely review; therefore, if a review is overdue, I may choose to request that the book be returned to me so that it can be reas signed. Naturally, there are many valid reasons for missing a deadline; I am not an ogre, and am more than happy to grant extensions when possible. The main thing is that I need re viewers to contact me when a review is going to be late, so I can either grant an extension or reassign the book. One final item: please remember that no individual SFRA member is authorized to request review copies directly from publishers on behalf of SFRA. If you are interested in reviewing a particular book, please let me know. If I haven't already requested it, I will be happy to do so. On a more pleasant note, because this is the last issue of 1996, I would like to take this opportunity to thank a few people who have been absolutely indispensable as reviewers over the past year: Walter Albert, Neil Barron, Bob Blackwood, Wendy Bousfield, Michael Collings, Richard Davis, Darren Harris-Fain, Karen Hellekson, Terry Heller, Phil Kaveny, Fiona Kelleghan, Michael Klossner, Mike Levy, Art Lewis, Sandra Lindow, Edgar McKnight, Patricia Monk, Michael Orth, Bill Stevens, Chip Sullivan, Agatha Taormina, Gary Westfahl, and Lynn Williams. I hope to be able to add many more names to this list next year! Finally, although we don't normally include reviews of older books, Suzette Henderson's review of Babies in Bottles was simply too interesting to pass up. I hope you enjoy it as much as I did. Happy Reading, Amy SFRA Review #226, page 9


If the Queen Mary survives its April 1997 convention -devoted to the Titanic -it will be playing hostess to the gala joint SFRA/Eaton Conference, june 23-26, 1997, which will explore the mysteries of Time and Space (see Call for Papers in the News & Information section). A massive snail-mailing of formal invitations, conference information, and registration forms is slouching towards completion, but this may be our only foray into the U.S. Postal Service; the Queen Mary is not a cheap date. Confirmed or Almost-Confirmed Guests now include: Brian W. Aldiss, Gwen Alley, Gregory Benford, David Brin, ivlichael Cassutt, Kathryn Cramer, Sheila Finch, james Gunn, David G. Hartwell, Howard V. Hendrix, Tim Pow ers, David Pringle, Kim Stanley Robinson, and joan Slonczewski. And we're working on others! Conference Schedule: the conference will begin around 1 p.m. on june 23, and end around the same time on june 26. The daily activities will mostly consist of SFRA and Eaton papers in separate tracks, with some joint activities (speakers, panels) near the end of the day. We're planning an opening night reception, and a banquet on the night of june 25, which will include presentations of the Pilgrim, Pioneer, Clareson, Eaton, and ]\[ilford awards. Other activities being considered include a special visit to the Eaton Collection in Riverside, perhaps on the afternoon of june 26. With mind-numbing regularity, every future issue of the SFRA Reviewwill offer more news as it materializes. Conference Registration: Although all people on the SFRA/Eaton mailing lists will receive an official Registration Form, a form is not essential; you may register for the conference simply by sending your name, address, contact information (phone, e-mail, fax) and a (continued on page 14) STRA Review #22 6, page 10


,:t4't'tij,t.llnformation CALL FOR PAPERS The 1997 Annual Conference of the Science Fiction Research Association and the 1997 ]. Lloyd Eaton Conference on Science Fiction and Fantasy Literature, to be held concurrently at the Queen Mary, Long Beach, California, June 2326, 1997, seek paper proposals related to "Worlds Enough and Time: Exploring the Space-Time Continuum of Science Fiction and Fantasy. SFRA Conference Topic: "Space" To the dismay of many, "science fiction" is often equated with "space fiction." For that reason, fanciful tales like Lucian's True History often figure in histories of science fic tion; one popular symbol for science fiction is a rocketship; and fact-based films like Ivlarooned and Apollo 13 are still described as science fiction. This persistent association does raise immediate questions: why does this connection exist? Should it exist? How might it be sundered? However, one could also embrace this relationship and see space travel as a central expression of the genre's impulse to acquire knowledge and achieve progress -although the venue of space also enables many writers to critique that impulse, as the vacuum of space and alien planets become new backdrops for analysis of human hubris in the face of the unknown. The very ways that we describe space, as a new ocean or new frontier, demand analysis; even in the Earthbound fantasies of the New Wave, space travel figures as a metaphor for personal exploration of "inner space," as well expressed in ].G. Ballard's famous statement, "The only alien planet is Earth"; and the now-common description of computer networks as "cyberspace" again suggests that space travel has today become both an everyday activity and a powerful icon, in science fiction and in life. We welcome proposals for 20-minute papers on any aspects of this topic, or related topics. Please send papers or proposals by April 1, 1997 to: SFRA RevielV #226, page 11


Gary Westfahl The Learning Center University of California Riverside, California 92521 E-mail: Eaton Conference Topic: "Time" Humans have always been fascinated with time. Heraclitus taught that we could not step into the same river twice, but Brigadoon somehow touches our world once and again. The nineteenth century introduced the possibility of time travel, as Mark Twain took us into the legendary past, and H.G. Wells built a machine to explore the distant future. Edgar Rice Burroughs's The Land That Time Forgot underscores the inti mate connections between changes in the nature of time and the production of different worlds, as also suggested by sto ries of parallel universes. Modern fantasies offer powerful images of time slowing down, moving at different rates, or even submitting to the control of the individual will. Such explorations of time have occurred in fantasy and science fiction literature, fairy tales and myths, film and rock opera. The vicissitudes of time, a motif central to science fiction, create worlds without ends, as in Jorge Luis Borges's "The Garden of Forking Paths", and worlds without beginning, as in Robert A. Heinlein's "All You Zombies". And, as we ap proach the end of this millennium, we reflect on other mo ments when time itself seemed about to stop or fundamentally alter the universe; at the end of days, will we confront a Paradise Regained or Pamela Zoline's "The Heat Death of the Universe"? We welcome proposals for 30-minute papers on any aspects of this topic, or related topics. Send papers or propos als by April 1, 1997 to: George Slusser, Curator, Eaton Collection Rivera Library University of California Riverside, California 92521 E-mail: Gary Westfahl SFRA RevielV #226, page 12


FUROR OVER COPYRIGHT LAW The American Society of journalists and Authors issued a press release on September 17, 1996 urging writers to contact the Senate judiciary Committee regarding a proposal to merge the U.S. Copyright Office with the patent and trademark offices, which operate under the Department of Com merce. Critics of the proposal say that it could quintuple copyright registration fees and adversely affect the growth of the Library of Congress. In addition, the Senate judiciary Committee refused to grant hearing time to representatives of major writers organizations such as the ASjA and the Authors Guild. ASjA President Claire Safran stated, "It's a shame the committee seems uninterested in hearing from the very people who would be most affected by this proposal." She then filed written testimony with the committee recommending a delay until next session, so that interested parties could be heard before the issue comes to vote. The press release contained e-mail addresses as well as tra ditional contact information for members of the Senate judiciary Committee. Perhaps as a result, the committee has at least temporarily dropped the proposal. The Washington Post reported that the main sponsor of the bill, Senator Orrin Hatch, "ran into a buzz saw of opposition." A Post editorial surmised, "The senator's turnabout ... may have been influenced by a din of objections from academics, library associa tions, publishers' associations and writers' organizations. They made skillful political use of just those new electronic communications media e-mail, electronic databases, the Web -that have turned copyright into a hot potato in the policy arena." Currently, a draft of the bill is still in commit tee, but it now reportedly covers only patents and trademarks, with no mention of the U.S. Copyright Office. SFRA Review #226, page 13


(continued from page 10) check (made out to the Science Fiction Research Asso ciation) to this address: Gary Westfahl, The Learning Center, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521; (note my new e-mail address!) Registration fees are as follows: $110.00 until March 1, 1997, $120.00 March 1 -June 16, 1997, and $130.00 at the door (or $40.00 per day). If you would like to register for a stateroom on the Queen Alary (and we hope all out-of-town guests will be staying there), you can do that now too. The toll-free number for Queen Mary registrations is 800-437-3 51l. Please identify yourself as an SFRA/Eaton Conference guest to qualify for special low rates, ranging from $59.00 to $99.00 a night, depending on whether you want a window, whether you want to face the land or face the sea, and other factors. We're hoping that many members employed at colleges will be able to get some support from their departments. To help, we will be willing to officially accept paper proposals before the March 1, 1997 deadline, provided that we receive them well before that deadline. It might be advantageous to send in your proposal right now, and beat the Spring rush! Please remember that, as always, you do not have to be an SFRA member to attend! Due to the joint nature of this SFRA/Eaton conference, we particularly hope that members will bring friends and colleagues with them. There's lots of room on board the Queen Mary! Gary Westfahl P.S. On September 24, I attempted to e-mail this update to all on-line members of the SFRA, using the addresses in the 1996 Directory. About 30 messages did not arrive; the listed e-mail addresses must have been eitl1l'r outdated, incomplete, inaccurate, or ambiguous (to dash or not to dash?). For now, I've simply deleted all the addresses that didn't work. If you have e-mail and would like to receive updated information on the conference, please send me a message and I'll add you to the mailing list. Conversely, ir you are receiving updates and do not wish to, please let me know. Thanks! SrJC\ Hc\'ic\\ #226, page 1-1-


'5'ln;", & Forthcoming Books This list was compiled primarily from listings in Locus and with assistance from Neil Barron and Michael Klossner. Addresses of many of the smaller publishers appear on page 4. ART, COMICS, AND ILLUSTRATION Ross, Clifford & Karen Wilkin. The World of Edward Gorey, Abrams, September 1996. This collection of about 200 illustrations ties in with an exhibition at the Cartoon Art Museum, San Francisco, September 18, 1996 -january 1997. Sabin, Roger. Comics, Comix & Graphic Novels: A History of Comic Art, Phaidon (distributed by Chronicle Books), Oc tober 1996. AUTHOR STUDIES [Andrews, V.c.] Huntley, E.D. V.c. Andrews: A Critical Companion, Greenwood Press, April 1996. [Asimov, Isaac] Gunn, james. Isaac Asimov: The Foundations of Science Fiction, Scarecrow Press, September 1996. Revised and expanded edition. [Shelley, Ivlary] Robinson, Charles E. The Frankenstein Notebooks, Garland, 1996. [Stoker, Bram] Belford, Barbara. Bram Stoker: A Biography of the Author of Dracula, Knopf, 1996. [Verne, jules] Lottman, Herbert R. jules Verne: A Life in Space, St. Ivlartin's, October 1996. [Wells, H.G.] Stover, Leon (Editor). The Island of Doctor ]I[oreau, a Critical Text of the 1896 London First Edition, with Introduction and Appendices, l\IcFarland, Fall 1995. [Wells, H.G.] Stover, Leon (Editor). The Time Machine: An Invention, a Critical Text of the 1895 London First Edition, with Introduction and Appendices, McFarland, Fall 1995. [Wharton, Edith] Dyman, jenni. Lurking Feminism: The Ghost Stories ofEdilh Wharton, Peter Lang Publishing, 1996. FILM & TELEVISION Berenstein, Rhona]. Attack of the Leading Ladies: Gender, Sexuality, and 5pectatorship in Classic Horror Cinema, Columbia, 1996. Boot, Andrew. Fragments of Fear: An Illustrated History of Hritish I-Ian-or Films, Creation Books (UK), 1996. Duncan, jody. The Making of Dragonheart. Boulevard Books, 1996. SFRA Review #226, page 15


Edwards, Larry. Bela Lugosi: Master of the Macabre, McGuinn & McGuire, 1996. Grant, Barry K. (Editor). The Dread of Difference: Gender and the Horror Film, University of Texas Press, November 1996. Holston, Kim R. and Tom Winchester. Science Fiction, Fantasy and Horror Film Series and Remakes: An Illustrated Filmography, with Plot Synopses and Critical Commentary, McFarland, 1996. jensen, Paul M. The Men Who Made the Monsters, Twayne, December 1996. johnson, john. Cheap Tricks and Class Acts: Special Effects, Makeup and Stunts from the Fantastic Fifties, McFarland, 1996. johnson-Witham, Heather R. Star Trek Fans and Costume Art, University Press of Mississippi, 1996. Larson, Randall D. Music from the House of Hammer: Music in the Hammer Horror Films, 1950-1980, Scarecrow, 1996. Marrero, Robert. Godzilla: King of the Movie Monsters, Fantasma Books, 1996. Maxford, Howard. Hammer, House of Horror: Behind the Screams, Overlook Press (UK), 1996. Palmer, Randy. Paul Blaisdell, Monster Maker: A Biography of the B Movie Makeup and Special Effects Artist, McFarland, Summer 1996. Pitts, Michael R. Poverty Row Studies, 1929-1940: An Illustrated History of 53 Independent Film Companies, with a Filmography for Each, McFarland, Summer 1996. Rhodes, Gary Don. Lugosi: His Life in Films, on Stage, and in the Hearts of Horror Lovers, McFarland, 1996. Sanello, Frank. Spielberg: The Man, the Movies, the Mythology, Taylor Publishing, March 1996. Svehla, Gary and Susan. Bela Lugosi, Midnight Marquee Press, 1996. Svehla, Gary and Susan (Editors). Guilty Pleasures of the Horror Film, Midnight Marquee Press, 1996. Vaz, Mark Cotta and Patricia Rose Duignan. Industrial Light & Magic: Into the Digital Realm, Ballantine, November 1996. Warren, Alan. This Is a "Thriller": An Episode Guide, History and AnaJysis of the Classic 1960s Television Series, McFarland, Summer 1996. Warren, Bill. Set Visits: Interviews with 32 Horror and Sci ence Fiction Filmmakers, McFarland, 1996. Weldon, Michael. The Psychotronic Video Guide, St. Martin's Griffin, 1996. Revises a 1984 volume. SFRA Review #226, page 16


