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High level techniques for leakage power estimation and optimization in VLSI ASICs

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Title:
High level techniques for leakage power estimation and optimization in VLSI ASICs
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Gopalakrishnan, Chandramouli
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
minimization
estimation
synthesis
leakage power
tabu search
Dissertations, Academic -- Computer Science and Engineering -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: As technology scales down and CMOS circuits are powered by lower supply voltages, standby leakage current becomes significant. A behavioral level framework for the synthesis of data-paths with low leakage power is presented. There has been minimal work done on the behavioral synthesis of low leakage datapaths. We present a fast architectural simulator for leakage (FASL) to estimate the leakage power dissipated by a system described hierarchically in VHDL. FASL uses a leakage power model embedded into VHDL leafcells. These leafcells are characterized for leakage accurately using HSPICE. We present results which show that FASL measures leakage power significantly faster than HSPICE, with less than a 5% loss in accuracy, compared to HSPICE. We present a comprehensive framework for synthesizing low leakage power data-paths using a parameterized Multi-threshold CMOS (MTCMOS) component library. The component library has been characterized for leakage power and delay as a function of sleep transistor width. We propose four techniques for minimization of leakage power during behavioral synthesis: (1) leakage power management using MTCMOS modules; (2) an allocation and binding algorithm for low leakage based on clique partitioning; (3) selective binding to MTCMOS technology, allowing the designer to have control over the area overhead; and (4) a performance recovery technique based on multi-cycling and introduction of slack, to alleviate the loss in performance attributed to the introduction of MTCMOS modules in the data-path. Finally, we propose two iterative search based techniques, based on Tabu search, to synthesize low leakage data-paths. The first technique searches for low leakage scheduling options. The second technique simultaneously searches for a low leakage schedule and binding. It is shown that the latter technique of unified search is more robust. The quality of results generated bytabu-based technique are superior to those generated by simulated annealing (SA) search technique.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2003.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Chandramouli Gopalakrishnan.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 124 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001441474
oclc - 53962837
notis - AJM5914
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0000147
usfldc handle - e14.147
System ID:
SFS0024843:00001


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High level techniques for leakage power estimation and optimization in VLSI ASICs
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ABSTRACT: As technology scales down and CMOS circuits are powered by lower supply voltages, standby leakage current becomes significant. A behavioral level framework for the synthesis of data-paths with low leakage power is presented. There has been minimal work done on the behavioral synthesis of low leakage datapaths. We present a fast architectural simulator for leakage (FASL) to estimate the leakage power dissipated by a system described hierarchically in VHDL. FASL uses a leakage power model embedded into VHDL leafcells. These leafcells are characterized for leakage accurately using HSPICE. We present results which show that FASL measures leakage power significantly faster than HSPICE, with less than a 5% loss in accuracy, compared to HSPICE. We present a comprehensive framework for synthesizing low leakage power data-paths using a parameterized Multi-threshold CMOS (MTCMOS) component library. The component library has been characterized for leakage power and delay as a function of sleep transistor width. We propose four techniques for minimization of leakage power during behavioral synthesis: (1) leakage power management using MTCMOS modules; (2) an allocation and binding algorithm for low leakage based on clique partitioning; (3) selective binding to MTCMOS technology, allowing the designer to have control over the area overhead; and (4) a performance recovery technique based on multi-cycling and introduction of slack, to alleviate the loss in performance attributed to the introduction of MTCMOS modules in the data-path. Finally, we propose two iterative search based techniques, based on Tabu search, to synthesize low leakage data-paths. The first technique searches for low leakage scheduling options. The second technique simultaneously searches for a low leakage schedule and binding. It is shown that the latter technique of unified search is more robust. The quality of results generated bytabu-based technique are superior to those generated by simulated annealing (SA) search technique.
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nnr r r n Sr nn 5 65 n n5 65 r r " nn n 5rn5 r r n5 nn, rn nrnnr 65 r rn rn+ n V J6W rn n r % r 5 rnr% n rr !" 5r, n rn nrr QR r n r rn r r% r 5 rn nrrr r r % 5 n r n r n Sr n n r 5rr nn r n n % r n r n rn % rn rn rr rr n n r r/, /nn, n V J1W rn n n /5 r nr rn r n r V J6Wr r r nnnr n /5 rn r r r n nr r r nrn /5 rn n n rnu" E]hg`\ vhd]n l]`\aZbc]d r nr r r r nnn n rr nr nnn r, r r ) r rn, XS nn r rr, + V J4W r n $r r r nnn r % r.n n %r V JIW rnr rn n nn n r nnn n r r n r n n r n r !" # n n V6NW! r 5rr nnrr n rr r n n " “ n +nr V6OW r 6O

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r nr r rr rn ! r r QRn 1-2-6 r r nnn n r n rnr r5 n n nn V JIW! r n r n 5X rn QR r r n n 1-2-1u"ut EZmc_hl]n haa]h_Za[ nnn r 5r r nnn rr rr nrr n n r n ! nr n r n n n nn, n rr n r %n n rr, r “" , n r nr Sn !" + V J4W, rn n r nr r n r rn r n n n rr nnn r r n '1-4n n r rn n r Q n R Qnr 6N56OR r nn5 n r ! r n Qn 13R n n n n Qn 16Rn r r n nr Qn 2Rr nr, r Qn 61R( nn5n r 5 rn nn5n r r r rrn nn5n r r “ “ “" r nn5n r n rn n.n n %r V JIW rn n nn n n5 rn n n n n n %'# r n n n rnr r! nn r n n n nr, rn rr nrn'1I rr n S r S (n n n Mn n n S 6L

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„xz†x n œˆ„x „xz†x r œˆ„x • r r ’ r r ’ r r r r # $ ’ $ ’ n % r $ & $' r r r ( r ) r ’ r ( # !' n# + r ) ( n % r # nn ’ r + n !' r n n !' r # n $ ’ n $ ’ n $ & $' 1-4nnn rr n rn n rnr r Mn rrr r* nn* nn rnr nr n S %rn* 'n n rn n n n S 5nr* n r r n Qr r .// 012 R, n5 n nr 13

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T1T2T3 T3 T1T2T3 T3 Adder Multiplier M0 M1 M2 M3 M4 A0 A1 A2 A3 op7 op6 op4 op3 op1 op2 1In nr n 15nrn r5 S nn r Mn nnr%rn r n r5 r5n r r n Mn rn, n n n nnn nr Qr r SrR" r nn n n nn n n rr, r XS r, r )nn n5 r n r rn r nn n Sn n, r rrr r n n n rnrr nr r nrn 5r rn r nnn rn n n n n n rn r nnn r n n r rnrr n r n n, n n r rn r n n n r n r !" # n n V6NWu"u =hvc d]hg`\ r r 5r r !" # n n V6NW" Mn n r n r nnn r n rn n r nn5 n, rn r r r rn n rr nn n r n r n r r n n r r n r! n r, 16

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r n r n, ! r n r n, rn r r r r n r 3 “ 4 n5 nrr r n rr r r n n nn r " r n n rn n r r rn n '1-J „xz†x n œˆ„x „xz†x r œˆ„x 5 % 6 r .2 ’ r % 7 ’ 8 9 Q R % : r ’ r 6 ; : 6 % % # 1 % % 6 n ’ r r : .2 6 % % 1 % % 6 $ ’ $ ’ ’ r % n# < n $ ’ nn $ ’ 1-J! r rr n n rn Qn 6Rn r rn 5 r, n n rr r r r r r n r r Qn 1Rn r, n rnr 5 n n r r Qn 2Rnn ; : r r rn r rn r n n rn r n rn r n n$ Qn NR, n r r r 11

PAGE 35

! r n rn rn r n r n r r nn n r r “Sn r n r, r " = r n n r n r r Qn L566Rr n r r r n '1-2n n rn > 6 n n rn > 1, > 1 ; > 6 r nr r nr r nn > 6, r n rr n-X2 X1X2 X1 Tabu List X1 X2 1-2" n r r n rn r n n n r, n n n r n n n r r r r n nrr n ! n r r rrn n r r r n 3 “ = “" ? Qn 64Rr r rr n r, ) rr rn r n n r! rr n r rr n n n r, r n Sn#V6NW $nr rn QR r nn r 5 rr r r r n rn, n !" r rr14

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RUN (k+2) RUN (k+1) RUN k INTENSIFICATION DIVERSIFICATION SOLUTION SPACE 1-Nnnr$n n r$n n r n '1-J r r n n r r n r Q rrR@ ""“ A “" " B “ ? = “ A “" rr r M5 nnr$n rr r n r rnr %r$n rr n n n n Sn r n5 S rr rr n rn n rn rr nr'1-N rr rn r r rn nnr$n n r$n rr$ rr n n nnr$n rrn n r /n nnr$n r n /n Q ƒ 6R n r$n r n /n Q ƒ 1R! r r nrr r r QR r r r r n r nr 5(r nrr nn r n n n r n nr !" n r n n r n n rnr' r rr, r r, r r n rr r5 r nn r rrnn n nr n r 1I

PAGE 37

n n rr r r nrn rn #n S n rr, nr r n n rr n n, rr n r n rrr r n Q n, R rrrn rnr n n, rr n r r rn rr n r r n n r r, n rn r n r n r r S n (r rr nr(r n n, r r n nS u C Ecm m hg n r X n r rr 0 rrr r rn r n r n n r n n 1-40 r r r nr rr r5 n r r nr rn$n nrnn 1-1 n n nr n r n rrn n ( r) r nr 5 nrr ( ( n r r r n n n 1-1-4/ r rrn, n nn r rn rn, r rn n n 1-1-Jr n rn$n r n n nn n rn 1-J r n n /5 rnnr 5 r n n rn r Sn0 r n r nnn n n r r n r1J

