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Silhouette based gait recognition

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Material Information

Title:
Silhouette based gait recognition research resource and limits
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Malavé, Laura Helena
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
biometrics
identification
surveillance
computer vision
motion analysis
image processing
Dissertations, Academic -- Computer Science -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: As is seen from the work on gait recognition, there is a de-facto consensus about the silhouette of a person being the low-level representation of choice. It has been hypothesized that the performance degradation that is observed when one compares sequences taken on different surfaces, hence against different backgrounds, or when one considers outdoor sequences is due to the low silhouette quality and its variation. If only one can get better silhouettes the perfomance of gait recognition would be high. This thesis challenges that hypothesis. In the context of the HumanID Gait Challenge problem, we constructed a set of ground truth silhouttes over one gait cycles for 71 subjects, to test recognition across two conditions, shoe and surface. Using these, we show that the performance with ground truth silhouette is as good as that obtained by those obtained by a basic background subtraction algorithm. Therefore further research into ways to enhance silhouette extraction does not appear to be the most productive way to advance gait recognition. We also show, using the manually specified part level silhouettes, that most of the gait recognition power lies in the legs and the arms. The recognition power in various static gait recognition factors as extracted from a single view image, such as gait period, cadence, body size, height, leg size, and torso length, does not seem to be adequate. Using cummulative silhouette error images, we also suggest that gait actually changes when one changes walking surface; in particular the swing phase of the gait gets effected the most.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.C.S.)--University of South Florida, 2003.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Laura Helena Malavé.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 115 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 52846886
notis - AJJ4773
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0000059
usfldc handle - e14.59
System ID:
SFS0024755:00001


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r r r 1 n J 9 > 8$3+5 AQ 6 J < 3+57OZ4 < K8$5764 @7Q 5 5N5 < 8'6!57; A 57OP5 < 3 D F J A M @ 3 @E<'@ED 6 6 =< J A ;'5 A 3 J A 57O J M < 5_4L8 9 @E< M @ 33 > 576 D IY 5 a @EDIY =< M \'A 8 <'< =< M \[T J MEM =< M \ J A O D 9d=< M 6+3 @ =A 6 \ \ g h$\ g '\Xh \ jEh\XjEj ) @E< ; F J A 3!4$5 ;'5 < 3 IH O @ 3 J < J F 4L8 9 @E< 6 F A J 9 M @ 3 h:\ h g \cj \ \ j \cj'\ g j$\cj\chBi$\ g \ \chr\:j ) ] J M /@E< ; ;$5 D 6 J < h ) \ K8 3+5 > J 6Z6 D 3!4$5 H'A 6+3 aJ A!Y J < M @ 3 A 57O J M < 3 J < =< O J 9 > 8$3+5 A Q 6 J :@ 3+3+5 AZ<>'A J ;'8'OP57; -. F A J < 3 J >c@BAZ@ED=D 5 D a @EDIY =< M =< 3!4$5 6 >:@ 3 J 3+5 9 > J AZ@ED nnr n Q J D 8 9 5E] r4 6 >:@ 3+3+5 AZ<)\ J < OP5 ;$5N3+57OP3+57; -. 3!4$5 @ED M J A 3!4 9 \ a @ 6d3!4$5 < H 33 J @ 6!5N3 J F 6 >c@ 3 J 3+5 9 > J AZ@ED 6 <'@BY 576 \ 3 J H:< ; 3!4$5 J 8 < ; =< M O J < 3 J 8 A 6 J F 3!4$5d6!8 T 57OP3N]r4$576+5 J 8 < ; C< MO J < 3 J 8 A 6 a 5 A 58'6+57; @ 6 F 5 @ 3!8 A 576N] r4$5 9 @E<'< 5 A C< a 4 OZ4_3!4$5 Q[@BA a @ 6 4 > J 3!4'576 57; 3 J 5 8 < K8$5 3 J @ 6!8 T 57OP3N],5 @BA 576+3 < 5 Mk4 J A 6 a 3!4 a 5 Mk4L3+57; \ O D I>'> 57; 8:O D ;$5 @E< ; 6+3 @E< OP5 9 5 @ 6!8 A 576 a @ 68'6+57; F J AA 57O J M < 3 J < ]r4$5; @ 3 @ 6!5N3O J < 6 6+3+57; J FWh ; X5 A 5 < 3 9 @ ME56!57KL8$5 < OP576 \ F A J 9 6!8 T 57OP3!6 \ O J D=D 57OP3+57; C< ; JJ A 6 \Q 5 a 57; F A J < 3 J >:@BAZ@ED=D 5 D ] 3+3 D 5 @E< ; J ; h g ) 8'6!57; F 5 @ 3!8 A 576 ;'5 A IQ 57; F A J 9 3!4'5 9 J 9 5 < 3!6 O J 9 > 8$3+57; J Q 5 A ;'5 < 6+5 J > 3 O @ED Jba J F 9 @ ME5S6+57KL8'5 < OP576 =< J A ;$5 A 3 J ;$576!O A 5 3!4$5S6!4 @B> 5 J F 9 J 3 J < ] 57K8$5 < OP576 J F 6!O @ED=@BA 6 F A J 9 5 @ O 4 JUaa 5 A 5 O J < 6+3 A 8'OP3+57; @E< ; @E<'@ED 57; =< 3!4$5 F A 57KL8$5 < O ; J 9 @ C< ]#r4$5 ; =F F 5 A 5 < OP5 =< > 4 @ 6+5 F 5 @ 3!8 A 576 a @ 6 8'6+57; F J A A 57O J M < 3 J < ]W57OP5 < 3 D J ;,8'6+57; > 4 @ 6+5 D J O Y 57; D JJ > 6 3 J A 5 >'A 576!5 < 3 F A 57KL8'5 < O @E< ; > 4 @ 6!5 D J O Y =< M =< 3!4$5 J 6!O =D=DC@ 3 J < 6 J F 4L8 9 @E< M @ 31' ) ]dr4$5 6 9 =D=@BA 3 J FW> 4 @ 6 J AQ 57OP3 J A 6 \)@ 6 >:A J ;:8'OP57; -. @B>'>:D =< M 3!4'5 > 4 @ 6+5 D J O Y =< M D JLJ > @ED M J A 3!4 9 \ a 5 A 5 ;$5N3+5 A 9 =< 57; -. >'A J O A 8:6+3+5766!4 @B> 5 @E<'@ED 6 67] 48$3 D 5 Anr j ) 8'6+57; Q 5 D J O 3 9 J 9 5 < 3!63 J ;$576!O A 5M @ 3 9 J 3 J < @ 6 5 3 A @ OP3+57; F A J 9 @E< 9 @ ME5 6+57K8$5 < OP5E] >:@ 3 =@ED @E< ; 3+5 9 > J AZ@ED 3+5 9 >:DC@ 3+576 a 5 A 5 8$3 CD 57;03 J 5 3 AZ@ OP3 F 5 @ 3!8 A 5767]# @ O Y M A J 8 < ; 6!8 3 AZ@ OP3 J < a @ 6n8'6+57; 3 J 6 J D=@ 3+5d3!4$5_6Z8 T 57OP3!6 =< J A ;$5 A 3 J 5 3 AZ@ OP36 >:@ 3 C@ED 3+5 9 >:DC@ 3+576N] r4$5 9 5N3!4 J ; a @ 6 6Z4 Jba < 3 J 5 D 576!6%6+5 < 6 3 =Q 53 J < J 6!5 \ 3!48'6 9 @BY =< M 38:6+5 F 8 D:F J A 6+57KL8'5 < OP576 =<

