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Characterization of obsidian sources in Pantelleria, Italy

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Characterization of obsidian sources in Pantelleria, Italy
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Vargo, Barbara A
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obsidian
western mediterranean
neolithic
trade
lithic technology
Dissertations, Academic -- Applied Anthropology -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Summary:
ABSTRACT: The study of prehistoric trade and exchange networks in the Western Mediterranean is directly linked to the identification and location of commodities available to Neolithic communities in that region. One of these commodities is a volcanic glass commonly known as obsidian. This investigation focused on the procurement, processing, and distribution of obsidian from the island of Pantelleria, situated between the southwestern coast of Sicily in the Straits of Sicily and the northeastern coast of Africa near Cape Bon, Tunisia. Previous studies indicate that there are several chemically different source areas on the island. Research involved the identification of primary obsidian deposits and the collection of samples from primary and/or secondary sources. The position of each collection point was recorded using GPS coordinates, photographs, and physical descriptions, including accessibility and geological matrix. Additional information regarding the size, frequency, and grade (i.e. quality for tool production) was also noted.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2003.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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by Barbara A. Vargo.
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Document formatted into pages; contains 260 pages.

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aleph - 001447477
oclc - 54067910
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ABSTRACT: The study of prehistoric trade and exchange networks in the Western Mediterranean is directly linked to the identification and location of commodities available to Neolithic communities in that region. One of these commodities is a volcanic glass commonly known as obsidian. This investigation focused on the procurement, processing, and distribution of obsidian from the island of Pantelleria, situated between the southwestern coast of Sicily in the Straits of Sicily and the northeastern coast of Africa near Cape Bon, Tunisia. Previous studies indicate that there are several chemically different source areas on the island. Research involved the identification of primary obsidian deposits and the collection of samples from primary and/or secondary sources. The position of each collection point was recorded using GPS coordinates, photographs, and physical descriptions, including accessibility and geological matrix. Additional information regarding the size, frequency, and grade (i.e. quality for tool production) was also noted.
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Characterization Of Obsidian S ources In Pantelleria, Italy by Barbara A. Vargo A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Anthropology College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: R obert H. Tykot, Ph.D. Brent R. Weisman, Ph.D. Jeffrey Ryan, Ph.D. Date of Approval: November 21, 2003 Keywords: Obsidian, Western Mediterranean, Neolithic, Trade, Lithic Technology Copyright 2003, Barbara A. Vargo

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Dedication To Josephine Tutlewski, my grandm other, who took me to the Field Museum in Chicago when I was nine years old and sat and read books while I roamed among the archaeological displays. Her love of travel and history provided the spark that ignited a passion in me for archaeology that has never dimmed. To my family whose love and suppor t has sustained me throughout this project, especially my husband Dale who never doubted that I would achieve my goal.

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Acknowledgments In grateful appreciation to: Robert H. Tykot, Brent Weisman, and Jeffrey Ryan who provided invaluable theoretical and methodological assistance; The National Science Foundation for providing financial support for this research; Maurizio Tosi, Valentina Colella, (Univers ity of Bologna, Italy) and Rosario di Fresco (The Archeoclub of Pantelleria) for their a ssistance during the collection of geological samples on Pantelleria; Sebastiano Tusa (Soprintendenza ai Beni Culturali e Ambientali della Provincia di Trapani, Italy) for granting pe rmission for this research; Michael D. Glascock, and Jeffr ey Speakman for thei r assistance with the INAA, ICP-MS, XRF analysis; to J. D. Vigne for permi tting access to the Tunisian artifacts; and to Terry Setzer, Lisa Beyer, Julie Bliss and all the archaeology students who worked on sample preparation and density measurements in the Laborator y for Archaeological Science at the University of South Florida.

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i Table of Contents List of Tables iv List of Charts v List of Figures vi Abstract x Chapter One: Introduction 1 Characterization of Obsi dian Sources 1 The Study of Prehistoric Tr ade/Exchange Systems 3 Chapter Two: Obsidian 7 Definition and Description of Obsidian 7 Identification of Primary Sources of Obsidian 8 Attributes of Western M editerranean Obsidian 8 Obsidian Sources 9 Chapter Three: Prehistoric Settl ement of the Western Mediterr anean 14 Early Settlement Theories 14 Colonization of the We stern Mediterranean 15 New Perspectives on Island Settlement 16 The Neolithic Period in Europe and the Western Mediterranean 20 Family Group 21 Local Group 22 Regional Group 22 Neolithic Society 25 Islands in the Western Mediterranean 26 Sicily 26 Malta 30 Other Islands 33 Lithic Technology in the Western Mediterranean 34 Transportation 36 The Italian Neolithic 37

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ii Chapter Four: The Island of Pantelleria 39 Geologic History 40 Peralkaline Obsidian 43 The Archaeological History of Pantelleria 44 Pantellerian Obsidian in Sici ly, Malta and North Africa 47 Chapter Five: Survey and Sampling at Primary and Secondary Sources 49 Location of Primary and Secondary Obsidian Deposits 54 Sampling Strategy 57 Survey Locations and Collection Points 60 Punta Spadillo 60 Gelkhamer 61 Bagno dell’Acqua 62 Balata dei Turchi 65 Salto la Vecchia 69 Chapter Six: Density Measur ements of Geolog ical Samples and Artifacts 74 Procedure 74 Results 76 Density Results by Location 77 Bagno dell’Acqua 77 Balata dei Turchi 79 Salto la Vecchia 82 Offshore Collection 83 Chapter Seven: Analysis of Geol ogical Samples and Artifacts 86 Sample Preparation 86 Obsidian Provenance Research 87 Analytical Methods 87 Neutron Activation Analysis 88 X-ray Fluorescence 90 Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry 91 Analysis of Pantelleria Sour ce Materials and Artifacts 93 Trace Element Analysis of Geologic Samples 94 INAA 94 XRF 96 LA-ICP-MS 97 Chapter Eight: Pantelleria Obsidi an and Neolithic Trade Networks 100 Navigation and Island Colonization 100 Coastal Settlements – The Missing Evidence 104 Trade, Exchange and the Value of Obsidian 105 Colonization of the Islands 109 The Value of Pantelleria Obsidian 110

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iii Chapter Nine: Conclusi on 114 Final Analysis 114 Conclusion 117 References 119 Appendices 133 Appendix A: Analysis Tables 134 Appendix B: Analysis Charts 238

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iv List of Tables Table 1: Scale, size, and distance factors 5 Table 2: Balata dei Turchi Collection Frequency by Waypoint 67 Table 3: Visual Analysis of G eologic Samples from Pantelleria 135 Table 4: Density Measurements of G eologic Samples from Pantelleria 206 Table 5: Density Analysis for ar tifacts from Pantelleria 226 Table 6: Density Analysis for ar tifacts from Zembra, Tunisia 227 Table 7: INAA Test Results 232 Table 7: XRF Test Results 235

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v List of Charts Density Analysis of Geologic Samples from Bagno dell’Acqua and Pantelleria Archaeological Sites 239 Density Analysis of Geologic Sa mples from Balata dei Turchi and Pantelleria Archaeological Sites 242

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vi List of Figures Figure 1: Location of Western Mediterranean Islands 5 Figure 2: Location of Obsidian Sources in the West ern Mediterranean 9 Figure 3: Obsidian Distribution in the Western Mediterranean 12 Figure 4: Glacial and Modern Shorelines in the We stern Mediterranean 15 Figure 5: Western Mediterranea n Coastlines at 18,000 BP 17 Figure 6: Western Mediterranea n Coastlines at 9,000 BP 17 Figure 7: Location of Pantelleria in the Western Mediterranean 39 Figure 8: Example of Volcani c Deposition on Pantelleria 41 Figure 9: Geologic M ap of Pantelleria 42 Figure 10: Geologic Sample fr om Balata dei Turchi 43 Figure 11: Geologic Samples from Salto la Vecchia 44 Figure 12: Geologic Sample from Salto la Vecchia 44 Figure 13: Location of Archaeolog ical Sites on Pantelleria 46 Figure 14: Lithologic Map of Pantelleria 50 Figure 15: Green Tuff Exposure at Salto la Vecchia 51 Figure 16: B. Vargo, R. Tykot and C. Ruppe collecti ng primary source material below the Green Tuff Deposit at Salto la Vecchia 52

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vii Figure 17: T. Setzer collecti ng primary source material at Salto la Vecchia below the Green Tuff deposit 52 Figure 18: Geological Stratigraphy Just West of Balata dei Turchi 53 Figure 19: Balata dei Turchi Pumice Flow 53 Figure 20: Balata dei Turchi We st of Pumice Exposure 54 Figure 21: Location of Obsidi an and Green Pantellerite 56 Figure 22: Location of Northern Sample Collection Points 60 Figure 23: Pantellerite Deposits and WWII Bombing Sites at Punta Spadillo 60 Figure 24: In-situ Pantellerite From the Northeastern Slope of Mt. Gelkhamer 61 Figure 25: In-situ Pantellerite From the Eastern Slope of Mt. Gelkhamer 61 Figure 26: Bagno dell’Acqua 62 Figure 27: Secondary Obsidian Depos its in Pumice/Ash Wall at Bagno dell’Acqua 63 Figure 28: Bagno dell’Acqua – Costa Zenti Formation 64 Figure 29: Location of Sout hern Collection Points 65 Figure 30: Location of Di screte Geologic Layers at Balata dei Turchi 66 Figure 31: In-situ Obsidian at BT3 68 Figure 32: Obsidian debitage collected from Balata dei Turchi 68 Figure 33: Salto la Vecchia Collection Points With Proximity to Balata dei Turchi 69 Figure 34: Salto la Vecchia E scarpment Looking East Toward Balata dei Turchi 69 Figure 35: R. Tykot and V. Cole lla Collecting Secondary Source Obsidian Samples on the Salto la Vecchia Slope 70