Williams, Lucy Chase. The Complete Films of Vincent Price, Citadel Press, 1996. Williams, Tony. Hearths of Darkness: The Family in the American Horror Film, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press (distributed by Associated University Presses), 1996. Young, R.G. (Editor). The Encyclopedia of Fantastic Film: Ali Baba to Zombies, Applause Books, October 1996. HISTORY & CRITICISM Badley, Linda. Writing Horror and the Body: The Fiction of Stephen King, Clive Barker and Anne Rice, Greenwood Press, june 1996. Becker, Allienne R. (Editor). Visions of the Fantastic: Selected Essays from the Fifteenth International Conference on the Fantastic in the Arts, Greenwood, july 1996. Corn, joseph]. & Brian Horrigan. Yesterday's Tomorrows: Past Visions of the American Future, john Hopkins University Press, 1996. Dickerson, Vanessa D. Victorian Ghosts in the Noontide: Women Writers and the Supernatural, University of Missouri Press, November 1996. Greco, Diane. Cyborg (hypertext disk), Eastgate Systems, 1996. Harrison, Taylor et a1. (Editors). Enterprise Zones: Critical Positions on Star Trek, Westview, October 1996. Academic papers. Hassler, Donald M. & Clyde Wilcox. Political Science Fiction, University of South Carolina Press, February 1997. Ingebretson, Edward]. Maps of Heaven, Maps of Hell: Religious Terror as Memory from the Puritans to Stephen King, M.E. Sharpe, May 1996. Lewis, Philip. Seeing Through the Mother Goose Tales: Visual Turns in the Writings of Charles Perrault, Stanford University Press, 1996. Perret, Patti. The Faces of Fantasy, Tor, October 1996. Con tains photographic portraits of approximately 100 fantasy authors. Rees, Christine. Utopian Imagination and Eighteenth-Century Fiction, Longman, 1996. Sargisson, Lucy. Contemporary Feminist Utopianism, Routledge, October 1996. Stork, David (Editor). HAL's Legacy: 2001 's Computer as Dream and Reality, MIT Press, 1996. Traill, Nancy H. Possible Worlds of the Fantastic: The Rise of the Paranormal in Fiction, University of Toronto Press, 1996. SFRA Review #226, page 17


Widner, Jim & Meade Frierson. Science Fiction on Radio: A Revised Look at 1950-1975, AFAB, 1996. REFERENCE Brady, Clark A. The Burroughs Cyclopedia: Characters, Places, Fauna, Flora, Technologies, Languages, Ideas and Terminologies Found in the Works of Edgar Rice Burroughs, McFarland, Summer 1996. Lewis, Anthony R. & Ben Bova. Space Travel, Writer's Digest, January 1997. Nahin, Paul]. Time Travel, Writer's Digest, February 1997. Tolkien, ].R.R. & Christopher Tolkien. The Peoples of Middle Earth, Houghton Mifflin, December 1996. Wolff, Michael & Co., Inc. Net Sci-fi: How to Find Sci-Fi in Cyberspace, Random, 1996. Zeuschner, Robert B. Edgar Rice Burroughs: The Exhaustive Scholar's and Collector's Descriptive Bibliography of Periodical, Hardcover, Paperback, and Reprint Editions, MCFarland, Summer 1996 .'-;FIV\ Review #226, page 18


(l,:4am' Feature = The Art's The Thing by Walter Albert Hearn, Michael Patrick. W. W. Denslow: The Other Wizard of Oz. Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania: Brandywine River Museum, 1996,64 pages, softcover, $15.00, Library of Con gress Catalogue No. 96-083578. Seuss, Dr. The Secret Art of Dr. Seuss. New York: Random House, 1995, 95 pages, hardcover, $30.00, ISBN 0-67943448-8. Although both W.W. Denslow and Dr. Seuss (a pseudonym for Theodor Seuss Geisel) are primarily known as book illustrators, they both produced numerous pieces of advertising art, drew short-lived Sunday comics pages, and did cover and interior art for popular magazines, as well as publishing best selling children's books. Denslow was attracted to the stage and designed costumes for two musicals, in addition to serv ing as inspiration for the costumes and sets of the highly successful operetta version of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Dr. Seuss, on the other hand, was drawn to films, first work ing on educational and information films during World War II while serving in the Army Signal Corps. Later he received an Academy Award in 1951 for the animated cartoon, "Gerald McBoing Boing", and he wrote and designed The 5000 Fin gers of Dr. T., a feature-length fantasy film released in 1952. The notable difference between the two artists is the downward spiral of Denslow's life and career, which ended in 1915, accelerated by alcoholism. When Denslow attained success and immortality in 1900 with the publication of the first Oz book, he had been a working illustrator since the early 1870s. The Baum-Denslow collaboration did not long survive the publication of the first book, but Denslow continued to produce strikingly illustrated books that included Denslow's Mother Goose (1901), an edition of Clement t-Ioore's Night Before Christmas (1902) that may well be his finest work other than his Baum illustrations, and, in 1903 and 1904, a series of eighteen pamphlets featuring classic fairy tales, adapted and illustrated by Denslow, which Michael Patrick Hearn de SFRA Review #226, page 19


scribes as the first successful attempt by an American to "emu late the famous British toybooks [of Walter S.] Crane and [Randolph] Caldecott." In the last decade of his life, both his success and his output diminished, and Denslow was virtually penniless and friendless at his death. Seuss's popularity, on the other hand, only increased during his lifetime, and his career lasted into his eighties. Seuss's first book, the phenomenally successful And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street, appeared in 1937; his last book published during his lifetime was the 1991 collection Six by Seuss. He was showered with awards and honors and enjoyed a long and successful marriage while both of Denslow's marriages ended in divorce. Hearn's informative essay on Denslow's life and career appears in W. W. Denslow: The Other Wizard of Oz, the catalogue published in conjunction with a Denslow exhibition at the Brandywine River Museum from March 16 to May 19, 1996. The well-chosen illustrations (several of them in color) demonstrate the wide range of Denslow's accomplishments, even if they only hint at the extraordinary record that the important exhibition impressively documented. This catalogue is an important supplement to the definitive biography of Denslow, co-authored by Mr. Hearn and Douglas G. Greene (Clarke Historical Library, 1976). Together they record the work of the founder of modern American children's book illustration. The Seuss volume collects almost 85 water colors and penand-ink drawings, which Seuss created "after hours" in his studio. As his widow, Audrey Geisel, points out in her "per sonal note" that prefaces the volume, his painting was not something he considered to be '''work,' so it had to wait until late at night." The intricately detailed, colorful drawings of fantastic beasts, cats, and caricatured humans in geometrically constructed structures and landscapes demonstrate the dream-like, witty nature of his imagination, and its remarkable consistency. A more comprehensive tribute to Dr. Seuss is Dr. Seuss from Then to Now, the catalogue of an exhibition first mounted at the San Diego Museum of Art in 1986. The commentary is uncritical and gives the impression that Dr. Seuss sprang fully-formed from an artistic womb, with no predecessors and no equals. Perhaps the time is not ripe for the STR/\ Reviel\' #226, page 20


kind of informed assessment that we have of Denslow. That will surely come and, in the meantime, the record of Seuss's work has been preserved in a way that will eventually make that assessment possible. Barlowe, Wayne. The Alien Life of Wayne Barlowe. Beverly Hills, California: Morpheus International, 1995, 72 pages, softcover, $24.95, ISBN 1-88398-10-X. Giger, H.R. Species Design. Beverly Hills, California: Morpheus International, 1995,86 pages, softcover, $29.50, ISBN 1-88398-12-6. [Potter, J .K.] [Horripilations]: The Art of ].K. Potter. Text by Nigel Suckling. Woodstock, New York: The Overlook Press, 1995, 128 pages, softcover, $24.95, ISBN 0-87951-613-5. Modern fantasy artists must constantly reinvent the sense of the marvelous and create worlds that are both familiar and somehow new and unexpected. Giger, Potter, and Barlowe all come at this problem in different ways and in different media: Giger's drawings are designed to be produced as im ages in film; Potter's art is that of the manipulation of photos in the darkroom; and Barlowe is, on the face of it, the most conventional, working in pen and ink and acrylics. Giger achieved instant success with his designs for Alien, the first of three films dealing with the encounter of hostile alien lifeforms in space. For the 1995 film Species, Giger designed an alien female who would be not only "frighten ing, but ... beautiful in a powerfully feminine and elegant way." Species Design is the record of Giger's involvement from the initial stages of developing the concept and designing the creature "Sil" through the actual production of the film. ]\[uch of the book's text is by Giger, but there are also comments by the director, Roger Donaldson, and the special effects supervisor, Roger Edlund. The visual record includes sketches, production shots, and documentation on the planning and construction of the models for a nightmare train sequence that is only eight seconds long in the completed film. The text retlects Giger's frustration with the film company and its failure to carry through on his concept of the alien female. He does, however, credit Donaldson for his "tight" direction SFRA RcviclV #226, page 21


and Steve Johnson and his special effects team for the suc cessful construction of the animatronic puppet as Giger had specified in his drawings and models. Species Design is important as the only record of note of this alien as Giger conceived it, and for the light it sheds on the working relationship between a talented artist and a major studio. It also includes an extensive bibliography of Giger's work. Where Giger's text is a litany of disappointments and frus trations, the text of Potter's [Horripilationsj -written by Nigel Suckling but based on extensive interviews with Potter celebrates the photographer's darkroom as a "ritual place, a place where magic can occur." It accompanies a selection of Potter's published and private work, among which are photographic illustrations for nine Arkham House books and the first publication of a series of photographs taken for a stillborn illustrated edition of Ramsey Campbell's The Influence. Potter's work draws on the manipulation of photographic materials in the tradition of nineteenth-century photographers and on the Dada/Surrealistic juxtaposition of incongruous elements for surprise and shock. Stephen King, in his introduction to [llorripilationsj, compares Potter's darkroom techniques to the film technique of "morphing," which has revolutionized the older method of "lap dissolves." Potter's photographs are certainly theatrically posed and as artfully constructed as any film frame. They are also often quite beautiful, as in his monochrome photographs that have been colored. The photographs are divided into five sections, including "portraits," "dark fantasy," and, of course, "horripilations." How ever, portraits tend to recur in all of the sections, with the central figures subject to transformations, such as a head that is crowned by an enormous toe, or a screaming head grafted onto a hand depressing a piano keyboard. There's a sly sense of fun, and the darkroom fusing of anatomic anomalies is not only reminiscent of the Surrealists' delight in fragmenting the human form, but also comes to resemble a modern museum of freaks from Robert Ripley's "Believe It or Not." [Horripilationsj is a superb collection of an important contemporary artist at work in a medium that he handles with the skill of a master illustrator. Artists as dissimilar as Frederick Church, Howard Pyle and Jean-Leon Gerome seem to have figured in Wayne Barlowe's artistic development, but it is of special note that he is, as Vincent di Fate points out, a "second-generation illustrator." Both of his parents are illustrators and have worked in the STRA RcviclV #226, page 22


field of natural history illustration. A portrait of an alien figure with a lobster head graces the front cover of Alien Life, and his acrylic paintings of dinosaurs and the exotic life forms encountered in his book Expedition (1990) show Barlowe's ability "to create images which seem undeniably real." Barlowe brings photographic clarity to his visions of the past and a potential future. In addition to the completed paintings, the book abounds in sketches and preliminary draw ings, many of them of an anatomical accuracy that shows the very real skeletons on which even his most fantastic creations are based. These three books demonstrate some of the variety and skill of the present generation of fantasy artists. The artists are also extremely articulate about their craft, and the intelligent discussion that accompanies these examples of their work makes all three books reference tools of major importance to the field. SFRA Review #226, page 23


SFRA RcviclV #226, page 24


fl.:uaml Feature BREATHING NEW LIFE INTO OLD SF Dumas, Alexandre. Tarry Till I Come. Baltimore, Maryland: Mark Owings, 1995, computer disk, $1.00, no ISBN. This is one of a series of rare, out-of-print, and/or little known books, reissued on disk by Mark Owings. This particular volume, one of many by the well-known author of The Three Musketeers and The Count Of Monte Cristo, is rarely seen today. As the title suggests, it's the story of the legendary Wandering Jew, heavily larded with scriptural background as well as pure fictional activities. It has a curious publishing history, beginning with its serialization in France in 1857. The publication was discontinued, apparently due to objections from the Church, with 27 installments omitted by the editors. The work reviewed here (published in the US in 1901) consists of thirty chapters, and Owings states that it is all that was ever written, despite Dumas's projection that, when completed, it would be twenty-five volumes long. However, it seems that there may be another, longer version, in existence. In Science Fiction Studies (July 1996), an article by Arthur B. Evans, "Literary Intertexts in Jules Verne's Voyages Extraordinaires", contains a footnote reference to a volume in the Paris Bibliotheque Nationale (with Dumas's original title of Isaac Laquedem) which tells of Isaac's journey to the center of the Earth -a story which does not appear in this version. The book we have here is in three sections. The first tells of Isaac's visit to the Pope in 1471; the second recounts Christ's life with accompanying legends; the third returns to the Rome of 1471. The story is interesting, but very little is said of the wanderings of the Jew before that period. It would be very interesting to see what Dumas had planned. The idea of making works available which cannot otherwise readily be obtained, and doing so at a low price, is a good one. However, as Marshall McLuhan once noted, "The medium is the message," and from that point of view the message is not a good one. Although the disk is a compact SFRA Review #226, page 25


and very portable medium, the delivery mechanism from the disk, a program called "", is frustrating to one familiar with computers. It must be terribly intimidating to a computer neophyte. Further, the only options available for reading the book are either to print it out and read it in the normal manner (a slow and expensive process which nies in the face of the original intent), or to view it on the computer screen. The latter process is slow, awkward, and quickly leads to eyestrain. In fact, with the typical 14 inch monitor, it might be thought of as cruel and unusual punishment. A 17-inch monitor might make it tolerable, but is still far from ideal. In short, the idea is a good one, and it is to be hoped that Owings will continue and will find a way to overcome some of these problems. W.D. Stevens Owings, Mark (Editor). Orphans of Time, Volume 1. Baltimore, tvlaryland: Mark Owings, 1995, computer disk, $1.00, no ISBN. The phrase "book on disk" might suggest something like the Grolier Encyclopedia of Science Fiction -a CD-ROM of fering color illustrations, video clips, special features, and various bells and whistles to augment the prosaic activity of reading words on a screen. But Mark Owings occupies the low-rent district of this nascent business. He has done what anyone with a computer and a scanner could do: taken texts in the public domain, transferred them to ASCII files, and copied them onto 3 112 inch disks. The premises of this particular project seem clear enough: scholars may wish to track down and read all science fiction and fantasy stories that predate the modern genres; some of these stories appeared in obscure collections primarily devoted to realistic stories, so it is both difficult to locate them and unprofitable to purchase them; therefore, as a service to scholars, Owings will provide these hard-to-find "genre" stories on disks. Since this is my first reading experience of this kind, I will discuss the medium before the message. Beyond economy and convenience, there are some advantages to texts in this form. When I was unsure about the identity of a character in J. D. Whelpley's "The Denslow Palace", a word search for the name "Honoria" quickly led to an identifying phrase -a feature I have often wanted while reading conventional books! snn Review #226, page 26