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a 4 OZ4 3!4$5 57;$ME576 @BA 5 > JJ AZD 5 3 AZ@ OP3+57;G] r4$5 =< 3 C@ED M @ 3 A 57O J M < 3 J < A 576!8 D 3!68:6 =< M 3+5 9 > J AZ@ED 3+5 9 >:DC@ 3+576 a 5 A 5 @ 6+57; J <,@ ; @ 3 @ 6+5N3 J F 6!8 T 57OP3!6N] J O Yd@E< ; f J 4 < 6 J < ) 8'6!57;d6+3 @ 3 O J ; @E< ;_6+3 A ;'5 >:@BAZ@ 9 5N3+5 A 6 A 57O J Q 5 A 57; F A J 9 ; 5 A 5 < 3 Q 5 a @E< M D 576 \ =< =< ; JJ A/@E< ; J 8$3!; JLJ A 6+5N3+3 =< Mk6 \k@ 6 F 5 @ 3!8 A 576 F J A A 57O J M < 3 J < ] r4 6 aJ A!Y a @ 6 ; J < 5 J < @ ; @ 3 @ @ 6!5 J FhBi 6!8 T 57OP3!6 a 3!4S3!4$5d8:6+5 J F 5 D 57OP3 A J 9 @ M < 5N3 O 9 @BA!Y 5 A 6 \c@E< ; J < g 6!8 T 57OP3!6 8'6 C< M Q ;$5 J @ 6+57; F 5 @ 3!8 A 5 A 57O J Q 5 A ] < J A ;$5 A 3 J 5 QB@ED 8 @ 3+5 3!4$5 ; 6!O A 9 =<'@ 3 J < @ =D 3 J F 3!4$5 6+5N3 J F >c@BAZ@ 9 5N3+5 A 68 < ;$5 A 3!4$5; X5 A 5 < 3O J < ; 3 J < 6 \ 3!4'55 > 57OP3+57; O J <$F 8'6 J < 9 5 @ 6!8 A 5 a @ 68:6+57;G] r @E<'@ aJ < Mk6!8 a @E< @E< ; J O Yc\)F A J 9 3!4$5 6 @ 9 5 A 576+5 @BA O 4 M A J 8 >)\ C< @ 6 9 =D=@BAnD =< 5 J FA 576+5 @BA O 4 \ 8'6+57; T J =< 3 @E< M D 5 3 AZ@UT 57OP3 J A 576 J F 3!4$5 D Jba 5 A J ; >c@BA 3!6 \ O @B> 3!8 A 57; F A J 9 j 5 D 57OP3 A J 9 @ M < 5N3 O 9 @BA!Y 5 A 6 @ 3+3 @ 3!OZ4$57; 3 J 3!4'5 J ; j ) ] r4 6 A 576+5 @BA O 4 aJ A!Y a @ 6#; J < 5 J < @ ; @ 3 @ @ 6+5 J F g i 6+57K8$5 < OP576 3 @BY 5 < F A J 9 g 6!8 T 57OP3!67] r4'5 T J =< 3 @E< M D 53 AZ@UT 57OP3 J A 576 a 5 A 5%O J 9 > 8$3+57; -L. >'A J T 57OP3 =< M 3!4$5 j D J O @ 3 J < 9 5 @ 6!8 A 5 9 5 < 3!6 J < 3 J 3!4$5 a @EDIY C< M >cD=@E< 5E]/r4$5 < 5 @BA 576+3 < 5 Mk4 J A @ED M J A 3!4 9 a @ 6 8'6+57;,3 J > 5 A!F J A 9 3!4$5 A 57O J M < 3 J < ] @ F A J < ONK8 @ 4 r g j*) 8'6+57; 9 J 3 J < 6 .9 9 5N3 A @ 6n3!4$5 @ 6 6 F J AA 57O J M < 3 J 6 J F 6 CD 4 J 8$5N3+3+576N]r4 66 9 =D=@BA 3 6 9 5 @ 6!8 A 57; -L. @ ME5 < 5 AZ@ED 57; 6 .9 9 5N3 A J > 5 AZ@ 3 J A ] ` < 5 @BA 576+3 < 5 Mk4 J A 6 @ 6+57; J < R J 8 A 5 AF 5 @ 3!8 A 576 \ a 5 A 5 O J 9 > 8$3+57; F A J 9 3!4$5#6 .9 9 5N3 A 9 5 @ 6!8 A 5 \'@E< ; a 5 A 5d8'6+57; F J A 3!4$5M @ 3 A 57O J < M 3 J < ] 4 @BY 4 <:@BA J Q OZ4 r j ) 8'6+57; @Q 5 a < J A 9 @ED r7@ 3 J :>'A J @ OZ4 F J A F @ OP5 @E< ;dM @ 3 A 57O J M < 3 J 5 < 6 @ 3+5 F J A ; X5 A =< M Q 5 a > J C< 3!6N]W @E< J < O @ED'Q 5 a > J =< 3!6 a 5 A 5 >'A J ;'8'OP57; -. O J 9 > 8$3 =< M3!4'5 Q 6!8 @ED 48 D=DF A J 9 9 @ ME5763 @BY 5 < F A J 9 F J 8 A ; X5 A 5 < 3WO @ 9 5 AZ@ 6N]W Q IA 3!8 @ED 6 ;$5 Q 5 a J F 3!4$5 6!8 T 57OP3 a @ 6dME5 < 5 AZ@ 3+57; @E< ; 3!4'5 6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 a 5 A 5 O J 9 > 8$3+57; F A J 9 3!4 6 =<$F 5 A!A 57; Q 5 a ] @ OZ4 6 =D 4 J 8'5N3+3+5 a @ 6; =Q ;'57; =< 3 J 6+5 Q 5 < A 5NM J < 6 \@E< ; 5 D => 6+576 a 5 A 5 H 3N] r4$5 OP5 < 3 A J ; \ @ 6 > 57OP3 A @ 3 J \L@E< ; J A 5 < 3 @ 3 J < J F 3!4$576!55 D I> 6!576 \ @ 6 H 3+3+57; J Q 5 A 3 9 5 \ a 5 A 58'6!57; @ 6 F 5 @ 3!8 A 5767] R J A A 57O J M < 3 J :@ 3!4 \@E< ;?3!4$5 ;$5 < 3 3 J F 3!4$5 > 5 A 6 J < ]Wr4$5 DC@BA ME576+3; @ 3 @ @ 6!5O J < 6 6+3+57; J F hBi 6!8 T 57OP3!6 a @EDIY =< M J 8$3!; JJ A 6 a @EDIY =< M @ 3 j ; X5 A 5 < 3 @E< M D 576 F A J 9 3!4$5 9 @ ME5 >:D=@E< 5E]

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`@ED 5 r g *) 8'6!57; O J < 3 C< 8 J 8:6,* *06,3 J O D=@ 6Z6 IF F 5 @ 3!8 A 5 Q 57OP3 J A 6 -. O J 9 > 8$3 =< M 3!4$5 8'O D ;$5 @E< ; 6+3 @E< OP5 5N3 a 5N5 < 3!4'5 9 @ ME576 \ F A J 9 M @ 3d6+57K8$5 < OP576 \ 3 J Y 5 6+3 @E< OP5 F A @ 9 576 F A J 9 @ >:@BA 3 ON8 DC@BA M @ 3dO O D 5E],r4'576+5 F 5 @ 3!8 A 5 Q 57OP3 J A 6_O J 9 >:@ OP3 D O @B> 3!8 A 5 3!4$5 6+3 A 8'OP3!8 @ED@E< ; 3 AZ@E< 6 3 J <'@ED O 4 @BAZ@ OP3+5 A 6!3 ON6 J F @ 6!8 T 57OP3N] 5N5 @E< ; A 9 6 J < hBi0) 8:6+57; 6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 \ 5 3 AZ@ OP3+57; 8'6 =< M @ O Y M A J 8 < ;(6!8 3 AZ@ OP3 J 8'3+5 @ 6+5N3 J F 9 J 9 5 < 3 A 5 DC@ 3+57; F 5 @ 3!8 A 576 J < 6+5 Q 5 < A 5NM J < 6N] r4$576+5 F 5 @ 3!8 A 576 a 5 A 5 3!4$5 < O J 9 >'A 576!6+57; @ O A J 6!6n3 9 5E]r4$5 F 5 @ 3!8 A 5 Q 57OP3 J A a @ 6n6!4 JUa < 3 J O J < 3 @ =< 5 < J 8$Mk4 =<$F J A 9 @ 3 J < 3 J O D=@ 6!6 IF ME5 < ;$5 A7\@E< ; > 5 A!F J A 9 48 9 @E< ;$5 < 3 IH O @ 3 J < a 5 D=D ] r4'5OZ4 @BAZ@ OP3+5 A 6+3 O 574 @7Q J A 6 J F 3 aJ 3 > 576 J F M @ 3 F 5 @ 3!8 A 576 a 5 A 5?;$576!O A 57; \ 3!4$5 H'A 6+3 @ 6+57; J < 3!4$5 @7Q 5 A @ ME5 @B>'> 5 @BAZ@E< OP5 J F M @ 3 \ @E< ; 3!4$5 6!57O J < ; @ 6+57; J < 6 > 57OP3 AZ@ED O J 9 > J < 5 < 3!6N] r4$5 ; @ 3 @ 6+5N3#O J < 6 6+3!6 J F ; @ 3 @ O J D=D 57OP3+57; J < h 6!8 T 57OP3!6 =< ; JJ A 6 a 3!4S; 5 A 5 < 3 @ O Y M A J 8 < ;'6 \ J <,F J 8 A ; X5 A 5 < 3; @ 6N] 5 < ;$5 DIYB@ ;$5 A r j*) g ) 8'6+576 ME5 < M @ 3!6 \ a 4 O 4 6n3!4$5 8'6+5 J F%V % J < 6 9 =D=@BA 3 >:D J 3!67]Wr4 6 6%8'6+57; C< J A ;$5 A 3 J 9 @B> 3!4$5 9 3 J @ D Jba 5 A ; 9 5 < 6 J <'@ED 6 >:@ OP5E]r4$5 3!4$5 < 8:6+53!4$5 6+3 @ 3 O J ; @E< ; ; <'@ 9 O >:@BAZ@ 9 5N3+5 A 6 J F 6!3 A ;$5 D 5 < ME3!4 @E< ; O @ ;$5 < OP5 F J A M @ 3 A 57O J M < 3 J < h*) ] J DCD =< 6 r 6 *) 9 5N3!4 J ; F J A 4L8 9 @E< ;'5 < 3 IH O @ 3 J < a @ 6 @ 6+57; J < J ; 6!4 @B> 5 @E< ; M @ 3N] r/5 9 >:D=@ 3+5 9 @ 3!O 4 =< M J F J ; 6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 a @ 6 > 5 A!F J A 9 57;G] < @ ;'; 3 J 8$3+5 A_Q 6 J < 3+57O 4 < K8$576N] r4$5 3 @ D 5 D 6+3!6 3!4$5 9 5N3!4 J ; 8'6+57; \ 3!4$5 ; @ 3 @ @ 6!5 6 5 \ O J D=D 57OP3 J < 6 3+5 =< ; JLJ A 6 J A J 8$3!; JJ A 6 n \cA 57O J M < 3 J < AZ@ 3+576 @E< ; 3!4$5d6 CD 4 J 8$5N3+3+5#;'5N3+57OP3 J < 9 5N3!4 J ;G] 6O @E< 5#6!5N5 'A 576+5 < 3 @ 3 J < ] " rnn r4'5 ;'5 < 3 IH O @ 3 J < J F =< ; IQ ;'8 @ED 6 -. M @ 3 4 @ 6 57O J 9 5 @ OZ4 @ED=D 5 < ME5 >'A J D 5 9 C< 3!4$5 H 5 D ; J F O J 9 > 8'3+5 AQ 6 J < ]r4$5#O J < ; 3 J < 6 8 < ;$5 A a 4 OZ4S3!4 6 >'A J D 5 9 66 J DIQB@ D 5 @BA 5 < J 3 a 5 D=D 8 < ;$5 A 6+3 JJ ;)] 3 6 < J 3 > J 6Z6 D 5 3 J ; A @ a 6 M < =H O @E< 3O J < O D 8'6 J < 6 -L. 3!4'58'6!5 J F@ 6 C< M D 5 @ED M J A 3!4 9 J < @ 6 9 @EDCD ; @ 3 @ 6+5N3 \A @ 3!4$5 A 3!4$5 8'6+5 J F 9 8 D 3 I>:D 5#5 > 5 A 9 5 < 3!6 J < @SD=@BA ME5 ; @ 3 @ 6+5N3 6 < 57OP576!6 @BA ]

