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Title:
Assessing the reproducibility of coral-based climate records a multi-proxy replication test using three Porites lutea coral heads from New Caledonia
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Stephans, Christie L
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University of South Florida
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Subjects / Keywords:
corals
paleoclimate
reproducibility
oxygen isotopes
sr/ca ratios
new caledonia
Dissertations, Academic -- Marine Science -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
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government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
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Summary:
ABSTRACT: Coral-based climate studies commonly use elemental ratios and stable isotopes of coral skeletons to address seawater temperature and hydrologic balance issues in the tropical surface oceans. Replication, or cross-checking, a standard technique used to assess the fidelity of proxy records in paleoclimatology has not been widely applied in coral-based climate studies, primarily because of the time and cost associated with generating multiple records from a single reef site. Modern and paleoclimate reconstructions based on a single proxy-coral record from a site may contain errors if individual corals from the same reef record different geochemical signals. In this study we perform a replication test using elemental ratios and stable isotopes in three Porites corals from New Caledonia. The reef complex offshore Amédée Island, New Caledonia is an ideal site to perform a coral replication test because instrumental sea surface temperatures (SST) and sea surface salinity measurements (SSS) have been made there for over 25 years. In this study, we compare sub-monthly resolved, geochemical variations (Sr/Ca, d18O and d13C) in three Porites lutea coral heads, located ~500 m apart, with the instrumental SST and SSS records over the interval 1992-1967. The monthly coral Sr/Ca and d18O time series are well correlated to each other (r=0.86, p<.0001) and to the monthly instrumental SST record (r= -0.86, p<.0001, coral Sr/Ca to SST; r= -0.77, p<.0001, coral d18O to SST). The three, sub-monthly resolved, 30-year coral Sr/Ca-SST time series have mean SST values that agree within 0.2oC with the instrumental mean SST value. A similar comparison for the coral d18O-SST records indicate a maximum difference between predicted and observed mean SST of 0.5°C. Analysis of the monthly climatological means also indicates that Sr/Ca-SST records closely match the instrumental SST record ±0.4°C; a similar comparison using the d18O-SST record yields an average offset of ±0.6°C between observed and predicted monthly SST. Stacking the three records to form composite Sr/Ca-SST and d18O-SST records does not appreciably improve the goodness of fit between the proxy and instrumental SST records; hence a coral-based proxy climate record from a single coral accurately reflects the observed record of climate variability at this locality. These results support the concept that high fidelity climate records can be generated using a single coral core.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of South Florida, 2003.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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by Christie L. Stephans.
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Document formatted into pages; contains 93 pages

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ABSTRACT: Coral-based climate studies commonly use elemental ratios and stable isotopes of coral skeletons to address seawater temperature and hydrologic balance issues in the tropical surface oceans. Replication, or cross-checking, a standard technique used to assess the fidelity of proxy records in paleoclimatology has not been widely applied in coral-based climate studies, primarily because of the time and cost associated with generating multiple records from a single reef site. Modern and paleoclimate reconstructions based on a single proxy-coral record from a site may contain errors if individual corals from the same reef record different geochemical signals. In this study we perform a replication test using elemental ratios and stable isotopes in three Porites corals from New Caledonia. The reef complex offshore Amde Island, New Caledonia is an ideal site to perform a coral replication test because instrumental sea surface temperatures (SST) and sea surface salinity measurements (SSS) have been made there for over 25 years. In this study, we compare sub-monthly resolved, geochemical variations (Sr/Ca, d18O and d13C) in three Porites lutea coral heads, located ~500 m apart, with the instrumental SST and SSS records over the interval 1992-1967. The monthly coral Sr/Ca and d18O time series are well correlated to each other (r=0.86, p<.0001) and to the monthly instrumental SST record (r= -0.86, p<.0001, coral Sr/Ca to SST; r= -0.77, p<.0001, coral d18O to SST). The three, sub-monthly resolved, 30-year coral Sr/Ca-SST time series have mean SST values that agree within 0.2oC with the instrumental mean SST value. A similar comparison for the coral d18O-SST records indicate a maximum difference between predicted and observed mean SST of 0.5C. Analysis of the monthly climatological means also indicates that Sr/Ca-SST records closely match the instrumental SST record 0.4C; a similar comparison using the d18O-SST record yields an average offset of 0.6C between observed and predicted monthly SST. Stacking the three records to form composite Sr/Ca-SST and d18O-SST records does not appreciably improve the goodness of fit between the proxy and instrumental SST records; hence a coral-based proxy climate record from a single coral accurately reflects the observed record of climate variability at this locality. These results support the concept that high fidelity climate records can be generated using a single coral core.
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Assessing the Reproducibility of Coralbased Climate Records: A Multi-proxy Replication Test using Three Porites lutea Coral Heads from New Caledonia by Christie L. Stephans A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science College of Marine Science University of South Florida Major Professor: Terrence M. Quinn, Ph.D. Benjamin P. Flower, Ph.D. David J. Hollander, Ph.D. Date of Approval: November 5, 2003 Keywords: corals, paleoclimate, reproducib ility, oxygen isotopes, Sr/Ca ratios, New Caledonia Copyright 2003, Christie L. Stephans

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Acknowledgements I would like to thank all of my friends and family for their support and encouragement. I would also like to th ank my committee members of Dr. Ben Flower and Dr. David Hollander and my advisor Dr. Terry Quinn for their guidance and support over the past two years. I am also very a ppreciative for the company my fellow lab mates Jennifer Smith, Heather Hill, Eric Cross, Hali Kilbourne, Amy Wright, and Jenna LoDico. To have numerous researchers work ing closely together in the Paleo lab has brought students with varying backgrounds t ogether, and to learn from each other and with each other has been extremely beneficial for all of us. I would also like to thank Mr. Ethan Goddard for coming to USF and organizing the Paleo lab, and all of his many efforts that keep it running. In addition, I would like to tha nk the researchers I have worked with at the University of South Carolina, without their support and guidance I would not have gone to graduate school. My undergraduate adviso r, Dr. Stephen Stancyk I th ank for believing in me, and for being a great person that al ways made time for the students. I thank Mr. Eric Tappa for being a great person to work with, to le arn from, and to know as a friend. I thank all of the other professors at USC that I work ed with including Dr. Marcel Reichert, Dr. Brian Helmuth, Dr. Michael Howell, and Dr. Robert Thunell, for w ith each research project I gained a new perspec tive, and more desire to cont inue learning with science.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES............................................................................................................ii LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................iv ABSTRACT.........................................................................................................................v 1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................1 2. METHODS......................................................................................................................5 2.1 Climate Setting..................................................................................................5 2.2 Coral Sampling.................................................................................................6 2.3 Geochemical Analysis......................................................................................7 2.4 Data Analysis....................................................................................................8 3. RESULTS........................................................................................................................9 3.1 Elemental Ratio Data........................................................................................9 3.2 Stable Isotope Data.........................................................................................10 4. DISCUSSION................................................................................................................12 4.1 Coral Sr/Ca as a SST Proxy at New Caledonia..............................................12 4.2 Coral 18 O as a SST Proxy at New Caledonia................................................15 4.3 Coral-based 18 O seawater Reconstructions as a SSS Proxy...............................16 4.4 Comparison to Previous Studies of Coral Geochemistry at New Caledonia..19 5. CONCLUSIONS............................................................................................................21 REFERENCES..................................................................................................................23 APPENDICIES..................................................................................................................51 i

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Location map of New Caledonia in the Coral Sea.............................................29 Figure 2: Instrumental surface ocean records (SST, SSS) from offshore Amedee Island, New Caledonia...................................................................................................................30 Figure 3: Positive prints of X-radiographs of the three Porites lutea coral slabs used in this study............................................................................................................................31 Figure 4a: 13 C (top; black triangles), 18 O (middle; blue circles), and Sr/Ca (bottom; red squares) variations with depth down core for coral head PAC, which was drilled in September 1992.................................................................................................................32 Figure 4b: 13 C (top; black triangles), 18 O (middle; blue circles), and Sr/Ca (bottom; red squares) variations with depth down core for coral head PAD, which was drilled in September 1992.................................................................................................................33 Figure 4c: 13 C (top; black triangles), 18 O (middle; blue circles), and Sr/Ca (bottom; red squares) variations with depth down core for coral head PAE, which was drilled in December 1999..................................................................................................................34 Figure 5a: 13 C (top; black triangles), 18 O (middle; blue circles), and Sr/Ca (bottom; red squares) variations time for coral slab PAC......................................................................35 Figure 5b: 13 C (top; black triangles), 18 O (middle; blue circles), and Sr/Ca (bottom; red squares) variations with time for coral slab PAD..............................................................36 Figure 5c: 13 C (top; black triangles), 18 O (middle; blue circles), and Sr/Ca (bottom; red squares) variations with time for coral slab PAE...............................................................37 Figure 6a: Bivariate plot of SST versus coral Sr/Ca..........................................................38 Figure 6b: Bivariate plot of SST versus coral 18 O...........................................................39 Figure 6c: Bivariate plot of all paired monthly Sr/Ca ratios (PAC ; PAD ; PAE ) and monthly oxygen isotope measurements......................................................40 Figure 7: 13 C time series of the 3 coral cores (PAC ; PAD ; PAE ).................41 ii

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. Figure 8: Sr/Ca time series of three corals (PAC ; PAD ; PAE )..........................42 Figure 9: Panels A (Sr/Ca; red) and B ( 18 O; blue) show the instrumental and predicted temperatures for each core with each having similar means and variance to the instrumental record............................................................................................................43 Figure 10: Panel A shows the three SST records, as predicted using Sr/Ca-SST relationship defined in Figure 6a.......................................................................................44 Figure 11: 18 O time series of the 3 coral cores (PAC ; PAD ; PAE ).................45 Figure 12: Panel A shows the three SST records, as predicted using 18 O-SST relationship defined in Figure 6b.......................................................................................46 Figure 13: Panel A shows the the calculated 18 O records of the three individual cores [ 18 O=0.17 [SST Sr/Ca SST 18 O ] (after Gagan et al., 1998).............................................47 iii

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LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Summary of previous coral reproducibility tests using 18 O and Sr/Ca..............48 Table 2: Correlation coefficients for comparisons of monthly values of each proxy amongst the three cores......................................................................................................49 Table 3: Calibration equations relating SST to coral Sr/Ca and 18 O for cores used or referenced in this study......................................................................................................50 iv

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Assessing the Reproducibility of Coral-based Climate Records: A Multi-proxy Replication Test using Three Porites lutea Coral Heads from New Caledonia Christie L. Stephans ABSTRACT Coral-based climate studies commonly use elemental ratios and stable isotopes of coral skeletons to address seawater temperature and hydrologic balance issues in the tropical surface oceans. Replication, or cross-checking, a standard technique used to assess the fidelity of proxy records in paleoclimatology has not been widely applied in coral-based climate studies, primarily because of the time and cost associated with generating multiple records from a single reef site. Modern and paleoclimate reconstructions based on a single proxy-coral record from a site may contain errors if individual corals from the same reef record different geochemical signals. In this study we perform a replication test using elemental ratios and stable isotopes in three Porites corals from New Caledonia. The reef complex offshore Amde Island, New Caledonia is an ideal site to perform a coral replication test because instrumental sea surface temperatures (SST) and sea surface salinity measurements (SSS) have been made there for over 25 years. In this study, we compare sub-monthly resolved, geochemical variations (Sr/Ca, 18 O and 13 C) in three Porites lutea coral heads, located ~500 m apart, with the instrumental SST and SSS records over the interval 1992-1967. The monthly coral Sr/Ca and 18 O time series are well correlated to each other (r=0.86, p<.0001) and to the monthly instrumental SST v

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record (r= -0.86, p<.0001, coral Sr/Ca to SST; r= -0.77, p<.0001, coral 18 O to SST). The three, sub-monthly resolved, 30-year coral Sr/Ca-SST time series have mean SST values that agree within 0.2 o C with the instrumental mean SST value. A similar comparison for the coral 18 O-SST records indicate a maximum difference between predicted and observed mean SST of 0.5C. Analysis of the monthly climatological means also indicates that Sr/Ca-SST records closely match the instrumental SST record .4C; a similar comparison using the 18 O-SST record yields an average offset of .6C between observed and predicted monthly SST. Stacking the three records to form composite Sr/Ca-SST and 18 O-SST records does not appreciably improve the goodness of fit between the proxy and instrumental SST records; hence a coral-based proxy climate record from a single coral accurately reflects the observed record of climate variability at this locality. These results support the concept that high fidelity climate records can be generated using a single coral core. vi

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1. INTRODUCTION Coral-based climate reconstructions are increasingly being used to assess environmental variability in the past and present tropical surface oceans. Coral-based studies of modern climate variability have been used to study the dynamics of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO; e.g., Dunbar et al., 1994; Le Bec et al., 2000; Cole et al., 2002; Morimoto et al., 2002), the Asian monsoon system (Chakraborty and Ramesh 1997; Charles et al., 1997; Klein et al., 1997), and climatic impact of volcanic eruptions (Gagan and Chivas 1995; Heikoop et al., 1996; Crowley et al., 1997; Kuhnert et al., 2000). Climate-pattern signals such as the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO; Quinn et al., 1998; Linsley et al., 2000; Gedalof et al., 2002), and the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO; Felis et al., 2000; Kuhnert et al., 2002) are also being recognized in longer coral records as they affect environmental conditions in the surface waters in which corals grow. Fossil corals have also been used to study climate variability in the geologic past. For example, geochemical variations in fossil corals have been used to constrain significant climate issues such as the magnitude of tropical SST change between glacial and interglacial oceans (e.g., Guilderson et al., 1994; Camoin et al., 2001; Guilderson et al., 2001), and the exact timing and extent of the events such as the Little Ice Age (e.g., Corrge et al., 2001; Wantanabe et al., 2001; Hendy et al., 2002) and the Younger Dryas (e.g., Beck et al., 1997; Smith et al., 1997). 1

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Corals are particularly useful tropical climate archives because their skeletons contain annual density bands (Knutson et al., 1972), they often grow rapidly (> 1 cm/year) and live for many centuries, and variations in skeletal geochemistry, especially 18O and Sr/Ca, reflect environmental variability of the surface waters in which they grow. Many previous coral-based climate studies have used variations in skeletal 18O to reconstruct sea surface temperatures (SST; e.g., Druffel and Griffin 1993; Dunbar et al., 1994; Tudhope et al., 1996; Quinn et al., 1998), or a combination of SST and SSS (e.g., Quinn et al., 1993; Gagan et al., 1998, Watanabe et al., 2001; Quinn and Sampson 2002; Ren et al., 2003). Coral Sr/Ca variations are linearly related to SST variations (e.g., Smith et al., 1979; Beck et al., 1992; Gagan et al., 1998), and have played an increasingly important role in coral-based climate reconstructions (e.g., Beck et al., 1992; Guilderson et al., 1994; Beck et al., 1997). Much of the initial work on coral Sr/Ca was performed using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), which has ultra-high precision, but relatively slow sample throughput rates making the generation of sub-annually resolved century-scale climate time series impractical. The ability to make rapid and precise determinations of coral Sr/Ca via ICP-OES (Schrag, 1999) has now permitted the generation of multi-decadal-to-multi-century length time series of coral Sr/Ca variations (e.g., Linsley et al., 2000; Ren et al., 2003). Paired analyses of coral 18O and Sr/Ca have thus become more common in coral paleoclimatolgy studies and potentially permit the isolation of thermal and hydrologic signals in coral skeletons (e.g., McCulloch et al., 1996; Gagan et al., 1998; Ren et al., 2003). The overwhelming majority of coral-based climate reconstructions are based on geochemical variations from a single coral head from a single locality. The need for 2

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replication documenting the fidelity of the coral-climate signal from multiple corals from the same reef has been recognized for some time (e.g., Briffa, 1995; Cook et al., 1995; Barnes and Lough 1996; Crowley et al., 1997), but has not routinely been performed because of issues involving sample availability, sample throughput and cost constraints. Previous coral replication studies (Table 1) using coral 18O have shown isotopic differences of 0.2 0.4 exist in mean 18O values among coral cores recovered from the same reef (e.g., Tudhope et al., 1996; Linsley et al., 1999; Guilderson and Schrag 1999; Cardinal et al., 2001). Such differences in 18O would translate to ~1 to 2C difference in SST, which is unlikely to reflect true environmental variability at a single reef site. The Great Barrier Reef is perhaps the most well studied location for coral-based climate studies (e.g., McCulloch et al., 1994; Gagan et al., 1994; Alibert and McCulloch, 1997; Gagan et al., 1998; Hendy et al., 2002; Marshall and McCulloch, 2002). These initial coral Sr/Ca-based replication studies that have attempted to address the accuracy of coral Sr/Ca-SST records from corals growing in the same area demonstrate a strong level of agreement (Table 1). Alibert and McCulloch (1997) demonstrated that two, twenty-year coral Sr/Ca-SST records from Davies reef in the GBR, having better than monthly resolution, agree to better than 0.5C (see their Figure 13). Overall, these authors concluded that analytical precision and reproducibility between different Porites corals from the same reef are better than .3C. Gagan et al. (1998) demonstrated that coral Sr/Ca-SST and coral 18O-SST records derived from three years of sub-monthly data from a Porites coral from Orpheus Island, GBR agree to within 0.3C. More recently, Hendy et al. (2002) generated a 420-year, composite time series of coral 18O, Sr/Ca, 3

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4 U/Ca variations using 8 Porites corals from the GBR. Fi ve-year bulk increments were sampled for equivalent periods in all 8 cores. Inter-coral Sr/Ca-SST variability was noted as .3 C, despite the low-resolution sampling strategy. In this study we conduct a replica tion study to determine the degree of similarity/difference in sub-annually resolved, skeletal 18O, 13C and Sr/Ca records derived from three Porites lutea coral heads from offshore of Amedee Island, New Caledonia. The Amde reefs are ideally situ ated for this type of replication study because daily SST and SSS measurements have been made here for over 25 years by the French group Institut Recher che en Developpement (IRD; http://www.ird.nc/ECOP/siteecopuk/cadres.htm). Each of the coral heads was sampled at 16 samples/cm, yielding sub-monthly samples fo r ~30 years. Paired stable isotope and Sr/Ca determinations were made on each sample. The goodness of fit amongst the similar geochemical time series for each co ral head is quantitatively assessed and a determination of the fidelity of coral-based climate reconstructions from a single coral core is made. All of these comparisons are used to address a fundamental, but as of yet poorly addressed, issue in coral-based clim ate studies are proxy climate time series produced from a single coral head an accurate re cord of true environmental variability at the reef site? Or are multiple proxy climate time series from multiple coral heads along a single reef site required to produce climate records having high fidelity?

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2. METHODS 2.1 Climate Setting New Caledonia (22S, 166E) is located in the southeastern sector of the Coral Sea (Figure 1). The Loyalty Current circulates waters from the northwest toward the southeast along the northern coast of New Caledonia, and the South Tropical Current moves waters from the southeast to the northwest along the southern coast of New Caledonia (Rougerie, 1986). The climate of New Caledonia is influenced by annual variations in the relative positions of the subtropical anticyclonic belt south of New Caledonia and the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) to the north (Morliere and Rebert, 1986). Daily instrumental SST and SSS measurements (Figure 1) have been made offshore Amde Island by IRD. SST measurements began in 1967 and SSS measurements began in 1974, both parameters continue to be measured daily. These daily values are averaged into monthly values to create instrumental SST and SSS time series (Figure 2) having the same resolution as our coral time series. Mean instrumental SST for the period 1967-1992 (i.e., the time interval in which the coral records overlap with the instrumental record) is 23.5C (.2C, 2M) with an annual range of 5.3C. SST reach their maximum values during January, February, and March (~ 26C), whereas SST reach their minimum values in July, August, and September (~21C). The average SSS measured over the time interval of 1974-1992 is 35.7 (.5, 2M), with SSS 5

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inversely related to SST. Highest SSS values occur during the months of July, August and September, and the lowest SSS values in January, February, and March. 2.2 Coral Sampling Corals used in this study were drilled from the same reef, located twenty kilometers south of Noumea, New Caledonia near the Amde lighthouse and within Boulari Pass (Figure 1), so that they were constantly exposed to open ocean waters. Coral cores 92-PAC and 92-PAD were drilled from two large Porites lutea coral heads in 1992. These coral heads were located in the southern portion of the Pass and were approximately 10 m apart. Coral cores 92-PAC and 92-PAD are 8 cm in diameter and ~3 m long. The third coral core (99-PAA) was drilled from a large Porites lutea coral head in December 1999. This coral core was extracted from the same coral head that was drilled in 1992 (92-PAA), and which has been extensively studied (Quinn et al., 1996; Crowley et al., 1997; Quinn et al., 1998; Corrge et al., 2001; Quinn and Sampson 2002). The PAA coral head is located in the northern portion of the Pass approximately 500 m from the other two coral heads. Coral core 99-PAA is 6 cm in diameter and 35 cm long. All cores were collected in < 3 m of water depth at low tide. Each coral core was slabbed to a thickness of 0.5 cm, and ultrasonically cleaned in deionized water. X-radiographs of each coral slab were taken with exposure conditions of 54 kV, 3 mA, at a distance of 60 cm. X-radiographs demonstrate that annual density bands are present in all cores (Figure 3). Coral extension rates vary from 0.7 to 1.25 cm/year based on measurements of the annual density bands, but average 0.95 cm in 92-PAC, 0.88 cm in 92-PAD, and 1.03 cm in 99-PAA. The coral was sampled 6

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parallel to the major growth axis at a resolution of 0.83 mm/sample using a 2 mm drill bit and milling to a depth of 1mm. Powdered samples were obtained using a computer aided triaxial sampler, as described by Quinn et al., (1996). 2.3 Geochemical Analysis A portion of the powdered sample (~40-80 g) was dedicated for stable isotope analyses of 18O and 13C. Each sample was reacted with phosphoric acid at 70C in an individual reaction vessel of the automated CarboKiel system. Isotopic analyses on these samples were performed using a ThermoFinnigan DeltaPlus XL dual inlet mass spectrometer. Precision, as indicated by repeated measurements of a carbonate standard (NBS-19), is .08 (1) for oxygen and .06 (1) for carbon. Values are reported in notation relative to Vienna Pee Dee belemnite (VPBD). The remaining powder from each sample was then weighed and diluted in 2% (v/v) trace metal grade HNO3 solution to obtain a target Ca concentration of ~20 ppm for elemental analysis. Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios were measured using a Perkin Elmer 4300 dual view, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). A gravimetric reference solution was measured between each sample to account for low-frequency drift due to changes in room temperature, gas flow, and plasma stability. A drift correction was made using the average value for the reference solution, following the method of Schrag (1999). An internal coral standard was measured every fifth sample; analytical precision (2) for Sr/Ca determinations is estimated to be .2% (0.018 mmol/mol) based on numerous measurements of this coral standard (Appendix A). The absolute value of the Sr/Ca ratio of both the internal gravimetric standard and 7

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8 the internal coral standard has been confirmed using thermal ionization mass spectrometery (TIMS) at the Univers ity of Minnesota Isotope Laboratory. 2.4 Data Analysis Age models, converting the geochemical data (Appendixes B G) from depth down core to time, were constructed us ing the AnalySeries program (Paillard et al., 1996). We used tie points to connect th e lowest Sr/Ca values to the warmest temperatures and the highest Sr/Ca values to the coldest temperature values in our instrumental data record to establish each ye ar. Sr/Ca values were chosen to construct the age models for each core because as previo usly stated the Sr/Ca values are a function solely of SST, whereas the 18O values are a function of SST and variations of the 18O of the seawater. The data were then interp olated to give monthly Sr/Ca values (and corresponding paired 18O and 13C values) to compare to the instrumental SST and SSS data. The relationship between Sr/Ca and SST, and 18O and SST, was evaluated using both ordinary least squares (OLS) and reduced major axis (RMA) regression techniques over the time period of 19671992 for all cores. The RMA regression method was chosen to determine the relationship between the geochemical data and the instrumental record as it assumes error in both the indepe ndent and dependant variables (Davis, 1986). The slope of the equation produced by the RMA regression is equivale nt to the slope of the equation of the OLS regression divide d by the correlation coefficient (e.g., Cobb, 1998).

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3. RESULTS Geochemical variations versus depth in all three cores exhibit strong seasonal cyclicity in Sr/Ca and 18 O (Figures 4a, 4b); 13 C variations with depth exhibit less organized seasonal cyclicity (Figure 4c). Geochemical variations versus time (Figures 5a, 5b, and 5c) were compared with the annual density banding for each of the three cores to ensure the accuracy of assigned ages. The time interval used in this study is 1967-1992, which is the common period of overlap amongst the three cores and the instrumental SST record. 3.1 Elemental Ratio Data Statistical analysis of the three Sr/Ca records demonstrates that these three time series have equivalent means (Student T-test, 95% confidence interval) and variances (F-test, 99% confidence interval) [cf., 92-PAC, 9.174 0.012 mmol/mol, 2 M ; 92-PAD, 9.178 0.012 mmol/mol, 2 M ; 99-PAA, 9.168 0.012 mmol/mol, 2 M )]. The three, monthly Sr/Ca records are well correlated to each other (r >0.80; p<.0001; Table 2), as are the three annual Sr/Ca records when compared to an averaged annual SST record (cf., 92-PAC, r= -0.78 p<.0001; 92-PAD, r= -0.72 p<.0001; 99-PAA, r= -0.64 p<.0001). The empirical relationship between coral Sr/Ca and SST variations (Figure 6a) was determined using the RMA regression technique for each core (Table 3). A summary calibration equation was determined by compiling all of the Sr/Ca data from the three cores, which yielded the following equation: Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) = 10.528 (0.028; 2 0.058 (0.004; 2 SST (r = -0.86). (Eq. 1) 9

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All of the Sr/Ca-SST equations (Table 3) are similar to, and are within error of, the average slope and intercept values for previous PoritesSr/Ca-SST calibration equations (Gagan et al., 2000; Marshall and McCulloch, 2002). 3.2 Stable Isotope Data The 18 O records for these three cores are also similar in terms of means and standard deviations (cf., 92-PAC, -4.31 + 0.04 2 M ; 92-PAD, -4.41 + 0.04 2 M ; 99-PAA, -4.29 + 0.04 2 M ). However, the results of statistical analysis (Student T-test, 95% confidence level) suggests that the mean of the 18 O time series from core 92-PAD is different than the means of the 18 O time series from cores 92-PAC and 99-PAA, which are not statistically different from each other. The three monthly 18 O records are well correlated to each other (r >0.71; p<.0001; Table 2), as are the annual records, when compared to the averaged annual SST record (cf., 92-PAC, r = -0.87 p<.0001; 92-PAD, r = -0.72 p<.0001; 99-PAA, r = -0.78 p<.0001). The three monthly 18 O records and the monthly Sr/Ca records are also well correlated (r >0.86; p<.0001; Table 2), a result that is consistent with the results of previous studies (e.g., Beck et al., 1992; Min et al., 1995; Mitsuguchi et al., 1996) and demonstrates that both of these geochemical signals respond to similar environmental forcing. The linear relationship between the in situ SST measurements and the measured 18 O values for each of the three coral cores was also calculated over the 1967-1992 time period using the RMA regression technique (Table 3). A summary calibration equation of 10

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11 18 O ( VPDB) = -0.31 (0.016; 2 ) 0.17(0.016; 2 ) SST (r = -0.77) (Eq. 2) was determined using the data from all three co res (Figure 6b), an equation is similar to those reported in Quinn et al. (1998), and Gagan et al. (1998) (Table 3). The mean values of the three 13 C time series are dissimilar (cf., 92-PAC -0.35 ( + 0.64, 2 ); 92-PAD -1.45 ( + 0.66, 2 ); 99-PAA -1.22 ( + 0.46, 2 )), and do not correlate well with either the Sr/Ca time series or 18 O time series (Table 2). The observed lack of correlation between monthl y variations in coral 13 C (Figure 7), and coral 18 O and Sr/Ca has also been noted in previous st udies (e.g., McConnaughey, 1989; Grottoli, 2000; Quinn and Sampson 2002) and suggests that nonenvironmental factors contribute a large portion of the variance in coral 13 C records. Explanations ranging from the effects of cloud cover (e.g., Fairbanks and Dodge, 1979; Cole and Fairbanks, 1990; Klein et al., 1992; Grottoli, 2000) to fracti onation occurring via respiration in th e zooxanthellae (e.g., McConnaughey 1989; Swart et al., 1996; Grottoli 2000) may account for the variability in 13 C records. Since these three 13 C records came from corals living in close proximity, it is more likely that variations in the carbon pool of the fluid used in coral skeletal precipitation influence 13 C variations in the Porites coral at New Caledonia.