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viii Figure 36: R. Tykot Collecting Secondary Samples at the Salto la Vecchia Shoreline 71 Figure 37: Balata dei Turchi Shoreline and Slope 72 Figure 38: Balata dei Turchi Loo king Southeast from BT1 72 Figure 39: B. Vargo, T. Setzer an d C. Ruppe Collecting Obsidian at Salto la Vecchia 73 Figure 40: T. Setzer Climbing Ob sidian To Pre-Green Tuff Obsidian Vein at Salto la Vecchia 73 Figure 41: Density Comparis on of Western Mediterranean Obsidian Sources 76 Figure 42: Plot Showing Differences Between Balata dei Turchi, Salto la Vecchia, Mt. Gelk hamer and Bagno dell’Acqua 77 Figure 43: Density Range of Geologic Samples from Bagno dell’Acqua 78 Figure 44: Comparison of Bagno dell’Acqua Geologic Samples and Zembra (Tunisia) Artifacts 79 Figure 45: Four Potential Primary Source Points at Balata dei Turchi 80 Figure 46: Comparison of Zembra Artifacts With Geologic Samples from BT1, BT2, BT3, and BT4 81 Figure 47: Comparison of Geologic Samples From Balata dei Turchi and Salto la Vecchia 82 Figure 48: Comparison of Geologic Samples From Salto la Vecchia and Zembra (Tunisia) Artifacts 83 Figure 49: Density Results of Salto la Vecchia Offshore Geologic Samples 84 Figure 50: Density Results of Balata dei Turchi Offshore Geologic Samples 84 Figure 51: INNA Analysis of Geologic Mate rial From All Collection Points 94 Figure 52: Comparison of Balata dei Turchi and Salto la Vecchia Geologic Samples 95 Figure 53: XRF Analysis of Balata dei Turchi and Bagno dell’Acqua 96

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ix Figure 54: XRF Analysis of Possible Ba lata dei Turchi Sub-sources 97 Figure 55: ICP-MS Analysis of Geolog ic Samples from Bagno dell’Acqua, Balata dei Turchi and Salto la Vecchia 98 Figure 56: Comparison of Geologic Samp les from Balata dei Turchi 99 Figure 57: Rough Seas Between Ponza and Palmarola 102 Figure 58: Direction of Mediterranean Sea Currents 103 Figure 59: Balata dei Turchi Shoreline 115 Figure 60: Bagno dell’Acqua 116 Figure 61: Salto la Vecchia 116

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x Characterization Of Obsidian S ources In Pantelleria, Italy Barbara A. Vargo Abstract The study of prehistoric trade and ex change networks in the Western Mediterranean is directly linked to the i dentification and location of commodities available to Neolithic communities in that region. One of these commodities is a volcanic glass commonly known as obsidian. This investigation focused on t he procurement, processing, and distribution of obsidian fr om the island of Pantelle ria, situated between the southwestern coast of Sicily in the Strait s of Sicily and the northeastern coast of Africa near Cape Bon, Tunisia. Previous studies indicate that there are several chemically different sour ce areas on the island. Research involved the identification of primary obsidia n deposits and the collection of samples from primary and/or secondary sources. The position of each collection point was recorded using GPS coordinates, photographs, and physical descriptions, including accessibilit y and geological matr ix. Additional information regarding the size, frequen cy, and grade (i.e. quality for tool production) was also noted.

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xi Each geological specimen and artifact was visually examined for color, luster, transparency and internal structur e. Geological samples and artifacts were subjected to trace element analysis and the density weight of each piece was determined. Multivariate analyses of these test results were used to establish the unique chemical signature of each primar y source on Pantelleria and to identify the specific flows where obsidian was collected by Neolithic and Bronze Age communities on Pantelleria and Zembra. Artifacts from Late Neo lithic and Bronze Age sites on Pantelleria, and from Zembra, a Late Neolithi c site located on an island si tuated off the northeast coast of Tunisia near Cape Bon were also included in this study. The results of this research has proven the importance of using large geological sample populations in determining the unique geochemical signatures of obsidian flows on Itali an source islands, and will enable researchers to identify with greater certai nty the source of raw material used to create obsidian tools in the Western Mediterranean.

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1 Chapter One Introduction Characterization of Obsidian Sources The study of prehistoric trade and ex change networks in the western Mediterranean is directly linked to the i dentification and location of commodities available to Neolithic communities in that region. One of these commodities is a volcanic glass commonly known as obsidian. Obsidian artifacts recovered from prehistoric sites in the western Mediterranean were initially thought to be pa rt of the domestic cultural package, but are now recognized as an indicato r of some type of trade or exchange between unrelated groups. In an effort to understand the impact that obsidian had on the interaction between Early Neol ithic communities in the western Mediterranean archaeologists have endeavor ed to discern the nature of this trade system and to determine where obsidian sources were located. Pantelleria provides an excellent opportunity to address these questions by identifying the primary sources of workable obsidian on the island and determine which locations Neolithic gr oups exploited for raw materials. The chemical composition and physical a ttributes of obsidian is defined in Chapter Two. This chapter also includes a review of previous characterization

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2 and provenance studies of wester n Mediterranean obsidian sources. Early settlement theories of the Meso lithic and Neolithic periods in the western Mediterranean are examined in Chapter Three. This examination focuses on the environmental changes t hat may have affected the migration patterns of prehistoric people moving from the East into southern Europe and the western Mediterranean. Socio-economic theories and possible subsistence strategies are also explor ed and the archaeological histor y of the islands of Malta and Sicily are discussed. The geologic history of Pantelle ria and the resear ch of Mahood and Hildreth (1986), Francavigli a (1986,1988) and Civetta et al. (1988, 1998) are reviewed in Chapter Four. The survey and sampling strategy of possible primary and secondary obsidian sources on Pantelleri a is provided in Chapter Five. Each location is discussed in detail, and the geologic sa mples collected from all areas are described using the attributes of color, lu ster, transparency and internal structure. The methodology used for measuri ng density and the results of the comparative study of the geologic obsid ian samples with the artifacts from Zembra, Tunisia and six archaeological si tes on Pantelleria is presented in Chapter Six. The geochemical testing procedures used in this study and the results of the analyses that establis hed unique chemical signat ures for each primary source on Pantelleria are described in Chapter Seven. Included in this chapter is a discussion of these data which support the hypothesis that a large geological

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3 sample base does provide the means to identify specific flows where obsidian was collected by Neolithic and Bronze Age communities on Pantelleria and Zembra. Current theories on Neolithic trade networks, prehistor ic navigation and transportation, and Pantelleria’s role in the Neolithic trade system are explored in Chapter Eight. Synopses of the results of this st udy are presented in Chapter Nine. Included in this chapter is an explorati on of the impact that these data will have on future research of prehistoric tr ade and socio-economic/political systems in the western Mediterranean and substantiate s the need for a reevaluation of the technical and social structur e of the Neolithic Period. The Study of Prehistoric Trade/Exchange Systems Bloedow (1987) states that because of the scarcity of evidence in the study of ancient trade, the most that researchers can hope to do is form an intelligent guess. These ‘guesses’ ar e often based on tenuous evidence, such as one or two artifacts, or by comparing m odern trading cultures to prehistoric ones without concrete evidence that there are suff icient similarities to warrant such a comparison. In contrast, Renfrew et al.’s (1966, 1968) definition of prehistoric trade in the western Mediterranean was based on a simple set of criteria, which he believes were in place during the Early Ne olithic. Trade, according to Renfrew,

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4 consisted of simple reciprocal exc hange mechanisms with the movement of materials through peaceful human inte raction (Renfrew et al. 1968). It is now understood that Early N eolithic groups impacted their environment in a profound way and intera cted with outside communities in what are now believed to be complex social and political networks. Simple reciprocity cannot explain how pottery styles spr ead across the Western Mediterranean or why obsidian was selected as the primar y material in the manufacture of expedient tools. Nor does it define the impact of prehistoric trade on political and cultural expansion in the western M editerranean during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age (~6500 to 2000 BC) and the role of islands within this regional economy. Malone’s (1997-1998) study of colonization in the Western Mediterranean suggests that although the distances betw een islands were long, they were not impossible to navigate (see Figure 1 and Tabl e 1). This presents the possibility that exploration of islands in the we stern Mediterranean could have begun during the Mesolithic when groups were probably exploiting their environment. This also suggests that early explorers had ex tensive knowledge of the islands in the region and were aware of the best navigat ional routes to use during different seasons long before any immigrating popul ations arrived in the area. It is also possible that this ‘institut ional’ memory of navigational routes and island locations was passed on to succe ssive generations thereby establishing the location of these islands within the framework of the cultural heritage of these early communities. This information may have created the map that allowed