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n r # $ % & (' ) + / 0 1 2 3 / 3 4 3 5 6 7 8 .:9 ; < = 4 + > 5 < 4 ? @ / 5 9 A B C ; 1 * + A D C < / 1 * + 9 + @ E ; 7 / 7 ; + 3 / 6 7 F 0 < / / 2 / @ / 7 ; / 0 1 G 7 H E 7 3 ; 1 I 1 F 5 ; J K L M A -ON B N P N C Q < ; 1 7 ; E @ ; / < + 5 9 G 3 + R 5 / ; 7 E 0 4 + A L 9 B 9 ; ; C Q < ; 1 7 ; E @ ; / < + 5 + @ S R + 1 > + = T U P 5 7 E ; 3 / < + V 7 / / F 3 ; 1 Q H 1 J K W M A X N YZN 6 3 ; 2 7 E C 6 / 3 / 7 5 / 7 @ 3 F = 3 5 < + = ; / 5 > + = [ / 7 @ 3 F \ ] A ^ 9 D K N K ` C D [ / 7 @ 3 F \ ] 6 0 < / F + a b c dfe J g h M A 6 < / 0 3 = [ / ; C P = [ + 3 F = = ; / 5 A L 9 B 9 ; ; C Q 3 @ E + < ; 1 5 < 4 / + 3 @ / 7 ; Q 4 7 @ 3 ; 1 i 0 ; 5 ; J ^ M A j + E 7 3 P @ 0 C 6 / 3 / 7 @ 4 1 H 3 ; 1 5 / + 7 1 [ 3 R + 3 = / + 5 A W k 9 B 9 ; ; C A W h 9 D 9 ; ; C Q 3 @ E + < ; 1 5 < 4 / + 3 @ / 7 ; l 3 H > + ; R I @ m < 3 0 a b c dfe J W g M A 6 < / 0 3 = [ / ; C 6 H = = / + H A L 9 B 9 W n n ` C A ^ 9 B 9 o N ^ ` C Q 3 @ E + < ; 1 5 < 4 / + 3 @ / 7 ; Q ; I 4 1 F 3 1 + a b c dfe J g M J W M A 3 + H F 3 ; 1 C p 7 E ; E 3 7 / 5 q r Y I S + 5 F > R 5 7 = 7 F 3 + 7 / H [ F / 5 A ^ 9 D g ` C A L L 9 D 9 o o ` C Q 3 @ E + < 1 5 < 4 / + 3 @ / 7 ; 6 0 3 0 ; 3 + S 7 @ 0 a b c dfe J g L M A -ON B N P N C s 7 5 < 3 F 0 < F F 9 = ; / > 3 R / < + 5 A W Kt9 B 9 h K ` 9 k o ` C Q 3 @ E + < ; 1 5 < 4 / + 3 @ / 7 ; u 4 F 1 R s E 3 a b c dfe J K M A X N 6 N v N C v 3 / < + + F 3 / 7 ; 5 0 7 [ 5 A g 9 B 9 ; ; C A W n 9 D 9 W n n ` C A K n 9 D k n ` C A o L 9 D 9 n ` C Q 3 @ E + < ; 1 5 < 4 / + 3 @ / 7 ; w 3 F a b c dfe J W k M A 3 + H R F 3 ; 1 C ) 7 1 / 0 > < / + @ ; / < + A h 9 D 9 W n n ` C A K h 9 B 9 o K ` C A L gt9 D 9 h ^ ` C Q 3 @ E + < ; 1 5 < 4 / + 3 @ / 7 ; V . 3 ; 1 j + 7 = 5 ; J K n M A -ON B N P N C j 3 7 / 3 [ [ 3 + 3 ; @ > 3 / < + 5 A K L 9 B 9 W n n ` C Q 3 @ E + < ; 1 5 < 4 / + 3 @ / 7 ; r 0 7 F 7 [ 5 a b c dfe J K ^ 9 g n M A X N 6 N v N C A G N B N 6ZN P N C 5 [ 3 / 7 R / = [ + 3 F = 3 / @ 0 7 ; E A o W 9 D 9 o g ` C A W K K 9 D 9 o k ` C Q 3 @ E + < ; 1 5 < 4 / + 3 @ / 7 ; Y F F 7 ; 5 a b c dfe J M A YZN -ON X N C P = [ F 3 / = 3 / @ 0 7 ; E A K h 9 K L 9 K k 9 B 9 ; ; C A h h 9 D 9 ; ; C Q 3 @ E + < ; 1 5 < 4 / + 3 @ / 7 ;

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r4$5 M @ 3#OZ4 @ED=D 5 < ME5 >:A J D 5 9 a @ 6#;'576 M < 57; 3 J = 5 A!F J A 9 @E< OP5 J FA 57O J M < 3 J < ] r4$5 =<$F AZ@ 6+3 A 8'OP3!8 A 5 a @ 6d;'5 Q 5 D J > 57; =< J A ;$5 A 3 J F @ O CD 3 @ 3+5 3!4'5 ='>cD O @ 3 J < J F ;$5 < 3 O @ED 5 > 5 A 9 5 < 3!6 J < ;$5 < 3 O @ED ; @ 3 @ 6!5N3!6N] < 3!4 66!57OP3 J < a 5 6 Y 5N3!O 4 3!4$5_; 5 A 5 < 3 @ 6 > 57OP3!6 J F 3!4$5?M @ 3 O 4 @ED=D 5 < ME5 \ 8 > J < a 4 OZ4 3!4$5 C< Q 576+3 M @ 3 J < 6 J F 3!4 6_3!4$576 6 6 8 =D 3N] R J A ;'5N3 @ =D 6_3!4$5 A 5 @ ;$5 A 6 A 5 F 5 A 57;S3 J h \ch \:j g ) ] & n r4'5_; @ 3 @ a @ 6nO J D=D 57OP3+57; @ 3n3!4$5 < =Q 5 A 6 3 J F J 8$3!4 R D J A ; @ J Q 5 AF J 8 A ; @ 6 \ @ hBi h g \ hBiEi g @E< ; J Q 5 9d5 A g g \%hBiEi g ] r4$5 A 5 @BA 5 jEj O J 9 9 J < 6!8 T 57OP3!6 5N3 a 5N5 < 3!4$5,* @ @E< ; J Q 5 9d5 A ; @ 3 @ O J DCD 57OP3 J < 6N]Wr4$5ON8 AZA 5 < 3 Q 5 A 6 J < J F 3!4$5; @ 3 @ @ 6+5O J < 6 6!3!6 J F g i 6+57KL8'5 < OP576 3 @BY 5 < F A J 9 g hEh =< ; =Q ;:8 @ED 6 \ J Q 5 A_jEh O J < ; 3 J < 6N]r4 6; @ 3 @ @ 6+5 63!4$5 D=@BA ME576!3 @bQ[@ CD=@ D 5 @ O O J A ; C< M 3 J 3!4$5 < 8 9d5 A J F 6!8 T 57OP3!6 \B< 8 9d5 A J F 6+57KL8'5 < OP576 \B@E< ; < 8 9d5 A J F O J < ; 3 J < 6GO J D=D 57OP3+57;G] R J A O J 9 >:@BA 6 J <)\ 9 J 6+3M @ 3 @ 6!57; aJ AZY 6O J D=D 57OP3+57; ; @ 3 @ J < @B>'>'A J 9 @ 3+5 D hBi?> 5 J >cD 5_8 < ;$5 A J <'D @ F 5 a O J < ; 3 J < 6%r @ D 5 h ] g ]r4'5nR ; @ 3 @ a @ 6O J D=D 57OP3+57; =< 3!4$5 J 8$3!6 ;'55 '>'A J 9 @ 3+5 D H'Q 5?3 9 576 O J 8 < 3+5 A O D J O Y a 6!5 @BA J 8 < ; 3 aJ 5 DCD I> 3 O @ED O J 8 A 6!576 J F 6 9 =D=@BA 6 5 \ J < 5 J < O J < O A 5N3+5 >:@7Q 5 9 5 < 3 \ @E< ; J < 5 J < @ M AZ@ 6Z6 D=@ a < ] r4'5 @ 6 O 6+5N3!8 > 6 =D=D 8:6+3 AZ@ 3+57; =< R M$] h ] g ]Wr4$5 9 @UT J A@ 6 J F 3!4$55 D=D I> 6+576 a @ 6 @ J 8'3 g_9 5N3+5 A 6 @E< ; 3!4$5 9 =< J A@ 6 a @ 6 @ J 8'3 S9 5N3+5 A 67] r4$576+5 O J 8 A 6+576 a 5 A 5 Q 5 a 57; -. 3 aJ O @ 9 5 AZ@ 6 \ a 4 OZ4 a 5 A 5 D J O @ 3+57; @B>'>'A J 9 @ 3+5 D g 9 5N3+5 A 6 F A J 9 3!4$5 5 < ;'6 J F 3!4'5_5 DCD I> 6+5 \ 6 Y 5 a 57; @ 3 @B>'>'A J 9 @ 3+5 D @ jBi ;$5NM A 5N5 @E< M D 5 C< J A ;'5 A 3!4 @ 3n3!4$5 5 < 3 IA 5_5 DCD I> 6+5 aJ 8 D ; 5 Q 6 D 5E]nr4$5 6+57K8$5 < OP576 @bQ[@ CD=@ D 5 O J < 6 6+3 J F 3!4$5 H:<'@ED D=@B> J F a @ED=Y =< M \ 3!4 6 6 =< J A ;$5 A 3 J O J D=D 57OP3; @ 3 @ F A J 9 a 4$5 < 3!4$5 6!8 T 57OP3!6 57O @ 9 5O J 9 F J A 3 @ D 5 a 3!4 3!4$5O J 8 A 6+5 @E< ; @BA 5 a @EDIY =< M @ 3 @< J A 9 @ED:>:@ OP5E]WR Mk8 A 576 h ] h@E< ; h ] j 6!4 JUa J < 56 @ 9 >:D 5 F A @ 9 5 F A J 9 5 @ OZ4 J F 3!4$5O @ 9 5 AZ@ Q 5 a 6 F J A O J < O A 5N3+5 \'@E< ; M AZ@ 6Z6 A 576 > 57OP3 IQ 5 D ] r4$56 r 5 J F 3!4$576+56+57K8$5 < OP576 A @E< ME5 F A J 9 iEi 3 J iEi F AZ@ 9 576N]Wr4$5 F AZ@ 9 576 6 \ hBi\ -L. \ Bi\ > 5 D 6 \ ='> 9 9 @ ME5E] r4'5,6!8 T 57OP3!6 A J 8$Mk4L3 @ 6+57O J < ; >:@ IA J F 6!4 J 576 @E< ; a @EDIY 57; 3!4$5S5 D=D I> 6+576 @ 6+57O J < ;(3 9 5 \ =< J A ;$5 A 3 J O J DCD 57OP3; @ 3 @ a 3!4 QB@BA =< MS6!4 J 5 3 > 5767]# < @ ;'; 3 J <)\ 3!4'5 6Z8 T 57OP3!6 a 5 A 5 @ 6 Y 57; 3 J g i

