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An analysis of slip, trip, and fall incidents among workers at a veterans' hospital

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Title:
An analysis of slip, trip, and fall incidents among workers at a veterans' hospital
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Book
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English
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Eaton, Michelle C
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University of South Florida
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Veterans' hospitals -- Accidents -- Statistics   ( lcsh )
occupational
injury
safety
accidents
healthcare
Dissertations, Academic -- Public Health -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
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government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Summary:
ABSTRACT: Occupational slip, trip, and fall, (STF), incidents are a significant cause of traumatic occupational injuries and has been identified as NORA priority area. Objective: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in collaboration with Liberty Mutual Research Center for Safety and Health, the Finnish Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and BJC Health System is conducting a 3 year study titled "Slip and Falls Prevention in Health Care Workers". A key component of the overall study is the descriptive analysis of 72 months (1996-2001) of STF incidents. Setting: This analysis encompasses data from the James A. Haley Veteran's Administration Medical Center, (JAH). Results: Forty- five months of historical STF data from the ASISTS database was analyzed. Of 279 STF incidents, 71.22%, (240) were female, the median age was 49 years, RN's were the most common occupational category (70 =21.74%), trips were the most common type of incident, (105 = 33.44%), the parking lot was the most common location, (75 = 23.70%), Non- specified slick surfaces (56 = 17.83%) and non- patient related objects were the most common cause (56 =17.83%), 70.85%, (192) returned to full duty, and 83.67%, (246) had no lost work time. Wilcoxon Ranked Sum test comparing those with affected work time found no significant difference in age (p= 0.4133). Analysis could not be performed using exact number of lost work days and days on light duty because of discrepancies between the ASISTS and Safety Office alternative databases. Conclusion: Efforts and resources to decrease the number of STF incidents at the JAH would be best concentrated in the following areas: Occupations, locations, and causes associated with the highest frequencies of STF incidents. Proposed improvements in the method of data collection include: Identify what STF questions want to be answered. Decide what data is required to answer the question. Design a data collection system around this. Strive for a more integrated approach; encourage employee reporting; altering VA form 2162. Given the downward trend in the three year analysis of STF incidents, caution should be used in analyzing the results of a pre and post intervention study.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.P.H.)--University of South Florida, 2003.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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Mode of access: World Wide Web.
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by Michelle C. Eaton.
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Title from PDF of title page.
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Document formatted into pages; contains 119 pages.

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oclc - 52281568
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usfldc doi - E14-SFE0000095
usfldc handle - e14.95
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AN ANALYSIS OF SLIP, TRIP, AND FALL INCIDENTS AMONG WORKERS AT A VETERANS HOSPITAL by MICHELLE C. EATON, M.D. A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Public Health Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine College of Public Health University of South Florida Major Professor: Stuart M. Brooks M.D. Audrey Nelson, Ph.D., R.N. Matthew Vuskovi ch, M.D., M.S.P.H. Date of Approval: March 26, 2003 Keywords: occupational, accidents, injury, safety, healthcare, Copyright 2003 Michelle C. Eaton, M.D.

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i Table of Contents List of Tables ii List of Figures iii Abstract iv Introduction 1 Background 1 The Overall Study 2 The Purpose 3 Literature Review 5 Materials and Methods 9 The Site 9 Data Acquisition 9 Results 1 2 Discussion 1 9 Conclusion 2 9 List of References 31 Bibliography 3 3 Appendices 3 4 Appendix A: VA Form 2162 First Report of Incident 3 5 Appendix B: VA Form CA 1 3 6 Appendix C: Numerical Coding 3 7 Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts 3 8

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ii List of Tables Table 1. The Study Timeline 3 Table 2. Summary of Descriptive Statistics for Variables From the ASISTS Database 1 2 Table 3. Percent of Slip, Trip, and Fall Incidents per Year as Part of Total Reported Incidents and per 100 Full Time Employees 1 7 Table 4. Percent of Reported Lost and Light Work Days From Each Database 1 8 Table 5. Frequency with which Light and Lost Work Day Data from the ASISTS Database Matched the Alternate Database 1 9

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iii List of Figures Figure 1. Percent of STF Incidents for Each Gender 1 3 Figure 2. Percent of STF Incidents for Selected Occupat ions 1 4 Figure 3. Percent of Each Type of Incident 1 4 Figure 4. Percent of STF Incidents at Each Location 1 5 Figure 5. Percent of Each Cause of STF Incidents 1 5 Figure 6. Percent of Workers Returned to Full and Light Duty Followin g an STF Incident 1 6 Figure 7. Percent of Workers with Lost Work Days and No Lost Work Days Following an STF Incident 1 6

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iv An Analysis of Slip, Trip, and Fall Incidents Among Workers at a Veterans Hospital. Michelle C. Ea ton, M.D. A bstract Context: Occupational slip, trip, and fall, (STF), incidents are a significant cause of traumatic occupational injuries and has been identified as NORA priority area. Objective: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health i n collaboration with Liberty Mutual Research Center for Safety and Health, the Finnish Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and BJC Health System is conducting a 3 year study titled Slip and Falls Prevention in Health Care Workers. A key compo nent of the overall study is the descriptive analysis of 72 months (1996 2001) of STF incidents. Setting: This analysis encompasses data from the James A. Haley Veterans Administration Medical Center, (JAH). Results: Forty five months of historical STF data from the ASISTS database was analyzed. Of 279 STF incidents, 71.22%, (240) were female, the median age was 49 years, RNs were the most common occupational category (70 =21.74%), trips were the most common type of incident, (105 = 33.44%), the

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v parkin g lot was the most common location, (75 = 23.70%), Non specified slick surfaces (56 = 17.83%) and non patient related objects were the most common cause (56 =17.83%), 70.85%, (192) returned to full duty, and 83.67%, (246) had no lost work time. Wilcoxon Ranked Sum test comparing those with affected work time found no significant difference in age (p= 0.4133). Analysis could not be performed using exact number of lost work days and days on light duty because of discrepancies between the ASISTS and Safety O ffice alternative databases. Conclusion: Efforts and resources to decrease the number of STF incidents at the JAH would be best concentrated in the following areas: Occupations, locations, and causes associated with the highest frequencies of STF incidents Proposed improvements in the method of data collection include: Identify what STF questions want to be answered. Decide what data is required to answer the question. Design a data collection system around this. Strive for a more integrated approach; e ncourage employee reporting; altering VA form 2162. Given the downward trend in the three year analysis of STF incidents, caution should be used in analyzing the results of a pre and post intervention study.

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1 Introduction Background In April 1996, The Nat ional Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, (NIOSH), unveiled the National Occupational Research Agenda, (NORA). NORA was developed by NIOSH and approximately 50 of its partners in the public and private sectors to provide a framework to guide oc cupational safety and health research in the United States over the next decade. This effort has identified 21 priority areas as important and most likely to improve worker safety and health in the United States. Occupational slip, trip, and fall incidents are a significant cause of traumatic occupational injuries and has been identified as NORA priority area. In their 1998 report discussing the specific research needs related to traumatic occupational injuries it was specifically stated, By capturing in formation about less serious injuries that could have resulted in greater harm, the number of cases to study will be increased and further insight will be gained into the broad range of risk factors that result in injuries. Such information will allow for identification of prevention strategies that address risk earlier in the cycle of injury (Nora Traumatic Injury Team, 1998).

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2 The Overall Study To address this NORA objective, NIOSH, in collaboration with Liberty Mutual Research Center for Safety and He alth, (LMRCSH), the Finnish Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, (FIOSH), and BJC Health System is conducting a 3 year study titled Slip and Falls Prevention in Health Care Workers. The overall objective is to evaluate risk factors for occupati onal slips, trips, and falls (STF), and to develop, implement, and evaluate a STF prevention program in a study population of intervention and control hospitals. The study encompasses four components: A descriptive analysis of historical slip, trip and fal l incidents at specified hospitals. A laboratory evaluation to establish countermeasures and prevention strategies. A field study which will design and implement a slip, trip, and fall prevention program in 3 hospitals and measure its effectiveness co mpare to 7 control hospitals. Apply a case crossover methodology to identify risk factors for slip, trip, and fall injuries by interviewing injured workers (Collins, 2002).

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3 Table 1. The Study Timeline 2001 2002 2003 2005 Historical analysis X X X Lab oratory evaluation X Field study X X Case Crossover X X X Pre intervention Post intervention The study will be performed in multiple locations. The laboratory studies will take place at the Liberty Mutual Research Center for Safety and Health in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, and the Finnish Institute for Occupational Health, Finland, and at the NIOSHs Division of Safety Research in Morgantown, West Virginia. The field study will implement a slip, trip, and fall intervention program at the three BJC Health System hospitals: St. Louis Childrens Hospital, Missouri Baptist Medical Center, and Alton Memorial Hospital and compare its effectiveness relative to seven control hospitals in the BJC Health System. The project management and data analysis will be performed within the Analysis and Field Evaluations Branch, Division of Safety Research, NIOSH, Morgantown, West Virginia (Collins, 2002). The Purpose. A key component of the overall study is the descriptive analysis of 72 months (1996 2001) of pre intervention slip, trip, and fall incidents in the hospitals targeted for intervention. This analysis will provide details on the

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4 circumstances, location, and factors that will help target the laboratory study and the prevention program. One of the desig nated intervention hospitals is the James A. Haley Veterans Administration Medical Center, (JAH), located in Tampa, Florida. This analysis encompasses historical data obtained from this site.

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5 Literature Review A slip represents the loss of ba lance caused by too little friction between a humans feet and his or her walking surface. Slips are primarily caused by a slippery surface and compounded by wearing the wrong footwear. In normal walking, two types of slips occur. The first of these is whe n the forward foot contacts the walking surface at an angle near the rear edge of the heel. With this type of slip, the front foot slips forward and the person falls backward. The second type of slip is when the rear foot slips backward. The force to mov e forward is on the sole of the rear foot. As the rear heal is lifted and the force move forward to the front of the sole, the foot slips back and the person falls. A trip represents the loss of balance caused by the interruption of the forward or backwa rd movement of one or both feet, because of striking some object in the path of the foot/feet. As little as a 3/8 inch rise in a walkway can cause a person to trip. Both slips and trips often result in falls. Falls result when the body movement shifts th e body too far off the center of balance (National Ag Safety Database, 2002) Goetsh (1993) identifies four contributing variables to STF incidents:

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6 A foreign object on the walking surface. A design flaw in the walking surface. A slippery surface. An indi viduals impaired physical or mental condition. According to the Bureau of Labor and Statistics, (BLS), (1998) slips, trips, and falls accounted for the third greatest proportion of non fatal injuries (19%) in all private industry. In certain occupational groups and industries, slips, trips, and falls constitute the first or second largest proportion of total injuries (Manning, 1998). These incidents are expensive in both loss of productive work days and workers compensation costs. The unexpected tolera nce of slips and falls as unfortunate incidents and apparent low expectation for technological improvement may result from a lack of awareness of the magnitude of individual suffering and other the social costs borne by industry for medical care and wage i ndemnity (Leamon & Murphy, 1995). Lost work days due to slip, trip, and fall incidents is a useful parameter in gauging the significance of this problem. United States BLS data from 1995 summarized by Mital, Pennathur, and Kansal (1999) indicated that 2 8% of the workplace falls on the same level resulted in lost work time of 21 days or more. Researchers in the United Kingdom found that almost 18% of occupational accidents involving absence from work for more than three days were related to slipping, tri pping, or falls on the same level (Leamon and Murphy, 1995). BLS reports that the incidence rate of lost work day injuries

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7 from slips, trips, and falls (on the same level), in hospitals was 50% greater than the average rate for all other private industri es (BLS, 1998). While falls from elevation typically result in more severe injuries, fall on the same level are much more common, comprising over 60% of total falls (Andersson and Lagerlof, 1983). Data from Sweden show that falls on the same le vel from slipping, tripping or stumbling accounted for 8% of occupational deaths (Strandberg, 1983). BLS data from 1999 showed that in private industry, the number of lost work days due to slips, trips, and falls on the same level was 245,462. (BLS, 2002) Another parameter commonly measured is the workers compensation costs associated with slip, trip, and fall from same level incidents. STF incidents account for 15 to 20% of all workers compensation costs annually (National Ag database). In 1994, cos t per fall injury (fatal and non fatal) in the general population was estimated at $4,692 (Englander, Hodson, and Terregrossa, 1996). The National Council on Compensation Insurance found the cost per occupational slip, trip, and fall injury to be much high er at $12,470 per non fatal injury (National Safety Council, 1999). Liberty Mutual, which insures approximately 6 million workers, reported that injuries resulting from falls accounted for 24% of the total cost of workers compensation claims (Leamon and Mu rphy, 1995). Projections to the year 2020 by Englander et al (1996) indicated that the overall cost of fall injuries will exceed $85 billion. Age seems to be an important factor in both the frequency and severity of slip, trip, and fall incidents. Studie s by Layne and Landon (1997) found

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8 that older workers are more likely than younger workers to suffer a fracture after a same level fall. Kemmlert and Lundholm (2001) found that older workers suffer higher rates of injuries due to slip, trip, and fall inci dents with the effect being more pronounced in women. They also analyzed data from the Swedish National Board of Occupational Safety and Health and found a higher proportion of STF accidents among men and women aged 45 years or more than among younger work ers. Leamon and Murphy (1995) also found males to have a higher number of falls both from height and the same level, although this might be a result of an inappropriate extrapolation of gender proportions to high risk jobs. Older women reported STF acci dents more than twice as often as their younger colleagues. They also found they older workers, (greater than age 45) had longer periods of sick leave as a result of their accidents than their younger counterparts (Kemmlert and Lundholm, 1997). In a study of 11% of the American privately insured workforce, researchers found workers over the age of 40 were more likely to suffer an injury from a fall on the same level when compared to younger workers (Leamon and Murphy, 1995).

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9 Materials and Methods The Si te The James A. Hailey Veterans Administration Hospital is a 275 bed facility that employees an average of 3,000 full time employees. The main hospital building is 674,000 square feet. The Nursing Home Care unit has 70 beds and is 144,000 square feet. D ata Acquisition Prior to the acquisition of data, approval was obtained from both the University of South Florida and James A Haley Veterans Hospital Institutional Review Boards. Data was obtained in collaboration with the Safety Office and an Information Technologist Specialist at the JAH Veterans Hospital. All initial illness and injury data is entered and maintained within The Automated Safety Incident Surveillance Tracking System (ASISTS) database. For an injury or illness to be entered into the databa se, the following sequence of steps must occur. An incident occurs causing injury or illness. The supervisor gathers and enters initial information to complete a Report of Accident which is Veterans Administration, (VA), form 2162 (Appendix A).

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10 Each inci dent is assigned a case number. The form is reviewed and completed by a Safety Officer. The information is entered electronically into the ASISTS database by the Safety Officer or another employee. Simultaneously, a CA 1 or CA 2 form is completed by th e supervisor (Appendix B). This form is completed once an incidents case is closed and contains additional information including number of days on light duty and number of lost work days. The supervisor is responsible for information contained within the CA 1 and CA 2. The information from the 2162, CA 1 and CA 2 is maintained within the ASISTS database. The specific fields from the ASISTS database needed for analysis were identified and requested from the Information Specialist. Incidents were limited to those coded as slip, trip and fall, occurring at the JAH Veterans Hospital, and dating back to 1996. The requested fields were: date of incident, case number, gender, date of birth (to determine age), setting of injury, location of injury, description of incident, occupation code, occupation, employee duty station, duty returned to, lost work days (yes/no), number of lost work days, light duty (yes/no), number of days on light duty, and cause of injury. The field s description of incident and cause of injury are both narrative fields requiring text data input. The remainders of the fields are chosen from a menu option. The number of lost work days and light work days was not able to be accessed directly throu gh the ASISTS database. Therefore, data pertaining to

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11 the number of lost and light duty work days was obtained from an alternate database maintained by the Safety Office. The purpose of this alternate database is to create reports of accident data as the A SISTS database can reproduce raw data only. The data from the alternate database was matched to data from the ASISTS database by utilizing case number only. Once obtained, the data was entered into an Excel spreadsheet. The text fields of description of incident, setting of injury, and cause of injury were manually merged and numerically coded to create three categories: Type of incident, Cause of Incident, and Location of Incident (Appendix C.) Once coded, the data was transferred to a SAS software system for statistical analysis.