And if I wish to quote from a story, I do not have to prop a book on my crowded desk and type out the words -I can simply go to the story in question, block out the lines to be quoted, and copy them into my own file. For such situations, I might want all my books to be in computer files. However, the disadvantages of text in this form outweigh the advantages. Since a computer file is a fragile thing that can be accidentally altered or deleted in any number of ways, there is a nervousness in reading such texts that is not present in reading a normal book. For instance, while reading through one story by pushing the arrow keys, my finger brushed against the wrong key and "evident" became "xevident." There is, then, a problem in judging the quality of Owings's editing. My first reaction was that these stories were riddled with egregious typographical errors; and some of them, like "recieved" and "sonetimes," are surely the fault of the transcriber or editor. But others, like "men" for "women" and "he" for "her," may represent accurate copying of errors in the original text; some, like various extra spaces and missing letters, probably result from quirks in the process of translating an ASCII text into WordPerfect; and a few may be my own accidental creations. Thus, there is a paradox at the heart of Owings's work: on the one hand, he is providing books on disk primarily for scholars (presumably because conventional books of this kind would not be profitable); on the other hand, he is providing books that scholars cannot trust. If I wanted to subject one story here to serious analysis, I would have to track down the original volume to work from a reliable text, and so I would have to engage in exactly the labor that Owings is trying to save scholars from. Fortunately, I feel no impulse to carefully study these sto ries, which leads me from the medium to the message. There is a longstanding pattern of scholarship that explains the genesis of Owings's volume. When the science fiction community first developed its own commentators, all agreed that Hugo Gernsback's launching of Amazing Stories in 1926 represented the birth, or at least a significant milestone in the development, of science fiction. Then there arose the revisionist view that Gernsback's activities were actually unimportant. The chief strategy in promoting this new argument was to locate and list innumerable works recognizable as science fiction that appeared before 1926 to prove that. with so many prior examples already created. Gernsback SFRA Review #226. page 27


couldn't possibly have given birth to the genre. The result was a large number of huge bibliographies and critical studies focusing on the science fiction published from 1870 to 1926; and Owings's anthologies might be said to represent one late spasm of this endeavor. Based on all this research, two conclusions are inescapable: first, yes, there was an aw ful lot of "science fiction" published before Gernsback; second, except for the works that everybody already knew about, almost all of these rediscovered works are extraordinarily uninteresting. Clearly, Gernsback's establishment of science fiction as a genre did something to inspire authors, and clearly, writers who predated Gernsback largely lacked this inspiration. Nothing in OrpiJallS of Time would contradict these conclusions. The only story that merits some attention -more as a curiosity than as literature is the longest, Granville Hall's "The rail of Atlantis", first published in 1920. As in other fantastic stories of the time, there is an elaborate frame: the contemporary narrator, in a state of delirium following a dream, writes a manuscript as if by a citizen of the year 2000, looking back on and summarizing recent archaeological dis coveries concerning the lost civilization of Atlantis, discovered at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean. The story merits considerations as a mildly novel approach to the writing of utopia: in chapters focused on subjects like health, education, justice, and the role of women, the narrator first describes how the Atlanteans developed an ideal system; then, follo\Ving the introduction of new ideas that sound like a jaundiced observer's version of ideas common in the early twentieth century, these ideal systems degenerated, so that Atlantis had become a corrupt, decadent culture when it finally sank beneath the ocean. The story, then, alternately functions as a utopia and a dystopia. There are also some predictions that might amuse a modern reader, like this anticipation of Hillary Clinton: "Everyone had to join the National Health insurance Organization, to the administration of which in all its many bureaus and complex details a large staff of medical officers gave all their time." And one has to be impressed by Hall's vision of advanced surgery: "Organs and limbs from fresh cadavers could be indefinitely preserved in cold stor age and kept in readiness to graft on to those who were in need of them. Transplantation not only of kidneys, liver, and all the endocrine glands, but even of lungs and in a few rare cases of the heart itself had been successfully accom plished." (Both quotations are from Chapter 3, "The Cult of snv\ Review #226, page 28


Health and Its Decline" -but I have stumbled on another scholarly problem with these texts: how does one identify quotations by page numbers, when the page numbers created by my computer's translation of the ASCII text into WordPerfect 5.1 may be different than another computer's translation of the text into another form?) Other than that, the stories that Owings has assembled are unimpressive, though "The Denslow Palace" is mildly atmospheric in describing how a party is visited by a devil pretending tu be a duke. But "ordinary" or "pedestrian" are the only appropriate adjectives for discussing the other stories, three by Stanley Waterloo ("Professor Morgan's Moon", where a young professor proves a point with an absurd but mathematically defensible calculation; "A Tragedy of the Forest", about a man possessed by the spirit of a wolf; and "Christ mas, 200,000 B.C.", a routine prehistoric tale) and two by Frank Harris ("The Temple to the Forgotten Dead", three vignettes in a frame story about an eloquent storyteller; and "St. Peter's Difficulty", where the heavenly gatekeeper is disturbed when Mary surreptitiously admits disabled people to paradise). "St. Peter's Difficulty", Owings's introduction ad mits, is "relentlessly minor and would have been ignored if it were any longer"; but brevity is always a bad reason to include a story, and length is irrelevant here, since the disk I received was less than half full, leaving plenty of room for more, and longer, stories. We know there were other potential candidates for this compilation, because Owings called this Volume One, "which will be followed by others if there is interest"; but if the stories here represent the best ones avail able, there would seem to be little justification for successor volumes. -Gary Westfahl Williams, Frank Purdy. HalJie Marshall: A True Daughfer of the South. Baltimore,l'vlaryland: Mark Owings, 1996, computer disk, $1.00, no ISBN. "Their one sovereign cure for every ill is: more law -stronger government. They never think of simplifying government -of trusting the people -of returning to the oldfashioned, independent, true American way of doing things." Bob Dole's criticism of liberals in a recent campaign speech? No -a Southern plantation owner's criticism of the North SFRA Review #226, page 29


several decades after a Confederate victory, as depicted in one of the earliest alternative histories ever written. Pub lished in 1900, Frank Purdy Williams's Hallie Marshall: A True Daughter of the South was the first novel to postulate a Confederate triumph in the American Civil War. This premise has since been used in novels ranging from Ward Moore's classic Bring the Jubilee to Robert Stapp's somewhat less memorable A More Perfect Union, and most recently in Harry Turtledove's The Guns of the South. Unfortunately, how ever, the novel that started it all has been nearly impossible to find, until now. A number of neglected texts from the early days of science fiction are now available on computer disk, a format that has certain advantages over traditional print media. While the potential market for an obscure (if historically significant) work such as Hallie JVlarshall is too small to make a new print edition economically viable, the demand from scholars and other curious readers may be met, and the text itself saved from oblivion, by electronic reproduction. In addition, passages can be searched for, marked, and copied far more eas ily with an electronic database than with a printed text. One obvious disadvantage of reading books on disk is the inconvenience of being chained to the computer, in contrast to the freedom of carrying a printed volume from the kitchen table to the bedroom to the backyard. Rather than forego that freedom, I copied the entire text to my word processing program and printed it out in double columns at fifteen hundred words per page. Needless to say, this type of electronic publishing will not soon put Waldenbooks out of business as a purveyor of pleasure reading; but then, almost no one would read Hallie Marshall for pleasure. Frank Purdy Williams was a disciple of Henry George, a nineteenth-century economist and reformer who considered land ownership to be the foundation upon which society is constructed. In Hallie Marshall, he contrasts the wage-sla very of the northern factory worker to an idealized image of plantation lire that makes Uncle Remus look like Uncle Tom's Cabin. The narrator and protagonist, a northern mill owner from the end of our own nineteenth century, awakes to find himself at a splendid southern plantation in the company of the beautiful Hallie I\larshall, her father, and their devoted slaves. He soon discovers that in this dream-world the Confederacy has \Von its independence, but his initial horror is srRA Review #226, page 30


overcome by the obvious happiness of the slaves, and the even more obvious charms of his hostess. What follows is essentially a tour of this bucolic utopia, during which the narrator becomes enamored not only of the Confederacy, but of his lovely tour guide as well. In terms of character, plot, and the subordination of both to the overriding purpose of social commentary, Hallie Marshall closely resembles Edward Bellamy's Looking Back ward, published only twelve years before. Rather than being an imitation of its predecessor, however, Hallie Marshall seems to be a reaction against Bellamy's socialist utopia. "I wonder if you realize," says Williams's narrator to his hosts, "how very much you have done toward drawing me to your Southland by showing me that there is no danger of socialism here." According to Hallie's father, the Confederacy won the war because "we showed our slaves that the North was waging war for the purpose of subjugating the South and of throwing the negroes into a condition which, under the name of liberty, would fail to guarantee to them that which alone makes freedom real the means of independence." While this explanation is in keeping with the novel's theme, it fails to account for the Confederacy's defeat in our own history, since similar attempts at propaganda were surely made. The arrival of a refugee from the United States and the subsequent death of his malnourished son add emotional impact to Williams's critique of the economic conditions of his time, but they fail to disguise the obvious fact that, no matter how thoroughly "the evils that belonged to slavery ... have been abolished," slavery at its best is no different, and no better, than socialism at its worst. Williams objects as much to the increasing industrialization of the United States as he does to socialism, and it is the illusion of individualism and self-reliance that an urban environment inevitably dis pels that is apparently at the heart of his idealization of the agrarian South. Nearly a century after its publication it is easy to recog nize the flaws, both ideological and artistic, of Hallie t-.larshall. It is, nevertheless, a work of historical Significance, from a time when the conventions of alternative history had not yet been established. Its re-publication is a benefit to scholars and fans of alternative history and utopias in general, even if this edition can't be read on an airplane. Edgar V. t-.lcKnight Jr. SFRA Review #226, page 31


SFRA Review #226, page 32


Reviews-Fowler, Roger. TheLanguageofGeorgeOnvell. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995,249 pages, $45.00, hardcover, ISBN 0-312-12642-5. Roger Fowler, noted author of such works as Linguistic Criticism and The Languages of Literature, here contributes an amusing and enlightening volume to St. Martin's "Lan guage of Literature" series, which is aimed at college students. In the first chapter, Fowler provides a brief biography of Orwell, noting his travels and illnesses and the way they in fluenced his work. The second chapter discusses linguistic criticism, explaining the value and virtues of a close reading. Fowler's main thesis is that Orwell's "goal was truth rather than stylistic impact, and to attain his artistic ambitions he used a variety of ways of writing." The remaining eight chap ters of the book provide analyses of this variety. In "Orwell's Views on Language", Fowler traces the devel opment of Orwell's ideas about language and class, culminating in his promotion of demotic speech over "that horrible plummy voice on the radio" through an amusing selection of anecdotes. Then, in "A Personal Voice", Fowler examines Orwell's narrative idiolect, famous for its wit, irony and vernacular vocabulary. In his plain, blunt, narrator-cum-reporter voice, Orwell called for prose to be "like a window pane," though Fowler shows that this style is as much artifice as any other. In "Versions of Realism", Fowler examines the use of surrealism and symbolism in Orwell's first three novels (Down and Out in Paris and London, Homage to Catalonia, and The Road to Wigan Pier). In the next three chapters, he discusses such topics as heteroglossia (primarily the depiction of various British dialects), the picturesque, and "mind-style" in Orwell's subsequent three novels (A Clergyman's Daughter, Burmese Days, and Coming Up For Air). Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four also get a chapter to themselves as Fowler fo cuses on the political aspects of linguistics under such ru brics as "the rhetoric of dominance" and "the perversion of language." SFRA Review #226, page 33


College students will find The Language of George Onvell informative and easy to read. There is a good deal of repetition and overlap, and Fowler frequently refers the reader to earlier discussions of a given topic, no doubt well aware that a student writing a paper on a particular subject may not set out to read this book from cover to cover. Students will be grateful that Fowler, as he investigates the features of Orwell's prose, explains the tools of linguistic criticism that he employs to examine each feature, whether narrative strategies such as point of view and dialogue or linguistic markers from hyperbole to lexical register. In each case, the volume provides an overview of theories on the topic and definitions of key terms. He does not assume familiarity with linguistic methodologies on the reader's part. While other books in the series reveal different emphases -for example, the volume on Jane Austen focuses more on historical idioms Fowler's explication of linguistic theories is one of this book's strengths. I found the most enlightening and interesting passages to be Fowler's close readings of Orwell's prose. He accompanies each assertion for example, that Orwell specializes in an authoritarian modality with examples from the texts them selves. By turns, Fowler examines how each word or phrase is chosen to create an effect of didacticism, conversational chattiness, surrealism, or the grotesque. While it is plain that Fowler is sympathetic to many of Ol\'\Tell's ideas about good writing, he quotes extenSively from Orwell's own essays and columns on the English language to buttress these assertions. Perhaps most irritating to an SF scholar is the way Fowler argues that Orwell's works must not be called science fiction or even ruturistic. This defenSiveness seems unnecessary, since Orwell is widely considered a satirist. But Fowler does try to fit Orwell into the literary tradition whenever possible; for example, a chapter on heteroglossia surveys a history of the depiction of regional dialect in literature, from Dickens to Joyce. The references Fowler cites are standard texts likely to be found in any college library. In fact, a good many of them arc his own books. Fowler's background in linguistics heavily slants his work which is not really a problem, given that the series attempts to bring a linguistic perspective to the study or literature. However, what is problematic is that FO\\'ler claims in his preface that "the language in which STR4 RcviclI #Z2G, page 3-1-