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;Y U@ G>U E D ? =Y9 E:E >G B >A B9<@
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n n n n rn nn r r !" rn n V JNWr r n r S r rr rr n S rn n nnr H nn n Q'&R n r n r n rn r rn r '& n, n nn r r nr n r %'# n r r n, n rr r n n! r n %'# r r nn5n rn '&r n rr n rn Sr rr'4-6 r n r '&r n r %'# -abcde t1t2 t3 T3 T2 T1 out op1op2op3op4 MULT0 MULT1' 4-6(n nn nr rn nn r nr rn nnr n rn ( ( nn r n ( ( nn r n n n rn n n 4-4'4-1 rr /5 r nr !" &%rn nrn5 r 5 n n5 n n n rn Xr n n rnr5 n n n !" r 1N

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PrimaryInputs PrimaryOutputs ControlSignals Flags START FINISH DESIGN CONTROLLER CLOCK RESET DATA-PATH' 4-1/5 rn rnn r n r 'n ( (n'4-4 n 4I rr r n n n !" &%r r rn n r r nr r nn nr n n $r n n rnr n n 3 r % r n r n n n r nr/rr n rn G2H. rn r 5 n0 n n n r, rn r rrr r n $r r nr n rrn r n rr n I rn r rrn r rn r rnr nn n rnr n rr Q J 9 R n Q K L R n r rnr Q MJ NJ Ž • R nnn nr QSrR1O

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LatchPrimaryInputsLatchPrimaryOutputs St_art FINISH IDLE Inputs Process One clock cycle State 1 State 0' 4-4n r n n &% CLOCK CLEARSt_artInputdataFinish Outputdata PO PI = Primary Input PO = Primary Output PI 1 PI 2 Processingof inputs IDLE Time' 4In nr n r nr rn 1L

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%rnr r nr rn r r n $ /5 rn n % r n rnr rn #/ n V JOW n n $ rn u jgfofd]n hoogfh`\ efg dal\]dZpZa[ _fk _]hih[] nhlhohl\d 4-J r r r nrn 5rn r 5X 'r 6 n 1 rn nr r r nr 5rI r r nn r n r rn I-4 Snr n5 n nr n n I-1 nr $nr n nn r n V JNW, r nrn 5rr nn rrr n n II nr nnr ( ( n nn n nrnr !" rnr nn r n 356 +nr n rr ( ( nnr n 5r, r n n n n I-J, r n 5 n n r nn'r 4 n I r ! r r nr n r r 5r' 4 rr rn r rr rr n X 5 Qn 2-1R' I r rnr rn, n, n nn r n rr r r n nn Qn 2-4R/5 5r n r n Mn r$r n nrn r n n r nr n V JOW, n n rn rn r rn r r Q'R r n r /5 5r r n %nr rn r Sn n n 43

PAGE 43

Power Management Performance Recovery and Leakage Power Leakage Power Characterized. ModuleLibrary LeakageReport FASL (Clique partitioning) Selective Allocation (Clique partitioning) and HSPICENANOSIM Magic Layout Spice Netlist Low Leakage RT-Level Datapath Compiler Scheduling Tabu Allocation Scheduling Binding AutomaticBinding Constructive approachSearch based approach Data flow graph (DFG) Automatic Binding Simulataneous Scheduling Allocation and Bindingusing Tabu Areaconstraint Slack Lager IV Silicon Flow 1 Flow 4 Flow 3 Flow 2' 4-Jr Q Snrn &%R r nrn 5r Jn 4-4 r r ( ( nn r n n Snr r n r nrr 5r46

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Sleep Transistor QR H Q R (# 4-2( ( '& (r 5 rn r n ( ( u B]hih[] ofk]g han n]_h lghn]f hah_dZd ( ( r Mn n n rr n r r nrr! r n n r nn r nrr n r n r n r r nrr r M n r rr r n r nrrn r n rn IL QH(44R rn 3-6O n rr r r r nrr r rr !" r nrr nrrr r nn r r n n Q K QN R nrr Q n1-6Rn r n5 n r n rn nS r, n r n n n rn 44

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' 4-O5 n O5 ( ( r 4-L5 n O5 ( ( r n r n n r ( ( r nn n n n rr ! rnn 3 “ 4J

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' 4-635 n O5 ( ( Propagation Delay(ns) Leakage Power (uW)Wopt Sleep transistor Width (Lambda) 0 DelayLeakage Power' 4-66n $ 42

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! 4-6r r n rn n ( H 0 0 nrr Q T R r I J3 O 23 62 N3 /rr I 43 O I3 62 J3 (r I 633 O 133 62 433 r nrr r r n n '4-66 rr n $r r nn r nrr r n !" nrn r' S, nr rn n '4-Ln ( ( | N3 T rn n n rrnn | 623 T rn$n n n n n nr n rrr n rr r r rr n Qnn5( ( Rn | I3 T n nrn n r n n n, r rr rn$n r r n n ( 3-6O n rn n -4-6r n r nrr O5 r n r r r r ru Ecm m hg n r %rn nrnn r Q&%R, r n5 rr r r r nrn 5 nnr rnr, r rnn 4-1 n r Snrnr n r n &% r nr 5r'n nr nn 4N

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r n n r r n 4&rn 5M r Qr r '4-66R, r rn rr n n nn r n nn, nr S r r r(r rn$n r n r n ( ( rut D flZ^hlZfah_ ] U hmo_] r n S, nr r 5X / $ rn n 'I-1r rn r Qr rn r rr R r%'# nrrr nn nr 5 nr n $ nrr r rS n rr rr r n r' r n r r n rn ( ( r, n n M n n rr 1 Jrr ! nnr r r n n 'I-4n nn rr ! r, rn Mr nr nr a1y1a2y2b0x0b1x1b2x2 t1t2t3t4 t5 t6 t7 t8 yout + + T3 T0T2T4T5 op0 op1 op2 op3 op4 op5 op6 op7 op8 T1 XXXXX + + I-1r5rn5r5rr r / $ I3

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BINDING 1 ADD0ADD1 ADD0ADD1ADD0ADD1 BINDING 2BINDING 3 op5 op7op6 op7op5 op7 op8op6 T0 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 op5 op8 op6 op8 Hnn 61 Hnn 4 " .// # )) )) 3-J321 0 )) )) 3I3J1 0 .// )) )) 3IJ1N 0 )) )) 3IJ12 0 3-LJOL 3-OJNO I-4rr ! nnr r n / n 'I-4 r r Mn nn nr0 r nn M r rr n n 6I-O4r n rr !" r0 r r nn r r n n rr n n 66-6Lr n rr !" rn rnr rn n 3-6O n n! n 'I-4 r rn M r n nnr r r rn nr n n nr n 63r Mn n rrn n I6

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" nr r rHnnr 6 n 1 r nr, nn nrn r S n r r r r, r M r nn' S, r n nr r rn n n 'I-4 n O 5 rr n N3r n n rrnu ;_Zbc] ohglZlZfaZa[ efg _fk _]hih[] ofk]g r r n n nn r r n 5 nn r r !" rn n V JNWn r r n n nn, n r n n r r rn r n X Q%'#Rn r n n r rn rr r rn r '& n n nn, n r n n r r rn nr n %'# nr n n '& nrnr n S nrn r n n ( ( n r n ! r n nr, r nn r 5 n nrnr n n rr r n nr n r n nr n r n n rn n nr r nrn nr# | Q. ,R ! n n n n rnr n rn r Q r n 5X R! ) nn r n n r L rr r QrR, r rn rr !" r, r r n r Q R, nrr r rr nr n r rrn n nrnr n n r%n n n r n r r n nr n I1

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R0 c2 o1 y1y2 y3 WR EN i2i3 i1 c1 SEL c0 Adder1 MUX0 R1 EN WR' I-Nrrnn r rnr r u E]_]`lZ^] vZanZa[ fe D = ;D >E m fnc_]d nn rr n n I-4 r n r r nnrnr'r $ Mn r r r' nrn, rr !" r r r n n n rr !" rr n rn r r n n ( ( r, nrn rn$n rn$n n n n, r nn r n r nrnr nn ( ( n nn r n r nn r r nrnr r r n S nr r 356 +nr ( 356 +nr r $n r* #n r h n r, r S ‘ S    S n r R S R ‘ S    S R n S nr K €z r r h : i h r ] a ’ & Q R  ƒ R ‘  ‘ ƒ    ƒ R  R IN

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& ]  ƒ ‘  ‘ ƒ    ƒ  j K €z ] $ S ‘ S    S 8 k 3 S 6 l  nr r nr r  | 6 r r h : 356 +nr S r r r n n r rn % n n < r !" rrn V 26W r n rr r n n n n nr r nrn rrr nr rr rr rr n r n rn r r nn ( ( r, n nr r* '* rnr nrnr n n %'#  ( ( r n rr n r nrrQrRr rnr r n nr R  ( ( r n rr n n nn5( ( K €z rn r n nrn rnr S5 Q R nr h : rn rr S r n n 5 nr r n nr" QrR r !" Mn n n ( ( n r nn5( ( nr 6O3n n r rn n I-6n r !" rn ( ( nrn n nn5( ( nrn n n n rn Q633 n rR n rn n ( ( n r r )r rn n rn n n rr rnr !" nn Q I-6Rr IO