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4. DISCUSSION The results of this study address several issues regarding the fidelity of coral-based climate proxy records. We have already demonstrated that geochemical variations, especially Sr/Ca and 18O, recorded in three different coral heads from the same reef environment are highly reproducible in terms of both mean and monthly values (Table 1, Figures 5a, 5b, and 5c). The next logical step in the assessment of the fidelity of the coral-climate proxy is to investigate how well the observed geochemical variations in the three coral heads reflect variations in the instrumental SST and SSS records (sections 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3). Comparisons are also made with previous coral geochemical records from New Caledonia (section 4.4). 4.1 Coral Sr/Ca as a SST Proxy at New Caledonia The first test of the fidelity of coral Sr/Ca as a proxy for SST variations is to assess the goodness of fit between the predicted mean Sr/Ca-SST and the mean SST of the instrumental record. To accomplish this task, a three-core stack or average Sr/Ca-SST equation was generated (Figure 6a; Equation 1), and applied to the three monthly Sr/Ca records (Figure 8). The Sr/Ca record of each core yielded a mean predicted SST for each 25 year time series of 23.5C (.2C, 2M) for 92-PAC, 23.4C (.2C, 2M) for 92-PAD, and 23.6C (.2C, 2M) for 99-PAA, all which agree well with the mean SST of 23.5C (.2C, 2M) calculated from the instrumental SST record over the same time interval (Figure 9). The maximum observed difference of 0.2C in mean SST for this period amongst the 3 cores is on the same order as the analytical error associated 12

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with the determination of Sr/Ca via ICP-OES (see methods section). These results provide confidence that monthly resolved time series of coral Sr/Ca can be used to accurately reconstruct mean SST to within 0.2C. Additionally, there is little advantage to generating multiple coral Sr/Ca time series from the same reef if the climate objective is to reconstruct mean SST of a given time interval. The second test of the fidelity of coral Sr/Ca-SST proxy is to assess the goodness of fit between the prediction of monthly Sr/Ca-SST and the observed monthly SST of the instrumental record. A comparison between monthly values of predicted and observed SST (Figures 9 & 10) indicate that: 1) the Sr/Ca-SST record captures the complete seasonal signal at both the summer and winter months, and 2) the three proxy estimates of mean SST values differs from the observed mean SST by 0.71C for 92-PAC, 0.75C for 92-PAD, and 0.77C for 99-PAA. The difference between the proxy and instrumental estimate of mean SST is defined as the absolute value of the difference between the monthly instrumental SST value and the monthly Sr/Ca-SST value and is referred to as the mean difference. A month-to-month comparison between the three-core stack Sr/Ca-SST record and the instrumental record indicates a mean difference of 0.70C. This is an insignificant improvement relative to the offset indicated by comparisons with the individual monthly Sr/Ca-SST records to the monthly instrumental SST record, especially when taking into account the additional time and cost to generate multiple coral Sr/Ca records. The fidelity in which monthly SST values can be reconstructed from monthly coral Sr/Ca time series is a factor of ~4 worse than reconstruction of the mean (cf., 0.8C with 0.2C). The generation of multiple coral Sr/Ca time series from the same reef does not significantly improve the accuracy of this monthly reconstruction. The 13

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source of this offset is difficult to define; kinetic effects associated with interannual variability in coral extension rates have been proposed (e.g., de Villers et al., 1995; Cohen et al., 2002) can not be rejected. Other studies (e.g. Shen et al., 1996; Ailbert and McCulloch, 1997; Gagan et al., 1998) have shown for Porites corals, offsets produced would be less than 1C, when taking into account the full range of Porites growth rates. Variations in Sr/Ca at monthly time intervals have also been attributed to changes in the Sr/Ca chemistry of the seawater (de Villers et al., 1994; Shen et al., 1996), although such an explanation is not applicable in this study because all three coral cores were drilled from the same reef. A more likely explanation is the difficulty associated with assigning time precisely to each and every physical sample extracted from the coral slab. These results are in sharp contrast to the conclusions reached by Meibom et al., (2003), who concluded that conventional coral sampling, such as performed in this study, limit the accuracy of coral Sr/Ca palerothermometry to ~2C. The Meibom et al., (2003) study used a micron-scale sampling approach along two parallel sampling lines on a single core of Porites lutea from the coast of Kenya and documented coral Sr/Ca variations that are 2-3 times greater than could be generated by SST variations at the site. Meibom et al., (2003) proposed that metabolic changes synchronous with the lunar cycle introduce non-temperature related variability in coral Sr/Ca. Cohen et al. (2002) used differences in coral Sr/Ca variability between ahermatypic and hermatypic corals from a mid-latitude site to propose that the Sr/Ca records from equatorial symbiotic corals, such as Porites, are impacted by non-temperature related biological effects. Micron-scale studies of the processes governing the incorporation of Sr in coral skeletons (Cohen et al., 2002; Meibom et al., 2003) add significant insight into the nature of biologically 14

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mediated skeletal precipitation in corals and more of these types of studies are needed. However, the high level of reproducibility of Sr/Ca variations sampled on monthly timescales in three corals from offshore of Amde Island, New Caledonia implies that coral Sr/Ca-SST records are not necessarily compromised by metabolic effects. 4.2 Coral 18O as a SST Proxy at New Caledonia The fidelity of coral 18O as a proxy for SST variations offshore of Amde Island, New Caledonia was assessed in the same manner as coral Sr/Ca in the preceding section. The best estimate of the relationship between coral 18O and SST was derived using the 18O data from all three cores (Figure 6b; Table 2), and this equation (2) is used in all subsequent 18O-SST calculations. The mean predicted 18O-SST for each 25 year time series of 23.1C (.2C, 2M) for 92-PAC, 24.0C (.2C, 2M) for 92-PAD, and 23.2C (.2C, 2M) for 99-PAA, agree well with the mean SST of 23.5C (.2C, 2M) calculated from the instrumental SST time series over the same time interval (Figure 9). The maximum observed difference of .5C in predicted mean SST compared to the instrumental record is greater than that derived from the mean Sr/Ca-SST reconstructions. A comparison between monthly values of predicted and observed SST (Figure 9 & 11) indicates that: 1) 18O-SST record fails to completely capture the seasonal signal in both the winter and summer months, and 2) the three proxy estimates of mean SST values differs from the observed mean SST by 0.8C, 1.1C, and 0.9C (respectively, for cores 92-PAC, 92-PAD, and 99-PAA). Here again, mean difference is calculated as the absolute value of the difference between the observed monthly SST value and the 15

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predicted monthly SST value. Evaluation of the monthly three-core stacked 18O-SST record and the monthly instrumental SST record improves the offset by only 0.13oC (Figure 12). We expected more variability in the 18O-SST prediction relative to the Sr/Ca-SST prediction because the 18O in carbonates varies in response to changes in SST and seawater 18O (e.g., Weber and Woodhead, 1972; Goreau, 1977; McConnaughey, 1989), which can vary locally due to evaporation and precipitation, regionally due to ocean currents, and globally due to the effects of ice volume. The fidelity in which monthly SST values can be reconstructed from monthly coral 18O-SST time series is a factor of ~2 worse than reconstruction of the mean temperatures over the same time interval (cf., 1.1C with 0.5C). The generation of multiple coral 18O time series from the same reef does not appreciably improve the fidelity of this monthly reconstruction, which implies that the generation of multiple coral 18O time series from a single site is not required to produce accurate environmental reconstructions of surface-water conditions. 4.3 Coral-based 18Oseawater Reconstructions as a SSS Proxy Variations in SSS and seawater 18O are strongly linked in the modern tropical oceans through the hydrologic cycle (e.g., precipitation, evaporation, fluvial input; Craig and Gordon, 1965; Fairbanks et al., 1997; Bigg and Rohling, 2000). A few recent studies have attempted to exploit this relationship using paired coral 18O and Sr/Ca determinations to directly solve for seawater 18O (McCulloch et al., 1994; Gagan et al., 1998; Quinn and Sampson, 2002; Ren et al., 2003). The general approach determines seawater 18O after removing the effects of SST from the coral 18O-SST signal through 16

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subtraction of the coral Sr/Ca-SST signal. Verification of the accuracy of such seawater 18O reconstructions and their relation to SSS is made difficult by the lack of instrumental SSS time series from the surface waters of the tropical oceans. In contrast to previous studies, the long, instrumental SSS time series at Amde Island, New Caledonia provides significant constraints for proxy-based seawater 18O reconstructions. The first assessment of the fidelity of coral proxy-based seawater 18O-SSS at New Caledonia uses the paired coral 18O and Sr/Ca technique pioneered by McCulloch et al. (1994) and expanded by Gagan et al., (1998; 2000). The general form of the equation is: Seawater 18O = coral 18O-SST calibration slope (SST 18O SST Sr/Ca). The specific equation used in this study is: Seawater 18O = 0.17/C (SST 18O SST Sr/Ca). (Eq. 3) Solving this equation for each of the three cores yields a mean seawater 18O (VPDB) value (Figure 13) of -0.08 (.006, 2M; 92-PAC and 99-PAA) and 0.16 (.007, 2M; 92-PAD), the latter value is statistically different (Student t-test; 95% confidence level) from the former value. A time series of seawater 18O is not available from the Amedee Island site, but a value of 0.52 (SMOW) has been determined from a single seawater sample from the Amde Island site (data from IRD; October 1995), which is slightly greater than our calculated values of 0.21 to 0.43 (VSMOW). Comparison between the monthly instrumental SSS record and the monthly predicted seawater 18O time series, from each core (Figure 12), indicate only a significant relationship in one of the cores (cf., 92-PAC r = -0.33, 92-PAD r = -0.02, and 99-PAA r = -0.15). The lack of a strong relationship between the instrumental SSS and the predicted seawater 18O records 17

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at New Caledonia indicates that the hydrologic conditions at New Caledonia are dissimilar to those in the GBR, the site of the previous studies by McCulloch et al., (1994) and Gagan et al., (1998). Salinity at the GBR varies between ~32 to 36 salinity units (Marshall, 2000), in part reflecting the fluvial input of the Burdekin River; whereas at Amde salinity variations are much smaller (~35 to 36; Quinn and Sampson, 2002). The second assessment of the fidelity of coral proxy-based seawater 18O-SSS at New Caledonia uses the paired coral 18O and Sr/Ca technique recently proposed by Ren et al., (2003). This technique uses separate instantaneous changes in SST and instantaneous changes in seawater 18O to reconstruct SSS changes. Predicted monthly seawater 18O time series from each core at New Caledonia were generated using the Ren et al. (2003) approach and compared with the instrumental SSS record. The mean core seawater 18O values for the three cores are all approximately 0.21 (VSMOW). Here again, there is only a modest relationship between instrumental SSS and reconstructed seawater 18O (c.f., 92-PAC r = -0.13; 92-PAD r = -0.16; and 99-PAA r = -0.17). Ren et al. (2003) compared their coral-based reconstruction of seawater 18O with a gridded SSS product ( http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/cdc/data.ncep.pac.ocean.html ; salinity is hindcast from a 1.5 by 1 model-based ocean analysis system) because an in situ instrumental record of SSS does not exist from Raratonga. We made a similar comparison between reconstructed seawater 18O and monthly NCEP SSS data extracted from a grid location appropriate for Amde Island, New Caledonia (22S, 165.75E; Ji, M. et al., 1995). This comparison produced two observations: 1) there is little correlation (r < 0.2) between the instrumental SSS record from New Caledonia and the NCEP SSS record produced for this area; 2) the 18

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reconstructed seawater 18O record produced using either method (Gagan et al., 1998; Ren et al., 2003) does not correlate well with the NCEP SSS record (r < 0.2). 4.4 Comparison to Previous Studies of Coral Geochemistry at New Caledonia The offshore Amde Lighthouse, New Caledonia location of this study has been the site of previous coral-climate studies. Quinn et al. (1996, 1998) used coral 18O and 13C time series from Amde (coral 92-PAA) to reconstruct climate variability at New Caledonia. Quinn and Sampson (2002) used coral 18O and Sr/Ca (coral 92-PAA) to assess the robustness of coral SST proxies. In this study the core 99-PAA was drilled in 1999 from the same coral head (92-PAA) that has been subject of the previously published work at New Caledonia. A comparison of the monthly 18O data over the period of overlap (1967-1992) between cores 99-PAA and 92-PAA indicate a difference in mean core 18O values of 0.14 (cf., -4.45 (.04, 2M); Quinn et al., 1996; -4.31 (.04, 2M); this study); these records are well correlated to each other (r =0.84; p<.0001). This difference between the means of these two records is statistically significant, as demonstrated by the Student t-test (95% confidence level). The mean core 18O of core 92-PAA is statistically the same as in core 92-PAD. Cast in terms of SST using equation 2, the mean difference in 18O translates to a mean SST difference of 0.8C. The 0.8C is within the range of variability amongst the three cores taken from different coral heads, which again demonstrates that a single coral core from a reef can accurately capture the 18O-SST signal. A similar comparison of the monthly Sr/Ca data over the period of overlap (1967-1992) between cores 92-PAA and 99-PAA indicate a difference in mean Sr/Ca values of 19

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20 0.085 (mmol/mol) (cf., 9.083 ( 0.012, 2 M), Quinn and Sampson, 2002; 9.168 (.012, 2M), this study); these records are well corre lated to each other (r =0.82; p<.0001). This difference in means is statistically significant, as demonstrated by the Student t-test (95% confidence level). Cast in terms of SST using equation 1, the mean difference in Sr/Ca translates to a mean SST difference of 0.4 C. This 0.4C temperature difference is twice that of the mean core difference found amongs t the three coral cores used in this study. The source of this difference is difficult to identify, but the Sr/Ca record from core 92PAA (Quinn and Sampson, 2002) wa s generated using a different analytical protocol and instrument (i.e., sector-field ICP), and th ere remains no widely distributed laboratory standard for coral Sr/Ca analyses (cf., NBS-19 for 18O and 13C).

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CONCLUSIONS Replication tests of paleoclimate proxies have been common practice in fields such as dendrochronology, but remain scarce in the field of coral paleoclimatology (e.g., Briffa et al., 1995; Cook et al., 1995; Barnes and Lough, 1996; Crowley et al., 1997). Corals from the reefs offshore of Amde Island, New Caledonia are ideally suited for the performance of a replication test of coral geochemical proxies because instrumental SST and SSS records are available from this locality for the past ~30 years. We generated monthly resolved records of coral 18O, 13C, and Sr/Ca from 3 different coral heads from the same reef site at New Caledonia that overlap with the period of the instrumental records. From our study we can conclude the following: Sr/Ca values from the three cores (92-PAC, 92-PAD, and 99-PAA) are statistically the same for mean core values, and when calibrated to the instrumental SST record, the predicted mean core values for the three cores were .1C of the mean instrumental SST of 23.5C for the time period of 1967-1992. On a monthly basis of comparison, coral Sr/Ca-SST indicates a mean difference of 0.8C or less for all of the cores, which is an improvement on the data from other replication studies (e.g., Alibert and McCulloch 1997; Cardinal et al., 2001). 21

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* Two of the three coral 18O time series have statistically identical mean values (99-PAA and 92-PAC); whereas one core (92-PAD) has a slightly higher (0.15) mean value than the other cores. Coral 18O-SST time series of the three cores have mean SST values that are within .5C of the mean instrumental SST recorded for this time period. A monthly comparison of coral 18O-SST time series indicates a mean difference of 1.1C or less for all of the cores, which is consistent with previous 18O comparison studies (e.g., Tudhope et al., 1996; Linsley et al., 1999; Guilderson and Schrag 1999). Stacking or averaging the three -SST or Sr/Ca-SST proxy time series does not appreciably improve the predicted monthly SST, especially when taking into account the additional time and cost associated with data generation. The 13C time series of these three Porites lutea corals do not exhibit agreement amongst themselves, nor with the instrumental SST or SSS at New Caledonia. Reconstructions of seawater 18O as calculated by removing the Sr/Ca-SST signal from the 18O-SST yields a record that bears little resemblance to the instrumental SSS record regardless of the technique employed (Gagan et al. 1998 or Ren et al. 2003). The results of this study support the concept that high fidelity climate records can be generated using a single coral core with uncertainties that are smaller for the estimates of mean SST (Sr/Ca-SST, .1C ; 18O-SST .4C) than for estimates of monthly SST (Sr/Ca-SST, .4C ; 18O-SST .6C). 22

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F i g u r e 1 : L o c a t i o n m a p o f N e w C a l e d o n i a i n t h e C o r a l S e a T h e c o r a l h e a d s ; b o t t o m p a n e l d r i l l e d f o r t h i s s t u d y w e r e l o c a t e d j u s t o f f s h o r e A m e d e e I s l a n d 2 2 2 9 S 1 6 6 2 7 E 2 0 k m s o u t h o f N o u m e a N e w C a l e d o n i a s l i g h t l y l a n d w a r d o f t h e b a r r i e r r e e f w i t h i n B o u l a r i P a s s w h i c h i s b a t h e d i n o p e n o c e a n w a t e r s * * 2 9

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S S S S S T C Y e a r 3 4 5 3 5 0 3 5 5 3 6 0 3 6 5 3 7 0 1 9 6 5 1 9 7 0 1 9 7 5 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 5 1 9 9 0 1 9 9 5 2 0 0 0 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 F i g u r e 2 : I n s t r u m e n t a l s u r f a c e o c e a n r e c o r d s S S T S S S f r o m o f f s h o r e A m e d e e I s l a n d N e w C a l e d o n i a D a i l y m e a s u r e m e n t s o f S S T a n d S S S h a v e b e e n a v e r a g e d i n t o m o n t h l y v a l u e s w i t h t h e S S T r e c o r d s e x t e n d i n g f r o m 1 9 6 7 2 0 0 0 a n d t h e S S S r e c o r d f r o m 1 9 7 5 2 0 0 0 D a t a f r o m I n s t i t u t d e r e c h e r c h e p o u r l e d v e l o p p e m e n t I R D a n d a v a i l a b l e a t h t t p : / / w w w i r d n c / E C O P / s i t e e c o p u k / c a d r e s h t m 3 0

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1 9 9 0 1 9 8 5 1 9 8 0 1 9 7 5 1 9 7 0 1 9 6 5 8 c m 9 2 P A C 9 2 P A D 9 9 P A A F i g u r e 3 : P o s i t i v e p r i n t s o f X r a d i o g r a p h s o f t h e t h r e e P o r i t e s l u t e a c o r a l s l a b s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y B l a c k l i n e s i n d i c a t e d r i l l i n g p a t h s w h i c h a r e p a r a l l e l t o t h e c o r a l s c e n t r a l g r o w t h a x i s R e d l i n e s i n d i c a t e a r e a s o f o v e r l a p b e t w e e n d r i l l i n g p a t h s S a m p l i n g r e s o l u t i o n i s 1 6 s a m p l e s / c m 3 1 1 9 9 0 1 9 8 5 1 9 8 0 1 9 7 5 1 9 7 0 1 9 6 5 1 9 9 5

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F i g u r e 4 a : d 1 3 C t o p ; b l a c k t r i a n g l e s d 1 8 O m i d d l e ; b l u e c i r c l e s a n d S r / C a b o t t o m ; r e d s q u a r e s v a r i a t i o n s w i t h d e p t h d o w n c o r e f o r c o r a l h e a d 9 2 P A C w h i c h w a s d r i l l e d i n S e p t e m b e r 1 9 9 2 5 3 2 p a i r e d m e a s u r e m e n t s w e r e m a d e o v e r 3 3 2 5 c m o f t h e 9 2 P A C c o r a l s l a b d 1 3 C o / o o V P D B S r / C a m m o l / m o l D e p t h m m d 1 8 O o / o o V P D B 5 5 5 0 4 5 4 0 3 5 8 9 9 0 9 1 9 2 9 3 9 4 9 5 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 2 0 1 0 0 0 3 2

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d 1 3 C o / o o V P D B S r / C a m m o l / m o l D e p t h m m d 1 8 O o / o o V P D B F i g u r e 4 b : d 1 3 C t o p ; b l a c k t r i a n g l e s d 1 8 O m i d d l e ; b l u e c i r c l e s a n d S r / C a b o t t o m ; r e d s q u a r e s v a r i a t i o n s w i t h d e p t h d o w n c o r e f o r c o r a l h e a d 9 2 P A D w h i c h w a s d r i l l e d i n S e p t e m b e r 1 9 9 2 5 1 0 p a i r e d m e a s u r e m e n t s w e r e m a d e o v e r 3 1 8 7 c m o f t h e 9 2 P A D c o r a l s l a b 5 5 5 0 4 5 4 0 3 5 8 9 9 0 9 1 9 2 9 3 9 4 9 5 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 2 0 1 0 0 0 3 3

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d 1 3 C o / o o V P D B S r / C a m m o l / m o l D e p t h m m d 1 8 O o / o o V P D B F i g u r e 4 c : d 1 3 C t o p ; b l a c k t r i a n g l e s d 1 8 O m i d d l e ; b l u e c i r c l e s a n d S r / C a b o t t o m ; r e d s q u a r e s v a r i a t i o n s w i t h d e p t h d o w n c o r e f o r c o r a l h e a d 9 9 P A A w h i c h w a s d r i l l e d i n D e c e m b e r 1 9 9 9 5 6 2 p a i r e d m e a s u r e m e n t s w e r e m a d e o v e r 3 5 1 2 c m o f t h e 9 9 P A A c o r a l s l a b 5 5 5 0 4 5 4 0 3 5 8 9 9 0 9 1 9 2 9 3 9 4 9 5 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 2 0 1 0 0 0 3 4

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d 1 3 C o / o o V P D B S r / C a m m o l / m o l d 1 8 O V P D B o / o o Y e a r 5 5 5 0 4 5 4 0 3 5 8 9 9 0 9 1 9 2 9 3 9 4 2 0 1 0 0 0 9 5 1 9 6 5 1 9 7 0 1 9 7 5 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 5 1 9 9 0 1 9 9 5 F i g u r e 5 a : d 1 3 C t o p ; b l a c k t r i a n g l e s d 1 8 O m i d d l e ; b l u e c i r c l e s a n d S r / C a b o t t o m ; r e d s q u a r e s v a r i a t i o n s w i t h t i m e f o r c o r a l s l a b 9 2 P A C 3 5

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F i g u r e 5 b : d 1 3 C t o p ; b l a c k t r i a n g l e s d 1 8 O m i d d l e ; b l u e c i r c l e s a n d S r / C a b o t t o m ; r e d s q u a r e s v a r i a t i o n s w i t h t i m e f o r c o r a l s l a b 9 2 P A D d 1 3 C o / o o V P D B S r / C a m m o l / m o l d 1 8 O o / o o V P D B Y e a r 5 5 5 0 4 5 4 0 3 5 8 9 9 0 9 1 9 2 9 3 9 4 9 5 1 9 6 5 1 9 7 0 1 9 7 5 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 5 1 9 9 0 1 9 9 5 2 0 1 0 0 0 3 6

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F i g u r e 5 c : d 1 3 C t o p ; b l a c k t r i a n g l e s d 1 8 O m i d d l e ; b l u e c i r c l e s a n d S r / C a b o t t o m ; r e d s q u a r e s v a r i a t i o n s w i t h t i m e f o r c o r a l s l a b 9 9 P A A d 1 3 C o / o o V P D B S r / C a m m o l / m o l d 1 8 O o / o o V P D B Y e a r 5 5 5 0 4 5 4 0 3 5 8 9 9 0 9 1 9 2 9 3 9 4 9 5 1 9 6 5 1 9 7 0 1 9 7 5 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 5 1 9 9 0 1 9 9 5 2 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 3 7

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S r / C a m m o l / m o l S S T C F i g u r e 6 a : B i v a r i a t e p l o t o f S S T v e r s u s c o r a l S r / C a C a l i b r a t i o n e q u a t i o n y = 1 0 5 2 8 0 0 0 2 ; 2 s 0 0 5 8 x 0 0 1 2 ; 2 s d e r i v e d f r o m R M A r e g r e s s i o n u s i n g a l l m o n t h l y S r / C a r a t i o s 9 2 P A C ; 9 2 P A D ; 9 9 P A A a n d c o r r e s p o n d i n g m o n t h l y S S T m e a s u r e m e n t s 8 9 9 0 9 1 9 2 9 3 9 4 9 5 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 r 2 = 0 7 4 3 8

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S S T C F i g u r e 6 b : B i v a r i a t e p l o t o f S S T v e r s u s c o r a l d 1 8 O C a l i b r a t i o n e q u a t i o n y = 0 3 1 0 0 0 8 ; 2 s 0 1 7 x 0 0 0 8 ; 2 s d e r i v e d f r o m R M A r e g r e s s i o n u s i n g a l l m o n t h l y d 1 8 O v a l u e s 9 2 P A C ; 9 2 P A D ; 9 9 P A A a n d c o r r e s p o n d i n g m o n t h l y S S T m e a s u r e m e n t s d 1 8 O o / o o V P D B 5 5 5 0 4 5 4 0 3 5 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 r 2 = 0 6 0 3 9

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S r / C a m m o l / m o l d 1 8 O o / o o V P D B F i g u r e 6 c : B i v a r i a t e p l o t o f a l l p a i r e d m o n t h l y S r / C a r a t i o s 9 2 P A C ; 9 2 P A D ; 9 9 P A A a n d m o n t h l y o x y g e n i s o t o p e m e a s u r e m e n t s R e l a t i o n s h i p d e r i v e d f r o m R M A r e g r e s s i o n y = 1 0 3 0 3 0 0 1 ; 2 s + 0 3 2 x 0 0 6 ; 2 s 8 9 9 0 9 1 9 2 9 3 9 4 9 5 5 5 5 0 4 5 4 0 3 5 r 2 = 0 7 4 4 0

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9 2 P A C d 1 3 C o / o o V P D B 9 2 P A D d 1 3 C o / o o V P D B 9 9 P A A d 1 3 C o / o o V P D B d 1 3 C o / o o V P D B d 1 3 C o / o o V P D B Y e a r 3 r e c o r d a v e r a g e 2 5 2 0 1 5 1 0 0 5 0 0 0 5 2 5 2 0 1 5 1 0 0 5 0 0 0 5 2 5 2 0 1 5 1 0 0 5 0 0 0 5 2 5 2 0 1 5 1 0 0 5 0 0 0 5 2 5 2 0 1 5 1 0 0 5 0 0 0 5 1 9 6 5 1 9 7 0 1 9 7 5 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 5 1 9 9 0 1 9 9 5 4 1 F i g u r e 7 : d 1 3 C t i m e s e r i e s o f 3 c o r a l c o r e s 9 2 P A C ; 9 2 P A D ; 9 9 P A A T o p p a n e l ; i n d i v i d u a l d 1 3 C r e c o r d s o f c o r a l s 9 2 P A C 9 2 P A D 9 9 P A A M i d d l e p a n e l ; o v e r l a p p l o t o f a l l 3 r e c o r d s B o t t o m p a n e l ; p l o t o f t h e 3 c o r e d 1 3 C s t a c k o f a v e r a g e m o n t h l y v a l u e s