[Onvell] expresses his vision has been largely neglected." A number of studies have focused on On,yell's language, including W.F. Bolton's The Language of 1984 (1984), William Lutz's Beyond Nineteen Eighty-Four (1989), and John Wesley Young's Totalitarian Language (1991), none of which appears in Fowler's bibliography. Fowler's particular interests, though, provide a different enough emphasis that The Language of George Orwell will be useful even to those college libraries which own these other, more political works. -Fiona Kelleghan Hill, Mary A. (Editor). A Journey !i'om Within: The Love Letters of Charlotte Perkins Gilman, 1897-1900. Cranbury, New Jersey: Bucknell University Press (distributed by Associated University Presses), 1995, 427 pages, hardcover, $49.50, ISBN 0-8387-5293-4. Why review a book about the love letters of Charlotte Perkins Gilman in a publication that focuses on science fiction and fantasy criticism? Because Gilman, in writing her feminist social commentary fiction, chose utopian science fiction as a vehicle to express her ideas in Herland and Ourland; because her love letters to George Houghton Gilman express many of the social and personal conflicts she experienced, providing insight into her fiction writing; and because the conflicts experienced by Gilman as a feminist, expressed almost a hundred years ago, are still current issues for femi nists of today. Any contemporary female feminist could almost literally copy Gilman's letters and send them to her significant other as an attempt to explain the conflicts of independence and love, of public image and private desires. Gilman's almost daily twenty to thirty-page love letters to her second husband, Houghton Gilman, began in 1897, continuing until their marriage in 1900. A Journey from Within is well annotated, especially in the beginning, by editor Mary A. Hill, who explains what happened in Gilman's life during the three years the letters were written. The book contains a nineteen-page introduction to Gilman's life, which explains how the romance began while examining the gender conflict that Gilman so ably expresses in her letters. Toward the end of the book, both the letters themselves and the discussion of them becomes repetitive; Hill could have gotten away with editing a bit more. It is not necessary to spend over 400 pages looking in depth into SFRA Reviell' #22 6, page 35


Gilman's life and love, although it is nice to have the letters preserved and printed in an accessible format. A three-page afterword and extensive notes are consistent with Hill's academic background as a historian. Anyone interested in further information on Charlotte Perkins Gilman will find the notes quite useful. As a historian, lvlary A. Hill is considered an authority on Gilman, having produced two other related books: Charlotte Perkins Gilman: the Making of a Radical Feminist 1860-1895, and Endure: the Diaries of Charles Water Stetson (Charlotte Perkins Gilman's first husband). Charlotte Perkins Gilman is currently a popular subject for analysis. Another reference book that might interest the feminist or utopian reader is Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Her Progress Toward Utopia with Selected Writings by Carol Farley Kessler (Syracuse University Press, 1995). -B. Diane Miller Ledoux, Trish and Doug Ranney. The Complete Anime Guide: japanese Animation Video Directory and Resource Guide. Issaquah, Washington: Tiger Mountain Press, 1995, 215 pages, soflcover, $19.99, ISBN 0-964-95423-0. McCarthy, Helen. The Anime! Movie Guide. London: Titan Books, 1996, 285 pages, softcover, .99, ISBN 1-852-86631-4. As American SF, horror and fantasy films and television descend ever deeper into mindlessness, Americans can at least read about foreign films in several recent, ex tremely erudite books. Thomas Weisser's Asian Trash Cinema: The Book (ATC/ETC Publications, 1994, reviewed in .'>IRA Reviell';;t218), covering Hong Kong horror and fantasy n1ms, and Ledoux's and Ranney's Complete Anime Guide are informative but excessively enthusiastic with lenient critical stanlLlrds. By contrast, Giannalberto Bendazzi's Cartoons: One Hundred rears of Animation (Indiana University Press, 199-J., reviewed in SfoRA Review #225) emphasizes art films and is too dismissive of popular cinema. McCarthy's Anime!: :\ ])cginners Guide to Japanese Animation (Titan Books, 1993, reviewed in SJ-RA Reviel\' #218) and her The Anime! Movie Guide are just the right mixture, combining enthusiasm with sounu critical judgment. snn l{e\it.'l\ :;-2201, page 301


In Cartoons, Bendazzi has little to say about popular japanese animation (anime). Like many Westerners, he is probably put off by video cases displaying saucer-eyed adolescents and ponderous giant robots, with titles like All-Purpose Cultural Cat Girl Nuku-Nuku and Super Deformed Double Fea ture: Scramble Wars and Ten Little Gall Force. (Both l\IcCarthy and Ledoux/Ranney consider these two films perfectly respect able.) The japanese make animation for domestic audiences, with little thought for export markets. Literal translations of japanese, which delights in piling concepts on top of each other, often sound silly in English. Much ani me is humorous, and humor rarely travels well. Finally, many anime films are parodies; nothing seems as stupid as a parody when the viewer is unfamiliar with the material being parodied. For all these reasons, anime in America appeals to cultists and to children but not to general audiences. In my hometown (Little Rock), anime is for sale but not for rent in video stores. One-third of the 1995 Whole Toon Catalog (800-3316197), a mail-order catalog for animation on video, is devoted to anime. The cheapest way to sample anime in the U.S. is on the (otherwise mostly useless) Sci-Fi Channel. japan has by far the biggest animation industry in the world. For 1993 alone, McCarthy lists sixteen anime feature films and over 150 OAVs (original animation videos). She seeks to list all anime films and OAVs made from 1983 to 1995, excluding TV animation. lVlcCarthy provides descriptive and critical annotations of 800 titles, including credits, genres and a rating. She categorizes films in fifteen genres -SF, fantasy, horror, martial arts, historical, comedy, crime, soap opera, true stories, erotica, ultraviolence, war, adventure and children's. SF is by far the dominant genre; many comedies and juvenile films are fantastic. The incredible diversity of anime, encompassing almost all live action genres, is emphasized by both books. Ledoux and Ranney list all anime videos available in the U.S. in 1995, including videos of TV material. They annotate about 650 titles; since these include dozens of videos of TV shows (including 39 for Astra Boy and 78 for Robotcch) the inaptly titled Complete Anime Guide lacks more than 200 of the 800 films and OAVs found in !\[cCarthy. Ledoux and Ranney include detailed descriptions of the japanese and American versions of twenty-four animated TV series made in japan and shown in the U.S. from 1963 and 1995. SFRA Rcvie\\'#226, page 37


t'>'lost of the video annotations in Ledoux/Ranney are descriptive but not critical; many are indistinguishable from blurbs. Ledoux, in a chapter she signed alone, writes that anime has "long since surpassed" Western animation. Less gushing, McCarthy is content to note the astonishing productivity and variety of anime, and to claim that it has achieved considerable maturity and sophistication and that dozens of ani me features provide solid, imaginative SF. (I hope someday to see Ranma 1/2, in which the hero/heroine changes genders every time she/he gets wet.) McCarthy awards her highest rating to only nine films. Of these, Ledoux and Ranney annotate only five, missing Nausicca of the Valley of the Wind (U.S. title Warriors of the Wind, 1984), Laputa (1986), Kiki's Delivery Service (1989), and Porco Rosso (1992), all directed by Hayao Miyazaki. Egregiously, Ledoux includes Warriors of the Wind in a list of videos to be avoided. This is no doubt because fans agree that the U.S. version of the film is inferior to the Japanese original, but Ledoux does not explain this, and her careless treatment may cause readers to overlook a film which is extraordinary even in its Americanized version. Both McCarthy's Movie Guide and the Ledoux/Ranney volume have only small, black-and-white illustrations, while t'>lcCarthy's Beginner's Guide has eye-popping color illustrations. tvlcCarthy lists Japanese and European ani me fan maga zines not in Ledoux/Ranney; they list some U.S. magazines not in McCarthy. Ledoux/Ranney provide more information than McCarthy on U.S. anime fandom, including clubs, conventions, and Internet sites as well as video distributors. t'>IcCarthy's much-needed glossary of specialized terms is twice as long as the glossary in Ledoux/Ranney. It is unfortunate that McCarthy split into two books material that should have been in one volume. Her Beginner's Guide has an excellent survey of anime, with color illustrations but no filmography; the Movie Guide has filmographic data in abundance but no overview or the field and only black and white illustrations. Nevertheless, both McCarthy's books are heartily recom mCl1lkd to anyone interested in ani me, from teenagers to scholars. Ledoux and Ranney are recommended to those interestcd in television animation, the only area in which they have more data than McCarthy. Michael Klossner .',;l/n !\c\"je\\ it226, pagc 38


Pederson, Jay P. (Editor). St. James Guide to Science Fiction Writers (Fourth Edition). Detroit, Michigan: St. James Press, 1996, xxiv + 1175 pages, hardcover, $140.00, ISBN 1-55862-179-2. This reference work began as Twentieth-Century ScienceFiction Writers in 1981, with a second edition in 1986, both edited by Curtis Smith. The third edition, edited by Noelle Watson and Paul E. Schellinger, followed in 1991. St. James is now part of International Thomson Publishing, and the Twentiety-Century Writers series (children's, crime/mystery, romance/historical, western, and young adult) will be uniformly retitled as St. James Guide to ... as they are revised. The fantasy volume was reviewed in SFRA Review #223; a companion horror guide is forthcoming. The fourth edition profiles 640 writers, dropping 44 from the third edition and adding 51 to this edition. The twocolumn format has been improved, and the paper is a thinner coated stock, resulting in a more manageable two-inch thick volume versus the three-inch third edition. The editor was assisted by 21 advisors and 200 contributors, some of whom are the subjects of entries. Bruce Franklin contributed a preface and Robert Reginald was the bibliographic editor. A six-page reading list of nonfiction, a listing of subject authors by nationality, an 84-page title list (novels and short fiction designated as SF in the entries), and notes on advisors and contributors (listed with their subject entries) complete the volume. The format for this series is standardized. Most entries provide birth and death dates, nationality, pseudonyms, education, family, career, awards, and address (often an agent). Many include author comments as well. SF books are listed first, chronologically, followed by non-SF publications and sometimes a list of critical studies. The former practice of listing uncollected short fiction, which sometimes added pages to an entry, has fortunately been largely abandoned. It was retained for Arthur Porges, who wrote 70 eminently forgettable stories and the most detailed biography of E.R. Burroughs. Unfortunately, the practice of listing all non-SF publications has been retained. Do users of this volume need to see pages and pages of Asimov's non-SF writings? Or Patrick Moore's dozens of popular astronomy books? Or Mark Twain's many writings? I've objected to this practice before, since such listings merely increase the book's bulk and price and SFRA Revie\\' #226, page 39


add negligibly to its utility. I don't expect the practice to be changed. The third edition grouped the 38 translated foreign lan guage authors separately; with this edition all authors are in one alphabet. Although St. James has now published a volume devoted to fantasy writers, they have retained entries here for Dunsany, Eddison, Morris, Peake, and Tolkien, with their fiction dutifully listed as SF. Cornel Robu champions fellow Romanian Mircea Eliade (1907-1986), an important figure in comparative religion but of vanishingly small importance in SF. Multiculturalism triumphs. The editor's note claims the scope to be "writers of science fiction as well as writers of fantasy, horror, and other forms of speculative fiction who have had an impact on the field." I leave it to your judgment as to how much "impact" these writers have had on SF. With more than 600 entries it's obvious that all the "sig nificant" writers are here. What is equally obvious is that there's a much larger number who are minor league by even the obviously relaxed standards used here to select subjects. Raise your hand if you even recognize these names, let alone their books: Max Adeler, Wilhelmina Baird, ].F. Bone, Karin Boye, Frank Bryning, Dino Buzzati, Charles Chilton, Sonya Dorman, Leslie Gadallah, Geoffrey Landis, etc. Four of them are new to this edition; why beggars the imagination. Most of the additions are authors who have had a few books published in the past several years. Since "Twentieth-Century" is no longer a part of the title, a few more 19th-century authors have been added: Max Adeler, Bulywer-Lytton, Ignatius Donnelly, Edward Everett Hale, and (about time) Poe. The deleted subjects are authors who wrote mostly fantasy or other non-SF books or who were known mostly for one SF book when most of their writings were far outside the field. I'd suggest to St. James that any future edition include in the master list of subject authors the names of dropped authors and their edition numbers, mostly for libraries retaining earlier editions. Pederson says the selection of writers was based upon the recommendations of his 21 advisors. I suspect that even one positive vote insured the author's inclusion (ain't teamwork wonderful?), and bulk, assisted by the marketing department, overpowered usefulness. In that spirit I suggest these au-SFRA Review #226, page 40