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12 Results The data from the ASISTS database was analyzed using the SAS software system. For the nominal data, descriptive statistics to include frequency and percent were calculated and are presented in Table 2. Univaria te analysis was performed on the interval variable of age. The SAS programs and the complete results are in Appendix D. Table 2. Summary of Descriptive Statistics for Variables from the ASISTS Database Variable Descriptive Statistics Gender Male: 28.78% Female: 71.22% Age Mean: 47.58 years Median: 49.00 years Skewness: 0.4761 Kurtosis: 2.035 Occupation RN: 21.74% LPN: 11.49% Administrative: 9.01% House keeping: 5.90% Food Service 4.97% MD/DO: 0.93% Other: 45.96% Type of incident Trip: 33.44% Slip: 3 2.48% Fall: 24.52% Not Given: 9.55% Location of Incident Parking lot: 23.70% Patient room: 12.66% Stairwell: 9.42% Hallway: 8.77% Lobby: 6.17% Outpatient clinic: 4.55% Restroom: 1.95% Cafeteria: 1.62% Other: 23.70% Not Given: 9.09% Continued on next page

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13 Table 2. Summary of Descriptive Statistics for Variables from the ASISTS Database ( Continued ) Variable Descriptive Statistics Cause of Incident Slic k NOS: 17.83% NPR Object: 17.83% Uneven Surface: 10.83% Other: 8.60% Water: 7.32% PR Object: 5.10% Stairs: 5.73% Chair: 4.78% Height: 3.18% Bus: 1.59% Urine: 0.96% Not Given: 16.24% Duty Returned to Full Duty: 70.85% Light Duty: 29.15% Lost Work Time No Lost Time: 83.67% Lost Time: 16.33% Slick NOS= slick surface, not otherwise specified; NPR Object= non patient related object (computer cords, parking stops, door stoppers, object in parking lot); PR Object= patient related object (canes, IV pole, bed linens); Height= from height (step stool); Bus= entering/exiting from bus; Other= (syncopal episodes ). For enhanced visualization, each nominal variable is presented in a histogram format in Figures 1 through 7. Figure1. Percent of STF Incidents for E ach Gender. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Female Male

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14 Figure 2. Percent of STF Incidents for Selected Occupations Figure 3. Percent of Each Type of Incident 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Trip Slip Fall Not Given 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 RN LPN Administrative Houskeeping Food service MD/DO Other

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15 Figure 4. Percent of STF Incidents at Each Location. 0 5 10 15 20 25 Other Parking lot Patient room Stairwell Not given Hallway Lobby Outpatient clinic Restroom Cafeteria Figure 5. Perc ent of Each Cause of STF Incidents 0 5 10 15 20 Slick-NOS NPR-Object Uneven surface Other Water PR-Object Stairs Chair Height Bus Urine Not Given

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16 Figure 6. Percent of Workers Returned to Full and Light Duty Following an STF Incident 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Full Light Figure 7. Percent of Workers with Lost Work Days and No Lost Work Days Following an STF Incident. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Full Light

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17 Data to compare the number of slip, trip and fall incidents as compared to all the reported injuries was available for years 1999 through 2001 only. To determine the three year trend; slip, trip, and fall incidents per 100 full time employees was determi ned and is presented in Table 3. Table 3. Percent of Slip, Trip, and Fall Incidents per Year as Part of Total Reported Incidents and per 100 Full Time Employees. Year Total Number Incidents Number of Slips, Trips, Falls Percent of Slips, trips, Falls Tota l Number of Employees STFs/ 100FTEs 1999 630 112 17.78% 2,178 5.14 2000 625 84 13.44% 2,200 3.82 2001 850 83 9.76% 2,434 3.14 Percent of Slips, trips, Falls = Number of Slips, Trips, Falls/ Total Number Incidents X 100%; STFs/ 100FTEs = Number of Slips Trips, Falls/ Total Number of Employees X 100. From the ASISTS database, the fields lost work time (yes/no) and light duty (yes/no) were combined to form a third category of affected work time. A Wilcoxon Ranked Sum test was performed to determine if there was a difference between the age of those workers who suffered a slip, trip, and fall incident and had affected work time compared to those without affected work time. The t score was 0.8181 with a p value of 0.4133. Actual number of lost work days and days of light duty were obtained from the alternate database and matched to the ASISTS data using case number. This data is presented in Table 4.

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18 Table 4. Percent of Reported Lost and Light Duty Work Days From Each Database Data Set Percent with lost Days Percent with light Days ASISTS 16.33% 29.15% Alternate 4.38% 8.19% To further compare the consistency between the two data sources, the frequency with which lost work days (yes/no), and light work days (yes/no) was indicated in the ASISTS d atabase was matched to the alternate database. The results are depicted in Table 5. Table 5. Frequency with which Light and Lost Work Day Data from the ASISTS Database Matched the Alternate Database Variable Frequency Light Work Days Yes: 8.19% Not Avail able: 10.82% Known light days w/o data: 46.84% Lost work Days Yes: 4.38% Not Available: 8.19% Known lost days w/o data: 58.33% Yes = number of subjects with numerical values available in alternate data set/ total number slips, trips, falls X 100%; Not Av ailable = number of subjects known to have light (or lost) days from ASISTS database number of subjects with numerical values available in alternate database/ total number slips, trips, falls X 100%; known light days w/o data = number of subjects known t o have light days from ASISTS database number of subjects with numerical values for lost days available in alternate data base/ number of subjects known to have light days from ASISTS database X 100%; known lost days w/o data = number of subjects known t o have lost days from ASISTS database number of subjects with numerical values available for lost days in alternate data set/ number of subjects known to have lost days from ASISTSX 100%.

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19 Discussion Descriptive statistics are used to describe the basic features of the data in a study. They provide simple summaries about the sample and the measures. Together with simple graphics, they form the basis of virtually every quantitative analysis of data. The ASISTS database was analyzed to determine where to focus resources and efforts to decrease the number of STF incidents. For this, the appropriate denominator for the count data is the total number of STF incidents. The frequency provides a n indication of where, how, and to whom, the incidents are occurring. It is not an indication of risk for that group. It should be noted that this data represents reported and not actual STF incidents and therefore may represent the most severe of the inc idents and is subject to information bias. The original intent of this study was to analyze 72 months, (1996 2001), of historical STF data. The ASISTS software package is a relatively new resource to the hospital and data could be retrieved as far back as 1998 only. Therefore, this study analyzed the available 45 months of data from December 1998 August 2002.

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20 Table 2 shows that females were involved in over twice as many STF incidents as males which is consistent with the current literature. Davis, St evens, and Manning ( 2001) reported that females have an increased relative risk of two compared with men of having a STF incident and that holding something while wal king increases this risk to four. They described possible explanations for the increased r isk seen when objects are being carried as: Men are more likely to have non underfoot accidents. Women are more likely than men to be injured by falling as part as an underfoot accident. Women are more likely to have underfoot accidents. Women simply s pend more time than men in environments with underfoot hazards Davies et al (2001). The mean age of a worker involved in a reported STF incident was 47.58 years. To avoid the influence of outlier values, the median value of 49.0 years may be a better representation of the central tendancy of age. The Shapiro Wilk statistic was obtained to determine if the age was normally distributed. The Shapiro Wilk value of 0.9709 with a corresponding p value of 0.0001 indicates that age is not normally distribut ed. Skewness is a measure of symmetry, or more precisely, the lack of symmetry. A distribution, or data set, is symmetric if it looks the same to the left and right of the center point. Skewness was calculated to be 0.0472. A negative skew indicates that the histogram has a rightward distribution. The histogram depicting age had a

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21 kurtosis of 2.034. Kurtosis is a measure of whether the data are peaked or flat relative to a normal distribution. That is, data sets with high kurtosis, tend to have a distinct peak near the mean, decline rather rapidly, and have heavy tails. This is referred to as a leptokurtic distribution. Data sets with low kurtosis tend to have a flat top near the mean, rather than a sharp peak. These data sets are referred to as platykur tic. A uniform distribution would be the extreme case. The occupation with the highest number of STF incidents was the nurses. Together, the RN and LPN occupation codes accounted for 33% of the incidents. This could be attributed to the heavy workload an d often rushed circumstances that are characteristic of todays nursing profession. The category of other was composed 58 distinct occupational codes, all having frequencies of less than 10 over the 45 month period Another possibility is the effect of re porting bias, which is a type of information bias. In circumstances in which reporting bias takes place, a subject may be reluctant to report an injury because of attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions. Physicians, for example, may be less likely to report an STF incident due to their perception that it is not their job, or for the fear of being perceived as a complainer. The distribution of type of incident was relatively even among the three categories of slip, trip, and fall. This information was derive d from the narrative text input on the VA form 2162. This is prone to great subjectivity for a number of reasons. The most obvious is the lack of any standardization in entering this data. For example, no guidance exists as to if an incident should

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22 be desc ribed as a trip and fall or a fall only. In the ASISTS database, all STF incidents are essentially coded under one category and it is only through the subjective narrative field input that these can be distinguished. There is no uniformity among the text narrative text input, which is at the discretion of the safety officer. Text fields varied from 3 words in length to lengthy paragraphs. The locations with the highest frequency of STF incidents were the parking lot, (23.70%), and patient rooms (12.66%). The literature suggests that in northern climates, slippery conditions due to ice and rain account for the majority of outdoor STF incidents. Therefore, the high number of parking lot STF incidents was not expected in this warm climate. Outdoor obstacles s uch as parking stops and slippery leaves were frequently cited. Another contributing factor may have been the unpaved and gravel areas within the parking lot causing underfoot accidents. Stairwell incidents were the fourth most common location (9.42%) of S TF incidents. Rosy (2001), suggests that the three major reasons for stair accidents include user behavior, stair maintenance, and stair design. He suggests that behavior and maintenance can be targeted by accident reduction campaigns, but these usually h ave little effect. The best prevention, according to Rosy, is proper stair design such as proper rise, pitch, and going. The most frequently cited causes of STF incidents were slick surfaces not otherwise specified (17.83%), non patient related objects such as computer cords, parking stops, door stoppers (17.83%), and uneven surfaces such as transversing through a doorway in which the floor changed from tile

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23 to carpet (10.83%). STF incidents are multifactorial and it is difficult to speculate as to the e xact cause. More specific data regarding the nature of the floor surface and of the obstacle would help delineate these factors. The literature also reports slick surfaces as the leading cause of STF incidents and proposes such interventions as non slip s hoes and various types of non slick flooring. Specifically, Manning and Jones (2001) in their research concluded that the incidence of occupational injuries caused by slipping could be reduced by the following: Use of footwear soled with microcellular pol yurethane AP66033. Abrading all new and smooth footwear soling with a belt sanding machine coated with P100 grit. Avoiding the use of floor polish. Informing the general public about the poor slip resistance of ordinary footwear on ice. Table 3 demonstrat es the 3 year trend in STF incidents. While the total number of injury incidents is increasing, the percent of STF incidents and number of STF incidents per 100 full time employees is decreasing. The overall NIOSH study proposes a pre intervention and post intervention analysis. Caution must be used in analyzing the post intervention data as the current STF trend, prior to any intervention, is downward. It may be prudent to consider what, if any, safety initiatives have been instituted since 1998.

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24 The li terature suggests that older workers comprise most of the STF incidents and have more resulting lost work days. To evaluate this in the JAH sample, the Wilcoxon Rank Sum test was performed to evaluate if there was a significant difference between the ages of those workers with lost work days (due to STF incidents), and those without lost work days. The Wilcoxon Rank Sum test is the non parametric version of the independent samples t test. It is used when the assumptions of normality or equality of varia nces are not met for the dependant variable. An inherent characteristic of many nonparametric statistics is the use of ranks rather than actual values, which has the advantage of eliminating the influence of outlying variables. The results of a Z score of 0.8181 and a p value of 0.4133 indicate that there was no significant difference among the ages of those who suffered an STF incident and had lost work time compared to those who suffered an STF incident and had no lost work time. The 5 th percentile a nd 95 th percentile for age were 29 and 64 years respectively. In the absence of socioeconomic factors, it would be expected for older workers to have more lost work time after an STF incident. This was not demonstrated in this data set. There were several problems encountered in evaluating actual number of lost work days and light work days. From the ASISTS database, the information specialist was able to retrieve the fields lost work days (yes/no) and light work duty (yes/no) only. The actual number of each, (which is entered at the close of a case by the supervisor), could not be accessed. For this reason, data from the safety office alternate data base was utilized. Table

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25 4 shows the discrepancy in the data obtained from the alternate database as c ompared to the data from the ASISTS database. The percent of STF incidents in which either lost or light duty work days was recorded was drastically different. The ASISTS database showed over three times as many workers with resulting lost and light duty w ork days when compared to the alternate database. Table 5 shows the frequency with which case numbers that were shown to have lost or light work days (yes/no) in the ASISTS database matched with a corresponding number in the lost and light day fields fr om the alternate database. The alternate database was clearly was lacking data on lost and light work days when compared to the ASISTS database. Further attempts were made to obtain the actual number of days lost such as requesting the information from t he workers compensation database. This database, which is housed within Human Resources, tracks the number of lost and light duty workday for each injured employee. The problem arose in matching the data in a manner which would maintain confidentiality. T he workers compensation database is maintained independently from the ASISTS database and it is not possible to request information using the case numbers alone. The data can only be matched by name and social security number which made the data unattain able for this study. The data from the alternate database was useful when analyzed from a case management perspective. Of the 5% of cases for which the number of

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26 days lost were provided, there were two outliers of 39 and 18 days. If a worker suffered a c atastrophic event, the expected number of lost work days would be greater that 39 and on the same note, a lesser injury would be expected to return to work earlier than 18 days. This suggests that case management as well as prevention should be addressed. There are a number of suggestions that can be made to improve the present system of data collection. Currently, there is a plethora of data collected with no stated purpose. A more efficient system would decide on the question that needs to be answered, w hat data is required to answer that question, and then design a collection system around the stated purpose. To minimize duplication of effort and increase accuracy, reports should be generatable from the initial database and not need to be entered into an alternate database. The current system has several key players that do not have optimal communication regarding worker accidents. A more integrated approach may facilitate the entire process. This would encompass having one database in which all the work er accident information was maintained, including the number of lost and light work days and worker compensation information. Each of the four specialties of safety, risk management, occupational health, and human resources has valuable input regarding wor ker safety and rapid return to work following an accident. Combining these resources and data into one centralized system, with regular analysis of the data, would enhance the

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27 communication between these areas, identify trends, clarify case management, and lead to an overall more efficient system. To decrease the reporting bias, employees should be encouraged to report all STF incidents and near misses. Altering VA form 2162 to eliminate the narrative text fields and replace these with menu options would in crease the speed and accuracy of reporting as well as making the characterization of the STF incidents more precise. A subject not addressed here, but discussed in the literature is the perceptions of managers and accident subjects towards STF accidents. Stubs (1992) examined the influence of the Health and Safety Work Act of 1974 on industrial health and safety. He concluded that a delicate balance exits between the employers, managers, and employees. An example of this balance is illustrated by the bl ame culture in the investigation of accidents. Lacroix and Dejoy (1989) suggested that managers allocated higher degrees of responsibility to the employee when the cause of the accident was perceived to be internal such as lack of ability or carelessness Lehane and Stubbs (2001) describe the attribution of causal responsibility between those who experience and those who investigate STF incidents. They delineate how differing perceptions of causal responsibility held by accident subjects and managers are likely to exert influence in different ways. For managers, this may influence: Their decision as to weather or not they carry out any investigation.

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28 Their attitude towards the accident subject. Their willingness to implement preventative strategies. Whil st the perceptions of the accident subjects may influence: Their attitude towards any investigation carried out by their manager. Their attitude towards their manger. Their subsequent behavior and confidence involving any preventive strategy. If both a ccident subjects and managers could be brought to a position where they perceive a more balanced view as to the attribution of causal responsibility, it would foster a better environment for the effective implementation of preventive strategies in a mutual ly supportive way.

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29 Conclusion Based on the analyzed data, efforts and resources to decrease the number of STF incidents and the JAH Veterans Administration Hospital would be best concentrated in the following areas: Occupations of RN, LPN, and administrative. The location s of the parking lot, patient rooms (including the ICU and SICU), and the stairwells. Causes of slick flooring not otherwise specified, non patient related objects (such as computer cords, parking stops, and door stops), and uneven walking surfaces. Prop osed improvements in the method of data collection include: Identify what STF questions want to be answered. Decide what data is required to answer the question. Design a data collection system around this. Strive for a more integrated approach. Form a t eam composed of Safety, Risk Management, Occupational Health, and Human Resources which are all valuable sources of knowledge and data. Form a centralized database with continuous analysis.

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30 Encourage employee reporting of both STF incidents and near misse s. Altering VA form 2162 to eliminate the narrative text fields and replace these with menu options. Given the downward trend in the three year analysis of STF incidents, caution should be used in analyzing the results of a pre and post intervention st udy.

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31 List of References Andersson R, Lagerlof E. (1983). Accident data in the new Swedish information system on occupational injurie s. Ergonomics, 26, 33 42. Bureau of Labor Statistics, (1988). U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC. Bureau of Labor S tatistics, (2002). U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC. Davies JC, Stevens G, Manning DP. (2001). An investigation of underfoot accidents in a MAIM database. Applied Ergonomics, 32, 141 147. Englander F, Hodson TJ, Terregrossa RA.(1996). Economic dimensions of slip and fall injuries. Journal of Forensic Science, 41, 733 746. Goetsch, D.L. (1993). Industrial Safety and Health New York, NY: Macmillian Publishing Company, 159 163. Kemmlert K, Lundholm L. (2001). Slips, trips and falls in differe nt work groups with reference to age and from a preventive perspective. Applied Ergonomics, 32, 149 153. Lacroix, D and Dejoy D. (1989). Causal attribution to effort and supervisory responses to workplace accidents. Journal of Occupational Accidents 11 97 109. Layne LA, Landon DD. (1997). A descriptive analysis of nonfatal occupational injuries to older workers, using a national probability sample of hospital emergency departments. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 29, 855 865. Leam on TB, Murphy PL.( 1995). Occupational slips and falls: more than a trivial problem. Ergonomics, 38, 487 498. Lehane P, Stubbs D. (2001). The perceptions of managers and accident subjects in the service industries towards slip and trip accidents. Applied Ergonomics, 32, 119 126.

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32 Manning DP.( 1998). Deaths and injuries caused by slipping, tripping, and falling. Ergonomics, 26, 3 9. Manning DP, Jones C. (2001). The effect of roughness, floor polish, water, oil and ice on underfoot friction: current safet y footwear solings are less slip resistant that microcellular polyurethane. Applied Ergonomics, 32, 185 196. Mital A, Pennathur A, and Kansal A. (1999). Nonfatal occupational injuries in the United States: Part I overall trends and data summaries. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 25, 110 130. National Ag Safety Database. NASD Preventing Injuries from Slips, Trips, and Falls Available at: http:// cdc.gov/nasd/docs.html. NORA, Traumatic Occupational Injury Research Needs and Priori ties U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, June 1998 National Safety Council., (1999). Injury Facts Itasca, IL. Author. NIOSH. NIOSH/NORA Home Page Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nios h/norhmpg.html Roys MS, (2001). Serious stair injuries can be prevented by improving stair design. Applied Ergonomics 32, 135 139. Strandberg L. (1983). On accident analysis and slip resistance measurement Ergonomics 26, 11 32. Stubbs, D.A. (19 92). Contemporary ergonomics In: Lovesey, EJ (Ed.), Ergonomics, Health and Safety: A Function of Management Taylor & Francis, London, 16 27. UCLA Academic Technology Service. Statistical tests in SAS Available at: http:// www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/sas/whatstat/default.htm

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33 Bibliography Canadas National Occupational Health & Safety Source. CCOHS Prevention of slips, trips, and falls Available at: http: www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/safety_has/falls.html C ayless SM. (2001). Slip trip and fall accidents: relationship to building features and use of coroners report is ascribing cause. Applied Ergonomics 32, 155 162. Chang WR.(2001). The effect of surface roughness and contaminant on the dynamic friction o f porcelain tile. Applied Ergonomics 21, 173 184. David GD.(2001). STFA An international conference on slipping, tripping, and falling accidents. Applied Ergonomics 32, 117 118. Gronqvist R, Hirvonen M, and Rajamaki E.(2001). Development of a por table test device for assessing on site floor slipperiness: an interim report. Applied Ergonomics 32, 163 171.