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5 prehistoric explorers to move about the western Mediterranean and helped establish lines of communi cation between settlements. Island Size of island (km2) Distance in km to nearest island or mainland Sicily 25,708 3 from Italian mainland Pantelleria 82 95 from Sicily 72 from North Africa Lampedusa 21 210 from Sicily 140 from North Africa Lipari 37 27 from Sicily 170 from North Africa Sardinia 24,089 205 from Italian mainland 13 from Corsica Corsica 8722 87 from Italian mainland 13 from Sardinia Pontine Islands (Palmarola) 32 12 from Italian mainland Malta 246 85 from Sicily 250 from Italian mainland 6 from Gozo 161 from Pantelleria Gozo 67 80 from Sicily 245 from Italian mainland 120 from Linosa 6 from Malta Table 1: Scale, size, and distance factors affecting early Figure 1: Location of western Mediterranean Islands

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6 One of the key elements of this early interaction found in the archaeological record is obsidian. In an effort to understand how trade networks operated in the western Mediterranean and an attempt to define the importance of obsidian in the Neolithic ‘trade package ’ it is essential to determine not only the visual and chemical attributes of pr imary obsidian sources, but also specific data regarding the association between raw material sources and finished products. This study provided an opportunity to ask questions about the value of obsidian and its distributi on. Understanding how this process operated required a more in-depth examination of the geological history of a source area, a detailed study of potential collection sites and a more open view of the capabilities of Early Neolithic explorers. This was a ccomplished by collecting a large number of samples from potential primary source si tes and the examinati on of a significant number of artifacts. T he investigation of how and where Neolithic and Bronze Age communities collected obsidian went beyond general island identification and focused on the precise location of raw material extraction. Secondly, the significance of these findings presents strong evidence that a variety of non-destructive testing methods may be used to determine the differentiation of raw materials within a si ngle island source. This study proves that visual and chemical analysis can be used to determine the location of individual source flows on Pantelleria, and secondly, that this identification can be used to associate artifacts created fr om Pantellerian obsidian to specific primary source locations on the island.

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7 Chapter Two Obsidian Definition and description of obsidian Obsidian is a natural glass of volcanic origin formed by the rapid cooling of viscous lava. It is extremel y rich in silica (65 to 80 percent), is low in water generally containing less t han one percent water by weight, and has a chemical composition similar to rhyolite. Rhyolitic lavas often contain up to 10 percent water, which helps keep the material viscous even at lower temperat ures. When this material erupts on a surface from a vent or dike, the rapid e scape of water increases the viscosity of the melted rock, preventing cr ystallization and allowing the lava to solidify into a glass. Most obsidian has a glassy luster and is slightly harder than window glass. Colors range from jet black to smo ky gray, but also include (depending on the chemical composition of the parent source) green, red and brown varieties (indicating the presence of hemat ite [iron oxide]) types. Another characteristic of obsidian is the formation of dark bands of gray mottling that consists of alternating laye rs of crystals and cr ystalline bodies or are composed of lines of bubble-free glass overlain by vesicular glass. These bands and mottling are believed to have been form ed by the layering of viscous lava.

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8 Some obsidians display a pearl-like sheen, which may indicate the presence of tiny gas bubbles, while other types are opaque except on thin edges due to the closely packed crystallites. Obsidian may also contain spherical clusters of radially a rranged needle-like crystals calle d spherulites while other inclusions may be expressed in the form of microlites (tiny pol arizing crystals) of feldspar or phenocrysts (large, well formed crystals) of quartz. When struck, obsidian produces conc hoidal fractures (smooth, curved surfaces and sharp edges), creating so me of the sharpest stone tools and weapons. Identification of Primar y Sources of Obsidian A source is defined as the point of origin fo r a material type. In the case of obsidian, this means the location of a single volcanic event. These event locations may take any one or a combinatio n of forms such as dome, flow, aerial bombs, erosional scatter or depositional layers that cont ain obsidian strata. This mixture of source types has led to some confusion as to how to determine the location of raw materials and has failed to address the importance of defining specific extraction points and thei r connection to trade and exchange. Attributes of Wester n Mediterranean Obsidian Previous studies have prov en that there are only f our obsidian sources in the western Mediterranean on the islands of: Lipari located in the Aeolian Islands northeast of t he island of Sicily; Palmarola located in the Pontine Islands

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9 west of the Italian mainland; Pantelleria located in the straits of Sicily, between the southwestern coast of Sicily and t he northeastern coast of Tunisia; and Sardinia located south of Corsica. Sardinia is the second largest island in the Western Mediterranean and the most ext ensively studied obsidian source. Obsidian Sources In some cases, obsidian can be disti nguished visually at the macroscopic level through the identification of specific attributes unique to each island source. The physical properties used in visual id entification are categorized as color, luster, transparency, conchoidal fractu ring, refractive index, density, and geological type (Cann et al. 1969; Cann and Renfrew 1964; Renfrew et al. 1968). Malta Lipari Pantelleria Palmarola Figure 2: Location of obsidian sources in the western Mediterranean

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10 Lipari obsidian is black in color, ve ry shiny and often perlitic. Palmarola obsidian is black in color, glassy with a low luster and is usually semi-opaque. Pantelleria obsidian is gr ey green in color, often contains microliths, is moderately shiny and transparent only on the thinnest edge. Sardinia obsidian is categorized by five chemically distinct types (Tykot 1997). Sardinian A is very glassy, black in color and highly translucent. Individual microlite crystal s are visible in transmitted light, often with some flow orientation. Sardinian B1 is less gl assy, black in color and usually opaque. Sardinian B2 is very glassy with variet ies ranging from transparent to nearly opaque. This type occasionally contains phenocrysts up to 2 mm in diameter and rarely contains microliths in the tr ansparent variety. Sardinian C1 is less glassy but frequently contains well-defi ned external grey bands. This type is totally opaque and rare pieces have red streaks. Sardinian C2 is visually indistinguishable from Sard inian C1, and can only be diffe rentiated through trace element analysis. However, visual identification cannot determine specific source locations on an island where the obsidian is vis ually homogenous, as is the case on Pantelleria. Trace element analysis, whic h can identify the obsid ian ‘signature’ of each island source, and has proved to be th e most successful sourcing method (Ammerman et al. 1987; Dixon 1976; Francaviglia 1986,1988; Tykot 1996, 1997; Tykot and Ammerman 1997; Tykot 2002), can potentially be used to define the different primary source areas within each island.

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11 The identification of obsidian sour ces through visual and chemical analysis has been addressed in numerous studi es especially since 1976 when R. E. Taylor published the first comprehens ive edited volume on archaeological obsidian. In most early studies, obsidi an from Lipari, Sardinia, Palmarola and Pantelleria was often treated as if each island source was homogeneous, when in fact this is not the case. The qua lity (e.g. workability), accessibility (e.g. location), and value of each location must have mattered when raw material was collected from primary source loca tions (Ammerman et al. 1993a, 1993b). Cann and Renfrew (1964; Renfrew et al. 1968) first explored the connection between source material and finished products, and Bigazzi et al. (1984, 1991, 1996) attempted to determine obsidian sour ces by identifying the trace element signatures of artifacts and geological samples. Hallam et al.'s (1976) early sourcing studies using neutr on activation analysis also helped to define the chemical signatures of obsid ian in the western Mediterranean. The results of these analyses indicate that when the artifact and geological data are compared it is possible to reliably asso ciate artifacts with island sources. An earlier attempt at sourcing thr ough the measurement of refraction index and specific weight by Bigazzi et al. (1971) also provided evidence that each island in the western Mediterr anean has a unique geochemical signature, but these results were based on small sample numbers from only one location on each island. Durrani et al. (1971) and Francaviglia (1986) endeavored to differentiate between western Medite rranean source flows and secondary

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12 deposits within a primary source locati on through fission track dating, but the sample numbers were too small to provide conclusive evidence. Francaviglia (1988) and Ac quafredda et al. (1999) were among the first to focus on identifying specific sources on P antelleria. However, Acquafredda et al. only tested two samples from Bagno dell’ Acqua and four from the Balta dei Turchi/Salto la Vecchia area. These small numbers do not provide enough information to determine the range of vari ability within each potential source location. Other studies (Ammerman et al. 1988; Cann 1983; Dixon 1976; Dixon and Renfrew 1973; Francaviglia 1988; Tykot 1996, 1997; Tykot and Ammerman 1997; Tykot et al. 1998) also successfully established categories based on geochemical signatures whereby researchers could compare obsidian artifacts with source materials thereby determining provenance. All of this research revealed that in northern Italy, most archaeological obsidian was found to origin ate from Palmarola, Sardinia, and Lipari. In the southern part of Italy, obsidian came primarily from Lipari with Palmarolan obsidian poorly represented. Pant elleria obsidian is found in Sicily, Malta and North Africa and a single piece was also recovered in the south of Figure 3: Obsidian Distribution in the western Mediterranea n. (from WilliamsThorpeetal.1985)

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13 France (Skinner et al. 1997; Cann & R enfrew 1964; Dixon 1976; Dixon et al. 1968; Renfrew et al. 1966, 1968; Tykot 1996, 1997; Williams-Thorpe et al. 1985). Unfortunately many of these determinat ions were based on small numbers of artifacts from archaeolog ical sites, in some cases only one or two pieces. Additionally, although geological material fr om source islands was also subjected to trace element analysis, the results we re based on only a few specimens from each location. This methodology becomes particularly troublesome when research questions are focused on spatial distribution of artifacts in relationship to source materials. Using only one or two ar tifacts and/or geologic samples limits researchers’ ability to accurately det ermine what role obsidian played in the creation of more complex trade and social networks in the Neolithic. The most that these results can offer a limited source determination identifying general island categories rather than s pecific extraction points. In contrast, Tykot’s (1996, 1997, 1998) study of Sardinian obsidian sources proved that visual examinati on and trace element analysis of a large sampling of artifacts and source material could provide sufficient data to allow for a more precise identification of artifact provenance. His research brought to light the importance of establishing a link bet ween finished products and specific raw material sources and provided accurate information about the unique chemical signature of each source on the island.