thors, whose works are at least as important as those already included by the hundreds, be considered for a future edi tion: earlier authors Victor Appleton, Ambrose Bierce, G.K. Chesterton, Carl Claudy, Robert D. Milne, and JH. Rosny; modern authors Margaret Atwood and Allan Steele; and young adult authors (almost always neglected in SF reference books) Virginia Hamilton, Douglas Hill, William Mayne, and Robert Westall. With 200 contributors, the quality of the entries is -how to say it politely? -uneven. The ratio of plot summary to critical analysis varies widely from entry to entry. There's a natural tendency to over-praise the subjects. The shorter entries in Clute & Nicholls's Encyclopedia of Science Fiction are more balanced, often cross-reference theme entries and similar authors, and their length is proportional to the rela tive importance of the author, which is less commonly the case in this guide. Many entries remain unchanged from the third edition, mostly for writers inactive in recent years. Some have new contributors, thus providing are-evaluation. With all the staff involved in the production of this book, you'd think the number of typos and production glitches would be few. You'd be wrong. Maybe the staff simply created problems for one another or thought someone else was checking. The minor Russian writer Aleksandr Belyaev is credited with The Bridge on the River Kwai; fortunately, so is Pierre Boulle, the author. Three paragraphs are repeated in the Sturgeon entry. My favorite is the statement in the Malzberg entry about Sturgeon's Law, "which states that 90 percent of all science fiction is carp; 90 percent of everything is crap." I rather like that. Like other fish, carp smells. And Malzberg does tend to carp, quite justifiably. I checked the 51 authors new to this edition against Clute & Nicholls, which editorially cut off sometime in 1992, about three years before this guide. I found 42 of the authors new to St. James (along with at least 2,500 others); the nine that don't appear in the Encyclopedia have had books published only in the past few years. Most medium and large libraries are likely to own the Encyclopedia as well as a set of Contemporary Authors, which is published by Gale Research, a sister publisher of St. Thomas. Through volume 150 of Contemporary Authors in mid-1996, I found 31 of the 51 new St. James authors. Thus, libraries should be wary of spending scarce funds for a poorly edited and proofread book that adds little SFRA Review #226, page 41


of value, especially if they already have the third edition. If they don't already own it, Clute & Nicholls is much preferable, perhaps in the affordable and updated St. Martin's trade paperback edition. Neil Barron Rushing, Janice Hocker and Thomas S. Frentz. Projecting the Shadow: The Cyborg Hero in American Film. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995, 261 pages, softcover, $14.95, ISBN 0-226-73167-7. Here is an interesting, disquieting intervention in the aging discussions concerning postmodernity. Rushing and Frentz have set out to re-theorize the postmodern condition through Jungian analytic psychology in a text that is at once film analysis, theoretical discourse, and spiritual manifesto. The authors counter the malaise they hold as characteristic of, variously, post modern theory and post modern culture with a "transmodern" critique rooted in Jung's cosmology and al lied with the mythopoetic men's movement. This critique is capable of not only diagnosing the symptoms of our present problems, documented by the likes of Baudrillard, Lyotard, and Jameson, but does postmodernism one better and offers a cure. Not a new method of resistance or form of social organization, but a new (old) way of knowing that stands entirely outside of modern consciousness (but not unconsciousness!) and within the very progress of human psychic history. While Rushing and Frentz take pains to explain to the reader the terms of depth psychology and their method of archetypal analysis, and to relate their position to that of their postmodern disputants, nevertheless I am fairly sure this respectable piece of depth analysis will be a hard pill for most of the readers outside the fold to swallow. (Viewed psychologically, dismissal of this kind of work is, after all, part of the problem of postmodernity.) The argument in a nutshell: postmodern thought and moden I Western society in general has castigated the inef fable Spirit to the social category of Other, suppressing this true unifying source of human empowerment along with all the other Others of society. The authors set their six film analyses which make up the empirical body of their text within the history of human consciousness outlined by Jung, seeing the films as expressive of a particularly disturbing stage in the psychic development of human society, a stage at which SFIn RC\lic\\" #226, page -1-2


society has stumbled, perhaps fatally, in its growth to a mature consciousness of Spirit. The films under discussion Jaws, The Deer Hunter, The Jvlanchurian Candidate, Blade Runner, and the two Terminators are read just as dreams are, as expressive of the desires and true insights of the col lective postmodern unconscious. This is an unconscious structured by archetypes, instinctive heuristics, that in the American context have taken the express form of the complex of symbols known as the Hunter Myth, a myth that is played out time and again in American narratives. It is the Hunter Myth that gives us a general understanding of how our social-psychic development must necessarily progress within our culture, yet the forms of the myth we find today are not progressive but apocalyptic, inhuman and self-destructivein a word, profane. The essential "hunter" mode of life in industrialized and capitalized modernity is no longer a stage of an emerging Self, but has become "occupied" by only an isolated part of the modern psyche, the ego that produces means (technology) for its own isolated, rationalized, unemotional, objectified reproduction, and not means (insights and communal bonds) for mature Self development and human reproduction in toto (Le., individuation). This, then, is the postmodern condition: technology replaces Spirit as the guid ing force of society, yet technology is only a "shadow" of humanity, an embodiment of a part that, treated as a whole, progressively dehumanizes society by denying Spiritual Self fulfillment, the realization of one's connection not only to oneself, but to the whole and the true end of the hunt. (These terms are elaborated in the text, but still retain an ineffable quality.) The hunt, so central a social structure to American life, has become an end in itself, with the continued production of more sophisticated weapons the only means to this end, and objectifying, fragmenting forms of domination its only real result. The guilty (un)conscience of modernity is revealed, in this case, in film, in which modernity's machines, reenacting the Hunter Myth, literally dehumanize and even kill their ego-oriented creators. The films are archetypal warnings and, properly understood, a means of guidance. In place of a postmodern sensibility, the authors urge a more progressive transmodern perspective that instills new meaning within contemporary theoretical discussions of modernity's ills by recognizing a new "holistic" center, Spirit, that postmodernity has errantly cast out with its right-minded rejection of celebrated Reason. The transmodern perspec-SFRA Review #226, page -1-3


tive (Le., postmodern Jung) presents us with a rather sweeping potential fix to social ills; Rushing and Frentz: offer the construct of cultural individuation as a moral ideal that encompasses the solutions of depth psychology as well as concerns for oppression caused by the social and economic dimensions of an ego-dominated society. We posit that a culture moving toward individuation would struggle against oppression based upon the hierarchies of class, gender, and race, and hence would progressively assimilate more and more of the cultural unconscious into awarel1ess." (pp. 41-42) Ego-consciousness, in its turn, grows to incorporate "others as part of the self." Fittingly, the individuating motion of history is also an American melting dream. This is not the place to rehearse the critique of Jung's depth psychology and the mythopoetic men's movement; the authors themselves present brief versions of their school's crit ics in their dismissals of them. Yet I do feel obligated to point out at least some contradictions of Rushing and Frentz's approach, manifest especially when they let their holism-coated hostility to feminism, social constructivism (both apparently univocal), and activism in general show through their ministerings. In their dismissal of "anti-essentialist" modes of analysis and "exteriorized" (as opposed to introspective) ways of acting, they reveal some of the stakes that reside within their own vision of a harmonious totality. It would seem there is more at stake in advocating a reinvigorated culture of ritualized spirituality than simply "saving human ity," especially for the man who is not initiated at all, who never separates from his mother, indeed becomes a "mama's boy" who lacks the strength to relate to adult women, and who is easy prey for cooptation by a variety of sources. Some women [previously cited feminists] may indeed "like" such men, perhaps because they often promote feminist agendas, but they are rarely attracted to them sexually and cannot, for that very reason, par ticipate' in a truly sacred marriage with them. We would argue that sacred male initiation is crucial to the concerns of the women's movement, for without it, the world is populated by immature men who cannot lead, cannot marry, cannot nurture their o\\'n children, and cannot refrain from inflicting unspeakable injury on the Other. (p.208) This seems to assert that sexual attraction is a homogeneous thing, heterosexuality a given, marriage the telos of womanhood, nurturing a nuclear affair, and individual male leader S'FRA Review #226, page 44


ship the essence of governance. Just as Rushing and Frentz want modern theorists to recognize that they are reproducing an egocentric social order in the very formulation of their postmodern analyses, the authors of Projecting the Shadow are committed to reproducing a rather familiar social order that is actively engaged in "othering" all sorts of cultural forms and activities in its assimilative quest for oneness. Richard Davis Russell, Sharon A. Stephen King: A Critical Companion. Critical Companions to Popular Contemporary Writers. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1996, 171 pages, hardcover, $29.95, ISBN 0-313-29417-8. My suspicion is that Sharon Russell has read the Stephen King works discussed in her volume as a duty, not a pleasure. Russell's Companion is exceedingly derivative, displaying neither enthusiasm nor new critical insights. This book is part of a series, "Critical Companions to Popular Contempo rary Writers", designed to make learning the elements of fiction palatable to high school students. Russell, however, patronizes her audience. She makes King's exuberant, funny, scatological narratives seem sober, decorous, and moralistic. Part of the book's problem is the rigid structure imposed by the series. Like the other "Companions", this begins with a biographical chapter. Though Russell seems to have made no effort to meet or interview King, her second-hand summary of King's life is adequate. Seriously flawed, however, is the following chapter, an examination of the genres in which King writes. Russell's descriptions of horror, science fiction, suspense, and fantasy are inaccurate, stereotyped and condescending. The genre chapter is followed by eight chapters, each devoted to one or two King novels, with sub-sections on plot, character, theme, and alternative readings. According to the series introduction, the "alternative read ings" are supposed to apply Marxism, Deconstruction, or other contemporary critical approaches to the book under consider ation. Russell does not introduce any critical theory, but de votes four alternative readings to King's use of popular genres. (The remaining alternative sections discuss religious imagery in The Stand and King's treatment of female characters.) There are several problems with the great emphasis Russell gives to popular genres. One is that she talks down to her SFRA Review #226, page 45


audience, providing such unnecessary explanations as "Fan tasy works are based on magical or supernatural events which are not part of our everyday realistic world" (p. 64). A more serious problem, however, is that Russell's generalizations about the horror, science fiction, and Western genres suggest that she has read little or nothing of them. In discussions of horror, Russell makes passing reference to Frankenstein, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, and Dracula. She appears, however, completely unaware of H.P. Lovecraft, Robert Aickman, Dennis Etchison, John Farris, Clive Barker, Ramsey Campbell, or any other recent masters of horror. She thereby misses the opportunity to introduce youthful King fans to other writers whose work might captivate their imagination. Russell's lack of respect for or seriousness about the horror tradition in which King writes may be a factor in her extreme carelessness about details of plot. In The Dark Half, the sociopathic murderer in the George Stark novels is "Alexis," not "Alex Machine." In The Stand, Fran's baby is not Stu Redman's son, but theP child of Jesse, a young man Fran was involved with before the plague changed civiliza tion. In The Waste Lands, the Tick-Tock Man is not an incarnation of Randall Flagg/Richard Fannin, but rather the Dark Man's servant. Inaccuracies like these occur in every chapter. To lure students into a greater sophistication about the fiction they read for fun, I would recommend as an alternative George Beahm's The Stephen King Companion (Andrews and McMeel, revised edition, 1995, reviewed in SFRA Review #223). The knowledgeable contributors to that volume con vey an infectious enthusiasm for King's accomplishments and writing. The book ends with short critical introductions to each of King's works by English professor Michael R. Collings. Accessible to high school students, Collings's discussions re nect respect for their subject, solid scholarship, and original insights. -Wendy Bousfield Sammon, Paul M. Future Nair: The lIJaking of "Blade Run ner". New York: Harper Prism, 1996,441 pages, softcover, $1 .. 1-.00, ISBN 0-06-105314-7. Rarely does the author of a book on the making of a mo tion picture go into such detail as Paul M. Sammon has done S'FRA Review #226, page 46


in Future Nair: The Making of "Blade Runner". This book needed to be written. The 1992 release of the director's cut of Ridley Scott's Blade Runner enhanced the film's reputation, as manifested by the Internet activity, and the fannish and critical interest which this often-emulated film has generated. Writing for Cinefantastique, Sammon was on the ground through preproduction, actual filming and postproduction of Blade Runner, doing interviews with all the principal creative forces on this film and many of the crew as well. Sammon notes the many variations of the Blade Runner script -both from the initial writer, Hampton Fancher, and his successor, David Peoples. He comments on Philip K. Dick's Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and illustrates Dick's changing views on the script and the film, from active hostility to acceptance. He describes the optioning of the script; producer Michael Deeley's influence on the production; the studio scramble from Filmways, who backed out of financing the project, to the tripartite coalition of Warner Brothers, Tandem Productions, and Sir Run-Run Shaw; casting; shooting; gossip on the set; special effects; financial problems in postproduction; Vangelis's score; the many versions of BR including the new "happy" ending; the battles in the first theatrical release; the growth of the BR cult; and the creation of the director's cut. Sammon includes a number of appendices with extensive data. Though rather scholarly in its depth of information, the text itself is often fun to read. Sammon is honest; he does not edit material to support his own views of the film. He reflects the disagreements about the film which still exist, and also answers a number of questions about the film which people still argue about. Is Deckard a replicant? The director's cut of the film -with the gleam in Harrison Ford's eyes and the unicorn dream -lends itself to the theory that Ridley Scott intented to add this extra ironic element. The earlier versions of the film, however, do not seem to indicate that this was Scott's intention. Harrison Ford rejects the idea. Deeley has an interesting perspective: "I never thought Deckard was a replicant, either... That was just a bit of bullshit, a little extra layer Ridley put in." Where did they get the title Blade Runner? Not from Alan E. Nourse's science fiction novel of the same name (though they bought the rights to it for the title), but from William Burroughs' book Blade Runner: A Movie -which, oddly SFRA Review #226, page 47