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34 A ppendices

PAGE 41

35 Appendix A: VA Form 2162 First Report of Incident

PAGE 42

36 Appendix B: VA Form CA 1

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37 Appendix C: Numerical coding scheme Type of Incident Slip 1 Trip 2 Fall 3 Location of Incident Restroom 1 Stairwell 2 Parking Lot 3 Patient Roo m (including ICU an SICU) 4 Lobby 5 Hallway 6 Outpatient clinic area 7 Other 8 Cafeteria 9 Cause of Incident Urine 1 Water 2 Slick Surface not otherwise specified 3 Patient related object (bed sheets, IV poles Etc) 4 Non patient related objects (computer cords, parking stops, door stoppers) 5 Uneven surface 6 From height 7 On/off bus 8 From chairs 9 Stairs 10 Other 11

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38 Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts PROC IMPORT OUT= WORK.all DATAFILE= "a: \ all.XLS" DBMS=EXCEL2000 REPLACE; GETNAMES=YES; run ; proc contents data=all; run ; proc print data=all; run ; proc freq data=all; tables location age; run ; proc npar1way data=all wilcoxon; Title 'Nonparametric Test to compare mean age and lost time'; class losttime; var age; run ; proc npar1way data=all wilcoxon; Title 'Nonparametric Test to compare mean age and affected work days'; class Lightlost; var age; run ; proc freq data=all2; tables lightlost*location / chisq; run ;

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 39 The SAS System 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 508 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB BODYPART 1 01DEC1998:00:00:00 1998 1999 00001 Mal APR 29,1948 2 04JAN1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00003 Fem APR 24,1946 3 04JAN1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00005 Fem APR 24,1946 4 05JAN1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00006 Mal JUN 30,1980 5 04FEB1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00008 Fem OCT 23,1954 6 04FEB1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00008A Fem OCT 23,1954 EXTERNAL, 7 11FEB1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00021 Fem MAR 19,1967 Leg(s), Up 8 12FEB1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00 024 Fem MAR 23,1952 Ankles 9 17FEB1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00045 Fem JUN 30,1927 PELVIS 10 23FEB1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00046 Fem APR 6,1958 11 27FEB1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00074 Fem SE P 3,1957 Knees 12 01MAR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00077 Fem FEB 13,1961 Hip 13 01MAR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00077A Fem FEB 13,1961 Hip 14 01MAR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00078 Fem AUG 18,1958 L eg(s), Lo 15 03MAR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00083 Fem MAR 31,1949 16 03MAR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00085 Fem JUL 4,1931 Hip 17 03MAR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00087 Wrist(s) 18 03MAR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00087A Wrist(s) 19 09MAR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00099 Fem SEP 9,1941 EXTERNAL, 20 12MAR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00112 Fem MAY 9,1953 21 12MAR1999:0 0:00:00 1999 1999 00112A Fem MAY 9,1953 Foot, Incl 22 16MAR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00122 Fem NOV 14,1964 Knees 23 19MAR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00126 Mal OCT 6,1950 Knees Obs SIDEBODY type cause LOCATION F11 occup returnduty losttime age 1 . 610 50 2 . 301 53 3 . 301 53 4 . 2091 19 5 . 603 45 6 Both 3 9 7 603 Full duty No 45 7 Left 3 11 8 638 Full duty No 32 8 Right 1 3 8 7408 Light duty Yes 47 9 Right 0 0 0 No 72 10 . 630 41 11 Right 1 3 4 620 Full duty No 42 12 Right 0 0 0 621 Light duty No 38 13 Right 1 0 0 621 Light duty Y es 38 14 Left 2 5 7 610 Full duty Yes 41 15 3 11 7 603 50 16 Left 2 5 3 610 Yes 68 17 Left 0 0 0 . 18 Left 0 0 0 . 19 NA 3 10 2 No 58 20 0 0 0 610 46

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 40 21 Left 1 3 6 610 Full duty No 46 22 Left 3 10 2 3566 Full duty No 35 23 Right 1 6 3 6907 Full duty No 49

PAGE 47

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 41 The SAS System 15:16 Friday, Janu ary 10, 2003 509 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB BODYPART 24 26MAR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00145 Mal SEP 30,1970 Wrist(s) 25 04APR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00164 Fem JUN 9 ,1941 Leg(s), Up 26 08APR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00173 Fem DEC 28,1953 Knees 27 11APR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00181 Mal NOV 3,1969 Leg(s), Lo 28 14APR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00194 Fem MAR 25 ,1934 LOWER BACK 29 16APR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00201 Mal FEB 25,1964 Knees 30 16APR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00201A Mal FEB 25,1964 Knees 31 20APR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00208 Fem DEC 31,1964 Buttocks 32 02FEB1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00213 Fem JUL 17,1957 Knees 33 29APR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00227 Fem DEC 31,1939 CHEST 34 01APR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00242 Mal MAY 24,1940 35 01APR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00242A Mal MAY 24,1940 LOWER BACK 36 07MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00244 Fem FEB 12,1946 Ankles 37 07MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00249 Fem AUG 28,1948 38 07MAY1999: 00:00:00 1999 1999 00250 Fem AUG 28,1948 Ankles 39 12MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00260 Fem NOV 18,1949 Ankles 40 14MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00266 Fem APR 11,1956 Ankles 41 16MAY1999:00:00:0 0 1999 1999 00268 Fem JUN 6,1958 Knees 42 17MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00269 Fem OCT 23,1962 Arm(s), Up 43 17MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00270 Fem APR 21,1950 Knees 44 17MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00270A Fem APR 21,1950 Knees 45 14MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00271 Mal AUG 19,1951 Knees 46 21MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00286 Fem JAN 5,1956 Hip Obs type cause LOCATION F11 occup returnduty losttime age 24 Both 1 3 8 640 Full duty Yes 29 25 Left 0 0 0 610 Full duty No 58 26 Both 2 11 3 679 Full duty Yes 46 27 Left 3 11 3 305 Full duty No 30 28 Both 3 7 8 620 Full duty No 65 29 Right 0 0 0 7408 Light duty No 35 30 Right 0 0 0 7408 Light duty No 35 31 Both 3 9 8 303 Full duty No 35 32 Both 1 3 5 318 Full duty No 42 33 Right 2 4 4 610 Full duty No 60 34 0 0 0 640 59 35 Both 1 3 8 640 No 59 36 Left 3 11 4 640 Light duty No 53 37 0 0 0 185 51 38 Left 1 3 6 185 Full duty No 51 39 Right 1 3 4 679 Full duty Yes 50 40 Left 1 3 6 630 Full duty No 43 41 Left 1 3 6 620 Light duty No 41 42 Right 2 5 3 620 Light duty Yes 37

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 42 43 Both 1 6 3 610 Light duty No 49 44 Both 1 6 3 610 Light duty No 49 45 Left 1 10 2 660 Full duty No 48 46 Right 1 6 3 610 Full duty No 43

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 43 The SAS System 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 510 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB BODYPART 47 24MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00299 Fem MAR 19,1951 Foot, Incl 48 24MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00301 Fem OCT 9,1957 Hand(s), I 49 01JUN1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00313 Fem MAY 9,1943 FACE 50 07MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00316 51 07MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00322 Fem APR 10,1925 LOWER BACK 52 10JUN1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00341 Mal DEC 3,1946 LOWER BACK 53 04JUN1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00343 Fem AUG 30,1946 Knees 54 15JUN1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00351 Fem OCT 11,1947 Knees 55 15JUN1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00361 Fem APR 29,1938 FACE 56 21JUN1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00375 Fem JAN 21,1942 LOWER BACK 57 22JUN1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00389 Fem AUG 28,1950 MOUTH 58 02JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00415 Fem DEC 21,1961 Wrist(s) 59 09JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00430 Fem NOV 3,1922 Knees 60 12JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00441 Fem JUN 15,1958 Total Body 61 13JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00445 Mal MAR 16,1942 Hip 62 15JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00455 Fem AUG 5,1948 LOWER BACK 63 16JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00456 Mal JUN 23,1947 64 15JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00458 Fem AUG 5 ,1948 65 20JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00464 Fem SEP 7,1950 SKULL (CRA 66 22JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00473 Fem NOV 9,1958 LOWER BACK 67 21JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00478 Mal FEB 25,1969 EXTERNAL, 68 21JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00481 Mal JAN 31,1948 Arm(s), Lo 69 16JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00484 Mal JUN 23,1947 Knees Obs SIDEBODY type cause LOCATION F11 occup returnduty losttime age 47 Right 1 2 3 690 Yes 48 48 Both 2 5 2 679 Full duty No 42 49 Left 2 5 5 303 Full duty Yes 56 50 . . 51 Right 0 0 0 Full duty No 74 52 Both 3 8 3 83 No 53 53 Right 1 10 2 679 Full duty No 53 54 Left 2 5 7 679 Full duty No 52 55 Both 2 5 3 3111 Full duty No 61 56 Both 1 2 6 610 Light duty Yes 57 57 Right 3 11 8 303 F ull duty No 49 58 Left 3 9 8 309 Light duty No 38 59 Right 2 5 3 Full duty No 77 60 Both 2 6 8 525 Full duty No 41 61 Right 1 3 6 3566 Full duty No 57 62 Both 2 4 4 610 Light duty No 51 63 . 83 52

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 44 64 0 0 0 610 51 65 Right 1 3 6 203 Full duty N o 49 66 Both 2 5 8 647 Full duty No 41 67 NA 3 9 8 303 Full duty No 30 68 Left 1 3 1 661 Full duty Yes 69 Left 1 6 3 83 Full duty No 52

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 45 The SAS System 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 511 Obs DA TE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB BODYPART 70 27JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00490 Fem SEP 13,1940 Knees 71 31JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00497 Fem MAR 17,1949 72 07AUG1999:00:00:00 1999 1 999 00521 Mal OCT 15,1968 Ankles 73 12AUG1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00530 Fem MAR 19,1938 Hand(s), I 74 24AUG1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00552 Fem DEC 9,1958 75 24AUG1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00553 Fem SEP 12,1940 Ankles 76 16SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00556 Mal FEB 12,1954 Leg(s), Lo 77 30AUG1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00561 Fem JUN 7,1968 Knees 78 01SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00565 Fem SEP 15,1953 Knees 79 03SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00578 Mal OCT 1,1941 LOWER BACK 80 05SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00584 Mal MAR 13,1940 LOWER BACK 81 09SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00587 Fem JUL 26,1955 82 15SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00608 Mal JAN 14,1950 Buttocks 83 16SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00615 Fem APR 13,1951 Leg(s), Lo 84 17SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00616 Fem JUN 30, 1961 Knees 85 21SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00620 Fem OCT 25,1970 Knees 86 21SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00621 Fem MAR 15,1954 LOWER BACK 87 22SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00624 Mal SEP 20,1949 Knees 88 25SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00627 Fem AUG 24,1943 LOWER BACK 89 15SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00634 Fem AUG 25,1946 90 01OCT1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00002 Mal AUG 21,1948 NECK 91 18SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00003 Mal OCT 17,1949 LOWER BACK 92 09OCT1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00020 Mal AUG 30,1951 Buttocks Obs SIDEBODY type cause LOCATION F11 occup returnduty losttime age 70 NA 2 6 6 622 Full duty No 59 71 1 0 0 621 50 72 Left 3 10 2 601 Light duty Yes 31 73 Right 3 11 6 322 Full duty No 61 74 . 3566 41 75 Left 3 10 2 318 Full duty Yes 59 76 Right 3 0 0 3566 Full duty No 45 77 Right 1 3 6 630 Full duty No 31 78 Ri ght 2 5 3 621 Full duty 46 79 Right 0 0 0 5402 Full duty No 58 80 NA 1 3 8 4102 Light duty No 59 81 1 6 3 1101 44 82 1 3 2 602 No 49 83 1 2 6 610 Full duty No 48 84 Right 1 3 4 620 Light duty Yes 38 85 Both 3 7 8 621 Full duty No 29

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 46 86 Both 1 2 8 7408 Light duty Yes 45 87 Left 2 4 4 620 Full duty No 50 88 Left 3 0 6 620 Light duty No 56 89 3 0 0 610 53 90 Right 1 2 6 185 Light duty No 51 91 NA 3 7 8 622 Ligh t duty No 50 ) 92 Both 1 3 4 621 Full duty No 48

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 47 The SAS System 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 512 Obs DATE yea r CASENUMBER SEX DOB BODYPART 93 08OCT1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00025 Fem JUN 15,1956 94 18OCT1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00035 Fem SEP 21,1962 Leg(s), Lo 95 18OCT1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00036 Fem JUN 15,1958 Arm(s), Up 96 07OCT1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00038 Mal JAN 4,1938 MOUTH 97 08OCT1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00042 Fem JUN 15,1956 Ankles 98 18OCT1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 0005 2 Fem JUN 15,1958 99 28OCT1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00062 Fem MAR 27,1952 Leg(s), Lo 100 11NOV1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00094 Fem MAY 23,1946 Leg(s), Up 101 17NOV1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00120 Fem MAY 2,1957 Foot, Incl 102 17NOV1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00120A Fem MAY 2,1957 Foot, Incl 103 23NOV1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00148 Fem AUG 14,1948 Wrist(s) 104 24NOV1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00150 Leg(s), Up 105 18NOV1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00158 Mal JAN 3,1934 Knees 106 29NOV1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00159 Fem JAN 30,1943 Knees 107 29NOV1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00159A Fem JAN 30,1943 Knees 108 08DEC1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00175 Fem MAR 5,1944 Knees 109 09DEC1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00176 Fem AUG 30,1946 Knees 110 12DEC1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00182 Fem MAY 3,1 940 Wrist(s) 111 20DEC1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00201 Mal MAR 17,1950 Shoulder 112 26DEC1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00204 Mal AUG 1,1958 Ankles 113 27DEC1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00205 Fem AUG 14,1948 LOWER BACK 114 28DEC1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00206 Fem JAN 14,1944 Knees 115 21JAN2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00243 Fem JAN 18,1951 CHEST Obs SIDEBODY type cause LOCATION F11 occup returnduty losttime age 93 . 610 43 94 Both 1 3 5 303 Full duty No 37 95 Right 0 0 6 525 Light duty Yes 41 96 Left 3 11 8 802 Full duty No 61 97 Right 1 2 2 610 Full duty No 43 98 . 525 41 99 Right 3 0 3 610 Light duty No 47 100 Right 1 3 6 610 Light duty No 53 101 Right 1 6 3 610 No 42 102 Right 1 6 3 610 Full duty No 42 103 Left 2 4 8 610 L ight duty No 51 104 Left 2 5 0 . 105 Right 2 6 6 3566 Light duty No 65 106 Right 3 0 3 610 Full duty No 56 107 Right 3 0 3 610 Full duty No 56 108 Both 3 11 7 303 Full duty No 55 109 Right 1 6 3 679 Full duty No 53

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 48 110 Right 1 3 6 610 Full duty No 59 111 Left . 5306 Full duty N o 49 112 Left 1 3 8 7408 Light duty No 41 113 Right 1 2 0 610 Light duty No 51 114 Both 3 8 3 318 Full duty No 55 115 Both 2 5 3 620 Full duty No 49 The SAS System 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 513 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB BODYPART 116 18JAN2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00247 Fem NOV 13,1946 Arm(s), Lo 117 27JAN2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00261 Fem SEP 2,1940 Shoulder 118 01FEB2000:00 :00:00 2000 2000 00269 Mal FEB 27,1961 Ankles 119 06FEB2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00289 Mal OCT 11,1949 LOWER BACK 120 08FEB2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00291 Mal AUG 30,1951 Hip 121 10FEB2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00295 Mal MAY 19,1947 Wrist(s) 122 10FEB2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00301 Mal JAN 26,1972 Knees 123 11FEB2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00303 Fem JAN 21,1948 Knees 124 16FEB2000:00:00:00 200 0 2000 00307 Fem OCT 22,1957 Ankles 125 16FEB2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00309 Fem DEC 25,1937 Knees 126 17FEB2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00315 Mal JAN 10,1948 Shoulder 127 27JAN2000:00:00:00 2000 2 000 00327 Mal JUN 22,1935 128 03MAR1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00342 Fem FEB 29,2000 Wrist(s) 129 21MAR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00371 Fem MAR 23,1947 Shoulder 130 27MAR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00388 Fem APR 26,1979 Ankles 131 28MAR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00394 Mal NOV 19,1957 Wrist(s) 132 30MAR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00398 Fem SEP 16,1963 Foot, Incl 133 03APR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00410 Fem SEP 28,1956 Knees 134 03APR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00414 Fem APR 4,1945 Foot, Incl 135 04APR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00415 Fem SEP 2,1960 Elbow 136 04APR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00416 Fem FEB 5,1941 LOWER BACK 137 10APR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00428 Fem NOV 9,1970 ABDOMEN 138 10APR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00429 Fem DEC 21,1961 Foot, Incl Obs SIDEBODY type cause LOCATION F11 o ccup returnduty losttime age 116 Right 2 6 6 309 Light duty No 54 117 Right 2 5 5 620 Light duty No 60 118 Left 2 5 3 83 Light duty No 39 119 Both 2 6 5 3566 Light duty No 51 120 Both 1 3 4 621 Light duty No 49 12 1 Left 2 6 5 561 Full duty No 53 122 Right 3 0 0 28 123 Right 3 0 4 610 Light d uty No 52 124 Right 3 11 3 3566 Light duty No 43 125 Left 1 2 8 610 Full duty No 63 126 Right 2 5 4 303 Light duty Yes 52 127 . 4749 65