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Y e a r 9 2 P A C S r / C a m m o l / m o l 9 9 P A A S r / C a m m o l / m o l 9 2 P A D S r / C a m m o l / m o l S r / C a m m o l / m o l 3 r e c o r d a v e r a g e m m o l / m o l F i g u r e 8 : S r / C a t i m e s e r i e s o f t h r e e c o r a l s 9 2 P A C ; 9 2 P A D ; 9 9 P A A T o p p a n e l ; i n d i v i d u a l r e c o r d s o f c o r a l s 9 2 P A C 9 2 P A D 9 9 P A A M i d d l e p a n e l ; o v e r l a p p l o t o f a l l t h r e e r e c o r d s B o t t o m p a n e l ; p l o t o f t h e 3 c o r e S r / C a s t a c k o f a v e r a g e m o n t h l y v a l u e s 8 9 9 1 9 3 9 5 8 9 9 1 9 3 9 5 8 9 9 1 9 3 9 5 8 9 9 1 9 3 9 5 1 9 6 5 1 9 7 0 1 9 7 5 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 5 1 9 9 0 1 9 9 5 8 9 9 1 9 3 9 5 4 2

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F i g u r e 9 : P a n e l s A S r / C a ; r e d a n d B d 1 8 O ; b l u e s h o w t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l a n d p r e d i c t e d t e m p e r a t u r e s f o r e a c h c o r e w i t h e a c h h a v i n g s i m i l a r m e a n s s y m b o l a n d v a r i a n c e v e r t i c a l l i n e t o t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l r e c o r d S t a n d a r d e r r o r o f t h e m e a n v a l u e s a r e s h o w n i n P a n e l s A a n d B b y t h e h o r i z o n t a l b a r s P a n e l s C S r / C a ; r e d a n d D d 1 8 O ; b l u e s h o w t h e m e a n m o n t h l y t e m p e r a t u r e v a l u e s o f t h e t h r e e c o r a l c o r e s n o t i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f c o r e 9 2 P A D i n d 1 8 O S S T M e a n m o n t h l y i n s t r u m e n t a l S S T s a r e s h o w n i n b l a c k x [ S r / C a = 9 2 P A C ; 9 2 P A D ; 9 9 P A A ; 9 2 P A A ] [ d 1 8 O = 9 2 P A C ; 9 2 P A D ; 9 9 P A A ; 9 2 P A A ] 9 9 P A A A 9 2 P A C 9 2 P A D 9 2 P A A i n s i t u S S T C S r / C a 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 9 9 P A A B C D 9 2 P A C 9 2 P A D i n s i t u 4 3 S S T C S r / C a d 1 8 O d 1 8 O 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 6 9 2 P A A 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 J F M A M J J A S O N D 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 J F M A M J J A S O N D

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S S T P r e d i c t e d C Y e a r F i g u r e 1 0 : P a n e l A s h o w s t h e t h r e e S S T r e c o r d s a s p r e d i c t e d u s i n g S r / C a S S T r e l a t i o n s h i p d e f i n e d i n F i g u r e 6 a P a n e l B s h o w s t h e t h r e e r e c o r d s o n t h e s a m e a x i s 9 2 P A C ; 9 2 P A D ; 9 9 P A A P a n e l C s h o w s t h e m e a s u r e d i n s i t u r e c o r d o f S S T d a t a f r o m I n s t i t u t d e r e c h e r c h e p o u r l e d v e l o p p e m e n t I R D a n d a v a i l a b l e a t h t t p : / / w w w i r d n c / E C O P / s i t e e c o p u k / c a d r e s h t m P a n e l D s h o w s a c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l S S T d a t a b l a c k a n d t h e S r / C a b a s e d p r e d i c t i o n o f S S T a s d e f i n e d b y t h e s t a c k e d m o n t h l y a v e r a g e o f t h e t h r e e c o r e s A B C 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 D S S T P r e d i c t e d C S S T C S S T P r e d i c t e d C S S T P r e d i c t e d C S S T C 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 1 9 6 5 1 9 7 0 1 9 7 5 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 5 1 9 9 0 1 9 9 5 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 4 4

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9 2 P A C d 1 8 O o / o o V P D B 9 9 P A A d 1 8 O o / o o V P D B 3 r e c o r d a v e r a g e d d 1 8 O o / o o V P D B Y e a r 9 2 P A D d 1 8 O o / o o V P D B d 1 8 O o / o o V P D B F i g u r e 1 1 : d 1 8 O t i m e s e r i e s o f t h e 3 c o r a l c o r e s 9 2 P A C ; 9 2 P A D ; 9 9 P A A T o p p a n e l ; i n d i v i d u a l r e c o r d s o f 9 2 P A C 9 2 P A D a n d 9 9 P A A M i d d l e p a n e l ; o v e r l a p p l o t o f a l l t h r e e r e c o r d s B o t t o m p a n e l p l o t o f t h e s t a c k e d m o n t h l y a v e r a g e o f t h e t h r e e r e c o r d s 5 5 5 0 4 5 4 0 3 5 5 5 5 0 4 5 4 0 3 5 5 5 5 0 4 5 4 0 3 5 5 5 5 0 4 5 4 0 3 5 5 5 5 0 4 5 4 0 3 5 1 9 6 5 1 9 7 0 1 9 7 5 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 5 1 9 9 0 1 9 9 5 4 5

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S S T P r e d i c t e d C Y e a r F i g u r e 1 2 : P a n e l A s h o w s t h e t h r e e S S T r e c o r d s a s p r e d i c t e d u s i n g d 1 8 O S S T r e l a t i o n s h i p d e f i n e d i n F i g u r e 6 b P a n e l B s h o w s t h e t h r e e r e c o r d s o n t h e s a m e a x i s 9 2 P A C ; 9 2 P A D ; 9 9 P A A P a n e l C s h o w s t h e m e a s u r e d i n s i t u r e c o r d o f S S T d a t a f r o m I n s t i t u t d e r e c h e r c h e p o u r l e d v e l o p p e m e n t I R D a n d a v a i l a b l e a t h t t p : / / w w w i r d n c / E C O P / s i t e e c o p u k / c a d r e s h t m P a n e l D s h o w s a c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l S S T d a t a b l a c k a n d t h e d 1 8 O b a s e d p r e d i c t i o n o f S S T a s d e f i n e d b y t h e s t a c k e d m o n t h l y a v e r a g e o f t h e t h r e e c o r e s A B C D 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 1 9 6 5 1 9 7 0 1 9 7 5 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 5 1 9 9 0 1 9 9 5 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 S S T P r e d i c t e d C S S T C S S T C S S T P r e d i c t e d C S S T P r e d i c t e d C 4 6

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D d 1 8 O D d 1 8 O D d 1 8 O D d 1 8 O S S S F i g u r e 1 3 : P a n e l A s h o w s t h e t h e c a l c u l a t e d D d 1 8 O r e c o r d s o f t h e t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l c o r e s [ D d 1 8 O = 0 1 7 [ S S T S r / C a S S T d 1 8 O ] a f t e r G a g a n e t a l 1 9 9 8 P a n e l B s h o w s t h e t h r e e r e c o r d s o n t h e s a m e a x i s 9 2 P A C ; 9 2 P A D ; 9 9 P A A P a n e l C s h o w s t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l S S S r e c o r d P a n e l D s h o w s a c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l S S S d a t a g r e e n a n d t h e s t a c k e d a v e r a g e m o n t h l y D d 1 8 O f o r t h e t h r e e c o r e s N o t e t h e g e n e r a l l a c k o f a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e c o r a l D d 1 8 O r e c o r d s a n d t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l S S S r e c o r d D d 1 8 O S S S Y e a r A B C D 0 6 0 4 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 6 0 4 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 6 0 4 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 6 3 5 0 3 5 5 3 6 0 3 5 0 3 5 5 3 6 0 0 6 0 4 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 6 1 9 7 5 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 5 1 9 9 0 1 9 9 5 0 6 0 4 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 6 4 7

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Coral Number of Sampling 18 O 13 C Sr/Ca-SST Genus Location Records Resolution offset offset offset Source Porites Arabian Sea 2 monthly 0.25 1.3 Tudhope et al., 1996 Porites GBR 7 submonthly .3C Ailbert and McCulloch, 1997 Porites GBR 3 submonthly .3C Gagan et al., 1998 Porites Nauru Island 2 subannually 0.2 0.3 Guilderson and Schrag, 1999 Porites Clipperton Atoll 6 subannually 0.4 Linsley et al., 1999 Diploria Bermuda 2 subannually .0C Cardinal et al., 2001 Porites GBR 8 5 yr. increments .3C Hendy et al., 2002 Porites New Caledonia 3 monthly 0.2 1.1 .1C This Study Table 1: Summary of previous coral reproducibility tests using 18 O and Sr/Ca. 48

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92-PAC 92-PAD 99-PAA 92-PAC 92-PAD 99-PAA 92-PAC 92-PAD 99-PAA Sr/Ca Sr/Ca Sr/Ca 18 O 18 O 18 O 13 C 13 C 13 C 92-PAC S r/ C a 92-PAD Sr/Ca 0.87 99-PAA Sr/Ca 0.84 0.80 92-PAC 18 O 0.94 0.83 0.84 92-PAD 18 O 0.72 0.86 0.76 0.72 99-PAA 18 O 0.79 0.80 0.88 0.81 0.71 92-PAC 13 C 0.36 0.37 0.37 0.38 0.42 0.38 92-PAD 13 C -0.21 -0.04 -0.10 -0.24 0.20 -0.13 0.39 99-PAA 13 C 0.29 0.33 0.34 0.26 0.34 0.44 0.48 0.14 Table 2: Correlation coefficients for comparisons of monthly values of each proxy amongst the three cores. Note strong correlations between the Sr/Ca records and the 18 O records, with no significant relationship to the 13 C data. 49

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Source Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) 18 O ( VPDB) 3 Cores = 10.528 (.007) 0.058 (.001) SST = -0.31 (.004) 0.17 (.004) SST This 92-PAC = 10.595 (.010) 0.060 (.002) SST = -0.29 (.005) 0.17 (.005) SST Study 92-PAD = 10.538 (.012) 0.058 (.002) SST = -0.67 (.007) 0.16 (.006) SST 99-PAA = 10.441 (.011) 0.054 (.002) SST = -0.31 (.006) 0.17 (.006) SST Quinn et al., 1998; 2002 92-PAA = 10.199 (.045) 0.057 (.045) SST = -1.38(.135) 0.13(.121) SST Gagan et al.,1998 GBR = 10.73 0.064 SST = 0.447 0.189 SST Table 3: Calibration equations relating SST to coral Sr/Ca and 18 O for cores used or referenced in this study. All error values reported as one standard error. 50

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APPENDICIES

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Appendix A: Record of 429 measurements internal coral standard solution from Porites coral diluted in 2% (v/v) trace metal grade HNO 3 yielding and average value of 8.927 0.025, 2 (mmol/mol). Date Sr/Ca Sr/Ca Analyzed (ppb) (mmol/mol) 12/2/2002 0.0189 8.938 12/2/2002 0.0189 8.933 12/2/2002 0.0189 8.905 12/2/2002 0.0189 8.931 12/2/2002 0.0190 8.953 12/2/2002 0.0190 8.951 12/2/2002 0.0189 8.930 12/2/2002 0.0189 8.921 12/2/2002 0.0189 8.903 12/2/2002 0.0189 8.922 12/2/2002 0.0189 8.933 12/2/2002 0.0190 8.944 12/2/2002 0.0190 8.945 12/2/2002 0.0190 8.961 12/2/2002 0.0190 8.965 12/2/2002 0.0190 8.941 1/6/2003 0.0189 8.939 1/6/2003 0.0190 8.945 1/6/2003 0.0190 8.941 1/6/2003 0.0189 8.940 1/6/2003 0.0190 8.951 1/6/2003 0.0189 8.932 1/6/2003 0.0190 8.941 1/6/2003 0.0189 8.928 1/6/2003 0.0190 8.943 1/6/2003 0.0189 8.939 1/6/2003 0.0190 8.942 1/6/2003 0.0190 8.945 1/6/2003 0.0190 8.946 1/6/2003 0.0189 8.940 1/6/2003 0.0189 8.935 1/6/2003 0.0190 8.947 1/7/2003 0.0189 8.939 1/7/2003 0.0189 8.939 1/7/2003 0.0189 8.932 1/7/2003 0.0190 8.950 1/7/2003 0.0189 8.933 1/7/2003 0.0189 8.940 1/7/2003 0.0189 8.931 1/7/2003 0.0190 8.941 1/7/2003 0.0189 8.925 1/7/2003 0.0189 8.931 1/7/2003 0.0190 8.949 1/7/2003 0.0190 8.948 Date Sr/Ca Sr/Ca Analyzed (ppb) (mmol/mol) 1/7/2003 0.0189 8.928 1/7/2003 0.0189 8.938 1/7/2003 0.0189 8.937 1/7/2003 0.0190 8.944 1/7/2003 0.0190 8.946 1/7/2003 0.0190 8.943 1/7/2003 0.0190 8.943 1/7/2003 0.0189 8.923 1/9/2003 0.0190 8.946 1/9/2003 0.0189 8.936 1/9/2003 0.0189 8.930 1/9/2003 0.0190 8.945 1/9/2003 0.0189 8.932 1/9/2003 0.0190 8.954 1/9/2003 0.0190 8.941 1/9/2003 0.0189 8.937 1/9/2003 0.0190 8.947 1/9/2003 0.0190 8.941 1/9/2003 0.0190 8.942 1/9/2003 0.0190 8.944 1/9/2003 0.0189 8.936 1/9/2003 0.0189 8.925 1/9/2003 0.0190 8.942 1/9/2003 0.0190 8.944 1/10/2003 0.0190 8.949 1/10/2003 0.0190 8.953 1/10/2003 0.0190 8.946 1/10/2003 0.0190 8.942 1/10/2003 0.0190 8.947 1/10/2003 0.0190 8.949 1/10/2003 0.0189 8.936 1/10/2003 0.0189 8.934 1/10/2003 0.0189 8.941 1/10/2003 0.0190 8.945 1/10/2003 0.0190 8.948 1/10/2003 0.0190 8.955 1/10/2003 0.0190 8.942 1/10/2003 0.0190 8.948 1/10/2003 0.0190 8.947 1/10/2003 0.0190 8.948 1/11/2003 0.0190 8.948 1/11/2003 0.0189 8.932 1/11/2003 0.0190 8.943 1/11/2003 0.0189 8.929 Date Sr/Ca Sr/Ca Analyzed (ppb) (mmol/mol) 1/11/2003 0.0189 8.925 1/11/2003 0.0189 8.939 1/11/2003 0.0189 8.939 1/11/2003 0.0189 8.936 1/11/2003 0.0190 8.943 1/11/2003 0.0190 8.944 1/11/2003 0.0190 8.944 1/11/2003 0.0189 8.941 1/11/2003 0.0189 8.924 1/11/2003 0.0189 8.927 1/11/2003 0.0190 8.945 1/11/2003 0.0189 8.923 1/14/2003 0.0189 8.941 1/14/2003 0.0190 8.942 1/14/2003 0.0189 8.938 1/14/2003 0.0190 8.950 1/14/2003 0.0189 8.929 1/14/2003 0.0189 8.938 1/14/2003 0.0189 8.930 1/14/2003 0.0190 8.942 1/14/2003 0.0189 8.934 1/14/2003 0.0189 8.935 1/14/2003 0.0189 8.939 1/14/2003 0.0189 8.938 1/14/2003 0.0189 8.924 1/14/2003 0.0189 8.923 1/14/2003 0.0189 8.936 1/14/2003 0.0189 8.930 1/17/2003 0.0189 8.932 1/17/2003 0.0189 8.938 1/17/2003 0.0190 8.943 1/17/2003 0.0189 8.933 1/17/2003 0.0190 8.948 1/17/2003 0.0189 8.931 1/17/2003 0.0189 8.938 1/17/2003 0.0190 8.944 1/17/2003 0.0189 8.935 1/17/2003 0.0189 8.935 1/17/2003 0.0189 8.937 1/17/2003 0.0190 8.954 1/17/2003 0.0190 8.947 1/17/2003 0.0190 8.945 1/17/2003 0.0189 8.941 1/17/2003 0.0190 8.954 51

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Date Sr/Ca Sr/Ca Analyzed (ppb) (mmol/mol) 1/21/2003 0.0190 8.948 1/21/2003 0.0190 8.959 1/21/2003 0.0189 8.938 1/21/2003 0.0190 8.968 1/21/2003 0.0190 8.943 1/21/2003 0.0190 8.951 1/21/2003 0.0190 8.953 1/21/2003 0.0190 8.951 1/21/2003 0.0190 8.946 1/21/2003 0.0190 8.955 1/21/2003 0.0190 8.944 1/21/2003 0.0190 8.951 1/21/2003 0.0190 8.953 1/21/2003 0.0190 8.972 1/21/2003 0.0190 8.972 1/21/2003 0.0190 8.961 1/22/2003 0.0190 8.958 1/22/2003 0.0190 8.954 1/22/2003 0.0190 8.953 1/22/2003 0.0190 8.957 1/22/2003 0.0190 8.946 1/22/2003 0.0190 8.946 1/22/2003 0.0190 8.957 1/22/2003 0.0190 8.947 1/22/2003 0.0190 8.954 1/22/2003 0.0190 8.947 1/22/2003 0.0190 8.956 1/22/2003 0.0190 8.950 1/22/2003 0.0190 8.949 1/22/2003 0.0190 8.950 1/22/2003 0.0190 8.948 1/22/2003 0.0190 8.952 1/23/2003 0.0190 8.955 1/23/2003 0.0190 8.942 1/23/2003 0.0190 8.960 1/23/2003 0.0190 8.945 1/23/2003 0.0190 8.962 1/23/2003 0.0190 8.948 1/23/2003 0.0190 8.954 1/23/2003 0.0190 8.945 1/23/2003 0.0190 8.952 1/23/2003 0.0190 8.957 1/23/2003 0.0190 8.962 1/23/2003 0.0190 8.954 1/23/2003 0.0190 8.946 1/23/2003 0.0190 8.946 1/23/2003 0.0190 8.956 1/23/2003 0.0190 8.957 1/24/2003 0.0189 8.935 1/24/2003 0.0190 8.944 1/24/2003 0.0190 8.944 1/24/2003 0.0190 8.948 1/24/2003 0.0190 8.944 1/24/2003 0.0190 8.941 1/24/2003 0.0189 8.940 1/24/2003 0.0190 8.944 1/24/2003 0.0190 8.954 1/24/2003 0.0189 8.935 1/24/2003 0.0190 8.944 1/24/2003 0.0190 8.951 1/24/2003 0.0190 8.949 1/24/2003 0.0190 8.961 1/24/2003 0.0190 8.947 1/24/2003 0.0190 8.952 1/25/2003 0.0190 8.951 1/25/2003 0.0190 8.950 1/25/2003 0.0190 8.958 1/25/2003 0.0190 8.956 1/25/2003 0.0190 8.957 1/25/2003 0.0190 8.946 1/25/2003 0.0189 8.937 1/25/2003 0.0190 8.942 1/25/2003 0.0190 8.945 1/25/2003 0.0190 8.951 1/25/2003 0.0190 8.950 1/25/2003 0.0189 8.940 1/25/2003 0.0190 8.950 1/25/2003 0.0190 8.947 1/25/2003 0.0190 8.947 1/25/2003 0.0190 8.951 1/27/2003 0.0190 8.946 1/27/2003 0.0189 8.935 1/27/2003 0.0190 8.946 1/27/2003 0.0190 8.942 1/27/2003 0.0189 8.940 1/27/2003 0.0190 8.945 1/27/2003 0.0189 8.940 1/27/2003 0.0190 8.943 1/27/2003 0.0190 8.945 1/27/2003 0.0190 8.949 1/27/2003 0.0190 8.942 1/27/2003 0.0189 8.940 1/27/2003 0.0190 8.941 1/27/2003 0.0190 8.946 1/27/2003 0.0190 8.946 1/27/2003 0.0189 8.936 1/27/2003 0.0190 8.943 1/27/2003 0.0189 8.935 1/27/2003 0.0190 8.945 1/27/2003 0.0190 8.944 1/27/2003 0.0190 8.949 1/28/2003 0.0190 8.950 1/28/2003 0.0190 8.943 1/28/2003 0.0190 8.949 1/28/2003 0.0189 8.938 1/28/2003 0.0190 8.946 1/28/2003 0.0190 8.951 1/28/2003 0.0189 8.935 1/28/2003 0.0190 8.943 1/28/2003 0.0190 8.950 1/28/2003 0.0189 8.937 1/28/2003 0.0190 8.952 1/28/2003 0.0189 8.931 1/28/2003 0.0189 8.936 1/28/2003 0.0190 8.951 1/28/2003 0.0190 8.951 1/28/2003 0.0190 8.968 1/29/2003 0.0190 8.947 1/29/2003 0.0190 8.945 1/29/2003 0.0190 8.946 1/29/2003 0.0190 8.947 1/29/2003 0.0190 8.943 1/29/2003 0.0190 8.948 1/29/2003 0.0190 8.952 1/29/2003 0.0190 8.945 1/29/2003 0.0190 8.947 1/29/2003 0.0190 8.945 1/29/2003 0.0190 8.957 1/29/2003 0.0190 8.947 1/29/2003 0.0189 8.941 1/29/2003 0.0190 8.945 1/29/2003 0.0190 8.951 1/29/2003 0.0190 8.949 1/29/2003 0.0190 8.951 1/29/2003 0.0190 8.943 1/29/2003 0.0190 8.944 1/29/2003 0.0190 8.947 1/29/2003 0.0190 8.947 2/2/2003 0.0189 8.940 2/2/2003 0.0189 8.940 2/2/2003 0.0190 8.943 2/2/2003 0.0190 8.945 2/2/2003 0.0190 8.942 2/2/2003 0.0190 8.948 Date Sr/Ca Sr/Ca Analyzed (ppb) (mmol/mol) Date Sr/Ca Sr/Ca Analyzed (ppb) (mmol/mol) 52

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Date Sr/Ca Sr/Ca Analyzed (ppb) (mmol/mol) 2/2/2003 0.0190 8.947 2/2/2003 0.0189 8.941 2/2/2003 0.0190 8.942 2/2/2003 0.0189 8.941 2/2/2003 0.0189 8.938 2/2/2003 0.0189 8.913 2/2/2003 0.0189 8.908 2/2/2003 0.0189 8.907 2/2/2003 0.0189 8.901 2/2/2003 0.0189 8.905 2/7/2003 0.0189 8.899 2/7/2003 0.0188 8.892 2/7/2003 0.0188 8.889 2/7/2003 0.0188 8.892 2/7/2003 0.0188 8.893 2/7/2003 0.0189 8.895 2/7/2003 0.0189 8.904 2/11/2003 0.0189 8.919 2/11/2003 0.0189 8.897 2/11/2003 0.0189 8.903 2/11/2003 0.0189 8.894 2/11/2003 0.0189 8.904 2/11/2003 0.0189 8.895 2/11/2003 0.0189 8.905 2/11/2003 0.0189 8.902 2/11/2003 0.0189 8.904 2/11/2003 0.0189 8.907 2/11/2003 0.0189 8.908 2/11/2003 0.0189 8.899 2/11/2003 0.0189 8.922 2/11/2003 0.0189 8.897 2/11/2003 0.0189 8.894 2/11/2003 0.0189 8.901 2/11/2003 0.0189 8.900 2/11/2003 0.0189 8.911 2/11/2003 0.0189 8.904 2/11/2003 0.0189 8.898 2/11/2003 0.0189 8.901 2/25/2003 0.0188 8.891 2/25/2003 0.0188 8.889 2/25/2003 0.0188 8.886 2/25/2003 0.0188 8.891 2/25/2003 0.0189 8.896 2/25/2003 0.0189 8.899 2/25/2003 0.0189 8.900 2/25/2003 0.0188 8.892 2/25/2003 0.0188 8.893 2/25/2003 0.0188 8.886 2/25/2003 0.0188 8.891 2/25/2003 0.0188 8.891 2/25/2003 0.0188 8.886 2/25/2003 0.0188 8.885 2/25/2003 0.0188 8.880 2/25/2003 0.0188 8.886 2/28/2003 0.0188 8.893 2/28/2003 0.0188 8.877 2/28/2003 0.0188 8.886 2/28/2003 0.0188 8.878 2/28/2003 0.0188 8.890 2/28/2003 0.0188 8.877 2/28/2003 0.0188 8.883 2/28/2003 0.0188 8.893 2/28/2003 0.0188 8.882 2/28/2003 0.0188 8.893 2/28/2003 0.0188 8.888 2/28/2003 0.0188 8.878 2/28/2003 0.0188 8.893 2/28/2003 0.0188 8.887 2/28/2003 0.0188 8.883 3/4/2003 0.0188 8.894 3/4/2003 0.0188 8.876 3/4/2003 0.0189 8.895 3/4/2003 0.0188 8.882 3/4/2003 0.0188 8.876 3/4/2003 0.0188 8.892 3/4/2003 0.0188 8.893 3/4/2003 0.0188 8.892 3/4/2003 0.0189 8.897 3/4/2003 0.0188 8.882 3/4/2003 0.0188 8.891 3/4/2003 0.0188 8.884 3/4/2003 0.0189 8.894 3/4/2003 0.0188 8.888 3/4/2003 0.0188 8.888 3/4/2003 0.0188 8.880 3/5/2003 0.0188 8.892 3/5/2003 0.0188 8.890 3/5/2003 0.0188 8.890 3/5/2003 0.0189 8.896 3/5/2003 0.0188 8.891 3/5/2003 0.0188 8.886 3/5/2003 0.0188 8.887 3/5/2003 0.0189 8.896 3/5/2003 0.0189 8.904 3/5/2003 0.0188 8.888 3/5/2003 0.0188 8.886 3/5/2003 0.0188 8.886 3/5/2003 0.0188 8.893 3/5/2003 0.0189 8.901 3/5/2003 0.0188 8.886 3/6/2003 0.0189 8.901 3/6/2003 0.0189 8.899 3/6/2003 0.0189 8.904 3/6/2003 0.0189 8.897 3/6/2003 0.0189 8.910 3/6/2003 0.0189 8.905 3/6/2003 0.0189 8.899 3/6/2003 0.0189 8.894 3/6/2003 0.0189 8.899 3/6/2003 0.0189 8.894 3/6/2003 0.0189 8.904 3/6/2003 0.0188 8.893 3/6/2003 0.0189 8.899 3/6/2003 0.0188 8.894 3/6/2003 0.0189 8.900 3/6/2003 0.0189 8.898 3/10/2003 0.0189 8.898 3/10/2003 0.0188 8.893 3/10/2003 0.0189 8.896 3/10/2003 0.0189 8.899 3/10/2003 0.0189 8.896 3/10/2003 0.0189 8.907 3/10/2003 0.0188 8.893 3/10/2003 0.0188 8.890 3/10/2003 0.0188 8.892 3/10/2003 0.0188 8.890 3/10/2003 0.0189 8.900 3/10/2003 0.0188 8.893 3/10/2003 0.0189 8.895 3/10/2003 0.0189 8.904 3/10/2003 0.0189 8.897 3/10/2003 0.0188 8.884 3/10/2003 0.0189 8.896 3/10/2003 0.0189 8.897 3/10/2003 0.0189 8.897 3/10/2003 0.0189 8.902 3/10/2003 0.0189 8.904 3/11/2003 0.0189 8.898 3/11/2003 0.0189 8.894 3/11/2003 0.0189 8.898 3/11/2003 0.0189 8.905 3/11/2003 0.0189 8.904 3/11/2003 0.0189 8.902 3/11/2003 0.0189 8.905 Date Sr/Ca Sr/Ca Analyzed (ppb) (mmol/mol) Date Sr/Ca Sr/Ca Analyzed (ppb) (mmol/mol) 53