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15.85 m Elliptical Path 1.7 m C C 13.5 m 13.5 m 4.7 m Calibration Board R Mk8 A 5 h ] g ]X @ 9 5 AZ@ 5N3!8 > F J A 3!4'5_ @ 3ONKL8 6 3 J < ] R Mk8 A 5 h ] h ]'1 5 a 6 F A J 9 )5 F 3 @E< ;S Mk4L3 @ 9 5 AZ@ 6 J < J < O A 5N3+5 8 A!F @ OP5E] gEg

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R Mk8 A 5 h ] j ]c1 5 a 6 F A J 9 )5 F 3 @E< ;, Mk4L3 @ 9 5 AZ@ 6 J < AZ@ 6!6n8 A!F @ OP5E] r @ D 5 h ] h ]X8 9#5 A J F 57KL8'5 < OP576 F J A @ OZ4 V J 6!6 D 5_ J 9d=<'@ 3 J < ]8 A!F @ OP576 J A n \ 4 J 5 J A n \ @ 9 5 AZ@ J A n @BAZA C< M J < ; 3 J < J A n \c@E< ;Sr 9 5 e* @ J A J Q n ] 8 A!F @ OP5 J < O A 5N3+5 AZ@ 6!6 @BAZA R %R $4 J 5 @ 9 5 AZ@ \ n \ n \ n \ n \ n \ n \ n \ n r 9 5 g h g i g h g i g hEh g hBi i r 9 5 jEj jEj a @EDIY 3!4$5 5 DCD I> 6+5 O @BAZA C< M @ A 5 F O @ 6+5E],r4$5 A 5 F J A 5 \ 3!4$5 A 5 @BA 5 @ 6 9 @E< @ 6 jEh ; X5 A 5 < 3 Q ;$5 J 6+57K8$5 < OP576 > 5 A 6!8 T 57OP3N" AZ@ 6Z6 n J A J < O A 5N3+5 n n 5 F 3 nO @ 9 5 AZ@ J A Mk4L3 O @ 9 5 AZ@ n n 6!4 J 5? J A 6!4 J 5 n A 5 F O @ 6+5 n J A J A 5 F O @ 6+5 n n e* @ J A J Q n ] r @ D 5 h ] h 6!4 JUa 6 3!4$5 < 8 9d5 A J F 6!57KL8$5 < OP576 F J A 5 @ OZ4 O J 9#=<'@ 3 J < J F O J QB@BA =@ 3+5767] n 0 r4'5nO 4 @ED=D 5 < ME55 > 5 A 9 5 < 3!6 F J A M @ 3 @ 6+57; @ 6+57; A 57O J M < 3 J 'A J 56+5N3!6 \'@BF 3+5 A 3!4$5R @ ONO J M < 3 J < r57O 4 < J D J M R r n5 QB@ED 8 @ 3 J < 6N] r4$5 M @ED=D 5 A 6+5N3 6 @ 6Z8 6+5N3 J F 3!4$5 5 <$A J D=D 57; ; @ 3 @\ @E< ; 3!4$5 >:A J 5 6+5N3!6 @BA 5 6!8 T 57OP3!6 J F 3!4$5 KL8$5 A ; @ 3 @ ]R IQ 5O J Q[@BA =@ 3+576 @BA 56+3!8'; 57;)" 6Z8 A!F @ OP53 > 5 J < O A 5N3+5 n J A AZ@ 6!6 n n \ 6!4 J 53 > 5 J A n \kQ 5 a > J =< 3 5 F 3O @ 9 5 AZ@ n J A Mk4 3WO @ 9 5 A @ n n \ O @BAZA C< MO J < ; 3 J < a 3!4 A 5 F O @ 6+5 %R n J A J A 5 F O @ 6!5 n n \ @E< ; 3 9 5 A 5 F 5 A 63 J 6!8 T 57OP3!6 F A J 9 @ \ @E< ; < 5 a 6!8 T 57OP3 g h

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r @ D 5 h ] j ]r4$5 VA J 55N3 F J A @ O 4 J F 3!4$5%4 @ED=D 5 < ME5 > 5 A 9 5 < 3!6N] r4$58 9d5 A J F 8 T 57OP3!6 =< @ OZ4 $8 6+5N3 6 C< 3!4$5_K8 @BA 5 AZ@ O Y 5N3!67] > ] VWA J 5 5 e* @ n r 5 e* @ J Q n 5 A 5 < OP5#R A J 9 @ED=D 5 A \ \ \ \ n g g hEh 1 5 a \ \ \ \ n g 4 J 5 \ \ \ \ n g 4 J 5 \ 1 5 a \ \ \ \ n i g h g 8 A!F @ OP5 \ \ \ \ n i 8 A!F @ OP5 \ 4 J 5 R \ \ \ \ n i g h g 8 A!F @ OP5 \ 1 5 a \ \ \ \ n i 8 A!F @ OP5 \ 4 J 5 \ 1 5 a \ \ \ R \ n i g hBi A 5 F O @ 6!5 \ \ \ %R \ n i 4 J 5 \ A 5 F O @ 6!5 f \ \ \ R \ n i g hBi 1 5 a \ A 5 F O @ 6!5 ` \ [ \ \ \ n jEj r 9 5 6Z4 J 5 \ O D J 3!4 =< M n \ [ \ \ \ n jEj 8 A!F @ OP5 3 9 5 \ 6Z4 J 5 \ O D J 3!4 =< M n F A J 9 J Q 5 9d5 A O J D=D 57OP3 J <)\ A 5 F 5 A 63 J 6!8 T 57OP3!6 F A J 9 J Q 5 9d5 A 3!4 @ 3 @BA 5 A 5 > 5 @ 3n6!8 T 57OP3!6 n ] @ 6+57; J < 3!4$5 QB@ED 8$576 J F 3!4$5#O J QB@BA =@ 3+5763!4$5_; @ 3 @ 6+5N3 6; IQ ;$57; C< 3 J jEh > J 6!6 D 5n6Z8 6+5N3!6N" \ \ \ \ n \ \ \ \ \ n \ \ \ \ %R \ n \ \ \ \ %R \ n \ \ \ \ \ n \ \ \ \ \ n \ \ \ \ %R \ n \ \ \ \ %R \ n \ \ \ \ \ n \ \ \ \ \ n \ \ \ \ %R \ n \ \ \ \ %R \ n \ \ \ \ \ n \ \ \ \ \ n \ \ \ \ %R \ n \ \ \ \ % \ n \ \ \ \ \ n \ \ \ \ \ n \ \ \ \ R \ n \ \ \ \ R \ n \ \ \ \ \ n \ \ \ \ \ n \ \ \ \ %R \ n \ \ \ \ R \ n \ \ \ \ \ n \ \ \ \ \ n \ \ \ \ %R \ n \ \ \ \ R \ n \ \ \ \ \ n \ \ \ \ \ n \ \ \ \ %R \ n \ \ \ \ % \ n ]k] < 5 J F 3!4$5 D=@BA ME576+36!8 6+5N3!6 \ \ \ \ n \ J F 6 5 g hEh\ a @ 6;'576 M <'@ 3+57; @ 63!4$5M @EDCD 5 A 6+5N3N]Wr4'5 J 3!4$5 A 6!8 6+5N3!6 a 5 A 5 @ED=D J O @ 3+57; 3 J 3!4$5SO J A!A 576 > J < ; =< M >:A J 5 6+5N3!6 \ ; X5 A =< M =< Q[@BA J 8'6 O J 9#=<'@ 3 J < J F O J Q[@BA =@ 3+576 F A J 9 3!4$5 M @ED=D 5 A 6!5N3N]Wr4$56+3 A 8'OP3!8 A 5 J F 3!4'5OZ4 @ED=D 5 < ME55 > 5 A 9 5 < 3!6 6 D 6+3+57; =< r @ D 5 h ] j ]R J A 3!4'56+3!8'; =< 3!4 63!4$576 6 a 5 T 8'6+3O J < OP5 < 3 AZ@ 3+57; J < 3!4$5 @ ; @ 3 @\XF J A a 4 OZ403!4$5_6 576 @BA 5 6!4 Jba < =< 3!4$5 3!4 IA ;SO J D 8 9 < J F 3!4$53 @ D 5E] g j