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 49 128 Left 0 0 0 1 129 Left 3 7 8 No 53 130 Right 0 0 8 7408 Full duty No 21 131 Left 2 5 3 802 Full duty No 43 132 Both 1 3 6 665 Yes 37 133 Right 2 6 3 682 Light duty No 44 134 Left 3 10 2 610 Full duty No 55 135 Right 1 1 1 610 Full duty No 40 136 Left 3 9 7 620 Full duty No 59 ) 137 NA 3 11 8 645 Full duty Yes 30 138 Left 0 0 5 309 Light duty No 39

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 50 The SAS System 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 514 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB BODYPART 139 11APR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00435 Fem NOV 12,1936 Hand(s), I 140 20APR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00452 Fem NOV 22,1950 Ankles 141 20APR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00457 Mal MAY 15,1935 LOWER BACK 142 08MAY2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00486 Fem AUG 5,1948 NECK 143 08MAY2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00489 Fem FEB 5,1941 Ankles 144 16MAY2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00505 Fem MAR 31,1947 Knees 145 24MAY2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00525 Fem APR 24,1946 Total Body 146 14JUN2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00568 Fem MAY 19,1953 Knees 147 30JUN2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00594 Fem NOV 24,1944 LOWER BACK 148 21JUN2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00596 Fem AUG 23,1955 Knees 149 06JUL2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00601 Fem DEC 15,1977 Knees 150 13JUL 2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00614 Fem OCT 20,1957 151 14JUL2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00616 Mal MAR 2,1962 Leg(s), Up 152 14JUL2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00616A Mal MAR 2,1962 Leg(s), Up 153 13JUL2000:00:0 0:00 2000 2000 00619 Mal MAR 2,1962 Leg(s), Lo 154 25FEB2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00644 Mal JUL 20,2000 Foot, Incl 155 25JUL2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00654 Fem DEC 9,1949 Ankles 156 28JUL2000:00: 00:00 2000 2000 00659 Fem SEP 8,1955 Knees 157 31JUL2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00661 Mal JAN 14,1963 Knees 158 27JUL2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00667 Mal JUN 6,1957 Hand(s), I 159 08AUG2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00684 Fem AUG 25,1969 Hip 160 08AUG2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00685 Mal NOV 24,1970 Ankles 161 04AUG2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00686 Fem APR 3,1941 Leg(s), Lo Obs SIDEBODY type cause LOCATION F11 occup returnduty losttime age 139 Both 2 5 621 Light duty No 64 140 NA 2 5 8 620 Light duty Yes 50 141 NA 3 9 8 305 Light duty No 65 142 Left 2 5 8 610 Full duty No 52 143 Both 2 6 5 620 Full duty No 59 144 Left 2 6 3 303 Full duty No 53 145 Left 1 0 7 301 Full duty No 54 146 Right 1 2 5 47 147 NA 0 0 3 620 Full duty No 56 148 Left 2 6 3 305 Light duty No 45 149 Left 2 11 3 305 Full duty No 23 150 . 260 43 151 Both 2 5 8 636 Full duty No 38 152 Both 2 5 8 636 Full duty No 38 153 Both 2 5 8 636 Full duty No 38

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 51 154 Both 2 5 4 0 155 1 3 2 645 Yes 51 156 Right 3 11 4 610 Light duty Yes 45 157 Right 1 3 8 3566 Light duty No 37 158 Right 0 0 0 610 Full duty No 43 159 Left 2 5 8 3566 Light duty No 31 160 Rig ht 0 0 2 601 Full duty No 30 161 Right 3 9 7 661 Light duty No 59

PAGE 58

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 52 The SAS System 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 515 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB BODYPART 162 13AUG2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00695 Fem SEP 8,1938 Knees 163 15AUG2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00697 Fem DEC 6,1913 FACE 164 18AUG2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00711 Fem FEB 10,1944 Hand(s), I 165 29AUG2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00733 Fem JAN 24,1964 Hand(s), I 166 03SEP2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00758 Fem MAY 1 ,1970 Leg(s), Up 167 06SEP2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00763 Fem JAN 5,1952 Wrist(s) 168 11SEP2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00769 Fem FEB 11,1954 LOWER BACK 169 11SEP2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00770 Fem FEB 24,1938 Foot, Incl 170 09AUG2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00794 Fem AUG 30,1946 Knees 171 20SEP2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00797 Fem SEP 2,1946 Arm(s), Up 172 22SEP2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00798 Mal FEB 7,1958 LOWER BACK 173 26SEP2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00807 Fem JUN 29,1951 Elbow 174 26SEP2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00811 Fem JUL 3,1963 LOWER BACK 175 25SEP2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00815 Fem FEB 7,1948 LOWER BACK 176 20SEP2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00007 Fem APR 26,1979 Ankles 177 04OCT2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00011 Fem NOV 15,1956 LOWER BACK 178 10OCT2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00021 Mal OC T 11,1949 Knees 179 16OCT2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00040 Fem FEB 8,1943 Buttocks 180 19OCT2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00050 Fem MAY 20,1941 Wrist(s) 181 23OCT2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00061 Mal JUL 4 ,1914 Knees 182 25OCT2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00064 Fem NOV 24,1944 LOWER BACK 183 31OCT2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00076 Mal JAN 15,1981 Leg(s), Lo 184 02NOV2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00084 Mal OCT 9 ,1958 Knees Obs SIDEBODY type cause LOCATION F11 occup returnduty losttime age 162 Right 2 11 6 610 Light duty Yes 62 163 Right 2 6 3 87 164 Left 3 0 4 620 Light duty No 56 165 Left 3 0 3 303 Light duty Yes 36 166 Left 1 3 4 620 Full duty Yes 30 167 Right 1 5 3 610 Full duty No 48 168 Both 2 4 4 610 Full duty Yes 46 169 Right 2 5 6 610 Light duty Yes 62 170 Left 0 0 3 998 Full duty No 54 171 Left 1 3 8 185 Ful l duty No 54 172 Both 1 3 5 3566 Full duty No 42 173 Right 2 6 3 305 Full duty No 49 174 Both 1 11 2 303 Full duty No 37 175 NA 3 9 5 303 Light duty No 52

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 53 176 Right 0 0 0 7408 Full duty No 21 177 NA 2 5 8 679 Full duty No 44 178 Right 1 2 1 3566 Light duty Yes 51 179 Left 1 2 8 7408 Full duty No 57 180 Left 2 6 5 59 181 Left 3 11 8 60 No 86 182 Both 2 5 7 620 Light duty Yes 56 183 Left 3 10 2 305 Full duty No 19 184 Right 2 10 2 640 Light duty Yes 42 The SAS System 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 516 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB BODYPART 185 02NOV2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00090 Fem JUL 29,1953 Knees 186 06NOV2000: 00:00:00 2000 2001 00096 Fem JAN 26,1952 Arm(s), Up 187 11NOV2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00107 Fem MAR 27,1952 Leg(s), Lo 188 13NOV2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00108 Fem DEC 17,1960 Hand(s), I 189 04DEC 2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00158 Mal MAR 15,1948 190 04DEC2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00159 Mal MAR 15,1948 Knees 191 02DEC2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00165 Mal JUL 14,1954 Ankles 192 07DEC2000:00:00:00 2 000 2001 00175 Fem FEB 8,1943 FACE 193 09DEC2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00182 Fem MAY 24,1942 Knees 194 22NOV2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00184 Fem APR 10,1954 Ankles 195 21DEC2000:00:00:00 2000 200 1 00202 Fem APR 10,1961 Knees 196 21DEC2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00205 Mal MAR 24,1956 SKULL (CRA 197 26DEC2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00209 Fem NOV 26,1954 Buttocks 198 28DEC2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00210 Fem SEP 15,1942 Knees 199 01JAN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00214 Mal FEB 6,1966 Knees 200 08JAN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00235 Fem JUL 7,1941 Hip 201 12JAN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00244 Fe m NOV 16,1952 Knees 202 16JAN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00252 Fem APR 28,1949 Foot, Incl 203 10JAN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00256 Fem NOV 24,1953 Arm(s), Lo 204 17JAN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00259 Fe m OCT 16,1941 Ankles 205 24JAN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00270 Mal NOV 24,1977 Knees 206 25JAN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00273 Fem OCT 3,1949 RIB 207 26JAN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00281 Fem MAY 30 ,1948 Knees Obs SIDEBODY type cause LOCATION F11 occup returnduty losttime age 185 Left 2 4 7 620 Full duty No 47 186 Right 2 6 3 640 Full duty No 48 187 Right 1 3 6 610 Full duty No 48 188 Left 3 0 2 649 Full duty No 40 189 . 303 52 190 Right 1 3 8 303 Full duty No 52 191 Right 0 0 0 610 No 46 192 Left 2 5 3 7408 Full duty No 57 193 Right 1 3 6 610 Light duty No 58

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 54 194 Left 2 6 3 303 Ful l duty No 46 195 Right 1 3 3 660 Yes 39 196 NA 0 0 0 305 Full duty No 44 197 Both 2 5 8 305 Full duty No 46 198 Both 1 2 4 610 Light duty No 58 199 Both 2 4 4 620 Full duty No 35 200 Left 1 3 3 679 Full duty No 60 201 Left 1 3 4 620 Full duty No 49 202 Left 2 5 6 620 Full duty No 52 203 Right 2 6 8 301 Full duty No 48 204 Left 2 6 3 601 Light duty Yes 60 205 Both 1 3 1 679 Full duty Yes 24 206 Right 2 5 3 3566 Light duty No 52 207 Right 2 5 8 603 Full duty No 53

PAGE 61

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 55 The SAS System 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 517 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB BODYPART 208 01FEB2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00295 Mal JUL 24,1936 Shoulder 209 06FEB2 001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00305 Fem JAN 19,1959 Wrist(s) 210 07FEB2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00309 Mal JUN 17,1959 Knees 211 06FEB2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00312 Fem JAN 5,1956 Ankles 212 15FEB2001:00 :00:00 2001 2001 00327 Fem SEP 20,1940 Knees 213 22DEC2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00345 Mal OCT 1,1941 Total Body 214 23FEB2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00347 Fem SEP 30,1972 LOWER BACK 215 26FEB2001:00 :00:00 2001 2001 00359 Mal AUG 24,1969 Leg(s), Lo 216 03MAR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00381 Fem SEP 6,1964 Knees 217 07MAR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00390 Fem AUG 8,1950 Leg(s), Lo 218 07MAR2001:00 :00:00 2001 2001 00391 Fem MAY 18,1956 Leg(s), Lo 219 06MAR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00392 Mal JUN 22,1935 Knees 220 09MAR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00404 Mal JAN 15,1981 LOWER BACK 221 10MAR2001:00 :00:00 2001 2001 00406 Fem JAN 3,1947 222 16MAR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00420 Mal SEP 16,1969 Arm(s), Lo 223 17MAR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00421 Fem MAR 25,1966 Knees 224 28MAR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00440 Fem JAN 8,1946 Arm(s), Up 225 02APR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00460 Fem SEP 14,1939 Hip 226 11APR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00477 Fem AUG 13,1947 Ankles 227 11APR2001:00:00:00 2001 20 01 00479 Mal NOV 2,1955 FACE 228 12APR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00484 Mal FEB 12,1954 229 12APR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00484A Mal FEB 12,1954 LOWER BACK 230 13APR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00485 Ma l AUG 18,1959 Knees Obs SIDEBODY type cause LOCATION F11 occup returnduty losttime age 208 Right 3 11 8 180 Full duty No 65 209 Right 1 2 6 610 Full duty No 42 210 Left 3 11 8 83 Full duty No 42 211 Left 3 0 8 303 Full duty No 45 212 NA 1 10 2 610 No 61 213 3 11 8 5402 Full duty No 59 214 Left 2 0 0 2091 Full duty No 29 215 Right 1 3 8 7408 Full duty No 32 216 Left 1 3 5 610 Yes 37 217 Both 2 5 3 610 Full duty No 51 218 Right 2 10 2 610 Full duty No 45 219 Left 3 0 0 4742 Full duty No 66 220 Both 3 9 8 305 Full duty No 20 221 . 620 54 222 Left 3 9 8 644 No 32 223 Right 2 4 4 620 Light duty No 35

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 56 224 Left 0 0 3 7408 Full duty No 55 225 Right 2 5 3 318 Full dut y No 62 226 Right 2 5 3 305 Full duty No 54 227 Left 1 3 8 303 Full duty No 46 228 . 3566 47 229 Right 3 7 8 3566 Full duty No ) 47 230 Right 0 0 2 4801 Full duty No 42

PAGE 63

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 57 The SAS System 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 518 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB BODYPART 231 19APR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00498 Mal NOV 5,1956 232 1 7APR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00527 Fem JUN 25,1941 Arm(s), Up 233 26APR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00537 Fem JUN 6,1958 Hip 234 30APR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00545 Mal JUL 15,1940 Ankles 235 03MAY20 01:00:00:00 2001 2001 00556 Fem DEC 13,1955 Total Body 236 07MAY2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00580 Mal OCT 27,1954 237 09MAY2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00591 Mal MAR 23,1948 Wrist(s) 238 10MAY2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00595 Fem FEB 16,1954 LOWER BACK/B 239 15MAY2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00606 Fem APR 15,1949 Hand(s), Inc 240 16MAY2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00619 Fem NOV 19,1952 Hip 241 23MAY2001:00:00: 00 2001 2001 00633 Fem JUL 19,1957 Ankles 242 29MAY2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00645 Mal JAN 18,1948 Shoulder 243 29MAY2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00646 Fem NOV 2,1941 Buttocks 244 30MAY2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00649 Fem OCT 12,1945 LOWER BACK/B 245 05JUN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00668 Fem JUN 21,1929 LOWER BACK/B 246 07JUN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00670 Fem FEB 2,1948 Arm(s), Lowe 247 07JUN200 1:00:00:00 2001 2001 00671 Fem MAY 1,1968 Foot, Includ 248 05JUN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00672 Fem APR 16,1949 LOWER BACK/B 249 07JUN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00674 Fem MAR 23,1952 FACE 250 21JUN 2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00701 Mal AUG 7,1944 Leg(s), Lowe 251 01JUN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00702 Mal MAY 9,1951 Knees 252 27JUN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00714 Mal JAN 17,1964 SKULL (CRANI 253 1 6JUL2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00734 Fem NOV 21,1963 Ankles Obs SIDEBODY type cause LOCATION F11 occup returnduty losttime age 231 . 602 45 232 Right 3 9 8 610 Full duty No 60 233 Left 1 2 4 620 Light duty No 43 234 Right 1 5 3 621 Yes 61 235 Right 1 2 1 630 Full duty No 46 236 . 602 47 237 Right 2 5 1 622 Full duty No 53 238 Left 2 4 8 610 Full duty No 47 239 Left 1 3 4 620 Light duty No 52 240 L eft 3 8 3 679 Full duty No 49 241 Left 1 1 4 610 Light duty Yes 44 242 Right 1 3 8 3566 Full duty No 53 243 Left 1 3 4 610 Full duty No 60 244 Right 1 3 7 620 Full duty No 56 245 Right 1 3 8 Full duty No 72

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 58 246 Left 2 5 8 610 Full duty No 53 247 Left 2 5 3 679 Full duty No 33 248 NA 3 9 8 303 Full duty No 52 249 Left 2 5 3 303 Full duty No 49 250 Right 1 2 5 Full duty No 57 251 Left 2 4 6 621 Full duty No 50 252 Right 3 11 8 2805 Full duty No 37 253 Right 3 11 8 661 F ull duty No 38

PAGE 65

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 59 The SAS System 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 519 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB BODYPART 254 19JUL2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00752 Mal FEB 2,1952 Arm(s), Uppe 255 24JUL2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00778 Fem JAN 29,1951 Ankles 256 26JUL2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00779 Fem JUL 16,1955 Ankles 257 30JUL2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00804 Mal JAN 31,1968 258 30JUL2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00809 Mal APR 19,1953 Hand(s), Inc 259 09AUG2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00844 Fem NOV 25,1960 Ankles 260 13AUG2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00855 F em AUG 20,1949 NOSE 261 14AUG2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00856 Fem JUL 10,1974 FACE 262 03AUG2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00861 Fem DEC 10,1943 Foot, Includ 263 14AUG2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00862 Fem MAR 28,1946 264 24AUG2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00904 Fem MAY 5,1957 265 06SEP2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00927 Mal DEC 20,1955 UPPER BACK 266 07SEP2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00934 Fem OCT 2,1951 SINGLE KNEE 267 14SEP2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00950 Mal AUG 24,1969 268 14SEP2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00965 Mal AUG 24,1969 LEG(S), OTHE 269 24SEP2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00985 Fem AUG 9,1950 LOWER BACK/B 270 04OCT2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00011 Fem MAR 29,1954 SINGLE ELBOW 271 03OCT2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00021 Fem FEB 23,1950 LEG(S), OTHE 272 17OCT2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00040 Fem SEP 29,1953 LO WER BACK/B 273 29OCT2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00082 Fem SEP 11,1957 BOTH ARMS AN 274 03NOV2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00092 Fem MAR 5,1947 LEG(S), OTHE 275 07NOV2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00103 Fem AUG 18 ,1959 JAW, MANDIBL 276 30OCT2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00107 Fem OCT 15,1948 Obs SIDEBODY type cause LOCATION F11 occup returnduty losttime age 254 Right 3 7 8 2005 L ight duty No 49 255 Both 2 4 5 561 Full duty No 50 256 Right 3 10 2 7408 Light duty No 46 257 . 303 33 258 Left 3 10 2 3566 Light duty No 48 259 Right 1 2 5 645 Full duty No 41 260 NA 1 3 7 610 Full duty No 52 261 Right 2 10 2 633 Full duty No 27 262 Right 3 8 3 610 Light duty Y es 58 263 2 0 0 303 55 264 1 3 8 318 44 265 Both 3 7 8 2805 Full duty No 46 266 Right 1 3 8 610 Full duty No 50 267 . 7408 32 268 Left 2 5 3 7408 Light duty No 32