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Date Sr/Ca Sr/Ca Analyzed (ppb) (mmol/mol) 3/11/2003 0.0189 8.908 3/11/2003 0.0189 8.896 3/11/2003 0.0189 8.904 3/11/2003 0.0189 8.905 3/11/2003 0.0189 8.894 3/11/2003 0.0188 8.891 3/11/2003 0.0188 8.894 3/11/2003 0.0188 8.894 3/11/2003 0.0188 8.893 Date Sr/Ca Sr/Ca Analyzed (ppb) (mmol/mol) Date Sr/Ca Sr/Ca Analyzed (ppb) (mmol/mol) 54

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Appendix B: Geochemical data for coral core 92-PAC prior to age modeling: Sr/Ca (mmol/mol), 18 O ( VPDB), and 13 C ( VPDB). Depth Estimated 92-PAC 92-PAC 92-PAC (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18 O 13 C 0.06 1992.62 9.289 -3.88 -0.71 0.13 1992.46 9.208 -4.21 -1.03 0.19 1992.41 9.128 -4.26 -1.17 0.25 1992.36 9.165 -4.31 -1.10 0.31 1992.32 9.140 -4.39 -1.00 0.38 1992.27 9.115 -4.54 -0.92 0.44 1992.22 9.055 -4.57 -0.94 0.50 1992.17 9.021 -4.61 -0.89 0.56 1992.12 8.958 -4.67 -1.03 0.63 1992.04 8.989 -4.59 -0.72 0.69 1991.96 9.019 -4.52 -0.46 0.75 1991.88 9.100 -4.32 -0.49 0.81 1991.79 9.196 -4.01 -0.29 0.88 1991.71 9.289 -3.77 -0.07 0.94 1991.62 9.348 -3.58 0.04 1.00 1991.54 9.315 -3.62 -0.20 1.06 1991.46 9.246 -4.00 -0.66 1.13 1991.38 9.164 -4.35 -0.84 1.19 1991.29 9.107 -4.39 -0.85 1.25 1991.21 9.029 -4.62 -0.75 1.31 1991.12 8.983 -4.72 -0.66 1.38 1991.06 8.996 -4.71 -0.69 1.44 1990.99 9.028 -4.63 -0.48 1.50 1990.92 9.131 -4.26 -0.16 1.56 1990.85 9.231 -4.18 -0.26 1.63 1990.78 9.298 -3.87 -0.46 1.69 1990.71 9.327 -3.94 -0.37 1.75 1990.62 9.244 -4.10 -0.65 1.81 1990.54 9.193 -4.30 -0.93 1.88 1990.46 9.184 -4.35 -1.01 1.94 1990.38 9.129 -4.47 -1.00 2.00 1990.35 9.049 -4.56 -1.04 2.06 1990.32 9.039 -4.84 -1.13 2.13 1990.29 9.010 -4.82 -0.97 2.19 1990.26 9.002 -4.85 -1.02 2.25 1990.24 8.980 -4.78 -0.86 2.31 1990.21 8.934 -5.02 -0.90 2.38 1990.18 8.929 -4.99 -0.96 2.44 1990.15 8.937 -5.00 -0.89 2.50 1990.12 8.916 -4.84 -0.54 2.56 1990.06 8.998 -4.75 -0.42 2.63 1990.00 9.035 -4.54 -0.45 2.69 1989.94 9.054 -4.58 -0.54 2.75 1989.88 9.105 -4.31 -0.43 Depth Estimated 92-PAC 92-PAC 92-PAC (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18 O 13 C 2.81 1989.81 9.150 -4.30 -0.39 2.88 1989.75 9.206 -4.15 -0.51 2.94 1989.69 9.265 -4.07 -0.33 3.00 1989.62 9.271 -4.08 -0.40 3.06 1989.54 9.240 -4.38 -0.73 3.13 1989.46 9.203 -4.32 -0.91 3.19 1989.38 9.173 -4.49 -0.99 3.25 1989.29 9.136 -4.58 -0.94 3.31 1989.26 9.112 -4.64 -0.89 3.38 1989.22 9.077 -4.56 -0.88 3.44 1989.18 9.074 -4.75 -0.73 3.50 1989.15 9.018 -4.83 -0.66 3.56 1989.11 9.008 -4.94 -0.65 3.63 1989.08 8.995 -4.84 -0.72 3.69 1989.04 8.986 -4.91 -0.74 3.75 1989.00 9.021 -4.77 -0.56 3.81 1988.95 9.019 -4.61 -0.50 3.88 1988.90 8.971 -4.44 -0.51 3.94 1988.86 9.032 -4.32 -0.54 4.00 1988.81 9.092 -4.26 -0.66 4.06 1988.76 9.142 -4.22 -0.67 4.13 1988.72 9.251 -3.95 -0.43 4.19 1988.67 9.290 -3.82 -0.44 4.25 1988.62 9.307 -3.88 -0.73 4.31 1988.55 9.252 -3.98 -0.92 4.38 1988.48 9.195 -3.98 -0.97 4.44 1988.41 9.135 -4.21 -1.03 4.50 1988.34 9.121 -4.28 -0.79 4.56 1988.27 9.112 -4.50 -0.81 4.63 1988.20 9.083 -4.39 -0.68 4.69 1988.12 9.019 -4.71 -0.76 4.75 1988.08 9.024 -4.54 -0.76 4.81 1988.04 9.029 -4.60 -0.67 4.88 1988.00 9.067 -4.57 -0.46 4.94 1987.96 9.074 -4.39 -0.46 5.00 1987.92 9.085 -4.30 -0.36 5.06 1987.88 9.085 -4.34 -0.39 5.13 1987.83 9.142 -4.13 -0.47 5.19 1987.79 9.219 -4.01 -0.29 5.25 1987.75 9.271 -3.97 -0.31 5.31 1987.71 9.306 -3.89 -0.08 5.38 1987.67 9.333 -3.74 -0.20 5.44 1987.62 9.335 -3.89 -0.21 5.50 1987.57 9.320 -3.96 -0.52 55

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Depth Estimated 92-PAC 92-PAC 92-PAC (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 5.56 1987.52 9.298 -3.85 -0.57 5.63 1987.47 9.268 -4.02 -0.62 5.69 1987.42 9.191 -4.19 -0.56 5.75 1987.36 9.179 -4.28 -0.45 5.81 1987.31 9.172 -4.28 -0.27 5.88 1987.26 9.107 -4.39 -0.51 5.94 1987.21 9.072 -4.60 -0.68 6.00 1987.14 9.125 -4.47 -0.40 6.06 1987.07 9.120 -4.33 -0.11 6.13 1986.99 9.086 -4.29 0.05 6.19 1986.92 9.177 -4.17 0.36 6.25 1986.85 9.180 -4.21 -0.07 6.31 1986.78 9.361 -3.69 -0.05 6.38 1986.71 9.430 -3.65 -0.02 6.44 1986.62 9.369 -3.76 -0.21 6.50 1986.54 9.268 -4.07 -0.67 6.56 1986.46 9.216 -4.22 -0.71 6.63 1986.38 9.206 -4.29 -0.71 6.69 1986.29 9.159 -4.35 -0.54 6.75 1986.21 9.124 -4.55 -0.42 6.81 1986.13 9.075 -4.67 -0.91 6.88 1986.04 8.988 -4.69 -0.70 6.94 1985.98 9.004 -4.63 -0.32 7.00 1985.92 9.066 -4.62 -0.27 7.06 1985.86 9.119 -4.48 -0.18 7.13 1985.80 9.134 -4.32 -0.18 7.19 1985.74 9.194 -4.30 -0.21 7.25 1985.68 9.322 -3.92 -0.17 7.31 1985.62 9.378 -3.78 -0.22 7.38 1985.57 9.326 -3.82 -0.45 7.44 1985.51 9.275 -4.07 -0.77 7.50 1985.46 9.209 -4.23 -0.75 7.56 1985.40 9.107 -4.59 -0.93 7.63 1985.35 9.058 -4.73 -1.00 7.69 1985.29 9.026 -4.74 -0.82 7.75 1985.24 9.017 -4.69 -1.02 7.81 1985.18 9.019 -4.76 -0.71 7.88 1985.12 8.999 -4.75 -0.45 7.94 1985.04 9.026 -4.72 -0.38 8.00 1984.96 9.059 -4.62 -0.25 8.06 1984.88 9.156 -4.20 -0.23 8.13 1984.79 9.233 -4.08 -0.13 8.19 1984.71 9.303 -3.86 -0.13 8.25 1984.62 9.362 -3.69 0.03 8.31 1984.54 9.345 -3.64 -0.10 8.38 1984.46 9.315 -3.93 -0.31 8.44 1984.37 9.205 -4.16 -0.44 8.50 1984.29 9.154 -4.35 -0.50 8.56 1984.21 9.097 -4.49 -0.62 8.63 1984.12 9.130 -4.42 -0.48 8.69 1984.04 9.162 -4.28 -0.31 8.75 1983.96 9.174 -4.23 -0.13 8.81 1983.87 9.186 -4.23 -0.20 8.88 1983.79 9.202 -4.21 -0.28 8.94 1983.71 9.268 -4.09 -0.27 9.00 1983.62 9.371 -3.87 -0.34 9.06 1983.54 9.373 -3.73 -0.39 9.13 1983.46 9.297 -3.92 -0.50 9.19 1983.37 9.246 -4.11 -0.61 9.25 1983.29 9.156 -4.46 -0.59 9.31 1983.21 9.128 -4.50 -0.37 9.38 1983.09 9.146 -4.51 -0.14 9.44 1982.97 9.159 -4.35 0.10 9.50 1982.86 9.262 -3.89 0.41 9.56 1982.74 9.421 -3.51 0.37 9.63 1982.62 9.455 -3.57 0.04 9.69 1982.54 9.339 -3.83 -0.43 9.75 1982.46 9.267 -4.07 -0.43 9.81 1982.38 9.211 -4.31 -0.47 9.88 1982.29 9.143 -4.53 -0.56 9.94 1982.21 9.103 -4.61 -0.63 10.00 1982.12 9.063 -4.69 -0.43 10.06 1982.04 9.068 -4.69 -0.11 10.13 1981.96 9.099 -4.68 -0.20 10.19 1981.88 9.111 -4.54 -0.37 10.25 1981.76 9.195 -4.22 -0.24 10.31 1981.65 9.313 -3.80 -0.18 10.38 1981.54 9.383 -3.59 0.12 10.44 1981.48 9.362 -3.88 0.19 10.50 1981.42 9.324 -3.77 -0.07 10.56 1981.36 9.274 -3.88 -0.16 10.63 1981.30 9.195 -4.42 -0.41 10.69 1981.24 9.165 -4.60 -0.42 10.75 1981.18 9.072 -4.54 -0.45 10.81 1981.12 9.040 -4.66 -0.36 10.88 1981.05 9.058 -4.76 -0.24 10.94 1980.98 9.087 -4.70 -0.15 11.00 1980.91 9.106 -4.59 -0.19 11.06 1980.84 9.153 -4.36 -0.31 11.13 1980.77 9.206 -4.33 -0.31 11.19 1980.70 9.245 -4.12 -0.25 11.25 1980.62 9.371 -3.88 -0.12 11.31 1980.56 9.362 -3.73 -0.04 11.38 1980.50 9.310 -3.87 -0.31 11.44 1980.44 9.243 -4.17 -0.58 11.50 1980.38 9.192 -4.27 -0.70 Depth Estimated 92-PAC 92-PAC 92-PAC (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 56

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Depth Estimated 92-PAC 92-PAC 92-PAC (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 11.56 1980.31 9.174 -4.29 -0.54 11.63 1980.25 9.120 -4.35 -0.63 11.69 1980.19 9.092 -4.46 -0.57 11.75 1980.12 9.013 -4.55 -0.26 11.81 1980.04 9.032 -4.59 -0.25 11.88 1979.96 9.067 -4.54 -0.18 11.94 1979.88 9.076 -4.19 -0.08 12.00 1979.79 9.150 -4.04 -0.05 12.06 1979.71 9.300 -3.90 0.07 12.13 1979.62 9.320 -3.72 0.01 12.19 1979.54 9.310 -3.83 -0.28 12.25 1979.46 9.256 -4.09 -0.49 12.31 1979.37 9.226 -4.29 -0.45 12.38 1979.29 9.147 -4.35 -0.28 12.44 1979.21 9.071 -4.42 -0.17 12.50 1979.11 9.095 -4.47 -0.23 12.56 1979.01 9.155 -4.34 -0.03 12.63 1978.92 9.124 -4.24 0.33 12.69 1978.82 9.246 -4.03 0.25 12.75 1978.72 9.325 -3.83 0.35 12.81 1978.62 9.419 -3.80 0.16 12.88 1978.55 9.367 -3.89 -0.11 12.94 1978.48 9.282 -4.19 -0.42 13.00 1978.41 9.180 -4.31 -0.55 13.06 1978.34 9.127 -4.49 -0.40 13.13 1978.27 9.098 -4.42 -0.35 13.19 1978.20 9.091 -4.46 -0.40 13.25 1978.12 9.080 -4.33 -0.40 13.31 1978.04 9.095 -4.42 -0.24 13.38 1977.96 9.109 -4.37 -0.21 13.44 1977.88 9.169 -4.24 -0.02 13.50 1977.79 9.169 -4.13 0.11 13.56 1977.71 9.369 -3.93 0.09 13.63 1977.62 9.400 -3.73 0.19 13.69 1977.55 9.367 -3.77 -0.10 13.75 1977.48 9.299 -3.85 -0.29 13.81 1977.41 9.306 -4.10 -0.59 13.88 1977.33 9.225 -4.29 -0.54 13.94 1977.26 9.180 -4.65 -0.76 14.00 1977.19 9.117 -4.38 -0.45 14.06 1977.11 9.096 -4.51 -0.42 14.13 1977.04 9.065 -4.58 -0.13 14.19 1977.00 9.080 -4.61 -0.07 14.25 1976.96 9.072 -4.59 0.00 14.31 1976.92 9.099 -4.53 0.11 14.38 1976.88 9.159 -4.47 -0.22 14.44 1976.71 9.254 -4.19 0.20 14.50 1976.54 9.389 -3.81 0.16 14.56 1976.49 9.342 -3.95 -0.05 14.63 1976.43 9.262 -4.22 -0.22 14.69 1976.38 9.175 -4.29 -0.36 14.75 1976.32 9.150 -4.38 -0.41 14.81 1976.26 9.082 -4.68 -0.27 14.88 1976.21 8.970 -4.92 -0.36 14.94 1976.13 9.000 -4.87 -0.39 15.00 1976.06 9.053 -4.72 -0.26 15.06 1975.99 9.053 -4.66 -0.05 15.13 1975.91 9.084 -4.45 0.19 15.19 1975.84 9.129 -4.40 0.19 15.25 1975.76 9.147 -4.20 0.13 15.31 1975.69 9.218 -4.15 0.10 15.38 1975.62 9.317 -3.84 0.17 15.44 1975.54 9.319 -3.86 -0.37 15.50 1975.46 9.240 -3.98 -0.28 15.56 1975.38 9.183 -4.37 -0.63 15.63 1975.29 9.057 -4.45 -0.45 15.69 1975.21 9.072 -4.55 -0.62 15.75 1975.14 9.072 -4.69 -0.41 15.81 1975.08 9.075 -4.68 -0.45 15.88 1975.01 9.111 -4.55 -0.20 15.94 1974.95 9.077 -4.56 -0.03 16.00 1974.88 9.068 -4.55 0.13 16.06 1974.82 9.142 -4.45 0.07 16.13 1974.75 9.257 -4.22 0.19 16.19 1974.69 9.330 -4.02 0.01 16.25 1974.62 9.378 -3.81 -0.06 16.31 1974.55 9.330 -3.80 -0.14 16.38 1974.48 9.280 -4.01 -0.23 16.44 1974.41 9.232 -4.24 -0.44 16.50 1974.34 9.197 -4.46 -0.31 16.56 1974.27 9.065 -4.72 -0.32 16.63 1974.20 9.038 -4.69 -0.30 16.69 1974.12 9.027 -4.81 -0.29 16.75 1974.06 9.047 -4.67 -0.10 16.81 1974.00 9.063 -4.67 0.13 16.88 1973.94 9.112 -4.53 0.34 16.94 1973.88 9.170 -4.37 0.02 17.00 1973.81 9.240 -4.28 -0.11 17.06 1973.75 9.301 -4.08 -0.05 17.13 1973.69 9.324 -4.01 -0.17 17.19 1973.62 9.333 -4.02 -0.24 17.25 1973.55 9.289 -4.12 -0.18 17.31 1973.48 9.195 -4.22 -0.20 17.38 1973.41 9.158 -4.39 -0.33 17.44 1973.34 9.116 -4.30 -0.47 17.50 1973.27 9.144 -4.42 -0.52 Depth Estimated 92-PAC 92-PAC 92-PAC (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 57

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Depth Estimated 92-PAC 92-PAC 92-PAC (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 17.56 1973.20 9.055 -4.55 -0.12 17.63 1973.12 9.037 -4.61 -0.31 17.69 1973.07 9.052 -4.66 -0.29 17.75 1973.01 9.045 -4.74 -0.29 17.81 1972.95 9.087 -4.54 -0.06 17.88 1972.89 9.143 -4.48 -0.03 17.94 1972.83 9.180 -4.42 -0.10 18.00 1972.77 9.317 -4.35 -0.25 18.06 1972.71 9.372 -3.79 0.07 18.13 1972.65 9.360 -3.82 0.05 18.19 1972.58 9.294 -3.89 -0.06 18.25 1972.52 9.265 -4.05 -0.44 18.31 1972.46 9.210 -4.33 -0.61 18.38 1972.40 9.203 -4.38 -0.52 18.44 1972.33 9.072 -4.56 -0.58 18.50 1972.27 9.038 -4.63 -0.56 18.56 1972.21 9.025 -4.78 -0.51 18.63 1972.14 9.050 -4.76 -0.62 18.69 1972.06 9.061 -4.70 -0.48 18.75 1971.99 9.058 -4.52 -0.30 18.81 1971.92 9.088 -4.42 0.01 18.88 1971.84 9.102 -4.24 0.18 18.94 1971.77 9.226 -4.23 0.15 19.00 1971.70 9.317 -4.04 0.22 19.06 1971.62 9.379 -3.77 0.27 19.13 1971.56 9.294 -3.97 -0.03 19.19 1971.50 9.211 -4.32 -0.32 19.25 1971.44 9.172 -4.37 -0.37 19.31 1971.38 9.188 -4.43 -0.38 19.38 1971.31 9.187 -4.45 -0.28 19.44 1971.25 9.115 -4.58 -0.21 19.50 1971.19 9.047 -4.77 -0.27 19.56 1971.12 9.011 -4.77 -0.57 19.63 1971.05 9.028 -4.73 -0.11 19.69 1970.98 9.050 -4.67 -0.03 19.75 1970.91 9.117 -4.57 -0.01 19.81 1970.84 9.167 -4.34 0.00 19.88 1970.77 9.251 -4.22 -0.11 19.94 1970.70 9.320 -4.04 0.11 20.00 1970.62 9.330 -3.81 0.01 20.06 1970.56 9.309 -3.96 -0.15 20.13 1970.49 9.185 -3.98 -0.12 20.19 1970.42 9.163 -4.28 -0.21 20.25 1970.35 9.131 -4.49 -0.23 20.31 1970.28 9.066 -4.55 -0.25 20.38 1970.21 9.037 -4.76 -0.39 20.44 1970.12 9.073 -4.65 -0.18 20.50 1970.04 9.072 -4.63 0.18 20.56 1969.96 9.070 -4.54 0.29 20.63 1969.87 9.110 -4.45 0.04 20.69 1969.79 9.234 -4.25 0.23 20.75 1969.71 9.295 -4.02 -0.04 20.81 1969.62 9.362 -3.87 0.13 20.88 1969.58 9.254 -3.88 -0.02 20.94 1969.53 9.252 -4.13 -0.25 21.00 1969.48 9.226 -4.30 -0.35 21.06 1969.43 9.165 -4.32 -0.52 21.13 1969.39 9.112 -4.41 -0.54 21.19 1969.34 9.088 -4.54 -0.53 21.25 1969.29 9.083 -4.45 -0.33 21.31 1969.21 9.086 -4.42 -0.28 21.38 1969.13 9.141 -4.43 -0.26 21.44 1969.04 9.137 -4.55 0.02 21.50 1968.96 9.104 -4.30 -0.24 21.56 1968.88 9.125 -4.39 -0.12 21.63 1968.79 9.274 -3.97 -0.05 21.69 1968.71 9.345 -3.74 0.16 21.75 1968.62 9.345 -3.49 0.21 21.81 1968.50 9.262 -3.93 -0.24 21.88 1968.38 9.208 -4.12 -0.27 21.94 1968.34 9.098 -4.23 -0.36 22.00 1968.31 9.111 -4.41 -0.32 22.06 1968.27 9.094 -4.56 -0.41 22.13 1968.24 9.066 -4.60 -0.45 22.19 1968.21 9.023 -4.59 -0.17 22.25 1968.14 9.080 -4.55 -0.21 22.31 1968.06 9.053 -4.59 -0.04 22.38 1967.99 9.047 -4.61 -0.02 22.44 1967.92 9.093 -4.45 -0.06 22.50 1967.84 9.139 -4.26 -0.07 22.56 1967.77 9.250 -4.17 -0.20 22.63 1967.70 9.323 -3.97 -0.01 22.69 1967.62 9.323 -3.92 -0.07 22.75 1967.56 9.314 -4.11 -0.39 22.81 1967.49 9.265 -4.14 -0.55 22.88 1967.42 9.210 -4.17 -0.39 22.94 1967.35 9.195 -4.28 -0.56 23.00 1967.28 9.174 -4.53 -0.58 23.06 1967.21 8.974 -4.70 -0.59 23.13 1967.14 8.993 -4.70 -0.52 23.19 1967.07 9.029 -4.61 -0.39 23.25 1967.00 9.050 -4.47 -0.32 23.31 1966.93 9.085 -4.36 -0.32 23.38 1966.86 9.147 -4.25 -0.05 23.44 1966.79 9.190 -4.27 0.02 23.50 1966.72 9.267 -4.06 -0.03 Depth Estimated 92-PAC 92-PAC 92-PAC (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 58

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Depth Estimated 92-PAC 92-PAC (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18 C 13 23.56 1966.65 9.348 -3.78 0.11 23.63 1966.58 9.390 -3.54 -0.02 23.69 1966.51 9.327 -3.86 -0.35 23.75 1966.44 9.259 -3.86 0.03 23.81 1966.37 9.169 -4.23 -0.69 23.88 1966.31 9.155 -4.20 -0.55 23.94 1966.24 9.125 -4.25 -1.02 24.00 1966.17 9.123 -4.42 -0.22 24.06 1966.10 9.082 -4.58 -0.12 24.13 1966.03 9.138 -4.57 0.07 24.19 1965.96 9.252 -4.13 0.37 24.25 1965.89 9.385 -3.72 0.10 24.31 1965.82 9.395 -3.51 0.18 24.38 1965.75 9.346 -3.44 0.75 24.44 1965.68 9.291 -3.90 -0.20 24.50 1965.61 9.224 -4.04 -0.43 24.56 1965.54 9.218 -4.21 -0.08 24.63 1965.47 9.190 -4.35 -0.93 24.69 1965.40 9.165 -4.28 -0.48 24.75 1965.33 9.082 -4.34 -0.69 24.81 1965.26 9.114 -4.46 -0.44 24.88 1965.19 9.065 -4.58 -0.35 24.94 1965.12 9.109 -4.33 -0.21 25.00 1965.06 9.125 -4.41 -0.33 25.06 1964.99 9.162 -4.37 0.05 25.13 1964.92 9.172 -4.29 0.05 25.19 1964.85 9.218 -4.10 -0.22 25.25 1964.78 9.280 -3.98 -0.30 25.31 1964.71 9.299 -3.95 -0.28 25.38 1964.64 9.281 -4.08 -0.25 25.44 1964.57 9.258 -4.24 -0.41 25.50 1964.50 9.192 -4.29 -0.57 25.56 1964.43 9.195 -4.29 -0.62 25.63 1964.36 9.114 -4.46 -0.80 25.69 1964.29 9.105 -4.62 -0.70 25.75 1964.22 9.078 -4.63 -0.58 25.81 1964.15 9.082 -4.57 -0.56 25.88 1964.08 9.046 -4.74 -0.57 25.94 1964.01 9.002 Depth -4.82 Estimated -0.55 92-PAC 26.00 92-PAC 1963.94 9.019 -4.71 -0.13 26.06 1963.87 9.039 -4.63 -0.03 26.13 1963.81 9.072 -4.54 -0.11 26.19 1963.74 9.177 -4.30 0.06 26.25 1963.67 9.272 -4.01 -0.03 26.31 1963.60 9.267 -4.06 -0.12 26.38 1963.53 9.370 -3.85 0.06 26.44 1963.46 9.287 -4.00 -0.48 26.50 1963.39 9.239 -4.21 -0.44 (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18 C 13 26.56 1963.32 9.209 -4.38 -0.51 26.63 1963.25 9.153 -4.58 -0.80 26.69 1963.18 9.081 -4.53 -0.57 26.75 1963.11 9.087 -4.83 -0.63 26.81 1963.04 9.024 -4.80 -0.39 26.88 1962.97 9.043 -4.82 -0.32 26.94 1962.90 9.055 -4.84 -0.29 27.00 1962.83 9.073 -4.69 -0.29 27.06 1962.76 9.048 -4.58 -0.21 27.13 1962.69 9.126 -4.53 -0.22 27.19 1962.62 9.179 -4.43 -0.13 27.25 1962.56 9.185 -4.30 -0.29 27.31 1962.49 9.285 -4.15 -0.24 27.38 1962.42 9.340 -4.01 -0.02 27.44 1962.35 9.331 -3.97 0.00 27.50 1962.28 9.298 -4.01 -0.34 27.56 1962.21 9.231 -4.28 -0.53 27.63 1962.14 9.146 -4.52 -0.61 27.69 1962.07 9.115 -4.57 -0.56 27.75 1962.00 9.100 -4.58 -0.71 27.81 1961.93 9.070 -4.67 -0.67 27.88 1961.86 9.050 -4.82 -0.45 27.94 1961.79 9.017 -4.80 -0.39 28.00 1961.72 8.983 -4.92 -0.27 28.06 1961.65 9.004 -4.83 0.03 28.13 1961.58 9.004 -4.76 0.15 28.19 1961.51 9.041 -4.72 0.17 28.25 1961.44 9.102 -4.57 -0.03 28.31 1961.37 9.149 -4.40 0.00 28.38 1961.31 9.232 -4.36 -0.25 28.44 1961.24 9.294 -4.31 0.01 28.50 1961.17 9.329 -3.93 -0.17 28.56 1961.10 9.316 -4.10 -0.30 28.63 1961.03 9.269 -4.17 -0.35 28.69 1960.96 9.252 -4.27 -0.63 28.75 1960.89 9.239 -4.31 -0.69 28.81 1960.82 9.164 -4.44 -0.62 28.88 1960.75 9.128 -4.52 -0.56 28.94 1960.68 9.102 -4.61 -0.52 29.00 1960.61 9.071 -4.63 -0.77 29.06 1960.54 9.084 -4.65 -0.41 29.13 1960.47 9.076 -4.60 -0.28 29.19 1960.40 9.103 -4.62 -0.40 29.25 1960.33 9.113 -4.60 -0.40 29.31 1960.26 9.102 -4.47 0.02 29.38 1960.19 9.108 -4.45 -0.02 29.44 1960.12 9.111 -4.39 -0.21 29.50 1960.06 9.161 -4.14 -0.05 92-PAC 92-PAC O O 59