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T mux T reg T fu T mux RegisterRegister Register Functional Unit MUX MUX sel sel I-L%nn r • €‡ n • €‡ ‘ rnn n r5 S r n nr r r " Mn n nr• †ˆŠ r r s r r n r ( ( r nn r n rn 5 r 'r r nrr r r n n r, r r d 3 r rn$nd 3 rr n nr n rH rn r nrr r r r n n 4I, nrr !" I3r n n n n M r rn S r Qr r R n n n rrJ6

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X X X X X T1 op0 op1 op2 op3 op4 t1t2t3t4 t5 t6 t7 t8 yout + + op5 op6 op7 op8 + + T2T3T4T5T6 a1y1a2y2b0x0b1x1b2x2 T0 I-63n r n n n r nn r r" n r n rr n r r r r r n rnn rnr rn r n n n rn nn rn n n n S n n I-6 r rn n 'I-63@ “ d = = “ ” = = “" 3 = ” = " “ p “" “ ” = “ ? " " = ” ? = r r n nn n S n r r, r r rr n rr Sn n ( ( rnr r, r n nr n S rn n I-6rn r 2 n rr n nn ( ( r nr J3nr N3nrr, ( ( rn r I133nr r 63 r" ( ( rn r J3nrr N n rr r, n5 J1

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rn rrr 63 r n 4J33nrn n n r r r 6I-1Or r r I3r n n ( ( rnr n r r n I-1! I-1n n n / QnrR n r SQnrR n n J3 2 4333 5 / ( ( N3 2 I133 I3-3r ( ( ( J3 N 4J33 62-2r u" 9 U o]gZm]alh_ g]dc_ld /rr % rnr, r nr rn &% r nrr r r 5 rnSn X r rn n 'I-66/5 % n r r r r nr rn #/ n V JOWnrr nr n (# r r r $ rn nr r .nr n n r 5 rr5 r !" r r r rn n r5rr r n .nrn5 n r n nrr n r5rr nr r nrr5 rn r n n r n n nrr r /rr rn n r n ( 53-6O 5 n r n ( V 21W n 633n n r n H n (r QH( R V 24W'I-61 rr n S n rn #/ n rnr n $ /5 Qrn n % R n Qrn R' Sr, n n n r n rn (H r n rr r r n nn, r n r n r rn n J4

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qqq rrr sss ttt uuu vvv w w w x x x y y y z z z NANOSIM HSPICEHSPICEHSPICE MULT1 ADD0 REG0MODULE WISE LEAKAGE POWEROVERALL POWEROF DESIGN TRANSLATOR RT-Level MAGICSPICE NETLISTsdl VHDL LAGER IV Silicon Compiler DFGAUDI I-66Sn X rr n n r r n n n n nrn r n n n nr n n n$n r n n V 2, N, O, L, 63, 66, 61, 64, 6IW n n n n rr r nrru"ut ::U { _l]g / r n nr n n %'# r nn nr 5 $ n nrr r rS n rrn rn n ( ( r, r n n 13 (rn r n n 6I-1O (r r n rr I3r n n n r r rn n 'rI-645 I-6I@ “ ““" ” p3 = “ " = ? = 3 d = = ” = 3 d = ““ 3 | “ " “ = JI

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transistors sleep Controller I-61" ( ( rn '/ $ “" 6 " ” } ~@ € r r n S r r r r, Sr, n r Qn R rr n r r r r rrr rn n r r r r, n n r r 1351Jr r r r 'I-6I, r n rnr n r n nr, n n nrr5 rnr n rn n r I-4 n IIn n 6O-11r n 61-LIr n 6O3n n 633n nr r r rr nr n n ( ( r n 5n rn n n r r QƒnRn, nr n n r nrn$nr r n n n r ( ( n n r r n nn n JJ

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' I-64n n 5 / Q6O3n R I-6In n 5 / Q633n R n r r, rn n 13 ( n n Sn n r r r 62-22r n 6N-16r n J2

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! I-4rnr n / Q6O3n R ( n Q0 R nr ( %r n ( ( QrR nrnr .n5( ( ( ( r 3-J6JO 3IJNN 66-6L 1 6 6 /rr 1-O1L1 1-2OLI I-LI 63 4 N (r 66-46I6 L-2421 6I-O4 J 3 J (Sr J-3O22 4-4243 44-OO N J 1 %5 6L-NIJ4 62-6I24 6O-11 n 6-22IJ 1-L142 5NJ-2 IIrnr n / Q633n R ( n Q0 R nr ( %r n ( ( QrR nrnr .n5( ( ( ( r 3-OIL4 3-6L14 NN-4J 1 6 6 /rr I-J6OI I-4326 I-2L 63 4 N (r 6L-2666 62-2NNJ 6I-L2 J 3 J (Sr 1-JL6L 1-O12O 44-OO N J 1 %5 1N-JN3N 1I-331N 61-LI n 1-3I36 4-O62I 5ON-32 6I-1Jr r r n 6O3n n 633n nr r n n rn5 rnr n r n rn r n n r I-J n I-2! I-Jrnr n / n Q6O3n R ( n Q0 R nr ( %r n ( ( QrR nrnr .n5( ( ( ( r 3-J4O6 3IINJ 62-O4 1 6 6 /rr 1-L2ON 1-O24L 4-J4 63 4 N (r 66-44NO L-1NLO 6O-6J J 3 J (Sr 4-3O42 1-1J3I 1N-31 N J 1 %5 6N-L1O1 6I-OI62 6N-16 n 6-2JIO 6-21IJ 6-O4 JN

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! I-2rnr n / n Q633n R ( n Q0 R nr ( %r n ( ( QrR nrnr .n5( ( ( ( r 3-ONL1 3-NLOI L-6L 1 6 6 /rr I-JJLL II134 4-32 63 4 N (r 6LI3JJ 6J-OOI1 6O-6I J 3 J (Sr 1-222J 1IOJN 2-NO N J 1 %5 1N-J666 14-JOO2 6I-1J n 1-3L4N 6-N341 6O-2J nn ( ( r r n 14r n r r nn n nr n M r nn V 2IW' I-6J5 M n rr 5 / Q6O3n R JO

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' I-625 M n rr 5 / Q633n R 'r I-6J5I-62 r 5 M n rr / $rnr $ Mn nr r rnr r r nrr n ( ( r Qnr n R, r r n rr !" r nrrr S rnr n! I-N rr ( ( r !" +nr / u"u G:U { _l]g '/ $ r n nr n n rn nrrr $ r n rr r rn n rr n r n 13 ( n rn r n 6I-1O ( n n n r r r I3r n n n JL

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! I-N( ( r rn 356+nr / Q ‚ 5 (r s 5 /rrR ( ( ( ( .n5 r (r ( ( Jr I Q ‚ R 6N 6 62 63r 3, 6,I Q ‚ R 6N 4 6I 6Jr 35I Q ‚ R, O Q R 6N 2 66 13r 35I Q ‚ R, J5L Q R 6N 63 N 11r 35I Q ‚ R, 4, J5L Q R 6N 66 2 r r rn n 'r I-6N5I-6On 13-JLr n 6I-JNr r n n 6O3n n 633n nr r r n r / ', n n r r I-O n I-L rr 5r rnr n n ( ( r n( ( r n r r r 11r I-6Nn n 5 '/ Q6O3n R '/ $ r 5r nr rn n r r r / n r r, nn n r rr n n 5 23

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' I-6On n 5 '/ Q633n R I-Ornr n '/ $ Q6O3n R ( n Q0 R nr ( %r n ( ( QrR nrnr .n5( ( ( ( r 3-1IIL 3-3OJO2 2I-LI 6 6 3 /rr 1-O3J6 1-JJ26 O-ON 63 4 N (r 66-1N2J L-4OLI 62-N4 J 3 J (Sr I-4641 1-N244 4J-L4 2 I 1 %5 6O-243N 6I-NLI2 13-JL n 6-44IN 6-L22I 5IN-41 n n I3r 6I-1Or rn nr r n r n rn5r rnr n r rn n r I-63 n I-66'r I-6L5I-13 r 5 M n rr '/ $r r J nrn, r r r nrr nr n n ( ( r! I-61 rr ( ( r !" +nr '/ 26

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! I-Lrnr n '/ $ Q633n R ( n Q0 R nr ( %r n ( ( QrR nrnr .n5( ( ( ( r 3-4L2I 3-3O1L NL-3O 6 6 3 /rr II413 4-LJO2 63-2O 63 4 N (r 6L-36JI 6J-L3NI 62-4J J 3 J (Sr 1-66ON 1-1L6 5O-64 2 I 1 %5 1J-L21J 11-6NO 6I-JN n 6-O13J 1-LJ2I 521-4L I-63rnr n '/ n Q6O3n R ( n Q0 R nr ( %r n ( ( QrR nrnr .n5( ( ( ( r 3-1JOL 3-3ONN 22-61 6 6 3 /rr 1-L3LJ 1-ON62 6-4 63 4 N (r 66-411I L-N321 6I-1N J 3 J (Sr 1-JJJ2 6-OLLN 12-3J 2 I 1 %5 6N-3I2I 6I-OI62 61-L4 n 6-1LNO 6-OO3L 5IN-36 I-66rnr n '/ n Q633n R ( n Q0 R nr ( %r n ( ( QrR nrnr .n5( ( ( ( r 3I3L2 3I3I2 6-11 6 6 3 /rr IIII2 6-OI2O JOI4 63 4 N (r 6L-24JI 62-22LI 6J-63 J 3 J (Sr 1-612L 6-L4OO O-OI 2 I 1 %5 12-2626 13-OJL2 16-21 n 6-OINI 1-L32L 5JN-4J rnr $ Mn nr r rnrr r r nrr n ( ( r Qnr n R, r r n rr !" r nrrr S rnr n21

