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Title:
Count or pointcount is percent octocoral cover an adequate proxy for octocoral abundance?
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Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Lybolt, Matthew J
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
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Subjects / Keywords:
Alcyonacea -- Florida -- Florida Keys   ( lcsh )
Coral reefs and islands -- Florida -- Florida Keys   ( lcsh )
Hurricane Georges, 1998   ( lcsh )
octocoral
gorgonia ventalina
florida keys
percent cover
hurricane georges
Dissertations, Academic -- Marine Science -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: The Florida Keys Coral Reef Monitoring Project (CRMP) began video transect sampling in 1996 and has continuously monitored 107 Florida Keys stations through 2002. The video was downward pointing and produced images from which planar projection data were calculated to determine percent cover of living benthic organisms. An absence of data assessing correlation between octocoral percent cover and octocoral abundance motivated a study to compare octocoral percent cover with abundance data acquired from the same video transects. The methods employed to extract octocoral abundance data from videotape were validated. Temporal changes in octocoral abundance, size and taxonomic group were determined by examination of video transects of 28 randomly selected stations from 1996, 1998, 1999, and 2002. Size classes were defined as < 10cm, 10-40cm, > 40cm (short, medium and tall respectively). Taxonomic groups were Gorgonia ventalina and "other octocorals" in three size classes, and Scleraxonia. An in situ study assessed the accuracy of video-derived counts. Average densities of G. ventalina and Scleraxonia were consistently about one colony/m2. Other octocoral as a group averaged 7-9 colonies/m2. When summarized by height, short and tall averaged about 1-2 colonies/m2, while colonies between 10 and 40 cm in height consistently averaged about 6 colonies/m2. Hurricane Georges, in September 1998, impacted the octocoral assemblage. Abundance declined most at stations near the storm center and stations in shallower water. Storm impact was related to octocoral height. Tall octocorals were removed more frequently than medium, short and encrusting forms. A dramatic increase of short individuals in 2002 is indicative of successful post-hurricane recruitment. By 2002, octocoral abundance had recovered to pre-hurricane levels. This study demonstrated that abundance data can reliably be derived from archived video data, reinforcing the value of standardized video data archives. Octocoral abundance and octocoral percent cover are not strongly correlated because tall individuals disproportionately influence percent cover estimates. Nevertheless, trends in octocoral percent cover are reliable indicators of the trends in octocoral abundance.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of South Florida, 2003.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Matthew J. Lybolt.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 112 pages.

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Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001430573
oclc - 52060089
notis - AJL4034
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0000091
usfldc handle - e14.91
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SFS0024787:00001


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is percent octocoral cover an adequate proxy for octocoral abundance? /
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ABSTRACT: The Florida Keys Coral Reef Monitoring Project (CRMP) began video transect sampling in 1996 and has continuously monitored 107 Florida Keys stations through 2002. The video was downward pointing and produced images from which planar projection data were calculated to determine percent cover of living benthic organisms. An absence of data assessing correlation between octocoral percent cover and octocoral abundance motivated a study to compare octocoral percent cover with abundance data acquired from the same video transects. The methods employed to extract octocoral abundance data from videotape were validated. Temporal changes in octocoral abundance, size and taxonomic group were determined by examination of video transects of 28 randomly selected stations from 1996, 1998, 1999, and 2002. Size classes were defined as < 10cm, 10-40cm, > 40cm (short, medium and tall respectively). Taxonomic groups were Gorgonia ventalina and "other octocorals" in three size classes, and Scleraxonia. An in situ study assessed the accuracy of video-derived counts. Average densities of G. ventalina and Scleraxonia were consistently about one colony/m2. Other octocoral as a group averaged 7-9 colonies/m2. When summarized by height, short and tall averaged about 1-2 colonies/m2, while colonies between 10 and 40 cm in height consistently averaged about 6 colonies/m2. Hurricane Georges, in September 1998, impacted the octocoral assemblage. Abundance declined most at stations near the storm center and stations in shallower water. Storm impact was related to octocoral height. Tall octocorals were removed more frequently than medium, short and encrusting forms. A dramatic increase of short individuals in 2002 is indicative of successful post-hurricane recruitment. By 2002, octocoral abundance had recovered to pre-hurricane levels. This study demonstrated that abundance data can reliably be derived from archived video data, reinforcing the value of standardized video data archives. Octocoral abundance and octocoral percent cover are not strongly correlated because tall individuals disproportionately influence percent cover estimates. Nevertheless, trends in octocoral percent cover are reliable indicators of the trends in octocoral abundance.
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PAGE 1

COUNT OR POINTCOUNT: IS PERCENT OCTOCORAL COVER AN ADEQUATE PROXY FOR OCTOCORAL ABUNDANCE? by MATTHEW J. LYBOLT A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science Departme nt of Biological Oceanography College of Marine Science University of South Florida Major Professor: Pamela Hallock Muller Ph.D. Walter C. Jaap, B.S. James W. Porter, Ph.D. George Yan ev, Ph.D. Date of Approval: 4 April 2003 Keywords: Octocoral, Gorgonia ventalina Florida Keys, Percent Cover, Hurricane Georges Copyright 2003, Matthew Lybolt

PAGE 2

Acknowledgements I would like to thank and acknowledge my major professor Dr. Pamela Hallock Muller for valuable input and much appreciated latitude. With her guidance, my skill as a writer and my capacity as a scientist have improved greatl y I would like to thank my committee members W alter Jaap, Dr. James Porter and Dr. George Y anev for valuable input. I am especially indebted to Keith Hackett for serving as a sounding board and counseling a rookie through statistics. Thanks to the entire 2002 CRMP field team who helped me conduct the in situ surveys, MK Callahan, Jim Kidne y Walt Jaap, Jim Porter, Cecilia Torres, Katie Sutherland, and especially Selena Kupfner. Much appreciation goes to a talented collection of friends and family for reviewing the many generations of this manuscript: Dr. Stephen Freedman, Keith Hackett, Karen Hug, Chris Koelling, Dr. Vladimir Kosmynin, Mary Lou Lybolt, Dr. John Lybolt, and Diane Rosenberg. Finall y I must thank my parents, Karen, and my friends for supporting and tolerating me throughout this endeavor.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES .............................................................................................................. iii LIST OF FIGURES ...............................................................................................................v ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................................... vi 1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 1 INTRODUCTION T O OCT OCORALLIA OF THE CARIBBEAN ........................... 2 Caribbean Octocoral Systematics .................................................................. 2 Caribbean Octocoral Ecology ........................................................................ 4 DESCRIPTION OF PRIMAR Y DA T A SOURCE ...................................................... 7 METHODS APPLIED T O OCT OCORAL HABIT A T CHARACTERIZA TION ......... 9 SIGNIFICANCE ..................................................................................................... 10 2. METHODS ..................................................................................................................... 11 CRMP METHODS .................................................................................................. 1 1 STUDY METHODS ............................................................................................... 12 Station Selection .......................................................................................... 12 Year Selection .............................................................................................. 14 In situ Octocoral Counts .............................................................................. 14 Video-Derived Octocoral Counts ................................................................. 14 Comparison of In Situ and Video Counts ...................................................... 15 Statistical Treatment of Video-Derived Abundance Data .............................. 15 Statistical Treatments of Comparative Study of Video-Derived Abundance and Percent Cover ....................................................................................... 17 3. RESULTS ....................................................................................................................... 19 IN SITU VERSUS VIDEO DA T A ........................................................................... 19 VIDEO-DERIVED ABUNDANCE ......................................................................... 20 VIDEO-DERIVED ABUNDANCE VERSUS PERCENT COVER ......................... 34 4. DISCUSSION ................................................................................................................. 37 ASSESSMENT OF METHODS .............................................................................. 37 Video-Derived Octocoral Counts ................................................................. 37 In Situ vs. Video-Derived Octocoral Counts ................................................. 37 Biases to data .............................................................................................. 38 ECOLOGICAL RESUL TS ABUNDANCE ........................................................... 39 Study Results Compared to Other Octocoral Surveys in the Northern Caribbean .................................................................................................... 39 Assemblage In 1996 ..................................................................................... 41 Abundances in 1996 and 1998 ..................................................................... 41 Abundances in 1998 and 1999: Inferences about Hurricane Georges ........... 42 Abundance comparing 1999 and 2002 ......................................................... 44 Overall changes, 1996 to 2002 ..................................................................... 45 ABUNDANCE VS PERCENT COVER. ................................................................. 46

PAGE 4

V ideo-Derived Abundance Correlation with Octocoral Percent Cover .......... 46 Abundance and Percent Cover Trend Correlation ........................................ 47 RECOMMENDA TIONS ......................................................................................... 49 Further applications .................................................................................... 49 Refining the study methods ........................................................................... 49 Altering the PointCount method for quantification of octocoral ................... 51 5. CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................. 52 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................... 53 APPENDICES .................................................................................................................... 56

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iii LIST OF T ABLES Table 1. Key characteristics of selected stations. ........................................................... 13 Table 2. Maximum and minimum Bray-Curtis similarity coefficients for video-derived abundance trials 1 and 2. ......................................................................................... 20 Table 3. Average octocoral density by habitat type and region. ...................................... 25 Table 4. p-values for two-tailed paired sample t-Test, testing the assumption that abundances are equal between 1996 and 1998. Shaded blocks indicate significant differences ( a =0.05). ........................................................................................................ 28 Table 5. Summary of significant two-tailed paired sample t-Test results where abundance in 1996 1998 at a =0.05, combined with relative magnitude of change from 1996 to 1998. ....................................................................................................................... 28 Table 6. p-values for two-tailed paired sample t-Test, testing the assumption that abundances are equal between 1998 and 1999. Shaded blocks indicate significant differences ( a =0.05). ........................................................................................................ 29 Table 7. Summary of significant two-tailed paired sample t-Test results where abundance in 1998 1999 at a =0.05, combined with relative magnitude of change from 1998 to 1999. ....................................................................................................................... 29 Table 8. p-values for two-tailed paired sample t-Test, testing the assumption that abundances are equal between 1999 and 2002. Shaded blocks indicate significant differences ( a =0.05). ........................................................................................................ 30 Table 9. Summary of significant two-tailed paired sample t-Test results where abundance in 1999 2002 at a =0.05, combined with relative magnitude of change from 1999 to 2002. ....................................................................................................................... 30

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iv Table 10. p-values for two-tailed paired sample t-Test, testing the assumption that abundances are equal between 1996 and 2002. Shaded blocks indicate significant differences ( a =0.05). ................................................................................................................. 31 Table 11. Summary of significant two-tailed paired sample t-Test results where abundance in 1996 2002 at a =0.05, combined with relative magnitude of change from 1996 to 2002. ....................................................................................................................... 31 Table 12. Chi-square test of change in octocoral distribution by size class ( a =0.01). Shading indicates significant changes. ............................................................................. 32 Table 13. Chi-square change in distribution ( a =0.01) of one biotic category over all 4 stations by one habitat type. Shading indicates significant changes. ........................ 33 Table 14. Summary of three correlation analyses presenting ranked correlation between abundance and percent cover. Shading indicates significant r values (Hypothesis testing conducted only for S-PLUS Spearman r test for independence). .............................. 35 Table 15. Summary data from selected octocoral abundance surveys in the northern Caribbean. ......................................................................................................................................40 Table 16. Percent composition of each biotic category. ................................................. 41 Table 17. Chi square analyses of distribution of change. ............................................... 48

PAGE 7

v LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Distibution of CRMP sampling sites from Key Largo to Dry Tortugas. .................. 8 Figure 2. Layout of a typical CRMP site with enlarged view of an individual station. ......... 11 Figure 3. Locations of the 28 selected stations. ................................................................... 13 Figure 4. Bray-Curtis similarity coefficients for comparison of results between in situ and video-derived estimates of octocoral density, as well as for comparisons of repeated video trials. ............................................................................................................................. 19 Figure 5. Bray-Curtis similarity coefficients for video-derived abundance trials 1 and 2, compared with octocoral density. ................................................................................... 20 Figure 6. Average density of Octocorallia from the 28 stations examined. ........................... 21 Figure 7. Average density of Octocorallia, summarized by colony height, from the 28 stations examined. ...................................................................................................................... 21 Figure 8. MDS average abundance at upper keys stations, by habitat type. .......................... 22 Figure 9. MDS average abundance at middle keys stations, by habitat type. ........................ 23 Figure 10. Average density of G. ventalina, by habitat type. ................................................ 23 Figure 11. Average density of other octocoral, by habitat type. ........................................ 24 Figure 12. Average density of the three main biotic categories, by habitat type. ................... 24 Figure 13. Average density and average percent cover for all 28 stations. ............................ 48 Figure 14. Direction of change, all Octocorallia and percent cover. ..................................... 48

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vi Count or PointCount: Is Percent Octocoral Cover an Adequate Proxy for Octocoral Abundance? Matthew J. Lybolt ABSTRACT The Florida Keys Coral Reef Monitoring Project (CRMP) began video transect sampling in 1996 and has continuously monitored 107 Florida Keys stations through 2002. The video was downward pointing and produced images from which planar projection data were calculated to determine percent cover of living benthic organisms. An absence of data assessing correlation between octocoral percent cover and octocoral abundance motivated a study to compare octocoral percent cover with abundance data acquired from the same video transects. The methods employed to extract octocoral abundance data from videotape were validated. Temporal changes in octocoral abundance, size and taxonomic group were determined by examination of video transects of 28 randomly selected stations from 1996, 1998, 1999, and 2002. Size classes were defined as <10cm, 10-40cm, >40cm (short, medium and tall respectively). Taxonomic groups were Gorgonia ventalina and other octocorals in three size classes, and Scleraxonia. An in situ study assessed the accuracy of video-derived counts. Average densities of G. ventalina and Scleraxonia were consistently about one colony/m 2 Other octocoral as a group averaged 7-9 colonies/m 2 When summarized by height, short and tall averaged about 1-2 colonies/m 2 while colonies between 10 and 40 cm in height consistently averaged about 6 colonies/m 2 Hurricane Georges, in September 1998, impacted the octocoral assemblage. Abundance declined most at stations near the storm center and stations in shallower water. Storm impact was related to octocoral height. Tall octocorals were removed more

PAGE 9

vii frequently than medium, short and encrusting forms. A dramatic increase of short individuals in 2002 is indicative of successful post-hurricane recruitment. By 2002, octocoral abundance had recovered to pre-hurricane levels. This study demonstrated that abundance data can reliably be derived from archived video data, reinforcing the value of standardized video data archives. Octocoral abundance and octocoral percent cover are not strongly correlated because tall individuals disproportionately influence percent cover estimates. Nevertheless, trends in octocoral percent cover are reliable indicators of the trends in octocoral abundance.

PAGE 10

1 1. INTRODUCTION Coral reefs are among the most diverse ecosystems on the planet. The number of animal species identified on reefs is reported to be around 5000, but the actual number may be five times as high (Birkeland 1996). An economic assessment of south Floridas reefs revealed that reef users spent an estimated $4.4 billion from June 2000 to May 2001 (Johns et al. 2001). The same survey showed that reef users in south Florida are willing to pay an aggregated $228 million per year to protect the natural reefs in southeast Florida. The public perception that reefs are fragile and valuable in a financial context may encourage a much-needed conservation ethic. Despite the high diversity, productivity, and economic value of reefs, the total estimated area of coral reefs world wide is 284,300 sq km, an area just half the size of France (Bryant et al. 1998). The World Resources Institute concluded that approximately 58% of coral reefs within the Caribbean are threatened (Bryant et al. 1998). Thirty percent of those reefs were estimated to be at high risk from the combined stresses of overfishing, pollution and sedimentation from land-based sources. Caribbean reefs are pressured by multiple stressors including overfishing, atmospheric CO2 increase, ultraviolet radiation, diseases, pollutants, nutrification, African dust, sedimentation and climate change (Bryant et al. 1998; Porter et al. 1999; Aronson & Precht 2001; Hallock 2001; Harvell et al. 2001; Hayes et al. 2001; Porter et al. 2001; many others.). The synergistic impact of these multiple stressors is driving the decline of coral reefs. Shallow-water benthic communities throughout the Caribbean basin are in the midst of a dramatic and unprecedented shift away from dominant scleractinian framework builders (Aronson & Precht 2001). The widespread decline of stony corals has implications for octocoral communities and octocoral-dependent animals. At one well

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2 studied reef, Grecian Rocks in the Florida Keys, octocorals have replaced stony coral as the dominant benthic organism (Lidz & Hallock 2000). Whether octocoral will replace stony coral as the dominant form of refuge space on reefs, or instead decline along with stony coral (Porter 2002), is an important question. Given the increasing importance of octocorals in Caribbean reef communities, it will be useful to create reliable baseline data and establish methods to extract octocoral community data from archived sources. Many projects that collect areal cover data for octocoral do not collect abundance data from the same locations. How well areal cover data reflect actual abundance is not well understood. A better understanding of this correlation would immediately allow ecological assessments of octocorals using existing percent cover datasets. Further, if reliable octocoral abundance data can be collected from archived sources, baseline and long-term trend studies will be augmented. INTRODUCTION TO OCTOCORALLIA OF THE CARIBBEAN Conspicuous characteristics of western Atlantic coral communities are the abundance and diversity of octocorals. In depths from low tide to 25 m, octocorals are more abundant and diverse here than anywhere else in the world (Bayer 1961). Octocorals provide spatial variation and vertical relief that is essential fish habitat (Pugliese 1998). Caribbean Octocoral Systematics The alcyonarian fauna of the West Indies are prolific and conspicuous and have been known for many years, with the natural result that a great many more species have been described than actually exist (Bayer (1961), p.350). The science of octocoral classification shares notoriety with Porifera classification. The distinguishing characters

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3 of these organisms are so plastic that one set of systematic characters rarely applies to a species across its full geographic range. Because the organisms are difficult to classify, expert systematists are few, and taxonomy remains somewhat subjective. Positive identification for most species requires laboratory dissection and microscopic examination. The daunting prospect of consumptive sampling methods, follow-up laboratory work, and generally imprecise taxonomic keys confounds efforts to understand the biology and ecology of these animals (Bayer 1961). Classified under the phylum Cnidaria, class Anthozoa, sub-class Octocorallia, order Alcyonacea, there are four suborders of Alcyonacea found in Atlantic waters: Stolonifera, Alcyoniina, Scleraxonia and Holaxonia. The shallow-water tropical and subtropical western Atlantic are dominated by the suborder Holaxonia, with a few representatives of the other suborders (Cairns et al. 1991). The word gorgonian, a reference to Holaxonia, is a colloquial synonym with the term octocoral when describing shallow West Indian communities. Octocorallia share a number of common characters. Most notable are eighttentacle polyps. All Octocorallia contain spicules, which are calcified skeletal elements ranging in size from 50m to 2000m. Holaxonia also share a number of common characters across the suborder. Most notable of these is an axial structure composed of the protein gorgonin. This axial structure may be more or less densely arranged in an organic matrix, but the protein gorgonin is omnipresent. Octocoral taxonomy is based primarily on seven characters established by Bayer (1961), which are useful at different taxonomic levels: The size and shape of the colony depends on the extent and pattern of budding, and may be used to characterize groups in a general way. The pattern of branching is often highly characteristic of species and genera. The distribution of polyps on the branches is of variable importance and is dependent on the number and arrangement of gastrodermal canals.

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4 Dimorphism of polyps (the occurrence of two types of individuals, autozooids and siphonozooids) is characteristic of certain genera. The structure of the supporting axis varies as the density and composition of the gorgonin matrix changes. This character is useful for distinguishing families. Color is dependent on three causes: pigments in the tissues, intracellular symbiotic algae in the endoderm, and coloring of the calcareous spicules. Spicule size, shape, arrangement, and location within the organism must be noted to make full use of spicular classification. Spicules are the one character most useful in species-level identification, but cannot be used to the exclusion of the previous six characters. Identification of spicules requires special preservation, microscopic examination, and a specific descriptive vocabulary. There are approximately 170 species of gorgonians in the West Indies. Of these, about 50 species are reef dwellers. Species distribution and abundance is such that about 25 species represent over 90% of individuals encountered in any West Indian reef (Cairns 1976). Caribbean Octocoral Ecology Physical factors affecting octocoral physiology and distribution have been well studied. In general, gorgonians exist in similar habitats as scleractinian corals but are able to tolerate a slightly wider range of conditions. For example, gorgonians survive in conditions where temperature is between 19oC and 36oC (with a few exceptions). Zooxanthellate scleractinia thrive where temperature is between 19oC and 30oC. Gorgonians have a sharp lower end member for salinity tolerance. Except for two species tolerant of 17 S, gorgonians are absent where salinity is less than 32 S for any extended duration (Bayer 1961). Hypersaline conditions, however, have much less

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5 impact. Experiments have shown that individuals can survive up to 60 S for 12-hour periods (Bayer 1961). No stony coral known can tolerate these conditions (Porter et al. 1999). Of the approximately 50 reef-dwelling octocoral species, fewer than 10 are azooxanthellate (Kinzie 1973). Light has the same impact on zooxanthellate gorgonians as on zooxanthellate scleractinians, providing energy for their symbionts. Illumination influences species composition to some degree. Zooxanthellate gorgonians are the only octocorals found above 16 m, with rare exception. Azooxanthellate gorgonians become increasingly frequent below 20 m (Goldberg 1973). Below 45 m, zooxanthellate gorgonians are rare. In zooxanthellate octocorals, the symbionts are arranged intracellularly in the endoderm. Greater metabolic coupling between host and symbiont makes gorgonians more reliant on symbionts than are scleractinians (Kinzie 1973). The host is so dependent upon the symbionts for energy that predatory capability is diminished. Some Gorgonaceae taxa have lost most or all of their nematocysts and with them the ability to feed (Bayer 1961). Dark-box experiments reinforced this postulate by showing that zooxanthellate octocorals are likely to die under the same conditions of darkness that azooxanthellate octocorals and zooxanthellate scleractinians are likely to survive (Kinzie 1973). Further, zooxanthellate octocorals do not bleach by expulsion of zooxanthellae. When stressful conditions cause bleaching, the symbionts die in situ and their remains persist within the endoderm. When stressful conditions end, the octocoral is repopulated with zooxanthellae (Kinzie 1973). Substrate availability and variety influence community composition. Diversity of gorgonian communities is strongly correlated with the diversity of available substratum. Shifting sediment smaller than coarse sand (2 mm) prevents settlement of all reefdwelling octocorals (Kinzie 1973). Shifting sediment from large gravel (~40-60 mm) to cobble-sized (60-200 mm) is suitable for settlement of only the most plastic Scleraxonian

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6 species ( Erythropodium caribaeorum and Briareum asbestinum ). Remnants of Acropora cervicornis usually fall into this size range. For this reason, A. cervicornis stands effectively prevent settlement of most reef-dwelling octocorals (Kinzie 1973). Sediments larger than 200 mm are generally suitable for settlement of all octocorals, though any mobile substrate leaves the organism susceptible to toppling. The hydrodynamic regime affects both octocoral density and species composition. Grain size and sediment depth, both influenced by water motion, control settlement and survival as described above. Typical hydrodynamic forces control the distribution of friable species and affect the orientation of fan-shaped octocorals (Kinzie 1973). Intense, episodic forces associated with storms alter the local environment, and cause octocoral mortality (Woodley et al. 1981). Such episodic events may alter the sediment regime and local current patterns. The impact of storms on octocoral assemblages differs with storm intensity, duration, water depth, and the initial character of the octocoral assemblage. Differential recruitment rates following a disturbance make it possible to gauge the frequency severe storms by species composition (Kinzie 1973). Diversity of octocoral assemblages within reef zones is closely tied to the physical character of the zone. Comparison of the same reef zone across many locations reveals that the octocoral species composition is remarkably homogenous. Surveys of analogous reef zones across the Caribbean consistently reveal similar species lists (Goldberg 1973). Kinzie (1973) found that the density of octocorals in Jamaicas Discovery Bay followed a strong inverse relationship with stony coral cover. The inverse correlation with stony coral cover was stronger than the positive correlation with available free space (Kinzie 1973). Historically, on southeast Florida reefs, octocoral density was inversely correlated with octocoral biomass (Goldberg 1973). Octocorals share reproductive strategies with many stony corals. Most octocorals are gonochoric broadcast spawners. A study of gametogenic cycles in six species of gorgonians from southeast Florida indicated that five of the species have annual

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7 gametogenic cycles that consistently peak in month-long periods. Among these species, spawning is seasonally sequential rather than synchronous(Fitzsimmons 1996). There is a pelagic phase of varying length before the planulae settle. Colony formation and postsettlement growth is asexual. Growth rates are highest in the first five years of life. Bayer (1961) reported no evidence of death from old age. Mortality is driven by bioerosion of the holdfast (Goreau & Hartman 1963), abrasion (Kinzie 1973), predation (Lasker & Coffroth 1988), storms (Woodley et al. 1981), and disease (Harvell et al. 2001). All octocorals produce calcified skeletal elements called spicules. After an alcyonarian dies and the organic matrix decomposes, the spicules are released. These coarse to fine grain (2000 m 50 m) calcium carbonate particles contribute to reefderived sediments. Caribbean octocoral habitats produce approximately 107 g CaCO3sediment ha-1 yr-1 (Bayer 1961). DESCRIPTION OF PRIMARY DATA SOURCE The Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Protection Act (HR5909) designated over 2,800 square nautical miles of coastal waters as the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS). The Sanctuary Protection Act mandated a comprehensive monitoring program to assess the effectiveness of the marine resource management. In cooperation with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the State of Florida implemented a Water Quality Protection Program to monitor seagrass habitats, coral reefs and hardbottom communities, and water quality (Porter 2002). The Coral Reef Monitoring Project (CRMP) is the coral habitat component of the mandated Water Quality Protection Program. Sampling site locations were chosen in 1994 using stratified random USEPA EMap sampling procedures (Overton et al. 1991). Forty reef sites were selected within the

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8 FKNMS and permanent station markers were installed in 1995 (Dustan et al. 1998). Annual sampling began in 1996 and continued through 2002. Three additional sites were installed in the Dry Tortugas in 1999 and sampling continued to 2002. At the peak of the projects geographic coverage, there were 172 stations among 43 sites (Fig. 1). During the full course of the CRMP, stations have been added and deleted from the annual survey list. Because the stainless steel station markers remain in the bottom, the potential exists to revisit any station at a later date. A total of 107 stations have been sampled each year in the interval 1996 to 2002. By habitat type there are 13 hardbottom, 29 patch, 39 shallow, and 26 deep reef stations. Field sampling consists of a number of non-consumptive survey methods with follow-up laboratory work. This thesis will deal with only one CRMP method: video sampling for determination of percent cover of benthic categories. During follow-up laboratory work, the video imagery is analyzed for percent cover of the following benthic categories: stony coral (to species whenever possible), octocoral, zoanthid, sponge, macroalgae, seagrass, and substrate. Figure 1. Distibution of CRMP sampling sites from Key Largo to Dry Tortugas.

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9 METHODS APPLIED TO OCTOCORAL HABITAT CHARACTERIZATION Two common methods of characterizing gorgonian communities are loosely categorized as abundance (number of colonies) and biomass. Sampling of octocoral abundance and diversity has been conducted using randomly placed quadrats along a prescribed depth contour (Goldberg 1973; Jaap et al. 1994) or within a defined habitat type. Kinzie (1973) scaled this method up to sample entire reef zones using a series of 5 x 105 m transects. Similar data have been obtained using line intercept methods (Jaap et al. 1994). Repeat census of permanent stations has been accomplished with long-term monitoring programs (Jaap et al. 2002). Biomass data collection involves removing all the organisms within a discrete area and noting species, wet weight, and dry weight for each colony. Some projects combine biomass data collection with other parameters. Kinzie (1973) cleared an entire reef zone (94 m2) of octocorals in an attempt to describe the effect of substrate diversity on octocoral diversity, density (#/m2), and biomass. Goldberg (1973) used dry weight biomass to develop density (#/m2) versus biomass (g/m2) profiles for all species found at each of six reef zones sampled. Drawbacks to biomass methods include the inability to repeat-sample an area and the unacceptable environmental impact of denuding an area of octocorals. Area covered by octocoral colonies is used as a proxy for biomass particularly for flabellate forms (Kim & Harvell 2002). Programs that directly target octocorals do not typically employ percent cover, planimetric, or remote-sensing survey methods. When such area cover methods are used, the collection of octocoral data is usually subordinate to other parameters. Consequently, the relationship between areal octocoral cover and either abundance or biomass is not well understood. Descriptions of octocoral habitat based on area covered are lacking, for good reason. Planar area sampling techniques are relatively expensive, labor intensive (Jaap & McField 2001), and are biased in favor of benthos that lie parallel to the overall

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10 topography. Planimetric sampling techniques have been applied to analyses of stony coral in a mixed habitat (Bohnsack 1979; Aronson et al. 1994; Jaap & McField 2001). However, Hackett (2002) conducted a review of planimetric techniques and found that the octocoral overstory can bias measurements of stony coral percent cover. The goals of my project are to examine the relationship between abundance (#/m2) and percent cover of octocorals as determined from planar projection CRMP video data, and to investigate changes in octocoral assemblages between 1996 and 2002. Specific questions addressed include: 1.How repeatable are octocoral counts acquired from video transects? 2.How similar are octocoral counts acquired from video and octocoral counts made in situ from the same stations? 3.How do octocoral abundance data acquired from video compare with octocoral percent cover data from the same stations? 4.Did octocoral assemblages change between 1996 and 2002? 5.Did hurricane Georges in 1998 impact octocoral assemblages? SIGNIFICANCE If the existing percent cover data are comparable to abundance data for octocorals, then the existing CRMP dataset provides the opportunity for assessment of octocoral community dynamics on an unprecedented scale of time and space. Secondarily, if videoderived abundance correlates to in situ abundance, then abundance-based habitat characterizations may be reliably conducted from standardized video data. Further, this undertaking reinforces the supplementary value of standardized video data archived in conjunction with a large-scale, long-term monitoring project.

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11 Figure 2. Layout of a typical CRMP site with enlarged view of an individual station. 2. METHODS CRMP METHODS Field sampling consists of a number of non-consumptive video and visual count survey methods with follow-up image analysis. This thesis will deal with only one CRMP method, video sampling for determination of percent cover of benthic categories. Three parallel video transects, each approximately 22 m long, comprise one station (Fig. 2). In the field, video of the sea floor is taken from a standard height of 40 cm, perpendicular to the benthos. The visible width of imagery taken from this height is 40 cm. Total average area of one video station is approximately 25 m2 (Porter 2002). During follow-up laboratory work, the video imagery is frame grabbed, random points are assigned to each image, and those points are analyzed. Images are grabbed to

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12 create a nearly seamless mosaic of the video transect. Depending on topography and actual length of transects, between 50 and 70 images are analyzed for each transect using the software package PointCount for Coral Reefs (Dustan et al. 1998). The software places random points on the image and a qualified observer identifies the organisms that lie beneath the random points. Identifications are made in the following benthic categories: stony coral (to species whenever possible), octocoral, zoanthid, sponge, macroalgae, seagrass, diadema and substrate. These data are recorded in a tabular format. From these data, relative percent cover of stony corals, octocorals, zoanthids, sponges, macroalgae, seagrass, diadema and substrate (rock, rubble and sediment) are calculated for all stations (Porter et al., 2002). Data are analyzed by frame and then aggregated to station-level, the smallest spatial unit used for analyses (approximately 25m2). STUDY METHODS Station Selection Three filters were used to provide a meaningful subset of the 107 available stations. First, only stations with greater than 5% octocoral cover were included. Second, regions with at least six stations in each of patch, shallow and deep habitat types were included. These constraints left 52 candidate stations in seven habitat types among the upper and middle keys to which the third filter was applied. Candidate stations in each of the seven habitat types were ranked by 1996 octocoral abundance (method described below) into three groups: 0th to 25th percentile, 25th to 75th percentile, and 75th to 100th percentile. One station was randomly selected from the lower and upper groups, and two stations were randomly selected from the middle group. These selection criteria provided 4 randomly selected stations at each of the seven habitat types: patch, shallow, and deep reef stations in the upper keys and hardbottom, patch, shallow, and deep reef stations in the middle keys (Fig. 3, Table 1).

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13 SiteIDSitetypeRegionSiteNameStation AreaofVideo Sample(m2) DepthMin (m) DepthMax (m) Longitude (DD) Latitude (DD) 302Patch(P)Upper(U)Turtle2 26.40 36-80.219125.2947 322Patch(P)Upper(U)PorterPatch2 27.60 45-80.324325.1032 323Patch(P)Upper(U)PorterPatch3 27.72 45-80.324325.1032 331Patch(P)Upper(U)Admiral1 30.12 12-80.394825.0447 503Shallow(S)Upper(U)Carysfort(Shallow)3 27.00 34-80.209825.2222 513Shallow(S)Upper(U)GrecianRocks3 26.76 48-80.306925.1075 531Shallow(S)Upper(U)Conch(Shallow)1 26.40 56-80.45824.9553 533Shallow(S)Upper(U)Conch(Shallow)3 27.00 57-80.457124.9562 702Deep(D)Upper(U)Carysfort(Deep)2 26.64 1316-80.209925.2208 721Deep(D)Upper(U)Molasses(Deep)1 26.52 1214-80.375625.0072 722Deep(D)Upper(U)Molasses(Deep)2 25.80 1214-80.375625.0072 733Deep(D)Upper(U)Conch(Deep)3 28.80 1417-80.451324.9519 141Hardbottom(HB)Middle(M)LongKey1 26.28 44-80.78424.7972 142Hardbottom(HB)Middle(M)LongKey2 26.40 44-80.78424.7972 152Hardbottom(HB)Middle(M)MoserChannel2 26.64 44-81.167624.6891 154Hardbottom(HB)Middle(M)MoserChannel4 26.52 44-81.167624.6891 341Patch(P)Middle(M)W.TurtleShoal1 25.80 57-80.966924.6993 343Patch(P)Middle(M)W.TurtleShoal3 26.40 57-80.966924.6993 344Patch(P)Middle(M)W.TurtleShoal4 25.80 57-80.966924.6993 354Patch(P)Middle(M)DustanRocks4 26.40 46-81.030224.6895 541Shallow(S)Middle(M)Alligator(Shallow)1 26.40 45-80.62424.8457 554Shallow(S)Middle(M)Tennessee(Shallow)4 26.76 56-80.781224.745 562Shallow(S)Middle(M)Sombrero(Shallow)2 23.40 56-81.109224.6269 563Shallow(S)Middle(M)Sombrero(Shallow)3 24.24 46-81.109224.6258 743Deep(D)Middle(M)Alligator(Deep)3 28.56 1112-80.620924.8452 753Deep(D)Middle(M)Tennessee(Deep)3 27.60 1314-80.757824.7527 763Deep(D)Middle(M)Sombrero(Deep)3 24.60 1515-81.110524.6231 764Deep(D)Middle(M)Sombrero(Deep)4 23.76 1515-81.110524.6231 Table 1. Key characteristics of selected stations. Figure 3. Locations of the 28 selected stations.