enough, had nothing to do with Ridley Scott's production or any other motion picture, despite the word "movie" in its title. Sammon's knowledgeable discussions of these ongoing questions make this book excellent reading for the serious researcher or the most casual fan. Dr. Bob Blackwood Squier, Susan Merrill. Babies in Bottles: Twentieth-Century Visions of Reproductive Technology. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1994, xiii + 270 pages, hardcover, $48.00, ISBN 0-8135-2116-5; softcover, $17.00, ISBN 0-8135-2117-3. In her weighty study Babies in Bottles: Twentieth-Century Visions of Reproductive Technology, Susan Merrill Squier asserts that post-modern ambivalence towards reproductive technology is firmly rooted in futurist visions written by Brit ish modernists. In her analysis, Squier is deeply concerned with the ideological grounds of science in the twentieth century, especially the tools science uses to interpret its findings and how those findings are shaped by cultural practices and prejudices. By closely examining the science, popular science writings, and science fiction works of J,B.S. and Char lotte Haldane, Julian and Aldous Huxley, and Naomi Haldane Mitchison, all biologically-oriented modernists, Squier delineates the textual history of the image of the bottle baby and examines the ideological practices that created it. Born out of the early twentieth-century eugenics movement, reproductive technology is rooted in the ideologies of sexism, racism, and imperialist conquest. The Haldanes and Huxleys were all involved on some level with positive eugenics -the encouragement of breeding "good" genetic stock, believing that environmental reforms were not significant enough and that genetics alone would create a better "race." Their interest in various forms of reproductive technology reflects this classist concern, as they thought this technology offered a means for controlling the reproduction of those with "inferior" genes. Squier introduces her work by examining several visual and textual images of babies in bottles from popular culture in the late '80s and early '90s. She describes a relatively benign cover from New Age Magazine, picturing an infant of several months in a drop of water formed from an eye drop SFRA Review #22 6, page 48


per, a book review illustration of dead Siamese twins floating bottled in formaldehyde, and the cover of a Robin Cook thriller about a modern day genetic engineer playing Frankenstein. As can be seen by these widely different visions, our society is both intrigued and repulsed by the baby in the bottle, and this ambivalence, Squier argues, is a byproduct of the work of the modern writers she concentrates on coupled with our growing awareness of the ideological practices of science. In chapter one, Squier examines the role of analogy on scientific practice as she discusses the scientific and literary works of Julian Huxley. Squier also discusses a children's story from the mid-nineteenth century in which a "water baby" evolves into a true human as his moral character de velops. Linking Victorian ideology of c1assism and racism with Darwinian evolution, this short story had a profound affect on the young Julian Huxley. Huxley's "The Tissue Cul ture King", a short story about a white scientist captured by an African tribe who uses his knowledge of biological sciences to save his life, is the focal point of Squier's analysis of the uses of analogy in the construction of scientific meaning. In this short story, modern science and primitive religion are blended together in a grotesque manner. Hascombe, the scientist, creates genetic mutations in both animals and people as objects of worship, artificial cultures of the King's body for distribution to members of the kingdom as a protection fetish, and experiments with parthenogenesis. Each of these ideas are built on analogous methods of animal and human reproduction. In the end, an outside character, also a lost white explorer, rejects Hascombe's corruption and commidification of science, and flees back to civilization. Chapter two centers on the ectogenesis debate that was stirred up by].B.S. Haldane's pamphlet, Daedalus, or Science and the Future. The popularity of this collection of essays, one of them an imaginative essay on the development of ectogenesis in the mid-twentieth century written as if from the twenty-first, spawned the To-Day and To-Morrow series of monographs on science and reproduction in the future. Haldane maintained that in reproductive technology what was a perversion in the beginning becomes, over time, an unquestioned tradition. We can witness the veracity of this statement by remembering the furor that the use of anesthesia in labor first caused in both Britain and the United States. Labor without pain was denounced by religious leaders as a sin and expressly against the bible, yet less than a hundred SFRA Review #226, page 49


years later, when a generation of women wished to return to childbirth without anesthetization, that practice was resisted as being perverse, and even "unnatural." While Haldane did not consider the sociological implications of ectogenesis, sev eral of the writers that followed him did, and Squier discusses in depth the works of J.D. Bernal, Vera Brittain, Eden Paul, and others. In chapters three and four, Squier contrasts Charlotte Haldane's Man's World with Aldous Huxley's Brave New World. Haldane's novel depicts a civilization where technology has enabled prenatal sex determination. Squier argues that Char lotte Haldane's emphasis on valorizing motherhood leads her to ignore the implications of racism and classism inherent in prenatal sexual determination. Haldane felt that the "excess" woman problem would be solved by prenatal sex determination. With an equal number of men and women, all women could anticipate being mothers, and there would be no place for intersexual (mannish) women. Charlotte Haldane's view of motherhood is at once both refreshing for many of her contemporaries, especially men, considered reproductive technologies as either a whoIIy scientific problem or as a step towards liberating "mankind" from the body -and disturbing as it asserts biological essentialism. As so much has been written about Brave New World, Squire concentrates her dis cussion about Huxley's use of reproductive technology to a comparison with the male "gaze." Part of the fascination with the baby in the bottle is that it can be seen, and Huxley's babies, kept in a warmly lit red hatching facility are ripe for gazing at. The mystery of the womb is removed and the embryos become fixed like negatives in developing liquid. Perhaps the one unfortunate thing about this text is that Squier olTers neither a summation of the effects of the litera ture she has examined on the discursive fields of reproduc tive technology and biologically oriented science fiction, nor does she proffer any solutions to her disturbing questions about \ he current state of reproductive technologies. Babies in ROLlIes ends with the chapter discussing Mitchison's work, and while l\litchison's writing extends beyond the modernist era, Squier leaves it to others to make the connection between l\litchison's views of reproductive technology and those of, say, l\large Piercy or Octavia Butler. Still, Mitchison appears to grasp, better than her contemporaries, that changing the means of reproduction can dramaticaIIy change the structure or a society, and she takes the idea of freedom from


biological reproduction further than the others. In her novel, Solution Three (reviewed in SFRA Review #222), she imaginatively creates a homosexual society based on cloning. At the end of the novel, the homosexuals begin to accept heterosexuals without bloodshed or tyranny. Mitchison's work moves beyond critiquing our current patriarchal society and tries to step outside of it. Yet why are so many images of reproductive lechnology still disturbing? Several forms of RT that were science fiction fifty years ago are now fact: chemical contraceptives, surrogate mothers, in vitro fertilization, and artificial insemination. Cloning is theoretically possible, and ectogenesis is tech nologically within the abilities of current science. ]'v[any of these technologies have fulfilled the desire expressed by early modernist thinkers -to free human sexuality from reproduction. Yet as several court cases have proven, even though technology may be available and ready for use, our societies are not necessarily ready to use them. The question, of course, is not really whether it is scientifically possible to create a child entirely outside of a woman's womb, but whether to do so is morally correct. What would be the purpose of such technology, and ultimately, who should have control of it? Susan Merrill Squier does not set out to answer any of these questions, but instead looks at the history of the questions and how they have been answered by individual writers in the past. Highly recommended reading for individuals interested in the feminist debate over reproductive technology in science fiction. Suzette]. Henderson Tohill, Cathal and Pete Tombs. lmmoral Tales: European Sex and Horror Movies 1956-1984. New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 1995,272 pages, softcover, $17.95, ISBN 0-312-13519-X. Wright, Bruce Lanier. Nightwalkers: Gothic Horror Movies, the JI'fodern Era. Dallas, Texas: Taylor Publishing, 1995, 171 pages, softcover, $17.95, ISBN 0-87833-879-9. "During the 1960s and 70s, the European horror film went totally crazy." No one will doubt that conclusion after reading lmmoral Tales: European Sex and Horror Movies 1956-1984. Tohill and Tombs examine the convergence of horror and erotic films in four chapters on the French, German, ItalSFRA Revic\\' #226, page 51


ian, and Spanish industries, then focus on six directors, three of whom (Jesus Franco, Jean Rollin, and Jose Larraz) are known for both horror and erotica, while the other three (Jose Benazeraf, Walerian Borowcyzk, and Alain Robbe-Grillet) spe cialized in sex films. Franco and Rollin get fifty-eight pages each, as compared to fifty-four pages for the other four directors together. The authors attempt one of the great impossible tasks of B film scholarship, a complete Franco filmography. (Franco made at least 150 films in several countries, using at least a dozen directorial pseudonyms; most of the films were distributed under several titles in different languages, making a total of over 500 titles.) Besides critiquing all the major films by the six featured directors, Tohill and Tombs provide full-page reviews of fourteen influential films by other directors. Appendices examine the European sex and horror comics scene and the careers of dozens of producers, directors, writers, and stars, including several of Europe's most unflinching porn actresses. The hundreds of black-and-white and color illustrations include so much nudity, bondage, and sadism that the book may have to be kept off library open shelves to protect it from thieves and page slashers. Almost everything in Immoral Tales will be new to Ameri cans. Tohill and Tombs hardly mention Hammer Films, Dario Argento, and l\'Iario Bava, makers of the only Euro-horror well known in the U.S. The Euro-B films were "just too way out for foreign consumption" and "too strange and disreputable" for the art film circuit. "Linear narrative and logic are always ignored... The pictorial, the excessive and the irrational are the privileged factors" in films "drawing power from surrealism, romanticism and the decadent tradition, as well as early 20th-century pulp-literature, film serials, creaky horror-movies and sexy comic strips." Immoral Tales is a model of stag geringly erudite, highly specific, and enthusiastic yet serious criticism of genre films. The authors defend Franco, "the filmmaker with the worst rep in the world," whose films will "give you something you'll just never experience any other way." They admit several of Franco's films were very bad, which they attribute to his frequent attacks of "boredom" and "disinterest." Because it covers roughly the same time period (1957-1976) in British and American B horror films, which saw a revival of Gothic conventions, Wright's Nightwalkers should have been an ideal companion to Immoral Tales. However, Wright deals SFRA Review #226, page 52


with films almost everyone has seen and has little that is new or revealing to say about them. Of the fifty-seven films examined, there are thirty-two by Hammer Films, four other British B films, ten U.S. AlP films (including Roger Corman's Poe films), seven other U.S. B films, and four classics -The Innoccnts (1961), Carnival of Blood (1962), The Haunting (1963), and Bava's Black Sunday (1961), the only non-En glish-language film considered. Wright's opinions are all too typical of fan "criticism"; he veers between gushing enthusiasm and shrill contempt, with some pusillanimous fence-sitting thrown in. His cocky, self-amused attitude detracts from his few interesting remarks, such as his contention that Chris topher Lee was often even better as a hero than as a villain. He provides long synopses of each film. Wright omits Witchfinder General (1968), a major and relevant film. His assertion that Hammer's sensual Vampire Lovers (1970) "shat tered the long-standing assumption on the part of American distributors and viewers that horror films were, ipso facto, kiddie fare" rather overlooks Night of the Living Dead (1968). The authors (or their proofreaders) mangle a few names Tohill and Tombs misspell Donald Pleasence's last name, while Wright misspells Louis Jourdan's last name and Nastassia Kinski's first name. Anyone exhaustively studying Hammer will want to check out Wright for one more fan's opinions and for his bibliography, which includes several dozen peri odical articles. Immoral Tales is recommended for collections on foreign genre films and for those intrigued by Abo Kyrou's admonition, quoted by Tohill and Tombs, "I urge you, learn to look at 'bad' films; they are so often sublime." Michael Klossner Valentine, Mark. Arthur Machen. Wales, England: Seren, 1995,147 pages, hardcover, $32.00, ISBN 1-85411-123-X; softcover, $16.95, ISBN 1-85411-126-4. Available in the U.S. from Dufour Editions, Inc. Apart from a small group of devotees, Arthur rvlachen (1863-1947) is an unjustly neglected writer, so any attention paid to the career of this intriguing Welsh-born author is encouraging. Machen was best known as a master of dark fantasy, but like many other late-Victorian and Edwardian authors he wrote many others kinds of literature besides and remained a nineteenth-century literary man well into the twentieth century. SFRA Revicw #226, page 53


Mark Valentine's Arthur Machen is a literary biography, chronologically covering both Machen's life and career. As such, the book provides a competent overview of the author's life (which included brief careers in acting and journalism), personality, writing, and influence. One could pick up this book knowing nothing of Machen and finish it with a decent sense of who Machen was as an author and an individual. Valentine's treatment of his subject is generally adequate, even if it is mostly a survey of territory previously covered by other scholars. The book does contains a few problems and flaws, some of which are perhaps attributable to the format of the Border Lines series (which examines artistic figures from the border region between England and Wales) to which this book belongs. A reader gets the impression that length is an issue for the series, which may account for the fact that the book lacks an index -an omission extremely unwelcome in a literary biography of this type. The method of citation is also frustrating: sources are identified with monograms, and often the reader must scan through the bibliography at the end of the book to determine the source, which is not always given in the text. Nor does Valentine always provide sufficient information about quotations; sometimes letters are quoted with no indication of date or recipi ent, and sometimes quotations are unidentified altogether. The same holds true, in places, for people. Though Valentine usually does a good job of providing background on individuals, literary movements, and related matters, occasion ally figures are unidentified. There is also a substantial gap in the book's coverage of its subject, since Valentine makes no reference to what may be learned of Machen's later life from the letters in Arthur Machen and Montgomery Evans: Letters of a Literary Friendship, 1923-1947 (Kent State University Press, 1994, reviewed in SFRA Review #214), edited by Sue Strong Hassler and Donald M. Hassler. Finally, the book is poorly edited. Again, many of the problems may be blamed on the series format, but they weaken the usefulness of this hook for potential scholars. Nonetheless, the book has many good points, especially the manner in which Valentine places Machen within the literary, intellectual, religious, political, and social context of his times. For instance, he devotes considerable space to the Angles of Mons phenomenon, in which Machen's 1914 story "The Bowmen", about British forces receiving supernatural assistance in a battle during the Great War, was widely be S'FRA Review #226, page 54


lieved as factual. It is also particularly interesting to learn of Machen's relationships with fellow writers such as Oscar Wilde, William Butler Yeats, and others. The period in which Machen flourished, from the 1890s to the 1920s, was an extremely fertile one in British letters, and Valentine effectively illustrates the seemingly chaotic diversity of literary life in these decades and how connections may be seen between Machen's fiction and the work of writers such as the Decadents, Robert Louis Stevenson, and others. This broad portrait of British literary life during Machen's career also helps the reader understand Machen's somewhat marginal position in modern literature, and Valentine writes skilfully about Machen's varied critical reception and posthumous reputation. Valentine also describes to good effect the rather mystical worldview that permeates Machen's work. Most of the discussion of Machen's eclectic publications in this book is descriptive and historical, but there is also a fair amount of critical analysis, mostly devoted to recurring ideas and themes in Machen's writing, along with some treatment of the author's style. Despite its faults, one comes away from this book with a greater sense of who Machen was, and, perhaps, a desire to read or reread him -which is certainly why those of us who deal with literature do what we do in the first place. For all his faults, Machen himself is certainly worth reading. -Darren Harris-Fain SFRA RevielV #226, page 55