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14 Chapter Three Prehistoric Settlement of the Western Mediterranean Early Settlement Theories Studies of ancient sea levels (Schle 2000; Basile et al. 1988; Antonioli and Oliverio 1996) in the western Medite rranean have provided new insights into the possible colonization patterns of migr ating groups in the Late Mesolithic and Early Neolithic. These studies indicate that some faunal and floral populations could only have been introduc ed onto these islands through human intervention (Schle 2000). During the Upper Pleistocene ( beginning around 70,000 BP), the shorelines of the Mediterranean were extended far beyond their current positions. Around 18,000 BP, the southern and western shores of Sicily were greatly enlarged putting them in closer proximity to the northern shores of Africa (in particular Tunisia) and Pantelleria (s ee Figure 4). The Maltese islands were joined to Sicily during this period and bec ame part of a large mega-island until the waters rose to approximately their present levels (ca. 8000 BP). It also appears that a narrow isthmus may have made travel between Sicily and the North African coast highly likely (Leighton 1999).

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15 Colonization of t he Western Mediterranean Another point of conten tion between researchers is which model most clearly defines how the islands in the we stern Mediterranean were first colonized, when the colonization occurred, and who the early immigrants were. Williams-Thorpe et al. (1985) contends that Early Neolithic groups were too primitive to negotiate open water cr ossings. Malone (1997-1998) addressed this issue and created the table shown on page five (see Table 1) to identify island size and distance from larger geological entities. Figure 4: Glacial and Modern Shorelines in the western Mediterranean

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16 The actual size of an island wa s probably less impor tant than the relationship of the island to the ne arest large land mass and the potential subsistence levels that could be mainta ined if colonization was considered. Cherry (1990,1992) observes that some is lands, for example Cyprus and Malta, are remote in comparison to other island s that were stepping-stones to larger areas but, in fact, were colonized befor e some of the more easily accessible islands. Therefore, it seems reasonable to assume that environmental factors must have weighed heavily in the select ion process and possibly were of more importance than relative distance (Malone 1997-1998; Cherry 1990). New Perspectives on Island Settlement Shackleton et al. (1984) provided a thorough study of the central and western Mediterranean coasta l paleogeography dur ing the last glacial period. The maps in Figures 4 and 5 depict the pr esence of large coastal plains during extreme glacial activity ca. 18,000 BP and post-glacial warming ca. 9,000 BP that caused a rapid rise in sea levels. The estimated sea level at 18,000 BP was approximately 120 meters below the present coastline, with an error margin of +/10 meters. Between 15,000 and 14,000 BP oxygen isotope data imply that a major influx of melt water submerged s horelines around the world. By 9,000 BP, the encroachment of seaw ater began to slow down, and by 6,500 BP (see Figure 6) the shores of the M editerranean were close to their present position (Shackleton et al. 1984).

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17 The dramatic difference between t he shoreline boundaries for 18,000 BP and 9,000 BP provides a visual explanati on of why there appears to be a dearth of evidence for the migration and habitation patterns of Paleolithic and Mesolithic groups during this period – mo st of the sites that w ould have provided evidence Figure 5: Western Mediterranean Coastlines at 18,000 BP ( from Lei g hton 1999 ) Figure 6: Western Mediterranean Coastlines at 9,000 BP ( from Shackleton 1984 )

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18 of early colonization of the islands and navig ational activity were lost to the rising waters (see Figure 4). This deficiency also explains why early researchers believed that Neolithic groups lived in caves and on terraces high above the current sea levels and why they initially dismissed the idea of travel between the islands of Sicily, Pantelleria, Malta, Lampedusa, the Italian mainl and and the North African coast. Earlier studies dealing with cultur e, colonization, economy and trade (Bernab Brea 1958; Jarman 1971; Bradley 1971; Renfrew et al.1968; Collins 1978; Guilaine 1979) also address the possibi lity of earlier sea journeys. But until Shackleton et al.’s (1984) stud y no one explored the possibility that Mesolithic and Early Neolithic explorer s could have possessed the skills that would enable them reach the more remote islands (Williams-Thorpe et al. 1985). In addition, collection and excavation stra tegies may have skewed the data, and in some cases entirely overlooked lower levels because they were not supposed to be there. The impact that Shackleton et al.’s (1984) research had on archaeological investigations in the western Medite rranean was profound. Researchers began to reevaluate the migratory hypotheses t hat had been put forth in earlier studies. Archaeologists began to accept the probabili ty that Paleolithic and Mesolithic explorers were crossing narrow channels between Sicily, North Africa and Malta and that during these crossings explorer s would have encountered other islands – such as Pantelleria.

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19 In light of these new data a renewed in terest in the Neolithic began in the 1980s and 1990s. These new studies focus ed on agriculture (Costantini 1989; Gregg 1989; Lewthwaite 1986, 1989; Tusa 1985), colonization (Cherry 1981, 1990; Malone 1997-1998; Rainbird 1999; van Dommelen 1999; Stoddart 1998), sociogeography (Webster 1997; Hitchner 1997), technology (Voytek 1996), Neolithic communities (Ammerman 1988-19 89; Tagliacozzo 1993; Malone and Stoddart 2000), trade (Morter 19 92, Morter et al. 2000), and public archaeology (Giannitrapani 1998). The transition from the Mesolithic to the Neolithic in the western Mediterranean is now believed to have been a gradual process, with the earliest Neolithic communities appearing in sout hern Italy, Sicily and possibly Malta and later in northern Italy, Spain and France. These early settlements continued to forage, hunt and fish as before, with agric ulture initially only supplying a small amount of the overall subsist ence for the community. It is also highly likely that some groups never made the transition, but continued to practice a hunting and foraging lifestyle well into the late N eolithic. Unfortunat ely, there are few Neolithic sites that express this transiti on and those that have been investigated, such as those in Sicily express cultur al deposits which are considered disturbed and therefore chronolog ically questionable. The question is then, why did thes e groups change if there were no environmental factors forcing them to adopt new subsistence strategies? Most likely the spread of new resources, cult ure and technology by immigrants coming from eastern locations that are seen in late Mesolithi c communities in southern

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20 Italy and Sicily were important fact ors. New technology and domesticated animals could have been easily incorporat ed into existing subsistence practices and would not have had an immediate effect on the mobility of these groups (Bernab Brea 1958; Tusa 1985). As cereals were introduced the need to re main close to the crops to insure their success would have changed the way groups moved seasonally and gradually this commitment to an agrarian lifestyle would have stabilized these small communities to some extent. This sedentar y adaptation also produced new technological innovations, including po ttery with more architecturally secure compounds and the dependence on others to pr ovide commodities that were not locally available. To be sure, there may have been so me environmental stress as sea levels rose and coastline communities we re forced to move farther inland, but since these settlements were seasonal rather than year round habitations, the encroaching sea probably required a relocation of seasonal camps, although some locations might have been abando ned when there was no longer enough shoreline to allow for fishing, boat landings and foraging (Whittle 1996). The Neolithic Period in Eur ope and the Western Mediterranean Advances in dating and sourcing met hods have caused the reexamination of Neolithic sites in Europe and the We stern Mediterranean originally excavated in the 19th and 20th centuries. This reexaminati on has changed the interpretation of these sites from simple farming comm unities living on the edge of starvation to

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21 ones with complex social structures that developed and changed as new technologies arose. New evidence also indicates that interaction with an increasing number of nei ghboring communities introduced new ideas and created a new social order based on knowledge and skill and commodities (Balter 1993). Fix (1999) states that as the distances between communities became less of an obstacle and the need for more raw materials increased, settlements providing the raw materials or creating fi nished products became more stratified. This stratified state was the result of the growing complexity of community life and the need for more specialize d crafts. Fix also postulates that in the early part of the Neolithic thes e stratified groups probably worked cooperatively, with no ‘chief’ or ‘big man’ in charge of t he surplus wealth or power. Later, when trade networks encompassed a greater part of the western Mediterranean, these high status roles probably transitioned fr om community member, equal in work and wealth, to a person or family of higher status. There is no clear evidence that thes e groups maintained the balance of power merely through an abundance of domesticated plants and animals, although much later this did in fact take place across Europe and the Western Mediterranean (Fix 1999). Johnson and Earle (1987) defined t he socio-economic levels that are similar to the anthropological band, tr ibe and state classification. Family Group. Groups with population densities ranging from less than one person per 16 square km up to at l east two people per 1.6 square km.