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14 Year Selection Specific years were selected to address two questions. Did the octocoral assemblage change over the longest available time span? Did the octocoral assemblage change immediately after hurricane Georges, in September 1998? Years 1996, 1998, 1999, and 2002 were selected as best addressing these two questions. In situ Octocoral Counts In situ data were collected from 15 of the available 107 CRMP stations. In situ data collection included video data collection according to CRMP protocol and quantification of octocoral colonies within the same area sampled by the video camera. Using a hand-held framing device that replicated the video cameras field of view, the number of Gorgonia ventalina in three size classes, and the number of other octocorals in three size classes were collected. Size classes are defined as <10cm, 10-40cm, >40cm (short, medium and tall respectively). The scleraxonian category was not included in the in situ survey and video-derived scleraxonian data were not included in direct comparisons. Video-Derived Octocoral Counts Abundance estimation methods employed in this survey are based on elements most reliably drawn from CRMP videotape. Video was played on a color monitor and the number of octocorals in view was tallied. Only colonies with their holdfast obviously within the field of view were counted. Each station was counted twice using the census method outlined below. Video-derived abundance data are labeled by trial number (e.g. trial 1, trial 2). Abundance data were collected for each transect, and analyses applied at

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15 the station level (3 transects pooled). The total area sampled by video transects at each station varied from 23.4 m2 to 30.1 m2. Density was calculated for each individual station using the area of video sample data in Table 1 and is presented as colonies/m2. Several parameters could be consistently quantified using the video data. Various combinations of these factors were tested for feasibility and consistency during real-time data collection. It was possible to reliably count from real-time playback the number of scleraxonians, the number of Gorgonia ventalina in the three size classes defined above, and the number of other octocorals in those three size classes. The delineations of size class from video are estimates, based on scaling items in the video image (e.g. chain link size and 40 cm average height of camera lens). Specific size classes were selected based on accuracy of determining the height of individuals from real-time playback. The scleraxonian group includes both species found in the sample area, Erythropodium caribaeorum and Briareum asbestinum Comparison of In Situ and Video Counts Bray-Curtis similarity coefficients were calculated for in situ versus video-derived octocoral density (Bray & Curtis 1957). The similarity matrix was based on six categories: short, medium and tall Gorgonia ventalina and short, medium and tall other octocoral. The similarity matrix was calculated with no transformation and no standardization. These similarity coefficients, which were compared with average densities of all Octocorallia, are calculated for in situ data versus trial 1 data, in situ data versus trial 2 data, and trial 1 data versus trial 2 data. Statistical Treatment of Video-Derived Abundance Data Bray-Curtis similarity coefficients were calculated for video-derived octocoral

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16 abundance trial 1 versus trial 2. The similarity matrix was based on seven abundance categories: scleraxonian, short, medium and tall Gorgonia ventalina and short, medium and tall other octocoral. The similarity matrix was calculated with no transformation and no standardization. Using guidelines based on log standard deviation and log mean specified in Clarke and Warwick (2001), a fourth-root transformation was selected as the appropriate transformation to normalize abundance data. This moderate transformation diminished the importance of abundant individuals (e.g. the profusion of medium other octocoral). The fourth-root transformation applied to raw abundance, not density, allowed application of the paired samples t-Test. A two-tailed paired sample t-Test (Byrkit 1975) was used to test the hypothesis that changes in density over time were significantly different. Data were arranged into a matrix of ten geographical groups by 13 biotic groups. The ten geographical groups were: patch, shallow, and deep reefs in the upper keys and hardbottom, patch, shallow, and deep reefs in the middle keys, all upper keys stations, all middle keys stations, and all 28 stations. The 13 biotic groups were short, medium and tall Gorgonia ventalina short, medium, and tall other octocoral, Scleraxonia, total G. ventalina total other octocoral, total short colonies, total medium colonies, total tall colonies, and total all Octocorallia. The null hypothesis was Ho: myear 1 = m year 2. The alternative hypothesis was Ha: myear1 m year 2. This analysis was conducted for four intervals at a =0.05. Ho: m1996 = m 1998 versus Ha: m1996 m 1998Ho: m1998 = m 1999 versus Ha: m1998 m 1999Ho: m1999 = m 2002 versus Ha: m1999 m 2002Ho: m1996 = m 2002 versus Ha: m1996 m 2002The Chi-square test (Byrkit 1975) was used to test the hypothesis that the distribution of octocorals changed over space and time. The earlier data were defined as

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17 the expected distribution. For example, data from 1998 were fit to the distributions observed in 1996. The null hypothesis was that the two distributions were indistinguishable, Ho: c1996 = c 1998. Two analyses were conducted at a =0.01 among eight geographical groups in four intervals. The eight geographical groups were: patch, shallow, and deep reefs in the upper keys and hardbottom, patch, shallow, and deep reefs in the middle keys, and all 28 stations. The first Chi-square analyses tested change in the distribution of short, medium and tall Gorgonia ventalina and short, medium and tall other octocoral. The second Chi-square analyses tested the distribution of each biotic group among every station in each geographic group. The biotic groups were short, medium and tall G. ventalina short, medium, and tall other octocoral, Scleraxonia, total G. ventalina total other octocoral, total short colonies, total medium colonies, total tall colonies, and total all Octocorallia. Statistical Treatments of Comparative Study of Video-Derived Abundance and Percent Cover Assessment of the correlation between abundance and octocoral percent cover was conducted using three different analyses. First, Spearmans r test for independence applied Spearmans rank correlation to each single biotic category and to octocoral percent cover (S-Plus6 2001). In addition to ranking the correlations between abundance and percent cover, Spearmans r test for independence tests the null hypothesis that abundance and percent cover are mutually uncorrelated. Those significant r values calculated with this test are useful as discrete quantities. For the purposes of evaluating correlation between abundance and percent cover, only the rank order is considered. The second and third assessment of the correlation between abundance and octocoral percent cover was conducted using the BIOENV routine (Clarke & Warwick 2001). The first BIOENV analysis, BIOENV-Spearman, quantified the correlation between all possible combinations of abundance and octocoral percent cover data using Spearmans r rank

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18 correlation. The second BIOENV analysis, BIOENV-Kendall, quantified the correlation between every possible combination of abundance and percent cover using Kendalls t rank correlation (Clarke & Warwick 2001). Both BIOENV routines were run using nontransformed data. Both BIOENV routines were run once with the seven biotic categories, and once with the single category Total All Octocorallia.

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19 Figure 4. Bray-Curtis similarity coefficients for comparison of results between in situ and video-derived estimates of octocoral density, as well as for comparisons of repeated video trials. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0102030405060708090100 Bray-CurtisSimilarityDensityAllOctocorallia InSituvsTrial1andIn SituvsTrial2 Trial1vsTrial2 3. RESULTS IN SITU VERSUS VIDEO DATA Octocoral abundance data collected in situ and from video transects were compared for 15 stations. In situ data, video data, and site descriptions are presented in APPENDIX I a, b. Bray-Curtis similarity coefficients were plotted against density of all Octocorallia in Figure 4. Two features were immediately evident. First, the trial 1 versus trial 2 similarity coefficients are greater than 95% at all density values. This shows that the video-derived abundance measures were density-independent and highly repeatable. Second, in situ versus

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20 Bray-CurtisSimilarityversusOctocoralliaDensity0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0102030405060708090100Bray-CurtisSimilarityCoefficientOctocoralliaDensity 1996 1998 1999 2002 Figure 5. Bray-Curtis similarity coefficients for video-derived abundance trials 1 and 2, compared with octocoral density. Table 2. Maximum and minimum Bray-Curtis similarity coefficients for video-derived abundance trials 1 and 2.1996199819992002 Maximum98.899.199.499.0 Minimum93.795.092.891.6 video similarity coefficients display attributes of both density-dependence and densityindependence. The extreme lower and upper in situ versus video points have the character of density-independent dissimilarity because density is nearly unchanged as similarity fluctuates up to 20%. The eight anomalous points (two points are identical) representing higher densities are from one site, Alligator Shallow. Most of the data points for the in situ versus video comparison (66%) display a prominent linear density-dependent similarity trend. VIDEO-DERIVED ABUNDANCE All data from the video-derived octocoral abundance survey are presented in Appendix II. Comparisons were made between video-derived octocoral abundance trials 1 and 2 using Bray-Curtis similarity coefficients. Results of the Bray-Curtis similarity matrices are presented in Appendix III and summarized in Table 2. Similarity coefficients are plotted against Octocorallia density in Figure 5. All similarity coefficients exceeded 90%,

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21 Figure 7. Average density of Octocorallia, summarized by colony height, from the 28 stations examined. AverageDensitybyHeight,All28Stations 1.31 0.53 0.54 0.81 0.80 1.091.00 2.29 6.44 6.40 6.14 6.39 1.64 1.77 1.00 1.330.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 1996199719981999200020012002Colonies/m2 AverageDensityTallcolonies AverageDensityMedium colonies AverageDensityShort colonies AverageDensityScleraxonia (encrusting) Figure 6. Average density of Octocorallia from the 28 stations examined. AverageDensityofAllOctocorallia,All28Stations 1.17 1.07 0.63 0.95 7.72 8.19 7.51 9.06 1.31 0.53 0.54 0.810.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 1996199719981999200020012002Colonies/m2 AverageDensityTotal Scleraxonia AverageDensityTotal"other octocoral" AverageDensityTotalG. ventalina demonstrating that abundance data collected from video transects are consistent and density-independent.Average densities of Gorgonia ventalina and Scleraxonia were consistently about one colony/m2 (Fig. 6). Other octocoral as a group averaged 7-9 colonies/m2 (Fig. 6). When summarized by height, (Fig. 7), short and tall averaged about 1-2 colonies/m2, while colonies between 10 and 40 cm in height consistently averaged about 6 colonies/m2. The

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22 Figure 8. MDS average abundance at upper keys stations, by habitat type. UD UP US UD1996 UD1998 UD1999 UD2002 UP1996 UP1998 UP1999 UP2002 US1996 US1998 US1999 US2002 Stress:0.03 Deep Reef Shallow Reef Patch Reefminimum possible density value is approximately 0.05 colonies/m2 obtained from one colony at one station. The average density of all Octocorallia surveyed was relatively stable fluctuating between a minimum density of 8.7 colonies/m2 in 1998, and a maximum density of 10.8 colonies/m2 in 2002 (Fig. 6). Scleraxonia and Gorgonia ventalina densities were more variable. The maximum average density of Scleraxonia was 1.3 colonies/m2 in 1996, and the minimum density, 0.5 colonies/m2, was found in both 1998 and 1999. The maximum average density of G. ventalina was 1.2 colonies/m2 in 1996, and the minimum density was approximately half, 0.6 colonies/m2, in 1999. The average density of medium individuals was remarkably stable in all years (Fig. 7). Finally, the density of short individuals in 2002 was more than double any other year.Abundance of octocorals at the 28 stations examined is highly variable (Appendix II and IV) and the assemblage can be more thoroughly examined by splitting the 28 stations into smaller groups. Multi-dimensional scaling by region shows groups that are generally consistent within habitat type (Figures 8 and 9). These analyses confirm that habitat type is a meaningful descriptor of the octocoral assemblages in this study. Stress values of 0.03 and 0.09 indicate that the two-dimensional plots are good representations of multidimensional data, with no real chance of misinterpretation (Clarke & Warwick 2001).

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23Average Gorgonia ventalina density falls into three relatively distinct geographic groups (Table 3, Fig. 10). G. ventalina are uncommon at middle keys hardbottom stations. Deep stations and middle keys shallow stations form an intermediate group. Patch reefs and upper keys shallow reef stations have the highest abundances. The latter group represents 78% of all G. ventalina seen in the study. Average other octocoral density is relatively uniform across all seven geographic groups (Fig. 11). This uniformity is driven by the homogeneity of medium other octocoral (Table 3). In each group, the average density of short other octocorals was highest in 2002.Figure 9. MDS average abundance at middle keys stations, by habitat type. MD MH MS MP MD1996 MD1998 MD1999 MD2002 MH1996 MH1998 MH1999 MH2002 MS1996 MS1998 MS1999 MS2002 MP1996 MP1998 MP1999 MP2002 Stress:0.09 Deep Reef Shallow Reef Hardbottom Patch Reef Figure 10. Average density of G. ventalina by habitat type. AverageDensityofG.ventalina0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.501996 1998 1999 2002 1996 1998 1999 2002 1996 1998 1999 2002 1996 1998 1999 2002 1996 1998 1999 2002 1996 1998 1999 2002 1996 1998 1999 2002 UpperPatch(n=4)UpperShallow (n=4) UpperDeep(n=4)Middle Hardbottom(n=4) MiddlePatch (n=4) MiddleShallow (n=4) MiddleDeep (n=4) Colonies/m2 G.ventalina-tall G.ventalina-medium G.ventalina-short

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24 Figure 11. Average density of other octocoral, by habitat type. AverageDensityof"otheroctocoral"0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.001996 1998 1999 2002 1996 1998 1999 2002 1996 1998 1999 2002 1996 1998 1999 2002 1996 1998 1999 2002 1996 1998 1999 2002 1996 1998 1999 2002 UpperPatch (n=4) UpperShallow (n=4) UpperDeep (n=4) Middle Hardbottom (n=4) MiddlePatch (n=4) MiddleShallow (n=4) MiddleDeep (n=4) Colonies/m2 "otheroctocoral"-tall "otheroctocoral"-medium "otheroctocoral"-short Average density of tall other octocorals at patch reefs was approximately double the density found on any other habitat type. Figure 12 depicts average density of the three main biotic categories among the seven geographic groups. Overall, the distributions seen in Figure 12 are a reflection of Figure 12. Average density of the three main biotic categories, by habitat type. AverageDensityofAllOctocorallia0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.001996 1998 1999 2002 1996 1998 1999 2002 1996 1998 1999 2002 1996 1998 1999 2002 1996 1998 1999 2002 1996 1998 1999 2002 1996 1998 1999 2002 UpperPatch (n=4) UpperShallow (n=4) UpperDeep (n=4) Middle Hardbottom (n=4) MiddlePatch (n=4) MiddleShallow (n=4) MiddleDeep (n=4) Colonies/m2 TotalScleraxonia Total"otheroctocoral" TotalG.ventalina

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25 medium other octocoral density (Fig. 11). This reinforces the suggestion that distribution of medium other octocoral is independent of geographic group; the other six biotic categories display higher dependence on geography and habitat type.AverageDensity YearG.ventalina-shortG.ventalina-mediumG.ventalina-tall "otheroctocoral"-short "otheroctocoral"-medium "otheroctocoral"-tall TotalG.ventalinaTotal"otheroctocoral" TotalScleraxonia TotalAllOctocorallia19960.091.070.390.295.792.621.558.700.7510.99 19980.181.350.310.797.372.071.8310.230.8512.91 19990.150.640.180.906.271.120.978.290.539.79 20020.091.130.311.076.261.441.538.760.6710.97 19960.131.370.390.424.490.741.895.640.447.97 19980.170.980.460.804.331.071.616.210.538.34 19990.240.590.160.905.040.610.986.550.207.73 20020.280.530.242.075.070.671.057.800.259.10 19960.040.510.050.856.980.750.618.582.7211.91 19980.100.370.101.866.630.670.579.171.7411.47 19990.090.190.051.476.810.630.328.912.3811.61 20020.060.180.052.909.280.620.2912.802.9516.05 19960.010.060.001.855.561.250.078.660.208.93 19980.040.060.011.397.091.410.119.890.1010.10 19990.000.020.000.816.370.730.027.910.037.96 20020.000.040.003.057.160.840.0411.050.1011.19 19960.092.260.710.526.051.943.068.512.0713.64 19980.021.281.000.545.162.482.308.180.3010.78 19990.030.910.420.725.731.341.377.790.559.71 20020.131.331.080.764.862.002.557.621.0711.24 19960.110.380.110.544.221.190.605.960.376.92 19980.110.340.140.833.961.560.596.350.046.99 19990.290.230.080.785.050.970.606.800.007.40 20020.500.280.172.764.671.160.958.590.369.90 19960.030.250.130.686.081.230.417.982.6611.05 19980.030.320.110.775.531.000.467.300.147.90 19990.010.100.060.615.030.690.176.330.066.56 20020.030.140.062.353.800.650.236.800.247.27 19960.090.990.280.525.751.371.357.641.3010.29 19980.150.900.291.156.111.271.348.531.0410.91 19990.160.470.131.096.040.780.767.911.049.71 20020.140.610.202.016.870.910.969.791.2912.04 19960.060.740.240.905.481.401.037.781.3210.13 19980.050.500.310.895.431.610.877.930.158.94 19990.080.310.140.735.550.930.547.210.167.91 20020.170.450.332.235.121.160.948.520.449.90 19960.070.850.260.735.601.391.177.721.3110.20 19980.090.670.301.005.721.471.078.190.539.78 19990.120.380.140.885.760.870.637.510.548.68 20020.160.520.272.145.871.050.959.060.8110.82 AllMiddle Stations (n=16) AllStations (n=28) UpperPatch (n=4) Upper Shallow (n=4) UpperDeep (n=4) Middle Hardbottom (n=4) Middle Patch(n=4) Middle Shallow (n=4) MiddleDeep (n=4) AllUpper Stations (n=12) Table 3. Average octocoral density by habitat type and region.

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26Some of the inter-annual changes observed in Figures 10, 11, and 12 are of relatively large magnitude. Yet, the average of each geographic group masks much of the station-level variability and hinders assessment of significance of change.In order to understand the character of the data more fully, descriptive statistics were calculated, including mean, standard error, median, mode, standard deviation, sample variance, kurtosis, skewness, range, minimum, maximum, sum, count, and 95% confidence level. Descriptive statistics for each habitat type and for all stations are presented for 1996, 1998, 1999, 2002, and all years (Appendix IVa, b, c, d, e) respectively. Variance is relatively high for many of the biotic categories. This property is typical of ecological data and prevents application of parametric analyses without data transformation (Clarke & Warwick 2001). Hypothesis testing for significant change over time was conducted using a twotailed paired sample t-Test. I compared octocoral abundance data over four intervals: 1998 versus 1996, 1999 versus 1998, 2002 versus 1999, and 2002 versus 1996. For each interval, I compared abundances of octocorals in 10 geographical categories and 13 biotic groups. First, t-Tests were used to compare 1996 and 1998 abundance data. Of 130 possible outcomes, 16 were significantly different (Table 4). Ten of the declines in abundance and four increases in abundance were significant (Table 5). About half of the biotic groups in middle keys patch reef stations changed significantly, and five of the seven significant outcomes were declines in abundance. Also notable are 60 to 90 percent declines in Scleraxonia abundance (Table 5). Second, t-Tests were used to compare 1998 and 1999 abundance data. Of the 130 possible outcomes, 29 were significantly different (Table 6). Twenty-six of the declines in abundance and three of the increases were significant (Table 7). Nearly all significant changes in the year following hurricane Georges were abundance decreases. More than half of the 26 significant declines occurred in a tall biotic group. Every significant increase occurred in short or encrusting biotic groups. Again, about half of the biotic groups in

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27middle keys patch reef stations changed significantly, and most of the seven significant outcomes were declines in abundance (Table 7). Third, t-Tests were used to compare 1999 and 2002 abundance data. Of the 130 possible outcomes, 28 were significantly different (Table 8). One of the declines in abundance and 27 of the increases were significant (Table 9). Significant increases in short biotic groups were approximately two to five-fold. Again, about half of the biotic groups in middle keys patch reef stations changed significantly. In the 1999 to 2002 interval, every middle keys patch reef change was an increase in abundance (Table 9). Fourth, t-Tests were used to compare 1996 and 2002 abundance data. Of the 130 possible outcomes, 38 were significantly different (Table 10). Fourteen of the declines in abundance and 24 of the increases were significant (Table 11). Among short biotic groups, all of the 15 significant changes were increases. Conversely, among tall biotic groups, all of the eight significant changes were decreases (Table 11).

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28 StationGroupBioticCategory Directionof change Relative Magnitude ofChange p-value ( a =0.05) UpperPatchTotalshortcoloniesIncrease156% 0.048 UpperPatchTotaltallcoloniesDecrease21% 0.017 UpperShallowG.ventalina-medium Decrease28% 0.049 UpperShallowTotalmediumcoloniesDecrease9% 0.048 MiddlePatchG.ventalina-medium Decrease44% 0.043 MiddlePatch"otheroctocoral"-tallIncrease28% 0.011 MiddlePatch TotalG.ventalinaDecrease25% 0.047 MiddlePatchTotalScleraxoniaDecrease85% 0.001 MiddlePatchTotalmediumcoloniesDecrease23% 0.010 MiddlePatchTotaltallcoloniesIncrease32% 0.005 MiddlePatchTotalAllOctocoralliaDecrease21% 0.018 AllUpperStations"otheroctocoral"-shortIncrease122% 0.015 AllUpperStationsTotalshortcoloniesIncrease115% 0.023 AllMiddleStationsTotalScleraxoniaDecrease89% 0.000 AllStations"otheroctocoral"-shortIncrease36% 0.022 AllStationsTotalScleraxoniaDecrease60% 0.004 Table 5. Summary of significant two-tailed paired sample t-Test results where abundance in 1996 1998 at a =0.05, combined with relative magnitude of change from 1996 to 1998. Table 4. p -values for two-tailed paired sample t-Test, testing the assumption that abundances are equal between 1996 and 1998. Shaded blocks indicate significant differences ( a =0.05). Testforchange 1996versus 1998G.ventalinashortG.ventalinamediumG.ventalina-tall "otheroctocoral"short "otheroctocoral"medium "otheroctocoral"tall TotalG. ventalinaTotal"other octocoral" TotalScleraxonia Totalshort colonies Totalmedium colonies Totaltallcolonies TotalAll OctocoralliaUpperPatch0.1370.4540.0970.1890.1230.1470.6390.2640.865 0.048 0.070 0.017 0.307 UpperShallow0.699 0.049 0.9280.2580.5240.2390.2210.6050.5310.676 0.048 0.4590.904 UpperDeep0.3470.5820.7860.2500.5560.3720.6950.9300.1060.1140.3650.5740.500 MiddleHardbottom0.3910.6750.3910.1140.2950.6440.7940.4320.2230.8460.3580.2820.436 MiddlePatch0.171 0.043 0.1320.7690.143 0.0110.047 0.386 0.001 0.186 0.0100.0050.018 MiddleShallow0.5300.6280.4790.1210.8000.1440.8330.2790.1110.9930.9250.8440.489 MiddleDeep0.5300.2480.2920.9080.1310.3780.3460.2670.1060.4960.7620.2020.151 AllUpperStations0.3660.2410.607 0.015 0.9360.7430.5020.4500.947 0.023 0.4440.5300.859 AllMiddleStations0.1620.1850.7740.5810.8290.2860.5330.435 0.000 0.2910.4650.4240.225 AllStations0.6170.0690.906 0.022 0.8210.5160.3540.265 0.004 0.4260.2880.8280.316

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29 StationGroupBioticCategory Directionof change Relative Ma g nitude ofChange p-value ( a =0.05) UpperPatchG.ventalina-tall Decrease41% 0.016 UpperPatch"otheroctocoral"-tallDecrease46% 0.004 UpperPatch TotalG.ventalinaDecrease47% 0.015 UpperPatchTotaltallcoloniesDecrease45% 0.000 UpperShallowG.ventalina-medium Decrease41% 0.012 UpperShallowG.ventalina-tall Decrease65% 0.014 UpperShallow"otheroctocoral"-tallDecrease44% 0.015 UpperShallowTotaltallcoloniesDecrease50% 0.000 MiddleHardbottom"otheroctocoral"-shortDecrease42% 0.043 MiddleHardbottom"otheroctocoral"-mediumDecrease10% 0.032 MiddleHardbottom"otheroctocoral"-tallDecrease48% 0.050 MiddleHardbottomTotal"otheroctocoral"Decrease20% 0.014 MiddleHardbottomTotalAllOctocoralliaDecrease21% 0.015 MiddlePatchG.ventalina-mediumDecrease28% 0.023 MiddlePatchG.ventalina-tall Decrease58% 0.010 MiddlePatch"otheroctocoral"-tallDecrease46% 0.000 MiddlePatchTotalG.ventalinaDecrease40% 0.008 MiddlePatchTotalScleraxoniaIncrease81% 0.035 MiddlePatchTotaltallcoloniesDecrease49% 0.000 MiddlePatchTotalAllOctocoralliaDecrease10% 0.037 MiddleShallowG.ventalina-short Increase169% 0.019 MiddleShallow"otheroctocoral"-tallDecrease38% 0.003 MiddleShallowTotalshortcoloniesIncrease14% 0.036 MiddleDeepTotalAllOctocoralliaDecrease17% 0.031 AllUpperStations"otheroctocoral"-tallDecrease38% 0.006 AllMiddleStations"otheroctocoral"-tallDecrease42% 0.000 AllMiddleStationsTotaltallcoloniesDecrease44% 0.000 AllStations"otheroctocoral"-tallDecrease41% 0.000 AllStationsTotaltallcoloniesDecrease43% 0.000 Table 7. Summary of significant two-tailed paired sample t-Test results where abundance in 1998 1999 at a =0.05, combined with relative magnitude of change from 1998 to 1999. Testforchange 1998versus 1999G.ventalinashortG.ventalinamediumG.ventalina-tall "otheroctocoral"short "otheroctocoral"medium "otheroctocoral"tall TotalG. ventalinaTotal"other octocoral" TotalScleraxonia Totalshort colonies Totalmedium colonies Totaltallcolonies TotalAll OctocoralliaUpperPatch0.7690.088 0.016 0.2270.860 0.0040.015 0.4880.2630.3760.158 0.000 0.213 UpperShallow0.338 0.0120.014 0.3630.299 0.015 0.0690.4780.0930.1900.993 0.000 0.848 UpperDeep0.7740.7220.4510.9060.5830.9720.7800.6890.1530.9790.4980.4210.760 MiddleHardbottom0.3910.4240.391 0.0430.0320.050 0.602 0.014 0.2150.0970.5360.051 0.015 MiddlePatch0.624 0.0230.010 0.2340.065 0.0000.008 0.089 0.035 0.9910.432 0.0000.037 MiddleShallow 0.019 0.1650.7110.6080.284 0.003 0.9730.5170.391 0.036 0.5910.6390.540 MiddleDeep0.8480.8110.3910.6000.5800.2720.9010.2490.2380.7360.6730.142 0.031 AllUpperStations0.3560.3000.5630.2050.306 0.006 0.2320.6840.2100.1380.8900.0710.787 AllMiddleStations0.6920.8560.1680.7300.383 0.000 0.8220.3460.1970.7930.775 0.000 0.115 AllStations0.4240.4210.1600.5700.166 0.000 0.3800.8170.0790.3320.904 0.000 0.236 Table 6. p -values for two-tailed paired sample t-Test, testing the assumption that abundances are equal between 1998 and 1999. Shaded blocks indicate significant differences ( a =0.05).

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30 StationGroupBioticCategory Directionof change Relative Ma g nitude ofChange p-value ( a =0.05) UpperPatchG.ventalina-tall Increase70% 0.004 UpperPatch TotalG.ventalinaIncrease58% 0.014 UpperPatchTotaltallcoloniesIncrease34% 0.010 UpperDeep"otheroctocoral"-shortIncrease98% 0.023 UpperDeepTotal"otheroctocoral"Increase44% 0.048 MiddlePatchG.ventalina-medium Increase46% 0.012 MiddlePatchG.ventalina-tall Increase157% 0.038 MiddlePatch"otheroctocoral"-tallIncrease50% 0.011 MiddlePatch TotalG.ventalinaIncrease86% 0.009 MiddlePatchTotalScleraxoniaIncrease96% 0.023 MiddlePatchTotaltallcoloniesIncrease75% 0.002 MiddlePatchTotalAllOctocoralliaIncrease16% 0.016 MiddleShallowTotalshortcoloniesIncrease204% 0.031 MiddleDeep"otheroctocoral"-shortIncrease287% 0.000 MiddleDeep"otheroctocoral"-mediumDecrease25% 0.043 AllUpperStations"otheroctocoral"-shortIncrease85% 0.003 AllUpperStationsTotal"otheroctocoral"Increase24% 0.030 AllUpperStationsTotalAllOctocoralliaIncrease24% 0.016 AllMiddleStationsG.ventalina-short Increase97% 0.037 AllMiddleStations"otheroctocoral"-shortIncrease206% 0.003 AllMiddleStations"otheroctocoral"-tallIncrease25% 0.022 AllMiddleStationsTotalshortcoloniesIncrease195% 0.000 AllMiddleStationsTotalAllOctocoralliaIncrease25% 0.003 AllStations"otheroctocoral"-shortIncrease142% 0.000 AllStations"otheroctocoral"-tallIncrease21% 0.031 AllStationsTotal"otheroctocoral"Increase21% 0.011 AllStationsTotalshortcoloniesIncrease130% 0.000 AllStationsTotalAllOctocoralliaIncrease25% 0.000 Table 9. Summary of significant two-tailed paired sample t-Test results where abundance in 1999 2002 at a =0.05, combined with relative magnitude of change from 1999 to 2002. Table 8. p -values for two-tailed paired sample t-Test, testing the assumption that abundances are equal between 1999 and 2002. Shaded blocks indicate significant differences ( a =0.05). Testforchange 1999versus 2002G.ventalinashortG.ventalinamediumG.ventalina-tall "otheroctocoral"short "otheroctocoral"medium "otheroctocoral"tall TotalG. ventalinaTotal"other octocoral" TotalScleraxonia Totalshort colonies Totalmedium colonies Totaltallcolonies TotalAll OctocoralliaUpperPatch0.4040.051 0.004 0.1610.6000.300 0.014 0.9480.4390.8800.268 0.010 0.526 UpperShallow0.9340.1380.6580.1080.8110.9330.7240.0860.5750.3140.1310.6540.117 UpperDeep0.3620.4400.507 0.023 0.0810.9680.569 0.048 0.3410.8220.9610.4760.118 MiddleHardbottomnocolo0.304nocolo0.2220.2230.2650.3040.1580.7210.2030.4310.2380.145 MiddlePatch0.111 0.0120.038 0.9090.181 0.0110.009 0.614 0.023 0.1200.758 0.0020.016 MiddleShallow0.1530.6650.1990.1750.5050.2610.1510.6110.184 0.031 0.4530.0550.230 MiddleDeep0.5970.5270.391 0.0000.043 0.4920.7310.4270.6670.0640.1890.2830.149 AllUpperStations0.3240.2710.741 0.003 0.4150.4620.199 0.030 0.8330.3370.4210.959 0.016 AllMiddleStations 0.037 0.3060.390 0.003 0.088 0.022 0.6080.1360.111 0.000 0.1070.086 0.003 AllStations0.2270.1220.754 0.000 0.439 0.031 0.301 0.011 0.128 0.000 0.0830.273 0.000

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31 Testforchange 1996versus 2002G.ventalinashortG.ventalinamediumG.ventalina-tall "otheroctocoral"short "otheroctocoral"medium "otheroctocoral"tall TotalG. ventalinaTotal"other octocoral" TotalScleraxonia Totalshort colonies Totalmedium colonies Totaltallcolonies TotalAll OctocoralliaUpperPatch0.5540.5390.362 0.003 0.209 0.019 0.9690.8200.593 0.033 0.241 0.019 0.745 UpperShallow0.7130.0590.335 0.032 0.2440.5360.1030.1080.6600.0870.1540.2240.289 UpperDeep0.3910.5541.000 0.0070.031 0.5490.742 0.004 0.885 0.026 0.7520.839 0.022 MiddleHardbottom0.3910.259nocolo0.6690.2130.1000.283 0.030 0.4180.7840.5010.109 0.019 MiddlePatch0.1840.0530.2540.2170.2350.7570.0970.300 0.0270.0460.016 0.2070.085 MiddleShallow0.0520.2790.939 0.019 0.3010.9970.1140.0600.397 0.001 0.7240.9480.069 MiddleDeep1.0000.6400.298 0.000 0.136 0.026 0.9080.412 0.000 0.1850.240 0.035 0.169 AllUpperStations0.3980.0770.326 0.0000.0070.028 0.204 0.008 0.595 0.000 0.3230.065 0.047 AllMiddleStations0.2230.0680.689 0.001 0.816 0.023 0.9800.226 0.0020.003 0.1040.1080.942 AllStations0.129 0.010 0.282 0.000 0.334 0.001 0.395 0.0080.0050.000 0.067 0.014 0.277 Table 10. p -values for two-tailed paired sample t-Test, testing the assumption that abundances are equal between 1996 and 2002. Shaded blocks indicate significant differences ( a =0.05). StationGroupBioticCategory Directionof change Relative Magnitude ofChange p-value ( a =0.05) UpperPatch"otheroctocoral"-shortIncrease271% 0.003 UpperPatch"otheroctocoral"-tallDecrease45% 0.019 UpperPatchTotalshortcoloniesIncrease209% 0.033 UpperPatchTotaltallcoloniesDecrease42% 0.019 UpperShallow"otheroctocoral"-shortIncrease397% 0.032 UpperDeep"otheroctocoral"-shortIncrease242% 0.007 UpperDeep"otheroctocoral"-mediumIncrease33% 0.031 UpperDeepTotal"otheroctocoral"Increase49% 0.004 UpperDeepTotalshortcoloniesIncrease232% 0.026 UpperDeepTotalAllOctocoralliaIncrease35% 0.022 MiddleHardbottomTotal"otheroctocoral"Increase28% 0.030 MiddleHardbottomTotalAllOctocoralliaIncrease25% 0.019 MiddlePatchTotalScleraxoniaDecrease48% 0.027 MiddlePatchTotalshortcoloniesIncrease48% 0.046 MiddlePatchTotalmediumcoloniesDecrease26% 0.016 MiddleShallow"otheroctocoral"-shortIncrease409% 0.019 MiddleShallowTotalshortcoloniesIncrease402% 0.001 MiddleDeep"otheroctocoral"-shortIncrease248% 0.000 MiddleDeep"otheroctocoral"-tallDecrease47% 0.026 MiddleDeepTotalScleraxoniaDecrease91% 0.000 MiddleDeepTotaltallcoloniesDecrease47% 0.035 AllUpperStations"otheroctocoral"-shortIncrease289% 0.000 AllUpperStations"otheroctocoral"-mediumIncrease19% 0.007 AllUpperStations"otheroctocoral"-tallDecrease34% 0.028 AllUpperStationsTotal"otheroctocoral"Increase28% 0.008 AllUpperStationsTotalshortcoloniesIncrease258% 0.000 AllUpperStationsTotalAllOctocoralliaIncrease17% 0.047 AllMiddleStations"otheroctocoral"-shortIncrease149% 0.001 AllMiddleStations"otheroctocoral"-tallDecrease17% 0.023 AllMiddleStationsTotalScleraxoniaDecrease67% 0.002 AllMiddleStationsTotalshortcoloniesIncrease151% 0.003 AllStationsG.ventalin a -mediumDecrease39% 0.010 AllStations"otheroctocoral"-shortIncrease191% 0.000 AllStations"otheroctocoral"-tallDecrease24% 0.001 AllStationsTotal"otheroctocoral"Increase17% 0.008 AllStationsTotalScleraxoniaDecrease39% 0.005 AllStationsTotalshortcoloniesIncrease185% 0.000 AllStationsTotaltallcoloniesDecrease19% 0.014 Table 11. Summary of significant two-tailed paired sample t-Test results where abundance in 1996 2002 at a =0.05, combined with relative magnitude of change from 1996 to 2002.