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Depth Estimated 92-PAC 92-PAC (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18 C 13 29.56 1959.99 9.231 -4.13 -0.17 29.63 1959.92 9.285 -3.88 0.18 29.69 1959.85 9.347 -3.87 -0.04 29.75 1959.78 9.334 -3.81 -0.10 29.81 1959.71 9.232 -4.04 -0.28 29.88 1959.64 9.216 -4.23 -0.68 29.94 1959.57 9.172 -4.26 -0.92 30.00 1959.50 9.140 -4.37 -0.94 30.06 1959.43 9.087 -4.40 -0.90 30.13 1959.36 9.125 -4.37 -0.83 30.19 1959.29 9.065 -4.44 -0.63 30.25 1959.22 9.014 -4.48 -0.47 30.31 1959.15 9.009 -4.69 -0.76 30.38 1959.08 9.029 -4.70 -0.45 30.44 1959.01 9.001 -4.68 -0.48 30.50 1958.94 9.071 -4.53 -0.57 30.56 1958.87 9.042 -4.30 -0.18 30.63 1958.81 9.046 -4.42 -0.03 30.69 1958.74 9.037 -4.52 -0.47 30.75 1958.67 9.052 -4.49 -0.09 30.81 1958.60 9.108 -4.32 -0.14 30.88 1958.53 9.212 -4.00 0.02 30.94 1958.46 9.316 -3.69 0.15 31.00 1958.39 9.305 -3.71 -0.17 31.06 1958.32 9.323 -3.77 -0.31 31.13 1958.25 9.326 -3.71 -0.23 31.19 1958.18 9.347 -3.77 -0.91 31.25 1958.11 9.241 -3.69 -0.27 31.31 1958.04 9.273 -3.88 -0.64 31.38 1957.97 9.284 -3.91 -0.78 Depth Estimated 92-PAC 92-PAC (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18 C 13 31.44 1957.90 9.231 -4.16 -0.86 31.50 1957.83 9.070 -4.21 -0.64 31.56 1957.76 9.122 -4.21 -0.91 31.63 1957.69 9.110 -4.35 -0.93 31.69 1957.62 9.089 -4.43 -0.67 31.75 1957.56 9.076 -4.43 -0.84 31.81 1957.49 9.048 -4.51 -0.78 31.88 1957.42 9.063 -4.66 -0.55 31.94 1957.35 9.036 -4.64 -0.66 32.00 1957.28 9.062 -4.47 -0.54 32.06 1957.21 9.064 -4.45 -0.63 32.13 1957.14 9.046 -4.45 -0.31 32.19 1957.07 9.080 -4.34 -0.39 32.25 1957.00 9.067 -4.36 -0.34 32.31 1956.93 9.110 -4.27 -0.55 32.38 1956.86 9.112 -4.24 -0.57 32.44 1956.79 9.106 -4.07 -0.49 32.50 1956.72 9.166 -4.02 -0.55 32.56 1956.65 9.197 -4.05 -0.57 32.63 1956.58 9.208 -4.12 -0.56 32.69 1956.51 9.202 -3.98 -0.51 32.75 1956.44 9.217 -3.94 -0.66 32.81 1956.37 9.210 -4.04 -0.79 32.88 1956.31 9.221 -3.92 -0.71 32.94 1956.24 9.203 -4.02 -0.75 33.00 1956.17 9.189 -3.96 -0.70 33.06 1956.10 9.175 -3.95 -0.76 33.13 1956.03 9.122 -4.24 -1.21 33.19 1955.96 9.168 -4.21 -1.03 33.25 1955.89 9.130 -4.25 -0.99 92-PAC 92-PAC O O 60

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Appendix C: Age modeled geochemical data for coral core 92-PAC for the time period 1967-1992: Sr/Ca (mmol/mol), 18 O ( VPDB), and 13 C ( VPDB). 92-PAC 92-PAC 92-PAC Time Sr/Ca 18 O 13 C 1992.62 9.291 -3.92 -0.75 1992.54 9.249 -4.05 -0.87 1992.46 9.195 -4.20 -1.05 1992.37 9.149 -4.31 -1.11 1992.29 9.124 -4.48 -0.96 1992.21 9.050 -4.58 -0.92 1992.12 8.978 -4.65 -0.96 1992.04 8.988 -4.59 -0.72 1991.96 9.027 -4.49 -0.49 1991.87 9.106 -4.28 -0.45 1991.79 9.195 -4.00 -0.28 1991.71 9.285 -3.76 -0.07 1991.62 9.336 -3.60 0.00 1991.54 9.311 -3.67 -0.24 1991.46 9.242 -4.03 -0.65 1991.37 9.164 -4.33 -0.83 1991.29 9.105 -4.42 -0.83 1991.21 9.032 -4.62 -0.75 1991.12 8.991 -4.71 -0.67 1991.04 9.005 -4.68 -0.61 1990.96 9.075 -4.44 -0.32 1990.87 9.195 -4.19 -0.24 1990.79 9.284 -3.94 -0.41 1990.71 9.312 -3.96 -0.42 1990.62 9.251 -4.11 -0.65 1990.54 9.199 -4.28 -0.91 1990.46 9.177 -4.37 -1.00 1990.37 9.103 -4.53 -1.02 1990.29 9.017 -4.83 -1.02 1990.21 8.947 -4.95 -0.91 1990.12 8.934 -4.88 -0.64 1990.04 9.007 -4.67 -0.44 1989.96 9.050 -4.54 -0.50 1989.87 9.107 -4.33 -0.43 1989.79 9.168 -4.24 -0.44 1989.71 9.244 -4.10 -0.39 1989.62 9.267 -4.12 -0.43 1989.54 9.240 -4.34 -0.72 1989.46 9.203 -4.36 -0.91 1989.37 9.171 -4.49 -0.98 1989.29 9.133 -4.59 -0.93 1989.21 9.078 -4.66 -0.81 1989.12 9.013 -4.88 -0.67 1989.04 8.997 -4.86 -0.69 1988.96 9.013 -4.62 -0.52 92-PAC 92-PAC 92-PAC Time Sr/Ca 18 O 13 C 1988.87 9.012 -4.36 -0.55 1988.79 9.111 -4.24 -0.65 1988.71 9.250 -3.93 -0.46 1988.62 9.296 -3.88 -0.69 1988.54 9.245 -3.97 -0.92 1988.46 9.176 -4.07 -0.99 1988.37 9.128 -4.25 -0.90 1988.29 9.114 -4.43 -0.79 1988.21 9.083 -4.44 -0.71 1988.12 9.030 -4.62 -0.75 1988.04 9.037 -4.58 -0.63 1987.96 9.076 -4.40 -0.43 1987.87 9.100 -4.27 -0.41 1987.79 9.211 -4.03 -0.34 1987.71 9.305 -3.86 -0.16 1987.62 9.332 -3.87 -0.27 1987.54 9.307 -3.91 -0.55 1987.46 9.245 -4.08 -0.59 1987.37 9.182 -4.26 -0.46 1987.29 9.144 -4.34 -0.39 1987.21 9.087 -4.54 -0.60 1987.12 9.121 -4.43 -0.32 1987.04 9.107 -4.31 -0.04 1986.96 9.128 -4.23 0.21 1986.87 9.183 -4.18 0.07 1986.79 9.323 -3.79 -0.05 1986.71 9.413 -3.67 -0.05 1986.62 9.367 -3.78 -0.24 1986.54 9.276 -4.05 -0.62 1986.46 9.221 -4.21 -0.71 1986.37 9.200 -4.30 -0.68 1986.29 9.161 -4.37 -0.54 1986.21 9.121 -4.55 -0.51 1986.12 9.067 -4.66 -0.84 1986.04 9.001 -4.67 -0.65 1985.96 9.029 -4.63 -0.31 1985.87 9.103 -4.50 -0.20 1985.79 9.147 -4.33 -0.19 1985.71 9.262 -4.09 -0.19 1985.62 9.357 -3.81 -0.26 1985.54 9.301 -3.95 -0.62 1985.46 9.202 -4.28 -0.79 1985.37 9.084 -4.66 -0.96 1985.29 9.030 -4.73 -0.90 1985.21 9.018 -4.73 -0.84 61

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92-PAC 92-PAC 92-PAC Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 1985.12 9.006 -4.75 -0.49 1985.04 9.026 -4.71 -0.37 1984.96 9.069 -4.56 -0.26 1984.87 9.158 -4.21 -0.21 1984.79 9.232 -4.06 -0.14 1984.71 9.303 -3.86 -0.11 1984.62 9.352 -3.70 0.00 1984.54 9.344 -3.69 -0.12 1984.46 9.305 -3.94 -0.31 1984.37 9.215 -4.15 -0.43 1984.29 9.154 -4.34 -0.51 1984.21 9.108 -4.46 -0.59 1984.12 9.129 -4.41 -0.48 1984.04 9.159 -4.29 -0.31 1983.96 9.174 -4.23 -0.16 1983.87 9.186 -4.23 -0.20 1983.79 9.208 -4.20 -0.27 1983.71 9.273 -4.07 -0.28 1983.62 9.356 -3.88 -0.34 1983.54 9.363 -3.78 -0.40 1983.46 9.299 -3.93 -0.51 1983.37 9.244 -4.13 -0.59 1983.29 9.165 -4.42 -0.56 1983.21 9.133 -4.49 -0.37 1983.12 9.141 -4.50 -0.20 1983.04 9.151 -4.44 -0.04 1982.96 9.175 -4.27 0.14 1982.87 9.250 -3.94 0.36 1982.79 9.353 -3.66 0.39 1982.71 9.430 -3.53 0.27 1982.62 9.439 -3.60 0.01 1982.54 9.346 -3.83 -0.37 1982.46 9.267 -4.08 -0.44 1982.37 9.207 -4.32 -0.48 1982.29 9.146 -4.51 -0.56 1982.21 9.102 -4.61 -0.60 1982.12 9.069 -4.68 -0.42 1982.04 9.071 -4.69 -0.16 1981.96 9.098 -4.66 -0.22 1981.87 9.119 -4.51 -0.34 1981.79 9.173 -4.30 -0.27 1981.71 9.251 -4.01 -0.21 1981.62 9.329 -3.75 -0.10 1981.54 9.373 -3.66 0.11 1981.46 9.347 -3.82 0.07 1981.37 9.284 -3.90 -0.16 1981.29 9.196 -4.42 -0.39 1981.21 9.116 -4.57 -0.44 1981.12 9.049 -4.65 -0.36 1981.04 9.063 -4.74 -0.23 1980.96 9.093 -4.66 -0.17 1980.87 9.130 -4.47 -0.26 1980.79 9.190 -4.33 -0.31 1980.71 9.248 -4.14 -0.25 1980.62 9.350 -3.89 -0.13 1980.54 9.344 -3.79 -0.15 1980.46 9.264 -4.08 -0.50 1980.37 9.195 -4.26 -0.65 1980.29 9.155 -4.31 -0.58 1980.21 9.098 -4.43 -0.57 1980.12 9.029 -4.54 -0.31 1980.04 9.034 -4.58 -0.24 1979.96 9.064 -4.49 -0.17 1979.87 9.086 -4.20 -0.09 1979.79 9.160 -4.03 -0.04 1979.71 9.285 -3.89 0.05 1979.62 9.316 -3.76 -0.02 1979.54 9.305 -3.85 -0.28 1979.46 9.258 -4.09 -0.46 1979.37 9.222 -4.27 -0.44 1979.29 9.148 -4.35 -0.29 1979.21 9.083 -4.42 -0.19 1979.12 9.094 -4.45 -0.21 1979.04 9.136 -4.38 -0.08 1978.96 9.137 -4.28 0.19 1978.87 9.180 -4.14 0.29 1978.79 9.268 -3.97 0.28 1978.71 9.337 -3.84 0.31 1978.62 9.401 -3.82 0.15 1978.54 9.353 -3.95 -0.16 1978.46 9.249 -4.23 -0.46 1978.37 9.153 -4.40 -0.47 1978.29 9.107 -4.44 -0.37 1978.21 9.091 -4.44 -0.39 1978.12 9.083 -4.36 -0.38 1978.04 9.095 -4.41 -0.25 1977.96 9.116 -4.36 -0.18 1977.87 9.163 -4.23 -0.01 1977.79 9.194 -4.12 0.10 1977.71 9.350 -3.92 0.11 1977.62 9.391 -3.76 0.14 1977.54 9.355 -3.78 -0.12 1977.46 9.304 -3.94 -0.39 1977.37 9.270 -4.19 -0.56 1977.29 9.200 -4.49 -0.66 1977.21 9.135 -4.46 -0.54 92-PAC 92-PAC 92-PAC Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 62

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92-PAC 92-PAC 92-PAC Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 1977.12 9.099 -4.48 -0.40 1977.04 9.074 -4.58 -0.16 1976.96 9.082 -4.58 0.02 1976.87 9.155 -4.45 -0.13 1976.79 9.209 -4.32 0.00 1976.71 9.258 -4.18 0.18 1976.62 9.323 -4.00 0.18 1976.54 9.371 -3.86 0.12 1976.46 9.298 -4.09 -0.15 1976.37 9.183 -4.30 -0.35 1976.29 9.116 -4.53 -0.34 1976.21 8.995 -4.87 -0.35 1976.12 9.007 -4.85 -0.36 1976.04 9.050 -4.71 -0.20 1975.96 9.066 -4.57 0.05 1975.87 9.107 -4.42 0.19 1975.79 9.140 -4.28 0.16 1975.71 9.202 -4.15 0.11 1975.62 9.299 -3.89 0.10 1975.54 9.309 -3.87 -0.29 1975.46 9.241 -4.03 -0.35 1975.37 9.169 -4.34 -0.57 1975.29 9.074 -4.45 -0.49 1975.21 9.070 -4.57 -0.57 1975.12 9.073 -4.68 -0.43 1975.04 9.095 -4.60 -0.31 1974.96 9.084 -4.56 -0.05 1974.87 9.085 -4.53 0.10 1974.79 9.191 -4.35 0.12 1974.71 9.307 -4.08 0.06 1974.62 9.363 -3.85 -0.06 1974.54 9.323 -3.85 -0.15 1974.46 9.265 -4.09 -0.30 1974.37 9.214 -4.36 -0.37 1974.29 9.108 -4.63 -0.32 1974.21 9.043 -4.71 -0.30 1974.12 9.031 -4.77 -0.27 1974.04 9.052 -4.68 -0.02 1973.96 9.098 -4.57 0.25 1973.87 9.176 -4.37 0.03 1973.79 9.260 -4.21 -0.08 1973.71 9.316 -4.04 -0.13 1973.62 9.326 -4.03 -0.22 1973.54 9.272 -4.13 -0.19 1973.46 9.185 -4.28 -0.24 1973.37 9.137 -4.34 -0.40 1973.29 9.131 -4.38 -0.49 1973.21 9.072 -4.53 -0.22 1973.12 9.042 -4.61 -0.28 1973.04 9.049 -4.70 -0.28 1972.96 9.083 -4.58 -0.11 1972.87 9.152 -4.46 -0.05 1972.79 9.266 -4.35 -0.18 1972.71 9.361 -3.88 0.02 1972.62 9.334 -3.85 0.01 1972.54 9.274 -4.00 -0.30 1972.46 9.217 -4.30 -0.57 1972.37 9.152 -4.45 -0.55 1972.29 9.050 -4.61 -0.57 1972.21 9.031 -4.75 -0.54 1972.12 9.051 -4.75 -0.58 1972.04 9.060 -4.65 -0.43 1971.96 9.072 -4.47 -0.16 1971.87 9.097 -4.32 0.11 1971.79 9.189 -4.23 0.16 1971.71 9.304 -4.06 0.21 1971.62 9.357 -3.84 0.22 1971.54 9.267 -4.09 -0.12 1971.46 9.186 -4.35 -0.35 1971.37 9.186 -4.42 -0.36 1971.29 9.160 -4.49 -0.26 1971.21 9.068 -4.70 -0.26 1971.12 9.019 -4.77 -0.46 1971.04 9.031 -4.72 -0.14 1970.96 9.073 -4.64 -0.02 1970.87 9.143 -4.45 0.00 1970.79 9.225 -4.25 -0.07 1970.71 9.306 -4.05 0.05 1970.62 9.325 -3.86 0.00 1970.54 9.271 -3.96 -0.14 1970.46 9.175 -4.12 -0.17 1970.37 9.141 -4.41 -0.22 1970.29 9.079 -4.55 -0.26 1970.21 9.045 -4.72 -0.35 1970.12 9.068 -4.67 -0.17 1970.04 9.071 -4.62 0.15 1969.96 9.075 -4.54 0.24 1969.87 9.117 -4.44 0.10 1969.79 9.225 -4.25 0.17 1969.71 9.297 -4.03 0.01 1969.62 9.330 -3.90 0.07 1969.54 9.250 -4.07 -0.19 1969.46 9.197 -4.30 -0.43 1969.37 9.108 -4.45 -0.53 1969.29 9.085 -4.46 -0.36 1969.21 9.094 -4.43 -0.28 92-PAC 92-PAC 92-PAC Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 63

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64 92-PAC 92-PAC 92-PAC Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 1969.12 9.136 -4.45 -0.22 1969.04 9.134 -4.50 -0.05 1968.96 9.111 -4.34 -0.19 1968.87 9.146 -4.32 -0.12 1968.79 9.265 -3.99 -0.03 1968.71 9.337 -3.73 0.15 1968.62 9.339 -3.55 0.17 1968.54 9.290 -3.78 -0.09 1968.46 9.243 -4.00 -0.25 1968.37 9.175 -4.15 -0.30 1968.29 9.099 -4.47 -0.37 1968.21 9.045 -4.58 -0.26 1968.12 9.070 -4.56 -0.17 92-PAC 92-PAC 92-PAC Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 1968.04 9.052 -4.59 -0.04 1967.96 9.069 -4.54 -0.04 1967.87 9.120 -4.34 -0.07 1967.79 9.216 -4.19 -0.15 1967.71 9.308 -4.01 -0.06 1967.62 9.321 -3.96 -0.11 1967.54 9.298 -4.11 -0.42 1967.46 9.239 -4.15 -0.48 1967.37 9.200 -4.24 -0.50 1967.29 9.162 -4.48 -0.58 1967.21 9.003 -4.67 -0.58 1967.12 9.003 -4.67 -0.49 1967.04 9.038 -4.55 -0.36

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Appendix D: Geochemical data for coral core 92-PAD prior to age modeling: Sr/Ca (mmol/mol), 18 O ( VPDB), and 13 C ( VPDB). Depth 92-PAD 92-PAD 92-PAD (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18 O 13 C 0.06 1992.62 9.132 -4.60 -2.00 0.13 1992.46 9.062 -4.76 -1.87 0.19 1992.29 9.013 -4.72 -1.97 0.25 1992.12 9.013 -4.79 -1.96 0.31 1992.05 9.038 -4.75 -1.93 0.38 1991.98 9.026 -4.84 -1.95 0.44 1991.91 9.051 -4.61 -1.74 0.50 1991.84 9.156 -4.43 -1.73 0.56 1991.77 9.232 -4.32 -1.54 0.63 1991.70 9.275 -4.22 -1.63 0.69 1991.62 9.294 -4.14 -1.88 0.75 1991.56 9.245 -4.21 -1.96 0.81 1991.49 9.231 -4.26 -1.83 0.88 1991.43 9.217 -4.31 -2.02 0.94 1991.36 9.172 -4.35 -2.06 1.00 1991.29 9.128 -4.43 -1.91 1.06 1991.25 9.085 -4.58 -1.81 1.13 1991.21 9.035 -4.67 -1.73 1.19 1991.17 9.008 -4.76 -1.73 1.25 1991.12 8.992 -4.88 -1.73 1.31 1991.06 9.024 -4.71 -1.65 1.38 1990.99 9.065 -4.57 -1.29 1.44 1990.92 9.165 -4.50 -1.08 1.50 1990.85 9.244 -4.16 -1.08 1.56 1990.78 9.250 -4.16 -1.18 1.63 1990.71 9.259 -4.48 -1.77 1.69 1990.54 9.213 -4.44 -1.60 1.75 1990.38 9.188 -4.40 -1.59 1.81 1990.33 9.127 -4.63 -1.75 1.88 1990.29 9.084 -4.77 -1.65 1.94 1990.25 9.075 -4.91 -1.43 2.00 1990.21 8.996 -4.98 -1.35 2.06 1990.17 8.980 -5.07 -1.34 2.13 1990.12 8.974 -5.14 -1.47 2.19 1990.03 9.026 -4.95 -1.45 2.25 1989.92 9.083 -4.82 -1.25 2.31 1989.83 9.141 -4.54 -0.90 2.38 1989.72 9.228 -4.38 -1.02 2.44 1989.62 9.261 -4.38 -1.38 2.50 1989.57 9.246 -4.39 -1.47 2.56 1989.51 9.217 -4.39 -1.60 2.63 1989.45 9.173 -4.48 -1.78 2.69 1989.39 9.162 -4.56 -1.79 2.75 1989.33 9.155 -4.66 -1.79 2.81 1989.28 9.148 -4.77 -1.77 Depth 92-PAD 92-PAD 92-PAD (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18 O 13 C 2.88 1989.22 9.102 -4.84 -1.64 2.94 1989.16 9.050 -4.96 -1.58 3.00 1989.10 9.023 -5.01 -1.53 3.06 1989.04 9.013 -4.82 -1.42 3.13 1988.94 9.032 -4.76 -1.31 3.19 1988.83 9.141 -4.49 -1.16 3.25 1988.73 9.219 -4.32 -1.27 3.31 1988.62 9.282 -4.19 -1.48 3.38 1988.55 9.257 -4.32 -1.66 3.44 1988.48 9.213 -4.33 -1.60 3.50 1988.41 9.198 -4.53 -1.70 3.56 1988.34 9.137 -4.60 -1.72 3.63 1988.27 9.106 -4.58 -1.35 3.69 1988.20 9.087 -4.76 -1.28 3.75 1988.12 9.058 -4.72 -1.18 3.81 1988.03 9.107 -4.53 -1.28 3.88 1987.92 9.208 -4.47 -1.30 3.94 1987.83 9.273 -4.28 -1.37 4.00 1987.72 9.285 -4.19 -1.91 4.06 1987.62 9.287 -4.21 -1.97 4.13 1987.54 9.241 -4.18 -1.77 4.19 1987.46 9.218 -4.34 -1.68 4.25 1987.37 9.155 -4.38 -1.88 4.31 1987.29 9.116 -4.61 -1.70 4.38 1987.21 9.051 -4.69 -1.68 4.44 1987.12 9.088 -4.70 -1.61 4.50 1987.04 9.089 -4.65 -1.75 4.56 1986.96 9.151 -4.81 -1.76 4.63 1986.87 9.229 -4.37 -1.22 4.69 1986.79 9.264 -4.34 -1.48 4.75 1986.71 9.323 -4.16 -1.87 4.81 1986.63 9.308 -4.11 -2.02 4.88 1986.56 9.301 -4.21 -1.86 4.94 1986.49 9.236 -4.35 -1.88 5.00 1986.41 9.162 -4.62 -1.93 5.06 1986.34 9.130 -4.67 -1.87 5.13 1986.26 9.138 -4.90 -1.80 5.19 1986.19 9.073 -4.84 -1.58 5.25 1986.12 9.046 -4.98 -1.45 5.31 1986.04 8.986 -4.95 -1.48 5.38 1985.97 9.013 -5.02 -1.68 5.44 1985.90 9.044 -4.79 -1.83 5.50 1985.83 9.090 -4.69 -1.72 5.56 1985.76 9.192 -4.57 -1.55 5.63 1985.69 9.290 -4.44 -1.71 65

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Depth 92-PAD 92-PAD 92-PAD (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 5.69 1985.62 9.396 -4.08 -1.85 5.75 1985.57 9.333 -4.13 -1.95 5.81 1985.51 9.317 -4.19 -2.11 5.88 1985.46 9.273 -4.38 -2.15 5.94 1985.40 9.169 -4.46 -1.98 6.00 1985.35 9.095 -4.77 -1.72 6.06 1985.29 9.067 -4.88 -1.28 6.13 1985.24 9.103 -4.87 -1.38 6.19 1985.18 9.026 -5.04 -1.54 6.25 1985.12 9.005 -5.07 -1.65 6.31 1985.05 9.015 -4.95 -1.60 6.38 1984.98 9.067 -4.83 -1.86 6.44 1984.91 9.211 -4.49 -1.78 6.50 1984.84 9.340 -4.24 -1.90 6.56 1984.77 9.320 -4.22 -2.15 6.63 1984.70 9.320 -4.12 -2.30 6.69 1984.62 9.344 -4.19 -2.39 6.75 1984.54 9.307 -4.20 -2.19 6.81 1984.46 9.313 -4.19 -2.05 6.88 1984.37 9.211 -4.33 -1.85 6.94 1984.29 9.161 -4.49 -1.83 7.00 1984.21 9.112 -4.62 -2.00 7.06 1984.14 9.122 -4.68 -2.05 7.13 1984.08 9.121 -4.78 -1.95 7.19 1984.01 9.121 -4.71 -1.80 7.25 1983.95 9.130 -4.71 -1.88 7.31 1983.88 9.173 -4.64 -1.98 7.38 1983.82 9.150 -4.51 -1.72 7.44 1983.75 9.209 -4.46 -1.87 7.50 1983.69 9.297 -4.34 -1.93 7.56 1983.62 9.344 -4.18 -2.07 7.63 1983.56 9.309 -4.15 -2.19 7.69 1983.49 9.312 -4.23 -2.04 7.75 1983.42 9.260 -4.40 -1.68 7.81 1983.35 9.235 -4.57 -1.72 7.88 1983.28 9.106 -4.86 -1.59 7.94 1983.21 9.054 -4.93 -1.53 8.00 1983.12 9.055 -5.04 -1.52 8.06 1983.04 9.058 -4.97 -1.63 8.13 1982.96 9.110 -4.84 -1.97 8.19 1982.87 9.243 -4.62 -1.94 8.25 1982.79 9.315 -4.54 -1.58 8.31 1982.71 9.363 -4.18 -1.77 8.38 1982.62 9.382 -4.11 -1.89 8.44 1982.56 9.349 -4.16 -1.90 8.50 1982.50 9.315 -4.23 -1.87 8.56 1982.44 9.226 -4.34 -1.88 8.63 1982.38 9.159 -4.56 -1.61 8.69 1982.31 9.133 -4.69 -1.45 8.75 1982.25 9.093 -4.77 -1.30 8.81 1982.19 9.023 -4.95 -1.65 8.88 1982.12 8.904 -4.94 -1.62 8.94 1981.98 9.091 -4.87 -1.57 9.00 1981.83 9.221 -4.58 -1.38 9.06 1981.69 9.281 -4.35 -1.04 9.13 1981.54 9.362 -4.14 -1.44 9.19 1981.50 9.350 -4.12 -1.54 9.25 1981.46 9.314 -4.05 -1.69 9.31 1981.42 9.272 -4.16 -1.64 9.38 1981.38 9.198 -4.29 -1.78 9.44 1981.33 9.135 -4.56 -1.97 9.50 1981.29 9.106 -4.58 -1.88 9.56 1981.25 9.104 -4.76 -1.72 9.63 1981.21 9.076 -4.81 -1.48 9.69 1981.17 9.046 -4.93 -1.34 9.75 1981.12 9.029 -5.01 -1.35 9.81 1981.04 9.083 -4.79 -1.44 9.88 1980.96 9.215 -4.55 -1.56 9.94 1980.88 9.249 -4.51 -1.33 10.00 1980.79 9.376 -4.19 -1.16 10.06 1980.71 9.363 -4.11 -1.37 10.13 1980.62 9.390 -4.24 -1.39 10.19 1980.56 9.309 -4.29 -1.49 10.25 1980.50 9.281 -4.50 -1.58 10.31 1980.44 9.235 -4.52 -1.75 10.38 1980.38 9.185 -4.63 -1.81 10.44 1980.31 9.161 -4.70 -1.85 10.50 1980.25 9.133 -4.77 -1.76 10.56 1980.19 9.065 -4.90 -1.60 10.63 1980.12 8.981 -4.96 -1.54 10.69 1980.06 8.991 -4.90 -1.32 10.75 1980.00 9.017 -4.74 -1.31 10.81 1979.94 9.080 -4.51 -1.52 10.88 1979.88 9.150 -4.45 -1.48 10.94 1979.81 9.237 -4.23 -1.59 11.00 1979.75 9.303 -4.14 -1.68 11.06 1979.69 9.325 -4.09 -1.73 11.13 1979.62 9.331 -4.11 -1.80 11.19 1979.57 9.290 -4.10 -1.82 11.25 1979.51 9.265 -4.31 -1.84 11.31 1979.45 9.227 -4.38 -1.84 11.38 1979.39 9.173 -4.60 -1.98 11.44 1979.33 9.143 -4.73 -1.99 11.50 1979.27 9.091 -4.82 -1.85 11.56 1979.21 9.060 -4.77 -1.74 11.63 1979.11 9.084 -4.71 -1.84 11.69 1979.01 9.114 -4.58 -1.76 11.75 1978.92 9.097 -4.54 -1.73 11.81 1978.82 9.180 -4.35 -1.27 11.88 1978.72 9.253 -4.22 -1.32 Depth 92-PAD 92-PAD 92-PAD (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 66