PAGE 66

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 60 269 Right 2 10 2 303 Full duty No 51 270 Left 3 0 3 610 Full duty No 47 27 1 Left 3 11 2 303 Full duty No 51 272 Right 1 1 4 610 Full duty No 48 273 Left 2 3 8 3566 Full du ty No 44 274 Right 2 6 5 621 Full duty Yes 54 275 NA 2 5 3 334 Yes 42 276 0 0 0 610 53

PAGE 67

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 61 The SAS System 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 520 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB BODYPART 277 20NOV2001:00 :00:00 2001 2002 00125 Fem AUG 17,1937 CHIN 278 19NOV2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00126 Fem AUG 31,1946 SINGLE FOOT 279 29NOV2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00137 Fem MAY 4,1954 LEG(S), OTHE 280 10DEC2001: 00:00:00 2001 2002 00176 Fem DEC 29,1952 ANATOMIC SIT 281 17DEC2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00182 Mal FEB 16,1943 SINGLE SHOUL 282 25DEC2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00242 Fem APR 18,1971 LEG(S), MULT 283 02JAN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00249 Fem MAR 25,1955 SINGLE HIP/T 284 06JAN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00254 Fem MAY 22,1953 285 06JAN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00254A Fem MAY 22,1953 LOWER BACK/B 286 06JA N2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00254B Fem MAY 22,1953 LOWER BACK/B 287 31DEC2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00256 Mal MAR 13,1940 HEAD, EXTERN 288 15JAN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00282 Fem AUG 25,1969 SINGLE FOOT 28 9 17JAN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00284 Mal SEP 17,1955 ANATOMIC SIT 290 17JAN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00285 Fem MAR 20,1958 LEG(S), OTHE 291 15JAN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00291 Fem JAN 14,1953 SINGL E FOOT 292 23JAN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00296 Fem JUN 20,1963 ARM(S), OTHE 293 09JAN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00306 Fem JUN 1,1958 294 01FEB2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00314 Fem FEB 4,1952 295 08FEB 2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00327 Fem JAN 31,1955 SINGLE ARM A 296 07FEB2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00328 Fem APR 21,1972 PELVIS 297 20FEB2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00350 Fem FEB 15,1944 HEAD, EXTERN 298 21FEB2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00355 Fem JUN 29,1957 SINGLE ELBOW 299 22FEB2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00357 Fem MAY 6,1954 Obs SIDEBODY type cause LOCATION F11 occup returnduty losttime age 277 Right 2 5 3 648 Full duty No 64 278 Right 1 3 4 303 No 55 279 Right 1 2 6 561 Full duty No 47 280 NA 2 5 4 620 Full duty No 49 281 Left 2 5 8 5352 Full duty No 58 282 Right 1 3 5 620 Light duty No 30 283 Right 1 6 3 303 Full duty No 47 284 1 2 4 620 49 285 Both 1 2 4 620 Light duty Yes 49 286 Both 1 2 4 620 Light duty Yes 49 287 NA 3 9 8 4102 Full duty No 61 288 Left 3 7 4 3566 Full duty No 33

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 62 289 NA 3 11 8 2854 Full duty No 47 290 Left 2 5 3 610 F ull duty No 44 291 Left 2 6 3 610 Full duty No 49 292 Right 2 5 7 682 Full duty No 39 293 . . 44 294 0 0 0 620 50 295 Right 2 4 4 610 Full duty No 47 296 Left 1 3 7 633 Full duty No 30 297 Right 3 9 4 610 Full duty No 58 298 Right 1 3 8 7408 Full duty N o 45 299 0 0 0 3566 48 The SAS System 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 521 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB BODYPART 300 22FEB2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00358 Fem JUL 3,1962 LEG(S), OTHE 301 26FEB2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00363 Mal MAY 14,1947 RIB 302 27FEB2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00364 Fem OCT 18,1947 ABDOMEN 303 11MAR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00378 Fem DEC 12,1966 BOTH LOWER L 304 11MAR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00383 Fem FEB 21,1971 ARM(S), OTHE 305 13MAR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 0 0394 Fem FEB 5,1943 306 14MAR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00398 Fem MAR 23,1970 SINGLE LEG/H 307 15MAR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00403 Fem OCT 31,1957 ARM(S), MULT 308 18MAR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00407 Fem MAY 5,1969 SINGLE FOOT 309 23MAR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00411 Fem JAN 1,1936 FACE 310 23MAR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00413 Fem JAN 1,1936 FACE 311 03APR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00438 Ma l JAN 21,1944 SINGLE KNEE 312 20MAR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00453 Mal MAR 23,1948 NECK 313 12APR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00455 Mal MAY 14,1947 LEG(S), OTHE 314 16APR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00460 Fem FEB 25,1982 LOWER BACK/B 315 17APR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00464 Fem MAY 13,1931 SINGLE KNEE 316 24APR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00477 Mal MAR 23,1948 SINGLE THUMB 317 26APR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00484 Fem MAR 22,1975 LOWER BACK/B 318 03MAY2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00501 Fem DEC 18,1958 BOTH KNEES 319 06MAY2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00504 Mal JUN 26,1945 SINGLE KNEE 320 10MAY2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00522 Fem AUG 21,1946 321 29MAY2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00569 Fem MAY 28,1940 ARM(S), MULT 322 30MAY2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00571 Mal MAY 23,1950 SINGLE KNEE Obs SIDEBODY type cause LOCAT ION F11 occup returnduty losttime age 300 Right 3 0 3 621 Full duty No 40 301 Right 3 7 8 3806 Full duty No 55

PAGE 69

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 63 302 Both 3 9 8 303 Full duty No 55 303 Right 1 6 3 610 Light duty No 36 304 Right 2 5 3 620 Full duty No 31 305 . 318 59 306 Left 3 10 2 32 307 Left 2 6 3 303 Full duty No 45 308 Right 2 10 2 303 Light duty No 33 309 Right 2 4 4 610 Light duty Yes 66 310 Right 0 0 0 610 Full duty No 66 311 Left 1 3 6 605 Full duty No 58 312 NA 2 5 6 622 Full duty No 54 313 Left 2 5 3 3806 Full duty No 55 314 Both 1 2 4 621 Full duty No 20 315 Right . 9999 Full dut y No 71 316 NA 2 6 4 622 Full duty No 54 317 NA 3 11 4 620 Full duty No 27 318 Both 2 5 3 303 Full duty Yes 44 319 Right 3 10 2 4204 Light duty No 57 320 2 4 8 647 Full duty No 56 321 Left . 9999 Full duty No 62 322 Right 2 5 8 610 Full duty No 52

PAGE 70

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 64 The SAS System 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 522 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB BODYPART 323 09JUN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00596 Fem MAR 4,1957 LOWER BACK/B 324 11JUN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00602 Fem AUG 11 ,1941 SINGLE FOOT 325 01JUL2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00644 Fem JUN 6,1958 HEAD, EXTERN 326 28JUN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00651 Mal MAR 21,1959 SINGLE SHOUL 327 10JUL2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00668 Mal NOV 20,1973 UPPER BACK 328 11JUL2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00677 Fem DEC 15,1960 LEG(S), OTHE 329 12JUL2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00680 Fem JUN 11,1965 SINGLE KNEE 330 12JUL2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00682 Fem JAN 21,1942 SINGLE LEG/H 331 17JUL2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00706 Fem AUG 6,1966 LEG(S), OTHE 332 25JUL2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00716 Fem SEP 18,1946 ARM(S), OTHE 333 26JUL2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00720 Fem JUN 3,1986 SINGLE FOOT 334 31JUL2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00731 Fem JUL 6,1949 LOWER BACK/B 335 05AUG2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00742 Mal MAR 25,1948 SINGLE FOOT 336 23JUL2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00761 Mal JUN 30,1949 SINGLE SHOUL 337 12AUG2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00763 Fem JUN 15,1958 SINGLE HAND 338 13AUG2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00769 Fem JAN 7,1949 SINGLE LOWER 339 15AUG2002: 00:00:00 2002 2002 00772 Mal SEP 14,1963 LEG(S), OTHE 340 16AUG2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00775 Fem JAN 31,1955 ABDOMEN 341 22AUG2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00792 Mal JUL 18,1953 RIB Obs SIDEBODY ty pe cause LOCATION F11 occup returnduty losttime age 323 Right 1 2 4 620 Light duty No 45 324 Left 2 5 2 303 Full duty No 61 325 Both 3 11 8 620 Full duty No 44 326 Right 1 3 8 7408 Light duty No 43 327 Both 2 3 5 645 Light duty No 29 328 Left 1 6 3 610 Full duty No 42 329 Left 2 5 8 661 No 37 330 Left 1 5 5 610 Light duty No 60 331 Right 3 0 3 620 Light duty Yes 36 332 Left 2 6 8 646 Yes 56 333 Le ft . 9999 Full duty No 16 334 Both 2 4 8 610 Full duty No 53 335 Right 2 8 3 5703 Yes 54 336 Both 3 7 8 809 Full duty No 53 337 Left 1 3 8 525 Full duty No 44

PAGE 71

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 65 338 Right 3 11 2 610 Full duty No 53 339 Right . 679 Light duty No 39 340 NA 2 11 4 610 Full duty Yes 47 341 Right 2 4 4 620 No 49

PAGE 72

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 66 ) The SAS System 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 523 The FREQ Procedure SEX Cumulative Cumulative SEX Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Fem 240 71.22 240 71.22 Mal 97 28.78 337 100.00 Frequency Missing = 4

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 67 The SAS Sy stem 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 524 The FREQ Procedure BODYPART Cumulative Cumulative BO DYPART Frequency Percent Frequency Percent ABDOMEN 3 0.99 3 0.99 ANATOMIC SIT 2 0.66 5 1.64 ARM(S), MULT 2 0.66 7 2.30 ARM(S), OTHE 3 0.99 10 3.29 Ankles 28 9.21 38 12.50 Arm(s), Lo 4 1.32 42 13.82 Arm(s), Lowe 1 0.33 43 14.14 Arm(s), Up 6 1.97 49 16.12 Arm(s), Uppe 1 0.33 50 16.45 BOTH ARMS AN 1 0.33 51 16.78 BOTH KNEES 1 0.33 52 17.11 BOTH LOWER L 1 0.33 53 17.43 Buttocks 6 1.97 59 19.41 CHEST 2 0.66 61 20.07 CHIN 1 0.33 62 20.39 EXTERNAL, 3 0.99 65 21.38 Elbow 2 0.66 67 22.04 FACE 9 2. 96 76 25.00 Foot, Incl 10 3.29 86 28.29 Foot, Includ 2 0.66 88 28.95 HEAD, EXTERN 3 0.99 91 29.93 Hand(s), I 7 2.30 98 32.24 Hand(s), Inc 2 0.66 100 32.89 Hip 11 3.62 111 36.51 JAW, MANDIBL 1 0.33 112 36.84 Knees 58 19.08 170 55.92 LEG(S), MULT 1 0.33 171 56.25 LEG(S), OTHE 10 3.29 181 59.54 LOWER BACK 26 8.55 207 68.09 LOWER BACK/B 12 3.95 219 72.04 Leg(s), Lo 13 4.28 232 76.32 Leg(s), Lowe 1 0.33 233 76.64 Leg(s), Up 7 2.30 240 78.95 MOUTH 2 0.66 242 79.61 NECK 3 0.99 245 80.59 NOSE 1 0.33 246 80.92 PELVIS 2 0.66 248 81.58 RIB 3 0.99 251 82.57 SINGLE ARM A 1 0.33 252 82.89 SINGLE ELBOW 2 0.66 254 83.55 SINGLE FO OT 7 2.30 261 85.86 SINGLE HAND 1 0.33 262 86.18 SINGLE HIP/T 1 0.33 263 86.51 SINGLE KNEE 6 1.97 269 88.49

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 68 The SAS System 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 525 The FREQ Procedure BODYPART Cumulative Cumulative BODYPART Frequency Percent Frequency Percent SINGLE LEG/H 2 0.66 271 89.14 SINGLE LOWER 1 0.33 272 89.47 SINGLE SHOUL 3 0.99 275 90.46 SINGLE THUMB 1 0.33 276 90.79 SKULL (CRA 2 0.66 278 91.45 SKULL (CRANI 1 0.33 279 91.78 Shoulder 6 1.97 285 93.75 Total Body 4 1.32 289 95.07 UPPER BACK 2 0.66 291 95.72 Wrist(s) 13 4.28 304 100.00 Frequency Missing = 37 type Cumulative Cumulative type Frequency Percent Frequency Percent 0 30 9.55 30 9.55 1 102 32.48 132 42.04 2 105 33.44 237 75.48 3 77 24.52 314 100.00 Frequency Missing = 27

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 69 The SAS System 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 526 The FREQ Procedure LOCATION Cumulative Cumulative LOCATION Frequency Percent Frequency Percent 0 32 10.22 32 10.22 1 6 1.9 2 38 12.14 2 29 9.27 67 21.41 3 68 21.73 135 43.13 4 40 12.78 175 55 .91 5 20 6.39 195 62.30 6 29 9.27 224 71.57 7 14 4.47 238 76.04 8 75 23.96 313 100.00 Frequency Missing = 28 cause Cumulative Cumulative cause Frequency Percent Frequency Percent 0 51 16.24 51 16.24 1 3 0.96 54 17.20 2 23 7.32 77 24.52 3 56 17.83 133 42.36 4 16 5.10 149 47.45 5 56 17.83 205 65.29 6 34 10.83 239 76.11 7 10 3.18 249 79.30 8 5 1.59 254 80.89 9 15 4.78 269 85.67 10 18 5.73 287 91.40 11 27 8.60 314 100.00 Frequency Missing = 27

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 70 The SAS System 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 527 The FREQ Procedure occup Cumulative Cumulative occup Frequency Percent Frequency Percent 60 1 0.31 1 0.31 83 5 1.55 6 1.86 180 1 0.31 7 2.17 185 4 1.24 11 3.42 203 1 0.31 12 3.73 260 1 0.31 13 4.04 301 4 1.24 17 5.28 303 29 9.01 46 14.29 305 10 3.11 56 17.39 309 3 0.93 59 18.32 318 6 1.86 65 20.19 322 1 0.31 66 20.50 334 1 0.31 67 20.81 525 4 1.24 71 22.05 561 3 0.93 74 22.98 601 3 0.93 77 23.91 602 3 0.93 80 24.84 603 4 1.24 84 26.09 605 1 0.31 85 26.40 610 70 21.74 155 48.14 620 37 11.49 192 59.63 621 13 4.04 205 63.66 622 5 1.55 210 65.22 630 4 1.24 214 66.46 633 2 0.62 216 67.08 636 3 0.93 219 68.01 638 1 0.31 220 68.32 640 6 1.86 226 70.19 644 1 0.31 227 70.50 645 4 1.24 231 71.74 646 1 0.31 232 72.05 647 2 0.62 234 72.67 648 1 0.31 235 72.98 649 1 0.31 236 73.29 660 2 0.62 238 73.91 661 4 1.24 242 75.16 665 1 0.31 243 75.47 679 12 3.73 255 79.19 682 2 0.62 257 79.81 690 1 0.31 258 80.12 802 2 0.62 260 80.75 809 1 0.31 261 81.06 998 1 0.31 262 81.37 1101 1 0.31 263 81.68

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 71 The SAS System 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 528 The FREQ Procedure occup Cumulative Cumulative occup Frequency Percent Frequency Percent 2005 1 0.31 264 81.99 2091 2 0.62 266 82.61 2805 2 0.62 268 83.23 2854 1 0.31 269 83.54 3111 1 0 .31 270 83.85 3566 19 5.90 289 89.75 3806 2 0.62 291 90.37 4102 2 0.62 293 90.99 4204 1 0.31 294 91.30 4742 1 0.31 295 91.61 4749 1 0.31 296 91.93 4801 1 0.31 297 92.24 5306 1 0.31 298 92.55 5352 1 0.31 299 92.86 5402 2 0.62 301 93.48 5703 1 0.31 302 93.79 6907 1 0.31 303 94.10 7408 16 4.97 319 99.07 9999 3 0.93 322 100.00 Frequency Missing = 19 returnduty Cumulative Cumulative returnduty Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Full duty 192 70.85 192 70.85 Light duty 79 29.15 271 100.00 Frequency Missing = 70

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 72 The SAS System 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 529 The FREQ Procedure losttime Cumulative Cumulative losttime Frequency Percent Frequency Percent No 246 83.67 246 83.67 Yes 48 16.33 294 100.00 Frequency Missing = 47

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 73 The SAS System 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 530 The UNIVARIATE Procedure Variable: age Moments N 337 Sum Weights 337 Mean 47.5816024 Sum Observations 16035 Std Deviation 11.363319 Variance 129.125018 Skewness 0.4726106 Kurtosis 2.03480556 Uncorrected SS 806357 Corrected SS 43386.0059 Coeff Variation 23.8817492 Std Error Mean 0.61899943 Basic Statistical Measures Location Variability Mean 47.58160 Std Deviation 11.36332 Median 49.00000 Variance 129.12502 Mode 49.00000 Range 88.00000 Interquartile Range 12.00000 Tests for Location: Mu0=0 T est Statistic ----p Value -----Student's t t 76.86857 Pr > |t| <.0001 Sign M 167 Pr >= |M| <.0001 Signed Rank S 28307 Pr >= |S| <.0001 Tests for Normality Test -Statistic ------p Value -----Shapiro Wilk W 0.970908 Pr < W <0.0001 Kolmogorov Smi rnov D 0.068321 Pr > D <0.0100 Cramer von Mises W Sq 0.36429 Pr > W Sq <0.0050 Anderson Darling A Sq 2.167693 Pr > A Sq <0.0050 Quantiles (Definitio n 5) Quantile Estimate 100% Max 87 99% 74 95% 64 90% 60 75% Q3 54