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16 16.5 17 17.5 18 18.5 19 19.5 20 20.5 21 5 10 15 20 25 % Leakage saved % Area overhead Area-Leakage Tradeoff FIR (180nm) I-6L5 M n rr 5 '/ Q6O3n R I-61( ( r rn 356+nr '/ Q ‚ 5 (r s 5 /rrR ( ( ( ( .n5 r (r ( ( Jr I Q ‚ R 62 6 6J 63r 3, 6,I Q ‚ R 62 4 64 6Jr 35I Q ‚ R, O Q R 62 2 63 13r 35I Q ‚ R, J5L Q R 62 63 2 11r 35I Q ‚ R, 4, J5L Q R 62 66 J u"u 9__ZolZ` Ah^] GZ_l]g E 9A G F $ nrrr n rS nr n rn 5 nrr r rSn n rrr n ( ( r nn5( ( r n rnr r rn n r I-64 n I-6In rn r n 13 ( n 24

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16 16.5 17 17.5 18 18.5 19 19.5 20 20.5 21 5 10 15 20 25 % Leakage saved % Area overhead Area-Leakage Tradeoff FIR (100nm) I-135 M n rr 5 '/ Q633n R rn r n 6I-1O ( n rr n r r r I3r n r S, n Sn n n S5 r !" 6N-2Ir r rn, r n r N-61r n r n rr, r n 0 %'# r rn$5 n n r nn5n rn r, rn n rr n Srr r r n M n n n n r r n n 'r I-165 I-11n n r S r 4O-44r Q5 ƒnRr r nn 0 rn I rI r rr nr rr n O5 rr 0 r nr n I n rr" nr n r 2I

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' I-16n n 5 0 Q6O3n R I-11n n 5 0 Q633n R n rr 1 n rr n I r r n rnr r n n 1Jr 2J

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! I-64rnr n 0 Q6O3n R ( n Q0 R nr ( %r n ( ( QrR nrnr .n5( ( ( ( r 3IJJJ 3-62NN 24-6O I 1 1 /rr 6-L2I1 6-LJN6 3-42 6I 66 4 (r 6-3J33 3-LLLL I-NN 1 3 1 (Sr N-LJ2N J-3I12 42-21 6J 66 I %5 66I12I O-62N4 1O-J1 n N-6343 J-L4IO 62II I-6Irnr n 0 Q633n R ( n Q0 R nr ( %r n ( ( QrR nrnr .n5( ( ( ( r 3-O331 3-163O N4-2J I 1 1 /rr 4-14ON 6-LIJ1 4L-L4 6I 66 4 (r 6-ONL4 3-LL2O I2-LJ 1 3 1 (Sr O-3JL2 I-O2JN 4L-24 6J 66 I %5 64-LNNO O-36OJ I1-24 n 2-3J3O JIN26 LII n r rn n r I-6J n I-62 n n n r rn n rr n Sr! I-6Jrnr n 0 n Q6O3n R ( n Q0 R nr ( %r n ( ( QrR nrnr .n5( ( ( ( r 3I223 3-6234 2J-23 I 1 1 /rr 1-361L 6-LIJL 4-41 6I 66 4 (r 6I21L 3-LO12 41-O4 1 3 1 (Sr N-LLOI 2-6L4N 11-J2 6J 66 I %5 66-LI3I L-1O12 11-12 n L-1L42 1-424N NI-JN 'r I-145I-1I rr 5 M n rr 0 $r r nrn r r, rn r 22

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! I-62rnr n 0 n Q633n R ( n Q0 R nr ( %r n ( ( QrR nrnr .n5( ( ( ( r 3-OI64 3-6I4N J1-3N I 1 1 /rr 4-1O4J 1-J621 14-42 6I 66 4 (r 1-26O3 6-N6N2 4I-4L 1 3 1 (Sr O-322L J-64O2 42-43 6J 66 I %5 66-LI3I L-1O12 4O-32 n I-422J I-6233 I-N4 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 % Leakage saved % Area overhead Area-Leakage Tradeoff EWF(180nm) I-145 M n rr 5 0 Q6O3n R n rn I5 r! I-6O rr ( ( r !" +nr 0 'r r r r nr 5r, n r rn nr, n n n r rn r rn r n " n 2N

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-5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 % Leakage saved % Area overhead Area-Leakage Tradeoff EWF(100nm) I-1I5 M n rr 5 0 Q633n R I-6N( ( r rn 356 +nr 0 Q ‚ 5 (r s ƒ 5 r s 5 /rrR ( ( ( ( .n5 r (r ( ( Jr 3, 6Q ‚ R 13 1 6O 63r 3, 6Q ‚ R,1,4QƒR, O, 64Q R 13 2 6I 6Jr 3, 6Q ‚ R,1,4QƒR, J, O, L, 64 Q R 13 O 61 13r 3, 6Q ‚ R,654QƒR, 6, 4, J, O563, 64Q R 13 61 O I-6O( ( r rn 356 +nr 0 Q ‚ 5 (r s ƒ 5 r s 5 /rrR rnr Q% ƒ nR r r rn nr r .nr rr 6O3n n 633n rn nr n r I-6L n I-13n5 n nn r nr n S r nr S r n !" n n n nrr r, 2O

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! I-6L% n Q6O3n R ( / ( ( ( ( ( Q0 R rQ0 R nrQrR Q0 R rQ0 R nrQrR / 11I-3L 6NO-63 13-J1 1I4-1L 16L-4N L-O4 '/ 116-36 62O-JJ 14-N4 11I-JN 6NJ-JJ 16-O1 0 1JN-N1 132-JL 6L-O4 436-OI 16II2 1O-LI n n n, r n n5 r r rn r r rn !" n n n rnr! I-13% n Q633n R ( / ( ( ( ( ( Q0 R rQ0 R nrQrR Q0 R rQ0 R nrQrR / 6OO-OL 62O-OI 63-26 1II-L3 1I4-41 3-2I '/ 116-OO 6L4-J3 61-NL 11N-64 6LN-4N 64-63 0 126-L4 14I-OL 63-41 464-N1 111-12 1L-6J n n n n rn nr r r, n r rnr, n rr r r n ( ( rnnrn n n n r r r rnr0 $ r n n r n r 5n r r, 5 n 5rr n r r, r n nr nu C Ecm m hg n r n nn n rn ( ( n5 r rn( ( r (r r n n rr n " n r n r r n n nn r n nn r r nrr r r nn$n rnr n 5 r n r r n n nn 2L

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! n rr r r n n ( ( r r n r nrrr, r nn r r( n 5 r r r n n n nn ( ( rN3

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;Y U G>U B9<@ A 9U E G< EB F rn rn r r n rrnr r r 5r nrr nr rnr nrrrn r rnr nn rn Srn r r r nr r .nr n .nr r r r Mn n rr n n V 2JWr nr nnr r r r n r 'r Q'R r rn, r n r rr !" rn rn /5 rn(r n /5 rn 5 r n %n J-6 r r n r rn nnr n 5 r n J-1 Snr r r rr !" rn, rn n J-4 nr rn 5r n n r rn n JI rnr Sn rrut ;\hgh`l]gZphlZfa fe _]he `]__d n .) V 13W r r n r nn n r nr n Sr rn r, r r r r n n n, r r n nrn n r 5r r rn rr !" n nrn r nn n r nr %n r nrn n, n5r N6

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r n nrrr n !" n n %n r rn rr !" nrrr Q r Snn  }„R, r nn r n n n n n Qn1-6R r nnn›„‡œ |   Ÿ  ¡¢£ ¤¦ ƒ„ ¨¦ £ ¨ ¡ ¦ „ ¦ … „  Q6 Ÿ … „ ¢£ R QJ-6R  | Ž y    Q ‰ ™ R ‘  ¤ Ž y r S n n r r r r 5r rn n nrr™ r r r  „ r r  Š„ 5r n  }„, n5r r n M n n r %n n H n Q%HR n V 4W'J-6 rr $r n .( nrr$r r ( nrr$r rn Mn r r n n Sr rn 5rn n Qn1-6R r Snn r, nn 5r Q  Š„ R n n5r Q  }„R r r rn rnr* # Q  Š R | 3 %n Q  }R rr 3  }} n r r, ¦ ƒ„ r rn Snn %n5r Q  }„R |  }} # Q  Š R rr  }} 3 n r r, Q6 Ÿ … „ ¢£ R r n Snn n r n nn r n n n5 r' nn, r rr nrn r n r 5r r r n$ rn rn n 'J-1rr n nnrn n r n rn rnr' r n Qw z † Š R rn • r Qn 4Rn n nrn r n !" rn nrnnr r n Qn JRn r N1

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' J-6" $r Q.( nrrR n n w z † Š r Qn NR0 n r r n r n r r nrrn rr n Jr -, rr n r w z † Š Qn 66564Rn nr n r r r r rn n n n 5 r rn n '-J-Or r r / n %% r rSr n rn r, n n n rn r r rr! J-6 S r n r n nrrr n nr n n rn r N4