PAGE 25

R Mk8 A 5 h ] ]:R D JUa O 4 @BA 3 J F 3!4$5 @ 6+5 D =< 5 D M J A 3!4 9 ] g

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r*" r4'5 @ 6!5 D =< 5 @ED M J A 3!4 9 @ 6 J 8$3 D C< 57; C< R M$] h ] a @ 6 ;'576 M < 57; 3 J 5 @ 6 9 >cD 5 @E< ; F @ 6+3 J < 5 \ 3!4 @ 35 X57OP3 IQ 5 D O J 9 > 8$3+576W3!4$56 9 =DC@BA 3 J F M @ 3 =< Q ;$5 J 6!57KL8$5 < OP576 \ @ 6+57; J < 6Z4 @B> 5 @E< ; ; <'@ 9 ON6 h \kh ) ] r4$5 @ED M J A 3!4 9 O J < 6 6+3!6 J F 3!4 A 5N5 >c@BA 3!6N] r4$5 H'A 6+3 >:@BA 3 6+5 9 @ 8'3 J 9 @ 3 O @ED=D 9 @BA!Y 6 J 8 < ; =< M J 576 @BA J 8 < ;3!4$5 > 5 A 6 J < =< 5 @ O 4 F AZ@ 9 5 J F#@ 6+57KL8'5 < OP5E]r4$5 J 8 < ; =< M J 576 @BA 5 OZ4 J 6!5 < 3 J @ED=D Jba @ 6 9 @EDCDW@BA 5 @ J F 3!4$5 @ O Y M A J 8 < ; 3 J 6Z8 A!A J 8 < ;03!4'5 > 5 A 6 J < C< 3!4$5 J X] 6 =< M @ f @7QB@ @ 6+57;n \ 3!4$5 8'6!5 A 9 @E< 8 @ED=D J 8$3 D =< 57; J 8 < ; C< M J 576 =< 3!4'5 Y 5 F AZ@ 9 576 J F 3!4$56!3 @BA 3 =< M \ 9 ;'; D 5 \ @E< ; 5 < ; =< M J F 3!4$56+57K8$5 < OP5E]Wr4$5 J 576 F J A 3!4$5 C< 3+5 A 9 57; =@ 3+5 F AZ@ 9 576 @BA 5 D =< 5 @BAZD =< 3+5 A!> J D=@ 3+57; F A J 9 3!4$5 9 @E< 8 @ED J < 576 \ 8 < ;'5 A 3!4$5 @ 6!6!8 9 > 3 J < J F)@ O J < 6+3 @E< 3 6 > 5N57; J F 9 J 3 J < 5N3 a 5N5 < 3!4$5 Y 5 F A @ 9 576N] r4$5 O JLJ A ; =<'@ 3+576 J F 3!4$5 8 >'> 5 A D 5 F 3 @E< ; J 3+3 J 9 A Mk4L3nO J AZ< 5 A 6 @BA 5 =< 3+5 A!> J D=@ 3+57;G]r4 6 =< 3+5 AZ> J DC@ 3 J < aJ A!Y 6 576+3 J <0F A J < 3 @ED >:@BA @ED=D 5 De\ O J < 6+3 @E< 3 Q 5 D J O 3 9 J 3 J <)\ a 4 O 4 6 F J 8 < ; =< 3!4$5 @ O Y > J A 3 J < J F 3!4$5 5 DCD I> 6+5 a 4 OZ4 6 3!4$5 J < 5 >:A J OP576Z6+57; =< 3!4$576!55 > 5 A 9 5 < 3!67] r4'5,6+57O J < ; >:@BA 3 J F 3!4'5 @ED M J A 3!4 9 6 6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 5 3 A @ OP3 J < ]R IA 6!3_3!4'5 @ O Y M A J 8 < ; 6 576+3 9 @ 3+57;G]Wr4 6 6; J < 5 J <'D F J A 3!4'5 @BA 5 @ a 3!4 =< 3!4$56Z8 > 5 A J 8 < ; C< M J \ a 4 OZ4 6W3!4$5 @BA 5 @ a 3!4 =< 3!4$5n8 < J < J F 3!4'5 J 8 < ; =< M J 576 =< 5 @ O 4 F AZ@ 9 5E]WR J A 5 @ O 4 > 5 D:D J O @ 3 J 5 D QB@ED 8$576 =< 3!4$5 F AZ@ 9 576 a 4$5 < 3!4 @ 3 D J O @ 3 J < 6 < J 3 a 3!4 =< 3!4$5O J A!A 576 > J < ; =< M J 8 < ; =< M J @BA 5 8'6+57;,3 J O J 9 > 8$3+53!4'5 9 5 @E<,@E< ; O J QB@BA =@E< OP5 J F 3!4$5d Q[@ED 8'576N] r4'5 @ 4 @ED=@E< J 6#; 6!3 @E< OP5 6dO J 9 > 8$3+57; F J A 3!4$5 J 8 < ; =< M J 6 > 5 D 6 QB@ED 8$5 F A J 9 3!4$5 576+3 9 @ 3+57; 9 5 @E< @ O Y M A J 8 < ; QB@ED 8$5 F J A 5 @ O 4 F AZ@ 9 5E] r4'5 ; 6+3 @E< OP5 9 @ ME5 66 9 JLJ 3!4$57; -L. @ 3 aJ >:@ 6!6 j j?@bQ 5 AZ@ ME5 H:D 3+5 A7\ =< J A ;$5 A 3 J >'A J ;'8'OP5 6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 a 3!4 6 9 JLJ 3!4 J 8 < ; @BA 576 \X@E< ; @ED 6 J 3 J 9 >'A J Q 5 A 57O J M < 3 J 5 A!F J A 9 @E< OP5E]Wr4'5 > 57OP3 @ 3 J < @ 9 r7@ 3 J < n @ED M J A 3!4 9 6n8'6+57; 3 J 576+3 9 @ 3+5 3!4$5 6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 F A J 9 3!4$576+5 ; 6+3 @E< OP576N]dr4'5 D=@BA ME576+3O J <'< 57OP3+57; A 5NM J < @ 6 ;$5N3+57OP3+57; -. O J <'< 57OP3+57; O J 9 > J < 5 < 3 D=@ 5 D =< M 6 Y 5 > 3N]n5 3 \ 3!4$5_8 >'> 5 A 4 @EDIF J F 3!4'5_6 CD 4 J 8$5N3+3+5 68'6+57; 3 J OP5 < 3+5 A 3 =< 3!4'54 J A r J < 3 @ED ; IA 57OP3 J < ] r4$56 CD 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 @BA 56 r 5 < J A 9 @ED r 57; =< J A ;$5 A 3 J J ONON8 > 3!4'5 5 < 3 IA 5 D 5 < ME3!4 J F 3!4'5 J 8$3 > 8$3_6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+5 F AZ@ 9 5E] r4 6 6_; J < 5 -L. 6ZO @ED =< M 3!4$5 F J A 5NM A J 8 < ; A 5NM J < 6 J 3!4 @ 3 3!4$5S4$5 Mk4L3 6d57K8 IQB@ED 5 < 3d3 J g h \ 3!4$5S4$5 Mk4L3 J 8$3 > 8$3 F A @ 9 5S6 5 \ a 4 OZ4 6 J F g h -L. > 5 D 6N] 5NM 9 5 < 3 @ 3 J < 5 A!A J A 6 J ONON8 A C< =< 6!3 @E< OP576 J F @ n#6!4 @ ; Jba 6 n 9 J Q =< M J T 57OP3!6 =< 3!4$5 @ O Y M A J 8 < ; \'@E< ; O n QB@BA =@ 3 J < 6 =< =D=D 8 9 =<'@ 3 J < ] g

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n n < 3!4 6dO 4 @B> 3+5 A a 5 a CD=D 5 >:D J A 5 A 576!8 D 3!6 @ 6_ME5 < 5 AZ@ 3+57; F A J 9 3!4'5 8'6!5 J F 3!4$5 M A J 8 < ;$3 A 8$3!4 6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+576N] R IA 6+3 \ a 5 a =D=D O J 9 >:@BA 5 3!4$5 A 57O J M < 3 J < AZ@ 3+576 J F 3!4$5 @ 6+5 D =< 5 @ED M J A 3!4 9 J < M A J 8 < ;$3 A 8$3!4 6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 @E< ; J < @ 8$3 J 9 @ 3+57; 6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+5767],r4 6 6#; J < 5 -L. O J 9 >:@BA =< M 3!4$5 IA @E< ; ON8 A!Q 576N] < @ ;:; 3 J 5 A!F J A 9 57; J < 3!4$5 A 576!8 D 3!6 F J A 3!4$5 @ 8$3 J 9 @ 3+57; @E< ; M A J 8 < ;$3 A 8$3!4 6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+576W ON8 A!Q 576 3 J ;'5N3+5 A 9 =< 5%6+3 @ 3 6!3 O @ED 6 M < IH O @E< OP5 =< @E< ; X5 A 5 < OP5E]57O J < ; \ a 5 C< Q 576+3 M @ 3+57; 3!4$5d5 X57OP3!6 J F ; 5 A 5 < 3 J ; >:@BA 3!6 J < A 57O J M < 3 J < ] r4$5M A J 8 < ;$3 A 8'3!4 H:D 576O J < 3 @ =< ; 5 A 5 < 3O J D J A O J ; =< Mk6 F J A ; 5 A 5 < 3 J ; >:@BA 3!6 \ 4$5 @ ; \ 3 J A 6 J \ @BA 9 6 \ 8 >:> 5 A%@E< ; D Jba 5 AD 5NMk6 \ 3!4 6 @ED=D JUa 6 F J A 5 > 5 A 9 5 < 3 @ 3 J < =< @_QB@BA 5N3 J F O J 9d=<'@ 3 J < 6 J F 3!4$5 J ; >:@BA 3!6 F J A J > 3 9 @EDA 57O J M < 3 J < ]r4 =A ; D \ a 5_5 @ 9 C< 5#3!4$5 > J 3+5 < 3 C@ED J F 8:6 =< M 6!3 @ 3 O J ; >c@BAZ@ 9 5N3+5 A 6 F J AA 57O J M < 3 J < ] r4 6 a @ 6%; J < 5 -L. 5 > 5 A 9 5 < 3 =< M J < 6 J 9 5O J 9 9 J < 6!3 @ 3 O J ; >:@BA @ 9 5N3+5 A 6 6!8'O 4 @ 6_O @ ;$5 < OP5 \ 6+3 A ;$5 D 5 < ME3!4 \ J ; 6!4 @B> 5 \ F AZ@ 9 576 > 5 A M @ 3dO O D 5 \W@E< ; 5 J A M C@ r57O 4 =< 6 > IA 57; 6+3 @ 3 O < J A 9 @ED 57; >c@BAZ@ 9 5N3+5 A 6N] R J A 3!4$576+5 6!3 @ 3 O J ; >:@BAZ@ 9 5N3+5 A 6 @ O J A!A 5 DC@ 3 J < J F 3!4$5 IA#Q[@ED 8'576 @ O A J 6!6_6!4 J 5 3 > 5 VWA J 5 n @E< ; @ O A J 6Z6#6!8 AZF @ OP5 VA J 5 n a @ 6 >:D J 3+3+57; @E< ; 3!4$5 IA#A 6!K8 @BA 57; QB@ED 8$576 a 5 A 5 O J 9 >:@BA 57;G] @ 6+3 D \/>:@ 3+3+5 AZ< 6 J F M @ 3#OZ4 @E< ME576 a 5 A 5 =:D=@ 3+5 J Q 5 AZD=@ 5 AZA J A>:@ 3+3+5 AZ< 6N] r #% *0ON5 9 @BAr 63+576+3 68'6+57;03 J O J 9 >:@BA 5_3 aJ @ED M J A 3!4 9 6 @E< ; n J <0@ O J 9 9 J < ; @ 3 @ 6+5N3N] r4 63+576!3 a @ 6 =< 3 A J ;:8'OP57; 3 J 3!4$5 O J 9 > 8'3+5 AQ 6 J < O J 9 9 8 < 3 .0-. 5 Q 5 A ;$ME5 r ) ] < 3!4 6 9 J ;$5 D 3!4$5 F J D=D JUa =< M F J 8 An< 8 9d5 A 6 < 5N57; 3 J 5 O @ED ON8 D=@ 3+57;G" A 5 F 5 A 6n3 J 3!4$5 < 8 9d5 A J F 6!8 T 57OP3!6 3!4 @ 3 @BA 5%O J A!A 57OP3 D O D=@ 6!6 =H 57; -.J 3!4 @ED M J A 3!4 9 6 @E< ;d n ] A 5 F 5 A 6 3 J 3!4$5 < 8 9#5 A J F 6!8 T 57OP3!6 =< O J A!A 57OP3 D O D=@ 6Z6 H 57; -. J 3!4 @ED M J A 3!4 9 6 @E< ;S n ] A 5 F 5 A 6 3 J 3!4$5 < 8 9d5 A J F 6!8 T 57OP3!6O J A!A 57OP3 D O D=@ 6!6 IF 57; -. @ED M J A 3!4 9 8$3 a 4 OZ4 @BA 5 =< O J A!A 57OP3 D O D=@ 6Z6 IF 57; -L. @ED M J A 3!4 9 g