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 74 ) The SAS System 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 531 The UNIVARIAT E Procedure Variable: age Quantiles (Definition 5) Quantile Estimate 50% Median 49 25% Q1 42 10% 32 5% 29 1% 19 0% Min 1 Extreme Observations ---Lowest ------Highest --Value Obs Value Obs 1 128 72 245 0 154 74 51 16 333 77 59 19 183 86 181 19 4 87 163 Missing Values ----Percent Of ----Missing Missing Value Count All Obs Obs 4 1.17 100.00

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 75 The SAS System 15:16 Friday, January 10, 2003 532 The UNIVARIATE Procedure Variable: age Histogram # Boxplot 87.5+* 2 0 .* 1 0 .** 4 0 .***** 9 | .*********** 21 | .*********************** 46 | .*********************************** 69 + ----+ .*********************************** 69 -+ -* 42.5+************************ 47 + ----+ .*************** 30 | .*********** 21 | .**** 7 | .*** 6 0 .** 3 0 . .* 1 2.5+* 1 ---+ ---+ ---+ ---+ ---+ ---+ ---+ may represent up to 2 counts Normal Probability Plot 87.5+ | | *+ | +*+*+ | +**** | +***** | ****** | ******* | ******+ 42.5+ *****+ | *****+ | ***** | +**+ | +++*** |+** | | |* 2.5+* + ---+ ---+ ---+ ---+ ---+ ---+ ---+ ---+ ---+ ---+ 2 1 0 +1 +2

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 76 Nonparam etric Test to compare mean age and affected work days 135 14:21 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 The CONTENTS Procedure Data Set Name: WORK. ALL Observations: 335 Member Type: DATA Variables: 15 Engine: V8 Indexes: 0 Created: 14:58 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 Observation Length: 112 Last Modified: 14:58 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 Deleted Observations: 0 Protection: Compressed: NO Data Set T ype: Sorted: NO Label: ----Engine/Host Dependent Information ----Data Set Page Size: 12288 Number of Data Set Pages: 4 First Data Page: 1 Max O bs per Page: 109 Obs in First Data Page: 86 Number of Data Set Repairs: 0 File Name: C: \ DOCUME~1 \ default \ LOCALS~1 \ Temp \ SAS Temporary Files \ _TD2836 \ all.sas7bdat Release Created: 8.0202M0 Host Created: WIN_PRO ----Alphabetic List of Variables and Attributes ----# Variable Type Len Pos Format Informat Label 3 CASENUMBER Char 11 80 $11. $11. CASENUMBER 1 DATE Num 8 0 DATETIME20. DATETIME20. DATE 5 DOB Num 8 16 DATET IME20. DATETIME20. DOB 8 LOCATION Num 8 40 LOCATION 4 SEX Char 3 91 $3. $3. SEX 9 age Num 8 48 age 7 cause Num 8 32 cause 15 lightlost Char 3 107 $3. $3. lightlost 12 losttime Char 3 104 $3. $3. losttime 14 numlight Num 8 72 numlight 13 numlost Num 8 64 numlost 10 occup Num 8 56 occup 11 returnduty Char 10 94 $10. $10. returnduty 6 type Num 8 24 type 2 year Num 8 8 year

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 77 Nonparametric Test to compare mean age and affected work days 136 14:21 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 Obs DATE ye ar CASENUMBER SEX DOB type cause 1 10FEB2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00301 Mal 26JAN1972:00:00:00 3 0 2 30JUL2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00804 Mal 31JAN1968:00:00:00 . 3 1 8OCT1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00035 Fem 21SEP1962:00:00:00 1 3 4 24AUG1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00552 Fem 09DEC1958:00:00:00 . 5 18OCT1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00052 Fem 15JUN1958:00:00:00 . 6 13JUL2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00614 Fem 20OCT1957:00:00:00 . 7 08OCT1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00025 Fem 15JUN1956:00:00:00 . 8 19APR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00498 Mal 05N OV1956:00:00:00 . 9 14JUN2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00568 Fem 19MAY1953:00:00:00 1 2 10 12APR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00484 Mal 12FEB1954:00:00:00 . 11 20JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00464 Fem 07SEP1950:00:00:00 1 3 12 31JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00497 Fem 17MAR1949:00:00:00 1 0 13 07MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00249 Fem 28AUG1948:00:00:00 0 0 14 07MAY1999:00: 00:00 1999 1999 00250 Fem 28AUG1948:00:00:00 1 3 15 15JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00458 Fem 05AUG1948:00:00:00 0 0 16 16JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00456 Mal 23JUN1947:00:00:00 . 17 04DEC2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00158 Mal 15MAR1948:00:00:00 . 18 15SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00634 Fem 25AUG1946:00:00:00 3 0 19 10MAR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00406 Fem 03JAN1947:00:00 :00 . 20 01APR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00242 Mal 24MAY1940:00:00:00 0 0 21 01APR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00242A Mal 24MAY1940:00:00:00 1 3 22 19OCT2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00050 Fem 20MAY1941:00:00:00 2 6 Obs LOCATION age occup returnduty losttime numlost numlight lightlost 1 0 28 0 0 2 34 303 0 0 3 5 37 303 Full duty No 0 0 4 41 3566 0 0 5 41 525 0 0 6 43 260 0 0 7 43 610 0 0 8 44 602 0 0

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 78 9 5 47 0 0 10 47 3566 0 0 11 6 49 203 Full duty No 0 0 12 0 50 621 0 0 13 0 51 185 0 0 14 6 51 185 Full duty No 0 0 15 0 51 610 0 0 16 52 83 0 0 17 53 303 0 0 18 0 53 610 0 0 19 54 620 0 0 20 0 59 640 0 0 21 8 59 640 No 0 0 22 5 59 . .

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 79 Nonparametric Test to compare mean age and affected work days 137 14:21 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB type cause 23 27JAN2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00327 Mal 22JUN1935:00:00:00 . 24 15AUG2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00697 Fem 06DEC1913:00:00:00 2 6 25 26JUL2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00720 Fem 03JUN1986:00:00:00 . 26 05JAN1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00006 Mal 30JUN1980:00:00:00 . 27 31OCT2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00076 Mal 15 JAN1981:00:00:00 3 10 28 16APR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00460 Fem 25FEB1982:00:00:00 1 2 29 09MAR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00404 Mal 15JAN1981:00:00:00 3 9 30 27MAR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00388 Fem 26APR1979:00:00:00 0 0 31 20SEP2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00007 Fem 26APR1979:00:00:00 0 0 32 06JUL2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00601 Fem 15DEC1977:00:00:00 2 11 33 14AUG2001:00 :00:00 2001 2001 00856 Fem 10JUL1974:00:00:00 2 10 34 26APR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00484 Fem 22MAR1975:00:00:00 3 11 35 23FEB2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00347 Fem 30SEP1972:00:00:00 2 0 36 10JUL2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00668 Mal 20NOV1973:00:00:00 2 3 37 21SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00620 Fem 25OCT1970:00:00:00 3 7 38 10APR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00428 Fem 09NOV1970:00:0 0:00 3 11 39 11APR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00181 Mal 03NOV1969:00:00:00 3 11 40 08AUG2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00685 Mal 24NOV1970:00:00:00 0 0 41 07FEB2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00328 Fe m 21APR1972:00:00:00 1 3 42 03SEP2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00758 Fem 01MAY1970:00:00:00 1 3 43 21JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00478 Mal 25FEB1969:00:00:00 3 9 44 11MAR2002:00:00:00 200 2 2002 00383 Fem 21FEB1971:00:00:00 2 5 Obs LOCATION age occup returnduty losttime numlost numlight lightlost 23 65 4749 0 0 24 3 87 0 0 25 16 9999 Full duty No 0 0 No 26 19 2091 0 0 No 27 2 20 305 Full duty No 0 0 No 28 4 20 621 Full duty No 0 0 No 29 8 20 305 Full duty No 0 0 No 30 8 21 7408 Full duty No 0 0 No

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 80 31 0 21 7408 Full duty No 0 0 No 32 3 23 305 Full duty No 0 0 No 33 2 27 633 Full duty No 0 0 No 34 4 27 620 Full duty No 0 0 No 35 0 28 2091 Full duty No 0 0 No 36 9 29 645 Light duty No 0 0 No 37 8 29 621 Full duty No 0 0 No 38 8 29 645 Full duty Yes 0 No 39 3 29 305 Full duty No 0 0 No 40 2 30 601 Full duty No 0 0 No 41 7 30 633 Full duty No 0 0 No 42 4 30 620 Full duty Yes 0 No 43 8 30 303 Full duty No 0 0 No 4 4 3 31 620 Full duty No 0 0 No

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 81 Nonparametric Test to compare mean age and affected work days 138 14 :21 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB type cause 45 30AUG1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00561 Fem 07JUN1968:00:00:00 1 3 46 16MAR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00420 Mal 16SEP1969:00:00:00 3 9 47 26FEB2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00359 Mal 24AUG1969:00:00:00 1 3 48 11FEB1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00021 Fem 19MAR1967:00:00:00 3 11 49 14MAR2002:00 :00:00 2002 2002 00398 Fem 23MAR1970:00:00:00 3 10 50 14SEP2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00950 Mal 24AUG1969:00:00:00 . 51 15JAN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00282 Fem 25AUG1969:00:00:00 3 7 52 07JUN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00671 Fem 01MAY1968:00:00:00 2 5 53 20APR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00208 Fem 31DEC1964:00:00:00 3 9 54 16MAR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00122 Fem 14NOV1964:00:0 0:00 3 10 55 01JAN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00214 Mal 06FEB1966:00:00:00 2 4 56 12JUL2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00680 Fem 11JUN1965:00:00:00 2 5 57 26SEP2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00811 Fe m 03JUL1963:00:00:00 1 11 58 27JUN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00714 Mal 17JAN1964:00:00:00 3 11 59 16JUL2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00734 Fem 21NOV1963:00:00:00 3 11 60 13JUL2000:00:00:00 200 0 2000 00619 Mal 02MAR1962:00:00:00 2 5 61 14JUL2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00616 Mal 02MAR1962:00:00:00 2 5 62 14JUL2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00616A Mal 02MAR1962:00:00:00 2 5 63 23JA N2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00296 Fem 20JUN1963:00:00:00 2 5 64 04APR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00415 Fem 02SEP1960:00:00:00 1 1 65 22FEB2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00358 Fem 03JUL1962:00:00:00 3 0 66 13NOV2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00108 Fem 17DEC1960:00:00:00 3 0 Obs LOCATION age occup returnduty losttime numlost numlight lightlost 45 6 31 630 Full duty No 0 0 No 46 8 32 644 No 0 0 No 47 8 32 7408 Full duty No 0 0 No 48 8 32 638 Full duty No 0 0 No 49 2 32 0 0 No 50 32 7408 0 0 No 51 4 32 3566 Full duty No 0 0 No 52 3 33 679 Full duty No 0 0 No

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 82 53 8 34 303 Full duty No 0 0 No 54 2 34 3566 Full duty No 0 0 No 55 4 35 620 Full duty No 0 0 No 56 8 37 661 No 0 0 No 57 2 37 303 Full duty No 0 0 No 58 8 37 2805 Full duty No 0 0 No 59 8 38 661 Full duty No 0 0 No 60 8 38 636 Full duty No 0 0 No 61 8 38 636 Full duty No 0 0 No 62 8 38 636 Full duty No 0 0 No ) 63 7 39 682 Full duty No 0 0 No 64 1 40 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 65 3 40 621 Full duty No 0 0 No 66 2 40 649 Full duty No 0 0 No

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 83 Nonparametric Test to compare mean age and affected work days 139 14:21 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB type cause 67 22JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00473 Fem 09NOV1958:00:00:00 2 5 68 09AUG2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00844 Fem 25NOV1960:00:00:00 1 2 69 23FEB1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00046 Fem 06APR1958:00:00:00 . 70 12JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00441 Fem 15JUN1958: 00:00:00 2 6 71 27FEB1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00074 Fem 03SEP1957:00:00:00 1 3 72 02FEB1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00213 Fem 17JUL1957:00:00:00 1 3 73 11JUL2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00677 Fem 15DEC1960:00:00:00 1 6 74 24MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00301 Fem 09OCT1957:00:00:00 2 5 75 07FEB2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00309 Mal 17JUN1959:00:00:00 3 11 76 13APR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00485 Mal 18AUG1959:00:00:00 0 0 77 06FEB2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00305 Fem 19JAN1959:00:00:00 1 2 78 28MAR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00394 Mal 19NOV1957:00:00:00 2 5 79 17NOV1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00120 Fem 02MAY1957:00:00:00 1 6 80 17NOV1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00120A Fem 02MAY1957:00:00:00 1 6 81 22SEP2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00798 Mal 07FEB1958:00:00:00 1 3 82 14MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00266 Fem 11APR1956:00:00:00 1 3 83 27JUL2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00667 Mal 06JUN1957:00:00:00 0 0 84 28JUN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00651 Mal 21 MAR1959:00:00:00 1 3 85 08OCT1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00042 Fem 15JUN1956:00:00:00 1 2 86 21MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00286 Fem 05JAN1956:00:00:00 1 6 87 09JAN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00306 Fem 01JUN1958:00:00:00 . 88 17JAN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00285 Fem 20MAR1958:00:00:00 2 5 Obs LOCATION age occup returnduty losttime numlost numlight lightlost 67 8 41 647 Full duty No 0 0 No 68 5 41 645 Full duty No 0 0 No 69 41 630 . No 7 0 8 41 525 Full duty No 0 0 No 71 4 42 620 Full duty No 0 0 No 72 5 42 318 Full duty No 0 0 No 73 3 42 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 74 2 42 679 Full duty No 0 0 No

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 84 75 8 42 83 Full duty No 0 0 No 76 2 42 4801 Full duty No 0 0 No 77 6 42 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 78 3 42 802 Full duty No 0 0 No 79 3 43 610 No 0 0 No 80 3 43 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 81 5 43 3566 Fu ll duty No 0 0 No 82 6 43 630 Full duty No 0 0 No 83 0 43 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 84 9 43 7408 Light duty No 0 No 85 2 43 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 86 3 43 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 87 44 0 0 No 88 3 44 610 Full duty No 0 0 No

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 85 Nonparametric Test to compare mean age and affected work days 140 14:21 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB type cause 89 04OCT2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00011 Fem 15NOV1956:00:00:00 2 5 90 01JUL2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00644 Fem 06JUN1958:00:00:00 3 11 91 09SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00587 Fem 26JUL1955:00:00:00 1 6 92 29OCT2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00082 Fem 11SEP1957:00:00:00 2 3 93 12AUG2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00763 Fem 15JUN1958:00:00:00 1 3 94 04FEB1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00008 Fem 23OCT1954:00:00:00 . 95 04FEB1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00008A Fem 23OCT1954:00:00:00 3 9 96 24AUG2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00904 Fem 05MAY1957:00:00:00 1 3 97 15MAR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00403 Fem 31OCT1957:00:00:00 2 6 98 21FEB2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00355 Fem 29JUN1957:00:00:00 1 3 99 21DEC2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00205 Mal 24MAR1956:00:00:00 0 0 100 07MAR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00391 Fem 1 8MAY1956:00:00:00 2 10 101 06FEB2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00312 Fem 05JAN1956:00:00:00 3 0 102 03MAY2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00556 Fem 13DEC1955:00:00:00 1 2 103 11APR2001:00:00:00 2001 200 1 00479 Mal 02NOV1955:00:00:00 1 3 104 16SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00556 Mal 12FEB1954:00:00:00 3 0 105 06SEP2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00927 Mal 20DEC1955:00:00:00 3 7 106 12MAR1999:0 0:00:00 1999 1999 00112 Fem 09MAY1953:00:00:00 0 0 107 12MAR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00112A Fem 09MAY1953:00:00:00 1 3 108 01SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00565 Fem 15SEP1953:00:00:00 2 5 109 26DEC2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00209 Fem 26NOV1954:00:00:00 2 5 110 17JAN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00284 Mal 17SEP1955:00:00:00 3 11 Obs LOCATION age occup returnduty losttime numlost numlight lightlost 89 8 44 679 Full duty No 0 0 No 90 8 44 620 Full duty No 0 0 No 91 3 44 1101 0 0 No 92 8 44 3566 Full duty No 0 0 No 93 8 44 525 Full duty No 0 0 No 94 44 603 0 0 No 95 7 44 603 Full duty No 0 0 No 96 8 44 318 0 0 No

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 86 97 3 44 303 Full duty No 0 0 No 98 8 45 7408 Full duty No 0 0 No 99 0 45 305 Full duty No 0 No 100 2 45 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 101 8 45 303 Full duty No 0 0 No 102 1 45 630 Full duty No 0 0 No 103 8 45 303 Full duty No 0 0 No 104 0 46 3566 Full duty No 0 0 No 105 8 46 2805 Full duty No 0 0 No 106 0 46 610 0 0 No 107 9 46 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 108 3 46 621 Full duty 0 0 No 109 8 46 305 Full duty No 0 0 No 110 8 46 2854 Full duty No 0 0 No