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22 These family groups are usually defined as mobile foragers who operate in small units for most of the year, coming together in larger numbers to disburse food surpluses, trade goods, and interact in social and possibly religious activities. Johnson and Earle in dicate that this structure is also true for family groups that depend on agriculture and domesticated animals. Although these units are sedent ary, living in small enclaves for most of the year, they may also have come together to share food and animals, exchange gifts, brides and parti cipate in social and religious activities. Within the greater fam ily group region, interaction between family units is usually peaceful and fa mily elders constitute the power level oft the basic unit. Local Group. Groups with popula tion densities greater than one person per 1.6 square km. This level consis ts of numerous family groups and may be five or ten times larger than family level groups. These larger groups are created to fulfill a comm on need, such as food storage or defense and usually share common cult ural, religious and technological traits. Regional Group. Groups that are brought t ogether for a common cause, such as war or defense and consist of local groups that are unable for whatever reason to defend or sustain themselves without the support of the larger entity. Regi onal groups are usually governed by an elite level that controls the flow of food, other commodities and protection.

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23 All three of the aforementioned leve ls are governed by environmental and economic pressures, variations within the structure of each ent ity that can affect the size, the nature of the local subsistence strategies, the group’s ability to interact with its neighbors through ec onomic and political exchange, and the social stratification that may occur within each unit. A second important point regarding the nature of the subsistence economy adopted by each group is based on t he investment that the group must make in order to be successful. Once a group decides on a subsistence strategy it is co mmitted to it for some time. A great deal of labor and time is involved in the raising of crops and the care of animals. This type of shift in food patterns also changes the nature of the labor required to achieve success and in addition also requires that the division of labor evolves into more stra tified levels that generate greater power and control over the general populac e that is dependent on the expanded economic base and the commodities that ar e the end result of this cultural expansion. As family groups increase in size or combine with larger groups the greater the amount of area that the newly formed larger group requires. In addition to an increased demand for more land, an increase in population also accelerates the consumption of commoditi es that may not be of local origin. Competition for the exclusive rights to quarries, fishing and hunting areas and choice land for farming and pastures puts pressure on the groups (all sizes) and forces changes in economic strat egies and technological innovation.

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24 These evolutionary demands are someti mes the impetus for technological breakthroughs. This may have been the case in the Neolithic as expanding populations forced communities to find more efficient and cost effective ways to manufacture tools and products, transpor t goods and defend territory. These new inventions, or impr ovements on old methods c hanged the face of the Neolithic world and forced communities to begi n to identify with larger and larger regional groups. As communities expanded, and became more stratified and specialized, the need to trade for those goods and services that were not readily available increased. It is highly likely that t he demand for basic goods swelled as a community’s focus turned away from me re subsistence to a commodity based lifestyle that depended on the labor of ot hers to provide food, lodging and tools. In addition to the economic and soci al pressures that the growing communities faced, an increase in immi grants into some areas created its own form of stress. The influx of new technol ogy such as new techniques in ceramic manufacturing or the introduction of mo re efficient agricultural methods, new cultural concepts, which are more difficu lt to determine from the archaeological record, and the blending of heretofore s eparate groups that introduced different social concepts, environmental demands and economic stresses to the receiving community (Fix 1999).

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25 Neolithic Society It is unlikely that western Medite rranean society during the Neolithic developed the types of chie fdoms that are found in Polynesia, although early studies used theories of reciprocit y and exchange based on Big Man or Great Man cultures as a model in an attemp t to understand prehistoric lifeways. Early Neolithic communities prob ably remained loosely structured and independent, maintaining this social stru cture until the late second/early first millennium BC when they transitioned fr om small pastoral communities into complex, highly stratified city-states that continued to dominate the Italian peninsula for centuries (Fix 1999). Russell (1998) suggests that these we re not communal economies in the Marxist sense. A Marxist economy would not have supported the wide distribution of commodities since contro l of any property would not have resided with any individual or group. The ability to make decisions to acquire or sell raw or finished material would not have been m ade by individual families or social groups, but rather by the entire community who “owned” the pr oduct. Free trade does not function in this environment. T he ability to generate wealth and power only comes from an environment where in dividuals are allowed to possess and distribute goods and services with the antic ipation of being reimbursed for their products and/or services. An interesting result of the shift of populations through immigration or new settlement in uninhabited areas is the link that is often created with the ‘homeland’. This link is graphically s een in the Neolithic communities on Malta

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26 and Sicily, where it is believed that early settlers on Malta maintained a connection with their parent comm unities on the larger island. This connection might have isolated the newcomers fr om the indigenous population and may have caused a high degree of tension as groups vied for land, fishing territory and control of trade routes. Islands in the Western Mediterranean A brief overview of the major islands in the western Mediterranean that have evidence of possible trade with Pantel leria brings to light the importance of how and when they were colonized and/or exploited and their role within the Neolithic trade network. Sicily Sicily has never been completely isolated from mainland Italy and is the largest and most fertile of all the Mediterranean isla nds. Archaeological evidence indicates that it is probably the isl and with the longest settlement history. Leighton (1999) states that in Sicily, cult ural provinces are easier to identify in certain periods than others. During the Neolithic southern Italy is characterized by a certain amount of uniformity in cultural styles. This uni formity disappears by the Copper Age when northern and southern Italy became more regionalized and easily distinguishable (Basile et al. 1988; Giannitrapani and Plucie nnik 2001; Procelli 1995; Tusa 1985, 1992; Leighton 1999).

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27 In spite of Sicily’s cl ose proximity to the Itali an mainland (a mere six kilometers), archaeological evidence i ndicates that there appears to have been a certain amount of local autonomy in the cultural development of the Sicilian society. Sicily was able to culturally evolve without being influenced by other cultural groups Paleolithic and Mesolithic occupation levels in caves and rock shelters point to an unbroken transition from pebble tools in the earliest levels, to microlithic technology in the upper strata These early cultural remains which can be found throughout Sicily have permitt ed researchers over the last century to create a probable chronology based on lithic, faunal and environmental material (Tusa 1985; Bernab Brea 1958). Neolithic settlements ar e dated from the late seventh, early sixth millennium BC and it appears that the earliest Neolithic settlers were agriculturalists coming from southeas t Italy (Ammerman 1985; Morter 1990). This immigration predates the Stentinello Phase of the Neolithic, which occurred between the sixth and fifth millennia BC. Sites from this period exhibit daub or rubble structures and present a broad range of wild and domestic species in the faunal record (Malone and Stoddart 2000) The settlements appear more developed than their Calabr ian counterparts, consisting of substantial ditched settlements and mixed subsistence economies and more closely resemble the Neolithic communities in southeast Ital y and along the southeastern coast in the Tavoliere region (Ammerman 1985; Mo rter 1990; Malone and Stoddart 2000).

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28 However, not all Early Neolithic se ttlements were established by new immigrants from the mainland. Uzzo ca ve in the northwestern section of the island is one of the best documented examples of a Mesolithic-Neolithic transition on the island. Archaeological evidence sugges ts that this community was not influenced by the newly establishe d settlements to the east and had little in common with them (P iperno 1980; Tusa 1985, 1992; Whittle 1996). Nevertheless, these early communities did not live in isolation. Initially it was thought that there wa s no interaction between the Uzzo community and outside groups, but one piece of Lipari obsid ian recovered from Mesolithic levels at Perriere Sottano may suggest that kno wledge of these islands existed during this early period and were exploited as a source of raw ma terial for tools (Leighton 1999; Whittle 1996; Tusa 1985). However, there is some debate as to the reliability of this evidence. This si ngle piece of obsidian may have come from later levels and became intermixed with earlier material. Tusa contends that the evidence at Uzzo Cave and other Early Neolithic sites on Sicily demonstrate that the change between the Mesolithic and Neolithic was not a clear break, but was characteri zed by the introduction of innovations that resulted in socio-economic changes. The continuous occupation at Uzzo Cave provides ample evidence of the in troduction of new plants and advances in animal husbandry that were not the result of an abrupt end of pr evious cultural activities. Rather, these innovations l ed to more sophisticated forms of hunting and gathering, advances in fishing techniqu es which resulted in an increase in

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29 the variety of marine life available for consumption, and a transition to more sophisticated microblade tec hnology (Tusa 1985, 1992). Other examples can be found in the To rcicoda valley in central Sicily. This multi-component region includes Mi ddle Neolithic hear ths dated to 5690 +/120 BP which calibrates to 4790-4330 cal BC at 2 sigma (Giannitrapani and Pluciennik 2001), and Casa Solima, located on a plateau in the northeastern part of Sicily and identified as a Late Neolithic ‘house’ (Malone and Stoddart 2000). The numerous postholes and a large hearth in the southern portion of the site indicate that this section of the hous e probably replaced an ear lier structure that contained at least three storage pits. The northern end of the house had a separate hearth and more postholes possibly evidence of another earlier structure’s postholes (Ma lone and Stoddart 2000). Western Sicily has other sites that might be considered typologically related to the Uzzo cave community. Grotta dei Ciara velli, Grotta Maiorana, Grotta d’Oriente and further to the west Grotta Regina, and Grotta Molara show a similar emergence of early Neol ithic cultural patterns from late Mesolithic layers. However, the evidence is so limited that nothing further can be said about these sites (Tusa 1985, 1992). Only three sites, Grotta del Kroni o, Riparo della Sperlinga and Grotta Corruggi, in the central and eastern parts of Sicily offer sufficient and reliable evidence of trends similar to Uzzo. At Grotta Corruggi a nd at Riparo della Sperlinga the beginning of the Neolithic appears to be similar to Uzzo, whereas Kronio shows evidence of a Neolithic horiz on that is the ty pological base for the