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& $' % r n ’ ]& r 6 G .6 < 6 r # w z † Š ’ ]& % 6 ‡ ƒ ˆ 8 Q3 S • R G < w x | ‰ x  Š w  Q! G V % r 0 H e w x w z † Š e ‘ ,` % % w x # % w z † Š `, ’ rr 0 H r ‹ % r 0 H r ) ‹ n % r $ ’ $ ’ $ ’ ] ’ 6 X !' r % r J-1r5 n r n nrn r n r r r S nrr, n rn n nrr! J-6(r n 5r 5 S n n r ( rn r &r Q nrrrR n QrR /r QO R 14O 6J-6N %5XX, n QO R 11I 63-L1 ( QO R 6243 11IIO ..% (S 1S 6 QO R 631 2-NN (S 1S 6 Q6 HR 'r J-4 5 J-2 rr r r n r ## r r #/ n V JOWr r r n ) r rr nrn n r r r r 1N nrnr n n r r n r n 5rnr NI

PAGE 87

7e-17 1.0005e-16 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Leakage power time (ns) Prev input 000, Curr input 000 "leak_0_0.dat" 8e-17 1.3005e-16 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Leakage power time (ns) Prev input 001, Curr input 000 "leak_1_0.dat" J-4nrnnr r n nnr 633n ( n NJ

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7e-17 1.701e-16 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Leakage power time (ns) Prev input 010, Curr input 000 "leak_2_0.dat" 7e-17 1.601e-16 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Leakage power time (ns) Prev input 011, Curr input 000 "leak_3_0.dat" JInrnnr r n nnr 633n ( n N2

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8e-17 1.601e-16 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Leakage power time (ns) Prev input 100, Curr input 000 "leak_4_0.dat" 7e-17 1.701e-16 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Leakage power time (ns) Prev input 101, Curr input 000 "leak_5_0.dat" J-Jnrnnr r n nnr 633n ( n NN

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0 1.202e-16 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Leakage power time (ns) Prev input 110, Curr input 000 "leak_6_0.dat" 8e-17 1.701e-16 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Leakage power time (ns) Prev input 111, Curr input 000 "leak_7_0.dat" J-2nrnnr r n nnr 633n ( n NO

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n rn 633n 6 n n H n ( V 24Wu B]hih[] ofk]g m]hdcg]m ]al cdZa[ Y Ej:;9 r nrr, rn rn r r n r rnn r $ !" n 5 nr n* Q6R n nrr, n Q1R nrnnr nrr nnrn nr r n 'J-N%n nnrn n, n n r r nr Mnr n nrr r n r rn n nr QJ563R n r ( nrr n nr Q6J513R n r n .( nrrr nrr r n n !" n  Š„ n r n Qnr N5 6JRnrr r n n r r, nrnnr rr !" nrr r r r n n &. r n n r r5rr u 9dlZmhlZfa fe _]hih[] ofk]g Za nhlhohl\d han ghanfm _f[Z` nrrr r r, r nr r r rr, n5 n nr Q'&rR r r r n r, n nnn nr r r 5 SrSrr r r 5 65 n n5 'J-O rr % rn n5 r n rn 7 H H H rnr, nn n r Qr R r 65 r nrrr r 5 rr nr nn Qnr 6656JR rr r n rr !" r rr r rnr nr Qnr 4I5J4R NL

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w & $' < r % 6 Œ n ’ ]& % 6 # ’ ]& r n ’ r 0 ’ r  x Ž  x ‘ Y Y n # $ ’ ’ rr  Šzxˆ )  „y‡†‚ˆ Ž r ) `  x… ,` `, n < X Y < X ƒ ‡ ^ r ` ˆ $ ’ ’ r 0 ’ r  x  x ‘ Y Y n n# $ ’ n ’ rr  Šzxˆ )  „y‡†‚ˆ  x… ,` `, nn < X Y < X ƒ ‡ ^ r ` ˆ n $ ’ n $ ’ n $ ’ n $ ’ n 2 < Y r < X n $ & $' J-Nn r r r n n J-6nrn r r n n < nrn Qnr 16514R, n r nS !" 15 Q r n, n nRr r r n n < n nrn Qnr 1O51LRr rn nrn n r r r r rn r n r rnr n r r n 1N nrr n n$ r rn 'r J-45J-Jr, n n r r n r 5 rr n n n 1N nr Qnr 425IIRr n O3

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 ‘’“”•”– — ™ š ›œ ’ œŸ ¡‘¢£’¤¡¦ §¨¨ ™  Ÿ’Ÿ– • ’œ ¦ ¢”Ÿ § ’ ’Ÿ ™  ’ ’Ÿ ™ — ’ ’Ÿ ™  ¢›Ÿ ’Ÿ ™ ¢›Ÿ ’Ÿ ™    •™   •”¤’Ÿ¤Ÿ›” “•’¢” ¢ • ’œ  Ÿ–  ¤‘•”•Ÿ’¢œ ¢” ¤¢œŸ•Ÿ •””•–œ  “£’  •   ”¢¤œœ §  — ’‘Ÿœ ›‘‘ •  ” ›¤Ÿ’¢•‘’Ÿ– š “£’  § ¢”  ¢” — ™ ¦ § •   ¢” § ¢”  •  —™    ”¢¤œœ •   ™   ‘•¡”’Ÿ ”¢¤œœ §  —  •”’•“‘  ¤‘•”•Ÿ’¢œ  ›¤Ÿ’¢ ‘•¡Ÿ•“‘ §§¨ ”Ÿ›” ”•‘ ’œ š ¤¢œŸ•Ÿ ‘••£ •””•–¡ Ÿ”•œ’Ÿ ‘••£ Ÿ•“‘ š šš š ™ š¦ “£’ š ‘••£ ™ š   ‘•¡Ÿ•“‘™ š ›¤Ÿ’¢ ‘•¡Ÿ•“‘š §§¨ ”Ÿ›” ”•‘ ’œ š ¤¢œŸ•Ÿ ‘••£š •””•–¡ œŸ• – œŸ•Ÿ ‘••£ Ÿ•“‘ š ™  “£’  ‘••£š ™ š   ‘•¡Ÿ•“‘š ™ “£’ ’‘Ÿœ ‘••£ •¤¤››‘•Ÿ’¢ ¦ ’ § ¢”  ¢” — Ÿ ’ ¢ ”¡Ÿ’ Ÿ ’ ¢ ”¡Ÿ’ š œ Ÿ ‘• ‘• Ÿ’¡Ÿ¢¡”•‘ š œ ‘•¡Ÿ•“‘ “’Ÿœ¡Ÿ¢¡’Ÿ ”¡“›œ “’Ÿœ¡Ÿ¢¡’Ÿ ”¡“›œ ™ ‘• ‘• Ÿ’¡Ÿ¢¡”•‘ ¢ ”¡Ÿ’ š œ ¦ ‘•¡Ÿ•“‘š “’Ÿœ¡Ÿ¢¡’Ÿ ”¡“›œ ™ ¦ ‘œ ¦š ‘• ‘• Ÿ’¡Ÿ¢¡”•‘ ¢ ”¡Ÿ’ ¦ ‘•¡Ÿ•“‘ “’Ÿœ¡Ÿ¢¡’Ÿ ”¡“›œ “’Ÿœ¡Ÿ¢¡’Ÿ ”¡“›œ ™ ¦¦   ’ ™ ¦ Ÿ¢Ÿ•‘¡Ÿ’ Ÿ¢Ÿ•‘¡Ÿ’ ¢”¡Ÿ’ ™ ¦ ‘œ ¦ ”¡“›œ —§™ ¦   ’ ™ ¦ ”¡Ÿ’ ¢ ™  ”¡“›œ ”¡“›œ ™  ”¡“›œ —  §™ š   ’ ™   ”¢¤œœ ‘•¡”’Ÿ ™ ¦   •’¢” ™ J-On % O6

PAGE 94

r nrr nn 3 d = n rnnnr n ] nnr nrnComponent LevelLeafcell Level Data-path Level RegisterAdderMultiplier ...... ..... ....full adder full adderfull adder FIR Data-path J-L" n 5r rnr n5 r, rn r 65 r n r r / r, rn n rnr% 5r rn r nnr, rn nn % $ r n rn r, nrr r n !" % r Q. &. n rR%5r n n nrr r nrnr nn Q'J-LR r5 n rnrn rn 5 rn n % 3 = r n nr n rn r n n5 rn n /n r r nr rn r r 5 % rnr r 'r J-635J-61 r r n r n n nnr r Mn n rr r r S nrn, n n r u 9 U o]gZm]alh_ g]dc_ld /rr rn % nr r nr 633 n 6 n5 r V 24Wr Sr rn rn O1

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' J-63! r n rn r r J-66! r n rn r r r % rnr 63 rn r r !" n rn r rn r5 r rn n nr r /rr rn 13 ( n r r n r % uut 8hlhohl\ ] U hmo_]d % rnr n rn &% r nrr r r V 22Wr r nr r % nrrn nnr r n n J-6O4

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' J-61! r n rn r r % rn r r rn % r n $ rn r nrnr r nr rn r rn r rr QR rn VHDL Simulator (Cadence) Char. Library Module RTL VHDL Input vectors Leakage Power Profile FASL AUDI Behavioral DFG' J-64rn n OI

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$ r n !" r n !" rn Sn X r r n 'J-6Ir % n !" &% r nr n %rn n5 Q%R #/ n r nrr (# rn" nr r .nr r r $ n rr r nr n n n r nrnr n 5nrnr r n rn n r rr r n 'J-NTRANSLATOR "" "" '' NANOSIM HSPICEHSPICEHSPICE MULT1 ADD0 REG0MODULE WISE LEAKAGE POWEROVERALL POWEROF DESIGN MAGIC sdl LAGER IV Silicon Compiler SPICE NETLIST RT-Level VHDL J-6ISn X n n 5r J-1%rn nr %rn 0 r r nr / O 63 6 J (r, I r '/ O 63 6 J (r, I r 0 I L N N (r, 12 r OJ