SFRA RevielV #226, page 56


'iSH.H'ReviewsAnderson, Paul. All One Universe. New York: Tor, 1996, 304 pages, hardcover, $22.95, ISBN 0-312-85873-6. Poul Anderson has been a prolific entertainer since breaking in as a full-time writer, and two generations of readers looking for imaginative adventures in space or in romanticized pasts have enjoyed his "hard science" adventure fiction and occasional forays into fantasy, such as A Midsummer Tempest and Three Hearts and Three Lions. Anderson's space adventures are usually written in a literate style, and they celebrate individualism and an existential heroic spirit, which arise mainly from Anderson's knowledge of Scandinavian and medieval literature. But such eclectic and neo-romantic views -though often praised by reviewers -have seldom found favor among academic critics, and are even less fashionable in today's highly politicized atmosphere, which incorporates feminism, multiculturalism, and various kinds of neo-Marxist thought into traditional literary theory and cultural studies. Despite his reliance on formula plots, Anderson has shown skill with character development, and he sometimes introduces fresh concepts or innovative looks at old concepts. As a result, his tireless energy has created a canon of prodigious dimensions which not many serious critics have bothered to explore. Nevertheless, Anderson, like Robert Heinlein, is an important figure in the history of American science fiction, and like Heinlein and john W. Campbell, should never be easily dismissed or stereotyped by being placed in some category. The present collection of stories and essays by Anderson reminds us of this. Although All One Universe is composed of stories and essays Anderson has written over the past decade or so, there is an underlying theme. As the title suggests, Anderson envisions a kind of organic wholeness in the universe beneath its surfaces and multiplicities. This theme, however, is not linked to any sentimental optimism about human survival. One story in the collection, "In Memoriam", describes in a dispassionate tone the end of human life on earth and the gradual decay of our solar system. SFRA Review #226, page 57


Other stories in the collection strike a familiar but rather somber note, which may surprise those who imagine Anderson to be an easy optimist. Knowledgeable readers of Anderson will find in "Losers' Night" the familiar ambiance of the "Old Phoenix", the pub outside of space and time where alternate histories intersect. In this story, even such remarkable achievers as Rembrandt and Winston Churchill are seen from an ironic perspective as people who could have been perceived as failures. Another example of Anderson's irony is "Requiem for a Universe", which offers a restrained and tragic tale of the death of a computer wizard, who perishes under the burden of creating his own "virtual" universe. Similarly, "Strangers" presents a picture of humans marooned on a distant planet, seen through the eyes of one of the aborigines whose tribe is struggling for survival. In this encounter, the two races establish a poignant friendship, although both are menaced by destructive biological and ecological forces. But Anderson's main concern appears to be experiencing events from the myth-haunted perspective of the "primitive" narrator. While the stories may do little to change Anderson's reputation, they seem unified by an el egiac tone, suggesting that Anderson, like an old Scandinavian bard, has reluctantly accepted the "twilight of the gods." In the broadest terms, Anderson's fiction -even in its most predictable manifestations -has always celebrated the possibilities of being, and human survival in the face of the power of non-being or entropy, and he continues to articulate these concerns in the essays and stories here. However, there are few surprises in this collection, and probably no memorable "classic" stories such as Anderson's famous "Kyrie". ]\iore interesting are the essays, in which Anderson offers retrospective comments on the changing world of science fic tion, as in "Science Fiction and History", where Anderson suggests thal the day of the "Old West" scenarios in science fiction may be over -a prediction of change that many of us may consider a "consummation devoutly to be wished" (to borrow words from another Danish mind). Another is devoted to a portrait of a controversial icon of science fiction's Golden Age, John W. Campbell. However, Anderson's sense of humor is seldom entirely absent from one of his books, and an amusing entry here is "Uncleftish Beholding", an essay describing modern science in the kind of language En glish might have been had the Norman Conquest never ocSFK\ Rcviell' #226, page S8


curred. Anyone who has struggled through a semester of "scientific German," as I did a generation ago, will laugh with a sense of recognition at the bizarre compound words Anderson invents. Other essays pay homage to writers and minds Anderson admires, such as Kipling and the Danish author Johannes Jensen. The Kipling essay offers Anderson's usual intelligent logic in defense of an author unpopular with many liberal intellectuals but who still lives for many unbiased readers. Nevertheless, there is a sense of desperation in Anderson's dividing Kipling's public into "intellectuals who never liked him and wished he would go away" and "real people" who "went right on reading him ... One suspects that Anderson is also offering an apologia for his own work here. At any rate, as this collection displays, Anderson's fictional universe and philosophic outlook are dominated by a central and controlling vision. All One Universe is a title that applies as well to Anderson's canon as to the cosmos we inhabit. Anderson's thoughts about that subject suggest that it's remarkably ironic that his views -which would at one time have been thought vigorously humanistic -may now be considered by the cognoscenti to be merely a form of oldfashioned romanticism. While this collection may not change anyone's mind about Anderson's place in literature, whatever that is, it will certainly impress the uninitiated with the strength of Anderson's mind and his mastery of narrative skill. Edgar L. Chapman Bujold, Lois McMaster. Dreamweaver's Dilemma: Short Stories and Essays. Framingham, ]\1assachusetts: The NESFA Press, 1995,250 pages, hardcover, $19.95, ISBN 0-915368-668; slipcased $30.00. This collection of novellas, short stories, and essays is a mixed bag of new and previously published material for fans of Bujold and the universe she has created around her bestknown character, Miles Vorkosigan. The only Vorkosigan story herein, "The ]\Iountains of Mourning", a Hugo winner later incorporated into Borders of Infinity, is by far the best of the lot. The other two novellas are very early, previously unpublished works. Bujold de SFRA Review #226, page 59


scribes "The Adventure of the Lady on the Embankment" as a "Sherlock Holmes pastiche" (p. 208); it is a well-written but unremarkable adventure featuring a character with the same name (Cordelia Naismith) as the heroine of Shards of Honor, who later gives birth to Miles. The other novella is the title piece, "Dreamweaver's Dilemma", Bujold's first attempt at professional science fiction. It's the story of a woman who realizes the dream she's been asked to weave on commission is designed to induce the dreamer to commit suicide. Bujold's characters are intriguing, but the story loses energy before its foregone conclusion. The three short stories collected here "Barter", "Garage Sale", and "The Hole Truth" -are from the mid-1980s. All are plot-driven and none are memorable. While Bujold is a master at creating rich characters and putting them into ac tion-filled adventures that also advance compelling themes, the only work in this volume that demonstrates her depth as a writer is "The Mountains of Morning". Both the preface, written by Bujold's childhood friend and fellow novelist Lillian Stewart Carl, and four brief essays by Bujold provide biographical material and ruminations on the nature of science fiction and its attractions for readers. The best of these, "The Unsung Collaborator", thoughtfully ob serves how the best fiction lets readers use their own imaginations to round out the characters and their worlds. Editor Suford Lewis also includes an essay of his own based on an extensive interview with Bujold in which she comments on the origins and intents of her work. The volume also contains a bibliography of Bujold's work, a list of awards, a timeline of Miles Vorkosigan's life and times, a genealogy of Miles's Vor ancestors, a map of Bujold's SF universe, and a pronunciation guide to names and places that appear in Bujold's major works, including her fantasy novel The Spirit Ring. Fans of Bujold will want this volume for its reproduction of her early, less mature work, and for Lewis's interview, which provides extensive insight into Bujold's creative methods. Readers new to Bujold would do better to pick up Shards of Honor or The Warrior's Apprentice for an introduction to her work. Agatha Taormina SFRA RevielV #226, page 60


Morrow, James. Blameless in Abaddon. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1996, 404 pages, hardcover, $20.00, ISBN 0-15188656-3. james Morrow is one of SF's pre-eminent satirists. Like madcap muckraker Carl Hiaasen, he is unafraid to wade through the turgid swamp of the human condition -and like Hiaasen, Morrow always succeeds in finding a high road through it, and plants his flag on a high if unstable peak of human aspiration. His novels don't come fast enough for my liking, and each one is an event. Morrow's 1994 Towing jehovah was the first volume of a projected "Godhead" trilogy, a sort of divine comedy gone to seediness, and Blameless in Abaddon is the second. In Towing jehovah, the Vatican hires disgraced Captain Anthony Van Horne to tow God's two-mile-Iong corpse, found floating in the Atlantic, to an Arctic shrine where it will not decay. That book is concerned with its characters' reactions to the discovery that the patriarchal jehovah really did exist -a disaster for the liberal and feminist camps -and their preservation or abandonment of traditional values now that He is gone. The book was nominated for the Hugo and Nebula and earned a World Fantasy Award. In my opinion, Blameless is even better. In Blameless, it is found that God is only mostly dead, for residual electrical activity still flutters in the divine but failing brain. The Corpus Dei, purchased from the Vatican by the Baptists, is now on display at an Orlando theme park called Celestial City USA. (Let me state now, as a Floridian, that I find this entirely plausible.) Like jeremy Leven's Satan: His Psychotherapy and Cure by the Unfortunate Dr. Kassler, ],S.P.S. (1982), this book is jauntily narrated by the Devil himself, who admits straight away to being the author of the world's ills. Martin Candle, a justice of the Peace in Abaddon Township, Pennsylvania, is one of the Devil's multitudinous vic tims. Diagnosed with prostate cancer, Candle spends most of the book in sorrow over the loss of his beloved wife, in increasing agony alleviated only by drugs that cause his breasts to grow and his mind to fog, and in anger against a God that could allow such evils. Candle decides, therefore, to put God on trial before the International Court of justice in The Hague. He establishes the job Society to launch a class action suit of SFRA Review #226, page 61


plaintiffs, all of whom suffer from a variety of terrible dis eases, mutilations, and bereavements, and all of whom are admittedly out for revenge. G.F. Lovett, an inordinately wealthy retired professor, steps forward to serve as God's defense attorney. In a pre-trial meeting, Lovett freely tells Candle the line of defense he will take, since it is made up of the four apparently impregnable arguments with which theologians have traditionally reconciled a benevolent deity with the existence of evil. The second two-thirds of this tripartite yarn then becomes a war of hermeneutical theories, as l'>Iorrow and Candle thread their way through the mystery of God's silence. In Part 2, "Spelunking the Infinite", Candle joins a group of scientists on a bizarre odyssey through God's brain. While the scientists seek answers to the great cosmic questions what is the correct value of the Hubble constant? was Fermat just pulling a fast one? -Candle hopes to gather arguments to fight Lovett. The neuronauts discover inside the divine cranium a wonderland filled with Platonic manifestations of both concrete objects and abstract ideas. The group, tourguided by the colorful and raunchy Idea of St. Augustine, interviews the victims of a number of Biblical anecdotes including Isaac and the Ram, Lot and his daughters, and Job himselr who provide Candle with ammunition, though not with definitive answers. A likeable and desperate modern Quixote, Candle, whose name suggests a small light in the darkness, nevertheless remains determined to face Lovett in the courtroom. I thought the best part of the book would have to be the tour through God's Brain until I got to the courtroom battle in Part 3, "God in the Dock", which offers even more hilarity, tightwire suspense, and truly moving poignancy. Candle is by now in such pain that he languishes in the hospital be tween legal bouts, but strives to put on good theater for the judges and home viewing audience. He presents before the court the history or human pain in a way that Michel Foucault might admire. He calls as expert witnesses a variety of theorists in disaster and trauma, and he offers as evidence for the prosecution a week-long video documentary about the most terrible episodes of human cruelty, showing the evolution or Homo sapiens to be a thriving black petri dish of psychomachia and perversion. -,">'FRA Re\'iell' #22G, page G2


Against the challenge that God has never stepped forward to relieve any of millions of agonies, Lovett in turn cites the wisdom of theological thinkers who have argued that God has His reasons. The defense is given powerful and persuasive voice, though Morrow makes it clear through Lovett's own pomposity and rather messianic turns of phrase that the God he defends is an artifice, an anthropomorphic, En glish-speaking, pro-American God. The Devil steps in now