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30 subsequent developments of impressed pot tery of the Stentinello and Pienza phases (Tusa 1985,1992). Grotta del Kronio and Riparo della Sperlinga express a stratigraphic sequence that begins with the Mesolithic a nd is identified as a pre-Stentinello Early Neolithic phase. This early Neol ithic layer also includes a microlithic industry that appears to be of Mesolithic or igin and a high proportion of wild floral and faunal species (Tusa 1985). Evidence of a trade or exchange system is found in the Early Neolithic layers at Uzzo, Sperlinga, and Corruggi. The presence of obsidian demonstrates the existence of some type of interact ion between Sicily, Lipari and Pantelleria that can be identified as pre-Stentinello (Tusa 1985). However, interpretation of Neolithic sites on Sicily is challenging since it is highly likely that a significant number of villages existed along coastlines that are now underwater (Whittle 1996). The interp retation of Neolithic lifeways based solely on evidence from sites located in caves and high terraces is flawed and must be considered as an incomplete picture at best. Malta The Maltese Archipelago compri ses the islands of Malta, Gozo and Comino, along with some unnamed islets. T he group is situated in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, 85 km southeast of Sicily, 250 km east of North Africa, and approximately 161 km sout heast of Pantelleria.

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31 The terrain of Malta is comparativ ely low, the highest point being about 239 meters above sea level. Geological evidence for the Tertiary era is represented by a succession of sediment s deposited within a variety of shallow water marine environments. The Malt ese island group pr obably emerged from below sea level at the end of the Earl y Pliocene period. Palaeogeographical evidence suggests that throughout t he Quaternary peri od, the Maltese Archipelago was connected at various st ages to Sicily, east Mediterranean lands, Libya and Tunisia (Savona-Vent ura 1996; Mifsud et al. 1996). During the Upper Pleistocene, it appears that small groups settled on Malta while the island was still connected to the exposed landmass that included Sicily, Italy and portions of t he North African Coast. The type of humans that made this journey is still open to debat e, with some researchers favoring Homo sapiens sapiens over Neanderthals, wh ile others believe that it is highly likely that Neanderthals were the first immi grants to the isl and (Bonanno 1993; Trump 1995-1996, 1996). Archaeological evidence from per manent settlements on the island indicates that they were establis hed around 5000 BC, although this date is considered questionable by some researchers (Trump 1995 -1996, 1996; Bonanno et al. 1990; Mifsud et al. 1996). Nevertheless, these early immigrants probably brought everything with them on some type of sea worthy vessel, possibly on flat-bottom ed wooden boats (Wernick 1996; Savona-Ventura 1996). Although the method of transportation is still unresolved, there are several plausible theories about how settlers first arrived on the island.

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32 One theory has entir e households with wom en, children, and domesticated animals arriving in Malta. A nother is that small groups of explorers in the Early Neolithic discovered (o r rediscovered) the island and began a systematic immigration cycle from Sicily. A third intriguing theory states that there was no colonization in Early Neolit hic but that early contact with outside groups is expressed in the archaeological remains of pottery, chert and obsidian (Wernick 1996; Savona-Ventura 1996; Mi fsud et al. 1996; Trump 1995-1996, 1996). Nevertheless, by 4000 BC pottery charac teristic of the Temple Period is found in settlements at Skor ba, Ggantija, and M najdra (Serio et al. 1992; Veen and Van der Blom 1992; Mifsud et al 1996), indicating long term locally independent cultur al evolution. Although numerous studies have atte mpted to define the purpose of the Temple Period and its monumental architectu re, it is significant that this Late Neolithic community was fam iliar with the position of t he stars and the phases of the moon. Investigations of the position and alig nment of some of the monumental temple structures on Ma lta by (Wernick 1996), Veen and Van der Blom (1992) and others suggests that these buildings were intentionally placed in these positions, although the reasons for this placement are still unknown. This astrological knowledge may have enabled these early settlers to use these astronomical positions to navi gate across open stretches of water between Malta and Sicily and possibly between Malt a, Pantelleria, Lampedusa, and North Africa

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33 Archaeological evidence has also re vealed that the fallow periods for agricultural growth shortened and the ty pes of domesticated animals shifted away from cattle to predominately sheep and goats. More significantly, there is evidence that woodland areas were clear ed as farmers searched for better land (Bonanno et al. 1990). This over-use of the land caused c hanges in the types of plant species that encroached upon food plot s that were left fallow. Barley, wheat and legumes replaced indigenous plant populat ions thereby changing the landscape, and domesticates brought by the settler s pushed out the indigenous animal population (Savona-Ventura and Mifsud 1997). The types of crops grown also changed, shifting from barley and wheat to olives and grapes – both products that were not used as stapl e food items. Ar chaeological evidence indicates that the Maltese imported obs idian, ochre, flint and rock for axes, suggesting that the islanders were dependent on t he trade network during the N eolithic. It is not known if oil and wine were used as trade it ems, although by the Bronze Age they were essential elements of trade in the Mediterranean (Sav ona-Ventura 1996; Malone 1997-1998; Malone and Stoddart 1995; Mifsud et al. 1996; Bonanno et al. 1990). Other Islands Other islands in the western Medi terranean such as Lampedusa and Gozo (Malone and Stoddart 1995; Wernick 1996; Bonanno et al. 1990) also provide some archaeological evidence that indi cates interaction with Pantelleria.

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34 However, no artifacts were examined from these two locations, therefore they will not be addressed in any detail within the scope of this study. Lithic Technology in the western Mediterranean Previous studies of obsidian technology and trade in the Western Mediterranean have identified production methods and lithic distribution (Ammerman and Polglase 1993a, 1993b; Voytek 1996, 1996; Williams-Thorpe et al. 1985; di Lerna 1996; Bradley 1971). Ammerman and Polglase (1993a, 1993b) identified obsidian artifacts recovered from Arene Cand ide located in northern Italy, with a two-way classification: source and class of lithi c reduction. Originally excavated by Bernabo Brea in 1946 and 1956, the site is one of the few locations where screening was employed as part of the excavation strategy. There are reliable radiocarbon dates for the N eolithic levels, encompassing Early Neolithic (c. 58005300 BC), associated with Impressed Ware pottery; Middle Neolithic (c. 4900 4300 BC), with Square Mouth pottery; and Late Neolithic (ca. 4000 3500 BC), with Chassey Pottery (Ammerman and Polglase 1993). The obsidian artifacts were divided into five categories: 1) blades 2) flakes, 3) cores, 4) core trim, and 5) trim. The majori ty of the pieces were identi fied as blades and many of these pieces exhibited evidence of retouch and use wear, indicating that these were tools that were heavily utilized until they were lost or discarded. Other studies have focused on the sourcing, distribution and reduction sequence of obsidian from raw material source to final deposition

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35 (Cann et al. 1969; Voytek 1996, 1997; W illiams-Thorpe et al. 1984, 1985; Williams-Thorpe 1995; di Lerna 1996; Bradley 1971). Di Lerna (1996) categorizes this sequenc e with three levels of material distribution: 1. Local level mass production at the local or sub-local range with a short range of circulation close to the island source where large quantities of primary and secondary reduction materials can be found. 2. Middle level identified by qua lity or specialized production. These sites may be located near the primary source, and in the case of obsidian this would mean on the Ita lian peninsula, the immediate north African coast, Sicily, Malta, and Lampedusa and are identified by the presence of blade debitage, with le sser amounts of raw material. 3. Long level sites located at di stances > 250 km and are identified by only finished tools without debitage. For obsidian, this means the northern-most areas of Italy and southern France. This presence or absence of raw material and cores has been used to define the type of lithic production that may have occurred and Neolithic and Bronze Age sites in the western Medi terranean (Voytek 1996; Williams-Thorpe et al. 1985). However, Ammerman and Polgla se (1993a, 1993b) suggest that the lack of tool production evidence in asso ciation with finished products indicates that distance was not a factor for ex panding trade networks, and rules out the idea of redistribution and reciprocity as key factors in Neolithic trade systems.

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36 Ammerman and Polglase (1993a, 1993b) clearly show that lithic production during the Early Neolithic did not consist of settlements all creating tools from raw material reduction to fi nished product, but, in fact, was populated with different types of ‘manufacturing cent ers.’ Some of these centers would have collected the raw material from its source; some would have reduced the raw obsidian to easily transportable cores and large reduction flakes, while others would have reduced the obsidian to finished products such as blades, knives and points. Transportation Archaeological evidence indicating that transportation between distant communities may have been more widesprea d than previously thought is found, for example at Neolithic sites in northern Germany and southern Poland in association with the Funnel Beaker Cultur e. Cart tracks were found beneath a barrow at Flintbek Kreis Rendsburg-Ecke rnfrde near Kiel Germany. The track was only “. . 20 m long and consisted of two parallel ... 60 cm wide bundles of wheel ruts and a single shorter wheel-ru t parallel to them” (Bakker et al. 1999:783). Bakker et al. believe that t he ‘wavy’ impressions preserved in the surface indicate wheels rather than the track marks of sledges. Other evidence of wheeled vehicles is found at Jebel Aruda, a Near Eastern site that contained a wheel model in association with Late Uruk pottery, obsidian and flint tools in Neolithic levels. The earliest date appears to be around 4670 +/20 BP or 3517-3370 cal. BC (Bakker et al. 1999:781).