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! J-1 rr rn nr rn! r J-45J-J rn $r n rn n !" Mn n rr r rn, n nrr r S n n r 4-J2Nr r rr, n r rr n 6r J-L r rn rrnr n n &. / & 1 (nr 1J2( /( rn r ', r r % r rr rn n J-L, r I5J r n r r J-25J-O rn M nn nrn n n n rr r r nr Mn n r n nn r r r n r! J-4/ $r Mn rr ( 6 J r L r r r r Q0 R Q0 R Q0 R Q0 R Q0 R Q0 R r 3-666 3-636 L-33 3ILN 3IJI O-2J 3-OL4 3-O61 L-3N /rr 3-JJN 3-JIJ 1-6J 1-JJO 1I1N J-6O I-JO2 I-463 2-36 (r 1I3O 1IJ1 56-O1 66-312 66I16 54-JO 6L-224 13I1N 54-OO (S 3-46J 3-1NN 61-32 6-J6O 6-1N1 62-1 1-N62 1-122 62-J2 % 4-4L6 4-4NJ 3IN 6J-233 6J-JNI 3-62 1N-OJO 1N-O62 3-6J I33nr 6O33nr 4133nr JI'/ $r Mn rr ( 6 J r L r r r r Q0 R Q0 R Q0 R Q0 R Q0 R Q0 R r 3I64 3I3I 1-6N 3I61 3I63 3IO 3I66 3I66 3-3 /rr I-441 I-4N1 53-L1 IINI I-4II 1-LN IIO2 I-4IJ 4-6I (r 6L-1OI 6L-2L 51-6 6L-23N 13-4I1 54-NI 6L-2JI 13I4I 54-L2 (S 1-3LJ 6-O26 66-62 1-626 6-OLL 61-61 1-6L3 6-OL4 64-J2 % 12-614 12-446 3-NL2 12-2JI 12-LLI 6-1N 12-NI3 1N-3O4 6-1O IJ3nr 13J3nr 42J3nr O2

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! J-J0 $r Mn rr ( 6 J r L r r r r Q0 R Q0 R Q0 R Q0 R Q0 R Q0 R r 3-O1J 3-O44 53-L2L 3-O11 3-OIJ 1-NLO 3-O62 3-OIL 5I-3I /rr 4-113 4-34J J-NI 4-461 1-L12 66-2J 4-1ON 1-L61 66I3 (r 6-OOL 6-L1O 51-32 6-OL6 6-L6L 56-J4 6-OOJ 6-L3L 56-1N (S O-631 O-33J 6-6L O-13O O-34I 1-66 O-3L3 N-L2O 6-J3 % 6I-34N 64-O36 6-2O 6I-141 64-N1I 4-J2 6I-3NL 64-24O 4-641 L33nr I433nr NN33nr J-2/ M nrn n n $ ( 0 nrn 0 nrn ' Q0 R Q0 R QrR Q0 R QrR r 3-OL4 3-O61 L-3N 3-NNL 61-N2 /rr I-JO2 I-463 2-36 I-JIL 3-O6 (r 6L-224 13I1N 54-OO 6L-L4O 56-4L (S 1-N62 1-122 62-J2 1-2LL 3-24 % 1N-OJO 1N-O62 3-6J 1N-L2N 3-4L J-N'/ M nrn n n $ ( 0 nrn 0 nrn ' Q0 R Q0 R QrR Q0 R QrR r 3I66 3I66 3-3 3-4ON J-NI /rr IIO2 I-4IJ 4-6I I-JIL 6I6 (r 6L-2JI 13I4I 54-L2 6L-L24 6-JN (S 1-6L3 6-OL4 64-J2 1-1JO 4-63 % 12-NI3 1N-3O4 6-1O 1N-6JO 6-JI uu Uhanfm _f[Z` `Zg`cZld n r n r, r r r nr ( rnrr n rr, r n nr r Q..% n ./Rnr r n n rnr n n r % ON

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! J-O0 M nrn n n $ ( 0 nrn 0 nrn ' Q0 R Q0 R QrR Q0 R QrR r 3-O62 3-OIL 5I-3I 3-O3I 6IL /rr 4-1ON 1-L61 66I3 4-121 3-N2 (r 6-OOJ 6-L3L 56-1N 6-LI4 1-LO (S O-3L3 N-L2O 6-J3 L-226 LI3 % 6I-3NL 64-24O 4-641 6J-2N6 66-43 J-Ln n r ( 6 J r L r ' / 61 1Jn 6-Jr 63 I1n 6-Or 1 INn 1-4r '/ 6J 4Ln 6-Jr 61 42n 6-2r 1 4In 6-Or 0 N 4Ln 6Ir 4 66n 6-Jr 42n 6-Nr r ..% n ./ r n r r n n J-6/rr rn 13 r ( nrr r5 633 n r" r r QRrnr r nr rn #/ n S r nrr r 633n n r! J-63 rn rr ( nr n rn rrn r !" r r nr r r S n r rr n Jr r ! J-66 rr M nn rr n nrn n n r! nr rn n rn ( r nrn rn r n !" r r rr, r n SrOO

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! J-63/n 5 ( nr n Q0 R ' Q rR 6N 1-3r J3Ir 3-J2JJ 3-J24J 3-4J 2 I41 2-Nr 43nI3r 1-36LN 1-3J4L 6-22 1O1 ILL I-Lr 64Nn I-1234 I-1O26 3-23 J2N 64JJ O-6r 61Ln J-6I3J J-64OO 3-34 JJ1 6L3O O-Nr 14On J-J43I J-JOO1 6-34 NN1 I1 1-Jr 4nJr 3-114I 3-1123 6-6J 44 O1 6-6r 1n6r 3-11ON 3-11JN 6-44 1O 64O 1-Nr 6nJIr 3-6N26 3-6N3O 4-63 1L 6J1 3-Lr 6n4Ir 3-161N 3-163L 3-OJ 1I 621 3-Nr InNr 3I641 3-4LIO I-22 JI S 6 6-1r INn 4-142I 4-6NI4 6-L2 II3 S1 1-2r 2nJ1r 3-JILN 3-JI1N 6-1L N4 1 I-1r 613n 4-4I1N 4-446L 3-41 I21 L 4-Lr 6JnJ3r 6-63L6 6-32LO 4-2N 6IN O 4-Lr 61nOr 6-J3JI 6IJ33 4-O1 166 4-1r 64nIJr 3-L2I4 3-L134 I-NL 61I n 1-2r 13n63r 6-6L26 6-6IOJ I-6I 626 S1 I-Lr 41nJNr 1-JLL2 1IOOI II2 4J6 6 J-2r 6Ln1r 6-3I4I 6-31I1 6-ON 6I4 6-Jr 2n42r 3-J2NO 3-J23N 6-12 N6 u Ecm m hg 'r n Q'R r rn, r n /5 % rnrSr rn r rr r nn n r n n nrn Sn rn 5 n rn, rr n r5 I5J r n, n r r OL

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! J-66/n 5 M nrn n ( 0 nrn 0 nrn ' Q0 R Q0 R QrR Q0 R QrR 6N 3-J24J 3-J2JJ 3-4J 3-3J62 OII I41 1-3J4L 1-36LN 6-22 6-L36L N-4L ILL I-1O26 I-1234 3-23 I-66L3 4-OL 64JJ J-64OO J-6I3J 3-34 J-334I 1-24 6L3O J-JOO1 J-J43I 6-34 J-1N46 J-24 I1 3-1123 3-114I 6-6J 3-164L J-4J O1 3-11JN 3-11ON 6-44 3-16ON 4-63 64O 3-6N3O 3-6N26 4-63 3-62I2 4-21 6J1 3-163L 3-161N 3-OJ 3-163J 3-6O 621 3-4LIO 3I641 I-22 3I336 6-4I S 6 4-6NI4 4-142I 6-L2 4-3246 4-J3 S1 3-JI1N 3-JILN 6-1L 3-J121 4-3I 1 4-446L 4-4I1N 3-41 4-116I 4-46 L 6-32LO 6-63L6 4-2N 6-32J1 3I4 O 6IJ33 6-J3JI 4-O1 6I444 6-6J 3-L134 3-L2I4 I-NL 3-L23O 6I2 n 6-6IOJ 6-6L26 I-6I 6-6IO6 3-34 S1 1IOOI 1-JLL2 II2 1-J6NL 6-6O 6 6-31I1 6-3I4I 6-ON 3-LLJN 1-NO 3-J23N 3-J2NO 6-12 3-JJON 3-4J L3

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;Y U B>A B9<@ A 9U 8<=
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"ut D flZ^hlZfah_ ] U hmo_] rr !" r r nr rn Mn rn 5 r rn, S nr'2-6 rr rr !" rnr r nr rn r rn nr / '0 r rn$n nr n rr n Mn r r nrn '2-6, r r rn r rr rn, '% r % n V JJW, ( r nr n, n n (n 5 V J2W, r nnn, n r r n r n 2-10 rn r r $nn 5r5 n 2-1 r r $r r rrn 2-4 r r rn rnr r n n n 2I rnr Sn rr"u
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Schedule A Schedule B Schedule C (op1,3,4) (op1,4,5) (op1, 5, 3) (op1,4,3) (op1,4,3) (op1,5,4) (op1,5,4) (op1,4,3) (op1,3,5) Tabu ListTabu List Tabu List 2-1" n r rn r r n r rnr# rr n 5 r! r r r n r n n rn rr n rnrr n r Q ] S R ’ & S R & R r r n n r rr'2-1 rr n r rnr n n r rrn, $n nn5 Q 6, 4, IR, r n 6 r 4 r Ir )n, r r Q 6, I, 4R, r I ; 4 r n n rrr Q 6, I, JR n 1, r !" n Q 6, J, IRr n, $nr Q 6, J, 4R Snr r n $nr r n ! r n rn r n rr n, r n L4