PAGE 93

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 87 ) Nonparametric Tes t to compare mean age and affected work days 141 14:21 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB type cause 11 1 02DEC2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00165 Mal 14JUL1954:00:00:00 0 0 112 07MAY2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00580 Mal 27OCT1954:00:00:00 . 113 22NOV2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00184 Fem 10APR1954:00:00: 00 2 6 114 02JAN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00249 Fem 25MAR1955:00:00:00 1 6 115 08FEB2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00327 Fem 31JAN1955:00:00:00 2 4 116 10JAN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00256 Fem 24NOV1953:00:00:00 2 6 117 12APR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00484A Mal 12FEB1954:00:00:00 3 7 118 10MAY2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00595 Fem 16FEB1954:00:00:00 2 4 119 02NOV2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00090 Fem 29JUL1953:00:00:00 2 4 120 04OCT2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00011 Fem 29MAR1954:00:00:00 3 0 121 29NOV2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00137 Fem 04MAY1954:00:00:00 1 2 122 14MAY1 999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00271 Mal 19AUG1951:00:00:00 1 10 123 22FEB2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00357 Fem 06MAY1954:00:00:00 0 0 124 17OCT2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00040 Fem 29SEP1953:00:00:00 1 1 125 09OCT1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00020 Mal 30AUG1951:00:00:00 1 3 126 12JAN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00244 Fem 16NOV1952:00:00:00 1 3 127 16SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00615 Fem 13APR195 1:00:00:00 1 2 128 19MAR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00126 Mal 06OCT1950:00:00:00 1 6 129 16MAY2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00619 Fem 19NOV1952:00:00:00 3 8 130 11NOV2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00107 Fem 27MAR1952:00:00:00 1 3 131 06JAN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00254 Fem 22MAY1953:00:00:00 1 2 132 06SEP2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00763 Fem 05JAN1952:00:00:00 1 5 Obs LOCATION age occup returnduty losttime numlost numlight lightlost 111 0 46 610 No 0 0 No 112 47 602 0 0 No 113 3 47 303 Full duty No 0 0 No 114 3 47 303 Full duty No 0 0 No 115 4 47 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 116 8 47 301 Full duty No 0 0 No 117 8 47 3566 Full duty No 0 0 No

PAGE 94

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 88 118 8 47 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 119 7 47 620 Full duty No 0 0 No 120 3 48 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 121 6 48 561 Full duty No 0 0 No 122 2 48 660 Full duty No 0 0 No 123 0 48 3566 0 0 No 124 4 48 610 Full d uty No 0 0 No 125 4 48 621 Full duty No 0 0 No 126 4 48 620 Full duty No 0 0 No 127 6 48 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 128 3 48 6907 Full duty No 0 0 No 129 3 49 679 Full duty No 0 0 No 130 6 49 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 131 4 49 620 0 0 No 132 3 49 610 Full duty No 0 0 No

PAGE 95

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 89 Nonparametric Test to compare mean age and affected work days 142 14:21 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB type cause 133 06NOV2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00096 Fem 26JAN1952:00:00:00 2 6 134 22JUN1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00389 Fem 28AUG1950:00:00:00 3 11 135 10DEC2001:00:00:00 200 1 2002 00176 Fem 29DEC1952:00:00:00 2 5 136 15JAN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00291 Fem 14JAN1953:00:00:00 2 6 137 21JAN2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00243 Fem 18JAN1951:00:00:00 2 5 138 22AU G2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00792 Mal 18JUL1953:00:00:00 2 4 139 07JUN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00674 Fem 23MAR1952:00:00:00 2 5 140 26SEP2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00807 Fem 29JUN1951:00:00:00 2 6 141 15SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00608 Mal 14JAN1950:00:00:00 1 3 142 20DEC1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00201 Mal 17MAR1950:00:00:00 . 143 03MAR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00083 Fem 31MAR1 949:00:00:00 3 11 144 07SEP2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00934 Fem 02OCT1951:00:00:00 1 3 145 01FEB2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00314 Fem 04FEB1952:00:00:00 0 0 146 22SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 006 24 Mal 20SEP1949:00:00:00 2 4 147 01JUN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00702 Mal 09MAY1951:00:00:00 2 4 148 24JUL2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00778 Fem 29JAN1951:00:00:00 2 4 149 07MAR2001:00:00: 00 2001 2001 00390 Fem 08AUG1950:00:00:00 2 5 150 01DEC1998:00:00:00 1998 1999 00001 Mal 29APR1948:00:00:00 . 151 24SEP2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00985 Fem 09AUG1950:00:00:00 2 10 152 27DEC1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00205 Fem 14AUG1948:00:00:00 1 2 153 03OCT2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00021 Fem 23FEB1950:00:00:00 3 11 154 15JUN1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00351 Fem 11OCT1947:00:00:00 2 5 Obs LOCATION age occup returnduty losttime numlost numlight lightlost 133 3 49 640 Full duty No 0 0 No 134 8 49 303 Full duty No 0 0 No 135 4 49 620 Full duty No 0 0 No 136 3 49 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 137 3 49 620 Full d uty No 0 0 No 138 4 49 620 No 0 0 No 139 3 49 303 Full duty No 0 0 No 140 3 49 305 Full duty No 0 0 No

PAGE 96

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 90 141 2 50 602 No 0 0 No 142 50 5306 Full duty No 0 0 No 143 7 50 603 . No 144 8 50 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 145 0 50 620 0 0 No 146 4 50 620 Full duty No 0 0 No 147 6 50 621 Full duty No 0 0 No 148 5 51 561 Full duty No 0 0 No 149 3 51 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 150 51 610 0 0 No 151 2 51 303 Full duty No 0 0 No 152 0 51 610 Light duty No 0 2 No 153 2 52 303 Full duty No 0 0 No 154 7 52 679 Full duty No 0 0 No

PAGE 97

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 91 Nonparametric Test to compare mean age and affected work days 143 14:21 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB type cause 155 16JAN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00252 Fem 28APR1949:00:00:00 2 5 156 08MAY2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00486 Fem 05AUG1948:00:00:00 2 5 157 13AUG2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00855 Fem 20AUG1949:00:00:00 1 3 158 30MAY2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00571 Mal 23MAY1950:00:00:00 2 5 159 16JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00484 Mal 23JUN 1947:00:00:00 1 6 160 05JUN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00672 Fem 16APR1949:00:00:00 3 9 161 10JUN1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00341 Mal 03DEC1946:00:00:00 3 8 162 26JAN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00 281 Fem 30MAY1948:00:00:00 2 5 163 04JAN1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00003 Fem 24APR1946:00:00:00 . 164 04JAN1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00005 Fem 24APR1946:00:00:00 . 165 04DEC2000:00:00 :00 2000 2001 00159 Mal 15MAR1948:00:00:00 1 3 166 10FEB2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00295 Mal 19MAY1947:00:00:00 2 6 167 04JUN1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00343 Fem 30AUG1946:00:00:00 1 10 168 21MAR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00371 Fem 23MAR1947:00:00:00 3 7 169 30OCT2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00107 Fem 15OCT1948:00:00:00 0 0 170 23JUL2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00761 Mal 30JUN1949:00:00:0 0 3 7 171 31JUL2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00731 Fem 06JUL1949:00:00:00 2 4 172 16MAY2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00505 Fem 31MAR1947:00:00:00 2 6 173 09MAY2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00591 Mal 23MAR1948:00:00:00 2 5 174 09DEC1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00176 Fem 30AUG1946:00:00:00 1 6 175 07JUN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00670 Fem 02FEB1948:00:00:00 2 5 176 29MAY2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00645 Mal 18JAN1948:00:00:00 1 3 Obs LOCATION age occup returnduty losttime numlost numlight lightlost 155 6 52 620 Full duty No 0 0 No 156 8 52 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 157 7 52 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 158 8 52 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 159 3 52 83 Full duty No 0 0 No 160 8 52 303 Full duty No 0 0 No 161 3 53 83 No 0 0 No 162 8 53 603 Full duty No 0 0 No

PAGE 98

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 92 163 53 301 0 0 No 164 53 301 0 0 No 165 8 53 303 Full duty No 0 0 No 166 5 53 561 Full duty No 0 0 No 167 2 53 679 Full duty No 0 0 No 168 8 53 No 0 0 No 169 0 53 610 0 0 No 170 8 53 809 Full duty No 0 0 No 171 8 53 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 172 3 53 303 Full duty No 0 0 No 173 1 53 622 Full duty No 0 0 No 174 3 53 679 Full duty No 0 0 No 175 8 53 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 176 8 53 3566 Full duty No 0 0 No

PAGE 99

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 93 Nonparametric Test to compare mean age and affected work days 144 14:21 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB type cause 177 13AUG2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00769 Fem 07JAN1949:00:00:00 3 11 178 11APR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00 477 Fem 13AUG1947:00:00:00 2 5 179 09AUG2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00794 Fem 30AUG1946:00:00:00 0 0 180 20MAR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00453 Mal 23MAR1948:00:00:00 2 5 181 20SEP2000:00:00 :00 2000 2000 00797 Fem 02SEP1946:00:00:00 1 3 182 24MAY2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00525 Fem 24APR1946:00:00:00 1 0 183 24APR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00477 Mal 23MAR1948:00:00:00 2 6 184 27FEB2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00364 Fem 18OCT1947:00:00:00 3 9 185 26FEB2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00363 Mal 14MAY1947:00:00:00 3 7 186 12APR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00455 Mal 14MAY1947:00:00:0 0 2 5 187 03APR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00414 Fem 04APR1945:00:00:00 3 10 188 28MAR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00440 Fem 08JAN1946:00:00:00 0 0 189 19NOV2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00126 Fem 31AUG1946:00:00:00 1 3 190 30JUN2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00594 Fem 24NOV1944:00:00:00 0 0 191 30MAY2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00649 Fem 12OCT1945:00:00:00 1 3 192 10MAY2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00522 Fem 21AUG1946:00:00:00 2 4 193 08DEC1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00175 Fem 05MAR1944:00:00:00 3 11 194 28DEC1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00206 Fem 14JAN1944:00:00:00 3 8 195 29NOV19 99:00:00:00 1999 2000 00159 Fem 30JAN1943:00:00:00 3 0 196 29NOV1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00159A Fem 30JAN1943:00:00:00 3 0 197 21JUN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00701 Mal 07AUG1944:00:00:00 1 2 198 13JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00445 Mal 16MAR1942:00:00:00 1 3 Obs LOCATION age occup returnduty losttime numlost numlight lightlost 177 2 54 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 178 3 54 305 Full duty No 0 0 No 179 3 54 998 Full duty No 0 0 No 180 6 54 622 Full duty No 0 0 No 181 8 54 185 Full duty No 0 0 No 182 7 54 301 Full duty No 0 0 No 183 4 54 622 F ull duty No 0 0 No 184 8 54 303 Full duty No 0 0 No 185 8 55 3806 Full duty No 0 0 No

PAGE 100

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 94 186 3 55 3806 Full duty No 0 0 No 187 2 55 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 188 3 55 7408 Full duty No 0 0 No 189 4 55 303 No 0 0 No 190 3 56 620 Full duty No 0 0 No 191 7 56 620 Full duty No 0 0 No 192 8 56 647 Full duty No 0 0 No 193 7 56 303 Full duty No 0 0 No 194 3 56 318 Full duty No 0 0 No 195 3 57 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 196 3 57 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 197 5 57 Full duty No 0 0 No 198 6 57 3566 Full duty No 0 0 No

PAGE 101

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 95 Nonparametric Test to compare mean age and affected work days 145 14:21 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB type cause 199 09MAR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00099 Fem 09SEP1941:00:00:00 3 10 2 00 16OCT2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00040 Fem 08FEB1943:00:00:00 1 2 201 04APR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00164 Fem 09JUN1941:00:00:00 0 0 202 07DEC2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00175 Fem 08FEB1943:00:00 :00 2 5 203 03SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00578 Mal 01OCT1941:00:00:00 0 0 204 20FEB2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00350 Fem 15FEB1944:00:00:00 3 9 205 03APR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00438 Mal 21JAN1944:00:00:00 1 3 206 28DEC2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00210 Fem 15SEP1942:00:00:00 1 2 207 17DEC2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00182 Mal 16FEB1943:00:00:00 2 5 208 27JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00490 Fem 13SEP1940:00:00:00 2 6 209 13MAR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00394 Fem 05FEB1943:00:00:00 . 210 04APR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00416 Fem 05FEB1941:00:00:00 3 9 211 22DEC 2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00345 Mal 01OCT1941:00:00:00 3 11 212 08MAY2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00489 Fem 05FEB1941:00:00:00 2 6 213 29APR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00227 Fem 31DEC1939:00:00:00 2 4 214 08JAN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00235 Fem 07JUL1941:00:00:00 1 3 215 29MAY2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00646 Fem 02NOV1941:00:00:00 1 3 216 12DEC1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00182 Fem 03MAY19 40:00:00:00 1 3 217 17APR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00527 Fem 25JUN1941:00:00:00 3 9 218 15FEB2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00327 Fem 20SEP1940:00:00:00 1 10 219 11JUN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 0060 2 Fem 11AUG1941:00:00:00 2 5 220 15JUN1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00361 Fem 29APR1938:00:00:00 2 5 Obs LOCATION age occup returnduty losttime numlost numlight lightlost 199 2 58 No 0 0 No 200 9 58 7408 Full duty No 0 0 No 201 0 58 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 202 3 58 7408 Full duty No 0 0 No 203 0 58 5402 Full duty No 0 0 No 204 4 58 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 205 6 58 605 Full duty No 0 0 No 206 4 58 610 Light duty No 0 2 No

PAGE 102

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 96 207 8 59 5352 Full duty No 0 0 No 208 6 59 622 Full duty No 0 0 No 209 59 318 0 0 No 210 7 59 620 Full duty No 0 0 No 211 8 59 5402 Full duty No 0 0 No 212 5 59 620 Full duty No 0 0 No 213 4 59 610 Full du ty No 0 0 No 214 3 60 679 Full duty No 0 0 No 215 4 60 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 216 6 60 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 217 8 60 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 218 2 60 610 No 0 0 No 219 2 61 303 Full duty No 0 0 No 220 3 61 3111 Full duty No 0 0 No

PAGE 103

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 97 Nonparametric Test to compare mean age and affected work days 146 14:21 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB type cause 221 12AUG1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00530 Fe m 19MAR1938:00:00:00 3 11 222 02APR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00460 Fem 14SEP1939:00:00:00 2 5 223 07OCT1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00038 Mal 04JAN1938:00:00:00 3 11 224 31DEC2001:00:00:00 200 1 2002 00256 Mal 13MAR1940:00:00:00 3 9 225 29MAY2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00569 Fem 28MAY1940:00:00:00 . 226 16FEB2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00309 Fem 25DEC1937:00:00:00 1 2 227 20NO V2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00125 Fem 17AUG1937:00:00:00 2 5 228 01FEB2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00295 Mal 24JUL1936:00:00:00 3 11 229 14APR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00194 Fem 25MAR1934:00:00:00 3 7 230 06MAR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00392 Mal 22JUN1935:00:00:00 3 0 231 23MAR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00413 Fem 01JAN1936:00:00:00 0 0 232 17APR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00464 Fem 13MAY1 931:00:00:00 . 233 17FEB1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00045 Fem 30JUN1927:00:00:00 0 0 234 05JUN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00668 Fem 21JUN1929:00:00:00 1 3 235 07MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 003 22 Fem 10APR1925:00:00:00 0 0 236 09JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00430 Fem 03NOV1922:00:00:00 2 5 237 23OCT2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00061 Mal 04JUL1914:00:00:00 3 11 238 24JAN2001:00:00: 00 2001 2001 00270 Mal 24NOV1977:00:00:00 1 3 239 26MAR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00145 Mal 30SEP1970:00:00:00 1 3 240 25DEC2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00242 Fem 18APR1971:00:00:00 1 3 241 07AUG1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00521 Mal 15OCT1968:00:00:00 3 10 242 08AUG2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00684 Fem 25AUG1969:00:00:00 2 5 Obs LOCATION age occup returnduty losttime numlost numl ight lightlost 221 9 61 322 Full duty No 0 0 No 222 3 62 318 Full duty No 0 0 No 223 8 62 802 Full duty No 0 0 No 224 8 62 4102 Full duty No 0 0 No 225 62 9999 Full duty No 0 0 No 226 8 62 610 Full dut y No 0 0 No 227 3 64 648 Full duty No 0 0 No 228 8 65 180 Full duty No 0 0 No

PAGE 104

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 98 229 8 65 6 20 Full duty No 0 0 No 230 0 66 4742 Full duty No 0 0 No 231 0 66 610 Full duty No 0 0 No 232 71 9999 Full duty No 0 0 No 233 0 72 No 0 0 No 234 8 72 Full duty No 0 0 No 235 0 74 Full duty No 0 0 No 236 3 77 Full duty No 0 0 No 237 8 86 60 No 0 0 No 238 1 23 679 Full duty Yes 0 0 Y es 239 8 29 640 Full duty Yes 1 0 Yes 240 5 31 620 Light duty No 0 Yes 241 2 31 601 Light duty Yes 4 Yes 242 8 31 3566 Light duty No 5 5 Yes

PAGE 105

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 99 Nonparametric Test to compare mean age and affected work days 147 14:21 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB type cause 243 14SEP2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00965 Mal 24AUG1969:00:00:00 2 5 244 18MAR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00407 Fem 05MAY1969:00:00:00 2 10 245 17MAR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00421 Fem 25MAR1966:00:00:0 0 2 4 246 16APR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00201 Mal 25FEB1964:00:00:00 0 0 247 16APR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00201A Mal 25FEB1964:00:00:00 0 0 248 11MAR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00378 Fem 12DEC1966:00:00:00 1 6 249 17JUL2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00706 Fem 06AUG1966:00:00:00 3 0 250 03MAR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00381 Fem 06SEP1964:00:00:00 1 3 251 30MAR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00398 Fem 16SEP1963:00:00:00 1 3 252 17MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00269 Fem 23OCT1962:00:00:00 2 5 253 29AUG2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00733 Fem 24JAN1964:00:00:00 3 0 254 02JUL19 99:00:00:00 1999 1999 00415 Fem 21DEC1961:00:00:00 3 9 255 31JUL2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00661 Mal 14JAN1963:00:00:00 1 3 256 01MAR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00077 Fem 13FEB1961:00:00:00 0 0 257 01MAR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00077A Fem 13FEB1961:00:00:00 1 0 258 17SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00616 Fem 30JUN1961:00:00:00 1 3 259 10APR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00429 Fem 21DEC1961 :00:00:00 0 0 260 15AUG2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00772 Mal 14SEP1963:00:00:00 . 261 01FEB2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00269 Mal 27FEB1961:00:00:00 2 5 262 21DEC2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00202 Fem 10APR1961:00:00:00 1 3 263 01MAR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00078 Fem 18AUG1958:00:00:00 2 5 264 16MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00268 Fem 06JUN1958:00:00:00 1 3 Obs LOCATION age o ccup returnduty losttime numlost numlight lightlost 243 3 32 7408 Light duty No 0 1 Yes 244 2 33 303 Light duty No 0 Yes 245 4 35 620 Light duty No 0 2 Yes 246 0 35 7408 Light duty No 0 Yes 247 0 35 7408 Light duty No 0 Yes 248 3 35 610 Light duty No 0 Yes 249 3 36 620 Light duty Yes . Yes 250 5 37 610 Yes 2 0 Yes