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Depth 92-PAD 92-PAD 92-PAD (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 11.94 1978.62 9.315 -4.17 -1.53 12.00 1978.56 9.310 -4.32 -1.88 12.06 1978.50 9.283 -4.29 -1.72 12.13 1978.44 9.215 -4.49 -1.56 12.19 1978.38 9.157 -4.70 -1.67 12.25 1978.31 9.129 -4.71 -1.48 12.31 1978.25 9.079 -4.86 -1.41 12.38 1978.19 9.070 -4.84 -1.24 12.44 1978.12 9.063 -4.80 -1.25 12.50 1978.03 9.066 -4.73 -1.20 12.56 1977.92 9.080 -4.75 -1.06 12.63 1977.83 9.190 -4.28 -0.84 12.69 1977.72 9.287 -4.19 -1.22 12.75 1977.62 9.369 -4.44 -1.64 12.81 1977.54 9.329 -4.14 -1.15 12.88 1977.46 9.299 -4.14 -1.50 12.94 1977.38 9.223 -4.36 -1.59 13.00 1977.29 9.170 -4.55 -1.55 13.06 1977.21 9.137 -4.59 -1.44 13.13 1977.13 9.093 -4.70 -1.34 13.19 1977.04 9.074 -4.55 -0.88 13.25 1976.92 9.126 -4.47 -0.80 13.31 1976.79 9.242 -4.26 -0.89 13.38 1976.67 9.291 -4.14 -1.26 13.44 1976.54 9.311 -4.05 -1.55 13.50 1976.50 9.295 -4.14 -1.56 13.56 1976.47 9.257 -4.23 -1.57 13.63 1976.43 9.241 -4.36 -1.64 13.69 1976.39 9.190 -4.44 -1.73 13.75 1976.36 9.143 -4.59 -1.66 13.81 1976.32 9.079 -4.73 -1.44 13.88 1976.28 9.044 -4.84 -1.51 13.94 1976.25 9.049 -4.88 -1.25 14.00 1976.21 9.039 -5.10 -1.19 14.06 1976.07 9.023 -4.85 -1.10 14.13 1975.94 9.080 -4.66 -0.92 14.19 1975.81 9.148 -4.52 -1.15 14.25 1975.68 9.218 -4.33 -1.05 14.31 1975.54 9.269 -4.17 -1.25 14.38 1975.49 9.254 -4.16 -1.29 14.44 1975.43 9.211 -4.23 -1.55 14.50 1975.38 9.171 -4.32 -1.50 14.56 1975.32 9.147 -4.51 -1.70 14.63 1975.26 9.137 -4.47 -1.63 14.69 1975.21 9.110 -4.71 -1.59 14.75 1975.15 9.074 -4.79 -1.52 14.81 1975.10 9.050 -4.91 -1.55 14.88 1975.04 9.036 -4.96 -1.27 14.94 1974.96 9.038 -4.81 -1.25 15.00 1974.88 9.102 -4.52 -0.97 15.06 1974.79 9.216 -3.83 -0.34 15.13 1974.71 9.379 -4.16 -1.13 15.19 1974.62 9.426 -4.11 -1.44 15.25 1974.55 9.370 -4.03 -1.15 15.31 1974.48 9.307 -4.00 -1.30 15.38 1974.41 9.256 -4.19 -1.33 15.44 1974.34 9.208 -4.42 -1.31 15.50 1974.27 9.134 -4.53 -1.38 15.56 1974.20 9.089 -4.74 -1.12 15.63 1974.12 9.081 -4.88 -1.24 15.69 1974.07 9.095 -4.80 -1.32 15.75 1974.01 9.123 -4.69 -1.38 15.81 1973.96 9.106 -4.65 -1.10 15.88 1973.90 9.123 -4.67 -0.89 15.94 1973.85 9.166 -4.28 -0.78 16.00 1973.79 9.214 -4.17 -0.76 16.06 1973.74 9.267 -4.14 -1.22 16.13 1973.68 9.320 -3.97 -1.34 16.19 1973.62 9.366 -3.80 -1.28 16.25 1973.56 9.330 -3.85 -1.21 16.31 1973.50 9.249 -4.07 -1.47 16.38 1973.44 9.193 -4.34 -1.53 16.44 1973.38 9.146 -4.42 -1.52 16.50 1973.31 9.125 -4.40 -1.54 16.56 1973.25 9.100 -4.55 -1.55 16.63 1973.19 9.027 -4.74 -1.34 16.69 1973.12 9.027 -4.77 -1.15 16.75 1973.07 9.033 -4.80 -1.17 16.81 1973.01 9.063 -4.63 -1.02 16.88 1972.95 9.133 -4.38 -0.86 16.94 1972.89 9.194 -4.27 -1.02 17.00 1972.83 9.283 -4.03 -0.95 17.06 1972.77 9.318 -3.98 -1.09 17.13 1972.71 9.338 -3.82 -0.88 17.19 1972.65 9.300 -3.95 -1.23 17.25 1972.58 9.266 -4.07 -1.46 17.31 1972.52 9.202 -4.22 -1.61 17.38 1972.46 9.149 -4.32 -1.59 17.44 1972.40 9.123 -4.50 -1.50 17.50 1972.33 9.077 -4.60 -1.36 17.56 1972.27 9.068 -4.53 -1.30 17.63 1972.21 9.082 -4.54 -1.23 17.69 1972.00 9.070 -4.32 -0.86 17.75 1971.79 9.128 -4.18 -0.96 17.81 1971.75 9.277 -4.04 -1.03 17.88 1971.71 9.321 -4.05 -1.27 17.94 1971.67 9.329 -3.99 -1.16 18.00 1971.62 9.356 -3.93 -1.27 18.06 1971.56 9.337 -3.91 -1.39 18.13 1971.50 9.274 -4.00 -1.60 Depth 92-PAD 92-PAD 92-PAD (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 67

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Depth 92-PAD 92-PAD 92-PAD (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 18.19 1971.44 9.228 -4.15 -1.65 18.25 1971.38 9.187 -4.32 -1.66 18.31 1971.31 9.141 -4.40 -1.49 18.38 1971.25 9.132 -4.50 -1.13 18.44 1971.19 9.136 -4.58 -1.22 18.50 1971.12 9.137 -4.50 -1.05 18.56 1971.03 9.136 -4.41 -1.29 18.63 1970.92 9.151 -4.25 -0.97 18.69 1970.83 9.270 -4.14 -0.89 18.75 1970.72 9.380 -3.95 -0.90 18.81 1970.62 9.452 -3.84 -1.05 18.88 1970.58 9.438 -3.86 -1.14 18.94 1970.53 9.413 -3.84 -1.28 19.00 1970.49 9.352 -4.00 -1.27 19.06 1970.44 9.260 -4.22 -1.49 19.13 1970.39 9.196 -4.36 -1.48 19.19 1970.35 9.148 -4.47 -1.40 19.25 1970.30 9.139 -4.53 -1.13 19.31 1970.25 9.107 -4.64 -1.02 19.38 1970.21 9.067 -4.63 -1.04 19.44 1970.11 9.099 -4.73 -1.18 19.50 1970.01 9.089 -4.47 -0.80 19.56 1969.92 9.173 -4.40 -0.47 19.63 1969.82 9.245 -4.30 -0.72 19.69 1969.72 9.316 -4.20 -1.05 19.75 1969.62 9.313 -4.11 -1.39 19.81 1969.56 9.276 -4.04 -1.62 19.88 1969.50 9.245 -4.21 -1.75 19.94 1969.44 9.214 -4.14 -1.74 20.00 1969.38 9.213 -4.12 -1.68 20.06 1969.26 9.168 -4.23 -1.56 20.13 1969.15 9.070 -4.55 -1.42 20.19 1969.04 9.007 -4.49 -1.33 20.25 1968.99 9.032 -4.53 -1.22 20.31 1968.93 9.072 -4.36 -1.05 20.38 1968.88 9.125 -4.30 -0.95 20.44 1968.75 9.211 -4.04 -0.62 20.50 1968.62 9.347 -3.65 -1.31 20.56 1968.56 9.276 -3.87 -1.31 20.63 1968.49 9.257 -4.18 -1.32 20.69 1968.42 9.200 -4.10 -1.36 20.75 1968.35 9.172 -4.30 -1.20 20.81 1968.28 9.103 -4.46 -1.06 20.88 1968.21 9.067 -4.52 -0.96 20.94 1968.04 9.129 -4.14 -0.59 21.00 1967.88 9.222 -4.01 -0.48 21.06 1967.79 9.386 -3.79 -0.67 21.13 1967.71 9.408 -3.76 -1.06 21.19 1967.65 9.405 -3.68 -1.14 21.25 1967.60 9.364 -4.10 -1.56 21.31 1967.54 9.329 -3.72 -1.18 21.38 1967.49 9.266 -4.01 -0.95 21.44 1967.43 9.229 -4.17 -1.14 21.50 1967.37 9.157 -4.50 -1.50 21.56 1967.32 9.111 -4.61 -1.58 21.63 1967.26 9.100 -4.71 -1.37 21.69 1967.21 9.093 -4.68 -1.13 21.75 1967.15 9.126 -4.60 -1.24 21.81 1967.10 9.174 -4.18 -1.08 21.88 1967.04 9.224 -4.14 -0.99 21.94 1966.99 9.272 -4.11 -1.16 22.00 1966.93 9.320 -4.06 -1.42 22.06 1966.87 9.341 -3.83 -1.46 22.13 1966.82 9.329 -3.98 -1.59 22.19 1966.76 9.273 -4.07 -1.58 22.25 1966.71 9.239 -4.01 -1.22 22.31 1966.65 9.211 -4.19 -1.83 22.38 1966.60 9.163 -4.28 -1.69 22.44 1966.54 9.124 -4.42 -1.49 22.50 1966.49 9.096 -4.58 -1.35 22.56 1966.43 9.067 -4.59 -1.24 22.63 1966.37 9.049 -4.65 -1.10 22.69 1966.32 9.053 -4.60 -0.93 22.75 1966.26 9.124 -4.55 -0.87 22.81 1966.21 9.230 -4.13 -0.86 22.88 1966.15 9.324 -4.03 -1.20 22.94 1966.10 9.384 -3.97 -1.18 23.00 1966.04 9.432 -3.99 -1.39 23.06 1965.99 9.416 -3.87 -1.21 23.13 1965.93 9.343 -4.09 -1.25 23.19 1965.87 9.250 -4.13 -1.35 23.25 1965.82 9.221 -4.30 -1.45 23.31 1965.76 9.164 -4.41 -1.26 23.38 1965.71 9.077 -4.67 -1.30 23.44 1965.65 9.033 -4.65 -1.24 23.50 1965.60 9.007 -4.83 -1.33 23.56 1965.54 9.042 -4.78 -1.40 23.63 1965.49 9.086 -4.76 -1.42 23.69 1965.43 9.121 -4.61 -1.35 23.75 1965.37 9.188 -4.45 -1.43 23.81 1965.32 9.230 -4.35 -1.28 23.88 1965.26 9.306 -4.11 -1.11 23.94 1965.21 9.328 -4.03 -1.41 24.00 1965.15 9.309 -4.09 -1.52 24.06 1965.10 9.284 -4.08 -1.51 24.13 1965.04 9.228 -4.25 -1.71 24.19 1964.99 9.145 -4.47 -1.71 24.25 1964.93 9.124 -4.60 -1.79 24.31 1964.87 9.096 -4.60 -1.74 24.38 1964.82 9.088 -4.65 -1.63 Depth 92-PAD 92-PAD 92-PAD (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 68

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Depth 92-PAD 92-PAD (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18 C 13 24.44 1964.76 9.020 -4.83 -1.37 24.50 1964.71 8.986 -4.89 -1.11 24.56 1964.65 9.007 -4.90 -1.31 24.63 1964.60 9.032 -4.79 -1.06 24.69 1964.54 9.073 -4.63 -0.85 24.75 1964.49 9.166 -4.40 -0.55 24.81 1964.43 9.306 -4.22 -0.85 24.88 1964.37 9.316 -4.19 -1.34 24.94 1964.32 9.318 -4.11 -1.50 25.00 1964.26 9.291 -4.11 -1.53 25.06 1964.21 9.269 -4.17 -1.44 25.13 1964.15 9.238 -4.34 -1.54 25.19 1964.10 9.193 -4.45 -1.55 25.25 1964.04 9.177 -4.59 -1.68 25.31 1963.99 9.121 -4.66 -1.68 25.38 1963.93 9.111 -4.90 -1.79 25.44 1963.87 9.073 -4.89 -1.63 25.50 1963.82 9.064 -5.16 -1.44 25.56 1963.76 9.086 -4.75 -1.35 25.63 1963.71 9.091 -4.97 -1.74 25.69 1963.65 9.119 -5.15 -1.65 25.75 1963.60 9.166 -4.24 -1.51 25.81 1963.54 9.200 -4.25 -1.41 25.88 1963.49 9.292 -4.09 -1.50 25.94 1963.43 9.357 Depth -3.97 -1.67 92-PAD 26.00 92-PAD 1963.37 9.399 -3.86 -1.44 26.06 1963.32 9.358 -3.94 -1.38 26.13 1963.26 9.275 -4.00 -1.40 26.19 1963.21 9.224 -4.21 -1.50 26.25 1963.15 9.173 -4.32 -1.78 26.31 1963.10 9.139 -4.32 -1.73 26.38 1963.04 9.139 -4.36 -1.57 26.44 1962.99 9.092 -4.49 -1.59 26.50 1962.93 9.021 -4.60 -1.22 26.56 1962.87 8.996 -4.73 -1.25 26.63 1962.82 9.022 -4.63 -1.28 26.69 1962.76 9.069 -4.54 -1.25 26.75 1962.71 9.107 -4.33 -1.14 26.81 1962.65 9.225 -4.12 -1.21 26.88 1962.60 9.391 -3.93 -1.25 26.94 1962.54 9.430 -3.75 -1.32 27.00 1962.49 9.392 -3.66 -1.47 27.06 1962.43 9.345 -3.69 -1.56 27.13 1962.37 9.328 -3.84 -1.46 27.19 1962.32 9.294 -3.84 -1.56 27.25 1962.26 9.250 -3.99 -1.67 27.31 1962.21 9.180 -4.19 -1.76 27.38 1962.15 9.136 -4.02 -1.58 27.44 1962.10 9.136 -4.41 -1.49 27.50 1962.04 9.169 -4.42 -1.24 (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18 C 13 27.56 1961.99 9.094 -4.63 -1.45 27.63 1961.93 9.052 -4.57 -1.46 27.69 1961.87 9.058 -4.53 -1.35 27.75 1961.82 9.140 -4.35 -1.36 27.81 1961.76 9.191 -4.31 -1.49 27.88 1961.71 9.197 -4.20 -1.41 27.94 1961.65 9.244 -4.10 -1.50 28.00 1961.60 9.270 -4.06 -1.66 28.06 1961.54 9.250 -4.01 -1.65 28.13 1961.49 9.246 -4.03 -1.46 28.19 1961.43 9.216 -4.15 -1.40 28.25 1961.37 9.165 -4.04 -1.15 28.31 1961.32 9.152 -4.21 -1.26 28.38 1961.26 9.138 -4.26 -1.42 28.44 1961.21 9.089 -4.45 -1.57 28.50 1961.15 9.019 -4.39 -1.48 28.56 1961.10 9.061 -4.62 -1.02 28.63 1961.04 9.235 -4.18 0.44 28.69 1960.99 9.325 -3.93 -0.06 28.75 1960.93 9.290 -3.89 -1.31 28.81 1960.87 9.257 -4.03 -1.57 28.88 1960.82 9.235 -4.14 -1.58 28.94 1960.76 9.142 -4.37 -1.63 29.00 1960.71 9.100 -4.46 -1.37 29.06 1960.65 9.060 -4.73 -1.26 29.13 1960.60 8.990 -4.79 -1.16 29.19 1960.54 8.976 -4.91 -0.99 29.25 1960.49 9.030 -4.73 -0.98 29.31 1960.43 9.065 -4.61 -1.25 29.38 1960.37 9.125 -4.39 -1.21 29.44 1960.32 9.217 -4.36 -1.12 29.50 1960.26 9.275 -4.31 -0.96 29.56 1960.21 9.285 -4.01 -1.34 29.63 1960.15 9.256 -4.12 -1.60 29.69 1960.10 9.217 -4.19 -1.50 29.75 1960.04 9.173 -4.14 -1.39 29.81 1959.99 9.145 -4.32 -1.53 29.88 1959.93 9.099 -4.44 -1.68 29.94 1959.87 9.084 -4.57 -1.57 30.00 1959.82 9.052 -4.68 -1.46 30.06 1959.76 9.002 -4.79 -1.39 30.13 1959.71 9.004 -4.74 -1.16 30.19 1959.65 8.986 -4.84 -1.08 30.25 1959.60 8.999 -4.79 -1.31 30.31 1959.54 9.054 -4.61 -1.18 30.38 1959.49 9.146 -4.30 -1.20 30.44 1959.43 9.224 -4.21 -1.22 30.50 1959.37 9.337 -3.96 -1.19 30.56 1959.32 9.330 -4.01 -1.46 30.63 1959.26 9.282 -4.01 -1.37 92-PAD 92-PAD O O 69

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70 Depth 92-PAD 92-PAD 92-PAD (mm) Time Sr/Ca O 18 C 13 30.69 1959.21 9.252 -4.05 -1.36 30.75 1959.15 9.184 -4.17 -1.40 30.81 1959.10 9.123 -4.43 -1.54 30.88 1959.04 9.094 -4.43 -1.52 30.94 1958.99 9.063 -4.67 -1.68 31.00 1958.93 9.070 -4.54 -1.45 31.06 1958.87 9.034 -4.74 -1.21 31.13 1958.82 9.065 -4.59 -1.20 31.19 1958.76 9.101 -4.49 -1.34 31.25 1958.71 9.148 -4.37 -1.49 31.31 1958.65 9.186 -4.31 -1.74 31.38 1958.60 9.230 -4.19 -1.79 31.44 1958.54 9.311 -4.07 -1.79 31.50 1958.49 9.369 -3.90 -1.90 31.56 1958.43 9.396 -3.89 -1.85 31.63 1958.37 9.427 -3.74 -1.61 31.69 1958.32 9.367 -3.91 -1.65 31.75 1958.26 9.379 -3.84 -1.53 31.81 1958.21 9.356 -4.01 -1.63 31.88 1958.15 9.275 -4.06 -1.52

PAGE 80

Appendix E: Age modeled geochemical data for coral core 92-PAD for the time period 1967-1992: Sr/Ca (mmol/mol), 18 O ( VPDB), and 13 C ( VPDB). 92-PAD 92-PAD 92-PAD Time Sr/Ca 18 O 13 C 1992.62 9.135 -4.62 -1.98 1992.54 9.098 -4.69 -1.93 1992.46 9.063 -4.75 -1.88 1992.37 9.037 -4.74 -1.92 1992.29 9.016 -4.73 -1.97 1992.21 9.013 -4.75 -1.97 1992.12 9.016 -4.78 -1.96 1992.04 9.033 -4.77 -1.94 1991.96 9.035 -4.75 -1.86 1991.87 9.104 -4.51 -1.73 1991.79 9.208 -4.35 -1.60 1991.71 9.268 -4.23 -1.64 1991.62 9.284 -4.16 -1.86 1991.54 9.243 -4.23 -1.91 1991.46 9.223 -4.29 -1.94 1991.37 9.182 -4.35 -2.04 1991.29 9.125 -4.47 -1.90 1991.21 9.040 -4.69 -1.74 1991.12 9.000 -4.83 -1.72 1991.04 9.035 -4.67 -1.52 1990.96 9.111 -4.53 -1.19 1990.87 9.214 -4.27 -1.09 1990.79 9.249 -4.19 -1.22 1990.71 9.254 -4.44 -1.69 1990.62 9.236 -4.46 -1.68 1990.54 9.215 -4.44 -1.61 1990.46 9.200 -4.42 -1.59 1990.37 9.173 -4.47 -1.64 1990.29 9.094 -4.78 -1.61 1990.21 9.011 -5.00 -1.36 1990.12 8.980 -5.10 -1.44 1990.04 9.019 -4.97 -1.44 1989.96 9.063 -4.86 -1.31 1989.87 9.112 -4.66 -1.06 1989.79 9.171 -4.47 -0.95 1989.71 9.230 -4.38 -1.09 1989.62 9.254 -4.38 -1.36 1989.54 9.232 -4.39 -1.54 1989.46 9.183 -4.47 -1.75 1989.37 9.160 -4.59 -1.79 1989.29 9.146 -4.75 -1.76 1989.21 9.091 -4.88 -1.63 1989.12 9.035 -4.98 -1.54 1989.04 9.017 -4.84 -1.42 92-PAD 92-PAD 92-PAD Time Sr/Ca 18 O 13 C 1988.96 9.031 -4.76 -1.32 1988.87 9.096 -4.59 -1.22 1988.79 9.171 -4.42 -1.21 1988.71 9.231 -4.29 -1.32 1988.62 9.272 -4.22 -1.48 1988.54 9.250 -4.31 -1.63 1988.46 9.209 -4.41 -1.64 1988.37 9.168 -4.57 -1.71 1988.29 9.116 -4.60 -1.46 1988.21 9.089 -4.73 -1.28 1988.12 9.067 -4.71 -1.20 1988.04 9.103 -4.56 -1.27 1987.96 9.173 -4.49 -1.29 1987.87 9.240 -4.37 -1.34 1987.79 9.277 -4.25 -1.58 1987.71 9.285 -4.20 -1.90 1987.62 9.282 -4.20 -1.94 1987.54 9.245 -4.21 -1.78 1987.46 9.213 -4.33 -1.72 1987.37 9.160 -4.40 -1.83 1987.29 9.113 -4.59 -1.72 1987.21 9.063 -4.68 -1.67 1987.12 9.083 -4.70 -1.64 1987.04 9.097 -4.68 -1.74 1986.96 9.153 -4.73 -1.68 1986.87 9.221 -4.42 -1.32 1986.79 9.267 -4.32 -1.50 1986.71 9.314 -4.17 -1.86 1986.62 9.308 -4.13 -1.97 1986.54 9.281 -4.25 -1.87 1986.46 9.207 -4.47 -1.90 1986.37 9.146 -4.65 -1.90 1986.29 9.134 -4.82 -1.82 1986.21 9.092 -4.86 -1.63 1986.12 9.045 -4.96 -1.47 1986.04 8.998 -4.97 -1.51 1985.96 9.018 -4.95 -1.71 1985.87 9.061 -4.75 -1.78 1985.79 9.146 -4.62 -1.62 1985.71 9.265 -4.45 -1.68 1985.62 9.366 -4.15 -1.85 1985.54 9.326 -4.16 -2.03 1985.46 9.262 -4.37 -2.11 1985.37 9.134 -4.63 -1.83 71

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92-PAD 92-PAD 92-PAD Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 1985.29 9.079 -4.86 -1.37 1985.21 9.062 -4.97 -1.47 1985.12 9.011 -5.05 -1.62 1985.04 9.025 -4.93 -1.67 1984.96 9.115 -4.70 -1.83 1984.87 9.275 -4.35 -1.85 1984.79 9.327 -4.22 -2.08 1984.71 9.322 -4.14 -2.28 1984.62 9.337 -4.18 -2.35 1984.54 9.313 -4.20 -2.19 1984.46 9.300 -4.21 -2.03 1984.37 9.221 -4.33 -1.87 1984.29 9.162 -4.49 -1.86 1984.21 9.119 -4.62 -1.99 1984.12 9.121 -4.71 -2.01 1984.04 9.121 -4.74 -1.86 1983.96 9.132 -4.70 -1.87 1983.87 9.163 -4.61 -1.90 1983.79 9.175 -4.49 -1.79 1983.71 9.267 -4.37 -1.92 1983.62 9.330 -4.20 -2.06 1983.54 9.312 -4.18 -2.13 1983.46 9.288 -4.31 -1.86 1983.37 9.242 -4.52 -1.70 1983.29 9.134 -4.80 -1.61 1983.21 9.061 -4.94 -1.53 1983.12 9.055 -5.02 -1.54 1983.04 9.064 -4.96 -1.66 1982.96 9.120 -4.82 -1.93 1982.87 9.231 -4.64 -1.90 1982.79 9.310 -4.50 -1.65 1982.71 9.360 -4.21 -1.77 1982.62 9.375 -4.13 -1.88 1982.54 9.338 -4.19 -1.89 1982.46 9.254 -4.32 -1.86 1982.37 9.163 -4.56 -1.60 1982.29 9.120 -4.71 -1.39 1982.21 9.042 -4.89 -1.53 1982.12 8.937 -4.94 -1.62 1982.04 9.009 -4.90 -1.59 1981.96 9.109 -4.82 -1.54 1981.87 9.182 -4.66 -1.44 1981.79 9.238 -4.51 -1.28 1981.71 9.274 -4.37 -1.10 1981.62 9.316 -4.25 -1.22 1981.54 9.353 -4.15 -1.44 1981.46 9.311 -4.10 -1.64 1981.37 9.197 -4.35 -1.81 1981.29 9.114 -4.63 -1.86 1981.21 9.074 -4.84 -1.48 1981.12 9.039 -4.97 -1.36 1981.04 9.092 -4.78 -1.45 1980.96 9.204 -4.57 -1.51 1980.87 9.264 -4.46 -1.32 1980.79 9.359 -4.21 -1.21 1980.71 9.368 -4.14 -1.35 1980.62 9.375 -4.23 -1.40 1980.54 9.303 -4.37 -1.52 1980.46 9.249 -4.52 -1.70 1980.37 9.187 -4.63 -1.81 1980.29 9.152 -4.72 -1.81 1980.21 9.085 -4.86 -1.65 1980.12 8.998 -4.94 -1.51 1980.04 9.000 -4.84 -1.33 1979.96 9.061 -4.58 -1.45 1979.87 9.157 -4.41 -1.51 1979.79 9.257 -4.20 -1.62 1979.71 9.317 -4.11 -1.71 1979.62 9.323 -4.10 -1.79 1979.54 9.279 -4.21 -1.83 1979.46 9.230 -4.39 -1.86 1979.37 9.167 -4.63 -1.97 1979.29 9.111 -4.78 -1.90 1979.21 9.068 -4.77 -1.77 1979.12 9.080 -4.72 -1.82 1979.04 9.104 -4.62 -1.78 1978.96 9.104 -4.56 -1.74 1978.87 9.134 -4.45 -1.51 1978.79 9.200 -4.31 -1.29 1978.71 9.260 -4.22 -1.36 1978.62 9.306 -4.20 -1.56 1978.54 9.300 -4.31 -1.80 1978.46 9.236 -4.44 -1.62 1978.37 9.159 -4.68 -1.62 1978.29 9.113 -4.77 -1.46 1978.21 9.073 -4.85 -1.30 1978.12 9.065 -4.80 -1.25 1978.04 9.066 -4.74 -1.20 1977.96 9.075 -4.74 -1.11 1977.87 9.135 -4.50 -0.94 1977.79 9.224 -4.24 -0.98 1977.71 9.296 -4.24 -1.28 1977.62 9.354 -4.38 -1.53 1977.54 9.331 -4.18 -1.26 1977.46 9.292 -4.17 -1.48 1977.37 9.223 -4.37 -1.57 92-PAD 92-PAD 92-PAD Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 72