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r rr ] ' ’ n ] ' n n nr n r r n ] ' ’ r, fg r r n ] ' r"uu B]hih[] `fdl m ]lgZ` n r, n n rnr r S5 nn r rrn r' r rr, n n r n rn nn V JNW" r nnnn nr n n rr0 r nn, r n n Sr n rn '& nrnr n rr0 r r nn n r r n Qn6RN ] ] & | †ˆŠ Q R ƒ z}} Q ] $$ R ƒ €‡{x Q R ƒ €‡ Q R Q2-6R †ˆŠ n ‡ nnr r rr n '&r r €‡ r nn S nr n n r nrnrnr †ˆŠ ‡ n €‡ n !" n r Mn r n rnr'r n n r n rn 'r Q'R V 2NW, r n Jr r r rn r Sn rnrn €‡ r nn n n r nr0 r r r nn nr nn n r r rn '2-4 rr r nr r I3 nr, n n rn r r 0 nr r n rn n n rLI

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1.25 1.3 1.35 1.4 1.45 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 x 10 -5 1.25 1.3 1.35 1.4 1.45 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 x 10 -5 Leakage Cost MetricActual Leakage (W)Leakage Cost Metric vs Actual Leakage 2-4" r "uu :al]adZ { `hlZfa han nZ^]gdZ { `hlZfa n r r “ "“ nnr$n, n r r r rn r n rn V6NW%n n, n r n n r rn n r$n n, n r n r n n n nr n n r r r n rn n nS n0 n n rn nnr$n n r$n Q $r r !" #Rn r nnr$n n r$n n n nr"u
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r r r n$ r rn r nr r r5 S V JIW Q '2IRSrr r Srr n nrn nr ! nn n r n r rr n nrnr rn r n n(r n nr n r 5 T1T2T3 T3 T1T2T3 T3 Adder Multiplier M0 M1 M2 M3 M4 A0 A1 A2 A3 op7 op6 op4 op3 op1 op2 2I5 r r n rnr0 r r r V JIWMn r Q6R rn n n n r ns Q1R nnn nr n rs Q4R nnn nr r nrs Q IR rn n n n r$r r nn rrn n r r rn n r 5 n nnn nr r n nrnr n rr n rnr r n r rn n rr nn r r n n rnrr n r r nn n n rnn r r r n n 2-1-1n r r n rr n rr r r r n rr0 n nnr$n n r$n nr r r r n n n r nr, r L2

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n nr n n n n 4 nr! ) n n r n nrnr n rr nnn Q IR $S n rn nnr$5 n, r$n, n n rr r r n nS rnr n "u 9 U o]gZm]alh_ g]dc_ld /rr rn nnr nr -, 0 '5 Q0 'R, / ', nr Q r R, n / '' $r rr Mn rr S, 5 $ rn rnrn r n nrr n, !" nrn rn r rn$n n rn r $nr r n n "uut
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Y and Mapping Allocation Is Satisfied? AL Choose Best Neighbor / Move Neighbor Schedule Identify Cost Leakage EstimateUpdate Cost Table Initial Schedule More Y Tabu ? Is Move N N MakeMove the Y Choose Neighbor / Move Next Best N Update Tabu Lists Neighbors? 2-JSn r 2I-652I-6 r rr n 4 r rr !" rn n rn '%nr I n J r rr !" rn r !" n n Qn rR '% r nr 2 n N r rr !" rn r !" n n Qn rR '%r r rn r V 2NW 6333 n rr n rn n rn 633n n V 24W' rr r /5 % rnr, n r n rn r rr n Jr r r r rn$n r 0 r n ) rnr, r nrrn rr r rr n n '%n n, r rnr, nr M r rn r n LO

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2e-05 2.5e-05 3e-05 3.5e-05 4e-05 4.5e-05 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Leakage cost Iteration Tabu Search for EWF "iteration_best" "current_best" 2-2! r 5 Q0 'R 2I-6 n r 0 S0 r r S n r rnr rn, r n nn nr, n rn rr rn S r r r n n rn n 0 r rn rr Qr | IR, r r r 4 r n r r n rr n n rnr n rn0 r n r rn r r r, n n nr n n ! r r n nn Sr r r rr! 2-6r Mn r 5 0 's n nr | 44 '%Q0 R Q0 R Q0 R n ¨ ™ zœ‡ n QrR ¨ ™ zœ‡ QrR 3 46-J3IN 1O-2OLJ 12I66O 62-62 N-L4 6 1I-616L 1NI42J 6L-O4JN 6N-NN 1N-N3 1 13-16IL 1J-NO24 6L-1N1N I-22 1J-1J I 6L-L63L 12-LJ4I 6LI6O1 1IN 1N-LJ LL

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! 2-1r Mn r 5 nr $s n 5 nr| 6J '%Q0 R Q0 R Q0 R n ¨ ™ zœ‡ n QrR ¨ ™ zœ‡ QrR 3 13-O142 13-O6IN 6L-J2OO 2-3N J-LO 6 16-126J 6L-NOLL 6O-LJ11 63-O2 I-14 1 6L-OJ11 6L-O6I1 6L-6NJ2 4I6 4-11 I 13-64LJ 6NINJN 6IILNO 1O-36 6N-3I 2-4r Mn r 5 / $s n nr|L '%Q0 R Q0 R Q0 R n ¨ ™ zœ‡ n QrR ¨ ™ zœ‡ QrR 3 13-J1NN 13-J1N2 16-4444 54-L1 54-L1 6 6N-1624 6N-1162 62-43OO J-1N J-43 1 6N-14JO 62-LI21 6J-12I3 66II L-LL I 6N-122L 62-LNJO 61-J246 1N-1I 1J-LL 2Ir Mn r 5 / $s n nr|1O '%Q0 R Q0 R Q0 R n ¨ ™ zœ‡ n QrR ¨ ™ zœ‡ QrR 3 4O-4L11 4N-2IN1 4J-2L3O N-3I J-6L 6 4L-J2N6 42-2OO1 43-3JJL 1I-3I 6O-3N 1 43-NJJO 42-OI12 1L-L23J 1-JO 6O-2N I I1-3L41 4N-L21I 1J-1J42 I1-33 44IN 2-J/n r 0 r rr I NO4r 126r 1 4L1r 124r 6 64Or 1J6r 3 1Ir 6OOr r r nn n rn rn r n n$, r r nr n n /5 n r rn rn(r rnr r nn r n n '% n 2I-6 r r n !" '%, n r633

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r n !" rn nn S r n r 2-2r r nrnr n T ‘ s | 3 %rn '% n ¨ ™ zœ‡ n QrR ¨ ™ zœ‡ QrR 0 63ON3IIO 66L466J1 L1JNLII 6I-O4 11I3 / 642LNIIO 641ILLL1 61L1N11I J-21 1I4 / NJ6ON23 ONOILN2 NNOO2O3 54-JO 66-4I n NI4OL23 ONN461O N3N22J2 I-ON 6L-44 "uu
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N Y for chosenmove type Make the move ObtainInitial Schedule and Mapping Create Instance Tables Decide Random Move type Obtain neigboring solutions if that applied move type is Find non-tabu neighbor with least leakage costMore runs? Intensification/Diversification/Compaction Return Best Solution Update tabu list 2-NSn 2-O* r r nrnr n T ‘ %rn ( ( QrR QrR / ONOILN2 631NIL2O N42LJO3 62-66 1O-1N / 641ILLL1 1334IOOO 61OJL412 1-LI 4J-O6 0 66L466J1 66JOOI62 LIO1112 13-J1 6O-6N n ONN461O 6I2I66N2 O41J3LO J-63 I4-6I n n n rn n !" rn r n nr, r rn$n n n 2I-1 r n"u Ecm m hg n r r r r r n r rn$r rr rr rr rn r n$ r rnr rr n 631

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;Y ? ;BT E:>? E U@ n rr n ( r r n5 rn r n n nrr r n n r r rn n r n n r0 n n n rn n, r n rn r n r n rr rn r r /5, rnr rn$n 0 rn n /5 r rnr r n %n r n r rr r r rnr n Qn n r rR, rrn r r nn n n nr r n r nr nrn rr r n rn 0 rn rr n nrn n/rr rn % 5r n 13 ( n nrn r 6-4Or n 1-66r n 5 Sr n n nr r rn r !" r r nnr Sr nn r rnr rrn rnr n n rr r n5 rr 5 rr nrn rn n /5 rnr nr n rn n rrn r rn r n n n n n5 n n rr rn 0 rn nr 63I