PAGE 106

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 100 251 6 37 665 Yes 5 5 Yes 252 3 37 620 Light duty Yes 3 0 Yes 253 3 37 303 Light duty Yes 0 5 Yes 254 8 38 309 Light duty No 0 0 Yes 255 8 38 3566 Light duty No 0 0 Yes 256 0 38 621 Light duty No 0 Yes 257 0 38 621 Light duty Yes 3 Yes 258 4 38 620 Light duty Yes 0 8 Yes 259 5 38 309 Light duty No 0 Yes 260 39 679 Light duty No 0 Yes 261 3 39 83 Light duty No 0 0 Yes 262 3 40 660 Yes 0 Yes 263 7 41 610 Full duty Yes 0 Yes 264 6 41 620 Light duty No 0 3 Yes

PAGE 107

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 101 Nonparametric Test to compare mean age and affected work days 148 14:21 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB type cause 265 18OCT1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00036 Fem 15JUN1958:00:00:00 0 0 266 26DEC1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00204 Mal 01AUG1958:00:00:00 1 3 267 02NOV 2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00084 Mal 09OCT1958:00:00:00 2 10 268 07NOV2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00103 Fem 18AUG1959:00:00:00 2 5 269 16FEB2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00307 Fem 22OCT1957:00:00:00 3 11 270 26APR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00537 Fem 06JUN1958:00:00:00 1 2 271 03MAY2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00501 Fem 18DEC1958:00:00:00 2 5 272 03APR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00410 Fem 28SEP19 56:00:00:00 2 6 273 23MAY2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00633 Fem 19JUL1957:00:00:00 1 1 274 21JUN2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00596 Fem 23AUG1955:00:00:00 2 6 275 28JUL2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 0065 9 Fem 08SEP1955:00:00:00 3 11 276 09JUN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00596 Fem 04MAR1957:00:00:00 1 2 277 08APR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00173 Fem 28DEC1953:00:00:00 2 11 278 21SEP1999:00:00:0 0 1999 1999 00621 Fem 15MAR1954:00:00:00 1 2 279 26JUL2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00779 Fem 16JUL1955:00:00:00 3 10 280 11SEP2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00769 Fem 11FEB1954:00:00:00 2 4 281 12FEB1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00024 Fem 23MAR1952:00:00:00 1 3 282 16AUG2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00775 Fem 31JAN1955:00:00:00 2 11 283 28OCT1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00062 Fem 27MAR1952:00:00:00 3 0 284 24MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00299 Fem 19MAR1951:00:00:00 1 2 285 30JUL2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00809 Mal 19APR1953:00:00:00 3 10 286 08FEB2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00291 Mal 30AUG1951:00:00:00 1 3 Obs LOCATION age occup returnduty losttime numlost numlight lightlost 265 6 41 525 Light duty Yes 1 1 Yes 266 8 41 7408 Light duty No 0 0 Yes 267 2 42 640 Light duty Yes 1 Yes 268 3 42 334 Yes 5 0 Yes 269 3 42 3566 Light duty No 0 Yes 270 4 43 620 Light duty No 0 Yes 271 3 43 303 Full duty Yes 0 Yes 272 3 44 682 Light duty No 0 Yes

PAGE 108

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 102 273 4 44 610 Light duty Yes 2 Yes 274 3 45 305 Light duty No 0 4 Yes 275 4 45 610 Light duty Yes 0 15 Yes 276 4 45 620 Light duty No 0 Yes 277 3 45 679 Full duty Yes 1 0 Yes 278 8 46 7408 Light duty Yes 0 8 Yes 279 2 46 7408 Light duty No 0 Yes 280 4 47 610 Ful l duty Yes 0 Yes 281 8 47 7408 Light duty Yes 2 Yes 282 4 48 610 Full duty Yes 0 Yes 283 3 4 8 610 Light duty No 0 0 Yes 284 3 48 690 Yes 0 Yes 285 2 48 3566 Light duty No 0 Yes 286 4 48 621 Light duty No 0 1 Yes

PAGE 109

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 103 Nonparametric Test to compare mean age and affected work days 149 14:2 1 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB type cause 287 06JAN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00254A Fem 22MAY1953:00:00:00 1 2 288 06JAN2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 0 0254B Fem 22MAY1953:00:00:00 1 2 289 17MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00270 Fem 21APR1950:00:00:00 1 6 290 17MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00270A Fem 21APR1950:00:00:00 1 6 291 20APR2000:00:0 0:00 2000 2000 00452 Fem 22NOV1950:00:00:00 2 5 292 19JUL2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00752 Mal 02FEB1952:00:00:00 3 7 293 12MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00260 Fem 18NOV1949:00:00:00 1 3 29 4 18SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00003 Mal 17OCT1949:00:00:00 3 7 295 06FEB2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00289 Mal 11OCT1949:00:00:00 2 6 296 25JUL2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00654 Fem 09DEC1949:00:00: 00 1 3 297 15JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00455 Fem 05AUG1948:00:00:00 2 4 298 10OCT2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00021 Mal 11OCT1949:00:00:00 1 2 299 01OCT1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00002 Mal 21AUG1948:00:00:00 1 2 300 23NOV1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00148 Fem 14AUG1948:00:00:00 2 4 301 25JAN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00273 Fem 03OCT1949:00:00:00 2 5 302 21JUL1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00481 Mal 31JAN1948:00:00:00 1 3 303 11FEB2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00303 Fem 21JAN1948:00:00:00 3 0 304 15MAY2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00606 Fem 15APR1949:00:00:00 1 3 305 17FEB2 000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00315 Mal 10JAN1948:00:00:00 2 5 306 25SEP2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00815 Fem 07FEB1948:00:00:00 3 9 307 18JAN2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00247 Fem 13NOV1946:00:00:00 2 6 308 07MAY1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00244 Fem 12FEB1946:00:00:00 3 11 Obs LOCATION age occup returnduty losttime numlost numlight lightlost 287 4 49 620 Light duty Yes . Yes 288 4 49 620 Light duty Yes . Yes 289 3 49 610 Light duty No 0 1 Yes 290 3 49 610 Light duty No 0 3 Yes 291 8 49 620 Light duty Yes 0 9 Yes 292 8 49 2005 Light duty No 5 5 Yes 293 4 50 6 79 Full duty Yes 0 Yes 294 8 50 622 Light duty No 0 Yes 295 5 50 3566 Light duty No 0 2 Yes

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 104 296 2 51 645 Yes 18 0 Yes 297 4 51 610 Light duty No 0 0 Yes 298 1 51 3566 Light duty Yes . Yes 299 6 51 185 Light duty No 0 Yes 300 8 51 610 Light duty No 0 Yes 301 3 51 3566 Light duty No 0 2 Yes 302 1 52 661 Full duty Yes 0 Yes 303 4 52 610 Light duty No 0 Yes 304 4 52 620 Light duty N o 0 2 Yes 305 4 52 303 Light duty Yes . Yes 306 5 53 303 Light duty No 0 Yes 307 6 53 309 Light duty No 0 Yes 308 4 53 640 Light duty No 0 Yes

PAGE 111

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 105 Nonparametric Test to compare mean age and affected work days 150 14:21 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB type cause 309 11NOV1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00094 Fem 23MAY1946:00:0 0:00 1 3 310 05AUG2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00742 Mal 25MAR1948:00:00:00 2 8 311 03NOV2001:00:00:00 2001 2002 00092 Fem 05MAR1947:00:00:00 2 6 312 14AUG2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00862 Fe m 28MAR1946:00:00:00 2 0 313 25JUL2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00716 Fem 18SEP1946:00:00:00 2 6 314 25OCT2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00064 Fem 24NOV1944:00:00:00 2 5 315 01JUN1999:00:00:00 199 9 1999 00313 Fem 09MAY1943:00:00:00 2 5 316 25SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00627 Fem 24AUG1943:00:00:00 3 0 317 18AUG2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00711 Fem 10FEB1944:00:00:00 3 0 318 06MA Y2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00504 Mal 26JUN1945:00:00:00 3 10 319 21JUN1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00375 Fem 21JAN1942:00:00:00 1 2 320 03AUG2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00861 Fem 10DEC1943:00:00:00 3 8 321 09DEC2000:00:00:00 2000 2001 00182 Fem 24MAY1942:00:00:00 1 3 322 24AUG1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00553 Fem 12SEP1940:00:00:00 3 10 323 17JAN2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00259 Fem 16OCT1 941:00:00:00 2 6 324 04AUG2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00686 Fem 03APR1941:00:00:00 3 9 325 27JAN2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00261 Fem 02SEP1940:00:00:00 2 5 326 05SEP1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 005 84 Mal 13MAR1940:00:00:00 1 3 327 12JUL2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00682 Fem 21JAN1942:00:00:00 1 5 328 30APR2001:00:00:00 2001 2001 00545 Mal 15JUL1940:00:00:00 1 5 329 13AUG2000:00:00: 00 2000 2000 00695 Fem 08SEP1938:00:00:00 2 11 330 11SEP2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00770 Fem 24FEB1938:00:00:00 2 5 Obs LOCATION age occup returnduty losttime numlost numlight lightlost 309 6 54 610 Light duty No 0 0 Yes 310 3 54 5703 Yes . Yes 311 5 55 621 Full duty Yes 0 Yes 312 0 55 303 0 1 Yes 313 8 56 646 Yes . Yes 314 7 56 620 Light duty Yes . Yes 315 5 56 303 Full duty Yes 2 0 Yes 316 6 56 620 Light duty No 0 0 Yes

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 106 317 4 57 620 Light duty No 0 2 Yes 318 2 57 4204 Light duty No 0 Yes 319 6 57 610 Light duty Yes 0 Yes 320 3 58 610 Light duty Yes . Yes 321 6 59 610 Light duty No 0 2 Yes 322 2 59 318 Full duty Yes 0 Yes 32 3 3 59 601 Light duty Yes 0 Yes 324 7 59 661 Light duty No 0 Yes 325 5 59 620 Light duty No 0 5 Yes 326 8 60 4102 Light duty No 0 Yes 327 5 61 610 Light duty No 0 Yes 328 3 61 621 Yes . Yes 329 6 62 610 Light duty Yes . Yes 330 6 63 610 Light duty Yes . Yes

PAGE 113

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 107 Nonparametric Test to compare mean age and affected work days 151 14:21 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 Obs DATE year CASENUMBER SEX DOB type cause 331 11APR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00435 Fem 12NOV1936:00:00:00 2 5 332 20APR2000:00:00:00 2000 2000 00457 Mal 15MAY1935:00:00:00 3 9 333 18NOV1999:00:00:00 1999 2000 00158 Mal 03JAN1934:00:00:00 2 6 334 23MAR2002:00:00:00 2002 2002 00411 Fem 01JAN1936:00:00:00 2 4 335 03MAR1999:00:00:00 1999 1999 00085 Fem 04JUL1931:00:00:00 2 5 Obs LOCATION age occup returnduty losttime numlost numlight lightlost 331 63 621 Light duty No 0 Yes 332 8 65 305 Light duty No 3 5 Yes 333 6 66 3566 Li ght duty No 0 5 Yes 334 4 66 610 Light duty Yes . Yes 335 3 68 610 Yes 39 0 Yes

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 108 Nonparametric Test to compare mean age and affected work days 152 14:21 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 The FREQ Procedure LOCATION Cumulative Cumulative LOCATION Frequency Percent Frequency Percent 0 28 9.09 28 9.09 1 6 1.95 34 11.04 2 29 9.42 63 20.45 3 68 22.08 131 42.53 4 39 12.66 170 55.19 5 19 6.17 189 61.36 6 27 8.77 216 70.13 7 14 4.55 230 74.68 8 73 23.70 303 98.38 9 5 1.62 30 8 100.00 Frequency Missing = 27

PAGE 115

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 109 Nonparametric Test to compare mean age and affected work days 153 14:21 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 The FREQ Procedure age Cumulative Cumulative age Frequency Percent Fre quency Percent 16 1 0.30 1 0.30 19 1 0.30 2 0.60 20 3 0.90 5 1.49 21 2 0.60 7 2.09 23 2 0.60 9 2.69 27 2 0.60 11 3.28 28 2 0.60 13 3.88 29 5 1.49 18 5.37 30 4 1.19 22 6.57 31 5 1.49 27 8.06 32 7 2.09 34 10.15 33 2 0.60 36 10.75 34 3 0.90 39 11.64 35 5 1.49 44 13.13 36 1 0.30 45 13.43 37 8 2.39 53 15.82 38 10 2.99 63 18.81 39 3 0.90 66 19.70 40 4 1.19 70 20.90 41 10 2.99 80 23.88 42 11 3.28 91 27.16 43 12 3.58 103 30.75 44 14 4.18 117 34.93 45 10 2.99 127 37.91 46 10 2.99 137 40.90 47 12 3.58 149 44.48 48 14 4.18 163 48.66 49 19 5.67 182 54.33 50 11 3.28 193 57.61 51 14 4.18 207 61.79 52 13 3.88 220 65.67 53 21 6.27 241 71.94 54 11 3.28 252 75.22 55 7 2.09 259 77.31 56 9 2.69 268 80.00 57 7 2.09 275 82.09 58 9 2.69 284 84.78 59 15 4.48 299 89.25 60 6 1.79 305 91.04 61 5 1.49 310 92.54 62 6 1.79 316 94.33 63 2 0.60 318 94.93 64 1 0.30 319 95.22

PAGE 116

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 110 Nonparametric Test to compare mean age and affected work days 154 14:21 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 The FREQ Procedure age Cumulative Cumulative age Frequency Percent Frequency Percent 65 4 1.19 323 96.42 66 4 1.19 327 97.61 68 1 0.30 328 97.91 71 1 0.30 329 98.21 72 2 0.60 331 98.81 74 1 0.30 332 99.10 77 1 0.30 333 99.40 86 1 0.30 334 99.70 87 1 0.30 335 100.00

PAGE 117

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 111 Nonparametric Test to compare mean age and lost time 155 14:21 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 The NPAR1WAY Procedure Wilcoxon Scores (Rank Sums) for Variable age Classified by Variable lostti me Sum of Expected Std Dev Mean losttime N Scores Under H0 Under H0 Score No 246 36726.0 36285.0 538.472082 149.292683 Yes 48 6639.0 7080.0 538.472082 138.312500 Average scores were used for ties. Wilcoxon Two Sample Test Statistic 6639.0000 Normal Approximation Z 0.8181 O ne Sided Pr < Z 0.2067 Two Sided Pr > |Z| 0.4133 t Approximation One Sided Pr < Z 0.2070 Two Sided Pr > | Z| 0.4140 Z includes a continuity correction of 0.5. Kruskal Wallis Test Chi Square 0.6707 DF 1 Pr > Chi Square 0.4128

PAGE 118

Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 112 Nonparametric Test to compare mean age and affected work days 156 14 :21 Tuesday, March 11, 2003 The NPAR1WAY Procedure Wilcoxon Scores (Rank Sums) for Variable age Classified by Variable lightlost Sum of Expected Std Dev Mean lightlost N Scores Under H0 Under H0 Score 24 4261.50 4032.0 456.880483 177.562500 No 213 35952.00 35784.0 852.484532 168.788732 Yes 98 16066.50 16464.0 805.942395 163.943878 Ave rage scores were used for ties. Kruskal Wallis Test Chi Square 0.4205 DF 2 Pr > C hi Square 0.8104

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Appendix D: SAS Programs and Printouts (continued) 113


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An analysis of slip, trip, and fall incidents among workers at a veterans' hospital
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by Michelle C. Eaton.
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[Tampa, Fla.] :
University of South Florida,
2003.
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Thesis (M.S.P.H.)--University of South Florida, 2003.
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ABSTRACT: Occupational slip, trip, and fall, (STF), incidents are a significant cause of traumatic occupational injuries and has been identified as NORA priority area. Objective: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in collaboration with Liberty Mutual Research Center for Safety and Health, the Finnish Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and BJC Health System is conducting a 3 year study titled "Slip and Falls Prevention in Health Care Workers". A key component of the overall study is the descriptive analysis of 72 months (1996-2001) of STF incidents. Setting: This analysis encompasses data from the James A. Haley Veteran's Administration Medical Center, (JAH). Results: Forty- five months of historical STF data from the ASISTS database was analyzed. Of 279 STF incidents, 71.22%, (240) were female, the median age was 49 years, RN's were the most common occupational category (70 =21.74%), trips were the most common type of incident, (105 = 33.44%), the parking lot was the most common location, (75 = 23.70%), Non- specified slick surfaces (56 = 17.83%) and non- patient related objects were the most common cause (56 =17.83%), 70.85%, (192) returned to full duty, and 83.67%, (246) had no lost work time. Wilcoxon Ranked Sum test comparing those with affected work time found no significant difference in age (p= 0.4133). Analysis could not be performed using exact number of lost work days and days on light duty because of discrepancies between the ASISTS and Safety Office alternative databases. Conclusion: Efforts and resources to decrease the number of STF incidents at the JAH would be best concentrated in the following areas: Occupations, locations, and causes associated with the highest frequencies of STF incidents. Proposed improvements in the method of data collection include: Identify what STF questions want to be answered. Decide what data is required to answer the question. Design a data collection system around this. Strive for a more integrated approach; encourage employee reporting; altering VA form 2162. Given the downward trend in the three year analysis of STF incidents, caution should be used in analyzing the results of a pre and post intervention study.
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Adviser: M.D., Stuart M. Brooks
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accidents.
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