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32Chi-square tests complement the t-Tests. Paired sample t-Tests tested the equality of the average density between years. Within each class, Chi-square tested the density distribution patterns between years. Analyses presented in Table 12 tested the distribution of sizes (short, medium, tall). The null hypothesis is that the distribution of sizes is indistinguishable between years. When the distribution is significantly different, abundance of one or more of the three size classes may be significantly different. Analyses presented in Table 13 test the distribution of one biotic category among all stations in a habitat type. The null hypothesis is that the distribution is indistinguishable between years. When the distribution is significantly different, abundance at one or more of the stations may be significantly different. Chi-square is inapplicable when the actual and expected distributions include any zero values. The notation NA denotes these cases.Table 12. Chi-square test of change in octocoral distribution by size class ( a =0.01). Shading indicates significant changes. Short-Medium-TallG. ventalinaShort-Medium-Tall "otheroctocoral" chi98vs.96 0.0030.000 chi99vs.980.095 0.000 chi02vs.99 0.0040.008 chi02vs.960.302 0.000 chi98vs.96 0.0030.000 chi99vs.98 0.0000.000 chi02vs.990.073 0.000 chi02vs.96 0.0000.000 chi98vs.96 0.0000.000 chi99vs.980.452 0.010 chi02vs.990.734 0.000 chi02vs.96 0.0010.000 chi98vs.96NA 0.000 chi99vs.980.318 0.000 chi02vs.99NA 0.000 chi02vs.96NA 0.000 chi98vs.96 0.0000.000 chi99vs.98 0.0040.000 chi02vs.99 0.0000.000 chi02vs.96 0.0000.000 chi98vs.960.564 0.000 chi99vs.98 0.0000.000 chi02vs.990.148 0.000 chi02vs.96 0.0000.000 chi98vs.960.4450.049 chi99vs.980.3180.033 chi02vs.990.210 0.000 chi02vs.960.536 0.000 chi98vs.96 0.005 0.021 chi99vs.98 0.0090.000 chi02vs.990.033 0.000 chi02vs.96 0.0000.000 All28 Stations Middle Hard bottom Stations Middle Patch Stations Middle Shallow Stations Middle Deep Stations Chi-squareChangeinAverage Distribution( a =0.01) Upper Patch Stations Upper Shallow Stations Upper Deep Stations

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33Distributions of Gorgonia ventalina sizes were nearly split between distributions that were indistinguishable and distributions that were significantly different. Middle patch stations were the only location where distributions of G. ventalina sizes were significantly different in every interval. The significantly different distributions of G. ventalina sizes are clearly driven by different rates of decline 1996 to 1999 and partial recovery by 2002 (Table 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, Fig. 10). Distributions of other octocoral sizes were significantly different in 29 of 32 results. It is clear that differences in the distribution of short and medium otherTable 13. Chi-square change in distribution ( a =0.01) of one biotic category over all 4 stations by one habitat type. Shading indicates significant changes. G.ventalina-shortG.ventalina-mediumG.ventalina-tall "otheroctocoral"-short "otheroctocoral"-medium "otheroctocoral"-tall TotalScleraxonia TotalG.ventalina TotalOtherOctocorals TotalAllOctocoralschi98vs.96NA0.1090.871 0.0000.008 0.038 0.000 0.023 0.0010.000 chi99vs.98NA0.1570.823 0.0000.000 0.689 0.000 0.599 0.0000.000 chi02vs.990.357 0.002 0.1060.116 0.000 0.0170.0750.017 0.0000.000 chi02vs.96NA 0.001 0.398 0.000 0.3510.052 0.008 0.0260.035 0.002 chi98vs.96 0.009 0.271 0.0000.000 0.022 0.002 NA0.110 0.001 0.041 chi99vs.98NA0.9380.782 0.0070.000 0.6630.2800.285 0.0000.000 chi02vs.99 0.0000.004 0.769 0.000 0.1120.163 0.0000.0000.0020.000 chi02vs.96 0.0000.0010.0090.0000.0000.000 NA 0.0030.0000.000 chi98vs.96NANANA 0.0000.000 0.234 0.0000.0000.0000.000 chi99vs.98NANANA 0.0000.0000.002 0.012NA 0.0000.000 chi02vs.99NA0.2430.2950.063 0.000 0.033 0.000 0.184 0.0000.000 chi02vs.96NANANA 0.0020.0000.0050.0000.0000.0000.003 chi98vs.96NANANA0.159 0.0000.005 NANA 0.0000.000 chi99vs.98NANANA0.1080.6590.069NANA0.1860.124 chi02vs.99NA0.411NA 0.0000.008 0.562NA0.411 0.0000.000 chi02vs.96NANANA 0.0000.000 0.042NANA 0.001 0.012 chi98vs.960.0830.0310.0130.560 0.007 0.4860.2790.2620.2310.032 chi99vs.98NA0.5750.3880.0150.4350.8110.0250.4950.7710.457 chi02vs.99NA0.588 0.0030.0020.000 0.5810.1190.1440.0350.446 chi02vs.960.0170.031 0.0000.0030.000 0.4630.0760.248 0.0000.000 chi98vs.96NA0.787NA 0.000 0.010 0.004 NA 0.0040.000 0.030 chi99vs.98NA0.394NA 0.0000.000 0.824NA 0.0000.0000.000 chi02vs.99 0.000 0.014NA 0.0000.000 0.145NA 0.0000.0000.000 chi02vs.96NA0.176NA 0.0000.000 0.014NA 0.0000.0000.000 chi98vs.96NANANA 0.005 0.585 0.0000.000 NA0.011 0.000 chi99vs.98NANANA0.057 0.000 0.0130.019NA 0.002 0.244 chi02vs.99NA 0.009 NA0.0160.0180.530NA0.1360.0510.201 chi02vs.96NANANA0.735 0.000 0.0600.683NA 0.0000.000 chi98vs.96 0.0010.000 0.040 0.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.000 chi99vs.98 0.000 0.0450.632 0.0000.0000.0030.0000.0000.0000.000 chi02vs.99 0.0000.001 0.014 0.0000.000 0.010NA 0.0000.0000.000 chi02vs.96 0.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.000 Middle Patch Stations Middle Shallow Stations Middle Deep Stations Chi-squareChangein AverageDistribution ( a =0.01) Upper Patch Stations Upper Shallow Stations Upper Deep Stations Middle Hard bottom Stations All7 Habitat T y pes

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34octocoral (Table 13) drove most of the significant other octocoral results in Table 12. Further, most of the significantly different size distributions are due to increases in the density of short other octocoral (Table 5, 7, 9, 11). For results presented in Table 13, the null hypothesis is that the distribution of biota at all four stations in a habitat type is indistinguishable between years. The alternative hypothesis is that one or more of the stations are changing independently. Middle shallow, upper shallow and upper deep stations stand out with the most significantly different distributions, 67 of 95 results. This indicates that biota at one or more of the four stations in each habitat type are changing independently of the others in most cases. Middle patch stations stand out with the fewest significantly different distributions, nine of 38 results. This indicates that the distributions of all biota among middle patch stations are indistinguishable in most intervals.VIDEO-DERIVED ABUNDANCE VERSUS PERCENT COVERCoral Reef Monitoring Project (CRMP) percent cover data for stations listed in Table 1 are presented in Appendix V. Plots of octocoral percent cover versus video-derived octocoral density (Appendix VI) suggested direct relationships in some cases. Assessment of the correlation between video-derived abundance and percent cover as measured by PointCount was conducted using three different analyses. First, Spearmans r test for independence used Spearmans r to rank the correlation between each single biotic category and octocoral percent cover. Complete results are presented in Appendix VII and summarized in Table 14. Second, BIOENV-Spearman analyses used Spearmans r to rank the correlation between all possible combinations of abundance and octocoral percent cover data. Complete results of BIOENV-Spearman are presented in Appendix VIIIa and summarized in Table 14. Third, BIOENV-Kendall analyses used Kendalls t to rank the correlation between all possible combinations of abundance and octocoral percent

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35cover data. Complete results of the BIOENV-Kendall analyses are presented in Appendix VIIIb and summarized in Table 14. For all three analyses, the highest correlation involves a tall biotic category in 14 of 15 cases. The highest correlation is never between Total All Octocorallia and percent cover. The lowest correlation involves short or encrusting octocorals in every case. The rankings from all three analyses are identical on 12 of 40 rank possibilities. Abundance of tall octocorals usually exhibits higher correlation to percent cover than abundance of short or encrusting octocorals. The results from all three analyses are identical that the highest Year S-PLUSSpearmanrhotest forindependencerhoBIOENV-Spearmansingle variablecorrelationrhoBIOENV-Kendallsingle variablecorrelationtau1996G.ventalina-medium 0.717 "otheroctocoral"-tall0.262"otheroctocoral"-tall0.173 1996"otheroctocoral"-tall 0.650G.ventalina-medium 0.226G.ventalina-medium 0.155 1996G.ventalina-tall 0.635 TotalAllOctocorallia0.128TotalAllOctocorallia0.087 1996TotalAllOctocorallia 0.577G.ventalina-tall 0.033G.ventalina-tall 0.025 1996G.ventalina-short 0.460 "otheroctocoral"-medium0.014"otheroctocoral"-medium0.011 1996"otheroctocoral"-medium 0.389G.ventalina-short -0.020G.ventalina-short -0.016 1996Scleraxonia0.213Scleraxonia-0.072Scleraxonia-0.049 1996"otheroctocoral"-short-0.070"otheroctocoral"-short-0.117"otheroctocoral"-short-0.078 1998"otheroctocoral"-tall 0.789 "otheroctocoral"-tall0.530"otheroctocoral"-tall0.367 1998G.ventalina-tall 0.643 TotalAllOctocorallia0.244TotalAllOctocorallia0.161 1998G.ventalina-medium 0.632 "otheroctocoral"-medium0.157"otheroctocoral"-medium0.106 1998TotalAllOctocorallia 0.606G.ventalina-tall 0.107G.ventalina-tall 0.078 1998"otheroctocoral"-medium0.320G.ventalina-medium 0.076G.ventalina-medium 0.053 1998"otheroctocoral"-short0.216"otheroctocoral"-short0.015"otheroctocoral"-short0.011 1998G.ventalina-short 0.179G.ventalina-short -0.002G.ventalina-short -0.002 1998Scleraxonia0.136Scleraxonia-0.073Scleraxonia-0.050 1999"otheroctocoral"-tall 0.847 "otheroctocoral"-tall0.514"otheroctocoral"-tall0.353 1999G.ventalina-medium 0.760 TotalAllOctocorallia0.334TotalAllOctocorallia0.228 1999G.ventalina-tall 0.646G.ventalina-medium 0.318G.ventalina-medium 0.214 1999TotalAllOctocorallia 0.605 "otheroctocoral"-medium0.208G.ventalina-short 0.146 1999Scleraxonia 0.421G.ventalina-short 0.201"otheroctocoral"-medium0.138 1999"otheroctocoral"-medium 0.392 "otheroctocoral"-short0.121"otheroctocoral"-short0.080 1999G.ventalina-short0.284G.ventalina-tall0.102G.ventalina-tall0.076 1999"otheroctocoral"-short0.239Scleraxonia0.010Scleraxonia0.006 2002G.ventalina-tall 0.791 "otheroctocoral"-tall0.415"otheroctocoral"-tall0.282 2002G.ventalina-medium 0.789G.ventalina-medium 0.294G.ventalina-medium 0.216 2002"otheroctocoral"-tall 0.719G.ventalina-tall0.256G.ventalina-tall0.196 2002Scleraxonia 0.522 TotalAllOctocorallia0.135TotalAllOctocorallia0.091 2002TotalAllOctocorallia 0.467 "otheroctocoral"-medium0.077"otheroctocoral"-medium0.053 2002"otheroctocoral"-medium0.292"otheroctocoral"-short0.012"otheroctocoral"-short0.006 2002G.ventalina-short 0.288G.ventalina-short -0.016G.ventalina-short -0.014 2002"otheroctocoral"-short -0.407 Scleraxonia-0.034Scleraxonia-0.024 AllYears"otheroctocoral"-tall 0.743 "otheroctocoral"-tall0.401"otheroctocoral"-tall0.272 AllYearsG.ventalina-medium 0.718G.ventalina-medium 0.219G.ventalina-medium 0.152 AllYearsG.ventalina-tall 0.683 TotalAllOctocorallia0.180TotalAllOctocorallia0.121 AllYearsTotalAllOctocorallia 0.557G.ventalina-tall0.136G.ventalina-tall0.102 AllYearsScleraxonia 0.338 "otheroctocoral"-medium0.055"otheroctocoral"-medium0.037 AllYears"otheroctocoral"-medium 0.332G.ventalina-short 0.028G.ventalina-short 0.020 AllYearsG.ventalina-short 0.256 Scleraxonia0.006Scleraxonia0.005 AllYears"otheroctocoral"-short-0.040"otheroctocoral"-short-0.041"otheroctocoral"-short-0.027 Table 14. Summary of three correlation analyses presenting ranked correlation between abundance and percent cover. Shading indicates significant r values (Hypothesis testing conducted only for S-PLUS Spearman r test for independence).

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36correlation in 1998, 1999, and all years is tall other octocoral. The only case where all three analyses diverge is the fourth and fifth ranks in 1999. The results from all three analyses are identical that correlation coefficients are lowest in 1996. The single lowest r value is .41 for short other octocoral in 2002. This r value is significant in Spearmans r test for independence ( a =0.05). Negative correlation coefficients do not necessarily indicate an inverse linear correlation. Negative coefficients calculated in these analyses may indicate a non-linear positive correlation as well. The highest correlation coefficient in Table 14 is 0.85, but most are well below 0.50. Interdependent systems have correlation coefficients around 0.75 or better. Correlation coefficients for Total All Octocorallia are between 0.47 and 0.61. This means that Octocorallia abundance only explains approximately half of the octocoral percent cover signal.

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37 4. DISCUSSIONThe objectives of this study were both methodological and ecological. The first major goal was to determine if octocoral abundance could be reliably obtained from video transects. The second goal was to utilize abundance data to assess temporal changes in the octocoral community. The principal goal was to determine how octocoral abundance data compared with percent cover data from the same transects. All three goals were achieved, though the limitations and implications require further discussion.ASSESSMENT OF METHODS Video-Derived Octocoral CountsAll video derived octocoral counts were > 90% repeatable (Appendix III) and independent of density (Fig. 5). This study demonstrated a video-derived octocoral abundance assessment method that is precise and relatively rapid. The successful use of preexisting data reinforced the substantial value of archived video data.In Situ vs. Video-Derived Octocoral CountsWhen video-derived counts are compared with in situ counts (Fig. 4) features of both density-dependent and density-independent dissimilarity are observed. Both can be attributed to methodological error and methods-related bias. Should further investigation show the densitydependent error to be consistent, a correction model may be developed for the data.

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38Density-independent differences between the in situ and video-derived data are attributable to differences in area sampled. The video sampling area is determined by camera height from the bottom. At 40 cm high, the video transect is exactly 40 cm wide. In field applications, camera height is an operator-determined moving average over inherently rugose substrates. The in situ survey was a 40 cm belt transect centered over the video transect line. The belt transect was 40 cm wide regardless of rugosity. Any or all of these factors camera operator skill, rugosity, and water movement may contribute to differences in area sampled. Density-dependent differences between in situ and video-derived abundances (Fig.4) are attributable to two principal differences between methods. First, an unavoidable flaw in video survey methods is that short individuals in the shadow of tall individuals are not visible to the camera, though they are visible to an in situ observer. Second, visual resolution is substantially better in situ than on the video screen. The shortest octocorals observed in situ were approximately 1 cm tall, while the shortest octocorals observed on video were approximately 2.5 cm tall. All eight of the anomalous points circled in Figure 4 are from Alligator Shallow stations where the density of short individuals was triple that at the other stations counted in situ Differences in resolution and shadowing of short individuals are critical; nearly three times as many short octocorals were counted in the in situ surveys as in the video surveys of the same stations. The effect of counting more short individuals in situ if omnipresent, should result in an inverse density-dependent error. Two-thirds of the data points in this comparison suggest linear density-dependence. Further in situ surveys are likely to reinforce this density-dependent relationship and methodological differences could be corrected post facto using a refined model. In the meantime, one must recognize that the video-derived counts under sample short octocorals.Biases to dataOne potential bias in the video data that could influence counts of short colonies is

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39camera resolution. In 2000, the CRMP upgraded the video camera, which approximately doubled the resolution of individual frames (Hackett 2002). Though Hackett (2002) confirmed that scleractinian percent cover measures were unaffected by this change in resolution, the use of full-motion video for data collection was not tested. I anticipated the potential bias and made special note of the character of the short colonies observed in 2002. The character of short colonies did not appreciably change between old and new camera systems, and the estimated minimum detectable height was 2.5 cm for all years. Furthermore, the resolution increase between cameras was only apparent when viewing still frames not when viewing the full-motion video. In fact, full-motion video from the original camera system was noticeably clearer than from the new camera system, despite lower resolution. This unexpected difference is due to frame rate. The original system records 29 frames per second. The new system records 15 frames per second. Frame rate needs to be faster than 25 frames per second for a human to see it as full-motion. At 15 frames per second, video from the new system had a jerky appearance and was more difficult to process for abundance.ECOLOGICAL RESULTS ABUNDANCE Study Results Compared to Other Octocoral Surveys in the Northern CaribbeanAbundances of octocorals at stations examined in this study are highly variable (Appendix II and IV), but well within the range found at comparable sites in Florida and the northern Caribbean (Table 15). Average Gorgonia ventalina density was higher in this study than that reported by Goldberg (1973), Kinzie (1973), and Wheaton & Jaap (1988). The average density of Scleraxonia in this study is similar to that seen by Wheaton and Jaap (1988) and Goldberg (1973). All three of these studies found low Scleraxonia densities compared to those reported by Kinzie (1973) and Jaap et al. (2002) (Table 15). One other study (Table 15) conducted repeat sampling at permanently marked

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40 Table 15. Summary data from selected octocoral abundance surveys in the northern Caribbean.stations, Jaap et. al. (2002). This study spanned a longer period, but both Jaap et. al. (2002) and this thesis include abundance data from 1996 to 2002. Relative change between average densities is roughly equivalent between the two studies and reinforces the conclusion that octocoral assemblages are dynamic in time. It is particularly interesting that both studies documented an increase in density over time, even though Jaap et. al. (2002) started sampling eight years before I did. Overall, my study found that Gorgonia ventalina density declined 19% between 1996 and 2002. All Octocorallia increased by 6% in the same interval. Though neither ofHabitatType Average density (colonies/m2) % compositionG.ventalina% composition Scleraxonia InterannualChange Reference,Date(s)ofResearch, Location Hardbottom8-1111Average14%, Maximumincrease40%, Maximumdecline21% Lybolt,Mostyearssampledfrom1996to2002, UpperandMiddleFloridaKeysPatchReef10-14178Average-4%, Maximumincrease14%, Maximumdecline18% Lybolt,Mostyearssampledfrom1996to2002, UpperandMiddleFloridaKeysPatchReef151.71.7--Goldberg1973,PalmBeachCounty,FloridaPatchReef1.6-3.8----Average63%, Maximumincrease138%, Maximumdecline0% Jaapet.al.,Mostyearssampledfrom1989to 2002,DryTortugas,FloridaLagoon1.5520--Kinzie1970,DiscoveryBay,JamaicaShallowAcropora cervicorniszone 3.6392--Kinzie1970,DiscoveryBay,JamaicaShallowplatform17-43--39Average9%, Maximumincrease47%, Maximumdecline42% Jaapet.al.,Mostyearssampledfrom1989to 2002,DryTortugas,FloridaShallowforereef10.6--64--Kinzie1970,DiscoveryBay,JamaicaShallowforereef974--WheatonandJaap,1983,LooeKey,FloridaShallowforereef7-10133Average14%, Maximumincrease28%, Maximumdecline1% Lybolt,Mostyearssampledfrom1996to2002, UpperandMiddleFloridaKeysDeepforereef2.2515--Kinzie1970,DiscoveryBay,JamaicaDeepplatform157.53.3--Goldberg1973,PalmBeachCounty,FloridaDeepforereef17-340.41.3-5.6--Goldberg1973,PalmBeachCounty,FloridaDeepforereef10-241218Average15%, Maximumincrease55%, Maximumdecline15% Jaapet.al.,Mostyearssampledfrom1989to 2002,DryTortugas,FloridaDeepforereef7-16414Average2%, Maximumincrease28%, Maximumdecline16% Lybolt,Mostyearssampledfrom1996to2002, UpperandMiddleFloridaKeys

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41G.ventalinashortG.ventalinamediumG.ventalinatall "other octocoral"short "other octocoral"medium "other octocoral"-tall TotalG. ventalinaTotal"other octocoral" Total Scleraxonia 19966%72%22%10%73%18%11%76%13% 19989%63%28%12%70%18%11%84%5% 199918%60%22%12%77%12%7%87%6% 200217%55%29%24%65%12%9%84%7% PercentofTotalG.ventalinaPercentof"otheroctocoral"PercentofTotalOctocorallia Table 16. Percent composition of each biotic category.these changes are statistically significant, the similarity between overall results of my study and that of Jaap et al. (2002), conducted over roughly the same interval and region, complements overall results of my study.Assemblage In 1996The average density of all Octocorallia in 1996 was 10.2 colonies/m2. Three quarters of 1996 abundance, 7.7 colonies/m2, were other octocoral. Gorgonia ventalina and Scleraxonia abundance were similar, 1.2 colonies/m2 and 1.3 colonies/m2 respectively. Distribution of G. ventalina size (Table 16) was 6% short, 72% medium and 22% tall (0.07, 0.85, and 0.26 colonies/m2 respectively). Distribution of G. ventalina was distinctly different among different habitat types (Fig. 10). Other octocoral size distribution was similar to G. ventalina though density was six-fold higher. Average size distribution of other octocoral was 10% short, 73% medium, and 18% tall (0.7, 5.6, and 1.4 colonies/m2respectively). Other octocoral distribution among habitat type was remarkably uniform (Table 3, Fig. 11).Abundances in 1996 and 1998Abundances in 1998 have greater than 1996 for most biotic categories. However, substantial decreases in two categories drove a small overall decline. Medium Gorgonia ventalina density decreased sharply in 1998, particularly at middle keys patch reefs (Fig. 10, Table 3 and 5). The size distribution of G. ventalina changed significantly at every upper keys habitat type (Table 12). This reflects a relatively distinct change in community

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42size/age composition associated with a decline in abundance of medium G. ventalina colonies. Scleraxonia abundance in 1998 was 60% less than 1996. Scleraxonia density remained at approximately half of the 1996 level for the remainder of the survey (Table 3). The 1996 to 1998 decline was driven almost exclusively by declines at middle patch and middle deep stations where scleraxonians were essentially eliminated. Macroalgae percent cover was highest in 1998 (Appendix V) (Wheaton 2001) and a plausible suggestion is that high macroalgae cover obscured Scleraxonia, accounting for their 60% decline. Two facets of abundance data refute this suggestion. First, macroalgae cover in 1999 was back to the same level as 1996. If macroalgae obscured live Scleraxonia colonies in 1998, the 1999 abundance should be higher than 1998 abundance. Average Scleraxonia abundance was essentially unchanged between 1998 and 1999 (Table 3 and 6). Second, if macroalgae obscured Scleraxonia in 1998, then some of the short individuals of other taxa should also have been obscured in 1998. However, average abundance of short individuals increased sharply from 0.8 colonies/m2 in 1996 to 1.08 colonies/m2 in 1998.Abundances in 1998 and 1999: Inferences about Hurricane GeorgesChanges between 1998 and 1999 reflect, in part, the effects of Hurricane Georges. This slow-moving storm subjected portions of the middle and lower keys to hurricane-force winds for 20 hours. Hurricane Georges crossed the reef tract near Eastern Sambo and made landfall in Key West on the morning of 25 September 1998 with maximum sustained winds of 90 knots. Typical storm surge sizes in the Keys were 1.5 to 2 m (Guiney 1999). The 1998 field data were collected at least a month before hurricane Georges crossed the reef tract. Most significant changes between 1998 and 1999 were decreases in abundance (Table 7). Three-quarters of all abundance measures were less in 1999 than in 1998 (Appendix II) and declines were not uniformly distributed throughout the study area. Most

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43of the significant declines were in the tall category, and were found in the middle keys; only one of 26 significant declines occurred at a deep reef. The only significant changes in Gorgonia ventalina abundance were declines found in the middle keys. Tall other octocoral decreased 54% ( p= 0.000) at all middle keys stations (Table 7). This differential mortality strongly implies that tall octocoral colonies are selectively removed by storm energy. Scleraxonia densities reinforce this conclusion as the densities of these encrusting octocorals was unchanged (Fig. 7, Table 3 and 6). An important result of the BIOENV routines show a different aspect of the dramatic 1998 to 1999 shift, before and after hurricane Georges (Table 7, Fig. 10). In 1996 and 1998, tall Gorgonia ventalina was the fourth ranked correlation with percent octocoral cover (Table 14). Tall G. ventalina had higher correlations than more abundant categories despite the fact that tall G. ventalina accounted for only 3% of the total Octocorallia abundance. In 1999, tall G. ventalina dropped to the seventh ranked correlation with percent cover. By 2002 tall G. ventalina rose to third ranking. The interpretations of these analyses are twofold. First, following hurricane Georges tall Gorgonia ventalina had the lowest recorded correlation with percent cover and was a much less prominent component of the percent cover signal. Correlation rebounded by 2002 and once again tall G. ventalina was a disproportionately large component of the percent cover signal. This indicates that tall G. ventalina were especially hard-hit by Hurricane Georges, but recovered by 2002. Second, between 1998 and 1999 the actual change in tall G. ventalina abundance was a scant 1.5% of the total Octocorallia abundance. Yet, in 1999 tall G. ventalina was a much less prominent component of percent cover. The major implication is that octocoral percent cover is sensitive to very small changes in the abundance of tall G. ventalina This sensitivity is due to two aspects of G. ventalina colonies. First, the flabellate shape of G. ventalina inflates the apparent area covered, particularly when the fan is oriented perpendicularly to the transect. Second, G. ventalina colonies orient themselves perpendicularly to the dominant direction of water motion.

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44CRMP transects are oriented from offshore to inshore, so most G. ventalina colonies encountered are perpendicular to the video transects. Chi-square tests of the distribution of abundances revealed fewer significantly different distributions between 1998 and 1999 than in any other interval (Table 13). Given the dramatic changes in abundance attributable to hurricane Georges (Figs. 10, 11, 12, Table 6 and 7) the distribution results in Table 13 are unexpected. These distribution analyses suggest that hurricane Georges affected stations across all habitat types in a uniform manner. T-Test and Chi-square analyses show a regional disparity in 1999 versus 1998 (Table 7, 12, and 13). The number of significant changes between 1998 and 1999 at middle keys stations was about twice the number of significant changes at upper keys stations. Hurricane Georges was most intense in the middle and lower keys. This regional disparity reinforces the conclusion that most differences are attributable to Hurricane Georges.Abundance comparing 1999 and 2002Average Octocorallia abundance in 2002 was the highest recorded in the survey, 10.8 colonies/m2. The next highest value was 10.2 colonies/m2, recorded in 1996. Summarizing all measures from Appendix II, twice as many abundance measures increased as decreased from 1999 to 2002. At most of the 28 stations, the density of short colonies in 2002 was double the density in 1999 (Fig. 10, 11, Appendix II). Overall density of tall Gorgonia ventalina doubled, an increase driven entirely by changes at middle patch stations (Table 3, Fig. 10). This significant increase in tall G. ventalina (Table 9) drove a significant change in the distribution of G. ventalina sizes at middle patch stations (Table 12). Chi-square tests confirmed that none of the tall other octocoral distributions were distinguishable (Table 13), despite the fact that tall other octocoral density increased at five of seven habitat types (Table 3). This means that, where increases occurred, all stations within each habitat type increased uniformly.

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45 Overall changes, 1996 to 2002Though the abundance of all Octocorallia in 2002 was very close to the value for 1996, the distribution of density among biotic categories was distinctly different in every case (Table 12 and 13). The difference was echoed in different percent composition of biotic categories (Table 16). Total Gorgonia ventalina density decreased at six of the habitat types, and declined 20% overall (Table 3). Variance among samples (Appendix IV) was too great to detect statistical significance of the declines. Only one of the 40 G. ventalina t-Test outcome was significant. Inspection of the p -values in Table 10 reveals seven outcomes that would be significant at a =0.10. Six of these seven a =0.10 outcomes are declines, on the order of 40%. The only increase among these borderline cases is a five-fold increase in the abundance of short G. ventalina at middle keys shallow stations p =0.052 (Table 10). Declines in density of Gorgonia ventalina are only partly attributable to impacts of Hurricane Georges. Significant declines, particularly between 1996 and 1998, are partly attributable to the fungal disease Aspergillosis (Kim & Harvell 2002). The 1996 to 1998 interval includes the 1997 mass-bleaching event and several disease outbreaks (Harvell et al. 1999; Acosta 2001; Cervino et al. 2001; Porter et al. 2001; Kim & Harvell 2002; and many others). Possible explanations for the declines in G. ventalina abundance (Table 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 16) support biotic stressors such as disease more than abiotic factors such as the hurricane. The average density of short colonies in 2002 was more than double that seen in any other year (Fig. 7). At nearly every station, the density of short colonies was greater in 2002 than in 1996. At most of the stations, the density of short colonies in 2002 was the highest recorded value of all four years (Fig. 10, 11, Appendix II). The significant increase ( p= 0.000) of short individuals was nearly three-fold at all 28 stations (Table 11). Significant increases were not constrained to any particular region or habitat type (Table

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4610). Further, distribution of short other octocoral was significantly different at six of the habitat types. This indicates that short other octocoral abundance was dynamic at the station level as well as by habitat type. The observed increase in short colonies likely indicates community response following Hurricane Georges. Scouring by the hurricane removed most of the macroalgae, which may have obscured some short colonies in 1996 and 1998 surveys and probably competed with octocoral recruits. Most of the stations retained the 1999 freshly scoured appearance in 2002, four years after the storm. One aspect of the data counters the interpretation that the increase of short individuals is a post-hurricane recruitment event. Many upper and middle patch reef stations exhibited an incremental increase in abundance of short colonies between 1996 and 2002 (Appendix II), rather than a dramatic increase in the years following the hurricane. Hypothesis testing summarized in Tables 12 and 13 showed that distribution of every biotic category among habitat types, and every size distribution was significantly different between 1996 and 2002. This is the only time interval where change in distribution is significantly different in every biotic category. While some aspects of assemblage distribution are significantly changed in only one year, all aspects of octocoral assemblage distribution can significantly change in six years.ABUNDANCE VS PERCENT COVER. Video-Derived Abundance Correlation with Octocoral Percent CoverAll three analyses summarized in Table 14 support rejection of octocoral percent cover as a proxy for abundance. Four factors strongly support this conclusion. First, correlation coefficients are very low. Interdependent systems have correlation coefficients around 0.75 or better. The highest correlation coefficient is 0.85, but most are well below

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470.50. Second, total all Octocorallia is never the first-ranked correlation. Some component of octocoral abundance always has higher correlation than all Octocorallia. Correlation coefficients for total all Octocorallia are between 0.47 and 0.61. This means that Octocorallia abundance explains approximately half of the percent cover signal. Third, medium other octocoral is the single most abundant of the biotic categories and typically accounts for 60% of the total Octocorallia abundance (Table 3 and 16). Yet medium other octocoral is never higher than the third-ranked correlation. Fourth, tall other octocoral contributes a maximum of 15% and tall Gorgonia ventalina contributes a maximum of 3% to the total Octocorallia abundance. Yet, in 14 of 15 results one of these tall biotic categories is the first-ranked correlation. Such strong correlations between a relatively minor biotic category and octocoral percent cover is perhaps the strongest reason to reject octocoral percent cover as a proxy for abundance. The analyses summarized in Table 14 and detailed in appendices VII and VIII imply that octocoral percent cover data are biased in favor of tall individuals. This bias results from field methods employed and may not be possible to mitigate without altering the primary CRMP objective, stony-coral monitoring.Abundance and Percent Cover Trend CorrelationDespite the poor correlation between octocoral percent cover and abundance, the two measures are undeniably related. Figure 13 presents average percent cover data with average octocoral abundance, demonstrating that their trends are similar. The direction of change was calculated for each of the three sequential year intervals for total all Octocorallia (Appendix II) and octocoral percent cover (Appendix V). The results are presented in Table 17 and Figure 14. For each interval, the direction of change is similar. Chi square analysis (Table 17) revealed that the percent cover and abundance change distributions are indistinguishable ( a =0.01).

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48 Direction of change, all Octocorallia and percent cover 4 6 21 24 14 18 24 22 7 4 14 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 Abundance Percent cover Abundance Percent cover Abundance Percent cover Change 1999 vs 2002 Change 1998 vs 1999 Change 1996 vs 1998 Number of stations Decrease Increase Figure 14. Direction of change, all Octocorallia and percent cover. Figure 13. Average density and average percent cover for all 28 stations. Average Density All Octocorallia and Percent Cover 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Colonies/m 2 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 Average Density Total Scleraxonia Average Density Total "other octocoral" Average Density Total G. ventalina % Octocorallia cover % Stony Coral cover Table 17. Chi square analyses of distribution of change. Abundance 14 14 0.115 Percent cover 10 18 0.131 Abundance 7 21 0.105 Percent cover 4 24 0.190 Abundance 24 4 0.357 Percent cover 22 6 0.280 Change 1998 versus 1999 Change 1999 versus 2002 Decrease (<0) Chi-square statistic: percent cover Chi-square statistic: abundance "expected" Change 1996 versus 1998 Chi-square test of abundance and percent cover change distributions Increase ( > 0)

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49Analyses presented in Table 17 indicate that trends in percent cover are reliable indicators of abundance trends for the 28 stations surveyed and may be applied reliably to other CRMP stations with similar average octocoral percent cover. As this survey excluded stations with less than 5% octocoral cover, trends in percent cover may not be a reliable indicator of trends in abundance at stations where octocorals are scarce.RECOMMENDATIONS Further applicationsData in this manuscript (Appendix II) are presented with greater resolution than similar published studies of octocorals in Florida and the northern Caribbean (Table 15). It is imperative to acquire the raw data from earlier studies to make detailed comparisons. With these datasets, a more comprehensive characterization of basin-wide Octocorallia abundance may be constructed. Further, abundance data (Appendix II), coupled with percent cover data (Appendix V), are well suited to community disturbance-recovery models.Refining the study methodsThis study demonstrated a precise and relatively rapid method to extract octocoral abundance data from video transects. This use of preexisting data reinforces the value of archived video data. If assessment of octocoral abundance from video data is to be instituted on a wider scale, a number of lessons can be learned from this survey. The biotic categories and size classes should be refined. Spearmans r test for independence, BIOENV-Spearman and BIOENV-Kendall analyses (Table 14) all agreed that the tall size class is appropriate for determining correlation between abundance and

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50percent cover. More effective and ecologically appropriate size classes shorter than 40 cm should be evaluated. Size classes should be tied to the growth rates of several key taxa. Wheaton (2003) recommended splitting other octocoral into Pseudopterogorgia spp. and other octocoral. Pseudopterogorgia are among the most opportunistic octocorals and first to colonize a disturbed area. I estimate that more than half of the octocorals counted each year were Pseudopterogorgia spp. Based on this estimate, the study area is either frequently disturbed or requires more time to evince undisturbed assemblages. The ecological relevance of categories counted should be weighed against repeatability and time invested in data collection. This survey counted seven biotic categories. Counting more than eight biotic categories is not realistic for real-time data collection. Future studies using CRMP data should incorporate a smaller spatial resolution than habitat type. The smallest possible spatial resolution is station-level, but variance may prohibit meaningful analyses at this resolution. Site-level analyses show promise. Sites are composed of two to four stations, and exploratory multi-dimensional scaling of stations in this study revealed strong grouping among stations at one site. Station-level abundance (Appendix II) and Chi-square analyses (Table 13) both suggest that neighboring stations at one site are similar enough to allow analyses at the site-level. Future studies may make use of site-level resolution by counting every station at a site. A more comprehensive in situ study should be undertaken for two primary reasons. First, repeated in situ trials on more stations would refine the density-dependent relationships seen in this study (Fig. 4). Second, repeat trials on the same stations would clarify how video-derived data and percent cover data are influenced by sea state. I recommend surveying the same stations using both video and in situ methods multiple times in the same year, in different weather conditions. As recommended by Hackett (2002), PointCount analyses of these video data would similarly indicate how stony coral percent cover is influenced by octocoral over story and sea state. Any assessment method should be tested by an inter-observer calibration study.