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37 The Broncice site near Cracow, Poland contains a cup from the Funnel Beaker culture that depict s wagons and other unidentified symbols. This artifact also dates from 4725 +/50 BP with an absolute age of c. 3637-3373 cal. BC with a calibrated median date of 3520 BC (Bakker et al. 1999). Whether this mode of trans port was utilized in Italy remains unclear, since no evidence of any wheeled vehicles has been recovered at Neolithic sites anywhere on the Italian peninsula or islands. The Italian Neolithic Archaeological investigations of t he Italian Mesolithic and Neolithic have suffered from two research biases: 1. Early archaeological investigatio ns focused on ‘classical studies’ of Greek, Etruscan, and Roman sites, while ignoring earlier archaeological strata; 2. Previous archaeological methods overlooked vital information, and in some cases artifact collection was selective creating a bias in the artifact assemblage. In the 1990s, new chronologies for the Neolithic period were created based on improved radiocar bon dating and calibration methods (Skeates and Whitehouse 1995-1996). Nevertheless, hum an ingenuity was often not included in the examination of cultural di versity (Williams-Thorpe et al. 1985). Researchers frequently overlooked the fact that cultural differences occurred between geographically separ ated prehistoric groups. These

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38 differences created the concept of the other and the disparities that are perceived between two groups can create social and po litical barriers that at their very worst escalate to open animosity. Why researchers continue to operate as if prehistoric groups willingly accepted cultural, social, and economic chan ges is unclear. Recent studies of southern Italian Mesolithic and Neolithic si tes indicate that cultural pressures from outside groups may have been resisted, or at the very least modified to suit the individual community’s needs. For exam ple, in Sicily it appears that although some communities were incorporating new agricultural techniques into their subsistence strategies, other groups only chose animal husbandry. Evidence from Uzzo, Grotta del Kr onio, Riparo della Sperlinga and Grotta Corruggi all suggest that the contact with groups arrivi ng from the east was not as influential as first thought and that most encounters provided an opportunity to assess new technologies, social structures and cu ltural norms (Tusa 1985, 1992; Malone and Stoddart 2000; Ammerman 1985; Morter 1992).

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39 Chapter Four The Island of Pantelleria Pantelleria is situated on the Pant ellerian Rift, which forms the deepest part of the Straits of Sic ily, and lies approximately 95 km from the southwestern coast of Sicily, 72 km from the northeastern coast of Tunisia and approximately 161 km northwest of the islands of Malta and Gozo (see Figure 7). Pantelleria is a small is land, measuring only 83 km2, with a maximum diameter of approximately 13.7 km lyi ng in a NW-SE direction and a minimum diameter of 8 km running from NE to SW. The highest point on the island is located on Montagna Grande with a height of 836 m. Figure 7: Location of Pantelleria in the western Mediterranean P an t e ll er i a

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40 The island lies in what is still considered an active volcanic zone (Berrino and Capuano 1995) and is the emerged part of a large volcanic field, with only approximately fifty percent above sea level. This intense volcanism created two volcanoes, which form the islands of Pante lleria and Linosa (Civetta et al. 1998). Geologic History Previous surveys of Pantelleria conducted by Washington (1913a, 1913b, 1914), Berrino and Capuano (1995), Civetta et al. (1988, 1998), Mahood and Hildreth (1986), Francaviglia ( 1988), and others focused, for the most part, on the geomorphology of the island and its volcanic history, often cont aining conflicting dates for geological events and diffe rent terms for geologic features and locations on the island (see Figure 9). The volcanic history of the island can be divided into two major groups of basaltic formations based on the analysis of major and trace elements, Sr-Nd-Pb isotope composition and age of eruption. A high TiO2-P2O5 group, with an eruption date before 50 ka is cla ssified as the Pre-Green Tuff phase. The second group, with low TiO2-P2O5, erupted after 50 ka and is known as the Post-Green Tuff phase. These two events are separated by a caldera collapse that can be seen in the souther n portion of the island near Salto la Vecchia (Civetta et al. 1988, 1998; Mahood and Hildreth 1986). Structurally, Pantelleria consists of faults and fractures that run NW/SE and NE/SW. Two major calderas repres enting different geological events are located in the central par t of the island (Berrino and Capuano 1995; Civetta et al.

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41 1988, 1998), and the remnants of a third, possibly older caldera located in the southwestern portion of t he island (Mahood and Hildreth 1986). Based on this geologic evidence, P antelleria’s birth and subsequent growth can be viewed as a violent one. The collapsed calderas indicate that there were large explosive eruptions, which were then followed by less explosive eruptive periods (see Figures 8 and 9). Analysis of stratigraphic samples from these eruptive sequences has proven probl ematic, but it appear s that the more complex magmas were extruded during the early formational stages of the island, while later eruptions provide evi dence of magma flows from deeper levels (Berrino and Capuano 1995; Civetta et al. 1988, 1998; Mahood and Hildreth 1986). Figure 8: Example of volcanic deposition on Pantelleria

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42 Figure 9: Geological Map of Pantelleria (Civetta 1998)

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43 Peralkaline Obsidian Another product of this violent eruptive activity was the formation of glassy deposits known as Pantellerite. Pantelleri a is the type locality for Pantellerite. Pantellerite is a peralkaline rhyolite that is enriched in Na, Fe, Cl, and other trace elements. This type of rock typically o ccurs in non-orogenic continental regions that have been subjected to crustal dom ing and rifting (Civetta et al. 1998; Mahood and Hildreth 1986). Pantelleria consists entirely of volcanic rock, which includes lavas and pyroclastic deposits. These deposits are composed of dental, pantellericitic trachyte, comenditic trachyte an d alkali basalt (Civetta et al. 1998). Peralkaline silicic rocks, specifically trachytes and rhyolites with molar (Na2O + K2O)/Al2O3 ratio > 1, occur as both plut onic (peralkaline granites) and volcanic (peralkaline trachytes, comendites and pantellerites) types. Typically, they occur in non-orogenic continental regions that have been subjected to crustal doming and rifting. This chemical composition makes Pantellerian obsidian distinctive among the Mediterranean obsidian sources. The workable obsidian has a greenish opaque appearance with a small amount of transparency on thin edges, while formations that contain a high amount of crystallization tend to be brown or Figure 10: Geological Samples from Salto la Vecchia

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44 rust in color and are not associated with any archaeological deposits (see Figures 10, 11 and 12). This distinctiv e green color makes Pantellerian obsidian easily recognizable, and visually different from the other western Mediterranean sources (Francaviglia 1988; Mahood and Hildreth 1986). The Archaeological History of Pantelleria Pantellerian obsidian resources were exploited at least from the Early Neolithic with evidence for this early use found in artifact assemblages in Sicily, Malta and North Africa. Although ther e is scant evidence of permanent settlements on Pantelleria before the Bronze Age, the recovery of artifacts from the island attest to its importance as an obsidian resource (Malone 1997-1998; Francaviglia 1988; Tozzi 1968, 1978; Ca mps 1964, 1974; Tusa 1990; Zoughlami 1991). Figure 11: Geological sample from Salto la V ecc hi a Figure 12: Geological sample from Balata dei Turchi

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45 Archaeological investigations on P antelleria have been lim ited, primarily due to the belief that perm anent settlements did not exist on the island before the Bronze Age. Recent field investigat ions conducted by Tosi (personal communication 2000, 2001), Vargo et al (2001, 2002), and Colella (personal communication 2000, 2001) indicate that there were probably some earlier settlements on the island, and these locati ons may represent small communities that pre-date the Bronze Age se ttlements (see Figure 13). What is known archaeologically about the island is that explorers were visiting Pantelleria by the Early N eolithic (Trump 1995-1996, 1966; SavonaVentura 1996; Tusa 1985; Zoughlami 1991) and that the material they collected eventually made its way to Sicily, Malta and North Africa. Recent archaeological surveys of Pantelleria identified si x areas on the island that contain concentrations of lithic material, which represent a complex lithic industry that utilized available local sources of obsid ian. Of the six locations, Mursia has received the most archaeological attenti on. Identified as a Bronze Age site, Mursia provides evidence of a typica l small-island subsistence regime with domesticated stock, fishing (fish and shel lfish), cultivation of crops (unknown), and hunting (small birds) (T usa 1985, 1992; Leighton 1999). Mursia is located on a natural te rrace area on the western shore with a small docking area, a spring, and dry volcanic soils. The site is protected on the landward side by a large stone wall appr oximately 200 m long and 10 m wide at