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] A 5 F 5 A 6 3 J 3!4$5 < 8 9d5 A J F 6!8 T 57OP3!6 a 4 OZ4 @BA 5 =< O J A!A 57OP3 D O D=@ 6!6 IH 57; -. @ED M J A 3!4 9 8$3 a 4 OZ4 @BA 5#O J AZA 57OP3 D O D=@ 6!6 =F 57; -. @ED M J A 3!4 9 ]cr4$5 @E< ; < 8 9#5 A 6 @BA 5d; 6!O @BA ;'57;G] r4$5 F J A 9 8 D=@ 3 J < F J A *0ON5 9 @BA 6 3+576+3 6 @ 6 F J DCD Jba 67] R IA 6+3 D 5N3 53!4$5 < 8 9#5 A J ONON8 A!A 5 < OP576 @E< ; 5%3!4$5 < 8 9d5 A J F J ONON8 AZA 5 < OP576N] 6 @E< @ED 3+5 AZ<'@ 3+54 > J 3!4$576 6 \n 6 O J < 6 ;$5 A 57; 3 J 5 'r ) r )%\ 3!4L8'6 9 >:D =< M_3!4 @ 3 @ED M J A 3!4 9 F @ =D 6 D 576!6 J F 3+5 < 3!4 @E< @ED M J A 3!4 9 ] < ;$5 A @ 3 D 5 @ 6!3 9 6 9 @ 3!O 4$576 F @7Q J A ) @ 3 D 5 @ 6+3 9 6 9 @ 3!OZ4'576 F @bQ J A ) #" $ i&% ')(* a 4'5 A 5, ] r4$5 >:A J @ =D 3 A 576!8 D 3 =< M F A J 9 3!4'576+5 O J 9 > 8'3 @ 3 J < 6 6 3!4$5 +),.0/ %F J AA 5 T 57OP3 =< M 1 C:D 5 M @ 3_O O D 576 @BA 5 >:D J 3+3+57; =< R M ] g F J A 5 > 5 A 9 5 < 3 \ @ O A J 6Z66Z4 J 5d3 > 576 \ @E< ; =< R M$] ] h F J A 5 > 5 A 9 5 < 3 \ J Q 5 A 6!8 A!F @ OP5E] < 3!4'576+5 M AZ@B> 4:63!4$5dM A 5N5 < >:D J 3 6 F J A 3!4$5 A 576!8 D 3!6 J F 3!4$5 J A M =<'@ED M @ 3 @ 6+5 D =< 5 @ED M J A 3!4 9 \ D 8'5#6!4 JUa 6 3!4$5 A 576!8 D 3!6 J 6?8 O O D 5 J F M A J 8 < ;$3 A 8$3!4?6 CD 4 J 8$5N3+3+576N]Wr4$5 > 5 AZF J A 9 @E< OP5 J Q 5 A 6!8 A!F @ OP5 F J A 6 =< M D 5O O D 5 @ 8$3 J 9 @ 3+57; 6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 \A 5 F 5 A!A 57; 3 J @ 6 8$3 J 9 @ 3+57; C< 3!4'5 >:D J 3!6 \$@E< ;?3!4$5nM A J 8 < ;$3 A 8$3!4?6 CD 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 6 Q 5 A 6 9 =D=@BA7\ a 4 =D 53!4$5 > 5 AZF J A 9 @E< OP5 F A J 9 9 8 D 3 I>:D 5nO O D 576 \'A 5 F 5 A!A 57;S3 J @ 6 @ 6+5 D C< 5 =< 3!4$5 >:D J 3!6 \ 6 ; X5 A 5 < 3N] R J A 5 > 5 A 9 5 < 3W F J A 3!4$56 C< M D 5 O O D 5 @ 8$3 J 9 @ 3+57; @E< ; M A J 8 < ;$3 A 8'3!4 6 =D 4 J 8'5N3+3+576 3!4$5 >?Q[@ED 8$5 F J A *0ON5 9 @BAr 6 3+576+3 6 i ] g g $\ @E< ; 3!4$5#%4 KL8 @BA 5 Q[@ED 8'5 6 g ] L] ON5 9 @BAr 63+576+3 O J 8 D ; < J 3 5 > 5 A!F J A 9 57; 5N3 a 5N5 < 3!4$5 @ 6+5 D =< 5 @E< ; M A J 8 < ;$3 A 8$3!4 M AZ@B> 4'6 57O @ 8'6+53!4$5 @ 6!5 D =< 5 >:D J 3 64 Mk4$5 Ab\ 5 $OP5 > 3 F J A @ 3 AZ@E<$Y hBi\ 3!4 @E< 3!4$5M A J 8 < ;$3 A 8$3!4 >:D J 33!4 A J 8$Mk4 J 8'33!4$5M AZ@B> 4)] R J A 5 > 5 A 9 5 < 3 F J A 3!4'5 6 =< M D 5 O O D 5 @ 8'3 J 9 @ 3+57; @E< ; M A J 8 < ;$3 A 8$3!4 6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+5763!4$5 > Q[@ED 8'5 F J A *0ON5 9 @BA 63+576!3 6 i ] g Bi $\)@E< ;03!4$5 %4 K8 @BA 5 Q[@ED 8$5 6 g ] g j ]* ON5 9 @BAr 63+576+3nO J 8 D ; < J 3 5 > 5 A!F J A 9 57; 5N3 a 5N5 < 3!4'5 @ 6!5 D =< 5 @E< ; M A J 8 < ;$3 A 8$3!4 M AZ@B> 4'6 57O @ 8'6+5 3!4$5 @ 6+5 D =< 5 >:D J 3 6 O J < 6 6+3+5 < 3 D 4 Mk4$5 A 3!4 @E< 3!4'5M A J 8 < ;$3 A 8$3!4 >:D J 3 3!4 A J 8$Mk4 J 8'3 3!4$5M AZ@B> 4)] r4$576+5 QB@ED 8$576 C< ; O @ 3+5 3!4 @ 33!4$5; 5 A 5 < OP576 5N3 a 5N5 < 3!4$5 A 576!8 D 3!6 F J A 3!4$5 @ 8$3 J 9 @ 3+57; @E< ; M A J 8 < ;'3 A 8$3!4 6 CD 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 @BA 5 h