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r nrn 5r rn 5r ( Q( 5 ( R nn nnr n r ! n r M nnr n n r r nrr0 r nn 5r r nr ( ( nnrn n nn r r S n( ( nnr r n n n n r !" ( ( nnr, r r nn r n 356 +nr r n5 rr 5 n nrnr r$ !" rn n r r r n n n5 n ( ( nnr n 5n r nn 5 n n nn rn 1O-J1r n I1-24r r r n 6O3n n 633n nr'n r r r r r nrn 5 r rn r$r S r r rn nrn r rnr r n nnn$ r rn r 5r rr r r n$ 5r r5 r I3r n n rrr r rn r r Sr r r n n n n rn r Sn 5 r nnn! r n rnr nr n n n r nrr 5r n n nr* % nn r n X nnr rnr Sn n n nn r n X nnr rnr 63J

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% r n n r, ! r n n r !" r Sn rn r r n ( ( nnr 632

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U9G9U9? ;9 E V6W H rn nr n = “" ” “ " ~ “ A B “ “" € " ” = ", r 1L4 1L2, 1336V 1W + n -nrn %5r nr 5 % r@~~ € 4JQNR*633L 636O, 1333V 4W + / /n n 5 ( %rnn = “" ” @ @ " = "“" € " ” = " " € “ = “ " ~| , r 62N 6N4, 6LLOV IW @ " = "“" " | 3 ” = ~ “" = Qn nr rrnR, 1336V JW ( (nn n %rn* nr n nr € = "“" " B “ “" ”  = "“ ~| , 6, .6, *4 J2, n 6LL2V 2W nrn -, n &rn nrnr@ = " “" " € 3 = “ B “ ” € “ = “ " ~| , r 61 46, n 6LLJVNW /nn n + n 5n5Hr 5 % nrr r@ = "“" " € 3 = “ B “ ” @ " = € “ = “ " ~| , 62Q66R*6123 61NN, 6LLNV OW ( nrn n + / n r n n5 rnr %n %5 n &n /r nrnrn = “" ” @ " = "“" € " ” = " " € 3 = B “ ", r N1 NN, 6LL2V LW (n, %r, r, n (r n nr n (nnn = “" ” = B “ “" € " ” = ", r 4IL 4J1, n 6LL2V63W 5( n n ( /r n n Hnnn = “" ” " B “ “" € " ” = ", r 1L 4J, 6LLJV66W + n / n n /r n n nrnr n @~ € ~ r J4 J2, 1333V61W -/nn, + , % } “ ? d = " | “ " 3 ““ 4 “" + rr, 6LLO63N

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V64W (n /nnn, n + nr n nn n rn r rrrn = “" ” € = ~| 3 “ " ~@ r 16J 113, 1334V6IW +rn, /nnn, ) rnn n n r n5 rr rn n n n n r n = “" ” d ” @ " = "“" € " ” = " " ~@ B “ ", r II3 IIJ, 6LLLV6JW ( n Prr @ = “ ? € 3 = = “ d “ 33 ““" “"  “" = “" rr, 6LLLV62W / /r, = } = ““ "“ ” = € “" = “ 3 ““ 4 “" = (# , 6LLJV6NW # n ( n! rn /r, = } = ““ "“ ” = € “" = “ = , S, nn, 6LL4H n$ rnV6OW n H +nr 'nn r nrr r rr @ = "“" " € 3 = “ B “ ” @ " = € “ = “ " ~| , 64, 6LLIV6LW 0, + -/ n -+ % ( %rn nr % n r n = “" ” “ = " @ " = "“" € " ” = " " ~@ B “ r 1I 1L, 1333V 13W n '.) #5 /n ( &5 5 ( rn = “" ” €@ €€ r INJ INO, 6LLNV 16W Kn, 0, ( nrn, n + / rn n !" n ( r nrn (n nrr rn = “" ” @~B r 14L 1II, 6LLOV 11W n 0, Knn n, +r / ( -nrn, P n P, n % %rn n n %5r r 5 5 nr@ ~@ NQ6R*62 1I, ( 6LLLV 14W 0n n -H -+ r (nn n !" n % % ( r @ €B 16Q4R*432 46O, ( 1331V 1IW 0n n -H -+ n nrn 5Mr ( rn @ €€B r JJ2 J21, 6LLNV 1JW r, / n, % H %* n rn n n %5  x r @ ~@ 63*NL L3, 1331V 12W (6 % n (5 r ( @~~ € 43QOR*OIN OJ4, r 6LLJ63O

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V 1NW (, r, n P (r 6 5r ( % n n nn n n nrn = “" ” @ @~~ € € " ” = ", r 62O 62L, 6LL2V 1OW -+, nrn, n % nnr nrr rn rrr n (5r ( n n = “" ” B € r I3L I6I, 6LLNV 1LW nrn, Pn, n % nnr %rn nrnr n r 5 r r rnn = “" ” B € r 664 662, 6LL2V 43W n n /nnn n /n n ( r &rn 5 n nrr rn = “" ” ~ ? "" @ " = "“" € " ” = " " ~@ B “ ", 133IV 46W + -+ n -+ n rr n /n n H nrrn = “" ” @ €€B r J26 J2I, 1333V 41W ( Pn, H 'r$, + / n ) #5* n / n %5 n (rn = “" ” @~B r L3 LJ, 1333V 44W ( 5 n Pn, H 'r$ + / n ) /n 5 n 5n 5r n nrn @ ~@ LQ6R*NN OL, 1336V 4IW -, -, n + -/ %/#5 % /nn #5#n n = “" ” B € r IN4 INO, 1331V 4JW Pn, ( % H 'r$, + / n ) n n5 n n 5r n 5 n 5r n = “" ” ~ ? " @ " = "“" ~| 3 “ " } “ = ” = " € 3 = = “ = b } € c r 6IN 6JN, 1336V 42W ( nrn, % % r, 5P n + / n n r nrr rr n rn r ( @ ~@ 63Q6R*6 J, 1331V 4NW -r n r / n n rn = “" ” @~ € ~ r IO6 IOI, 1331V 4OW 0 Kn, ) rnn, ( +n, ( -n, % %, n P r Sn 0 r % n n n /n n = “" ” @ " = "“" ~| 3 “ " “ = = “ = , r 631 664, 1336V 4LW ( nr, ( (, n ( r % n n n n ( ( r rn n n rn n n = “" ” B € r IO3 IOJ, n 133163L

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V I3W % -%, P -r, ) rnn, n ( -n n /n5 nr /nn = “" ” @ " = "“" € " ” = " " ~@ B “ ", r 46 4O, 1331V I6W P P, H, n -% n n rn !" n n 5 n r n B “ ” "“ 3 = ~| 3 “ " ~@ “ = “, r I3 I6, 6LLOV I1W + P 5' r, ) rnn, ( +n, ( n, n 5 r n n (nn n rn = “" ” @ " = "“" € " ” = " " = = “ = " € 3 ““" "“ , r 646 6I3, 1331V I4W Hr n # ( r n = “" ” = @ € "" ~| 3 “ " “ = = “ = b @ € c r 6L6 1336, 1333V IIW / + n / rn % 5n r n n %rn nnn n = “" ” “ ” " @ " = " “" € " ” = " " ~@ B “ r IJ J3, 1331V IJW % r ( nrn n + / (r n r Hnr n n ( r @ €B 6OQ2R*N6I N1J, n 6LLLV I2W /nn n + H nrr n = “" ” @ €€B r 46O 411, 6LLIV INW ( n) n ( H r H r nrr n, r, n n r$ rrr n nrV IOW / +, + $ %n nrr rn = “" ” @ €€B r II2 IJ4, 6LLJV ILW 0n5rn n 5 r n n /r Hnnn = “" ” @~ €~ r 1NL 1O1, 1333V J3W (n n /nnn n n nrn n n r nrrn = “" ” @ " = "“" € " ” = " " ~@ B “ ", r J4L JIJ, 1334V J6W + n / % %rnr n = “" ” @ € " ” = ", r I-6N I-1J, 6LLJV J1W -/, -/nn, n n / rn %rnr n = “" ” ~ “ p " @ " = "“" € " ” = " " ~@ B “ ", 1334V J4W +, % #, n ( n !" r nnn~ “" = | 113, IJLO*2N6 2O3, 6LO4663

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V JIW %r n -/ .n r n n % nrr@ ~@ O*N2O NO6, n 6LOLV JJW -# n n -+n'5% n H nrr r@ = "“" " € 3 = “ B “ ” € “ = “ " ~| , OQ2R*226 2NL, n 6LOLV J2W / n % r! nn rn, n, n n n rn n = “" ” B € r N6 N2, 6LL3V JNW rn n % nrr % rrn = “" ” B € r J22 JN1, n 6LO4V JOW &nr n, H =@ 6LL6V JLW + ? “ = = A “" } “ ? d =  “ “" “ ” = ~@ ~@ € " ~| " “% rr, &nr nnn, 6LL2V 23W n ( /( n nn ( r5 rn = B “ “" € " ” r 6N4 6NO, n 6LOLV 26W % rnn 356 nr = " " 3 = “" = IJ*NJO N2N, 6LLNV 21W * -rrV 24W *5r! V 2IW n r nrrr n “ , 1331V 2JW nr r~| " 3 | "“ = “, 1336-32 n, n 1336V 22W #rnn n + /r n n Hnn n = “" ” ~ “ p " @ " = "“" € " ” = " " ~@ B “ "V 2NW #rnn n + n % %r n = “" ” @ € 3 = ~ “ | "" ~| 3 “ " ~@ r 166 161, 1334666

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T = =Y9 U n #rnn r Hr % n n &nr (r Q nR n 6LLOr r rn ), n$ % rr r n r r nrr (rr n n &nr ', n 1333rr n r n n r rn n nrnr0 n -% &nr ', n n nn r n r r n n $r n n r rnr, r r r r r nn r r r r nrr r nrr n n-