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51Assessment of data collected early in my study revealed a learning curve of 10 to 18 stations. Prompted by low similarities in early analyses, I elected to throw out data from the first 18 stations examined and re-counted them. Approximately 40 minutes are required to count octocoral colonies from one station. A 12-hour learning curve was deemed too timeintensive to integrate an inter-observer calibration study into this project.Altering the PointCount method for quantification of octocoralBased on these study results, it is unlikely that a defensible mechanism to convert octocoral percent cover to abundance can be developed. The CRMP may consider changing PointCount methods to obtain more valuable percent cover data. Integrating aspects of this study with results from Hackett (2002), I recommend ignoring the over-story (octocoral or otherwise) whenever the under-story can be positively identified. This would help to eliminate bias in percent cover data caused by changing conditions such as current and surge between video transects. Overall, I developed and tested a successful method to count octocoral from video transects. Using this method, I found that average densities of Gorgonia ventalina and Scleraxonia were consistently about one colony/m2. Other octocoral as a group averaged 79 colonies/m2. When summarized by height, short and tall averaged about 1-2 colonies/m2, while colonies between 10 and 40cm in height consistently averaged about 6 colonies/m2. From 1996 to 2002, I found that G. ventalina density declined 19% and all Octocorallia increased 6%. Neither of these changes is statistically significant (Table 11) but a 19% decline is noteworthy nonetheless. The hurricane seems to have contributed to the G. ventalina decline and the increase in short recruits. However, declines observed through all years are consistent with octocoral disease trends. This study entreats researchers to collect and maintain archives of standard video transects.

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52 5. CONCLUSIONS1)Abundance data can reliably be derived from archived video data. Methodological limitations hinder precise counts of short individuals, though density-dependent errors should be correctable using models. 2)Octocoral abundance and octocoral percent cover are not strongly correlated. Tall individuals disproportionately influence percent cover estimates. 3)Trends in octocoral percent cover are reliable indicators of the trends in octocoral abundance. 4)The octocoral assemblage was impacted by Hurricane Georges. Abundance declined most at stations near the storm center and stations in shallower water. Storm impact was related to octocoral height. Tall octocorals were removed more frequently than medium, short and encrusting forms. A dramatic increase of short individuals in 2002 indicates successful post-hurricane recruitment. 5)The octocoral assemblage is dynamic. All aspects of assemblage distribution can significantly change in six years. By 2002, octocoral abundance had essentially recovered to pre-hurricane levels. 6)Between 1996 and 2002 Gorgonia ventalina density decreased 19% but total Octocorallia increased 6%, mostly through recruitment from 1999 to 2002.

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53 REFERENCES S-Plus 6 for Windows guide to statistics. Insightful Corporation, Seattle, WA Acosta A (2001) Disease in Zoanthids: dynamics in space and time. In: Porter JW (ed) The Ecology And Etiology Of Newly Emerging Marine Diseases. Hydrobiologia, pp 113-120 Aronson RB, Edmunds PJ, Precht WF, Swanson DW, Levitan DR (1994) Large-scale, long-term monitoring of Caribbean coral reefs: simple, quick, inexpensive techniques. Atoll Research Bulletin 421: 1-19 Aronson RB, Precht WF (2001) White-Band Disease And The Changing Face Of Caribbean Coral Reefs. In: Porter JW (ed) The Ecology And Etiology Of Newly Emerging Marine Diseases. Hydrobiologia, pp 25-38 Bayer FM (1961) Shallow-Water Octocorallia of the West Indian Region. The Hague Birkeland CE (1996) Life and Death of Coral Reefs. Chapman & Hall, New York Bohnsack JA (1979) Photographic quantitative sampling of hard-bottom benthic communities. Bulletin of Marine Science 29: 242-252 Bray JR, Curtis JT (1957) An Ordination of the Upland Forest Communities of Southern Wisconsin. Ecological Monographs 27: 325-349 Bryant D, Burke L, McManus J, Spalding M (1998) Reefs at risk: a map-based indicator of threats to the worlds coral reefs. World Resources Institute Byrkit DR (1975) Elements of Statistics. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York Cairns S (1976) Guide to the Commoner Shallow Water Gorgonians of Florida, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Region. Sea Grant Field Guide Series Cairns S, Calder DR, Brinckman-Voss A, Castro CB, Pugh PR, Cutress CE, Jaap WC, Fautin DG, Larson RJ, Harbison GR, Arai MN, Opresko DM (1991) Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora. American Fisheries Society

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54 Cervino J, Goreau TJ, Nagelkerken I, Smith GW, Hayes R (2001) Yellow band and dark spot syndromes in Caribbean corals: distribution, rate of spread, cytology, and effects on abundance and division rate of zooxanthellae. In: Porter JW (ed) The Ecology And Etiology Of Newly Emerging Marine Diseases. Hydrobiologia, pp 53-63 Clarke KR, Warwick RM (2001) Change in marine communities: an approach to statistical analysis and interpretation. PRIMER-E, Plymouth Dustan P, Jaap WC, Porter JW, Meier OW, Wheaton J (1998) Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Water Quality Protection Plan: Coral Reef/Hardbottom Monitoring Project, EPA file code FO438-94-I8/A3 Fitzsimmons K (1996) Cycles of Gonadal Development in Six Common Gorgonians from Biscayne National Park. College of Marine Science, St. Petersburg, FL Goldberg WM (1973) The ecology of coral-octocoral communities off the southeast Florida coast: geomorphology, species composition and zonation. Bulletin of Marine Science 23: 465-488 Goreau TF, Hartman WD (1963) Boring Sponges As Controlling Factors In The Formation And Maintenance Of Coral Reefs; In Mechanisms Of Hard Tissue Destruction. American Association For The Advancement Of Science 75 Guiney JL (1999) Preliminary Report: Hurricane Georges 15 September 01 October 1998. National Hurricane Center Hackett KE (2002) A Comparative Study Of Two Video Analysis Methods To Determine Percent Cover Of Stony Coral Species In The Florida Keys. College of Marine Science, St. Petersburg Hallock PM (2001) Coral Reefs, Carbonate Sediments, Nutrients, and Global Change. In: Stanley GD (ed) The History and Sedimentology of Ancient Reef Systems. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York, pp 387-427 Harvell CD, Kim K, Burkholder JM, Colwell RR, Epstein PR, Grimes J, Hofmann EE, Lipp EK, Osterhaus ADME, Overstreet RM, Porter JW, Smith GW, Vasta GR (1999) Emerging marine diseases Climate links and anthropogenic factors. Science 285: 1505-1510 Harvell D, Kim K, Quirolo C, Weir J, G. S (2001) Coral Bleaching And Disease: Contributors To 1998 Mass Mortality In Briareum Asbestinum (Octocorallia, Gorgonacea). In: Porter JW (ed) The Ecology And Etiology Of Newly Emerging Marine Diseases. Hydrobiologia, pp 97-104

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55 Hayes LM, Bonaventura J, Mitchell TP, Prospero JM, Shinn EA, Van Dolah F, Barber RT (2001) How Are Climate And Marine Biological Outbreaks Functionally Linked? In: Porter JW (ed) The Ecology And Etiology Of Newly Emerging Marine Diseases. Hydrobiologia, pp 213-220 Jaap WC, McField MD (2001) Video sampling for monitoring coral reef benthos. Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington 10: 269-273 Jaap WC, Wheaton JL, Donnelly KB, Kojis BL, McKenna JE, Jr., Miller LJ, Kub ML (1994) A Three-year evaluation of community dynamics of coral reefs at Ft. Jefferson National Monument, Dry Tortugas, Florida, USA. Bulletin of Marine Science 54: 1077 Jaap WC, Wheaton JL, Hackett K, Callahan M, Kupfner S, Kidney J, Lybolt M (2002) Long Term (1989-Present) Monitoring of Selected Coral Reef Sites at Dry Tortugas National Park. Florida Marine Research Institute, St. Petersburg, FL Johns GM, Leeworthy VR, Bell FW, A. BM (2001) Socio-Economic Study of Reef Resources in Southeast Florida and the Florida Keys. Broward County Department Of Planning And Environmental Protection, Fort Lauderdale, FL Kim K, Harvell CD (2002) Aspergillosis of sea fan corals: disease dynamics in the Florida Keys. In: Porter JW (ed) The Everglades, Florida Bay, and coral reefs of the Florida Keys: An Ecosystem Sourcebook. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 813-824 Kinzie RA, III (1973) Zonation of West Indian Gorgonians. Bulletin of Marine Science 23 Lasker HR, Coffroth MA (1988) Foraging Patterns Of Cyphoma Gibbosum On Octocorals: The Roles Of Host Choice And Feeding Preference. Biological Bulletin 174: 254-266 Lidz BH, Hallock PM (2000) Sedimentary Petrology of a Declining Reef Ecosystem, Florida Reef Tract (USA). Journal of Coastal Research 16: 675-697 Overton W, White SD, Stevens DL (1991) Design report for the Environmental Monitoring Assessment Program (EMAP). US EPA, EPA/600/3-91/053, Washington, DC. Porter JW, Dustan P, Jaap WC, Patterson KL, Kosmynin V, Meier OW, Patterson ME, Parsons M (2001) Patterns Of Spread Of Coral Disease In The Florida Keys. In: Porter JW (ed) The Ecology And Etiology Of Newly Emerging Marine Diseases. Hydrobiologia, pp 1-24 Porter JW, Lewis SK, Porter KG (1999) The effect of multiple stressors on the Florida Keys coral reef ecosystem: A landscape hypothesis and a physiological test.

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56 Limnology and Oceanography 44: 941-949 Porter JW, V. Kosmynin, K. Patterson, K.G.Porter, W.C. Jaap, J. Wheaton, K.E. Hackett, M. Lybolt, C.P. Tsokos, G. Yanev, D. Marcinek, J, Dotten, D. Eaken, M. Patterson, O.W. Meier, M. Brill and P. Dustan (2002) Detection of coral reef change by the Florida Keys coral reef monitoring project. In: Porter JW, Porter KG (eds) The Everglades, Florida Bay, and coral reefs of the Florida Keys: An Ecosystem Limnology and Oceanography 44: 941-949 Porter JW, V. Kosmynin, K. Patterson, K.G.Porter, W.C. Jaap, J. Wheaton, K.E. Hackett, M. Lybolt, C.P. Tsokos, G. Yanev, D. Marcinek, J, Dotten, D. Eaken, M. Patterson, O.W. Meier, M. Brill and P. Dustan (2002) Detection of coral reef change by the Florida Keys coral reef monitoring project. In: Porter JW, Porter KG (eds) The Everglades, Florida Bay, and coral reefs of the Florida Keys: An Ecosystem Sourcebook. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 749-769 Pugliese R (1998) Final Habitat Plan For The South Atlantic Region. South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, Charleston, SC Wheaton J, Jaap WC, Porter JW, Kosmynin V, Hackett KE, Lybolt M, Callahan M, Kidney J, Kupfner S, Tsokos CP, Yanev G (2001) EPA/FKNMS Coral Reef Monitoring Project Executive Summary 2001 FKNMS Symposium: An Ecosystem Report Card. Florida Marine Research Institute., IHR2001-004, Washington DC Wheaton JL (2003). In: Lybolt M (ed), St. Petersburg Wheaton JL, Jaap WC (1988) Corals and other prominent benthic Cnidaria of Looe Key National Marine Sanctuary, Florida. Florida Marine Research Publications: 25 Woodley JD, Chornesky EA, Clifford PA, Jackson JBC, Kaufman LS, Knowlton N, Lang JC, Pearson MP, Porter JW, Rooney MC, Rylaarsdam KW, Tunnicliffe VJ, Wahle CM, Wulff JL, Curtis ASG, Dallmeyer MD, Jupp BP, Koehl MAR, Neigel J, Sides EM (1981) Huricane Allens impact of Jamaican coral reefs. Science 214: 749-755

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57 APPENDICES

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58 Appendix Ia. Attributes of in situ stations. SiteIDSitetypeRegionSiteNameStation AreaofVideo Sample(m2) Depth Min(m) DepthMax (m) Longitude (DD) Latitude (DD) 112HBUElRadabob225.933-80.378225.1201 114HBUElRadabob426.533-80.378225.1201 322PUPorterPatch227.645-80.324325.1032 323PUPorterPatch327.745-80.324325.1032 384PLCliffGreen424.668-81.767724.5036 503SUCarysfort(Shallow)327.034-80.209825.2222 541SMAlligator(Shallow)126.445-80.62424.8457 542SMAlligator(Shallow)226.445-80.62424.8457 543SMAlligator(Shallow)327.034-80.622724.8468 582SLESamboS226.413-81.665924.4884 591SLWesternSambo(Shallow)127.035-81.717624.4796 592SLWesternSambo(Shallow)228.835-81.717624.4796 744DMAlligator(Deep)427.41112-80.620924.8452 792DLWesternSambo(Deep)224.51212-81.717124.478

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59Appendix Ib. Results of in situ abundance survey. FieldtrialFieldtrialtotaltotaltotaltotaltotaltotaltotaltotaltotal YearSiteIDSiteNameTrial#Label G.venta linashort G.ventalinamedium G.ventalinatall Other Octocoralsshort Other Octocoralsmedium Other Octocoralstall StationTotal G.ventalina StationTotal Other Octocorals StationTotal All Octocorals 2002112ElRadabobinsitu112insitu000524603535 2002112ElRadabobvideo1112video100007801515 2002112ElRadabobvideo2112video200007801515 2002114ElRadabobinsitu114insitu0000151102626 2002114ElRadabobvideo1114video100009501414 2002114ElRadabobvideo2114video200009401313 2002322PorterPatchinsitu322insitu5115361846421284305 2002322PorterPatchvideo1322video15104181897819285304 2002322PorterPatchvideo2322video25103161907618282300 2002323PorterPatchinsitu323insitu4155391355124225249 2002323PorterPatchvideo1323video1213491496319221240 2002323PorterPatchvideo2323video22164171476322227249 2002384CliffGreeninsitu384insitu2182081634840219259 2002384CliffGreenvideo1384video14232441925751253304 2002384CliffGreenvideo2384video23302061816153248301 2002503Carysfort(Shallow)insitu503insitu14134402071576262338 2002503Carysfort(Shallow)video1503video114233242473176302378 2002503Carysfort(Shallow)video2503video204138262393379298377 2002541Alligator(Shallow)insitu541insitu4640145245950399449 2002541Alligator(Shallow)video1541video173091161910261271 2002541Alligator(Shallow)video2541video264087166810261271 2002542Alligator(Shallow)insitu542insitu4411961861646298344 2002542Alligator(Shallow)video1542video163153149910211221 2002542Alligator(Shallow)video2542video263158143910210220 2002543Alligator(Shallow)insitu543insitu6020164208862380442 2002543Alligator(Shallow)insitu2543insitu27130224206874438512 2002543Alligator(Shallow)video1543video1150075144915228243 2002543Alligator(Shallow)video2543video2172068148719223242 2002582ESamboSinsitu582insitu82793218443276 2002582ESamboSvideo1582video111313130151631 2002582ESamboSvideo2582video211213130141630 2002591WesternSambo(Shallow)insitu591insitu140331654045 2002591WesternSambo(Shallow)video1591video16906506156277 2002591WesternSambo(Shallow)video2591video261006546166682 2002592WesternSambo(Shallow)insitu592insitu022132343640 2002592WesternSambo(Shallow)video1592video12925450135063 2002592WesternSambo(Shallow)video2592video22927440135164 2002744Alligator(Deep)insitu744insitu42082182186282288 2002744Alligator(Deep)video1744video103083143183244247 2002744Alligator(Deep)video2744video223187147176251257 2002792WesternSambo(Deep)insitu792insitu0311583184116120 2002792WesternSambo(Deep)video1792video1141711596131137 2002792WesternSambo(Deep)video2792video21318120135141146

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60 DensityDensityDensityDensityDensityDensityDensityDensityDensityDensity YearSiteIDSiteNameTrial# G.ventalin a-short G.ventalinamedium G.ventalinatall Other Octocoralsshort Other Octocoralsmedium Other Octocoralstall Station TotalG. ventalina Station TotalOther Octocorals StationTotal Scleraxonia Station TotalAll Octocorals 1996141LongKey1 0.000.110.002.666.851.560.1111.070.0011.19 1996141LongKey2 0.000.150.002.827.381.450.1511.640.0011.80 1996141LongKeyAverage 0.000.130.002.747.121.500.1311.360.0011.49 1998141LongKey1 0.000.080.001.866.471.070.089.400.009.47 1998141LongKey2 0.000.080.001.757.080.840.089.670.009.74 1998141LongKeyAverage 0.000.080.001.816.770.950.089.530.009.61 1999141LongKey10.000.040.000.766.350.720.047.840.007.88 1999141LongKey20.000.040.000.686.320.530.047.530.007.57 1999141LongKeyAverage0.000.040.000.726.340.630.047.690.007.72 2002141LongKey10.000.110.004.267.720.680.1112.670.0012.79 2002141LongKey20.000.110.004.797.420.680.1112.900.0013.01 2002141LongKeyAverage0.000.110.004.537.570.680.1112.790.0012.90 1996142LongKey1 0.040.110.002.057.311.330.1510.680.0010.83 1996142LongKey2 0.040.110.002.207.311.520.1511.020.0011.17 1996142LongKeyAverage 0.040.110.002.127.311.420.1510.850.0011.00 1998142LongKey1 0.150.150.041.366.362.010.349.730.0010.08 1998142LongKey2 0.190.150.041.406.292.050.389.730.0010.11 1998142LongKeyAverage 0.170.150.041.386.332.030.369.730.0010.09 1999142LongKey10.000.000.001.174.730.720.006.630.006.63 1999142LongKey20.000.040.000.686.290.530.047.500.007.54 1999142LongKeyAverage0.000.020.000.935.510.630.027.060.007.08 2002142LongKey10.000.040.005.986.860.760.0413.600.0013.64 2002142LongKey20.000.040.006.486.930.870.0414.280.0014.32 2002142LongKeyAverage0.000.040.006.236.890.810.0413.940.0013.98 1996152MoserChannel1 0.000.000.001.053.750.900.005.710.416.12 1996152MoserChannel2 0.000.000.001.313.680.900.005.890.496.38 1996152MoserChannelAverage 0.000.000.001.183.720.900.005.800.456.25 1998152MoserChannel1 0.000.000.000.947.281.200.009.420.159.57 1998152MoserChannel2 0.000.000.001.056.981.200.009.230.199.42 1998152MoserChannelAverage 0.000.000.000.997.131.200.009.330.179.50 1999152MoserChannel10.000.000.000.987.281.010.009.270.009.27 1999152MoserChannel20.000.040.000.686.230.530.047.430.087.55 1999152MoserChannelAverage0.000.020.000.836.760.770.028.350.048.41 2002152MoserChannel10.000.000.000.538.110.640.009.270.009.27 2002152MoserChannel20.000.000.000.537.920.750.009.200.009.20 2002152MoserChannelAverage0.000.000.000.538.010.690.009.230.009.23 1996154MoserChannel1 0.000.000.001.364.031.240.006.640.306.94 1996154MoserChannel2 0.000.000.001.364.151.130.006.640.387.01 1996154MoserChannelAverage 0.000.000.001.364.091.190.006.640.346.98 1998154MoserChannel1 0.000.000.001.248.261.430.0010.940.1911.12 1998154MoserChannel2 0.000.000.001.518.031.470.0011.010.2611.27 1998154MoserChannelAverage 0.000.000.001.388.141.450.0010.970.2311.20 1999154MoserChannel10.000.000.000.837.501.240.009.580.089.65 1999154MoserChannel20.000.040.000.686.260.530.047.470.117.62 1999154MoserChannelAverage0.000.020.000.756.880.890.028.520.098.63 2002154MoserChannel10.000.000.000.946.261.170.008.370.418.79 2002154MoserChannel20.000.000.000.876.071.170.008.110.388.48 2002154MoserChannelAverage0.000.000.000.906.171.170.008.240.408.63 Appendix II. Video-derived octocoral abundance.

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61 YearSiteIDSiteNameTrial# G.ventalin a-short G.ventalinamedium G.ventalinatall Other Octocoralsshort Other Octocoralsmedium Other Octocoralstall Station TotalG. ventalina Station TotalOther Octocorals StationTotal Scleraxonia Station TotalAll Octocorals 1996302Turtle1 0.042.880.830.3410.643.673.7514.660.6119.02 1996302Turtle2 0.152.730.800.3811.934.553.6716.860.6421.17 1996302TurtleAverage 0.092.800.810.3611.294.113.7115.760.6320.09 1998302Turtle1 0.303.940.682.2715.422.504.9220.191.4426.55 1998302Turtle2 0.383.860.762.0816.292.845.0021.211.5527.77 1998302TurtleAverage 0.343.900.722.1815.852.674.9620.701.5027.16 1999302Turtle10.833.520.982.6514.202.055.3418.900.6824.92 1999302Turtle20.000.040.000.686.290.530.047.500.838.37 1999302TurtleAverage0.421.780.491.6710.251.292.6913.200.7616.65 2002302Turtle10.112.610.831.4812.422.083.5615.980.9120.45 2002302Turtle20.272.880.681.8211.552.233.8315.610.8320.27 2002302TurtleAverage0.192.750.761.6511.992.163.6915.800.8720.36 1996322PorterPatch1 0.140.330.140.225.112.320.627.641.279.53 1996322PorterPatch2 0.140.400.110.295.332.500.658.121.2710.04 1996322PorterPatchAverage 0.140.360.130.255.222.410.637.881.279.78 1998322PorterPatch1 0.140.290.070.366.812.030.519.200.2910.00 1998322PorterPatch2 0.180.290.070.436.561.960.548.950.5110.00 1998322PorterPatchAverage 0.160.290.070.406.681.990.539.080.4010.00 1999322PorterPatch10.140.510.041.165.651.740.698.550.659.89 1999322PorterPatch20.000.040.000.656.010.510.047.170.587.79 1999322PorterPatchAverage0.070.270.020.915.831.120.367.860.628.84 2002322PorterPatch30.110.330.111.096.301.230.548.620.8310.00 2002322PorterPatch40.110.290.110.986.341.380.518.701.1210.33 2002322PorterPatchAverage0.110.310.111.036.321.300.538.660.9810.16 1996323PorterPatch1 0.110.250.110.474.472.020.476.960.517.94 1996323PorterPatch2 0.110.290.110.544.581.880.517.000.548.04 1996323PorterPatchAverage 0.110.270.110.514.531.950.496.980.527.99 1998323PorterPatch1 0.180.430.070.434.622.020.697.070.478.23 1998323PorterPatch2 0.220.430.110.434.622.160.767.220.698.66 1998323PorterPatchAverage 0.200.430.090.434.622.090.727.140.588.44 1999323PorterPatch10.140.470.110.794.691.700.727.180.408.30 1999323PorterPatch20.000.040.000.655.990.510.047.140.367.54 1999323PorterPatchAverage0.070.250.050.725.341.100.387.160.387.92 2002323PorterPatch30.040.690.111.334.581.440.837.360.618.80 2002323PorterPatch40.040.650.141.124.651.550.837.320.658.80 2002323PorterPatchAverage0.040.670.131.234.621.500.837.340.638.80 1996331Admiral1 0.000.800.530.032.061.991.334.080.565.98 1996331Admiral2 0.000.930.500.032.192.031.434.250.566.24 1996331AdmiralAverage 0.000.860.510.032.122.011.384.170.566.11 1998331Admiral1 0.000.700.400.132.321.591.104.050.866.01 1998331Admiral2 0.000.860.300.132.361.431.163.921.006.08 1998331AdmiralAverage 0.000.780.350.132.341.511.133.980.936.04 1999331Admiral10.070.460.330.001.791.490.863.290.374.52 1999331Admiral20.000.030.000.605.510.460.036.570.376.97 1999331AdmiralAverage0.030.250.170.303.650.980.454.930.375.74 2002331Admiral10.030.760.230.372.030.861.033.250.204.48 2002331Admiral20.030.830.270.372.190.701.133.250.234.61 2002331AdmiralAverage0.030.800.250.372.110.781.083.250.224.55 Appendix II. Video-derived octocoral abundance. (continued)

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62 YearSiteIDSiteNameTrial# G.ventalin a-short G.ventalinamedium G.ventalinatall Other Octocoralsshort Other Octocoralsmedium Other Octocoralstall Station TotalG. ventalina Station TotalOther Octocorals StationTotal Scleraxonia Station TotalAll Octocorals 1996341W.TurtleShoal3 0.122.520.890.316.431.473.538.222.3314.07 1996341W.TurtleShoal4 0.042.710.890.356.121.863.648.332.6014.57 1996341W.TurtleShoalAverage 0.082.620.890.336.281.673.598.282.4614.32 1998341W.TurtleShoal1 0.041.321.400.395.272.332.757.980.2310.97 1998341W.TurtleShoal2 0.041.281.160.395.042.362.487.790.3110.58 1998341W.TurtleShoalAverage 0.041.301.280.395.162.342.627.890.2710.78 1999341W.TurtleShoal10.121.470.850.704.571.942.447.210.6610.31 1999341W.TurtleShoal20.000.040.000.706.430.540.047.670.628.33 1999341W.TurtleShoalAverage0.060.760.430.705.501.241.247.440.649.32 2002341W.TurtleShoal10.161.321.160.853.991.472.646.320.709.65 2002341W.TurtleShoal20.081.281.240.894.262.482.607.640.9311.16 2002341W.TurtleShoalAverage0.121.301.200.874.131.982.626.980.8110.41 1996343W.TurtleShoal3 0.042.920.760.456.521.783.718.752.5815.04 1996343W.TurtleShoal4 0.082.990.800.456.551.893.868.902.5015.27 1996343W.TurtleShoalAverage 0.062.950.780.456.531.843.798.832.5415.15 1998343W.TurtleShoal1 0.001.550.950.495.302.392.508.180.5311.21 1998343W.TurtleShoal2 0.001.551.020.645.302.502.588.450.5311.55 1998343W.TurtleShoalAverage 0.001.550.980.575.302.442.548.310.5311.38 1999343W.TurtleShoal10.002.200.950.874.731.863.147.460.6111.21 1999343W.TurtleShoal20.000.040.000.686.290.530.047.500.648.18 1999343W.TurtleShoalAverage0.001.120.470.785.511.191.597.480.639.70 2002343W.TurtleShoal10.151.331.440.765.231.552.927.541.3311.78 2002343W.TurtleShoal20.151.481.360.725.341.782.997.841.4812.31 2002343W.TurtleShoalAverage0.151.401.400.745.281.672.957.691.4012.05 1996344W.TurtleShoal3 0.162.330.430.665.851.362.917.871.5912.36 1996344W.TurtleShoal4 0.232.250.390.745.851.672.878.261.6712.79 1996344W.TurtleShoalAverage 0.192.290.410.705.851.512.898.061.6312.58 1998344W.TurtleShoal1 0.041.120.970.814.262.092.137.170.279.57 1998344W.TurtleShoal2 0.001.161.010.744.152.092.176.980.279.42 1998344W.TurtleShoalAverage 0.021.140.990.784.212.092.157.070.279.50 1999344W.TurtleShoal10.161.980.660.434.071.632.796.120.479.38 1999344W.TurtleShoal20.000.040.000.706.430.540.047.670.478.18 1999344W.TurtleShoalAverage0.081.010.330.565.251.091.416.900.478.78 2002344W.TurtleShoal10.121.431.281.093.141.202.835.431.059.30 2002344W.TurtleShoal20.161.671.120.933.371.552.955.851.169.96 2002344W.TurtleShoalAverage0.141.551.201.013.261.382.895.641.109.63 1996354DustanRocks1 0.041.170.760.575.422.651.978.641.5512.16 1996354DustanRocks2 0.001.210.760.615.682.801.979.091.7812.84 1996354DustanRocksAverage 0.021.190.760.595.552.731.978.861.6712.50 1998354DustanRocks1 0.081.100.760.346.022.921.939.280.1511.36 1998354DustanRocks2 0.001.140.720.535.913.181.869.620.1111.59 1998354DustanRocksAverage 0.041.120.740.445.973.051.899.450.1311.48 1999354DustanRocks10.001.520.911.027.053.142.4211.210.4214.05 1999354DustanRocks20.000.040.000.686.290.530.047.500.498.03 1999354DustanRocksAverage0.000.780.450.856.671.841.239.360.4511.04 2002354DustanRocks10.111.020.530.346.482.951.679.770.8712.31 2002354DustanRocks20.111.140.530.537.053.031.7810.611.0613.45 2002354DustanRocksAverage0.111.080.530.446.762.991.7210.190.9712.88 Appendix II. Video-derived octocoral abundance. (continued)

PAGE 72

63 YearSiteIDSiteNameTrial# G.ventalin a-short G.ventalinamedium G.ventalinatall Other Octocoralsshort Other Octocoralsmedium Other Octocoralstall Station TotalG. ventalina Station TotalOther Octocorals StationTotal Scleraxonia Station TotalAll Octocorals 1996503Carysfort(Shallow)3 0.263.700.890.527.810.784.859.110.8114.78 1996503Carysfort(Shallow)4 0.303.631.040.487.440.964.968.890.8114.67 1996503Carysfort(Shallow)Average 0.283.670.960.507.630.874.919.000.8114.72 1998503Carysfort(Shallow)1 0.332.741.371.117.810.964.449.891.4415.78 1998503Carysfort(Shallow)2 0.332.671.331.307.811.264.3310.371.4416.15 1998503Carysfort(Shallow)Average 0.332.701.351.207.811.114.3910.131.4415.96 1999503Carysfort(Shallow)10.813.221.041.447.740.785.079.960.5215.56 1999503Carysfort(Shallow)20.000.040.000.676.150.520.047.330.487.85 1999503Carysfort(Shallow)Average0.411.630.521.066.940.652.568.650.5011.70 2002503Carysfort(Shallow)30.041.850.780.967.520.562.679.040.4412.15 2002503Carysfort(Shallow)40.002.000.781.117.590.592.789.300.4812.56 2002503Carysfort(Shallow)Average0.021.930.781.047.560.572.729.170.4612.35 1996513GrecianRocks3 0.150.670.110.606.050.780.937.440.649.01 1996513GrecianRocks4 0.190.710.110.606.430.781.017.810.789.60 1996513GrecianRocksAverage 0.170.690.110.606.240.780.977.620.719.30 1998513GrecianRocks1 0.150.640.220.866.201.721.018.780.3410.13 1998513GrecianRocks2 0.150.710.190.866.351.911.059.120.2610.43 1998513GrecianRocksAverage 0.150.670.210.866.281.811.038.950.3010.28 1999513GrecianRocks10.110.820.151.205.191.351.087.740.078.89 1999513GrecianRocks20.000.040.000.676.200.520.047.400.077.51 1999513GrecianRocksAverage0.060.430.070.935.700.930.567.570.078.20 2002513GrecianRocks10.040.190.151.645.791.380.378.820.459.64 2002513GrecianRocks20.000.190.152.026.171.310.349.490.5210.35 2002513GrecianRocksAverage0.020.190.151.835.981.350.369.160.4910.00 1996531Conch(Shallow)1 0.000.450.040.422.390.680.493.480.003.98 1996531Conch(Shallow)2 0.040.450.080.452.580.640.573.670.004.24 1996531Conch(Shallow)Average 0.020.450.060.442.480.660.533.580.004.11 1998531Conch(Shallow)1 0.000.230.190.271.520.800.422.580.233.22 1998531Conch(Shallow)2 0.000.230.190.231.550.800.422.580.273.26 1998531Conch(Shallow)Average 0.000.230.190.251.530.800.422.580.253.24 1999531Conch(Shallow)10.150.230.040.530.980.270.421.780.152.35 1999531Conch(Shallow)20.000.040.000.686.290.530.047.500.117.65 1999531Conch(Shallow)Average0.080.130.020.613.640.400.234.640.135.00 2002531Conch(Shallow)10.530.000.043.033.640.270.576.930.047.54 2002531Conch(Shallow)20.680.000.043.223.600.270.727.080.047.84 2002531Conch(Shallow)Average0.610.000.043.133.620.270.647.010.047.69 1996533Conch(Shallow)1 0.040.630.480.151.630.591.152.370.263.78 1996533Conch(Shallow)2 0.040.740.410.111.560.671.192.330.193.70 1996533Conch(Shallow)Average 0.040.690.440.131.590.631.172.350.223.74 1998533Conch(Shallow)1 0.190.330.070.851.740.560.593.150.153.89 1998533Conch(Shallow)2 0.190.330.070.931.670.590.593.190.073.85 1998533Conch(Shallow)Average 0.190.330.070.891.700.570.593.170.113.87 1999533Conch(Shallow)10.810.260.041.331.630.371.113.330.114.56 1999533Conch(Shallow)20.000.040.000.676.150.520.047.330.117.48 1999533Conch(Shallow)Average0.410.150.021.003.890.440.575.330.116.02 2002533Conch(Shallow)10.520.000.002.193.110.520.525.810.006.33 2002533Conch(Shallow)20.440.000.002.373.110.480.445.960.006.41 2002533Conch(Shallow)Average0.480.000.002.283.110.500.485.890.006.37 Appendix II. Video-derived octocoral abundance. (continued)

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64 YearSiteIDSiteNameTrial# G.ventalin a-short G.ventalinamedium G.ventalinatall Other Octocoralsshort Other Octocoralsmedium Other Octocoralstall Station TotalG. ventalina Station TotalOther Octocorals StationTotal Scleraxonia Station TotalAll Octocorals 1996541Alligator(Shallow)1 0.110.080.000.684.701.440.196.820.007.01 1996541Alligator(Shallow)2 0.230.080.000.685.301.400.307.390.007.69 1996541Alligator(Shallow)Average 0.170.080.000.685.001.420.257.100.007.35 1998541Alligator(Shallow)1 0.420.110.001.594.431.440.537.460.007.99 1998541Alligator(Shallow)2 0.450.080.001.934.241.400.537.580.008.11 1998541Alligator(Shallow)Average 0.440.090.001.764.341.420.537.520.008.05 1999541Alligator(Shallow)11.890.190.001.443.671.362.086.480.008.56 1999541Alligator(Shallow)20.000.040.000.686.290.530.047.500.007.54 1999541Alligator(Shallow)Average0.950.110.001.064.980.951.066.990.008.05 2002541Alligator(Shallow)10.870.000.005.766.020.910.8712.690.0013.56 2002541Alligator(Shallow)20.870.000.006.255.950.980.8713.180.0014.05 2002541Alligator(Shallow)Average0.870.000.006.005.980.950.8712.940.0013.81 1996554Tennessee(Shallow)3 0.260.450.151.319.041.610.8611.960.0712.89 1996554Tennessee(Shallow)4 0.260.490.111.428.861.720.8612.000.0712.93 1996554Tennessee(Shallow)Average 0.260.470.131.368.951.660.8611.980.0712.91 1998554Tennessee(Shallow)10.000.490.111.167.742.090.6010.990.0011.58 1998554Tennessee(Shallow)20.000.490.111.167.921.790.6010.870.0011.47 1998554Tennessee(Shallow)Average0.000.490.111.167.831.940.6010.930.0011.53 1999554Tennessee(Shallow)10.070.340.071.276.241.940.499.450.009.94 1999554Tennessee(Shallow)20.000.040.000.676.200.520.047.400.007.44 1999554Tennessee(Shallow)Average0.040.190.040.976.221.230.268.430.008.69 2002554Tennessee(Shallow)10.450.260.073.297.171.350.7811.810.0012.59 2002554Tennessee(Shallow)20.600.190.073.667.291.490.8612.440.0013.30 2002554Tennessee(Shallow)Average0.520.220.073.487.231.420.8212.130.0012.95 1996562Sombrero(Shallow)3 0.000.210.090.040.560.510.301.110.682.09 1996562Sombrero(Shallow)4 0.000.210.090.040.560.510.301.110.772.18 1996562Sombrero(Shallow)Average 0.000.210.090.040.560.510.301.110.732.14 1998562Sombrero(Shallow)1 0.000.130.000.170.941.200.132.310.172.61 1998562Sombrero(Shallow)2 0.000.130.000.170.851.200.132.220.172.52 1998562Sombrero(Shallow)Average 0.000.130.000.170.901.200.132.260.172.56 1999562Sombrero(Shallow)10.130.130.040.211.071.030.302.310.002.61 1999562Sombrero(Shallow)20.000.040.000.777.090.600.048.460.008.50 1999562Sombrero(Shallow)Average0.060.090.020.494.080.810.175.380.005.56 2002562Sombrero(Shallow)10.380.300.040.261.970.810.733.030.944.70 2002562Sombrero(Shallow)20.470.260.040.341.970.770.773.080.944.79 2002562Sombrero(Shallow)Average0.430.280.040.301.970.790.753.060.944.74 1996563Sombrero(Shallow)3 0.000.740.250.082.481.200.993.750.785.53 1996563Sombrero(Shallow)4 0.000.780.210.082.271.160.993.510.545.03 1996563Sombrero(Shallow)Average 0.000.760.230.082.371.180.993.630.665.28 1998563Sombrero(Shallow)1 0.000.620.500.252.641.731.114.620.005.73 1998563Sombrero(Shallow)2 0.000.700.410.252.891.651.114.790.005.90 1998563Sombrero(Shallow)Average 0.000.660.450.252.761.691.114.700.005.82 1999563Sombrero(Shallow)10.250.990.540.452.971.201.774.620.006.39 1999563Sombrero(Shallow)20.000.040.000.746.850.580.048.170.008.21 1999563Sombrero(Shallow)Average0.120.520.270.604.910.890.916.390.007.30 2002563Sombrero(Shallow)10.250.580.581.283.551.441.406.270.508.17 2002563Sombrero(Shallow)20.120.620.581.283.421.491.326.190.508.00 2002563Sombrero(Shallow)Average0.190.600.581.283.491.461.366.230.508.09 Appendix II. Video-derived octocoral abundance. (continued)