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< J 3 6+3 @ 3 6!3 O @ED=D 6 M < IH O @E< 3N] r4 6 6 3 A 8$5 F J A O J 9 >:@BA 6 J < @ O A J 6!6 6!4 J 5 @E< ; 6!8 A!F @ OP5S3 > 576N] r4$5 9 8 D 3 =>:D 5 O O D 5 @ 6+57; @ED M J A 3!4 9 8'6+5763!4$5 5 < 3 IA 5 6+57K8$5 < OP5 \ 3!4 6 @ ONO J 8 < 3!6 F J A 3!6 5N3+3+5 A > 5 A!F J A 9 @E< OP5 J Q 5 A 3!4$5 6 =< M D 5_O O D 5 M A J 8 < ;'3 A 8$3!4 @E< ; @ 8$3 J 9 @ 3 O 6 =D 4 J 8'5N3+3+576N]dR'8 D=D 6+57KL8'5 < OP576 J F@ 8'3 J 9 @ 3 O 6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 > 5 A!F J A 9 5N3+3+5 A 57O @ 8'6+5 3!4$5 A 5 @BA 5 9 J A 5 6+57OP3 J < 6 J F 3!4$5 6+57KL8'5 < OP576 a 4 OZ4 O @E< 5,O J 9 >:@BA 57;G]( 6 =< M D 5?6+57K8$5 < OP5 @ED=D Jba 6 F J A J <'D J < 5 O J 9 >c@BA 6 J < ] F 3!4 6 6+5 K8$5 < OP5 6 F A J 9 @ ; 5 A 5 < 3 >:@BA 3 J F 3!4'55 DCD I> 6+53!4 @E< 3!4$5 J < 5 3 6O J 9 >:@BA 57;?3 J 3!4$5 A 576Z8 D 3!6%O @E< 5 @ 57OP3+57;)] r @ D 5 d] g C< @B>'> 5 < ; 6!4 Jba 6d3!4$5 6 9 =D=@BA 3 Q[@ED 8$5 F J A 3!4'5 M A J 8 < ;$3 A 8$3!4 @E< ; 3!4'5 AZ@E<$Y J < 5 6 9 =D=@BA 3 QB@ED 8$5 \%@E< ; 3!4'5,M @ED=D 5 A 6!8 T 57OP3 9 @ 3!O 4$57; @ 3 AZ@E<$Y g ]r4$504 Mk4 D Mk4 3+57; A JUa 6 =< ; O @ 3+5 >'A J 576 a 3!4 F @ CD 8 A 576 @ 3 AZ@E<$Y g ] r @ D 576 h\ j\ @E< ; 6!4 Jba 3!4$5#O J A!A 576 > J < ; =< M A 576Z8 D 3!6 F J A@ 8$3 J 9 @ 3+57;06 =D 4 J 8'5N3+3+576 C< > 5 A 9 5 < 3 \ M A J 8 < ;$3 A 8$3!4?6 CD 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 =< > 5 A 9 5 < 3% @E< ; @ 8$3 J 9 @ 3+57; 6 =D 4 J 8'5N3+3+576 C< > 5 A 9 5 < 3% \A 576 > 57OP3 IQ 5 D ] < 5 > 5 A 9 5 < 3 \ 8'6 =< M_M A J 8 < ;$3 A 8$3!4 6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 \'h g J F g 6!8 T 57OP3!6 ; ; < J 3 9 @ 3!O 4 @ 3 AZ@E<$Y J < 5 Q[@ED 8$5E] 4 =D 5n8'6 =< M_3!4$5 @ 8$3 J 9 @ 3 O 6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 \ g J F 3!4$5 g 6!8 T 57OP3!6 ; ; < J 3 9 @ 3!OZ4 @ 3%3!4$5 AZ@E<'Y g ] g j J F 3!4$5 g 6!8 T 57OP3!6 F @ =D =< J 3!4 3!4$5M A J 8 < ;$3 A 8$3!4 @E< ; @ 8'3 J 9 @ 3+57;?6 =D 4 J 8'5N3+3+576 F J A 5 > 5 A 9 5 < 3]L < 5 > 5 A 9 5 < 3 \ 8:6 =< M M A J 8 < ;$3 A 8$3!4 6 CD 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 J F g 6!8 T 57OP3!6; ; < J 3 9 @ 3!OZ4 @ 3 AZ@E<$Y J < 5 QB@ED 8$5E] 4 =D 5 8:6 =< M 3!4$5 @ 8$3 J 9 @ 3 O_6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 \ j J F 3!4'5 g 6!8 T 57OP3!6n; ; < J 3 9 @ 3!O 4 @ 3n3!4$5 A @E<$Y J < 5 QB@ED 8$5E] jEj J F 3!4$5 g 6Z8 T 57OP3!6 F @ =D =< J 3!4,3!4'5dM A J 8 < ;$3 A 8$3!4 @E< ; @ 8$3 J 9 @ 3+57; 6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 F J A 5 > 5 A 9 5 < 3 ]: Jba 5 Q 5 A7\ @ 6* ON5 9 @BAr 63+576+36!4 Jba 57;,3!4$576+5 F @ =D 8 A 576 @BA 5 < J 36!3 @ 3 6+3 O @ED=D 6 M < IH O @E< 3N] r4'5 D=@ 6+3O J D 8 9 < C< r @ D 576 g 3 J J F 3!4$5 @B>'> 5 < ; ?6!4 JUa 3!4$5_; X5 A 5 < OP5 =< 3!4$5d6 9 =D=@BA 3 QB@ED 8$576 J F 3!4$5%3 J > AZ@E<$Y 57; 9 @ 3!O 4 @E< ;_3!4$5 O J A!A 57OP3 9 @ 3!O 4G] 4'5 <_@>'A J 5 6 O J A!A 57OP3 D ;$5 < 3 IH 57; \ 3!4 6%; 5 A 5 < OP5 6 \ J F O J 8'6+5 \ 5 A J ] 5 A 5 F 5 A 3 J 3!4 6%; 5 A 5 < OP5 @ED 6 J @ 6%3!4'5 6 9 =D=@BA 3 ; A J > J F 3!4$5 >'A J 5E] r4$5 J Q 5 AZD=@ 6 F J A 3!4$5M A J 8 < ;$3 A 8$3!4 9 @ ME576 F J A 3!4 A 5N56!8 T 57OP3!6 C< VWA J 5 a 3!4 3!4$5 D=@BA ME576!3; 5 A 5 < OP5 J F 3!4$56 9 CD=@BA 3 QB@ED 8$576 F J A%AZ@E<'Y J < 5 @E< ; 3!4$5nO J A!A 57OP3%6 9 =D=@BA 3 \L@BA 5n6!4 JUa < =< R Mk8 A 576 ] \ ] \@E< ;] L]Wr4$5 J Q 5 AZDC@ 6 F J A 3!4$5 M A J 8 < ;'3 A 8$3!4 9 @ ME576 F J A 3!4 A 5N56!8 T 57OP3!6 =< VWA J 5 a 3!4?3!4'5 D=@BA ME576+3; A J > J F 3!4$56 9 =D=@BA 3 QB@ED 8$576 @BA 56!4 Jba < =< R Mk8 A 576 ] \ ] \ @E< ; ] g i ]r4$5 J Q 5 AZD=@ 6 F J A 3!4$5 @ 8$3 J 9 @ 3 O 9 @ ME576 F J A 3!4 A 5N56!8 T 57OP3!6 =< >'A J 5n a 3!4 3!4'5 DC@BA ME576+3 ; A J > @BA 5S6!4 JUa < =< R Mk8 A 576 ] gEg \ ] g h\@E< ; ] g j ] < ; \ 3!4$5 J Q 5 A D=@ 6 F J A VA J 5 a 3!4 3!4$5 DC@BA ME576+3#; A J > @BA 5 6Z4 Jba < =< R Mk8 A 576 ] g $\ ] g \ @E< ; ] g ] J 9 5 O J 9 9 J < ; X5 A 5 < OP576 5N3 a 5N5 < 3!4$576+5 >'A J 5 @E< ;_M @ED=D 5 A 6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 F J A 3!4$5 6!8 T 57OP3!6 a 3!4#3!4'5 DC@BA ME576+3W6 9 =D=@BA 3 ; A J > j

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O @E< 5 @ 3+3 A 8$3+57; 3 J ; 5 A 5 < OP576 =< 3!4'5 @E< M D 5d3!4$5d6Z8 T 57OP3 a @ 63 J 3!4'5dO @ 9 5 AZ@\ ; X5 A 5 < OP576 =< 3!4$5 6 > 5N57; J F a @EDIY =< M \ ; X5 A 5 < OP576 C< 3!4$5 ; 6+3 @E< OP5 5N3 a 5N5 < 3!4'5 F 5N5N3 \ @E< ; ; X5 A 5 < OP576 C< 3!4$5 @BA 9 9 J Q 5 9 5 < 3!6N]S 5 A 5 < OP576 5N3 a 5N5 < 3!4'5 >'A J 5 @E< ; M @ED=D 5 A 9 @ ME576 a 4 OZ4 @BA 5 6 > 57O IH O_3 J 3!4$5 @ 8$3 J 9 @ 3+57; 6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 @BA 5 ; X5 A 5 < OP576 =< 3!4$5 5 A!A J A 6 J F @ O Y M A J 8 < ; 6+5NM 9 5 < 3 @ 3 J < 6!8'O 4 @ 6S; X5 A 5 < OP576 =< 3!4$5 6!4 @ ; JUa 6 \@E< ; ; 5 A 5 < OP576 C< 3!4$5 J 8 < ; @BA 576 J F 3!4$5 6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+5767]& < @ ;'; 3 J < 3 J 3!4$5 @ J Q 5 D 6+3+57; 3 > 576 J F 5 A!A J A 6 \ 6 J 9 5 6!8 T 57OP3!6 > 5 AZF J A 9 57; 3!4$5 5 > 5 A 9 5 < 3 J < ; X5 A 5 < 3W; @ 6 \ =< 3 A J ;'8:O =< M5 A!A J A 6 J F O D J 3!4 =< M; X5 A 5 < OP576 3!48'6W6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+56Z4 @B> 5%O 4 @E< ME57;G]WR J A 5 > 5 A 9 5 < 3 \ 6!8 T 57OP3!6 ikj h g @E< ; ikj g A 5 > 5 @ 3+57; 3!4'55 > 5 A 9 5 < 3!68'6 C< M#; X5 A 5 < 36!4 J 576 J < 3!4$5 6+57O J < ; ; @ J F 3!4$5 ; @ 3 @ O J D=D 57OP3 J < ] r4L8'6 \ 3!4'55 AZA J A 6 @BA 5 O @ 8'6+57; -. ; 5 A 5 < OP576 C< O D J 3!4 =< M \ @E< ; @E< O 4 @E< ME576;'8'5_3 J O @ 9 5 AZ@SD J O @ 3 J < ]dr4$576+5 5 A!A J A 6 @BA 5 < J 3 >:A 576+5 < 3 =< > 5 A 9 5 < 3 \ @ 63!4$5 6!4 J 5 3 > 5 63!4$5 6 @ 9 5 \ @E< ; J <'D 3!4$5 6!8 A!F @ OP5 6OZ4 @E< ME57;G] 5 O @E< @ED 6 J 6+5N5 3!4 @ 33!4$5 ; X5 A 5 < OP576 @BA 5 D=@BA ME5 AF J A > 5 A 9 5 < 3 6!8 AZF @ OP5n ] 5E]W6!8 A!F @ OP55 X57OP3!6M @ 3 F 8 < ; @ 9 5 < 3 @ED=D ]

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0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Rank Identification Rate Baseline Automated Groundtruth R Mk8 A 5 ] g ] V 5 A!F J A 9 @E< OP5 F J A > 5 A 9 5 < 3 ]r4$5 A 5N5 < VD J 3 6 F J A 3!4$5 @ 6+5 D =< 5 V 5 A!F J A 9 @E< OP5?6 =< M 8 D 3 I>:D 5 O D 576N] r4$5 D 8$5 VD J 3 6 F J A 3!4$5 V 5 AZF A J 9 @E< OP5 6 =< M08$3 J 9 @ 3+57;0 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 Q 5 Af 8'6+3 < 5d @ 3 O D 5E]Wr4$557; VD J 3 6%3!4'5 V 5 AZF J A 9 @E< OP56 =< M 3!4$5 A J 8 < ;$3 A 8$3!4 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+5767]

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0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Rank Identification Rate Baseline Automated Groundtruth R Mk8 A 5 ] h ]% V 5 AZF J A 9 @E< OP5 F J A > 5 A 9 5 < 3 _]r4'5 A 5N5 < VD J 3 6 F J A 3!4$5 @ 6+5 D =< 5 V 5 A!F J A 9 @E< OP5?6 =< M 8 D 3 I>:D 5 O D 576N] r4$5 D 8$5 VD J 3 6 F J A 3!4$5 V 5 AZF J A 9 @E< OP5 6 =< M08$3 J 9 @ 3+57;0 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 Q 5 Af 8'6+3 < 5d @ 3 O D 5E]Wr4$557; VD J 3 6%3!4'5 V 5 AZF J A 9 @E< OP56 =< M 3!4$5 A J 8 < ;$3 A 8$3!4 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+5767]