Themes include religion, self-knowledge, and the role of heredity and environment in finding or making meaning in one's life. Though narratively tricky, with three interweaving storylines, the reader's patience is rewarded: this book is complex, lush, and entertaining. The science in this SF novel is ethnography. According to the afterword, Oberndorf wrote this book with several anthropological studies at hand, including research on primate as well as on the human tribe ju/hoansi (called ju/wasi in the book), also known as the Kung. Oberndorf's use of this research is both literal and figurative: One main character, Esoch, was formerly a member of a future utopian community that sought to re-create ju/wasi life. Oberndorf compares this foraging existence to that of the colony of primitive foraging aliens, the slazan, highlighting the similarities between human and slazan cultures. To intensify the simi larities between these foraging cultures, one human, one alien, Oberndorf symbolically links Esoch with one of the slazan characters through making music and the role of music in societies that have no concept of musical artists. The book Oberndorf wrote is about how a book came to be written. Oberndorf presents to us an alternate version of Foragers, by Pauline Dikobe, a tremendously influential book that helped stop the human/slazan war by allowing humans to understand the slazans. In an introduction, a scholar reminds us that ethnographer Dikobe spent 200 days among a primitive slazan colony apparently forgotten by its more tech nologically advanced brothers and sisters. Dikobe, who stud ied the foraging utopian ju/wasi years ago, is sent to the forgotten planet Tienah on a military mission to study the primi tive slazans to gain intelligence about them that might help in the war effort. After her experiences there, she turned her journals into a novel called Foragers. The scholar has put together an "alternate" version of For agers which intersperses Dikobe's text with journal entries and other non-fiction writings she wrote while on her expe dition, thus highlighting her state of mind and foregrounding how she incorporated her ethnographic research into her novel. One character in Dikobe's book is an ethnographer called Pauline Dikobe, sent to a primitive slazan foraging colony to study the slazans for military purposes. In Dikobe's nove!, Dikobe-the-character is an elusive person who cuts off contact with her ship and is not seen again, except through SFRA Rcvicll' #226, page 64


the lenses of other characters and flashbacks. Dikobe-theauthor is revealed through the intercut journal entries. The journal entries, bolded in the text, are startlingly different from the presentation of the Dikobe character in the novel. There are three protagonists in Dikobe's novel: Dikobethe-character, never seen directly but the cause of the novel's action; Esoch, the ju/wasi sent to find her; and the slazan healer known in this third-person narrative as I, who heals with her music. The sections told by I tell of the slazans, their love of solitude, the roles of men and women, and their beliefs about their world, as well as 1's own desire to have a daughter. The sections told by Esoch focus on his search for Dikobe, which becomes a quest, and, in flashbacks, we learn of his past life as a forager among the ju/wasi. The complex nature of Oberndorf's narrative affects the way time is presented here. Events are seen two or three times, through different media, at different times in the narrative. The text is not chronological. For instance, an ill Dikobe going outside of her capsule to face curious slazans is seen three times: from Dikobe-the-author's journals, from Esoch's replaying the capsule's recordings, and from 1's point of view. Oberndorf allows us to keep track of time by indicating the day of the mission, but the reader has to sort out implications, times, and events in order to piece together a chronology, just as we also must piece out the identity of the supporting slazan characters through their shifting names, and just as we must fit together the events in Esoch's life as a ju/wasi that led to the mission on Tienah. This book, in fact, is about putting things together, about drawing conclusions from data presented; the reader, like Dikobe, acts as an ethnographer. By sorting through data, we make meaning, just as Dikobe-the-writer seeks to sort through data not by writing a formal report but by revealing the truth through fiction. The truths revealed here are all the more precious for the work required to get at them. Karen Hellekson Robinson, Kim Stanley. Blue Mars. New York: Bantam Books, july 1996, 609 pages, hardcover, $22.95, ISBN 0-55310144-7. With the publication of Blue Mars, Kim Stanley Robinson crowns his Martian trilogy with a fitting conclusion. As broad SFRA RevielV #226, page 65


in scope and sweeping in dimension as the previous two books, Robinson once again shows us why he is a Hugo and Nebula award-winning author. The Second Martian Revolution is over and Mars is free. The Terran forces have retreated up the Pavonis space elevator and reinforcements from a troubled Earth are not forthcoming. Now, the disparate political and philosophical fac tions are gathering to forge a new government for a new world. Conservationist Reds vie with pro-terraforming Greens for the soul of Mars, but it becomes clear that the planet's future lies largely with the Greens and their plans for global engi neering. Red Mars has already become Green Mars, and Green Mars shall become Blue Mars. As the Martian biosphere grows and the new oceans establish their shores, great changes are sweeping the rest of the solar system as well. Earth's billions are still reeling under the effects of the Great Flood. With the spreading availabil ity of longevity treatments, political and social pressures grow with the expanding and aging population. As new technologies pour out of the Martian research labs, space travel be comes easy, fast, and inexpensive. Colonization of the rest of the solar system begins in earnest, with Mercury, Venus, the asteroids, and the moons of the outer planets all receiving their share of humanity. Ships are even sent to promising planets around nearby suns, beginning mankind's leap to the stars. But Blue Mars is not just about these great, stunning new technologies. It is also a book about people -the people who built Mars and who are forging a new direction for humanity. Ann, Sax, Maya, Michel, Nirgal, Nadia, Peter, Coyote, Jackie, and even the ghosts of Frank, John, and Hiroko return to the reader like old friends. And it is through these complex, compelling characters that the true story of Mars and its future is told. Robinson has proven himself to be adept at weaving a story of technology and political intrigue. Where he really shines in Blue !'.lars, though, is in his ability to get inside his characters and make the reader really care about them. As the characters wrestle with their lives and the great changes surrounding them, one is drawn to a very personal level of triumph and tragedy. Ann, the founder of the Red movement, has seen her sterile, pristine Ivlars plowed under, flooded, SfRA Review #226, page 66


and infested with Terran life. Yet, as she ages and her personality evolves, she comes to appreciate the beauty to be found in the new Mars. As her terraforming rival, Sax works to complete his vision of Mars, while at the same time seeing the wonder of Ann's Mars and struggling to gain Ann's acceptance. In these and so many other individual stories, Robinson has distilled his sweeping saga down to a very per sonal level and has made Blue Mars the most human and approachable of his Martian books. Blue Mars is a stunning and engaging book. Breathtaking in its scope of story and achievement, it is a plausible and even desirable future history for humanity in space. Kim Stanley Robinson's Mars trilogy are a set of books that can truly be called "classics" this soon after publication, and Blue Mars is a fitting conclusion to this grand story. George Kelley SFRA Review #226, page 67


Capsules POETRY NOTES Steve Sneyd is one of the better poets working in science fiction and fantasy. Several reviews of his work have appeared here. Sneyd is also a publisher of SF poetry, however, and I recently received a number of chapbooks from his Hilltop Press that I thought might be of interest to SFRA members. All quotes are from the books' cover copy. AE: The Seven Wonders of the Universe (1979; reprint 1994, $2.50) by Mike Johnson is "a tour-de-force alike of dramatic Science Fiction narrative and of powerfully experimental prosepoetry ... a tour of the seven wonders of the universe." Spaceman (1995, $3.00) by Dave Calder "explores the outward quest for knowledge and the inward search for meaning of [a] ... space voyager narrator." This is a Rhysling Award nominee. Both of these books are, in my opinion, excellent SF poetry. Of more specialized interest are: The War of the Words, A Sampler of SF Fanzine Poems ($3.00), edited by Sneyd. This includes humorous poetry by John Brunner, John Christopher (writing under his real name, Sam Youd), and other British fans from the '30s through the '80s. The Fantastic Muse (1938; reprint 1992, $2.50) by Arthur C. Clarke. A very young Clarke writes on SF poetry in the pioneering British fanzine Novae Terrae, and includes a poem of his own! If you are interested in any of these titles, contact Hilltop Press, 4 Nowell Place, Almondbury, Huddersfield, West Yorkshire HD5 8PB. Michael Levy BRAZILIAN SF ON CD-ROM Brazilian SF is active and has a record of more than 300 texts (novels, short stories, poetry). Although it is not yet of a size to justify an entire CD-ROM, there is enough material SFRA Reviell' #226, page 68


for a good article in a multimedia magazine. So, NEG Interativa, a multimedia CD-ROM magazine published in Sao Paulo, Brazil since 1994, and now in its tenth issue, decided to publish an overview article on Brazilian SF. The article was written by SFRA member Braulio Tavares, who also wrote the entry on Brazilian SF for The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. In the article, one finds a historical approach to Brazilian SF since the pioneers up to experimental novels of recent years. The article is divided in seven parts: 1. Overview -A short introduction showing that, although Brazilian SF has a hundred-year history, commercially viable SF appeared only in the 1930s, when some journalists began to use the American pulp-SF model. 2. The Pioneers -The focus is on six writers, the oldest being Augusto Emilio Zaluar (1825-1882), author of the first Brazilian SF novel, Dr. Benign us. This novel, published in 1875, depicts ascientist who moves a thousand miles from Rio de janeiro to the Brazilian jungle, to study the possibility of life on the surface of the Sun. The other authors are: joaquim Felicio dos Santos, Monteiro Lobato, Machado de Assis, Rodolpho Teophilo, and Albino Coutinho. Of these, Machado de Assis is perhaps the best known to foreign readers. His novels (mostly about urban life in Rio de janeiro at the end of the 19th century) were translated into several lan guages. 3. The GRD Generation Up until 1960, Brazilian SF was mainly the business of sporadic writers, a vehicle for social satire and science for the layman. In the beginning of the 1960s, Gumercindo da Rocha Dorea founded his publishing house (GRD), marking the beginning of a new era for Brazilian SF. This is the first time Brazilian SF showed a self-con scious movement. 4. Contemporary Writers This part of the article focuses on Brazilian fandom, which flourished in the 1980s, and its interaction with writers and publishing houses. Here, the reader will also find addresses of the more important Brazilian fanzines. 5. Criticism This portion is an appraisal of several Bra zilian SF-criticism books, from 1964 to 1994, centering on the leading role of Andre Carneiro and Fausto Cunha. SFRA RevielV #226, page 69


6. Catalogue This screen shows an interactive catalogue in which the reader can search by word in a list of 156 books. Each entry contains bibliographic data and a short abstract. The entire list, or any part of it, can be printed or exported for use in a text editor. 7. Anthology -From the first screen of the article, the reader can access an anthology of Brazilian SF, which has complete short stories or representative excerpts from important books. The anthology has 18 chapters and covers the period 1875-1994. The texts can be searched by word, printed, commented, etc. The anthology and the full text of the catalogue (without the search function) can be found on the World Wide Web at .. http://w\V\ ... The magazine can be purchased bye-mail: "", and requires Windmvs 3.1+, DOS 5.0+, 256 colors video board, 8Mb RAM, and a CD-ROrvl drive. -Jesus de Paula Assis E.T. PHONE HOME Zuckerman, Ben & Michael H. Hart (Editors). Extra terrestrials Where Are They? (Second Edition). New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995, xii + 239 pages, hardcover, $39.95, ISBN 0-521-44335-0; softcover, $19.95, ISBN 0-521-44803-4. This volume is a semi-popular account, mostly by academics, that enlarges and updates the 1978 first edition. The 22 chapters, a few reprinted from journals, discuss in detail many aspects of its core subject, including interstellar propulsion systems (freeman Dyson), terraforming (James Oberg), "evidence" of ETs on Earth, and various aspects of SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence). Several papers note that funds for SETI are likely to be in short supply. The preface concludes: "Unfortunately, because the human race is squandering its natural capital at an unsustainable rate, it seems at least as likely that terrestrial collapse rather than extraterrestrial expansion awaits us in the next two centuries." I had concluded this some years ago, one of many reasons why I find most SF literally incredible; I simply can't suspend my disbelief to the extent I could 40-50 years ago. Neil Barron SfRA Review #226, page 70


THE SCIENCE FICTION RESEARCH ASSOCIATION The SFRA is the oldest professional organization for the study of science fiction, fantasy, and horror/Gothic literature and film, as well as utopian studies. Founded in 1970, the SFRA was organized to improve classroom teaching, encourage and assist scholarship, and evaluate and publicize new books and magazines dealing with fan tastic literature and film. Among the membership are people from many countries -authors, editors, publishers, librarians, students, teachers, and other interested readers. Academic affiliation is not a requirement for membership. SFRA BENEFITS INCLUDE: Extrapolation. Quarterly magazine; the oldest journal in the field, with critical, historical, and bibliographical articles, book reviews, letters, occasional special topic issues, and annual index. Science-Fiction Studies. Trimesterly magazine; includes critical, his torical, and bibliographical articles, review articles, reviews, notes, letters, international coverage, and annual index. SFRA Review. Bimonthly magazine; an organ of the SFRA, this maga zine includes extensive book reviews of both nonfiction and fiction, review articles, listings of new and forthcoming books, letters, SFRA internal affairs, calls for papers, works in progress, and annual index. SFRA Directory. Annual directory; lists members' names and ad dresses, phone numbers, and special interests. Foundation. (For an additional fee see next page). Trimesterly magazine; discount on subscription price; includes critical, historical, and bibliographical articles, reviews, letters. AS A MEMBER YOU ARE ALSO INVITED TO: Attend our annual meetings, held in a different location each year. Members and guests -many of them professional writers -present papers, share information, and discuss common interests, all in a relaxed, informal environment. Much of the significant scholarly literature, available at discounted prices, is displayed. The Pilgrim and Pioneer Awards for distinguished contributions to SF or fantasy scholarship are presented at a dinner meeting. Participate in the Association's activities. Vote in elections, serve on committees, and hold office. Join the SFRA section on GEnie, where the SFRT (Sf Round Table) has a private category where SFRA members meet in "cyberspace" to conduct business, exchange information, or enjoy real-time discus sions. Contribute to the "Support a Scholar" program. SfRA members help needy young scholars here and overseas continue their study of SUF. [Annual membership dues cover only the actual costs of providing benefits to members, and renect a modest savings over subscriptions to the publications listed above. Your dues may be tax deductible.] SFRA Review #226, page 71


SFRA MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION Please mail this completed form with your check for dues, payable to SFRA (U.S. dollars only, please) to: Robert]. Ewald, SFRA Treasurer, 552 W. Lincoln St., Findlay OH 45840. Dues: U.S.A. Canada Individual1 $60 $65 Joint2 570 $75 Student3 $50 $55 Institution4 $80 $80 Emeritus 5 $30 $35 Overseas $70 $80 $60 $80 $40 If you wish to receive the British journal Foundation (3 issues per year), add 517 (520 for airmail). 1 all standard listed benefits 2 two members in the same household; two listings in the Directory, but will receive one set of journals 3 category may be used for a maximum of five years 4 all privileges except voting 5 receives SFRA Review and Directory This membership application is for the calendar year 1997. This information will appear in the 1997 SFRA Directory. Name: ____________________________________________ Mail ing Address: ___________________________________ Home Phone: __________________________________ Business Phone : ________________________________ Fax number: ___________________________________ E-mail Address: ________________________ [\Iy principal interests in fantastic literature are (limit to 30 words): Repeat last year's entry _______ SFRA Review #226, page 72


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