PAGE 74

65 YearSiteIDSiteNameTrial# G.ventalin a-short G.ventalinamedium G.ventalinatall Other Octocoralsshort Other Octocoralsmedium Other Octocoralstall Station TotalG. ventalina Station TotalOther Octocorals StationTotal Scleraxonia Station TotalAll Octocorals 1996702Carysfort(Deep)1 0.000.000.040.387.430.680.048.482.9311.45 1996702Carysfort(Deep)2 0.000.000.040.567.770.560.048.903.1212.05 1996702Carysfort(Deep)Average 0.000.000.040.477.600.620.048.693.0211.75 1998702Carysfort(Deep)1 0.000.000.000.714.390.340.005.443.158.60 1998702Carysfort(Deep)2 0.000.000.000.714.540.300.005.563.499.05 1998702Carysfort(Deep)Average 0.000.000.000.714.470.320.005.503.328.82 1999702Carysfort(Deep)10.000.080.041.768.220.750.1110.745.3716.22 1999702Carysfort(Deep)20.000.040.000.686.230.530.047.435.5212.99 1999702Carysfort(Deep)Average0.000.060.021.227.230.640.089.085.4414.60 2002702Carysfort(Deep)10.000.000.041.888.900.750.0411.525.3316.89 2002702Carysfort(Deep)20.000.000.041.7310.250.710.0412.695.2918.02 2002702Carysfort(Deep)Average0.000.000.041.809.570.730.0412.115.3117.45 1996721Molasses(Deep)1 0.041.240.191.629.650.751.4712.032.3015.80 1996721Molasses(Deep)2 0.111.430.081.559.770.681.6211.992.5316.14 1996721Molasses(Deep)Average 0.081.340.131.589.710.721.5512.012.4115.97 1998721Molasses(Deep)1 0.111.060.263.2411.580.791.4315.610.7217.76 1998721Molasses(Deep)2 0.111.090.263.3911.950.791.4716.140.6418.25 1998721Molasses(Deep)Average 0.111.070.263.3211.760.791.4515.870.6818.01 1999721Molasses(Deep)10.190.790.153.3610.070.901.1314.331.0216.48 1999721Molasses(Deep)20.000.040.000.686.260.530.047.470.948.45 1999721Molasses(Deep)Average0.090.410.082.028.160.720.5810.900.9812.46 2002721Molasses(Deep)10.230.410.114.4512.070.380.7516.892.9420.59 2002721Molasses(Deep)20.080.410.154.5612.030.340.6416.932.9820.55 2002721Molasses(Deep)Average0.150.410.134.5112.050.360.7016.912.9620.57 1996722Molasses(Deep)1 0.080.700.041.058.261.160.8110.471.3612.64 1996722Molasses(Deep)2 0.120.660.041.018.681.160.8110.851.4013.06 1996722Molasses(Deep)Average 0.100.680.041.038.471.160.8110.661.3812.85 1998722Molasses(Deep)1 0.120.350.083.188.491.240.5412.910.5013.95 1998722Molasses(Deep)2 0.120.310.193.338.331.120.6212.790.4713.88 1998722Molasses(Deep)Average 0.120.330.143.268.411.180.5812.850.4813.91 1999722Molasses(Deep)10.390.310.163.608.060.810.8512.480.5413.88 1999722Molasses(Deep)20.000.040.000.706.430.540.047.670.548.26 1999722Molasses(Deep)Average0.190.170.082.157.250.680.4510.080.5411.07 2002722Molasses(Deep)10.120.120.004.6910.810.700.2316.201.7818.22 2002722Molasses(Deep)20.080.120.004.3411.240.660.1916.241.7418.18 2002722Molasses(Deep)Average0.100.120.004.5211.030.680.2116.221.7618.20 1996733Conch(Deep)1 0.000.030.000.352.010.560.032.923.996.94 1996733Conch(Deep)2 0.000.030.000.282.290.450.033.024.137.19 1996733Conch(Deep)Average 0.000.030.000.312.150.500.032.974.067.07 1998733Conch(Deep)1 0.170.070.000.141.840.420.242.402.365.00 1998733Conch(Deep)2 0.170.070.000.171.940.380.242.502.575.31 1998733Conch(Deep)Average 0.170.070.000.161.890.400.242.452.475.16 1999733Conch(Deep)10.100.170.030.353.470.450.314.272.406.98 1999733Conch(Deep)20.000.030.000.635.760.490.036.882.749.65 1999733Conch(Deep)Average0.050.100.020.494.620.470.175.572.578.32 2002733Conch(Deep)10.000.170.030.634.620.660.215.901.777.88 2002733Conch(Deep)20.000.210.030.944.340.760.246.041.778.06 2002733Conch(Deep)Average0.000.190.030.784.480.710.235.971.777.97 Appendix II. Video-derived octocoral abundance. (continued)

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66Appendix II. Video-derived octocoral abundance. (continued) YearSiteIDSiteNameTrial# G.ventalin a-short G.ventalinamedium G.ventalinatall Other Octocoralsshort Other Octocoralsmedium Other Octocoralstall Station TotalG. ventalina Station TotalOther Octocorals StationTotal Scleraxonia Station TotalAll Octocorals 1996743Alligator(Deep)1 0.000.000.000.958.471.330.0010.750.0710.82 1996743Alligator(Deep)2 0.000.000.001.058.331.370.0010.750.0710.82 1996743Alligator(Deep)Average 0.000.000.001.008.401.350.0010.750.0710.82 1998743Alligator(Deep)1 0.000.000.001.587.671.790.0011.030.1111.13 1998743Alligator(Deep)2 0.000.000.001.757.601.930.0011.270.0711.34 1998743Alligator(Deep)Average 0.000.000.001.667.631.860.0011.150.0911.24 1999743Alligator(Deep)10.070.040.001.617.491.330.1110.430.1410.68 1999743Alligator(Deep)20.000.040.000.635.810.490.046.930.147.11 1999743Alligator(Deep)Average0.040.040.001.126.650.910.078.680.148.89 2002743Alligator(Deep)10.000.040.003.295.601.190.0410.080.0010.12 2002743Alligator(Deep)20.000.040.003.755.710.950.0410.400.0010.43 2002743Alligator(Deep)Average0.000.040.003.525.651.070.0410.240.0010.28 1996753Tennessee(Deep)1 0.070.620.470.623.151.011.164.780.946.88 1996753Tennessee(Deep)2 0.070.690.400.693.151.091.164.931.097.17 1996753Tennessee(Deep)Average 0.070.650.430.653.151.051.164.861.017.03 1998753Tennessee(Deep)1 0.140.650.400.693.190.981.204.860.146.20 1998753Tennessee(Deep)2 0.110.690.360.763.300.761.164.820.186.16 1998753Tennessee(Deep)Average 0.130.670.380.723.240.871.184.840.166.18 1999753Tennessee(Deep)10.000.290.470.402.570.870.763.840.004.60 1999753Tennessee(Deep)20.000.040.000.656.010.510.047.170.007.21 1999753Tennessee(Deep)Average0.000.160.240.534.290.690.405.510.005.91 2002753Tennessee(Deep)10.040.510.221.993.620.580.766.200.046.99 2002753Tennessee(Deep)20.040.470.251.993.910.580.766.490.047.28 2002753Tennessee(Deep)Average0.040.490.241.993.770.580.766.340.047.14 1996763Sombrero(Deep)1 0.040.160.000.416.181.500.208.094.4712.76 1996763Sombrero(Deep)2 0.040.200.000.616.381.420.248.415.1213.78 1996763Sombrero(Deep)Average 0.040.180.000.516.281.460.228.254.8013.27 1998763Sombrero(Deep)1 0.000.240.000.245.730.490.246.460.206.91 1998763Sombrero(Deep)2 0.000.240.000.165.690.530.246.380.166.79 1998763Sombrero(Deep)Average 0.000.240.000.205.710.510.246.420.186.85 1999763Sombrero(Deep)10.000.120.000.002.150.770.122.930.083.13 1999763Sombrero(Deep)20.000.040.000.736.750.570.048.050.088.17 1999763Sombrero(Deep)Average0.000.080.000.374.450.670.085.490.085.65 2002763Sombrero(Deep)10.000.040.001.672.600.530.044.800.495.33 2002763Sombrero(Deep)20.000.040.002.032.520.490.045.040.535.61 2002763Sombrero(Deep)Average0.000.040.001.852.560.510.044.920.515.47 1996764Sombrero(Deep)1 0.000.170.080.516.191.010.257.704.4612.42 1996764Sombrero(Deep)2 0.000.170.080.596.781.090.258.465.0513.76 1996764Sombrero(Deep)Average 0.000.170.080.556.481.050.258.084.7613.09 1998764Sombrero(Deep)1 0.000.380.040.425.680.760.426.860.177.45 1998764Sombrero(Deep)2 0.000.380.040.595.350.760.426.690.087.20 1998764Sombrero(Deep)Average 0.000.380.040.515.510.760.426.780.137.32 1999764Sombrero(Deep)10.000.170.040.082.480.380.212.950.043.20 1999764Sombrero(Deep)20.000.040.000.766.990.590.048.330.008.38 1999764Sombrero(Deep)Average0.000.110.020.424.730.480.135.640.025.79 2002764Sombrero(Deep)10.080.000.001.893.320.510.085.720.426.23 2002764Sombrero(Deep)20.080.000.002.193.070.420.085.680.386.14 2002764Sombrero(Deep)Average0.080.000.002.043.200.460.085.700.406.19

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671996comparison Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient1998comparison Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient1999comparison Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient2002comparison Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient 14196video1vs14196video296.35814198video1vs14198video295.05014199video1vs14199video298.03014102video1vs14102video296.755 14296video1vs14296video298.45114298video1vs14298video299.06214299video1vs14299video296.31714202video1vs14202video297.561 15296video1vs15296video296.69715298video1vs15298video297.62815299video1vs15299video294.75715202video1vs15202video298.252 15496video1vs15496video297.83815498video1vs15498video297.30615499video1vs15499video299.02215402video1vs15402video298.253 30296video1vs30296video293.68530298video1vs30298video296.79230299video1vs30299video297.66430202video1vs30202video295.070 32296video1vs32296video297.03732298video1vs32298video296.73932299video1vs32299video295.62032202video3vs32202video496.970 32396video1vs32396video297.51732398video1vs32398video297.43632399video1vs32399video297.84532302video3vs32302video497.131 33196video1vs33196video297.28333198video1vs33198video295.05533199video1vs33199video298.18233102video1vs33102video294.891 34196video3vs34196video495.53534198video1vs34198video297.12234199video1vs34199video298.14834102video1vs34102video291.620 34396video3vs34396video498.75034398video1vs34398video298.50234399video1vs34399video297.48734302video1vs34302video296.855 34496video3vs34496video497.38134498video1vs34498video298.36734499video1vs34499video294.78134402video1vs34402video293.360 35496video1vs35496video296.97035498video1vs35498video296.70035499video1vs35499video295.83335402video1vs35402video295.588 50396video3vs50396video497.10750398video1vs50398video298.14450399video1vs50399video296.07450302video3vs50302video498.051 51396video3vs51396video496.78751398video1vs51398video297.45551399video1vs51399video298.54551302video1vs51302video295.327 53196video1vs53196video295.85353198video1vs53198video298.24653199video1vs53199video295.23853102video1vs53102video297.537 53396video1vs53396video294.05953398video1vs53398video296.65153399video1vs53399video298.38753302video1vs53302video297.674 54196video1vs54196video294.84554198video1vs54198video296.00054199video1vs54199video299.12354102video1vs54102video297.668 55496video3vs55496video498.11955498video1vs55498video297.89355499video1vs55499video298.15555402video1vs55402video296.681 56296video3vs56296video498.00056298video1vs56298video298.33356299video1vs56299video292.80056202video1vs56202video297.297 56396video3vs56396video494.53156398video1vs56398video295.74556399video1vs56399video297.45256302video1vs56302video297.959 70296video1vs70296video296.48670298video1vs70298video297.02170299video1vs70299video297.82970202video1vs70202video295.484 72196video1vs72196video297.28572198video1vs72198video298.22072199video1vs72199video295.19572102video1vs72102video298.992 72296video1vs72296video297.73872298video1vs72298video297.77272299video1vs72299video298.20272202video1vs72202video297.551 73396video1vs73396video295.82373398video1vs73398video296.29673399video1vs73399video295.84473302video1vs73302video295.425 74396video1vs74396video298.70674398video1vs74398video298.13174399video1vs74399video297.27174302video1vs74302video296.082 75396video1vs75396video296.90775398video1vs75398video295.60175399video1vs75399video294.25375302video1vs75302video297.462 76396video1vs76396video295.55976398video1vs76398video298.51676399video1vs76399video299.35576302video1vs76302video295.167 76496video1vs76496video294.85576498video1vs76498video295.97776499video1vs76499video294.80576402video1vs76402video294.558 Bray-Curtissimilaritycoefficients.Nostandardization,notransformation Appendix III. Abridged results of the Bray-Curtis similarity matrix, no transformation, not standardized.

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68DescriptiveStatisticsG.ventalin a-shortG.ventalin amediumG.ventalin a-tall "other octocoral"short "other octocoral"medium "other octocoral"tall Total Scleraxoni a TotalG. ventalinaTotal "other octocoral"TotalShort Total MediumTotalTall Station TotalAll Octocorals 1996Mean0.091.070.390.295.792.620.751.558.700.376.863.0110.99 StandardError0.030.590.170.101.950.510.180.752.480.122.470.653.12 Median0.100.610.320.314.872.210.591.017.430.435.192.538.89 Mode#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.061.180.340.203.901.010.351.494.970.254.941.306.25 SampleVariance0.001.400.110.0415.191.030.122.2224.660.0624.391.6839.06 Kurtosis2.262.93-2.460.332.343.113.712.502.482.073.173.492.91 Skewness-1.281.730.63-0.511.291.771.921.621.38-1.171.711.821.66 Range0.142.530.710.479.162.160.753.2311.590.5811.102.8713.99 Minimum0.000.270.110.032.121.950.520.494.170.032.992.066.11 Maximum0.142.800.810.5111.294.111.273.7115.760.6114.094.9220.09 Sum0.354.301.561.1523.1610.482.986.2134.791.5027.4612.0443.98 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 1996ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.101.880.540.326.201.610.562.377.900.397.862.069.94 1996Mean0.131.370.390.424.490.740.441.895.640.545.861.137.97 StandardError0.060.770.210.101.450.060.191.011.590.152.080.252.58 Median0.100.690.280.474.360.720.471.075.600.614.930.996.71 Mode#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.121.530.420.202.910.110.392.033.180.294.170.495.17 SampleVariance0.012.350.170.048.450.010.154.1110.090.0817.360.2426.72 Kurtosis-2.263.900.292.20-4.47-2.92-4.133.68-4.41-1.70-1.202.39-1.25 Skewness0.641.971.14-1.360.110.41-0.211.900.03-0.770.841.490.86 Range0.263.210.910.476.040.240.814.386.650.619.021.1110.98 Minimum0.020.450.060.131.590.630.000.532.350.172.280.723.74 Maximum0.283.670.960.607.630.870.814.919.000.7811.301.8314.72 Sum0.505.501.581.6617.942.951.757.5822.552.1723.444.5231.88 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 1996ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.192.440.660.324.630.180.623.225.060.466.630.788.23 1996Mean0.040.510.050.856.980.752.720.618.580.897.500.8011.91 StandardError0.030.320.030.291.670.140.560.361.990.311.900.151.84 Median0.040.360.040.758.040.672.720.439.670.808.370.7512.30 Mode0.00#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.050.630.060.583.330.291.120.723.980.623.810.303.69 SampleVariance0.000.400.000.3311.120.081.260.5315.860.3914.510.0913.62 Kurtosis-5.12-1.292.57-1.682.802.380.11-1.551.73-2.411.710.211.29 Skewness0.150.851.360.67-1.601.470.000.80-1.350.55-1.210.82-0.61 Range0.101.340.131.277.560.662.691.519.041.358.860.708.90 Minimum0.000.000.000.312.150.501.380.032.970.312.190.507.07 Maximum0.101.340.131.589.711.164.061.5512.011.6611.051.2015.97 Sum0.172.050.213.3927.933.0010.872.4334.333.5629.983.2147.63 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 1996ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.081.010.090.925.310.461.791.156.340.996.060.485.87UpperPatchStationsUpperShallowStationsUpperDeepStations Appendix IVa. Descriptive statistics by habitat type, 1996.

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69DescriptiveStatisticsG.ventalin a-shortG.ventalin amediumG.ventalin a-tall "other octocoral"short "other octocoral"medium "other octocoral"tall Total Scleraxoni a TotalG. ventalinaTotal "other octocoral"TotalShort Total MediumTotalTall Station TotalAll Octocorals 1996Mean0.010.060.001.855.561.250.200.078.661.865.621.258.93 StandardError0.010.040.000.360.960.140.120.041.420.360.990.141.35 Median0.000.060.001.745.601.300.170.078.741.765.671.308.99 Mode0.000.000.00#N/A#N/A#N/A0.000.00#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.020.070.000.721.920.270.230.082.850.721.990.272.70 SampleVariance0.000.010.000.523.680.070.050.018.120.533.960.077.29 Kurtosis4.00-5.63#DIV/0!-2.44-5.76-0.91-4.89-5.75-5.42-2.84-5.78-0.91-5.48 Skewness2.000.06#DIV/0!0.55-0.02-0.800.190.04-0.050.48-0.02-0.80-0.03 Range0.040.130.001.563.590.600.450.155.561.563.710.605.24 Minimum0.000.000.001.183.720.900.000.005.801.183.720.906.25 Maximum0.040.130.002.747.311.500.450.1511.362.747.421.5011.49 Sum0.040.250.007.4022.235.010.790.2834.657.4422.485.0135.72 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 1996ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.030.110.001.153.050.430.370.134.531.153.170.434.30 1996Mean0.092.260.710.526.051.942.073.068.510.608.322.6413.64 StandardError0.040.380.100.080.220.270.250.410.200.100.590.320.66 Median0.072.450.770.526.071.752.063.248.550.568.522.5913.45 Mode#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.080.760.210.160.440.540.490.820.400.211.190.641.31 SampleVariance0.010.580.040.030.190.300.240.670.160.041.410.411.73 Kurtosis2.331.752.80-1.53-2.462.85-5.85-0.59-4.591.420.231.62-4.09 Skewness1.38-1.27-1.51-0.11-0.111.650.02-0.91-0.231.13-0.840.530.33 Range0.171.760.480.370.981.220.911.820.800.482.751.572.65 Minimum0.021.190.410.335.551.511.631.978.060.416.741.9212.50 Maximum0.192.950.890.706.532.732.543.798.860.899.493.4815.15 Sum0.359.052.832.0724.227.748.2912.2334.032.4233.2710.5854.55 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 1996ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.121.210.330.250.700.870.781.310.640.331.891.022.09 1996Mean0.110.380.110.544.221.190.370.605.960.654.601.306.92 StandardError0.070.150.050.311.820.250.190.192.350.371.830.252.27 Median0.090.340.110.383.691.300.370.585.370.474.111.416.31 Mode0.00#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.130.300.090.623.640.500.380.384.710.753.660.504.53 SampleVariance0.020.090.010.3913.270.250.150.1522.150.5613.420.2520.55 Kurtosis-3.70-1.190.41-0.86-0.391.22-5.66-5.33-0.61-1.370.552.330.86 Skewness0.410.580.160.930.70-1.09-0.010.080.600.830.71-1.200.73 Range0.260.690.231.328.391.150.730.7410.871.588.651.2010.77 Minimum0.000.080.000.040.560.510.000.251.110.040.770.602.14 Maximum0.260.760.231.368.951.660.730.9911.981.639.421.7912.91 Sum0.431.520.442.1716.884.771.462.3923.822.6018.405.2227.68 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 1996ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.210.480.150.995.800.790.610.617.491.195.830.807.21MiddlePatchStationsMiddleShallowStations MiddleHardbottomStations Appendix IVa. Descriptive statistics by habitat type, 1996 (continued)

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70DescriptiveStatisticsG.ventalin a-shortG.ventalin amediumG.ventalin a-tall "other octocoral"short "other octocoral"medium "other octocoral"tall Total Scleraxoni a TotalG. ventalinaTotal "other octocoral"TotalShort Total MediumTotalTall Station TotalAll Octocorals 1996Mean0.030.250.130.686.081.232.660.417.980.706.331.3611.05 StandardError0.020.140.100.111.090.101.240.261.210.110.950.081.45 Median0.020.180.040.606.381.202.890.248.170.646.561.4111.95 Mode0.00#N/A0.00#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.040.280.210.222.170.212.470.512.420.211.900.162.91 SampleVariance0.000.080.040.054.720.046.120.265.840.053.600.038.44 Kurtosis-2.322.723.192.411.83-4.55-5.283.211.590.561.730.880.71 Skewness0.661.451.791.59-0.810.25-0.121.70-0.451.22-0.70-1.26-1.24 Range0.070.650.430.495.250.414.731.165.890.454.600.356.24 Minimum0.000.000.000.513.151.050.070.004.860.553.801.147.03 Maximum0.070.650.431.008.401.464.801.1610.751.008.401.4913.27 Sum0.111.000.522.7124.324.9110.641.6431.942.8225.325.4344.21 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 1996ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.060.450.330.353.460.333.940.823.850.343.020.254.62 1996Mean0.070.850.260.735.601.391.311.177.720.806.441.6410.20 StandardError0.020.200.060.120.500.150.270.260.630.120.600.180.80 Median0.040.460.110.536.051.270.720.728.070.616.701.4210.91 Mode0.000.000.00#N/A#N/A1.420.000.00#N/A#N/A#N/A1.42#N/A StandardDeviation0.081.040.320.632.670.781.421.373.350.643.180.964.24 SampleVariance0.011.080.100.407.110.602.031.8711.240.4010.100.9318.00 Kurtosis0.711.22-0.132.96-0.544.560.911.150.062.26-0.223.94-0.34 Skewness1.221.511.141.650.001.761.321.440.051.430.321.710.09 Range0.283.670.962.7110.733.614.804.9114.652.7113.324.4217.96 Minimum0.000.000.000.030.560.500.000.001.110.030.770.502.14 Maximum0.283.670.962.7411.294.114.804.9115.762.7414.094.9220.09 Sum1.9523.677.1420.55156.6838.8736.7832.76216.1022.51180.3546.01285.65 Count28.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.00 1996ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.030.400.120.241.030.300.550.531.300.251.230.371.65MiddleDeepStations1996AllStations Appendix IVa. Descriptive statistics by habitat type, 1996 (continued)

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71DescriptiveStatisticsG.ventalin a-shortG.ventalin amediumG.ventalin a-tall "other octocoral"short "other octocoral"medium "other octocoral"tall Total Scleraxoni a TotalG. ventalinaTotal "other octocoral"TotalShort Total MediumTotalTall Station TotalAll Octocorals 1998Mean0.181.350.310.797.372.070.851.8310.230.968.722.3712.91 StandardError0.070.860.150.472.960.240.241.053.650.533.760.354.82 Median0.180.610.220.425.652.040.750.938.110.606.012.129.22 Mode#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.141.710.300.945.920.480.482.107.291.067.520.699.64 SampleVariance0.022.930.090.8835.100.230.234.4153.171.1356.540.4892.88 Kurtosis1.213.700.123.642.381.33-0.043.702.593.293.163.323.47 Skewness-0.211.921.131.871.480.300.931.921.511.731.741.771.83 Range0.343.610.652.0513.511.161.104.4416.722.3916.631.5321.12 Minimum0.000.290.070.132.341.510.400.533.980.133.121.866.04 Maximum0.343.900.722.1815.852.671.504.9620.702.5219.753.3927.16 Sum0.705.401.233.1429.508.273.407.3440.903.8434.909.5051.64 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 1998ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.222.730.481.499.430.760.773.3411.601.6911.961.1015.34 1998Mean0.170.980.460.804.331.070.531.616.210.975.321.538.34 StandardError0.070.580.300.201.600.270.310.941.940.272.100.433.00 Median0.170.500.200.873.990.950.270.816.061.044.491.507.07 Mode#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.141.160.600.403.200.540.621.873.890.534.210.856.00 SampleVariance0.021.350.360.1610.220.290.383.5115.110.2917.710.7335.95 Kurtosis1.163.433.822.12-4.860.893.703.61-5.431.81-2.71-4.01-1.97 Skewness-0.011.851.94-1.060.191.091.901.890.06-0.810.580.100.71 Range0.332.481.280.966.281.241.333.977.551.298.761.8112.72 Minimum0.000.230.070.251.530.570.110.422.580.251.760.653.24 Maximum0.332.701.351.207.811.811.444.3910.131.5410.522.4615.96 Sum0.673.941.823.2017.334.292.106.4324.823.8721.276.1133.35 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 1998ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.221.850.960.645.090.860.982.986.190.856.701.369.54 1998Mean0.100.370.101.866.630.671.740.579.171.967.000.7711.47 StandardError0.040.250.060.832.170.200.690.323.120.842.400.252.82 Median0.110.200.071.986.440.601.570.419.172.046.600.7311.37 Mode#N/A#N/A0.00#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.070.490.131.664.350.401.380.636.251.674.790.495.64 SampleVariance0.010.240.022.7618.890.161.910.4039.052.7922.980.2431.86 Kurtosis2.172.19-1.53-5.44-2.00-1.64-4.091.33-3.82-5.73-1.77-4.51-2.01 Skewness-1.091.540.81-0.100.190.730.301.220.00-0.040.360.220.08 Range0.171.070.263.169.870.862.841.4513.433.1010.881.0012.85 Minimum0.000.000.000.161.890.320.480.002.450.331.960.325.16 Maximum0.171.070.263.3211.761.183.321.4515.873.4312.841.3218.01 Sum0.401.470.407.4426.532.696.952.2836.677.8528.013.0945.90 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 1998ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.120.780.202.656.920.632.201.019.942.667.630.788.98UpperPatchStationsUpperShallowStationsUpperDeepStations Appendix IVb. Descriptive statistics by habitat type, 1998.

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72DescriptiveStatisticsG.ventalin a-shortG.ventalin amediumG.ventalin a-tall "other octocoral"short "other octocoral"medium "other octocoral"tall Total Scleraxoni a TotalG. ventalinaTotal "other octocoral"TotalShort Total MediumTotalTall Station TotalAll Octocorals 1998Mean0.040.060.011.397.091.410.100.119.891.437.151.4210.10 StandardError0.040.040.010.170.390.230.060.090.370.170.360.240.39 Median0.000.040.001.386.951.330.080.049.631.466.991.339.85 Mode0.000.000.00#N/A#N/A#N/A0.000.00#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.090.070.020.330.770.460.120.170.740.340.710.480.78 SampleVariance0.010.010.000.110.600.210.010.030.550.120.510.230.60 Kurtosis4.00-1.334.001.521.130.74-4.833.033.040.411.690.921.56 Skewness2.000.852.000.200.970.910.211.751.70-0.501.180.981.41 Range0.170.150.040.811.821.080.230.361.640.811.671.111.70 Minimum0.000.000.000.996.330.950.000.009.330.996.480.959.50 Maximum0.170.150.041.818.142.030.230.3610.971.818.142.0611.20 Sum0.170.230.045.5628.385.630.400.4439.575.7328.605.6740.40 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 1998ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.140.120.030.531.230.730.190.271.180.541.140.761.24 1998Mean0.021.281.000.545.162.480.302.308.180.576.443.4810.78 StandardError0.010.100.110.090.360.200.080.170.500.080.380.150.46 Median0.031.220.990.505.232.390.272.348.100.526.653.5311.08 Mode#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A0.27#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.020.200.220.170.730.410.170.340.990.160.770.300.91 SampleVariance0.000.040.050.030.530.160.030.110.980.030.590.090.83 Kurtosis-1.190.491.550.011.492.092.11-3.120.741.361.700.061.42 Skewness-0.871.180.301.01-0.581.201.04-0.430.451.30-1.37-0.75-1.39 Range0.040.440.540.391.760.960.400.722.380.371.730.711.98 Minimum0.001.120.740.394.212.090.131.897.070.435.353.089.50 Maximum0.041.551.280.785.973.050.532.629.450.797.083.7911.48 Sum0.105.113.992.1720.639.931.219.2032.732.2625.7413.9243.13 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 1998ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.030.320.350.281.160.650.260.541.580.261.220.481.45 1998Mean0.110.340.140.833.961.560.040.596.350.944.301.706.99 StandardError0.110.140.110.381.470.160.040.201.870.471.520.231.89 Median0.000.310.060.703.551.560.000.566.110.703.931.746.93 Mode0.00#N/A0.00#N/A#N/A#N/A0.00#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.220.280.210.762.940.320.090.403.730.953.030.473.77 SampleVariance0.050.080.050.588.640.110.010.1613.920.909.210.2214.23 Kurtosis4.00-4.052.65-3.090.54-1.574.001.46-0.98-0.891.26-4.72-0.14 Skewness2.000.321.670.500.730.102.000.420.310.920.69-0.160.08 Range0.440.570.451.596.930.750.170.998.672.037.290.958.96 Minimum0.000.090.000.170.901.200.000.132.260.171.031.202.56 Maximum0.440.660.451.767.831.940.171.1110.932.208.312.1511.53 Sum0.441.370.573.3415.836.250.172.3725.423.7717.206.8227.96 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 1998ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.350.440.341.214.680.520.140.645.941.514.830.746.00MiddlePatchStationsMiddleShallowStations MiddleHardbottomStations Appendix IVb. Descriptive statistics by habitat type, 1998. (continued)

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73DescriptiveStatisticsG.ventalin a-shortG.ventalin amediumG.ventalin a-tall "other octocoral"short "other octocoral"medium "other octocoral"tall Total Scleraxoni a TotalG. ventalinaTotal "other octocoral"TotalShort Total MediumTotalTall Station TotalAll Octocorals 1998Mean0.030.320.110.775.531.000.140.467.300.815.851.107.90 StandardError0.030.140.090.320.900.300.020.251.350.310.760.291.14 Median0.000.310.020.615.610.810.140.336.600.685.921.027.09 Mode0.00#N/A0.00#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.060.280.180.631.800.590.040.512.700.631.520.592.28 SampleVariance0.000.080.030.403.230.350.000.267.320.402.310.345.19 Kurtosis4.000.423.752.071.492.91-1.522.072.580.901.54-0.743.22 Skewness2.000.241.931.33-0.291.60-0.491.321.401.03-0.300.631.74 Range0.130.670.381.464.391.350.101.186.321.463.721.355.06 Minimum0.000.000.000.203.240.510.090.004.840.203.910.516.18 Maximum0.130.670.381.667.631.860.181.1811.151.667.631.8611.24 Sum0.131.290.423.1022.103.990.561.8429.193.2223.394.4131.59 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 1998ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.100.440.291.002.860.940.070.814.301.002.420.933.62 1998Mean0.090.670.301.005.721.470.531.078.191.096.401.779.78 StandardError0.020.170.080.160.600.140.150.240.780.170.710.190.93 Median0.030.360.100.755.611.440.240.598.100.826.471.659.55 Mode0.000.000.00#N/A#N/A#N/A0.000.00#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.120.880.410.863.190.720.781.274.100.903.740.994.92 SampleVariance0.010.770.170.7410.180.520.611.6016.840.8214.020.9924.20 Kurtosis1.266.741.001.862.69-0.706.223.352.071.305.16-0.494.89 Skewness1.352.431.461.441.140.282.471.870.991.321.690.581.66 Range0.443.901.353.1914.952.733.324.9618.443.3018.733.4724.59 Minimum0.000.000.000.130.900.320.000.002.260.131.030.322.56 Maximum0.443.901.353.3215.853.053.324.9620.703.4319.753.7927.16 Sum2.6018.828.4727.95160.2941.0614.7829.89229.3030.55179.1149.52273.97 Count28.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.00 1998ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.050.340.160.331.240.280.300.491.590.351.450.391.91MiddleDeepStations1998AllStations Appendix IVb. Descriptive statistics by habitat type, 1998. (continued)

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74DescriptiveStatisticsG.ventalin a-shortG.ventalin amediumG.ventalin a-tall "other octocoral"short "other octocoral"medium "other octocoral"tall Total Scleraxoni a TotalG. ventalinaTotal "other octocoral"TotalShort Total MediumTotalTall Station TotalAll Octocorals 1999Mean0.150.640.180.906.271.120.530.978.291.056.911.319.79 StandardError0.090.380.110.291.410.060.100.571.750.371.770.162.38 Median0.070.260.110.815.591.110.500.417.510.895.851.158.38 Mode#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.180.760.220.572.810.130.191.153.510.743.540.324.75 SampleVariance0.030.580.050.337.910.020.041.3212.290.5512.540.1022.60 Kurtosis3.814.002.171.422.401.49-3.413.982.202.062.873.992.78 Skewness1.942.001.530.831.330.510.451.991.231.191.572.001.55 Range0.381.530.471.376.590.310.392.338.271.758.130.6410.90 Minimum0.030.250.020.303.650.980.370.364.930.333.901.145.74 Maximum0.421.780.491.6710.251.290.762.6913.202.0812.031.7816.65 Sum0.592.550.733.5925.074.492.123.8833.154.1927.625.2239.15 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 1999ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.291.210.340.914.470.200.301.835.581.185.630.507.56 1999Mean0.240.590.160.905.040.610.200.986.551.145.630.767.73 StandardError0.100.350.120.100.780.120.100.530.940.181.110.191.48 Median0.240.290.050.974.790.550.120.576.451.205.080.747.11 Mode0.41#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.200.710.240.201.570.240.201.061.880.372.230.382.97 SampleVariance0.040.500.060.042.450.060.041.133.520.144.970.148.80 Kurtosis-5.953.193.752.82-2.99-0.243.723.60-3.83-2.73-0.85-5.09-0.01 Skewness-0.011.791.93-1.650.501.011.911.860.16-0.550.920.130.96 Range0.351.500.500.453.310.540.432.334.010.784.810.756.70 Minimum0.060.130.020.613.640.400.070.234.640.683.770.425.00 Maximum0.411.630.521.066.940.930.502.568.651.468.571.1711.70 Sum0.952.340.633.6020.172.420.823.9226.194.5422.513.0630.92 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 1999ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.311.130.390.322.490.390.321.692.990.593.550.604.72 1999Mean0.090.190.051.476.810.632.380.328.911.557.000.6711.61 StandardError0.040.080.020.390.760.051.110.121.170.420.810.071.32 Median0.070.140.051.627.240.661.770.319.581.677.350.7111.76 Mode#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.080.160.030.771.530.112.220.242.340.831.630.142.63 SampleVariance0.010.030.000.602.330.014.920.065.490.692.650.026.94 Kurtosis0.682.17-5.97-1.912.802.400.69-3.622.10-2.652.310.390.23 Skewness0.771.480.00-0.69-1.49-1.501.200.14-1.43-0.48-1.21-1.10-0.31 Range0.190.360.061.673.550.254.900.515.321.813.860.316.29 Minimum0.000.060.020.494.620.470.540.085.570.544.720.498.32 Maximum0.190.410.082.158.160.725.440.5810.902.348.580.7914.60 Sum0.340.750.195.8727.262.509.541.2835.636.2128.012.6946.45 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 1999ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.130.250.051.232.430.173.530.383.731.322.590.224.19UpperPatchStationsUpperShallowStationsUpperDeepStations Appendix IVc. Descriptive statistics by habitat type, 1999.