PAGE 58

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 False Alarm RateVerification Rate Baseline Automated Groundtruth R Mk8 A 5 ] j ] # V 5 A!F J A 9 @E< OP5 F J A > 5 A 9 5 < 3 ]%r4$5 A 5N5 < VD J 3 6 F J A 3!4$50 @ 6+5 D =< 5 V 5 A!F J A 9 @E< OP5?6 =< M 8 D 3 I>:D 5 O D 576N] r4$5 D 8$5 VD J 3 6 F J A 3!4$5 V 5 AZF J A 9 @E< OP5 6 =< M08$3 J 9 @ 3+57;0 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 Q 5 Af 8'6+3 < 5d @ 3 O D 5E]Wr4$557; VD J 3 6%3!4'5 V 5 AZF J A 9 @E< OP56 =< M 3!4$5 A J 8 < ;$3 A 8$3!4 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+5767]

PAGE 59

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 False Alarm RateVerification Rate Baseline Automated Groundtruth R Mk8 A 5 ] ] V 5 AZF J A 9 @E< OP5 F J A > 5 A 9 5 < 3 _]r4$5 A 5N5 < VD J 3 6 F J A 3!4$50 @ 6+5 D =< 5 V 5 A!F J A 9 @E< OP5?6 =< M 8 D 3 I>:D 5 O D 576N] r4$5 D 8$5 VD J 3 6 F J A 3!4$5 V 5 AZF J A 9 @E< OP5 6 =< M08$3 J 9 @ 3+57;0 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 Q 5 Af 8'6+3 < 5d @ 3 O D 5E]Wr4$557; VD J 3 6%3!4'5 V 5 AZF J A 9 @E< OP56 =< M 3!4$5 A J 8 < ;$3 A 8$3!4 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+5767]

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#%r nr r n r r4'5 M A J 8 < ;$3 A 8'3!4 6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 @ED=D Jba F J A 6+3!8'; 576 J F 3!4$5SO J < 3 A 8$3 J < J F 6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+5 >c@BA 3!6 3 Jba @BA ;'6 A 57O J M < 3 J < ] > 5 A 9 5 < 3!6 a 5 A 5 > 5 A!F J A 9 57; =< J A ;$5 A 3 J Hc< ;3!4'5 O J 9d=<'@ 3 J < J F J ; >:@BA 3!6 a 4 OZ4 aJ 8 D ; >:A J ;:8'OP5 A 576!8 D 3!6 57K8 IQB@ED 5 < 33 J 3!4 @ 3 J F 3!4$55 < 3 IA 5d6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+5E]%r48'6 \ ;$5 < 3 IH:< M 3!4$5 9 =< 9 8 9 @ 9 J 8 < 3 J F 3!4$56 CD 4 J 8$5N3+3+5 9 @ ME5 a 4 OZ4 6 < 57OP576!6 @BA F J A ;$5 < 3 =H O @ 3 J < ] IQ 5 < 3!4$5 D=@BA ME506 5 J F 3!4'5 ; @ 3 @ 6!5N3 J F M @ 3 Q ;$5 J 6+57KL8'5 < OP576 \%Y< Jba D 57;'ME5 J F 3!4$506 9 @ED=D 576+3 @ 9 J 8 < 3 J F 3!4$56 CD 4 J 8$5N3+3+5 < 5N57;'57; aJ 8 D ; @ED=D JUa F J A@ 6 9 @ED=D 5 A ; @ 3 @ 6 5 a 3!4 57KL8 IQ[@ED 5 < 3 A 576Z8 D 3!6N] < 3!4$5M A J 8 < ;$3 A 8$3!4 6 =D 4 J 8'5N3+3+576W3!4$5n; X5 A 5 < 3 J ; >c@BA 3!6 4$5 @ ; \ 3 J A 6 J \'@BA 9 6 \ 8 >:> 5 AD 5NMk6 \$@E< ; D JUa 5 AD 5NMk6 n a 5 A 5#O J D J A 57;0; X5 A 5 < 3O J D J A 6N]Wr4'5 F J D=D Jba =< M J ; >c@BA 3!6 @E< ;,O J 9d=<:@ 3 J < 6 a 5 A 5 6+3!8'; 57;G" F 8 D=D 6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+5 4$5 @ ; \ 3 J A 6 J \:@BA 9 6 \ 8 >'> 5 AD 5NMk6 \:D Jba 5 AD 5NMk6 n D 5NMk6 @E< ; @BA 9 6 8 >'> 5 A D 5NMk6 \kD Jba 5 A D 5NMk6 @BA 9 6 n \k@E< ; D 5NMk6 8 >'> 5 A D 5NMk6 D Jba 5 A D 5NMk6 n @E< ; @BA 9 6 D 5 F 3 @BA 9 A Mk4L3 @BA 9 n ] r4$5 J ; >:@BA 3!6 3!4 @ 3 6!4 Jba 3!4$5 9 J 6+3 9 J Q 5 9 5 < 3 \ 3!48'6 @ED=D JUa F J A 3!4$5 9 J 6+3 F 5 @ 3!8 A 5 C<$F J A 9 @ 3 J :@BAZ@EDCD 5 DQ 5 a @BA 5_3!4$5 @BA 9 6 @E< ; D 5NMk6N]r4$5 A 5 F J A 5 \ 3!4$5 6!4 J 8 D ; 5d6Z8 O 5 < 3 F J A A 57O J M < 3 J < ]Wr4$5# F J A 5 > 5 A 9 5 < 3% F J AD JUa 5 AD 5NMk6 \'D Jba 5 AD 5NMk6 8 >:> 5 A%D 5NMk6 \'@E< ; D Jba 5 A D 5NMk6 8 >'> 5 AD 5NMk6 @BA 9 6 66Z4 Jba < =< R M$] ] g L]r4$5n F J A 5 > 5 A 9 5 < 3 F J A%D Jba 5 A D 5NMk6 \ D JUa 5 AD 5NMk6 8 >'> 5 AD 5NMk6 \:@E< ; D Jba 5 AnD 5NMk6 8 >'> 5 AD 5NMk6 @BA 9 6 66!4 Jba < =< R M$] ] g ]6 a 5 O @E< 6+5N5 \ 3!4$5 > 5 A!F J A 9 @E< OP5 a 3!4 D Jba 5 AD 5NMk6 8 >'> 5 AD 5NMk6 @BA 9 6 6 @ED 9 J 6+357K8 @ED 3 J 3!4'5 F 8 D=D 6 4 J 8$5N3+3+5E] )5NMk6 @BA 5 < J 3W6!8 O 5 < 3 -. 3!4$5 9 6+5 DIQ 576 @BA 9 6W; J O J < 3 A 8$3+56 M < IH O @E< 3 D ] JUa 5 Q 5 Ab\ =< 3!4$5 @ 8$3 J 9 @ 3+57; 6 =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+576 \$A 5 D =@ D 5;$5N3+57OP3 J < J F @BA 9 6 6 @ OZ4 @EDCD 5 < ME5E] r

PAGE 67

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Rank Identification Rate Full Silhouette Lower Legs + Upper Legs + Arms Lower Legs + Upper Legs Arms R Mk8 A 5 ] g L]$ 6 F J A J ; V @BA 3!6 J 9d=<'@ 3 J < 6 VWA J 5 n ]$ 6 F J A Jba 5 A 5NM \ Jba 5 A )5NM >'> 5 A 5NM \ Jba 5 A )5NM >'> 5 A 5NM A 9 6 \L@E< ; R'8 DCD =D 4 J 8$5N3+3+5O A J 6!6 4 J 5r > 5 VWA J 5 n ]

PAGE 68

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Rank Identification Rate Full Silhouette Lower Legs + Upper Legs + Arms Lower Legs + Upper Legs Lower Legs R Mk8 A 5 ] g ] 6 F J A J ; V @BA 3!6% J 9#C<'@ 3 J < 6 VA J 5 n ] 6 F J A Jba 5 A 5NM \ Jba 5 A )5NM >'> 5 A )5NM \ Jba 5 A 5NM >'> 5 A )5NM A 9 6 \@E< ; R'8 D=D =D 4 J 8'5N3+3+5 O A J 6!6 8 A!F @ OP5 VWA J 5 n ]

PAGE 69

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PAGE 70

R Mk8 A 5 ] hBi ]' 6 F J A J ; V @BA 3!6 J 9d=<:@ 3 J < 6 VA J 5 n ]$ 6 F J A Jba 5 A )5NM \ Jba 5 A )5NM >'> 5 A )5NM \ Jba 5 A 5NM >'> 5 A )5NM A 9 6 \@E< ; R'8 D=D =D 4 J 8'5N3+3+5 O A J 6!6 8 A!F @ OP5 VWA J 5 n ]

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Malav, Laura Helena.
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Silhouette based gait recognition
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research resource and limits /
by Laura Helena Malav.
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[Tampa, Fla.] :
University of South Florida,
2003.
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Thesis (M.S.C.S.)--University of South Florida, 2003.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
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ABSTRACT: As is seen from the work on gait recognition, there is a de-facto consensus about the silhouette of a person being the low-level representation of choice. It has been hypothesized that the performance degradation that is observed when one compares sequences taken on different surfaces, hence against different backgrounds, or when one considers outdoor sequences is due to the low silhouette quality and its variation. If only one can get better silhouettes the perfomance of gait recognition would be high. This thesis challenges that hypothesis. In the context of the HumanID Gait Challenge problem, we constructed a set of ground truth silhouttes over one gait cycles for 71 subjects, to test recognition across two conditions, shoe and surface. Using these, we show that the performance with ground truth silhouette is as good as that obtained by those obtained by a basic background subtraction algorithm. Therefore further research into ways to enhance silhouette extraction does not appear to be the most productive way to advance gait recognition. We also show, using the manually specified part level silhouettes, that most of the gait recognition power lies in the legs and the arms. The recognition power in various static gait recognition factors as extracted from a single view image, such as gait period, cadence, body size, height, leg size, and torso length, does not seem to be adequate. Using cummulative silhouette error images, we also suggest that gait actually changes when one changes walking surface; in particular the swing phase of the gait gets effected the most.
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Adviser: D., Sudeep Sarkar Ph.
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biometrics.
identification.
surveillance.
computer vision.
motion analysis.
image processing.
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