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92-PAD 92-PAD 92-PAD Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 1977.29 9.173 -4.53 -1.54 1977.21 9.134 -4.60 -1.44 1977.12 9.095 -4.67 -1.28 1977.04 9.080 -4.56 -0.92 1976.96 9.109 -4.50 -0.83 1976.87 9.166 -4.40 -0.83 1976.79 9.235 -4.27 -0.91 1976.71 9.275 -4.18 -1.15 1976.62 9.298 -4.11 -1.36 1976.54 9.305 -4.08 -1.53 1976.46 9.256 -4.28 -1.60 1976.37 9.165 -4.53 -1.66 1976.29 9.061 -4.80 -1.43 1976.21 9.040 -5.03 -1.20 1976.12 9.029 -4.95 -1.13 1976.04 9.036 -4.81 -1.05 1975.96 9.073 -4.69 -0.95 1975.87 9.114 -4.59 -1.04 1975.79 9.158 -4.49 -1.13 1975.71 9.202 -4.37 -1.07 1975.62 9.238 -4.27 -1.13 1975.54 9.262 -4.18 -1.25 1975.46 9.231 -4.20 -1.43 1975.37 9.172 -4.35 -1.56 1975.29 9.142 -4.49 -1.67 1975.21 9.108 -4.69 -1.58 1975.12 9.063 -4.85 -1.53 1975.04 9.039 -4.93 -1.32 1974.96 9.047 -4.78 -1.21 1974.87 9.112 -4.44 -0.90 1974.79 9.221 -3.95 -0.52 1974.71 9.366 -4.12 -1.08 1974.62 9.413 -4.11 -1.36 1974.54 9.361 -4.03 -1.21 1974.46 9.291 -4.07 -1.30 1974.37 9.232 -4.31 -1.32 1974.29 9.158 -4.50 -1.35 1974.21 9.098 -4.71 -1.19 1974.12 9.085 -4.85 -1.24 1974.04 9.108 -4.74 -1.34 1973.96 9.112 -4.66 -1.11 1973.87 9.145 -4.46 -0.83 1973.79 9.215 -4.18 -0.86 1973.71 9.295 -4.04 -1.28 1973.62 9.351 -3.84 -1.28 1973.54 9.303 -3.93 -1.31 1973.46 9.211 -4.26 -1.51 1973.37 9.148 -4.41 -1.52 1973.29 9.117 -4.46 -1.54 1973.21 9.053 -4.68 -1.40 1973.12 9.028 -4.77 -1.19 1973.04 9.048 -4.71 -1.09 1972.96 9.123 -4.43 -0.92 1972.87 9.218 -4.20 -0.98 1972.79 9.305 -3.99 -1.02 1972.71 9.328 -3.87 -0.98 1972.62 9.288 -3.99 -1.31 1972.54 9.225 -4.17 -1.55 1972.46 9.153 -4.34 -1.57 1972.37 9.106 -4.53 -1.45 1972.29 9.072 -4.56 -1.32 1972.21 9.079 -4.53 -1.22 1972.12 9.077 -4.45 -1.08 1972.04 9.073 -4.36 -0.93 1971.96 9.082 -4.29 -0.88 1971.87 9.105 -4.24 -0.92 1971.79 9.161 -4.15 -0.97 1971.71 9.313 -4.03 -1.18 1971.62 9.346 -3.94 -1.26 1971.54 9.316 -3.94 -1.46 1971.46 9.242 -4.11 -1.63 1971.37 9.184 -4.31 -1.63 1971.29 9.140 -4.43 -1.36 1971.21 9.135 -4.55 -1.18 1971.12 9.137 -4.50 -1.10 1971.04 9.137 -4.42 -1.23 1970.96 9.146 -4.30 -1.08 1970.87 9.211 -4.19 -0.93 1970.79 9.309 -4.07 -0.89 1970.71 9.387 -3.94 -0.93 1970.62 9.440 -3.86 -1.05 1970.54 9.413 -3.87 -1.23 1970.46 9.295 -4.14 -1.40 1970.37 9.180 -4.40 -1.44 1970.29 9.131 -4.56 -1.13 1970.21 9.080 -4.65 -1.05 1970.12 9.093 -4.70 -1.14 1970.04 9.093 -4.55 -0.92 1969.96 9.138 -4.43 -0.61 1969.87 9.206 -4.35 -0.59 1969.79 9.265 -4.27 -0.82 1969.71 9.312 -4.19 -1.09 1969.62 9.309 -4.11 -1.38 1969.54 9.267 -4.11 -1.66 1969.46 9.225 -4.16 -1.74 1969.37 9.208 -4.14 -1.67 92-PAD 92-PAD 92-PAD Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 73

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92-PAD 92-PAD 92-PAD Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 1969.29 9.180 -4.21 -1.59 1969.21 9.122 -4.38 -1.49 1969.12 9.056 -4.53 -1.40 1969.04 9.018 -4.51 -1.32 1968.96 9.054 -4.44 -1.13 1968.87 9.125 -4.28 -0.93 1968.79 9.184 -4.12 -0.73 1968.71 9.255 -3.91 -0.85 1968.62 9.324 -3.72 -1.24 1968.54 9.274 -3.96 -1.32 1968.46 9.231 -4.14 -1.34 1968.37 9.181 -4.23 -1.26 1968.29 9.117 -4.43 -1.09 1968.21 9.076 -4.48 -0.95 1968.12 9.098 -4.33 -0.78 1968.04 9.130 -4.15 -0.61 1967.96 9.176 -4.07 -0.53 1967.87 9.241 -3.98 -0.51 1967.79 9.368 -3.81 -0.69 1967.71 9.405 -3.75 -1.03 1967.62 9.384 -3.88 -1.34 1967.54 9.323 -3.84 -1.21 1967.46 9.246 -4.09 -1.06 1967.37 9.165 -4.45 -1.44 1967.29 9.107 -4.66 -1.47 1967.21 9.101 -4.67 -1.20 1967.12 9.150 -4.39 -1.16 1967.04 9.224 -4.14 -1.04 92-PAD 92-PAD 92-PAD Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 74

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Appendix F: Geochemical data for coral core 99-PAA prior to age modeling: Sr/Ca (mmol/mol), 18 O ( VPDB), and 13 C ( VPDB). Depth 99-PAA 99-PAA 99-PAA (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18 O 13 C 0.06 1999.96 9.145 -4.08 -1.58 0.13 1999.90 9.202 -3.98 -1.30 0.19 1999.84 9.290 -3.86 -1.28 0.25 1999.77 9.268 -4.16 -1.57 0.31 1999.71 9.251 -4.13 -1.69 0.38 1999.65 9.327 -4.37 -1.82 0.44 1999.59 9.195 -4.54 -1.92 0.50 1999.52 9.109 -4.56 -1.75 0.56 1999.46 9.072 -4.90 -1.84 0.63 1999.40 9.042 -4.99 -1.47 0.69 1999.34 9.035 -4.78 -1.44 0.75 1999.27 8.990 -4.94 -1.26 0.81 1999.21 9.012 -4.79 -1.34 0.88 1999.15 9.022 -4.64 -1.51 0.94 1999.09 9.048 -4.54 -1.74 1.00 1999.02 9.035 -4.49 -1.85 1.06 1998.96 9.033 -4.55 -1.80 1.13 1998.90 9.162 -4.47 -1.52 1.19 1998.84 9.197 -4.24 -1.57 1.25 1998.77 9.217 -4.26 -1.50 1.31 1998.71 9.186 -4.22 -1.65 1.38 1998.65 9.154 -4.49 -1.70 1.44 1998.59 9.122 -4.67 -1.93 1.50 1998.52 9.091 -4.64 -1.77 1.56 1998.46 9.060 -4.82 -1.70 1.63 1998.40 9.049 -4.74 -1.58 1.69 1998.34 9.050 -4.53 -1.37 1.75 1998.27 9.041 -4.51 -1.52 1.81 1998.21 9.070 -4.43 -1.56 1.88 1998.15 9.172 -4.33 -1.74 1.94 1998.09 9.234 -4.08 -1.58 2.00 1998.02 9.297 -4.03 -1.57 2.06 1997.96 9.272 -4.07 -1.59 2.13 1997.90 9.290 -4.12 -1.64 2.19 1997.84 9.279 -4.18 -1.73 2.25 1997.77 9.236 -4.38 -1.58 2.31 1997.71 9.185 -4.15 -1.13 2.38 1997.65 9.194 -3.97 -1.05 2.44 1997.59 9.211 -3.97 -0.74 2.50 1997.52 9.252 -3.99 -1.26 2.56 1997.46 9.289 -3.89 -1.17 2.63 1997.40 9.281 -3.87 -1.51 2.69 1997.34 9.282 -3.90 -1.56 2.75 1997.27 9.270 -4.08 -1.74 Depth 99-PAA 99-PAA 99-PAA (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18 O 13 C 2.81 1997.21 9.243 -4.17 -1.55 2.88 1997.15 9.200 -4.40 -1.66 2.94 1997.09 9.148 -4.42 -1.49 3.00 1997.02 9.115 -4.75 -1.71 3.06 1996.96 9.019 -4.97 -1.93 3.13 1996.90 8.938 -5.17 -1.92 3.19 1996.84 8.907 -5.08 -1.73 3.25 1996.77 8.924 -4.97 -1.70 3.31 1996.71 8.918 -4.93 -1.85 3.38 1996.65 8.986 -4.91 -1.69 3.44 1996.59 9.100 -4.65 -1.47 3.50 1996.52 9.151 -4.44 -1.78 3.56 1996.46 9.214 -4.30 -1.79 3.63 1996.40 9.267 -4.11 -1.79 3.69 1996.34 9.287 -3.97 -1.64 3.75 1996.27 9.258 -4.04 -1.68 3.81 1996.21 9.203 -4.35 -1.66 3.88 1996.15 9.169 -4.17 -1.55 3.94 1996.09 9.140 -4.36 -1.42 4.00 1996.02 9.098 -4.42 -1.17 4.06 1995.96 9.084 -4.47 -1.37 4.13 1995.90 9.157 -4.38 -1.23 4.19 1995.84 9.197 -4.33 -1.44 4.25 1995.77 9.271 -4.05 -1.25 4.31 1995.71 9.312 -3.91 -1.44 4.38 1995.65 9.319 -3.99 -1.45 4.44 1995.59 9.273 -4.15 -1.66 4.50 1995.52 9.231 -4.18 -1.56 4.56 1995.46 9.181 -4.29 -1.72 4.63 1995.40 9.191 -4.38 -1.38 4.69 1995.34 9.134 -4.66 -1.44 4.75 1995.27 9.066 -4.93 -1.37 4.81 1995.21 9.071 -4.73 -1.51 4.88 1995.15 9.082 -4.72 -1.62 4.94 1995.09 9.121 -4.62 -1.76 5.00 1995.02 9.141 -4.44 -1.75 5.06 1994.96 9.170 -4.48 -1.83 5.13 1994.90 9.197 -4.36 -1.63 5.19 1994.84 9.228 -4.08 -1.67 5.25 1994.77 9.292 -4.12 -1.67 5.31 1994.71 9.305 -4.10 -1.58 5.38 1994.65 9.279 -4.21 -1.65 5.44 1994.59 9.242 -4.30 -1.71 5.50 1994.52 9.208 -4.28 -1.57 75

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Depth 99-PAA 99-PAA 99-PAA (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 5.56 1994.46 9.112 -4.45 -1.57 5.63 1994.40 9.119 -4.48 -1.54 5.69 1994.34 9.095 -4.47 -1.30 5.75 1994.27 9.137 -4.41 -1.51 5.81 1994.21 9.213 -4.13 -1.21 5.88 1994.15 9.274 -3.95 -1.31 5.94 1994.09 9.279 -4.02 -1.37 6.00 1994.02 9.281 -4.22 -1.59 6.06 1993.96 9.240 -4.51 -1.57 6.13 1993.90 9.187 -4.46 -1.44 6.19 1993.84 9.141 -4.33 -1.25 6.25 1993.77 9.108 -4.39 -1.25 6.31 1993.71 9.077 -4.47 -1.50 6.38 1993.65 9.125 -4.48 -1.59 6.44 1993.59 9.188 -4.31 -1.62 6.50 1993.52 9.242 -4.18 -1.58 6.56 1993.46 9.251 -4.23 -1.55 6.63 1993.40 9.276 -4.14 -1.50 6.69 1993.34 9.253 -4.09 -1.52 6.75 1993.27 9.243 -4.10 -1.63 6.81 1993.21 9.256 -4.17 -1.42 6.88 1993.15 9.239 -4.15 -1.22 6.94 1993.09 9.202 -4.24 -1.07 7.00 1993.02 9.118 -4.27 -0.94 7.06 1992.96 9.071 -4.54 -1.28 7.13 1992.90 9.115 -4.55 -1.50 7.19 1992.84 9.150 -4.51 -1.39 7.25 1992.77 9.221 -4.39 -1.58 7.31 1992.71 9.250 -4.26 -1.64 7.38 1992.65 9.267 -4.13 -1.53 7.44 1992.59 9.236 -4.19 -1.54 7.50 1992.52 9.220 -4.19 -1.45 7.56 1992.46 9.207 -4.27 -1.50 7.63 1992.40 9.184 -4.46 -1.51 7.69 1992.34 9.122 -4.68 -1.55 7.75 1992.27 9.067 -4.73 -1.44 7.81 1992.21 9.034 -4.77 -1.46 7.88 1992.15 9.026 -4.75 -1.59 7.94 1992.09 8.983 -4.67 -1.60 8.00 1992.02 9.001 -4.67 -1.76 8.06 1991.96 9.075 -4.53 -1.61 8.13 1991.90 9.139 -4.47 -1.52 8.19 1991.84 9.221 -4.33 -1.40 8.25 1991.77 9.289 -4.18 -1.31 8.31 1991.71 9.273 -4.24 -1.33 8.38 1991.65 9.218 -4.28 -1.35 8.44 1991.59 9.217 -4.49 -1.52 8.50 1991.52 9.194 -4.46 -1.70 8.56 1991.46 9.156 -4.60 -1.64 8.63 1991.40 9.125 -4.51 -1.42 8.69 1991.34 9.092 -4.55 -1.38 8.75 1991.27 9.073 -4.45 -1.48 8.81 1991.21 8.997 -4.63 -1.46 8.88 1991.15 9.074 -4.65 -1.57 8.94 1991.09 9.101 -4.59 -1.59 9.00 1991.02 9.119 -4.30 -1.55 9.06 1990.96 9.169 -4.17 -1.42 9.13 1990.90 9.196 -3.97 -1.37 9.19 1990.84 9.227 -3.95 -1.43 9.25 1990.77 9.257 -4.05 -1.45 9.31 1990.71 9.231 -4.01 -1.53 9.38 1990.65 9.205 -4.11 -1.67 9.44 1990.59 9.144 -4.36 -1.74 9.50 1990.52 9.094 -4.35 -1.55 9.56 1990.46 9.093 -4.58 -1.66 9.63 1990.40 9.092 -4.24 -1.62 9.69 1990.34 9.060 -4.38 -1.52 9.75 1990.27 9.059 -4.24 -1.33 9.81 1990.21 9.125 -4.27 -1.03 9.88 1990.15 9.196 -4.04 -0.85 9.94 1990.09 9.266 -3.84 -0.88 10.00 1990.02 9.278 -3.96 -1.10 10.06 1989.96 9.222 -4.09 -1.25 10.13 1989.90 9.204 -4.45 -1.39 10.19 1989.84 9.188 -4.46 -1.28 10.25 1989.77 9.115 -4.53 -1.35 10.31 1989.71 9.039 -4.51 -1.41 10.38 1989.65 9.009 -4.73 -1.48 10.44 1989.59 9.010 -4.73 -1.50 10.50 1989.52 9.018 -4.75 -1.44 10.56 1989.46 9.081 -4.52 -1.21 10.63 1989.40 9.131 -4.32 -1.11 10.69 1989.34 9.195 -4.28 -1.02 10.75 1989.27 9.236 -4.12 -1.11 10.81 1989.21 9.307 -4.00 -1.04 10.88 1989.15 9.336 -3.93 -1.07 10.94 1989.09 9.287 -4.28 -1.30 11.00 1989.02 9.220 -4.33 -1.39 11.06 1988.96 9.192 -4.55 -1.48 11.13 1988.90 9.143 -4.56 -1.50 11.19 1988.84 9.131 -4.67 -1.51 11.25 1988.77 9.101 -4.73 -1.54 11.31 1988.71 8.976 -4.90 -1.62 11.38 1988.65 8.916 -5.22 -1.67 11.44 1988.59 8.915 -4.99 -1.58 11.50 1988.52 8.944 -4.80 -1.49 Depth 99-PAA 99-PAA 99-PAA (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 76

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Depth 99-PAA 99-PAA 99-PAA (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 11.56 1988.46 9.040 -4.69 -1.38 11.63 1988.40 9.169 -4.46 -1.40 11.69 1988.34 9.250 -4.03 -1.41 11.75 1988.27 9.340 -3.95 -1.36 11.81 1988.21 9.288 -3.72 -0.82 11.88 1988.15 9.345 -3.62 -0.91 11.94 1988.09 9.245 -4.06 -0.90 12.00 1988.02 9.142 -4.16 -1.26 12.06 1987.96 9.056 -4.64 -1.25 12.13 1987.90 9.029 -4.66 -1.42 12.19 1987.84 8.953 -4.70 -1.39 12.25 1987.77 8.969 -4.68 -1.50 12.31 1987.71 8.950 -4.81 -1.26 12.38 1987.65 8.967 -4.68 -1.04 12.44 1987.59 8.957 -4.83 -1.39 12.50 1987.52 9.052 -4.42 -1.45 12.56 1987.46 9.135 -4.27 -1.32 12.63 1987.40 9.228 -4.01 -1.45 12.69 1987.34 9.273 -3.89 -1.20 12.75 1987.27 9.303 -3.79 -1.20 12.81 1987.21 9.315 -3.73 -0.95 12.88 1987.15 9.296 -3.82 -1.32 12.94 1987.09 9.227 -3.85 -1.14 13.00 1987.02 9.166 -4.29 -1.25 13.06 1986.96 9.120 -4.50 -1.26 13.13 1986.90 9.150 -4.68 -0.97 13.19 1986.84 9.122 -4.60 -1.00 13.25 1986.77 9.144 -4.50 -1.13 13.31 1986.71 9.141 -4.27 -1.24 13.38 1986.65 9.147 -4.19 -1.01 13.44 1986.59 9.157 -3.91 -0.93 13.50 1986.52 9.229 -3.94 -1.05 13.56 1986.46 9.273 -3.80 -1.01 13.63 1986.40 9.290 -3.56 -1.01 13.69 1986.34 9.293 -3.68 -1.10 13.75 1986.27 9.275 -3.90 -0.92 13.81 1986.21 9.208 -4.04 -1.27 13.88 1986.15 9.181 -4.20 -1.42 13.94 1986.09 9.069 -4.47 -1.61 14.00 1986.02 9.044 -4.70 -1.35 14.06 1985.96 9.075 -4.61 -1.37 14.13 1985.90 9.081 -4.54 -1.28 14.19 1985.84 9.058 -4.66 -1.19 14.25 1985.77 9.027 -4.63 -1.24 14.31 1985.71 9.025 -4.63 -1.40 14.38 1985.65 9.095 -4.45 -1.16 14.44 1985.59 9.205 -4.21 -1.24 14.50 1985.52 9.259 -4.10 -1.29 14.56 1985.46 9.299 -3.91 -1.35 14.63 1985.40 9.356 -3.66 -1.18 14.69 1985.34 9.287 -3.64 -1.26 14.75 1985.27 9.283 -3.91 -1.16 14.81 1985.21 9.237 -4.01 -1.32 14.88 1985.15 9.188 -4.19 -1.03 14.94 1985.09 9.107 -4.33 -1.51 15.00 1985.02 9.080 -4.50 -1.38 15.06 1984.96 9.036 -4.64 -1.22 15.13 1984.90 9.050 -4.64 -1.18 15.19 1984.84 9.036 -4.63 -1.24 15.25 1984.77 9.033 -4.57 -1.23 15.31 1984.71 9.107 -4.41 -1.59 15.38 1984.65 9.217 -4.06 -1.27 15.44 1984.59 9.285 -3.91 -1.37 15.50 1984.52 9.315 -3.69 -1.00 15.56 1984.46 9.308 -3.66 -1.14 15.63 1984.40 9.303 -3.80 -0.97 15.69 1984.34 9.290 -3.84 -0.97 15.75 1984.27 9.233 -4.17 -0.98 15.81 1984.21 9.159 -4.43 -1.34 15.88 1984.15 9.097 -4.61 -1.25 15.94 1984.09 9.043 -4.72 -1.24 16.00 1984.02 9.007 -4.66 -1.09 16.06 1983.96 9.014 -4.66 -1.10 16.13 1983.90 9.037 -4.36 -1.28 16.19 1983.84 9.090 -4.19 -1.33 16.25 1983.77 9.154 -4.14 -1.30 16.31 1983.71 9.203 -4.03 -1.15 16.38 1983.65 9.269 -3.80 -0.94 16.44 1983.59 9.328 -3.60 -0.75 16.50 1983.52 9.294 -3.71 -0.81 16.56 1983.46 9.265 -3.84 -1.00 16.63 1983.40 9.245 -4.09 -1.02 16.69 1983.34 9.210 -4.07 -0.98 16.75 1983.27 9.191 -4.26 -1.13 16.81 1983.21 9.169 -4.26 -1.16 16.88 1983.15 8.973 -4.55 -1.00 16.94 1983.09 8.956 -4.78 -1.15 17.00 1983.02 9.006 -4.68 -1.20 17.06 1982.96 8.992 -4.59 -1.22 17.13 1982.90 9.264 -3.93 -1.01 17.19 1982.84 9.250 -3.77 -1.08 17.25 1982.77 9.348 -3.64 -0.93 17.31 1982.71 9.329 -3.76 -0.99 17.38 1982.65 9.307 -3.69 -1.11 17.44 1982.59 9.258 -3.95 -1.20 17.50 1982.52 9.216 -4.14 -1.25 Depth 99-PAA 99-PAA 99-PAA (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 77

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Depth 99-PAA 99-PAA 99-PAA (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 17.56 1982.46 9.193 -4.16 -1.19 17.63 1982.40 9.158 -4.34 -1.33 17.69 1982.34 9.020 -4.49 -1.37 17.75 1982.27 9.005 -4.59 -1.13 17.81 1982.21 9.114 -4.54 -1.18 17.88 1982.15 9.135 -4.44 -1.33 17.94 1982.09 9.109 -4.55 -1.24 18.00 1982.02 9.136 -4.35 -1.06 18.06 1981.96 9.239 -4.19 -0.93 18.13 1981.90 9.270 -4.01 -0.99 18.19 1981.84 9.282 -3.80 -1.08 18.25 1981.77 9.302 -3.82 -1.14 18.31 1981.71 9.320 -3.67 -0.98 18.38 1981.65 9.294 -3.75 -1.20 18.44 1981.59 9.268 -3.89 -1.19 18.50 1981.52 9.242 -4.11 -1.24 18.56 1981.46 9.179 -4.27 -1.29 18.63 1981.40 9.166 -4.43 -1.41 18.69 1981.34 9.116 -4.59 -1.20 18.75 1981.27 9.126 -4.69 -1.05 18.81 1981.21 9.082 -4.63 -1.18 18.88 1981.15 9.049 -4.53 -1.06 18.94 1981.09 9.082 -4.30 -0.98 19.00 1981.02 9.082 -4.51 -1.13 19.06 1980.96 9.171 -4.27 -1.22 19.13 1980.90 9.237 -4.21 -1.12 19.19 1980.84 9.312 -3.86 -0.97 19.25 1980.77 9.345 -3.90 -0.89 19.31 1980.71 9.344 -4.20 -1.29 19.38 1980.65 9.320 -4.04 -1.23 19.44 1980.59 9.280 -4.06 -1.29 19.50 1980.52 9.238 -4.23 -1.32 19.56 1980.46 9.187 -4.29 -1.42 19.63 1980.40 9.161 -4.54 -1.35 19.69 1980.34 9.158 -4.69 -1.23 19.75 1980.27 9.088 -4.73 -0.98 19.81 1980.21 9.109 -4.86 -0.93 19.88 1980.15 9.081 -4.56 -1.14 19.94 1980.09 9.016 -4.52 -0.88 20.00 1980.02 9.065 -4.62 -1.06 20.06 1979.96 9.111 -4.50 -1.31 20.13 1979.90 9.236 -4.36 -1.04 20.19 1979.84 9.307 -4.09 -0.95 20.25 1979.77 9.304 -3.91 -1.14 20.31 1979.71 9.304 -3.95 -1.21 20.38 1979.65 9.262 -4.21 -1.35 20.44 1979.59 9.234 -4.12 -1.25 20.50 1979.52 9.233 -4.30 -1.37 20.56 1979.46 9.088 -4.47 -1.43 20.63 1979.40 9.162 -4.66 -1.39 20.69 1979.34 9.112 -4.72 -1.27 20.75 1979.27 9.034 -4.84 -1.56 20.81 1979.21 8.996 -5.05 -1.40 20.88 1979.15 9.014 -4.97 -1.34 20.94 1979.09 9.011 -5.07 -1.15 21.00 1979.02 9.028 -4.81 -1.27 21.06 1978.96 9.002 -4.59 -1.34 21.13 1978.90 9.064 -4.76 -1.31 21.19 1978.84 9.078 -4.39 -1.50 21.25 1978.77 9.127 -4.57 -1.51 21.31 1978.71 9.170 -4.53 -1.46 21.38 1978.65 9.211 -4.26 -1.25 21.44 1978.59 9.249 -4.53 -1.23 21.50 1978.52 9.309 -3.98 -0.95 21.56 1978.46 9.344 -4.01 -0.75 21.63 1978.40 9.326 -4.06 -0.84 21.69 1978.34 9.272 -4.25 -1.07 21.75 1978.27 9.238 -4.28 -1.13 21.81 1978.21 9.190 -4.50 -1.29 21.88 1978.15 9.201 -4.54 -1.45 21.94 1978.09 9.148 -4.73 -1.49 22.00 1978.02 9.134 -4.85 -1.58 22.06 1977.96 9.119 -4.96 -1.50 22.13 1977.90 9.140 -4.80 -1.58 22.19 1977.84 9.121 -4.80 -1.42 22.25 1977.77 9.103 -4.86 -1.23 22.31 1977.71 9.086 -4.60 -0.95 22.38 1977.65 9.063 -4.39 -1.24 22.44 1977.59 9.108 -4.40 -1.16 22.50 1977.52 9.131 -4.43 -1.32 22.56 1977.46 9.163 -4.31 -1.22 22.63 1977.40 9.224 -4.09 -1.13 22.69 1977.34 9.285 -3.99 -1.24 22.75 1977.27 9.298 -3.83 -1.15 22.81 1977.21 9.304 -3.79 -1.02 22.88 1977.15 9.290 -3.89 -1.06 22.94 1977.09 9.235 -3.98 -1.34 23.00 1977.02 9.214 -4.00 -1.55 23.06 1976.96 9.217 -4.14 -1.41 23.13 1976.90 9.190 -4.17 -1.31 23.19 1976.84 9.152 -4.39 -1.16 23.25 1976.77 9.050 -4.61 -1.22 23.31 1976.71 9.039 -4.71 -1.24 23.38 1976.65 9.027 -4.76 -1.28 23.44 1976.59 9.028 -4.81 -1.35 23.50 1976.52 9.024 -4.80 -1.30 Depth 99-PAA 99-PAA 99-PAA (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 78