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75DescriptiveStatisticsG.ventalin a-shortG.ventalin amediumG.ventalin a-tall "other octocoral"short "other octocoral"medium "other octocoral"tall Total Scleraxoni a TotalG. ventalinaTotal "other octocoral"TotalShort Total MediumTotalTall Station TotalAll Octocorals 1999Mean0.000.020.000.816.370.730.030.027.910.816.390.737.96 StandardError0.000.000.000.050.310.060.020.000.330.050.310.060.35 Median0.000.020.000.796.550.700.020.028.020.796.570.708.07 Mode0.00#N/A0.00#N/A#N/A#N/A0.00#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.000.010.000.090.620.130.040.010.670.090.620.130.70 SampleVariance0.000.000.000.010.380.020.000.000.440.010.380.020.49 Kurtosis#DIV/0!4.00#DIV/0!-0.420.95-2.160.474.00-1.92-0.421.18-2.16-1.94 Skewness#DIV/0!2.00#DIV/0!0.87-1.250.691.202.00-0.640.87-1.300.69-0.58 Range0.000.020.000.211.370.260.090.021.460.211.370.261.55 Minimum0.000.020.000.725.510.630.000.027.060.725.530.637.08 Maximum0.000.040.000.936.880.890.090.048.520.936.900.898.63 Sum0.000.090.003.2325.492.910.130.0931.623.2325.582.9131.85 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 1999ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.000.020.000.140.990.200.070.021.060.140.980.201.12 1999Mean0.030.910.420.725.731.340.551.377.790.766.651.769.71 StandardError0.020.090.030.060.320.170.050.090.540.040.280.190.48 Median0.030.890.440.745.511.220.551.337.460.776.441.679.51 Mode0.00#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A6.26#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.040.180.060.120.630.340.100.171.070.090.560.370.96 SampleVariance0.000.030.000.020.400.110.010.031.150.010.310.140.93 Kurtosis-4.86-4.122.19-0.063.393.35-5.84-1.353.051.491.812.591.60 Skewness0.200.31-1.48-0.611.781.780.010.841.62-0.671.481.371.11 Range0.080.360.140.291.410.750.180.362.460.211.180.882.26 Minimum0.000.760.330.565.251.090.451.236.900.646.261.418.78 Maximum0.081.120.470.856.671.840.641.599.360.857.442.2911.04 Sum0.143.661.682.8922.935.362.185.4831.183.0226.597.0438.84 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 1999ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.060.280.100.201.010.540.160.271.710.140.890.591.53 1999Mean0.290.230.080.785.050.970.000.606.801.075.271.057.40 StandardError0.220.100.060.140.440.090.000.220.640.330.460.100.68 Median0.090.150.030.784.950.920.000.586.690.875.261.057.68 Mode#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A0.00#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.440.200.130.280.880.180.000.451.270.650.930.201.35 SampleVariance0.190.040.020.080.780.030.000.201.620.420.860.041.83 Kurtosis3.863.013.71-4.801.732.41#DIV/0!-5.240.602.320.88-3.020.90 Skewness1.961.741.91-0.040.691.47#DIV/0!0.060.461.530.090.01-1.03 Range0.910.430.270.572.140.420.000.893.041.452.240.443.13 Minimum0.040.090.000.494.080.810.000.175.380.564.170.835.56 Maximum0.950.520.271.066.221.230.001.068.432.016.411.278.69 Sum1.170.900.333.1220.193.880.002.4027.194.2921.104.2129.60 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 1999ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.700.320.200.441.400.290.000.712.021.031.470.312.15MiddlePatchStationsMiddleShallowStations MiddleHardbottomStations Appendix IVc. Descriptive statistics by habitat type, 1999. (continued)

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76DescriptiveStatisticsG.ventalin a-shortG.ventalin amediumG.ventalin a-tall "other octocoral"short "other octocoral"medium "other octocoral"tall Total Scleraxoni a TotalG. ventalinaTotal "other octocoral"TotalShort Total MediumTotalTall Station TotalAll Octocorals 1999Mean0.010.100.060.615.030.690.060.176.330.625.130.756.56 StandardError0.010.030.060.170.550.090.030.080.790.180.530.100.78 Median0.000.090.010.474.590.680.050.105.570.474.690.795.85 Mode0.00#N/A0.00#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.020.050.110.351.100.170.060.151.570.371.050.201.56 SampleVariance0.000.000.010.121.200.030.000.022.470.131.110.042.43 Kurtosis4.000.593.843.253.431.50-1.803.473.963.323.47-2.903.91 Skewness2.000.301.961.791.840.300.601.861.991.811.86-0.551.97 Range0.040.130.240.752.360.430.140.333.200.792.230.423.24 Minimum0.000.040.000.374.290.480.000.075.490.374.460.515.65 Maximum0.040.160.241.126.650.910.140.408.681.166.690.928.89 Sum0.040.380.262.4320.132.750.240.6825.322.4720.523.0126.24 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 1999ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.030.080.180.551.740.280.100.252.500.581.670.322.48 1999Mean0.120.380.140.885.760.870.540.637.511.006.141.008.68 StandardError0.040.090.030.080.280.060.210.140.370.100.330.080.52 Median0.050.170.030.805.510.850.140.397.460.816.190.928.36 Mode0.00#N/A0.00#N/A5.51#N/A0.00#N/A#N/A#N/A6.26#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.200.480.180.451.480.321.090.721.960.551.760.452.76 SampleVariance0.040.230.030.202.210.101.190.523.830.303.080.207.62 Kurtosis9.892.68-0.252.351.641.5916.082.411.250.673.431.221.60 Skewness2.951.821.171.490.940.963.821.660.871.221.341.081.17 Range0.951.760.521.856.611.445.442.678.562.018.261.8811.65 Minimum0.000.020.000.303.640.400.000.024.640.333.770.425.00 Maximum0.951.780.522.1510.251.845.442.6913.202.3412.032.2916.65 Sum3.2210.683.8224.74161.2424.3115.0317.72210.2927.96171.9228.13243.04 Count28.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.00 1999ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.080.190.070.170.580.120.420.280.760.210.680.171.07MiddleDeepStations1999AllStations Appendix IVc. Descriptive statistics by habitat type, 1999. (continued)

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77DescriptiveStatisticsG.ventalin a-shortG.ventalin amediumG.ventalin a-tall "other octocoral"short "other octocoral"medium "other octocoral"tall Total Scleraxoni a TotalG. ventalinaTotal "other octocoral"TotalShort Total MediumTotalTall Station TotalAll Octocorals 2002Mean0.091.130.311.076.261.440.671.538.761.167.391.7510.97 StandardError0.040.550.150.272.100.280.170.732.610.302.570.413.35 Median0.070.730.191.135.471.400.750.958.001.205.961.529.48 Mode#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.071.100.300.534.190.570.341.465.220.595.130.826.70 SampleVariance0.011.200.090.2917.590.320.112.1327.280.3526.360.6744.92 Kurtosis-0.913.383.081.131.391.010.303.541.601.392.512.512.20 Skewness0.921.781.76-0.651.010.35-1.041.860.83-0.421.461.461.22 Range0.162.440.651.289.881.380.763.1712.541.4411.831.8915.81 Minimum0.030.310.110.372.110.780.220.533.250.402.911.034.55 Maximum0.192.750.761.6511.992.160.983.6915.801.8414.732.9220.36 Sum0.374.521.244.2725.045.742.706.1335.054.6429.566.9843.87 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 2002ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.121.750.480.856.670.910.542.328.310.948.171.3010.66 2002Mean0.280.530.242.075.070.670.251.057.802.355.590.919.10 StandardError0.150.470.180.441.040.230.130.560.820.581.460.301.32 Median0.250.090.092.054.800.540.250.568.082.304.890.938.84 Mode#N/A0.00#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.310.940.360.872.080.470.261.121.631.152.920.602.63 SampleVariance0.090.880.130.764.320.220.071.262.661.338.500.366.94 Kurtosis-5.203.813.350.25-3.112.76-5.863.78-3.79-1.25-0.51-5.19-1.60 Skewness0.141.951.820.080.421.52-0.011.93-0.390.180.97-0.040.43 Range0.591.930.782.094.441.080.492.373.282.686.371.195.98 Minimum0.020.000.001.043.110.270.000.365.891.063.110.306.37 Maximum0.611.930.783.137.561.350.492.729.173.739.481.4912.35 Sum1.122.110.978.2720.262.680.994.2031.229.4022.383.6536.41 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 2002ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.491.490.581.393.310.750.421.782.601.844.640.954.19 2002Mean0.060.180.052.909.280.622.950.2912.802.969.460.6716.05 StandardError0.040.090.030.951.680.090.840.142.510.991.700.062.77 Median0.050.150.043.1510.300.702.370.2214.163.2110.360.7117.83 Mode0.00#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.070.170.061.903.360.181.670.285.021.973.410.135.55 SampleVariance0.010.030.003.6311.280.032.790.0825.243.9011.600.0230.77 Kurtosis-3.571.092.69-4.622.213.681.452.670.10-4.711.762.003.06 Skewness0.430.841.43-0.24-1.48-1.911.401.43-1.10-0.23-1.32-1.49-1.65 Range0.150.410.133.737.570.373.550.6610.943.887.790.2812.60 Minimum0.000.000.000.784.480.361.760.045.970.784.670.497.97 Maximum0.150.410.134.5212.050.735.310.7016.914.6612.460.7720.57 Sum0.250.720.2011.6037.132.4811.811.1751.2111.8537.852.6864.19 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 2002ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.120.280.093.035.340.282.660.457.993.145.420.208.83UpperPatchStationsUpperShallowStationsUpperDeepStations Appendix IVd. Descriptive statistics by habitat type, 2002.

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78DescriptiveStatisticsG.ventalin a-shortG.ventalin amediumG.ventalin a-tall "other octocoral"short "other octocoral"medium "other octocoral"tall Total Scleraxoni a TotalG. ventalinaTotal "other octocoral"TotalShort Total MediumTotalTall Station TotalAll Octocorals 2002Mean0.000.040.003.057.160.840.100.0411.053.057.200.8411.19 StandardError0.000.030.001.390.400.110.100.031.371.390.410.111.32 Median0.000.020.002.727.230.750.000.0211.012.727.310.7511.07 Mode0.000.000.00#N/A#N/A#N/A0.000.00#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.000.050.002.790.810.230.200.052.742.790.830.232.65 SampleVariance0.000.000.007.760.650.050.040.007.527.760.680.057.01 Kurtosis#DIV/0!1.52#DIV/0!-4.14-1.422.494.001.52-4.53-4.14-1.662.49-4.95 Skewness#DIV/0!1.42#DIV/0!0.30-0.401.632.001.420.040.30-0.561.630.10 Range0.000.110.005.711.850.480.400.115.705.711.850.485.34 Minimum0.000.000.000.536.170.680.000.008.240.536.170.688.63 Maximum0.000.110.006.238.011.170.400.1113.946.238.011.1713.98 Sum0.000.150.0012.1928.653.360.400.1544.2012.1928.803.3644.75 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 2002ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.000.090.004.431.290.360.320.094.364.431.310.364.21 2002Mean0.131.331.080.764.862.001.072.557.620.896.193.0911.24 StandardError0.010.100.190.120.760.350.120.280.950.130.680.200.74 Median0.131.351.200.814.711.821.042.757.330.946.063.1211.23 Mode#N/A#N/A1.20#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.020.200.380.241.520.700.250.571.910.251.350.391.48 SampleVariance0.000.040.150.062.300.500.060.323.650.061.820.152.20 Kurtosis-2.350.373.050.69-0.891.800.482.551.281.43-1.971.28-3.35 Skewness0.62-0.48-1.62-0.880.471.310.76-1.630.84-1.000.41-0.540.03 Range0.040.470.870.573.511.620.591.234.550.593.030.953.25 Minimum0.111.080.530.443.261.380.811.725.640.554.812.589.63 Maximum0.151.551.401.016.762.991.402.9510.191.147.843.5212.88 Sum0.525.334.333.0519.438.014.2910.1830.503.5724.7612.3544.96 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 2002ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.030.310.610.392.411.120.400.903.040.402.150.622.36 2002Mean0.500.280.172.764.671.160.360.958.593.274.941.339.90 StandardError0.140.120.141.271.190.170.230.142.371.391.130.282.13 Median0.480.250.062.384.741.180.250.859.182.735.031.2210.52 Mode#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A0.00#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.280.250.272.542.380.340.450.284.752.782.270.564.26 SampleVariance0.080.060.076.435.670.110.200.0822.537.755.140.3118.15 Kurtosis1.121.463.75-1.22-2.97-4.88-1.753.39-3.77-1.18-1.56-1.62-3.01 Skewness0.530.571.920.66-0.11-0.170.771.80-0.350.78-0.190.73-0.47 Range0.690.600.585.705.270.670.940.619.886.155.211.219.06 Minimum0.190.000.000.301.970.790.000.753.060.732.240.834.74 Maximum0.870.600.586.007.231.460.941.3612.946.887.462.0413.81 Sum2.011.100.7011.0618.674.621.443.8034.3513.0619.775.3239.58 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 2002ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.450.390.434.033.790.540.720.447.554.433.610.886.78MiddlePatchStationsMiddleShallowStations MiddleHardbottomStations Appendix IVd. Descriptive statistics by habitat type, 2002. (continued)

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79DescriptiveStatisticsG.ventalin a-shortG.ventalin amediumG.ventalin a-tall "other octocoral"short "other octocoral"medium "other octocoral"tall Total Scleraxoni a TotalG. ventalinaTotal "other octocoral"TotalShort Total MediumTotalTall Station TotalAll Octocorals 2002Mean0.030.140.062.353.800.650.240.236.802.383.940.717.27 StandardError0.020.120.060.390.670.140.130.181.180.380.680.141.06 Median0.020.040.002.023.480.540.220.066.022.083.730.666.66 Mode0.00#N/A0.00#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.040.230.120.781.330.280.260.352.370.771.350.282.12 SampleVariance0.000.050.010.611.780.080.070.135.600.591.830.084.49 Kurtosis-0.083.894.003.801.663.40-5.033.922.893.59-0.69-2.332.00 Skewness1.091.962.001.931.221.830.141.981.641.870.710.621.41 Range0.080.490.241.673.090.600.510.735.321.673.090.604.81 Minimum0.000.000.001.852.560.460.000.044.921.852.600.465.47 Maximum0.080.490.243.525.651.070.510.7610.243.525.691.0710.28 Sum0.120.560.249.4015.182.620.940.9227.209.5215.752.8529.07 Count4.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.004.00 2002ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.060.370.191.252.120.440.410.563.771.222.160.453.37 2002Mean0.160.520.272.145.871.050.810.959.062.296.391.3310.82 StandardError0.040.130.080.320.530.120.210.200.720.340.570.170.83 Median0.090.210.061.725.820.800.490.678.451.826.080.9910.08 Mode0.000.000.00#N/A#N/A#N/A0.000.00#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.220.700.421.702.820.621.121.073.811.793.030.924.39 SampleVariance0.050.490.182.897.940.381.271.1414.503.199.160.8519.25 Kurtosis3.252.811.590.290.012.239.340.63-0.500.461.010.320.07 Skewness1.901.741.651.110.761.362.761.300.541.151.001.200.77 Range0.872.751.405.9310.082.735.313.6913.866.4812.493.2216.02 Minimum0.000.000.000.301.970.270.000.003.060.402.240.304.55 Maximum0.872.751.406.2312.052.995.313.6916.916.8814.733.5220.57 Sum4.3814.507.6859.85164.3529.5222.5526.56253.7264.24178.8537.20302.83 Count28.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.0028.00 2002ConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.090.270.160.661.090.240.440.411.480.691.170.361.70MiddleDeepStations2002AllStations Appendix IVd. Descriptive statistics by habitat type, 2002. (continued)

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80DescriptiveStatisticsG.ventalin a-shortG.ventalin amediumG.ventalin a-tall "other octocoral"short "other octocoral"medium "other octocoral"tall Total Scleraxoni a TotalG. ventalinaTotal "other octocoral"TotalShort Total MediumTotalTall Station TotalAll Octocorals AllYearsMean0.131.050.300.766.421.810.701.478.990.897.472.1111.17 StandardError0.030.280.070.160.980.210.090.361.230.181.240.251.61 Median0.100.550.150.475.281.730.620.787.600.625.591.968.82 Mode0.00#N/A#N/A#N/A4.62#N/A#N/A0.53#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.121.140.270.633.940.820.341.464.900.724.961.016.42 SampleVariance0.011.290.080.4015.520.670.122.1224.060.5224.571.0341.23 Kurtosis1.611.46-0.700.110.723.040.750.890.750.461.142.921.23 Skewness1.361.580.911.021.141.430.971.451.151.111.411.511.41 Range0.423.650.802.1413.743.331.284.6017.452.4916.853.9022.61 Minimum0.000.250.020.032.110.780.220.363.250.032.911.034.55 Maximum0.423.900.812.1815.854.111.504.9620.702.5219.754.9227.16 Sum2.0116.784.7712.16102.7628.9711.2023.55143.8914.17119.5433.74178.64 Count16.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.00 AllYearsConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.060.610.150.342.100.440.180.782.610.382.640.543.42 AllYearsMean0.200.870.311.054.730.770.351.386.551.255.601.088.28 StandardError0.050.270.100.190.570.100.100.370.660.230.780.151.00 Median0.160.440.130.914.790.660.230.627.291.035.081.007.95 Mode0.410.00#N/A#N/A#N/A0.570.00#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.191.070.400.782.280.390.381.472.640.923.120.624.00 SampleVariance0.041.140.160.615.200.150.152.166.950.859.750.3815.97 Kurtosis-0.622.161.912.47-1.562.403.371.60-1.372.70-1.010.12-0.76 Skewness0.751.681.611.53-0.091.431.711.64-0.371.540.510.840.48 Range0.613.671.353.006.281.551.444.687.783.569.532.1612.72 Minimum0.000.000.000.131.530.270.000.232.350.171.760.303.24 Maximum0.613.671.353.137.811.811.444.9110.133.7311.302.4615.96 Sum3.2413.894.9916.7375.7112.355.6522.12104.7819.9789.5917.34132.56 Count16.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.00 AllYearsConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.100.570.210.421.220.210.200.781.400.491.660.332.13 AllYearsMean0.070.310.061.777.430.672.450.459.871.847.740.7312.76 StandardError0.020.100.020.360.790.060.390.121.120.370.850.071.13 Median0.080.150.041.407.880.682.440.2310.371.448.090.7112.66 Mode0.000.000.00#N/A#N/A0.72#N/A0.04#N/A#N/A#N/A0.66#N/A StandardDeviation0.070.400.071.433.160.241.550.484.501.473.380.284.53 SampleVariance0.000.160.012.069.960.062.400.2320.242.1611.440.0820.51 Kurtosis-1.152.182.87-0.35-0.740.82-0.261.10-0.85-0.41-0.820.17-0.98 Skewness0.291.681.620.87-0.340.820.631.35-0.070.87-0.260.710.03 Range0.191.340.264.3610.160.864.961.5514.464.3410.881.0015.41 Minimum0.000.000.000.161.890.320.480.002.450.311.960.325.16 Maximum0.191.340.264.5212.051.185.441.5516.914.6612.841.3220.57 Sum1.165.001.0028.32118.8510.6839.177.16157.8429.48123.8511.68204.17 Count16.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.00 AllYearsConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.040.210.040.761.680.130.830.262.400.781.800.152.41UpperPatchStationsUpperShallowStationsUpperDeepStations Appendix IVe. Descriptive statistics by habitat type, All Years.

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81DescriptiveStatisticsG.ventalin a-shortG.ventalin amediumG.ventalin a-tall "other octocoral"short "other octocoral"medium "other octocoral"tall Total Scleraxoni a TotalG. ventalinaTotal "other octocoral"TotalShort Total MediumTotalTall Station TotalAll Octocorals AllYearsMean0.010.050.001.776.551.060.110.069.381.796.591.069.54 StandardError0.010.010.000.390.310.100.040.020.550.390.310.100.54 Median0.000.020.001.276.830.930.000.029.281.276.870.939.37 Mode0.000.000.00#N/A#N/A#N/A0.000.00#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A8.63 StandardDeviation0.040.050.011.551.230.390.160.092.201.551.250.402.16 SampleVariance0.000.000.002.401.510.150.030.014.862.401.550.164.65 Kurtosis14.16-0.6716.004.241.280.780.176.49-0.104.191.301.04-0.25 Skewness3.720.954.002.11-1.201.011.272.380.452.09-1.251.080.48 Range0.170.150.045.714.431.400.450.368.145.714.431.447.73 Minimum0.000.000.000.533.720.630.000.005.800.533.720.636.25 Maximum0.170.150.046.238.142.030.450.3613.946.238.142.0613.98 Sum0.210.720.0428.38104.7416.911.710.97150.0428.59105.4616.95152.72 Count16.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.00 AllYearsConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.020.030.010.830.660.210.080.051.170.820.660.211.15 AllYearsMean0.071.450.800.645.451.941.002.328.030.706.902.7411.34 StandardError0.010.160.090.050.240.160.190.200.290.050.310.190.46 Median0.061.250.770.645.511.840.732.347.970.706.712.8411.21 Mode0.001.301.200.70#N/A1.840.272.89#N/A#N/A6.26#N/A#N/A StandardDeviation0.060.630.350.200.960.620.750.791.150.221.250.771.83 SampleVariance0.000.400.120.040.920.390.560.631.310.051.570.603.34 Kurtosis-0.441.24-1.25-0.880.50-0.800.06-0.800.12-0.650.10-1.18-0.25 Skewness0.651.410.260.14-0.760.480.990.29-0.050.380.45-0.380.59 Range0.192.201.070.683.511.962.412.564.550.744.682.376.37 Minimum0.000.760.330.333.261.090.131.235.640.414.811.418.78 Maximum0.192.951.401.016.763.052.543.7910.191.149.493.7915.15 Sum1.1023.1512.8410.1887.2131.0415.9737.09128.4311.27110.3643.88181.48 Count16.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.00 AllYearsConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.030.340.190.100.510.330.400.420.610.110.670.410.97 AllYearsMean0.250.310.131.234.471.220.190.696.921.484.781.357.80 StandardError0.080.060.040.380.610.100.080.090.910.440.610.120.89 Median0.150.220.060.834.621.210.000.786.690.934.751.347.70 Mode0.00#N/A0.00#N/A#N/A1.420.00#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A1.428.05 StandardDeviation0.310.240.171.532.420.390.320.383.621.762.420.473.54 SampleVariance0.100.060.032.345.860.150.100.1413.123.085.870.2212.55 Kurtosis0.78-1.012.316.30-0.61-0.550.70-1.09-0.855.74-0.27-0.80-0.65 Skewness1.300.601.712.400.110.041.46-0.050.242.270.150.340.26 Range0.950.760.585.968.391.430.941.2311.826.838.651.5511.67 Minimum0.000.000.000.040.560.510.000.131.110.040.770.602.14 Maximum0.950.760.586.008.951.940.941.3612.946.889.422.1513.81 Sum4.054.892.0319.6971.5719.523.0710.97110.7823.7476.4621.56124.82 Count16.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.00 AllYearsConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.160.130.090.821.290.210.170.201.930.941.290.251.89MiddlePatchStationsMiddleShallowStations MiddleHardbottomStations Appendix IVe. Descriptive statistics by habitat type, All Years. (continued)

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82DescriptiveStatisticsG.ventalin a-shortG.ventalin amediumG.ventalin a-tall "other octocoral"short "other octocoral"medium "other octocoral"tall Total Scleraxoni a TotalG. ventalinaTotal "other octocoral"TotalShort Total MediumTotalTall Station TotalAll Octocorals AllYearsMean0.020.200.091.105.110.890.770.327.101.135.310.988.19 StandardError0.010.060.040.220.430.100.400.100.540.220.410.100.67 Median0.000.130.000.695.120.810.130.176.380.795.260.927.08 Mode0.000.000.00#N/A#N/A0.510.000.00#N/A#N/A#N/A0.51#N/A StandardDeviation0.040.230.150.891.720.401.580.392.160.891.620.422.69 SampleVariance0.000.050.020.792.950.162.510.154.650.802.640.177.25 Kurtosis1.890.231.132.23-0.770.714.471.33-0.712.04-0.64-0.52-0.70 Skewness1.591.181.551.490.291.042.391.530.791.440.200.500.85 Range0.130.670.433.325.841.394.801.186.323.325.801.397.80 Minimum0.000.000.000.202.560.460.000.004.840.202.600.465.47 Maximum0.130.670.433.528.401.864.801.1811.153.528.401.8613.27 Sum0.403.251.4317.6481.7314.2812.385.07113.6518.0384.9815.71131.11 Count16.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.0016.00 AllYearsConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.020.120.080.470.910.210.840.211.150.480.870.221.44 AllYearsMean0.110.600.241.195.741.190.800.958.121.306.341.449.87 StandardError0.020.080.030.110.240.060.110.110.320.120.280.080.39 Median0.040.270.080.845.681.060.430.557.870.896.261.189.31 Mode0.000.000.000.444.621.420.000.00#N/A0.856.261.428.05 StandardDeviation0.170.810.351.162.590.671.161.143.411.222.980.904.17 SampleVariance0.030.650.121.346.680.451.341.2911.651.498.860.8117.41 Kurtosis8.744.452.155.901.612.685.612.571.305.963.351.672.13 Skewness2.692.101.702.280.761.382.351.730.772.251.211.331.06 Range0.953.901.406.2015.303.845.444.9619.596.8418.984.6225.02 Minimum0.000.000.000.030.560.270.000.001.110.030.770.302.14 Maximum0.953.901.406.2315.854.115.444.9620.706.8819.754.9227.16 Sum12.1667.6727.11133.09642.56133.7689.15106.94909.41145.25710.23160.861105.49 Count112.00112.00112.00112.00112.00112.00112.00112.00112.00112.00112.00112.00112.00 AllYearsConfidenceLevel(95.0%)0.030.150.060.220.480.130.220.210.640.230.560.170.78MiddleDeepStationsAllStations Appendix IVe. Descriptive statistics by habitat type, All Years. (continued)

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83 Appendix V. Coral Reef Monitoring Project (CRMP) percent cover data. YearSiteIDSiteName Octocorallia percentcover Stonycoral percentcover Macroalgae percentcover Seagrass percentcover Porifera percentcover Zoanthidea percentcover Substrate percentcover 1996141LongKey14.8%3.0%18.4%0.0%0.3%0.0%63.5% 1998141LongKey11.5%3.8%9.0%0.1%0.5%0.0%75.1% 1999141LongKey7.9%2.6%16.0%0.1%1.8%0.0%71.5% 2002141LongKey10.1%2.5%4.1%0.0%0.6%0.0%82.6% 1996142LongKey9.1%9.8%36.4%0.0%0.1%0.0%44.6% 1998142LongKey10.6%5.6%8.9%0.1%0.9%0.0%73.9% 1999142LongKey5.1%7.9%17.8%0.0%0.5%0.0%68.7% 2002142LongKey9.2%6.0%7.6%0.0%0.6%0.0%76.6% 1996152MoserChannel6.8%0.9%73.1%0.0%0.6%0.0%18.6% 1998152MoserChannel12.3%0.3%10.7%0.0%0.9%0.0%75.7% 1999152MoserChannel11.0%0.9%28.2%0.0%0.7%0.0%59.2% 2002152MoserChannel7.9%1.1%6.6%0.0%1.4%0.0%83.0% 1996154MoserChannel9.5%1.3%70.1%0.0%0.6%0.0%18.5% 1998154MoserChannel11.1%1.2%6.5%0.0%0.8%0.0%80.5% 1999154MoserChannel8.9%1.7%11.5%0.0%1.3%0.0%76.6% 2002154MoserChannel10.3%0.8%4.3%0.0%1.2%0.0%83.3% 1996302Turtle34.9%6.8%22.0%0.0%1.8%0.9%33.6% 1998302Turtle27.6%5.1%17.7%0.0%2.5%0.6%46.5% 1999302Turtle28.6%3.1%9.9%0.0%1.4%1.2%55.8% 2002302Turtle35.0%5.8%27.4%0.0%2.7%0.7%28.5% 1996322PorterPatch19.3%5.4%9.0%0.1%4.4%0.2%61.7% 1998322PorterPatch16.7%5.7%42.5%0.0%1.9%0.5%32.7% 1999322PorterPatch16.2%4.9%18.4%0.0%2.3%0.2%58.0% 2002322PorterPatch19.9%5.4%19.3%0.3%2.9%0.6%51.7% 1996323PorterPatch10.9%1.8%11.3%0.1%5.3%0.8%69.9% 1998323PorterPatch14.3%1.2%36.9%0.1%2.9%0.6%44.1% 1999323PorterPatch14.3%0.9%19.1%0.3%2.6%0.8%62.0% 2002323PorterPatch16.4%2.1%19.4%1.0%4.0%0.6%56.4% 1996331Admiral21.0%35.3%6.2%0.3%0.0%0.0%37.1% 1998331Admiral17.2%32.4%10.9%0.0%0.3%0.0%39.2% 1999331Admiral17.9%29.0%2.2%0.0%0.3%0.0%50.6% 2002331Admiral16.2%22.7%2.3%0.0%0.1%0.0%58.7% 1996341W.TurtleShoal28.0%11.3%0.1%0.0%7.3%3.1%50.1% 1998341W.TurtleShoal27.2%10.8%4.1%0.0%6.1%2.8%49.0% 1999341W.TurtleShoal21.6%7.4%5.7%0.0%4.9%3.8%56.5% 2002341W.TurtleShoal20.9%10.9%0.5%0.0%7.6%3.8%56.4% 1996343W.TurtleShoal29.9%18.5%3.2%0.0%5.9%2.7%39.8% 1998343W.TurtleShoal27.5%12.6%1.1%0.0%4.8%3.1%50.9% 1999343W.TurtleShoal26.6%10.8%0.5%0.0%8.7%4.0%49.5% 2002343W.TurtleShoal32.7%13.3%2.1%0.0%12.7%4.7%34.4% 1996344W.TurtleShoal31.2%21.1%0.2%0.0%5.0%3.9%38.6% 1998344W.TurtleShoal25.5%22.2%2.0%0.0%6.3%3.1%40.8% 1999344W.TurtleShoal23.9%21.3%5.2%0.0%4.2%4.3%41.2% 2002344W.TurtleShoal23.9%25.3%0.8%0.0%9.4%4.0%36.6% 1996354DustanRocks38.3%20.2%3.8%0.0%2.1%1.6%33.9% 1998354DustanRocks23.7%20.0%31.5%0.0%1.1%0.2%23.5% 1999354DustanRocks25.2%21.0%10.8%0.0%2.0%0.3%40.7% 2002354DustanRocks38.9%22.0%2.3%0.0%2.6%1.0%33.2% 1996503Carysfort(Shallow)20.9%5.2%15.8%0.0%0.7%2.5%54.9% 1998503Carysfort(Shallow)21.2%5.2%9.3%0.0%0.1%2.6%61.7% 1999503Carysfort(Shallow)15.5%3.3%1.7%0.0%0.0%1.6%77.9% 2002503Carysfort(Shallow)21.9%5.2%2.8%0.0%0.2%3.2%66.7% 1996513GrecianRocks11.1%12.3%7.7%0.0%5.2%1.1%62.6% 1998513GrecianRocks13.3%8.0%38.6%0.0%3.7%1.0%35.3% 1999513GrecianRocks12.7%7.0%17.6%0.0%2.0%1.2%59.4% 2002513GrecianRocks11.8%6.6%13.5%0.0%3.4%1.6%63.1%

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84 Appendix V. Coral Reef Monitoring Project (CRMP) percent cover data. (continued) YearSiteIDSiteName Octocorallia percentcover Stonycoral percentcover Macroalgae percentcover Seagrass percentcover Porifera percentcover Zoanthidea percentcover Substrate percentcover 1996531Conch(Shallow)9.0%2.3%2.3%0.0%1.5%0.1%84.7% 1998531Conch(Shallow)7.2%1.2%29.6%0.0%0.2%0.7%61.0% 1999531Conch(Shallow)3.7%1.3%0.5%0.0%0.7%0.6%93.1% 2002531Conch(Shallow)6.1%0.8%10.7%0.0%0.3%0.8%81.3% 1996533Conch(Shallow)8.1%2.1%23.5%0.0%6.4%2.0%57.9% 1998533Conch(Shallow)6.3%0.8%33.0%0.0%0.6%2.7%56.6% 1999533Conch(Shallow)4.4%1.1%32.3%0.0%0.4%2.2%59.6% 2002533Conch(Shallow)4.3%5.7%13.6%0.0%0.3%1.0%75.1% 1996541Alligator(Shallow)17.0%1.2%29.5%0.1%0.2%0.4%51.6% 1998541Alligator(Shallow)19.7%0.8%19.7%0.0%0.6%0.6%58.6% 1999541Alligator(Shallow)11.3%0.3%44.1%0.0%0.6%0.6%43.0% 2002541Alligator(Shallow)12.2%0.5%10.4%0.0%0.8%1.4%74.7% 1996554Tennessee(Shallow)23.6%4.3%5.1%0.1%3.1%0.9%63.0% 1998554Tennessee(Shallow)17.6%3.8%29.9%0.1%3.4%0.8%44.3% 1999554Tennessee(Shallow)11.9%2.5%3.7%0.0%1.3%1.0%79.7% 2002554Tennessee(Shallow)13.4%2.9%1.7%0.0%2.2%1.5%78.3% 1996562Sombrero(Shallow)12.2%12.8%4.7%0.0%0.6%11.2%58.6% 1998562Sombrero(Shallow)9.0%2.5%35.2%0.0%1.7%20.0%31.7% 1999562Sombrero(Shallow)6.5%2.2%6.7%0.0%3.9%22.5%58.2% 2002562Sombrero(Shallow)10.3%1.0%0.1%0.0%2.8%25.4%60.3% 1996563Sombrero(Shallow)16.7%6.6%2.9%0.0%1.4%11.3%61.0% 1998563Sombrero(Shallow)18.7%3.5%6.1%0.0%0.7%13.3%57.7% 1999563Sombrero(Shallow)12.4%3.0%1.8%0.0%2.6%10.5%69.8% 2002563Sombrero(Shallow)20.7%3.8%3.0%0.0%2.6%14.0%56.0% 1996702Carysfort(Deep)7.4%14.7%22.0%0.0%3.8%0.0%52.1% 1998702Carysfort(Deep)9.1%5.7%20.6%0.0%0.5%0.0%64.1% 1999702Carysfort(Deep)6.8%5.2%9.0%0.0%1.1%1.1%76.8% 2002702Carysfort(Deep)16.2%5.6%7.9%0.0%3.4%0.0%66.8% 1996721Molasses(Deep)19.4%4.0%9.8%0.0%6.6%0.2%60.0% 1998721Molasses(Deep)14.4%1.5%22.8%0.0%3.8%0.1%57.4% 1999721Molasses(Deep)11.8%3.0%0.5%0.0%10.1%0.3%74.4% 2002721Molasses(Deep)12.8%2.2%0.4%0.0%7.6%0.4%76.7% 1996722Molasses(Deep)20.5%1.9%11.6%0.0%10.7%0.0%55.3% 1998722Molasses(Deep)12.7%2.4%28.6%0.0%7.2%0.1%49.0% 1999722Molasses(Deep)9.2%1.7%1.0%0.0%6.6%0.0%81.4% 2002722Molasses(Deep)12.7%1.3%11.8%0.0%9.0%0.0%65.3% 1996733Conch(Deep)9.5%6.0%9.5%0.0%4.4%0.0%70.4% 1998733Conch(Deep)6.6%3.5%34.6%0.0%8.3%0.0%47.0% 1999733Conch(Deep)5.7%2.4%7.7%0.0%3.4%0.0%80.8% 2002733Conch(Deep)9.9%2.4%3.0%0.0%4.2%0.0%80.5% 1996743Alligator(Deep)15.9%1.7%1.6%0.0%1.9%0.0%78.8% 1998743Alligator(Deep)16.4%0.8%23.1%0.0%1.0%0.0%58.6% 1999743Alligator(Deep)9.6%0.7%2.2%0.0%1.4%0.0%86.1% 2002743Alligator(Deep)8.5%1.1%0.9%0.0%1.5%0.0%88.0% 1996753Tennessee(Deep)9.8%7.2%5.6%0.0%11.8%0.0%65.6% 1998753Tennessee(Deep)8.3%5.5%49.5%0.0%7.4%0.0%29.3% 1999753Tennessee(Deep)4.1%4.5%29.9%0.0%2.5%0.0%59.0% 2002753Tennessee(Deep)8.0%4.2%5.0%0.0%9.7%0.0%73.1% 1996763Sombrero(Deep)10.2%4.2%7.9%0.1%3.5%2.4%71.8% 1998763Sombrero(Deep)5.9%3.9%45.6%0.0%1.8%0.1%42.7% 1999763Sombrero(Deep)1.9%3.0%17.0%0.0%1.4%0.1%76.7% 2002763Sombrero(Deep)2.4%2.6%2.8%0.0%2.1%0.0%90.1% 1996764Sombrero(Deep)11.4%3.3%7.3%0.0%4.2%0.1%73.6% 1998764Sombrero(Deep)7.4%3.8%62.4%0.0%2.6%0.0%23.7% 1999764Sombrero(Deep)2.4%2.7%33.3%0.0%2.0%0.0%59.6% 2002764Sombrero(Deep)3.0%1.8%1.0%0.0%2.7%0.0%91.4%

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85 1996PercentCoverversusDensityofG.ventalina0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.000.501.001.502.002.503.003.504.00 DensityofG.ventalina%cover G.ventalina-tall G.ventalina-medium G.ventalina-short 1998PercentCoverversusDensityofG.ventalina0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.001.002.003.004.005.00 DensityofG.ventalina%cover G.ventalina-tall G.ventalina-medium G.ventalina-short 1996PercentCoverversusDensityof"other octocoral"0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.002.004.006.008.0010.0012.00 Densityof"otheroctocoral"%cover "otheroctocoral"-tall "otheroctocoral"-medium "otheroctocoral"-short 1998PercentCoverversusDensityof"other octocoral"0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.005.0010.0015.0020.00 Densityof"otheroctocoral"%cover "otheroctocoral"-tall "otheroctocoral"-medium "otheroctocoral"-short Appendix VI. Octocoral percent cover versus video-derived octocoral density

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86Appendix VI. Octocoral percent cover versus video-derived octocoral density. (continued) 1999PercentCoverversusDensityofG.ventalina0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.000.501.001.502.00 DensityofG.ventalina%cover G.ventalina-tall G.ventalina-medium G.ventalina-short 1999PercentCoverversusDensityof"otheroctocoral"0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.30.002.004.006.008.0010.0012.00Densityof"otheroctocoral"%cover "otheroctocoral"-tall "otheroctocoral"-medium "otheroctocoral"-short 2002PercentCoverversusDensityofG.ventalina0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.000.501.001.502.002.503.00 DensityofG.ventalina%cover G.ventalina-tall G.ventalina-medium G.ventalina-short 2002PercentCoverversusDensityof"other octocoral"0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.002.004.006.008.0010.0012.0014.00 Densityof"otheroctocoral"%cover "otheroctocoral"-tall "otheroctocoral"-medium "otheroctocoral"-short

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87 Appendix VII. Results Spearmanrho test for independence. Year BioticCategoryversusPercent Covern=28pairsnormal-zp-valuerhotrimmedrho, trim=.2 trimmedrho,95% confidence upper trimmedrho,95% confidence lower 1996G.ventalina-medium 3.724 0.000 0.7170.7470.8760.519 1996"otheroctocoral"-tall3.378 0.001 0.6500.7210.8620.476 1996G.ventalina-tall 3.296 0.001 0.6350.7160.8590.467 1996TotalAllOctocorallia2.996 0.003 0.5770.7530.8790.528 1996G.ventalina-short 2.389 0.017 0.4600.6890.8450.425 1996"otheroctocoral"-medium2.021 0.043 0.3890.5010.7360.157 1996Scleraxonia1.1060.2690.2130.6840.8420.418 1996"otheroctocoral"-short-0.3630.717-0.0700.2080.539-0.179 1998"otheroctocoral"-tall4.100 0.000 0.7890.7990.9030.606 1998G.ventalina-tall3.342 0.001 0.6430.8090.9080.624 1998G.ventalina-medium 3.284 0.001 0.6320.7170.8600.469 1998TotalAllOctocorallia3.150 0.002 0.6060.4600.7110.105 1998"otheroctocoral"-medium1.6620.0960.3200.1870.524-0.200 1998"otheroctocoral"-short1.1220.2620.2160.3870.6640.017 1998G.ventalina-short 0.9310.3520.1790.1310.481-0.255 1998Scleraxonia0.7050.4810.1360.3520.641-0.025 1999"otheroctocoral"-tall4.401 0.000 0.8470.8520.9300.702 1999G.ventalina-medium 3.949 0.000 0.7600.7710.8890.559 1999G.ventalina-tall3.355 0.001 0.6460.7530.8790.528 1999TotalAllOctocorallia3.144 0.002 0.6050.7490.8770.521 1999Scleraxonia2.185 0.029 0.4210.6980.8500.439 1999"otheroctocoral"-medium2.034 0.042 0.3920.4210.6860.057 1999G.ventalina-short 1.4740.1400.2840.5480.7650.220 1999"otheroctocoral"-short1.2410.2140.2390.5340.7560.201 2002G.ventalina-tall 4.109 0.000 0.7910.7740.8900.563 2002G.ventalina-medium 4.097 0.000 0.7890.7910.8990.593 2002"otheroctocoral"-tall3.733 0.000 0.7190.6990.8500.440 2002Scleraxonia2.713 0.007 0.5220.6870.8440.421 2002TotalAllOctocorallia2.427 0.015 0.4670.4860.7270.138 2002"otheroctocoral"-medium1.5170.1290.2920.2720.585-0.113 2002G.ventalina-short 1.4950.1350.2880.6970.8490.438 2002"otheroctocoral"-short-2.115 0.035 -0.407-0.389-0.019-0.666 AllYears"otheroctocoral"-talln=1127.832 0.000 0.7430.8150.8690.742 AllYearsG.ventalina-mediumn=112 7.564 0.000 0.7180.7720.8380.685 AllYearsG.ventalina-talln=112 7.193 0.000 0.6830.7560.8260.664 AllYearsTotalAllOctocorallia5.864 0.000 0.5570.6010.7080.468 AllYearsScleraxonian=1123.563 0.000 0.3380.6990.7830.590 AllYears"otheroctocoral"-mediumn=1123.502 0.001 0.3320.2250.3940.042 AllYearsG.ventalina-shortn=112 2.699 0.007 0.2560.4930.6220.339 AllYears"otheroctocoral"-shortn=112-0.4170.677-0.0400.2430.4100.060

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88APPENDIX VIIa BIOENV for all years. Spearman Method BIOENV Biota and/or Environment matching Worksheet File: C:\Files\Matt Lybolt\USF_thesis_primerall _density.pri Sample selection: All Variable selection: 1-7 Similarity Matrix File: Sheet1 Data type: Similarities Sample selection: All Parameters Rank correlation method: Spearman Maximum number of variables: 7 Similarity Matrix Parameters for sample data worksheet: Analyse between: Samples Similarity measure: Bray Curtis Standardise: No Transform: None Variables 1 G.ventalina short 2 G.ventalina medium 3 G.ventalina tall 4 other octocoral short 5 other octocoral medium 6 other octocoral tall 7 Scleraxonia Number of variables: 1 No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.401 6 1 0.219 2 1 0.136 3 1 0.055 5 1 0.028 1 1 0.006 7 1 -0.041 4 Number of variables: 2 No. Vars Corr. Selections 2 0.528 2,6 2 0.490 3,6 2 0.391 1,6 2 0.320 6,7 2 0.229 2,3 2 0.226 4,6 2 0.211 2,4 2 0.200 1,2 2 0.160 5,6 2 0.153 2,7 2 0.151 2,5 2 0.137 1,3 2 0.120 3,4 2 0.111 3,5 2 0.066 3,7 2 0.063 5,7 2 0.055 1,5 2 0.041 4,5 2 0.026 4,7 2 0.025 1,7 2 -0.036 1,4 Number of variables: 3 No. Vars Corr. Selections 3 0.534 2,3,6 3 0.515 1,2,6 3 0.477 1,3,6 3 0.397 2,6,7 3 0.370 3,6,7 3 0.358 2,4,6 3 0.309 1,6,7 3 0.301 3,4,6 3 0.257 2-4 3 0.237 2,5,6 3 0.225 1,4,6 3 0.212 1-3 3 0.207 1,2,4 3 0.203 4,6,7 3 0.201 3,5,6 3 0.187 2,3,5 3 0.169 2,3,7 3 0.166 2,4,7 3 0.158 1,5,6 3 0.154 5-7 3 0.149 1,2,5 3 0.147 1,2,7 3 0.140 2,5,7 3 0.131 4-6 3 0.124 2,4,5 3 0.118 1,3,4 3 0.109 1,3,5 3 0.109 3,4,7 3 0.106 3,5,7 3 0.086 3-5 3 0.076 1,3,7 3 0.062 1,5,7 3 0.050 4,5,7 3 0.040 1,4,5 3 0.026 1,4,7 Number of variables: 4 No. Vars Corr. Selections 4 0.525 1-3,6 4 0.413 2,3,6,7 4 0.388 1,2,6,7 4 0.386 2-4,6 4 0.360 1,3,6,7 4 0.355 1,2,4,6 4 0.299 1,3,4,6 4 0.296 2,4,6,7 4 0.264 2,3,5,6 4 0.255 3,4,6,7 4 0.254 1-4 4 0.235 1,2,5,6 4 0.220 2,5-7 4 0.202 2,4-6 4 0.202 2-4,7 4 0.202 1,4,6,7 4 0.199 1,3,5,6 4 0.190 3,5-7 4 0.185 1-3,5 4 0.172 2,3,5,7 4 0.169 3-6 4 0.164 1,2,4,7 4 0.163 1-3,7 4 0.157 2-5 4 0.153 1,5-7 4 0.139 1,2,5,7 4 0.132 4-7 4 0.130 1,4-6 4 0.122 1,2,4,5 4 0.121 2,4,5,7 4 0.108 1,3,4,7 4 0.105 1,3,5,7 4 0.088 3-5,7 4 0.085 1,3-5 4 0.049 1,4,5,7 Number of variables: 5 No. Vars Corr. Selections 5 0.406 1-3,6,7 5 0.383 1-4,6 5 0.322 2-4,6,7 5 0.293 1,2,4,6,7 5 0.262 1-3,5,6 5 0.253 1,3,4,6,7 5 0.247 2,3,5-7 5 0.230 2-6 5 0.219 1,2,5-7 5 0.201 1,2,4-6 5 0.200 1-4,7 5 0.195 2,4-7 5 0.189 1,3,5-7 5 0.172 1-3,5,7 5 0.167 1,3-6 5 0.165 3-7 5 0.156 1-5 5 0.152 2-5,7 5 0.131 1,4-7 5 0.120 1,2,4,5,7 5 0.087 1,3-5,7 Number of variables: 6 No. Vars Corr. Selections 6 0.320 1-4,6,7 6 0.246 1-3,5-7 6 0.228 1-6 6 0.221 2-7 6 0.193 1,2,4-7 6 0.164 1,3-7 6 0.150 1-5,7 Number of variables: 7 No. Vars Corr. Selections 7 0.219 All Best results No. Vars Corr. Selections 3 0.534 2,3,6 2 0.528 2,6 4 0.525 1-3,6 3 0.515 1,2,6 2 0.490 3,6 3 0.477 1,3,6 4 0.413 2,3,6,7 5 0.406 1-3,6,7 1 0.401 6 3 0.397 2,6,7Appendix VIIIa. BIOENV-Spearman

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89BIOENV for 1996. Spearman Method BIOENV Biota and/or Environment matching Worksheet File: C:\Files\Matt Lybolt\USF_thesis_primerall_ density.pri Sample selection: 1,5,9,13,17,21,25,29,33, 37,41,45,49,53,57,61,65,6 9,73,77,81,85,89,93,97,101,105,109 Variable selection: 1-7 Similarity Matrix File: Sheet1 Data type: Similarities Sample selection: 1,5,9,13,17,21,25,29,3 3,37,41,45,49,53,57,61,65,69,73,77 ,81,85,89,93,97,101,105,109 Parameters Rank correlation method: Spearman Maximum number of variables: 7 Similarity Matrix Parameters for sample data worksheet: Analyse between: Samples Similarity measure: Bray Curtis Standardise: No Transform: None Variables 1 G.ventalina short 2 G.ventalina medium 3 G.ventalina tall 4 other octocoral short 5 other octocoral medium 6 other octocoral tall 7 Scleraxonia Number of variables: 1 No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.262 6 1 0.226 2 1 0.033 3 1 0.014 5 1 -0.020 1 1 -0.072 7 1 -0.117 4 Number of variables: 2 No. Vars Corr. Selections 2 0.462 2,6 2 0.333 3,6 2 0.277 1,6 2 0.236 2,4 2 0.227 1,2 2 0.207 2,3 2 0.167 4,6 2 0.139 6,7 2 0.111 2,5 2 0.076 5,6 2 0.075 1,3 2 0.044 3,4 2 0.044 3,5 2 0.035 2,7 2 0.015 1,5 2 0.000 4,5 2 0.000 5,7 2 -0.059 3,7 2 -0.067 1,7 2 -0.084 4,7 2 -0.098 1,4 Number of variables: 3 No. Vars Corr. Selections 3 0.464 1,2,6 3 0.456 2,3,6 3 0.366 2,4,6 3 0.344 1,3,6 3 0.247 2-4 3 0.234 1,2,4 3 0.232 3,4,6 3 0.232 2,6,7 3 0.207 1-3 3 0.178 1,4,6 3 0.164 2,5,6 3 0.155 3,6,7 3 0.146 1,6,7 3 0.134 2,3,5 3 0.111 1,2,5 3 0.102 3,5,6 3 0.088 2,4,5 3 0.078 2,5,7 3 0.076 1,5,6 3 0.069 4,6,7 3 0.060 4-6 3 0.056 1,3,4 3 0.052 5-7 3 0.046 1,3,5 3 0.045 2,4,7 3 0.041 2,3,7 3 0.039 1,2,7 3 0.022 3-5 3 0.021 3,5,7 3 0.001 1,4,5 3 0.001 1,5,7 3 -0.012 4,5,7 3 -0.047 3,4,7 3 -0.050 1,3,7 3 -0.080 1,4,7 Number of variables: 4 No. Vars Corr. Selections 4 0.458 1-3,6 4 0.368 2-4,6 4 0.365 1,2,4,6 4 0.246 1-4 4 0.238 1,3,4,6 4 0.236 2,3,6,7 4 0.236 1,2,6,7 4 0.179 2,3,5,6 4 0.179 2,4,6,7 4 0.165 1,2,5,6 4 0.158 1,3,6,7 4 0.146 2,4-6 4 0.133 1-3,5 4 0.126 2,5-7 4 0.112 2-5 4 0.102 1,3,5,6 4 0.098 3,4,6,7 4 0.094 2,3,5,7 4 0.088 1,2,4,5 4 0.079 3-6 4 0.079 1,2,5,7 4 0.071 3,5-7 4 0.070 1,4,6,7 4 0.061 1,4-6 4 0.061 2,4,5,7 4 0.058 2-4,7 4 0.053 1,5-7 4 0.048 1-3,7 4 0.047 1,2,4,7 4 0.034 4-7 4 0.023 1,3-5 4 0.021 1,3,5,7 4 0.005 3-5,7 4 -0.011 1,4,5,7 4 -0.044 1,3,4,7 Number of variables: 5 No. Vars Corr. Selections 5 0.368 1-4,6 5 0.240 1-3,6,7 5 0.188 2-4,6,7 5 0.180 1,2,4,6,7 5 0.179 1-3,5,6 5 0.160 2-6 5 0.146 1,2,4-6 5 0.143 2,3,5-7 5 0.127 1,2,5-7 5 0.112 1-5 5 0.107 2,4-7 5 0.099 1,3,4,6,7 5 0.094 1-3,5,7 5 0.081 1,3-6 5 0.079 2-5,7 5 0.073 1,3,5-7 5 0.062 1,2,4,5,7 5 0.059 1-4,7 5 0.054 3-7 5 0.037 1,4-7 5 0.005 1,3-5,7 Number of variables: 6 No. Vars Corr. Selections 6 0.189 1-4,6,7 6 0.161 1-6 6 0.144 1-3,5-7 6 0.123 2-7 6 0.107 1,2,4-7 6 0.079 1-5,7 6 0.056 1,3-7 Number of variables: 7 No. Vars Corr. Selections 7 0.122 All Best results No. Vars Corr. Selections 3 0.464 1,2,6 2 0.462 2,6 4 0.458 1-3,6 3 0.456 2,3,6 5 0.368 1-4,6 4 0.368 2-4,6 3 0.366 2,4,6 4 0.365 1,2,4,6 3 0.344 1,3,6 2 0.333 3,6Appendix VIIIa. BIOENV-Spearman (continued)

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90BIOENV for 1998. Spearman Method BIOENV Biota and/or Environment matching Worksheet File: C:\Files\Matt Lybolt\USF_thesis_primerall_d ensity.pri Sample selection: 2,6,10,14,18,22,26,30,34 ,38,42,46,50,54,58,62,66,70,74 ,78,82,86,90,94,98,102,106,110 Variable selection: 1-7 Similarity Matrix File: Sheet1 Data type: Similarities Sample selection: 2,6,10,14,18,22,26,30,34,38,42 ,46,50,54,58,62,66,70,74,78,8 2,86,90,94,98,102,106,110 Parameters Rank correlation method: Spearman Maximum number of variables: 7 Similarity Matrix Parameters for sample data worksheet: Analyse between: Samples Similarity measure: Bray Curtis Standardise: No Transform: None Variables 1 G.ventalina short 2 G.ventalina medium 3 G.ventalina tall 4 other octocoral short 5 other octocoral medium 6 other octocoral tall 7 Scleraxonia Number of variables: 1 No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.530 6 1 0.157 5 1 0.107 3 1 0.076 2 1 0.015 4 1 -0.002 1 1 -0.073 7 Number of variables: 2 No. Vars Corr. Selections 2 0.621 3,6 2 0.564 2,6 2 0.534 1,6 2 0.460 6,7 2 0.449 4,6 2 0.279 5,6 2 0.268 3,4 2 0.258 2,4 2 0.219 3,5 2 0.216 2,5 2 0.159 5,7 2 0.156 1,5 2 0.135 4,5 2 0.099 3,7 2 0.095 2,3 2 0.094 1,3 2 0.085 1,2 2 0.079 2,7 2 0.018 1,4 2 0.015 4,7 2 -0.076 1,7 Number of variables: 3 No. Vars Corr. Selections 3 0.617 1,3,6 3 0.583 2,3,6 3 0.557 1,2,6 3 0.535 3,4,6 3 0.524 3,6,7 3 0.514 2,4,6 3 0.474 2,6,7 3 0.458 1,6,7 3 0.443 1,4,6 3 0.376 4,6,7 3 0.334 2-4 3 0.327 3,5,6 3 0.322 2,5,6 3 0.277 1,5,6 3 0.267 5-7 3 0.263 1,3,4 3 0.259 2,3,5 3 0.259 4-6 3 0.253 1,2,4 3 0.216 1,3,5 3 0.214 1,2,5 3 0.209 3,5,7 3 0.208 2,5,7 3 0.198 2,4,5 3 0.194 3,4,7 3 0.193 3-5 3 0.184 2,4,7 3 0.157 1,5,7 3 0.138 4,5,7 3 0.135 1,4,5 3 0.124 2,3,7 3 0.106 1-3 3 0.095 1,3,7 3 0.076 1,2,7 3 0.011 1,4,7 Number of variables: 4 No. Vars Corr. Selections 4 0.578 1-3,6 4 0.553 2-4,6 4 0.531 1,3,4,6 4 0.520 1,3,6,7 4 0.507 1,2,4,6 4 0.500 2,3,6,7 4 0.471 1,2,6,7 4 0.448 3,4,6,7 4 0.420 2,4,6,7 4 0.371 1,4,6,7 4 0.356 2,3,5,6 4 0.332 1-4 4 0.321 1,3,5,6 4 0.320 1,2,5,6 4 0.304 3,5-7 4 0.304 2,4-6 4 0.302 3-6 4 0.301 2,5-7 4 0.265 1,5-7 4 0.264 2-4,7 4 0.257 1-3,5 4 0.257 1,4-6 4 0.247 4-7 4 0.245 2,3,5,7 4 0.240 2-5 4 0.205 1,2,5,7 4 0.205 1,3,5,7 4 0.195 1,2,4,5 4 0.192 1,3-5 4 0.187 1,3,4,7 4 0.187 2,4,5,7 4 0.186 3-5,7 4 0.183 1,2,4,7 4 0.138 1,4,5,7 4 0.126 1-3,7 Number of variables: 5 No. Vars Corr. Selections 5 0.548 1-4,6 5 0.500 1-3,6,7 5 0.463 2-4,6,7 5 0.445 1,3,4,6,7 5 0.418 1,2,4,6,7 5 0.352 1-3,5,6 5 0.334 2,3,5-7 5 0.333 2-6 5 0.301 1,3,5-7 5 0.301 1,2,4-6 5 0.299 1,3-6 5 0.297 1,2,5-7 5 0.285 3-7 5 0.283 2,4-7 5 0.262 1-4,7 5 0.246 1,4-7 5 0.244 1-3,5,7 5 0.238 1-5 5 0.226 2-5,7 5 0.187 1,2,4,5,7 5 0.184 1,3-5,7 Number of variables: 6 No. Vars Corr. Selections 6 0.460 1-4,6,7 6 0.332 1-6 6 0.331 1-3,5-7 6 0.314 2-7 6 0.282 1,3-7 6 0.280 1,2,4-7 6 0.224 1-5,7 Number of variables: 7 No. Vars Corr. Selections 7 0.312 All Best results No. Vars Corr. Selections 2 0.621 3,6 3 0.617 1,3,6 3 0.583 2,3,6 4 0.578 1-3,6 2 0.564 2,6 3 0.557 1,2,6 4 0.553 2-4,6 5 0.548 1-4,6 3 0.535 3,4,6 2 0.534 1,6Appendix VIIIa. BIOENV-Spearman (continued)

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91BIOENV for 1999. Spearman Method BIOENV Biota and/or Environment matching Worksheet File: C:\Files\Matt Lybolt\USF_thesis_primerall _density.pri Sample selection: 3,7,11,15,19,23,27,31,35,39 ,43,47,51,55,59,63,67,71,75,7 9,83,87,91,95,99,103,107,111 Variable selection: 1-7 Similarity Matrix File: Sheet1 Data type: Similarities Sample selection: 3,7,11,15,19,23,27,31,3 5,39,43,47,51,55,59,63,67,71,75,7 9,83,87,91,95,99,103,107,111 Parameters Rank correlation method: Spearman Maximum number of variables: 7 Similarity Matrix Parameters for sample data worksheet: Analyse between: Samples Similarity measure: Bray Curtis Standardise: No Transform: None Variables 1 G.ventalina short 2 G.ventalina medium 3 G.ventalina tall 4 other octocoral short 5 other octocoral medium 6 other octocoral tall 7 Scleraxonia Number of variables: 1 No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.514 6 1 0.318 2 1 0.208 5 1 0.201 1 1 0.121 4 1 0.102 3 1 0.010 7 Number of variables: 2 No. Vars Corr. Selections 2 0.591 3,6 2 0.584 2,6 2 0.426 4,6 2 0.424 1,6 2 0.404 6,7 2 0.389 2,4 2 0.319 5,6 2 0.308 2,3 2 0.301 2,5 2 0.292 3,4 2 0.269 1,2 2 0.260 3,5 2 0.244 4,7 2 0.211 5,7 2 0.197 4,5 2 0.193 2,7 2 0.192 1,5 2 0.178 1,3 2 0.130 1,7 2 0.085 1,4 2 0.037 3,7 Number of variables: 3 No. Vars Corr. Selections 3 0.584 2,3,6 3 0.555 2,4,6 3 0.526 1,2,6 3 0.509 3,4,6 3 0.497 1,3,6 3 0.429 2,6,7 3 0.429 3,6,7 3 0.427 2-4 3 0.392 2,5,6 3 0.377 4,6,7 3 0.367 1,4,6 3 0.362 3,5,6 3 0.356 1,6,7 3 0.347 1,2,4 3 0.337 2,4,7 3 0.333 2,3,5 3 0.302 1,5,6 3 0.299 3,4,7 3 0.298 4-6 3 0.296 5-7 3 0.285 2,4,5 3 0.282 1,2,5 3 0.275 2,5,7 3 0.267 1-3 3 0.246 3,5,7 3 0.243 3-5 3 0.240 1,3,4 3 0.239 1,3,5 3 0.209 1,4,7 3 0.199 4,5,7 3 0.195 1,5,7 3 0.183 2,3,7 3 0.182 1,2,7 3 0.179 1,4,5 3 0.103 1,3,7 Number of variables: 4 No. Vars Corr. Selections 4 0.565 2-4,6 4 0.533 1-3,6 4 0.515 1,2,4,6 4 0.454 1,3,4,6 4 0.430 2,3,6,7 4 0.428 2,4,6,7 4 0.419 2,3,5,6 4 0.409 3,4,6,7 4 0.401 1,2,6,7 4 0.398 1-4 4 0.385 1,3,6,7 4 0.372 2,4-6 4 0.371 1,2,5,6 4 0.354 2-4,7 4 0.352 2,5-7 4 0.340 1,3,5,6 4 0.337 3-6 4 0.336 1,4,6,7 4 0.327 3,5-7 4 0.316 1,2,4,7 4 0.313 2-5 4 0.311 1-3,5 4 0.301 2,3,5,7 4 0.283 1,5-7 4 0.279 1,4-6 4 0.279 4-7 4 0.270 1,3,4,7 4 0.264 2,4,5,7 4 0.263 1,2,4,5 4 0.261 1,2,5,7 4 0.234 3-5,7 4 0.230 1,3,5,7 4 0.224 1,3-5 4 0.185 1,4,5,7 4 0.176 1-3,7 Number of variables: 5 No. Vars Corr. Selections 5 0.534 1-4,6 5 0.437 2-4,6,7 5 0.409 1-3,6,7 5 0.408 1,2,4,6,7 5 0.397 2-6 5 0.397 1-3,5,6 5 0.377 1,3,4,6,7 5 0.372 2,3,5-7 5 0.353 1,2,4-6 5 0.340 1-4,7 5 0.338 1,2,5-7 5 0.334 2,4-7 5 0.318 1,3-6 5 0.311 1,3,5-7 5 0.306 3-7 5 0.293 1-5 5 0.289 2-5,7 5 0.283 1-3,5,7 5 0.266 1,4-7 5 0.248 1,2,4,5,7 5 0.218 1,3-5,7 Number of variables: 6 No. Vars Corr. Selections 6 0.421 1-4,6,7 6 0.380 1-6 6 0.359 1-3,5-7 6 0.356 2-7 6 0.323 1,2,4-7 6 0.295 1,3-7 6 0.273 1-5,7 Number of variables: 7 No. Vars Corr. Selections 7 0.344 All Best results No. Vars Corr. Selections 2 0.591 3,6 2 0.584 2,6 3 0.584 2,3,6 4 0.565 2-4,6 3 0.555 2,4,6 5 0.534 1-4,6 4 0.533 1-3,6 3 0.526 1,2,6 4 0.515 1,2,4,6 1 0.514 6Appendix VIIIa. BIOENV-Spearman (continued)

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92BIOENV for 2002. Spearman Method BIOENV Biota and/or Environment matching Worksheet File: C:\Files\Matt Lybolt\USF_thesis_primerall _density.pri Sample selection: 4,8,12,16,20,24,28,32,36,40 ,44,48,52,56,60,64,68,72,76,80 ,84,88,92,96,100,104,108,112 Variable selection: 1-7 Similarity Matrix File: Sheet1 Data type: Similarities Sample selection: 4,8,12,16,20,24,28,32,36,40,4 4,48,52,56,60,64,68,72,76, 80,84,88,92,96,100,104,108,112 Parameters Rank correlation method: Spearman Maximum number of variables: 7 Similarity Matrix Parameters for sample data worksheet: Analyse between: Samples Similarity measure: Bray Curtis Standardise: No Transform: None Variables 1 G.ventalina short 2 G.ventalina medium 3 G.ventalina tall 4 other octocoral short 5 other octocoral medium 6 other octocoral tall 7 Scleraxonia Number of variables: 1 No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.415 6 1 0.294 2 1 0.256 3 1 0.077 5 1 0.012 4 1 -0.016 1 1 -0.034 7 Number of variables: 2 No. Vars Corr. Selections 2 0.567 2,6 2 0.530 3,6 2 0.379 1,6 2 0.323 2,3 2 0.277 6,7 2 0.211 2,5 2 0.197 5,6 2 0.189 1,2 2 0.176 2,4 2 0.167 4,6 2 0.166 3,5 2 0.143 2,7 2 0.136 1,3 2 0.111 3,4 2 0.101 4,5 2 0.085 1,5 2 0.084 5,7 2 0.037 3,7 2 0.016 1,4 2 0.008 4,7 2 -0.061 1,7 Number of variables: 3 No. Vars Corr. Selections 3 0.577 2,3,6 3 0.542 1,2,6 3 0.506 1,3,6 3 0.420 2,6,7 3 0.369 3,6,7 3 0.302 2,5,6 3 0.292 2,4,6 3 0.272 2,3,5 3 0.266 3,5,6 3 0.243 3,4,6 3 0.240 1-3 3 0.236 1,6,7 3 0.222 2-4 3 0.216 1,2,5 3 0.199 1,5,6 3 0.197 2,4,5 3 0.197 2,5,7 3 0.186 4-6 3 0.176 5-7 3 0.171 1,3,5 3 0.170 1,2,4 3 0.164 2,3,7 3 0.162 3-5 3 0.162 1,4,6 3 0.155 3,5,7 3 0.138 2,4,7 3 0.123 4,6,7 3 0.106 1,3,4 3 0.103 1,4,5 3 0.103 1,2,7 3 0.094 4,5,7 3 0.086 1,5,7 3 0.077 3,4,7 3 0.008 1,4,7 3 0.004 1,3,7 Number of variables: 4 No. Vars Corr. Selections 4 0.561 1-3,6 4 0.454 2,3,6,7 4 0.387 1,2,6,7 4 0.352 2,3,5,6 4 0.332 1,3,6,7 4 0.330 2-4,6 4 0.305 1,2,5,6 4 0.287 1,2,4,6 4 0.278 2,5-7 4 0.276 1-3,5 4 0.271 2,4-6 4 0.269 1,3,5,6 4 0.252 2,3,5,7 4 0.247 2-5 4 0.243 3-6 4 0.240 3,5-7 4 0.240 1,3,4,6 4 0.237 2,4,6,7 4 0.214 1-4 4 0.200 1,2,4,5 4 0.197 1,2,5,7 4 0.189 3,4,6,7 4 0.187 1,4-6 4 0.184 2,4,5,7 4 0.182 1,5-7 4 0.179 2-4,7 4 0.170 4-7 4 0.165 1,3-5 4 0.156 1,3,5,7 4 0.151 3-5,7 4 0.134 1,2,4,7 4 0.130 1-3,7 4 0.118 1,4,6,7 4 0.095 1,4,5,7 4 0.075 1,3,4,7 Number of variables: 5 No. Vars Corr. Selections 5 0.425 1-3,6,7 5 0.354 1-3,5,6 5 0.325 1-4,6 5 0.325 2,3,5-7 5 0.314 2-6 5 0.279 1,2,5-7 5 0.277 2-4,6,7 5 0.272 1,2,4-6 5 0.254 1-3,5,7 5 0.252 2,4-7 5 0.249 1-5 5 0.243 1,3,5-7 5 0.242 1,3-6 5 0.231 1,2,4,6,7 5 0.230 2-5,7 5 0.220 3-7 5 0.186 1,2,4,5,7 5 0.184 1,3,4,6,7 5 0.174 1-4,7 5 0.170 1,4-7 5 0.152 1,3-5,7 Number of variables: 6 No. Vars Corr. Selections 6 0.325 1-3,5-7 6 0.312 1-6 6 0.292 2-7 6 0.271 1-4,6,7 6 0.252 1,2,4-7 6 0.232 1-5,7 6 0.221 1,3-7 Number of variables: 7 No. Vars Corr. Selections 7 0.290 All Best results No. Vars Corr. Selections 3 0.577 2,3,6 2 0.567 2,6 4 0.561 1-3,6 3 0.542 1,2,6 2 0.530 3,6 3 0.506 1,3,6 4 0.454 2,3,6,7 5 0.425 1-3,6,7 3 0.420 2,6,7 1 0.415 6Appendix VIIIa. BIOENV-Spearman (continued)