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Depth 99-PAA 99-PAA (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18 C 13 23.56 1976.46 9.047 -4.59 -1.05 23.63 1976.40 9.019 -4.62 -1.15 23.69 1976.34 9.021 -4.49 -1.11 23.75 1976.27 9.125 -4.42 -0.99 23.81 1976.21 9.138 -4.39 -1.02 23.88 1976.15 9.169 -4.31 -1.14 23.94 1976.09 9.209 -4.20 -0.98 24.00 1976.02 9.243 -4.01 -0.97 24.06 1975.96 9.305 -3.97 -0.96 24.13 1975.90 9.299 -3.90 -0.91 24.19 1975.84 9.284 -3.97 -1.10 24.25 1975.77 9.267 -3.94 -1.30 24.31 1975.71 9.245 -4.02 -1.40 24.38 1975.65 9.257 -4.26 -1.07 24.44 1975.59 9.226 -4.17 -1.07 24.50 1975.52 9.200 -4.35 -1.19 24.56 1975.46 9.175 -4.46 -1.26 24.63 1975.40 9.158 -4.48 -1.14 24.69 1975.34 9.121 -4.63 -1.21 24.75 1975.27 9.117 -4.61 -1.42 24.81 1975.21 9.106 -4.62 -1.17 24.88 1975.15 9.114 -4.71 -1.04 24.94 1975.09 9.078 -4.66 -1.17 25.00 1975.02 9.057 -4.65 -1.35 25.06 1974.96 9.047 -4.62 -1.38 25.13 1974.90 9.153 -4.51 -1.37 25.19 1974.84 9.168 -4.40 -1.29 25.25 1974.77 9.188 -4.38 -1.13 25.31 1974.71 9.243 -4.23 -1.20 25.38 1974.65 9.261 -4.10 -1.13 25.44 1974.59 9.334 -3.88 -1.01 25.50 1974.52 9.341 -3.74 -0.97 25.56 1974.46 9.342 -3.84 -0.93 25.63 1974.40 9.338 -3.88 -0.88 25.69 1974.34 9.324 -3.94 -0.98 25.75 1974.27 9.291 -4.21 -1.05 25.81 1974.21 9.272 -4.34 -0.98 25.88 1974.15 9.229 -4.45 -1.21 25.94 1974.09 9.140 Depth -4.68 -1.43 99-PAA 26.00 99-PAA 1974.02 9.075 -4.78 -1.46 26.06 1973.96 9.075 -4.79 -1.38 26.13 1973.90 9.092 -4.75 -1.31 26.19 1973.84 9.145 -4.71 -1.28 26.25 1973.77 9.171 -4.63 -1.40 26.31 1973.71 9.176 -4.51 -0.91 26.38 1973.65 9.125 -4.53 -0.98 26.44 1973.59 9.131 -4.56 -1.04 26.50 1973.52 9.130 -4.50 -1.12 (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18 C 13 26.56 1973.46 9.159 -4.42 -1.24 26.63 1973.40 9.189 -4.33 -1.12 26.69 1973.34 9.196 -4.29 -1.13 26.75 1973.27 9.211 -4.22 -1.18 26.81 1973.21 9.256 -4.10 -1.07 26.88 1973.15 9.286 -4.02 -1.07 26.94 1973.09 9.295 -3.78 -0.89 27.00 1973.02 9.323 -3.73 -0.92 27.06 1972.96 9.298 -3.86 -1.12 27.13 1972.90 9.296 -3.97 -1.24 27.19 1972.84 9.269 -4.22 -1.13 27.25 1972.77 9.231 -4.33 -1.12 27.31 1972.71 9.243 -4.32 -1.15 27.38 1972.65 9.243 -4.26 -1.05 27.44 1972.59 9.163 -4.47 -1.30 27.50 1972.52 9.147 -4.49 -1.33 27.56 1972.46 9.069 -4.76 -1.40 27.63 1972.40 9.018 -4.79 -1.21 27.69 1972.34 9.030 -4.77 -1.19 27.75 1972.27 9.051 -4.66 -1.09 27.81 1972.21 9.071 -4.58 -1.20 27.88 1972.15 9.124 -4.43 -1.24 27.94 1972.09 9.155 -4.40 -1.01 28.00 1972.02 9.187 -4.26 -1.24 28.06 1971.96 9.249 -4.05 -1.15 28.13 1971.90 9.287 -3.82 -0.70 28.19 1971.84 9.282 -3.92 -1.25 28.25 1971.77 9.305 -3.84 -1.11 28.31 1971.71 9.316 -3.82 -1.06 28.38 1971.65 9.341 -3.80 -1.13 28.44 1971.59 9.342 -3.84 -1.04 28.50 1971.52 9.339 -3.88 -0.93 28.56 1971.46 9.307 -4.10 -0.95 28.63 1971.40 9.217 -4.24 -1.20 28.69 1971.34 9.156 -4.34 -1.51 28.75 1971.27 9.163 -4.31 -1.37 28.81 1971.21 9.150 -4.43 -1.36 28.88 1971.15 9.154 -4.56 -1.27 28.94 1971.09 9.069 -4.66 -1.13 29.00 1971.02 9.061 -4.65 -1.25 29.06 1970.96 9.096 -4.56 -1.20 29.13 1970.90 9.080 -4.47 -0.89 29.19 1970.84 9.095 -4.54 -0.88 29.25 1970.77 9.070 -4.43 -0.92 29.31 1970.71 9.101 -4.44 -1.05 29.38 1970.65 9.158 -4.40 -1.02 29.44 1970.59 9.214 -4.18 -1.02 29.50 1970.52 9.257 -4.02 -1.03 99-PAA 99-PAA O O 79

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Depth 99-PAA 99-PAA (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18 C 13 29.56 1970.46 9.299 -3.86 -0.85 29.63 1970.40 9.319 -3.76 -0.84 29.69 1970.34 9.303 -3.84 -1.12 29.75 1970.27 9.284 -3.99 -1.26 29.81 1970.21 9.257 -4.12 -1.48 29.88 1970.15 9.253 -4.24 -1.52 29.94 1970.09 9.268 -4.24 -1.46 30.00 1970.02 9.220 -4.37 -1.34 30.06 1969.96 9.212 -4.45 -1.41 30.13 1969.90 9.178 -4.36 -1.33 30.19 1969.84 9.176 -4.40 -0.95 30.25 1969.77 9.179 -4.40 -0.91 30.31 1969.71 9.139 -4.37 -1.08 30.38 1969.65 9.116 -4.40 -1.46 30.44 1969.59 9.126 -4.28 -1.79 30.50 1969.52 9.136 -4.32 -1.46 30.56 1969.46 9.209 -4.25 -1.31 30.63 1969.40 9.262 -4.09 -1.22 30.69 1969.34 9.329 -3.88 -1.17 30.75 1969.27 9.329 -3.77 -0.95 30.81 1969.21 9.323 -3.63 -0.94 30.88 1969.15 9.341 -3.67 -1.03 30.94 1969.09 9.345 -3.67 -1.08 31.00 1969.02 9.283 -3.89 -1.09 31.06 1968.96 9.203 -4.20 -1.44 31.13 1968.90 9.185 -4.33 -1.64 31.19 1968.84 9.189 -4.30 -1.48 31.25 1968.77 9.163 -4.40 -1.26 31.31 1968.71 9.146 -4.52 -1.09 31.38 1968.65 9.128 -4.58 -1.31 31.44 1968.59 9.106 -4.66 -1.33 31.50 1968.52 9.089 -4.59 -1.21 31.56 1968.46 9.124 -4.64 -1.22 31.63 1968.40 9.105 -4.48 -1.19 31.69 1968.34 9.071 -4.56 -1.34 31.75 1968.27 9.085 -4.58 -1.29 31.81 1968.21 9.042 -4.58 -1.45 31.88 1968.15 9.031 -4.56 -1.49 31.94 1968.09 9.035 -4.57 -1.49 32.00 1968.02 9.062 -4.49 -1.37 32.06 1967.96 9.126 -4.41 -1.24 32.13 1967.90 9.146 -4.36 -1.38 32.19 1967.84 9.175 -4.21 -1.38 32.25 1967.77 9.227 -4.04 -1.26 32.31 1967.71 9.275 -3.85 -1.17 Depth 99-PAA 99-PAA (mm) Time Sr/Ca 18 C 13 32.38 1967.65 9.267 -3.81 -1.19 32.44 1967.59 9.268 -3.86 -1.17 32.50 1967.52 9.248 -3.90 -1.06 32.56 1967.46 9.232 -3.99 -1.16 32.63 1967.40 9.235 -4.11 -1.34 32.69 1967.34 9.241 -4.02 -1.33 32.75 1967.27 9.216 -4.17 -1.18 32.81 1967.21 9.208 -4.23 -1.20 32.88 1967.15 9.193 -4.46 -1.64 32.94 1967.09 9.168 -4.56 -1.74 33.00 1967.02 9.155 -4.73 -1.50 33.06 1966.96 9.146 -4.62 -1.34 33.13 1966.90 9.104 -4.61 -1.11 33.19 1966.84 9.088 -4.48 -0.86 33.25 1966.77 9.042 -4.48 -1.09 33.31 1966.71 9.069 -4.35 -0.90 33.38 1966.65 9.114 -4.09 -0.66 33.44 1966.59 9.198 -4.05 -0.40 33.50 1966.52 9.285 -3.89 -0.40 33.56 1966.46 9.290 -3.76 -0.66 33.63 1966.40 9.338 -3.64 -0.71 33.69 1966.34 9.367 -3.71 -0.71 33.75 1966.27 9.351 -3.72 -0.84 33.81 1966.21 9.319 -3.91 -1.10 33.88 1966.15 9.256 -3.92 -1.28 33.94 1966.09 9.220 -4.04 -1.26 34.00 1966.02 9.210 -4.16 -1.38 34.06 1965.96 9.224 -4.22 -1.42 34.13 1965.90 9.160 -4.16 -1.34 34.19 1965.84 9.105 -4.32 -0.86 34.25 1965.77 9.056 -4.33 -0.97 34.31 1965.71 9.035 -4.39 -1.04 34.38 1965.65 9.066 -4.24 -0.96 34.44 1965.59 9.089 -4.25 -0.95 34.50 1965.52 9.117 -4.13 -0.83 34.56 1965.46 9.162 -3.97 -0.73 34.63 1965.40 9.256 -3.83 -0.53 34.69 1965.34 9.315 -3.71 -0.33 34.75 1965.27 9.342 -3.54 -0.46 34.81 1965.21 9.339 -3.64 -0.74 34.88 1965.15 9.329 -3.65 -0.91 34.94 1965.09 9.262 -3.88 -0.93 35.00 1965.02 9.249 -3.97 -0.73 35.06 1964.96 9.251 -4.19 -0.74 35.13 1964.90 9.186 -4.32 -1.34 99-PAA 99-PAA O O 80

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Appendix G: Age modeled geochemical data for coral core 99-PAA for the time period 1967-1992: Sr/Ca (mmol/mol), 18 O ( VPDB), and 13 C ( VPDB). 99-PAA 99-PAA 99-PAA Time Sr/Ca 18 O 13 C 1992.68 9.273 -4.22 -1.56 1992.60 9.242 -4.43 -1.57 1992.52 9.204 -4.48 -1.50 1992.43 9.167 -4.43 -1.39 1992.35 9.135 -4.35 -1.27 1992.27 9.115 -4.37 -1.25 1992.18 9.093 -4.41 -1.32 1992.10 9.093 -4.46 -1.49 1992.02 9.138 -4.47 -1.58 1991.93 9.191 -4.35 -1.61 1991.85 9.228 -4.24 -1.60 1991.77 9.248 -4.19 -1.57 1991.69 9.262 -4.21 -1.54 1991.60 9.264 -4.14 -1.51 1991.52 9.247 -4.10 -1.55 1991.44 9.248 -4.12 -1.55 1991.35 9.239 -4.16 -1.31 1991.27 9.187 -4.22 -1.10 1991.19 9.109 -4.29 -1.00 1991.10 9.086 -4.51 -1.27 1991.02 9.130 -4.54 -1.46 1990.94 9.174 -4.50 -1.43 1990.85 9.227 -4.40 -1.56 1990.77 9.255 -4.26 -1.62 1990.69 9.249 -4.16 -1.55 1990.60 9.225 -4.19 -1.51 1990.52 9.210 -4.23 -1.48 1990.44 9.164 -4.43 -1.51 1990.35 9.091 -4.67 -1.52 1990.27 9.045 -4.74 -1.45 1990.19 9.019 -4.75 -1.54 1990.10 8.991 -4.68 -1.61 1990.02 9.011 -4.67 -1.72 1989.94 9.070 -4.58 -1.66 1989.85 9.125 -4.50 -1.56 1989.77 9.194 -4.41 -1.47 1989.69 9.256 -4.29 -1.37 1989.60 9.283 -4.21 -1.32 1989.52 9.239 -4.25 -1.34 1989.44 9.216 -4.41 -1.46 1989.35 9.184 -4.48 -1.66 1989.27 9.144 -4.57 -1.60 1989.19 9.097 -4.53 -1.41 1989.10 9.067 -4.49 -1.44 99-PAA 99-PAA 99-PAA Time Sr/Ca 18 O 13 C 1989.02 9.029 -4.60 -1.48 1988.94 9.094 -4.62 -1.57 1988.85 9.130 -4.37 -1.55 1988.77 9.190 -4.11 -1.41 1988.69 9.234 -3.96 -1.42 1988.60 9.244 -4.03 -1.46 1988.52 9.215 -4.04 -1.57 1988.44 9.163 -4.22 -1.70 1988.35 9.110 -4.36 -1.63 1988.27 9.096 -4.49 -1.62 1988.19 9.081 -4.33 -1.62 1988.10 9.057 -4.35 -1.51 1988.02 9.064 -4.28 -1.36 1987.94 9.121 -4.26 -1.13 1987.86 9.175 -4.15 -0.93 1987.77 9.237 -3.96 -0.86 1987.69 9.273 -3.88 -0.95 1987.61 9.256 -3.98 -1.12 1987.52 9.206 -4.26 -1.31 1987.44 9.171 -4.46 -1.31 1987.36 9.072 -4.52 -1.36 1987.27 9.011 -4.64 -1.45 1987.19 9.008 -4.74 -1.48 1987.11 9.038 -4.71 -1.40 1987.02 9.105 -4.48 -1.19 1986.94 9.178 -4.30 -1.07 1986.86 9.233 -4.17 -1.08 1986.77 9.303 -4.02 -1.06 1986.69 9.317 -3.99 -1.10 1986.61 9.260 -4.26 -1.30 1986.52 9.210 -4.37 -1.40 1986.44 9.161 -4.54 -1.49 1986.36 9.130 -4.61 -1.50 1986.27 9.097 -4.71 -1.53 1986.19 8.993 -4.84 -1.59 1986.11 8.920 -5.12 -1.65 1986.02 8.921 -5.01 -1.58 1985.94 9.001 -4.78 -1.46 1985.86 9.170 -4.50 -1.39 1985.77 9.300 -4.03 -1.40 1985.69 9.307 -3.81 -1.06 1985.61 9.306 -3.72 -0.90 1985.52 9.196 -4.06 -1.00 1985.44 9.093 -4.31 -1.25 81

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99-PAA 99-PAA 99-PAA Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 1985.36 9.026 -4.65 -1.35 1985.27 8.963 -4.69 -1.41 1985.19 8.961 -4.70 -1.46 1985.11 8.958 -4.77 -1.24 1985.02 8.963 -4.75 -1.21 1984.94 9.054 -4.55 -1.43 1984.86 9.174 -4.23 -1.37 1984.77 9.262 -3.96 -1.33 1984.69 9.301 -3.82 -1.19 1984.61 9.307 -3.75 -1.06 1984.52 9.262 -3.82 -1.25 1984.44 9.194 -4.02 -1.19 1984.36 9.134 -4.41 -1.25 1984.27 9.140 -4.63 -1.05 1984.19 9.125 -4.60 -1.01 1984.11 9.138 -4.49 -1.12 1984.03 9.142 -4.29 -1.19 1983.94 9.152 -4.16 -1.02 1983.86 9.179 -3.95 -0.95 1983.78 9.238 -3.92 -1.03 1983.69 9.277 -3.78 -1.01 1983.61 9.292 -3.62 -1.04 1983.53 9.247 -3.88 -1.04 1983.44 9.128 -4.23 -1.43 1983.36 9.063 -4.63 -1.41 1983.28 9.063 -4.60 -1.26 1983.19 9.028 -4.63 -1.25 1983.11 9.038 -4.61 -1.35 1983.03 9.097 -4.49 -1.22 1982.94 9.184 -4.29 -1.22 1982.86 9.241 -4.15 -1.27 1982.78 9.276 -4.04 -1.31 1982.69 9.313 -3.88 -1.32 1982.61 9.322 -3.68 -1.22 1982.53 9.280 -3.78 -1.21 1982.44 9.219 -4.03 -1.22 1982.36 9.127 -4.27 -1.29 1982.28 9.065 -4.50 -1.37 1982.19 9.042 -4.64 -1.20 1982.11 9.037 -4.63 -1.23 1982.03 9.037 -4.59 -1.24 1981.94 9.073 -4.51 -1.37 1981.86 9.139 -4.36 -1.52 1981.78 9.219 -4.11 -1.33 1981.69 9.270 -3.96 -1.34 1981.61 9.298 -3.83 -1.25 1981.53 9.310 -3.71 -1.06 1981.44 9.302 -3.75 -1.04 1981.36 9.256 -3.96 -0.98 1981.28 9.145 -4.40 -1.24 1981.19 9.053 -4.67 -1.24 1981.11 9.010 -4.67 -1.11 1981.03 9.025 -4.57 -1.15 1980.94 9.070 -4.28 -1.30 1980.86 9.133 -4.16 -1.32 1980.78 9.197 -4.06 -1.19 1980.69 9.275 -3.83 -0.96 1980.61 9.313 -3.64 -0.78 1980.53 9.278 -3.75 -0.87 1980.44 9.243 -4.00 -1.01 1980.36 9.207 -4.11 -1.01 1980.28 9.177 -4.25 -1.13 1980.20 9.014 -4.45 -1.06 1980.11 8.965 -4.73 -1.14 1980.03 8.997 -4.70 -1.19 1979.95 9.008 -4.61 -1.21 1979.86 9.175 -4.23 -1.11 1979.78 9.257 -3.86 -1.04 1979.70 9.290 -3.73 -1.03 1979.61 9.336 -3.67 -0.95 1979.53 9.316 -3.73 -1.02 1979.45 9.278 -3.81 -1.14 1979.36 9.227 -4.05 -1.22 1979.28 9.195 -4.15 -1.21 1979.20 9.150 -4.29 -1.29 1979.11 9.028 -4.47 -1.34 1979.03 9.050 -4.56 -1.18 1978.95 9.126 -4.49 -1.27 1978.86 9.150 -4.41 -1.12 1978.78 9.262 -4.11 -0.97 1978.70 9.295 -3.82 -1.10 1978.61 9.310 -3.72 -1.07 1978.53 9.276 -3.84 -1.20 1978.45 9.222 -4.11 -1.24 1978.36 9.168 -4.36 -1.35 1978.28 9.125 -4.59 -1.19 1978.20 9.093 -4.66 -1.12 1978.11 9.056 -4.51 -1.07 1978.03 9.076 -4.35 -1.01 1977.95 9.098 -4.46 -1.12 1977.86 9.181 -4.28 -1.19 1977.78 9.253 -4.15 -1.10 1977.70 9.321 -3.89 -0.97 1977.61 9.344 -3.97 -1.00 1977.53 9.322 -4.09 -1.26 1977.45 9.268 -4.11 -1.29 99-PAA 99-PAA 99-PAA Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 82

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99-PAA 99-PAA 99-PAA Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 1977.36 9.198 -4.29 -1.38 1977.28 9.157 -4.59 -1.30 1977.20 9.103 -4.73 -1.04 1977.11 9.090 -4.73 -1.01 1977.03 9.029 -4.54 -0.95 1976.95 9.049 -4.58 -0.99 1976.86 9.079 -4.59 -1.11 1976.78 9.114 -4.51 -1.26 1976.70 9.193 -4.41 -1.15 1976.61 9.259 -4.28 -1.02 1976.53 9.300 -4.07 -1.00 1976.45 9.273 -4.05 -1.25 1976.37 9.181 -4.29 -1.35 1976.28 9.106 -4.69 -1.37 1976.20 9.009 -4.97 -1.43 1976.12 9.016 -5.02 -1.24 1976.03 9.018 -4.82 -1.26 1975.95 9.045 -4.67 -1.33 1975.87 9.093 -4.49 -1.47 1975.78 9.155 -4.55 -1.48 1975.70 9.220 -4.37 -1.29 1975.62 9.285 -4.26 -1.09 1975.53 9.321 -4.03 -0.85 1975.45 9.224 -4.36 -1.19 1975.37 9.139 -4.77 -1.51 1975.28 9.114 -4.83 -1.42 1975.20 9.081 -4.49 -1.15 1975.12 9.110 -4.40 -1.19 1975.03 9.133 -4.41 -1.29 1974.95 9.170 -4.29 -1.22 1974.87 9.232 -4.09 -1.15 1974.78 9.283 -3.97 -1.21 1974.70 9.295 -3.84 -1.14 1974.62 9.300 -3.82 -1.04 1974.53 9.243 -3.95 -1.26 1974.45 9.216 -4.06 -1.48 1974.37 9.179 -4.22 -1.29 1974.28 9.070 -4.54 -1.20 1974.20 9.030 -4.73 -1.26 1974.12 9.026 -4.80 -1.33 1974.03 9.035 -4.68 -1.16 1973.95 9.027 -4.56 -1.12 1973.87 9.122 -4.42 -1.02 1973.78 9.169 -4.33 -1.08 1973.70 9.231 -4.12 -0.98 1973.62 9.292 -3.95 -0.95 1973.53 9.261 -3.98 -1.25 1973.45 9.229 -4.21 -1.11 1973.37 9.166 -4.44 -1.20 1973.28 9.115 -4.62 -1.27 1973.20 9.085 -4.67 -1.15 1973.12 9.063 -4.62 -1.37 1973.03 9.127 -4.54 -1.37 1972.95 9.159 -4.47 -1.34 1972.87 9.179 -4.40 -1.24 1972.78 9.271 -4.14 -1.13 1972.70 9.344 -3.80 -0.97 1972.62 9.338 -3.86 -0.90 1972.53 9.316 -4.00 -0.98 1972.45 9.280 -4.28 -1.02 1972.37 9.205 -4.49 -1.23 1972.29 9.101 -4.73 -1.45 1972.20 9.082 -4.77 -1.37 1972.12 9.154 -4.68 -1.32 1972.04 9.151 -4.54 -1.00 1971.95 9.133 -4.52 -1.08 1971.87 9.181 -4.37 -1.17 1971.79 9.219 -4.22 -1.15 1971.70 9.282 -3.97 -1.02 1971.62 9.310 -3.77 -0.96 1971.54 9.291 -3.96 -1.19 1971.45 9.252 -4.26 -1.13 1971.37 9.241 -4.31 -1.12 1971.29 9.181 -4.40 -1.22 1971.20 9.104 -4.61 -1.36 1971.12 9.026 -4.78 -1.24 1971.04 9.049 -4.67 -1.14 1970.95 9.129 -4.46 -1.16 1970.87 9.210 -4.22 -1.16 1970.79 9.280 -3.89 -0.97 1970.70 9.305 -3.85 -1.12 1970.62 9.341 -3.82 -1.09 1970.54 9.327 -3.93 -0.96 1970.45 9.216 -4.23 -1.23 1970.37 9.156 -4.36 -1.40 1970.29 9.115 -4.58 -1.24 1970.20 9.068 -4.64 -1.22 1970.12 9.087 -4.52 -1.05 1970.04 9.089 -4.51 -0.89 1969.95 9.082 -4.44 -0.97 1969.87 9.149 -4.40 -1.03 1969.79 9.224 -4.14 -1.03 1969.70 9.286 -3.92 -0.92 1969.62 9.307 -3.81 -0.95 1969.54 9.262 -4.11 -1.41 1969.45 9.239 -4.31 -1.42 99-PAA 99-PAA 99-PAA Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 83

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99-PAA 99-PAA 99-PAA Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 1969.37 9.187 -4.39 -1.28 1969.29 9.180 -4.40 -0.96 1969.20 9.159 -4.38 -0.99 1969.12 9.125 -4.38 -1.36 1969.04 9.130 -4.31 -1.68 1968.95 9.190 -4.27 -1.37 1968.87 9.295 -3.98 -1.19 1968.79 9.325 -3.74 -0.97 1968.70 9.341 -3.66 -1.02 1968.62 9.296 -3.83 -1.11 1968.54 9.196 -4.23 -1.50 1968.46 9.181 -4.33 -1.46 1968.37 9.151 -4.48 -1.18 1968.29 9.118 -4.61 -1.30 1968.21 9.103 -4.61 -1.23 1968.12 9.097 -4.54 -1.24 1968.04 9.072 -4.58 -1.34 1967.96 9.033 -4.57 -1.48 1967.87 9.074 -4.49 -1.38 1967.79 9.155 -4.31 -1.35 1967.71 9.229 -4.02 -1.26 1967.62 9.267 -3.84 -1.17 1967.54 9.239 -3.99 -1.19 1967.46 9.223 -4.13 -1.25 1967.37 9.181 -4.50 -1.60 1967.29 9.131 -4.63 -1.26 1967.21 9.061 -4.46 -1.00 1967.12 9.070 -4.34 -0.91 1967.04 9.122 -4.12 -0.67 99-PAA 99-PAA 99-PAA Time Sr/Ca 18O 13C 84