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93BIOENV Summary of best ten results. Spearman Method Variables 1 G.ventalina short 2 G.ventalina med 3 G.ventalina tall 4 other octocoral short 5 other octocoral med 6 other octocoral tall 7 Scleraxonia BIOENV for All Years. Best results Spearman Method No. Vars Corr.Selections 3 0.534 2,3,6 2 0.528 2,6 4 0.525 1-3,6 3 0.515 1,2,6 2 0.490 3,6 3 0.477 1,3,6 4 0.413 2,3,6,7 5 0.406 1-3,6,7 1 0.401 6 40.397 2,6,7 BIOENV for 1996. Best results Spearman Method No. Vars Corr. Selections 3 0.464 1,2,6 2 0.462 2,6 4 0.458 1-3,6 3 0.456 2,3,6 5 0.368 1-4,6 4 0.368 2-4,6 3 0.366 2,4,6 4 0.365 1,2,4,6 3 0.344 1,3,6 30.333 3,6 BIOENV for 1998. Best results Spearman Method No. Vars Corr. Selections 2 0.621 3,6 3 0.617 1,3,6 3 0.583 2,3,6 4 0.578 1-3,6 2 0.564 2,6 3 0.557 1,2,6 4 0.553 2-4,6 5 0.548 1-4,6 3 0.535 3,4,6 2 0.534 1,6 BIOENV for 1999. Best results Spearman Method No. Vars Corr. Selections 2 0.591 3,6 2 0.584 2,6 3 0.584 2,3,6 4 0.565 2-4,6 3 0.555 2,4,6 5 0.534 1-4,6 4 0.533 1-3,6 3 0.526 1,2,6 4 0.515 1,2,4,6 1 0.514 6 BIOENV for 2002. Best results Spearman Method No. Vars Corr. Selections 3 0.577 2,3,6 2 0.567 2,6 4 0.561 1-3,6 3 0.542 1,2,6 2 0.530 3,6 3 0.506 1,3,6 4 0.454 2,3,6,7 5 0.425 1-3,6,7 3 0.420 2,6,7 1 0.415 6Appendix VIIIa. BIOENV-Spearman (continued)

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94 BIOENV Single Variable Correlation With Percent Cover Results. Spearman Method Variables 1 G.ventalina short 2 G.ventalina med 3 G.ventalina tall 4 other octocoral short 5 other octocoral med 6 other octocoral tall 7 Scleraxonia BIOENV for All Years. Single Variable Results Spearman Method No. Vars Corr.Selections 1 0.401 6 1 0.219 2 1 0.136 3 1 0.055 5 1 0.028 1 1 0.006 7 1 -0.041 4 BIOENV for 1996. Single Variable Results Spearman Method No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.262 6 1 0.226 2 1 0.033 3 1 0.014 5 1 -0.020 1 1 -0.072 7 1 -0.117 4 BIOENV for 1998. Single Variable Results Spearman Method No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.530 6 1 0.157 5 1 0.107 3 1 0.076 2 1 0.015 4 1 -0.002 1 1 -0.073 7 BIOENV for 1999. Single Variable Results Spearman Method No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.514 6 1 0.318 2 1 0.208 5 1 0.201 1 1 0.121 4 1 0.102 3 1 0.010 7 BIOENV for 2002. Single Variable Results Spearman Method No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.415 6 1 0.294 2 1 0.256 3 1 0.077 5 1 0.012 4 1 -0.016 1 1 -0.034 7Appendix VIIIa. BIOENV-Spearman (continued)

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95BIOENV Biota and/or Environment matching Worksheet File: C:\Files\Matt Lybolt\USF_thesis_primerall_density.pri Parameters Rank correlation method: Spearman Maximum number of variables: 8 Similarity Matrix Parameters for sample data worksheet: Analyse between: Samples Similarity measure: Bray Curtis Standardise: No Transform: None Variables 1 G.ventalina short 2 G.ventalina medium 3 G.ventalina tall 4 other octocoral short 5 other octocoral medium 6 other octocoral tall 7 Scleraxonia 8 Total All Octocorals Number of variables: 1 1996 Spearman method No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.262 6 1 0.226 2 1 0.128 8 1 0.033 3 1 0.014 5 1 -0.020 1 1 -0.072 7 1 -0.117 4 1998 Spearman method No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.530 6 1 0.244 8 1 0.157 5 1 0.107 3 1 0.076 2 1 0.015 4 1 -0.002 1 1 -0.073 7 1999 Spearman method No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.514 6 1 0.334 8 1 0.318 2 1 0.208 5 1 0.201 1 1 0.121 4 1 0.102 3 1 0.010 7 2002 Spearman method No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.415 6 1 0.294 2 1 0.256 3 1 0.135 8 1 0.077 5 1 0.012 4 1 -0.016 1 1 -0.034 7 All Years Spearman method No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.401 6 1 0.219 2 1 0.180 8 1 0.136 3 1 0.055 5 1 0.028 1 1 0.006 7 1 -0.041 4Appendix VIIIa. BIOENV-Spearman (continued)

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96APPENDIX VIIIb BIOENV for All Years. Kendall Method BIOENV Biota and/or Environment matching Worksheet File: C:\Files\Matt Lybolt\USF_thesis_primerall_density.pri Sample selection: All Variable selection: 1-7 Similarity Matrix File: Sheet1 Data type: Similarities Sample selection: All Parameters Rank correlation method: Kendall Maximum number of variables: 7 Similarity Matrix Parameters for sample data worksheet: Analyse between: Samples Similarity measure: Bray Curtis Standardise: No Transform: None Variables 1 G.ventalina short 2 G.ventalina medium 3 G.ventalina tall 4 other octocoral short 5 other octocoral medium 6 other octocoral tall 7 Scleraxonia Number of variables: 1 No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.272 6 1 0.152 2 1 0.102 3 1 0.037 5 1 0.020 1 1 0.005 7 1 -0.027 4 Number of variables: 2 No. Vars Corr. Selections 2 0.366 2,6 2 0.338 3,6 2 0.265 1,6 2 0.221 6,7 2 0.158 2,3 2 0.151 4,6 2 0.141 2,4 2 0.137 1,2 2 0.107 5,6 2 0.104 2,7 2 0.102 2,5 2 0.099 1,3 2 0.080 3,4 2 0.075 3,5 2 0.046 3,7 2 0.042 5,7 2 0.037 1,5 2 0.027 4,5 2 0.017 1,7 2 0.017 4,7 2 -0.024 1,4 Number of variables: 3 No. Vars Corr. Selections 3 0.371 2,3,6 3 0.356 1,2,6 3 0.328 1,3,6 3 0.274 2,6,7 3 0.256 3,6,7 3 0.243 2,4,6 3 0.213 1,6,7 3 0.203 3,4,6 3 0.172 2-4 3 0.161 2,5,6 3 0.150 1,4,6 3 0.145 1-3 3 0.138 1,2,4 3 0.137 4,6,7 3 0.136 3,5,6 3 0.126 2,3,5 3 0.114 2,3,7 3 0.111 2,4,7 3 0.106 1,5,6 3 0.104 5-7 3 0.100 1,2,5 3 0.099 1,2,7 3 0.094 2,5,7 3 0.088 4-6 3 0.083 2,4,5 3 0.078 1,3,4 3 0.074 1,3,5 3 0.073 3,4,7 3 0.071 3,5,7 3 0.058 3-5 3 0.053 1,3,7 3 0.042 1,5,7 3 0.033 4,5,7 3 0.027 1,4,5 3 0.017 1,4,7 Number of variables: 4 No. Vars Corr. Selections 4 0.364 1-3,6 4 0.285 2,3,6,7 4 0.267 1,2,6,7 4 0.263 2-4,6 4 0.249 1,3,6,7 4 0.241 1,2,4,6 4 0.202 1,3,4,6 4 0.201 2,4,6,7 4 0.180 2,3,5,6 4 0.173 3,4,6,7 4 0.170 1-4 4 0.159 1,2,5,6 4 0.150 2,5-7 4 0.137 2,4-6 4 0.136 1,4,6,7 4 0.136 2-4,7 4 0.134 1,3,5,6 4 0.128 3,5-7 4 0.125 1-3,5 4 0.116 2,3,5,7 4 0.113 3-6 4 0.110 1-3,7 4 0.110 1,2,4,7 4 0.106 2-5 4 0.103 1,5-7 4 0.093 1,2,5,7 4 0.088 4-7 4 0.087 1,4-6 4 0.082 1,2,4,5 4 0.081 2,4,5,7 4 0.073 1,3,4,7 4 0.070 1,3,5,7 4 0.059 3-5,7 4 0.057 1,3-5 4 0.033 1,4,5,7 Number of variables: 5 No. Vars Corr. Selections 5 0.280 1-3,6,7 5 0.261 1-4,6 5 0.219 2-4,6,7 5 0.199 1,2,4,6,7 5 0.178 1-3,5,6 5 0.171 1,3,4,6,7 5 0.168 2,3,5-7 5 0.156 2-6 5 0.149 1,2,5-7 5 0.135 1,2,4-6 5 0.135 1-4,7 5 0.131 2,4-7 5 0.127 1,3,5-7 5 0.116 1-3,5,7 5 0.112 1,3-6 5 0.111 3-7 5 0.105 1-5 5 0.102 2-5,7 5 0.088 1,4-7 5 0.080 1,2,4,5,7 5 0.058 1,3-5,7 Number of variables: 6 No. Vars Corr. Selections 6 0.218 1-4,6,7 6 0.167 1-3,5-7 6 0.154 1-6 6 0.149 2-7 6 0.130 1,2,4-7 6 0.110 1,3-7 6 0.101 1-5,7 Number of variables: 7 No. Vars Corr. Selections 7 0.148 All Best results No. Vars Corr. Selections 3 0.371 2,3,6 2 0.366 2,6 4 0.364 1-3,6 3 0.356 1,2,6 2 0.338 3,6 3 0.328 1,3,6 4 0.285 2,3,6,7 5 0.280 1-3,6,7 3 0.274 2,6,7 1 0.272 6Appendix VIIIb. BIOENV-Kendall

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97BIOENV for 1996. Kendall Method BIOENV Biota and/or Environment matching Worksheet File: C:\Files\Matt Lybolt\USF_thesis_primerall _density.pri Sample selection: 1,5,9,13,17,21,25,29,33,37,41 ,45,49,53,57,61,65,69,73,77,8 1,85,89,93,97,101,105,109 Variable selection: 1-7 Similarity Matrix File: Sheet1 Data type: Similarities Sample selection: 1,5,9,13,17,21,25,29,33,37,4 1,45,49,53,57,61,65,69,73,77 ,81,85,89,93,97,101,105,109 Parameters Rank correlation method: Kendall Maximum number of variables: 7 Similarity Matrix Parameters for sample data worksheet: Analyse between: Samples Similarity measure: Bray Curtis Standardise: No Transform: None Variables 1 G.ventalina short 2 G.ventalina medium 3 G.ventalina tall 4 other octocoral short 5 other octocoral medium 6 other octocoral tall 7 Scleraxonia Number of variables: 1 No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.173 6 1 0.155 2 1 0.025 3 1 0.011 5 1 -0.016 1 1 -0.049 7 1 -0.078 4 Number of variables: 2 No. Vars Corr. Selections 2 0.316 2,6 2 0.224 3,6 2 0.183 1,6 2 0.158 1,2 2 0.155 2,4 2 0.141 2,3 2 0.110 4,6 2 0.096 6,7 2 0.076 2,5 2 0.056 1,3 2 0.051 5,6 2 0.031 3,4 2 0.031 3,5 2 0.024 2,7 2 0.012 1,5 2 0.002 5,7 2 0.001 4,5 2 -0.038 3,7 2 -0.045 1,7 2 -0.057 4,7 2 -0.066 1,4 Number of variables: 3 No. Vars Corr. Selections 3 0.317 1,2,6 3 0.311 2,3,6 3 0.247 2,4,6 3 0.230 1,3,6 3 0.164 2-4 3 0.159 2,6,7 3 0.155 3,4,6 3 0.154 1,2,4 3 0.144 1-3 3 0.119 1,4,6 3 0.111 2,5,6 3 0.105 3,6,7 3 0.101 1,6,7 3 0.092 2,3,5 3 0.075 1,2,5 3 0.069 3,5,6 3 0.060 2,4,5 3 0.054 2,5,7 3 0.051 1,5,6 3 0.047 4,6,7 3 0.041 4-6 3 0.039 1,3,4 3 0.037 5-7 3 0.033 1,3,5 3 0.031 2,4,7 3 0.029 2,3,7 3 0.027 1,2,7 3 0.017 3,5,7 3 0.016 3-5 3 0.002 1,5,7 3 0.002 1,4,5 3 -0.006 4,5,7 3 -0.030 1,3,7 3 -0.031 3,4,7 3 -0.054 1,4,7 Number of variables: 4 No. Vars Corr. Selections 4 0.311 1-3,6 4 0.248 2-4,6 4 0.245 1,2,4,6 4 0.163 1-4 4 0.162 2,3,6,7 4 0.161 1,2,6,7 4 0.160 1,3,4,6 4 0.124 2,3,5,6 4 0.121 2,4,6,7 4 0.112 1,2,5,6 4 0.108 1,3,6,7 4 0.099 2,4-6 4 0.092 1-3,5 4 0.086 2,5-7 4 0.077 2-5 4 0.069 1,3,5,6 4 0.066 3,4,6,7 4 0.065 2,3,5,7 4 0.060 1,2,4,5 4 0.055 1,2,5,7 4 0.054 3-6 4 0.050 3,5-7 4 0.048 1,4,6,7 4 0.043 2,4,5,7 4 0.042 2-4,7 4 0.042 1,4-6 4 0.037 1,5-7 4 0.034 1-3,7 4 0.033 1,2,4,7 4 0.026 4-7 4 0.017 1,3,5,7 4 0.016 1,3-5 4 0.005 3-5,7 4 -0.006 1,4,5,7 4 -0.029 1,3,4,7 Number of variables: 5 No. Vars Corr. Selections 5 0.248 1-4,6 5 0.165 1-3,6,7 5 0.128 2-4,6,7 5 0.123 1-3,5,6 5 0.122 1,2,4,6,7 5 0.110 2-6 5 0.099 1,2,4-6 5 0.098 2,3,5-7 5 0.087 1,2,5-7 5 0.076 1-5 5 0.074 2,4-7 5 0.067 1,3,4,6,7 5 0.065 1-3,5,7 5 0.056 1,3-6 5 0.055 2-5,7 5 0.051 1,3,5-7 5 0.044 1,2,4,5,7 5 0.042 1-4,7 5 0.039 3-7 5 0.028 1,4-7 5 0.005 1,3-5,7 Number of variables: 6 No. Vars Corr. Selections 6 0.128 1-4,6,7 6 0.111 1-6 6 0.099 1-3,5-7 6 0.085 2-7 6 0.074 1,2,4-7 6 0.055 1-5,7 6 0.040 1,3-7 Number of variables: 7 No. Vars Corr. Selections 7 0.085 All Best results No. Vars Corr. Selections 3 0.317 1,2,6 2 0.316 2,6 4 0.311 1-3,6 3 0.311 2,3,6 4 0.248 2-4,6 5 0.248 1-4,6 3 0.247 2,4,6 4 0.245 1,2,4,6 3 0.230 1,3,6 2 0.224 3,6Appendix VIIIb. BIOENV-Kendall (continued)

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98BIOENV for 1998. Kendall Method BIOENV Biota and/or Environment matching Worksheet File: C:\Files\Matt Lybolt\USF_thesis_primerall _density.pri Sample selection: 2,6,10,14,18,22,26,30,34,3 8,42,46,50,54,58,62,66,70,74,78 ,82,86,90,94,98,102,106,110 Variable selection: 1-7 Similarity Matrix File: Sheet1 Data type: Similarities Sample selection: 2,6,10,14,18,22,26,30,34,38,4 2,46,50,54,58,62,66,70,74,78,82 ,86,90,94,98,102,106,110 Parameters Rank correlation method: Kendall Maximum number of variables: 7 Similarity Matrix Parameters for sample data worksheet: Analyse between: Samples Similarity measure: Bray Curtis Standardise: No Transform: None Variables 1 G.ventalina short 2 G.ventalina medium 3 G.ventalina tall 4 other octocoral short 5 other octocoral medium 6 other octocoral tall 7 Scleraxonia Number of variables: 1 No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.367 6 1 0.106 5 1 0.078 3 1 0.053 2 1 0.011 4 1 -0.002 1 1 -0.050 7 Number of variables: 2 No. Vars Corr. Selections 2 0.443 3,6 2 0.398 2,6 2 0.371 1,6 2 0.326 6,7 2 0.304 4,6 2 0.189 5,6 2 0.181 3,4 2 0.174 2,4 2 0.147 3,5 2 0.144 2,5 2 0.107 5,7 2 0.106 1,5 2 0.090 4,5 2 0.069 3,7 2 0.068 1,3 2 0.066 2,3 2 0.059 1,2 2 0.054 2,7 2 0.014 1,4 2 0.010 4,7 2 -0.053 1,7 Number of variables: 3 No. Vars Corr. Selections 3 0.439 1,3,6 3 0.414 2,3,6 3 0.391 1,2,6 3 0.379 3,6,7 3 0.371 3,4,6 3 0.354 2,4,6 3 0.335 2,6,7 3 0.324 1,6,7 3 0.300 1,4,6 3 0.255 4,6,7 3 0.227 2-4 3 0.223 3,5,6 3 0.219 2,5,6 3 0.188 1,5,6 3 0.181 5-7 3 0.178 1,3,4 3 0.174 2,3,5 3 0.172 4-6 3 0.170 1,2,4 3 0.145 1,3,5 3 0.143 1,2,5 3 0.141 3,5,7 3 0.139 2,5,7 3 0.133 2,4,5 3 0.131 3,4,7 3 0.128 3-5 3 0.122 2,4,7 3 0.106 1,5,7 3 0.093 4,5,7 3 0.090 1,4,5 3 0.086 2,3,7 3 0.074 1-3 3 0.067 1,3,7 3 0.053 1,2,7 3 0.006 1,4,7 Number of variables: 4 No. Vars Corr. Selections 4 0.409 1-3,6 4 0.386 2-4,6 4 0.376 1,3,6,7 4 0.369 1,3,4,6 4 0.358 2,3,6,7 4 0.349 1,2,4,6 4 0.332 1,2,6,7 4 0.312 3,4,6,7 4 0.289 2,4,6,7 4 0.253 1,4,6,7 4 0.243 2,3,5,6 4 0.227 1-4 4 0.220 1,3,5,6 4 0.218 1,2,5,6 4 0.207 3,5-7 4 0.204 2,5-7 4 0.204 2,4-6 4 0.204 3-6 4 0.180 1,5-7 4 0.178 2-4,7 4 0.173 1-3,5 4 0.171 1,4-6 4 0.165 4-7 4 0.164 2,3,5,7 4 0.161 2-5 4 0.138 1,3,5,7 4 0.137 1,2,5,7 4 0.131 1,2,4,5 4 0.128 1,3-5 4 0.126 1,3,4,7 4 0.126 2,4,5,7 4 0.124 3-5,7 4 0.122 1,2,4,7 4 0.093 1,4,5,7 4 0.088 1-3,7 Number of variables: 5 No. Vars Corr. Selections 5 0.381 1-4,6 5 0.356 1-3,6,7 5 0.323 2-4,6,7 5 0.310 1,3,4,6,7 5 0.287 1,2,4,6,7 5 0.240 1-3,5,6 5 0.228 2,3,5-7 5 0.225 2-6 5 0.206 1,3,5-7 5 0.202 1,2,4-6 5 0.202 1,3-6 5 0.201 1,2,5-7 5 0.191 3-7 5 0.190 2,4-7 5 0.177 1-4,7 5 0.164 1,4-7 5 0.164 1-3,5,7 5 0.159 1-5 5 0.153 2-5,7 5 0.126 1,2,4,5,7 5 0.123 1,3-5,7 Number of variables: 6 No. Vars Corr. Selections 6 0.320 1-4,6,7 6 0.226 1-3,5-7 6 0.224 1-6 6 0.212 2-7 6 0.190 1,3-7 6 0.188 1,2,4-7 6 0.151 1-5,7 Number of variables: 7 No. Vars Corr. Selections 7 0.212 All Best results No. Vars Corr. Selections 2 0.443 3,6 3 0.439 1,3,6 3 0.414 2,3,6 4 0.409 1-3,6 2 0.398 2,6 3 0.391 1,2,6 4 0.386 2-4,6 5 0.381 1-4,6 3 0.379 3,6,7 4 0.376 1,3,6,7Appendix VIIIb. BIOENV-Kendall (continued)

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99BIOENV for 1999. Kendall Method BIOENV Biota and/or Environment matching Worksheet File: C:\Files\Matt Lybolt\USF_thesis_primerall _density.pri Sample selection: 3,7,11,15,19,23,27,31,35,3 9,43,47,51,55,59,63,67,71,75,79,83 ,87,91,95,99,103,107,111 Variable selection: 1-7 Similarity Matrix File: Sheet1 Data type: Similarities Sample selection: 3,7,11,15,19,23,27,31,35,39,4 3,47,51,55,59,63,67,71,75,79,83 ,87,91,95,99,103,107,111 Parameters Rank correlation method: Kendall Maximum number of variables: 7 Similarity Matrix Parameters for sample data worksheet: Analyse between: Samples Similarity measure: Bray Curtis Standardise: No Transform: None Variables 1 G.ventalina short 2 G.ventalina medium 3 G.ventalina tall 4 other octocoral short 5 other octocoral medium 6 other octocoral tall 7 Scleraxonia Number of variables: 1 No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.353 6 1 0.214 2 1 0.146 1 1 0.138 5 1 0.080 4 1 0.076 3 1 0.006 7 Number of variables: 2 No. Vars Corr. Selections 2 0.427 3,6 2 0.422 2,6 2 0.292 4,6 2 0.287 1,6 2 0.282 6,7 2 0.264 2,4 2 0.212 5,6 2 0.208 2,3 2 0.203 2,5 2 0.198 3,4 2 0.182 1,2 2 0.175 3,5 2 0.164 4,7 2 0.139 5,7 2 0.130 2,7 2 0.129 4,5 2 0.128 1,5 2 0.127 1,3 2 0.088 1,7 2 0.062 1,4 2 0.026 3,7 Number of variables: 3 No. Vars Corr. Selections 3 0.421 2,3,6 3 0.391 2,4,6 3 0.372 1,2,6 3 0.355 3,4,6 3 0.348 1,3,6 3 0.303 2,6,7 3 0.303 3,6,7 3 0.291 2-4 3 0.267 2,5,6 3 0.264 4,6,7 3 0.248 1,4,6 3 0.245 3,5,6 3 0.243 1,6,7 3 0.234 1,2,4 3 0.228 2,4,7 3 0.225 2,3,5 3 0.203 3,4,7 3 0.202 1,5,6 3 0.198 4-6 3 0.197 5-7 3 0.191 1,2,5 3 0.191 2,4,5 3 0.186 2,5,7 3 0.181 1-3 3 0.165 3,5,7 3 0.164 1,3,4 3 0.163 3-5 3 0.161 1,3,5 3 0.140 1,4,7 3 0.131 4,5,7 3 0.129 1,5,7 3 0.123 2,3,7 3 0.123 1,2,7 3 0.119 1,4,5 3 0.070 1,3,7 Number of variables: 4 No. Vars Corr. Selections 4 0.398 2-4,6 4 0.379 1-3,6 4 0.358 1,2,4,6 4 0.312 1,3,4,6 4 0.303 2,3,6,7 4 0.301 2,4,6,7 4 0.288 3,4,6,7 4 0.287 2,3,5,6 4 0.278 1,2,6,7 4 0.270 1-4 4 0.268 1,3,6,7 4 0.253 1,2,5,6 4 0.253 2,4-6 4 0.240 2-4,7 4 0.239 2,5-7 4 0.230 1,3,5,6 4 0.230 1,4,6,7 4 0.228 3-6 4 0.220 3,5-7 4 0.212 1,2,4,7 4 0.212 2-5 4 0.210 1-3,5 4 0.204 2,3,5,7 4 0.189 1,5-7 4 0.187 1,4-6 4 0.186 4-7 4 0.183 1,3,4,7 4 0.177 2,4,5,7 4 0.176 1,2,5,7 4 0.176 1,2,4,5 4 0.157 3-5,7 4 0.154 1,3,5,7 4 0.150 1,3-5 4 0.123 1,4,5,7 4 0.119 1-3,7 Number of variables: 5 No. Vars Corr. Selections 5 0.374 1-4,6 5 0.306 2-4,6,7 5 0.284 1-3,6,7 5 0.284 1,2,4,6,7 5 0.272 2-6 5 0.271 1-3,5,6 5 0.261 1,3,4,6,7 5 0.255 2,3,5-7 5 0.240 1,2,4-6 5 0.230 1,2,5-7 5 0.229 1-4,7 5 0.227 2,4-7 5 0.215 1,3-6 5 0.210 1,3,5-7 5 0.206 3-7 5 0.197 1-5 5 0.194 2-5,7 5 0.192 1-3,5,7 5 0.177 1,4-7 5 0.166 1,2,4,5,7 5 0.145 1,3-5,7 Number of variables: 6 No. Vars Corr. Selections 6 0.292 1-4,6,7 6 0.258 1-6 6 0.245 1-3,5-7 6 0.241 2-7 6 0.218 1,2,4-7 6 0.198 1,3-7 6 0.182 1-5,7 Number of variables: 7 No. Vars Corr. Selections 7 0.232 All Best results No. Vars Corr. Selections 2 0.427 3,6 2 0.422 2,6 3 0.421 2,3,6 4 0.398 2-4,6 3 0.391 2,4,6 4 0.379 1-3,6 5 0.374 1-4,6 3 0.372 1,2,6 4 0.358 1,2,4,6 3 0.355 3,4,6Appendix VIIIb. BIOENV-Kendall (continued)

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100BIOENV for 2002. Kendall Method BIOENV Biota and/or Environment matching Worksheet File: C:\Files\Matt Lybolt\USF_thesis_primerall _density.pri Sample selection: 4,8,12,16,20,24,28,32,36,40,4 4,48,52,56,60,64,68,72,76,80,84,8 8,92,96,100,104,108,112 Variable selection: 1-7 Similarity Matrix File: Sheet1 Data type: Similarities Sample selection: 4,8,12,16,20,24,28,32,36,40,44, 48,52,56,60,64,68,72,76,80,84 ,88,92,96,100,104,108,112 Parameters Rank correlation method: Kendall Maximum number of variables: 7 Similarity Matrix Parameters for sample data worksheet: Analyse between: Samples Similarity measure: Bray Curtis Standardise: No Transform: None Variables 1 G.ventalina short 2 G.ventalina medium 3 G.ventalina tall 4 other octocoral short 5 other octocoral medium 6 other octocoral tall 7 Scleraxonia Number of variables: 1 No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.282 6 1 0.216 2 1 0.196 3 1 0.053 5 1 0.006 4 1 -0.014 1 1 -0.024 7 Number of variables: 2 No. Vars Corr. Selections 2 0.396 2,6 2 0.365 3,6 2 0.260 1,6 2 0.237 2,3 2 0.188 6,7 2 0.143 2,5 2 0.133 5,6 2 0.132 1,2 2 0.118 2,4 2 0.112 3,5 2 0.110 4,6 2 0.099 2,7 2 0.097 1,3 2 0.074 3,4 2 0.067 4,5 2 0.058 1,5 2 0.057 5,7 2 0.025 3,7 2 0.008 1,4 2 0.004 4,7 2 -0.044 1,7 Number of variables: 3 No. Vars Corr. Selections 3 0.406 2,3,6 3 0.380 1,2,6 3 0.351 1,3,6 3 0.287 2,6,7 3 0.250 3,6,7 3 0.208 2,5,6 3 0.199 2,4,6 3 0.184 2,3,5 3 0.181 3,5,6 3 0.167 1-3 3 0.165 3,4,6 3 0.163 1,6,7 3 0.150 2-4 3 0.147 1,2,5 3 0.137 1,5,6 3 0.134 2,5,7 3 0.134 2,4,5 3 0.125 4-6 3 0.120 5-7 3 0.116 1,3,5 3 0.116 1,2,4 3 0.114 2,3,7 3 0.108 1,4,6 3 0.108 3-5 3 0.105 3,5,7 3 0.092 2,4,7 3 0.080 4,6,7 3 0.072 1,3,4 3 0.068 1,4,5 3 0.067 1,2,7 3 0.062 4,5,7 3 0.058 1,5,7 3 0.050 3,4,7 3 0.002 1,4,7 3 0.001 1,3,7 Number of variables: 4 No. Vars Corr. Selections 4 0.394 1-3,6 4 0.311 2,3,6,7 4 0.265 1,2,6,7 4 0.242 2,3,5,6 4 0.226 1,3,6,7 4 0.226 2-4,6 4 0.210 1,2,5,6 4 0.197 1,2,4,6 4 0.192 2,5-7 4 0.189 1-3,5 4 0.186 2,4-6 4 0.185 1,3,5,6 4 0.172 2,3,5,7 4 0.168 2-5 4 0.165 3,5-7 4 0.165 3-6 4 0.163 1,3,4,6 4 0.160 2,4,6,7 4 0.145 1-4 4 0.136 1,2,4,5 4 0.134 1,2,5,7 4 0.126 1,4-6 4 0.125 3,4,6,7 4 0.125 1,5-7 4 0.124 2,4,5,7 4 0.120 2-4,7 4 0.115 4-7 4 0.110 1,3-5 4 0.105 1,3,5,7 4 0.101 3-5,7 4 0.090 1,2,4,7 4 0.086 1-3,7 4 0.077 1,4,6,7 4 0.063 1,4,5,7 4 0.049 1,3,4,7 Number of variables: 5 No. Vars Corr. Selections 5 0.291 1-3,6,7 5 0.244 1-3,5,6 5 0.224 2,3,5-7 5 0.223 1-4,6 5 0.215 2-6 5 0.193 1,2,5-7 5 0.189 2-4,6,7 5 0.185 1,2,4-6 5 0.173 1-3,5,7 5 0.172 2,4-7 5 0.170 1-5 5 0.167 1,3,5-7 5 0.164 1,3-6 5 0.156 1,2,4,6,7 5 0.155 2-5,7 5 0.149 3-7 5 0.126 1,2,4,5,7 5 0.123 1,3,4,6,7 5 0.116 1-4,7 5 0.115 1,4-7 5 0.102 1,3-5,7 Number of variables: 6 No. Vars Corr. Selections 6 0.224 1-3,5-7 6 0.214 1-6 6 0.199 2-7 6 0.185 1-4,6,7 6 0.173 1,2,4-7 6 0.157 1-5,7 6 0.150 1,3-7 Number of variables: 7 No. Vars Corr. Selections 7 0.199 All Best results No. Vars Corr. Selections 3 0.406 2,3,6 2 0.396 2,6 4 0.394 1-3,6 3 0.380 1,2,6 2 0.365 3,6 3 0.351 1,3,6 4 0.311 2,3,6,7 5 0.291 1-3,6,7 3 0.287 2,6,7 1 0.282 6Appendix VIIIb. BIOENV-Kendall (continued)

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101BIOENV Summary of best ten results. Kendall Method Variables 1 G.ventalina short 2 G.ventalina med 3 G.ventalina tall 4 other octocoral short 5 other octocoral med 6 other octocoral tall 7 Scleraxonia BIOENV for All Years. Kendall Method Best results No. Vars Corr.Selections 3 0.371 2,3,6 2 0.366 2,6 4 0.364 1-3,6 3 0.356 1,2,6 2 0.338 3,6 3 0.328 1,3,6 4 0.285 2,3,6,7 5 0.280 1-3,6,7 3 0.274 2,6,7 1 0.272 6 BIOENV for 1996. Kendall Method Best results No. Vars Corr. Selections 3 0.317 1,2,6 2 0.316 2,6 4 0.311 1-3,6 3 0.311 2,3,6 4 0.248 2-4,6 5 0.248 1-4,6 3 0.247 2,4,6 4 0.245 1,2,4,6 3 0.230 1,3,6 2 0.224 3,6 BIOENV for 1998. Kendall Method Best results No. Vars Corr. Selections 2 0.443 3,6 3 0.439 1,3,6 3 0.414 2,3,6 4 0.409 1-3,6 2 0.398 2,6 3 0.391 1,2,6 4 0.386 2-4,6 5 0.381 1-4,6 3 0.379 3,6,7 4 0.376 1,3,6,7 BIOENV for 1999. Kendall Method Best results No. Vars Corr. Selections 2 0.427 3,6 2 0.422 2,6 3 0.421 2,3,6 4 0.398 2-4,6 3 0.391 2,4,6 4 0.379 1-3,6 5 0.374 1-4,6 3 0.372 1,2,6 4 0.358 1,2,4,6 3 0.355 3,4,6 BIOENV for 2002. Kendall Method Best results No. Vars Corr. Selections 3 0.406 2,3,6 2 0.396 2,6 4 0.394 1-3,6 3 0.380 1,2,6 2 0.365 3,6 3 0.351 1,3,6 4 0.311 2,3,6,7 5 0.291 1-3,6,7 3 0.287 2,6,7 1 0.282 6Appendix VIIIb. BIOENV-Kendall (continued)

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102BIOENV Single Variable Correlation With Percent Cover Results. Kendall Method Variables 1 G.ventalina short 2 G.ventalina med 3 G.ventalina tall 4 other octocoral short 5 other octocoral med 6 other octocoral tall 7 Scleraxonia BIOENV for All Years. Single Variable Results Kendall Method No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.272 6 1 0.152 2 1 0.102 3 1 0.037 5 1 0.020 1 1 0.005 7 1 -0.027 4 BIOENV for 1996. Single Variable Results Kendall Method No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.173 6 1 0.155 2 1 0.025 3 1 0.011 5 1 -0.016 1 1 -0.049 7 1 -0.078 4 BIOENV for 1998. Single Variable Results Kendall Method No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.367 6 1 0.106 5 1 0.078 3 1 0.053 2 1 0.011 4 1 -0.002 1 1 -0.050 7 BIOENV for 1999. Single Variable Results Kendall Method No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.353 6 1 0.214 2 1 0.146 1 1 0.138 5 1 0.080 4 1 0.076 3 1 0.006 7 BIOENV for 2002. Single Variable Results Kendall Method No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.282 6 1 0.216 2 1 0.196 3 1 0.053 5 1 0.006 4 1 -0.014 1 1 -0.024 7Appendix VIIIb. BIOENV-Kendall (continued)

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103BIOENV Biota and/or Environment matching Worksheet File: C:\Files\Matt Lybolt\USF_thesis_primerall _density.pri Parameters Rank correlation method: Kendall Maximum number of variables: 8 Similarity Matrix Parameters for sample data worksheet: Analyse between: Samples Similarity measure: Bray Curtis Standardise: No Transform: None Variables 1 G.ventalina short 2 G.ventalina medium 3 G.ventalina tall 4 other octocoral short 5 other octocoral medium 6 other octocoral tall 7 Scleraxonia 8 Total All Octocorals Number of variables: 1 1996 Kendall method No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.173 6 1 0.155 2 1 0.087 8 1 0.025 3 1 0.011 5 1 -0.016 1 1 -0.049 7 1 -0.078 4 1998 Kendall method No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.367 6 1 0.161 8 1 0.106 5 1 0.078 3 1 0.053 2 1 0.011 4 1 -0.002 1 1 -0.050 7 1999 Kendall method No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.353 6 1 0.228 8 1 0.214 2 1 0.146 1 1 0.138 5 1 0.080 4 1 0.076 3 1 0.006 7 2002 Kendall method No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.282 6 1 0.216 2 1 0.196 3 1 0.091 8 1 0.053 5 1 0.006 4 1 -0.014 1 1 -0.024 7 All Years Kendall method No. Vars Corr. Selections 1 0.272 6 1 0.152 2 1 0.121 8 1 0.102 3 1 0.037 5 1 0.020 1 1 0.005 7 1 -0.027 4Appendix VIIIb. BIOENV-Kendall (continued)