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46 the base. The wall was probably part of an enclosure that protected the village (Tusa 1985,1992). Excavations by Orsi in 1894, later work in 1968 and 1978 by Tozzi, and Tosi’s recent work (personal communi cation: 2000, 2001) s uggests that there were at least three occupation levels covering Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age cultural phases. Other sites at Punta Fr am, Vercimursa, Suvaki, Cuddia Bruciata and Maggiulivedi are undated, but it is hi ghly likely that these locations also represent a long term cultural history for the island (Colella 2001; Tusa1985, 1992; Tosi: personal communication 2000, 2001). It is unclear what these other site s represent and if they are connected with the export of raw materi al to Sicily, Malta and Nort h Africa. Unfortunately, Figure 13: Location of Archaeological Sites on Pantelleria (Yellow Dots) [See Figure 14 for Lithologic Map Legend]

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47 they are located in active agricultural areas on the island and are not available for study during the growing season. This agricultural activity has also created a high level of disturbance, which makes defining any chronological sequence difficult if not impossible. Pantellerian Obsidian in Si cily, Malta and North Africa Leighton (1999) states that Pantelleria was the least visited obsidian source, but this is an assumption that this author does not support. Conversely, he claims that Pantelleria must have been inhabited by the Earl y Neolithic, based on the presence of Pantellerian obsidian in North Africa, Sicily, and Malta during this period (Leighton 1 999; Camps 1964, 1974, 1986). Camps’ (1974) study of Neolithic site s in North Africa examined eleven locations in Tunisia and Algeria that prov ide evidence of an active lithic industry with Pantellerian obsidian and to a lesser extent, Lipari obsid ian represented in the artifact assemblage (Camps 1964, 1974; Zoughlami 19716; Tykot 1996). Pantellerian obsidian is also found at Neolithic sites located on Sicily, Lampedusa (Leighton 1999) and Malta ( Leighton 1999; Trump 1996; Tykot 1996). Lampedusa lies approximately 210 km from Sicily, 145 km from Pantelleria and 130 km from Tunisia a l ong voyage under the best of conditions. It is possible that the island might have been visited by explorers from either Pantelleria or Malta during the Early Neolithic.

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48 Archaeological evidence on Lampedusa re covered from levels that are thought to be linked to the Sicilian St entinello Culture include Pantellerian obsidian, indicating that at the very l east people living on the island were in contact with groups who had been to Pantelleria (Camps 1986). Although there seems to be little doubt that contact with Sicily was a direct one, it is unclear how Pantellerian obs idian reached Malta. One theory has the obsidian from Pantelleria collected by Neolit hic groups from to Sicily where it was subsequently sent to Malta. The same sc enario is used for Pantelleria obsidian found on Lampedusa, only in this case the route goes from Pantelleria to North Africa to Lampedusa (Trump 1995-1996, 1996). Others believe that the connection was direct with materials flowing back and forth to Malta and Lampedusa from Pantelleri a (Leighton 1999). Whichever route the obsidian took, ther e is no doubt that the existence of ‘green’ obsidian was well known in Early Neolithic communities and was exploited well into the Bronze Age. Howe ver, the question that still remains to be answered involves the actual procurement of the raw material from Pantelleria. It is important not only to know the island source, but also to identify the exact location where raw materials were ex tracted from seams or outcrops. Identification of t he location of the primary sources on the island will enable researchers to examine the environment al attributes that may have made Neolithic explorers favor one location over another.

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49 Chapter Five Survey and Sampling at Primary and Seco ndary Obsidian Sources on Pantelleria The island of Pantelleria provides an excellent environm ent to test the hypothesis that by collecting a large am ount of geological samples from primary and secondary obsidian sources contai ned within an island source, sufficient information will be produced through density, INAA, LA-ICP-MS and XRF testing to determine the geological and chemical signature of each obsidian deposit. Although Pantelleria’s geological hist ory has been extensively studied (Mahood and Hildreth 1998; Francaviglia 1988; Cive tta et al. 1988, 1998, Bigazzi et al. 1971, 1996), researchers have only recent ly become aware of Pantelleria’s Neolithic heritage with the recovery of artifacts manufactur ed from Pantelleria obsidian found in Sicily, Malta, Lampedusa, and the North African coast (Tozzi 1968, 1978; Tusa 1985, 1992; Camps 1964 1974, 1986; Tykot 1996; Tosi personal communication 2000, 2001; Cole lla personal communication 2001). Pantelleria’s depositional history is divided into two major categories: PreGreen Tuff and Post Green Tuff. Green Tu ff activity, which divides the two categories, consisted of a series of vi olent explosive eruptions, which produced large volumes of material – all identified under the des ignation ‘Green Tuff’. This

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50 activity is significant since these depos its created a visible overburden, which can be used to identify and date depositional layers on the island (see Figure 14). P an t e ll er i a P. S. Leonardo P. Karusica P. P o zz o l a n a P. Spadillo P. Tracino P. della Salina P. Forma gg io Balat a dei Turchi Punta Fram Cala di Sataria S caur i Salto la Vecchia M urs i a M. Gelkhamer M. Gelfiser B onsu lt on Cuddia del Cat Bagno dell’Acqua Khaggiar C. Del Gallo C. Randazzo C u ddi a di Kh amma Cuddia di Mida M.gna Grande C.Monastero Costa di Zighidi M.Gibile F.sa del Russo M. Gibele Cuddia Mueggen Serra di Ghirlanda Cuddie Latite P.del Barone Sciuvechi Cuddie di Bellizzi Cuddia Attalora C. Kahassa 0 1 2 3 km 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 N P. del CurtiglioloGeologic Sample Collection Points Figure 14: Lithologic M ap of Pantelleria (after Civetta et al. 1984, 1998) 1. Recent sedimentary deposits; 2. Mursia basaltic lava flows and cinder cones; 3. Upper pantelleritic lava flows and domes; 4. Pantelleritic domes and lava flows; 5. Cuddia di Mida tephra; 6. Lower pantelleritic lava flows and domes; 7. Gelkhammar pantelleritic endogenous dome and lava flows; 8 P. San Leonardo basaltic lava flows and cinder cones; 9. Mt. Gibele lava flows; 10. Montagna Grande dome; 11. Serra di Ghirlanda; 12. Green T uff; 13. Volcanic units older than Green Tuff deposits

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51 The majority of Pre-Green Tuff material is buried under the tuff overburden (see Figure 15) and it was pr eviously thought that any obsidian used during the Neolithic and Bronze Age must have come from the younger post-tuff deposits (Mahood and Hildreth 1986; Francaviglia 1988). However, along the southern coastline at Salto la Vecchia and Balata dei Turchi, Pre-Green Tuff deposits are exposed. In order to determine if any of this material was accessible to Neolithi c and Bronze Age communities, primary source material from Salto la Vecc hia was collected below the Green Tuff deposition layers (see Figures 16 and 17). Figure 15: Green Tuff Exposures at Salto la

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52 Figure 16: B. Vargo, R. Tykot and C. Ruppe collecting primary source material below the Green Tuff deposit at Salto la Vecchia. Figure 17: T. Setzer collecting primary source collection at Salto la Vecchia below the Green Tuff deposit

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53 Green Tuff exposures at Balata dei Tu rchi were less visible (see Figure 18) but it is likely that some of the pr imary source material collected along the slope adjacent to the large pumice flow is composed of Pr e-Green Tuff obsidian (see Figures 19 and 20). Figure 18: Geological stratigraphy just west of Balata dei Turchi Fi g ure 19: Balata dei Turchi Pumice Flow

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54 Pre-Green Tuff exposures are also present at other locations along the southwestern and southeastern coast lines of Pantelleria. Those exposures were not inculded in this study since there are no obsidian deposits associated with these formations. Location of Primary and Secondary Obsidian Deposits Washington’s (1913a, 1913b, 1914) early work identified geological strata on Pantelleria and created a framework for future studies. Although he indicated that green pantellerite is located along the sout hern coastline of Pantelleria, he focused his geological analysis on the nor thern half of the island. Washington collected samples which he identifies as obsidian from an area called Costa Zeneti, which lies to the north of B agno dell’Acqua and is in the same general location where samples for this study were collected in 2000 and 2001. Unfortunately, Washington only refers to this obsidian in connection with his comparative study of earlier research but goes into great detail regarding a basalt dike that lies at the northeast end of the formation. He describes the Figure 20: Balata dei Turchi west of pumice deposit

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55 basalt as “. . jet black and aphanitic, very minutely vesicular, (and). . is almost free from phenocrysts . .” (Washington 1913b:709). He also points out that tables of labradoite lie in a base of glass that appears to be black in natural light but is, in fact composed of brown and bl ack globulites (Washington 1913b). Washington (1913b) also refers to bla ck pantellerite and brown pantellerite from the Sant’ Elmo regi on near Mt. Gelkhamer but claims that he never observed the green variety in any of his surveys. Washington established a strong fram ework for subsequent studies in the latter part of the twentieth century. However, it mu st be remembered that his focus was geological rather than arc haeological and he was not concerned about the differences between workable and non-workable materials. The most important evidence that his survey brought to light is the presence of obsidian in the Costa Zeneti region – the only area where he identifies any material under this category. Mahood and Hildreth’s (1986:167) detailed study of Pantelleria only cites Grotta del Formaggio as having “. .f ive black welded obsidian layers, each several meters thick, and much thicke r intervening layers of partially to nonwelded pumice fall . “ Other formations at Salto la Vecchia, Cala dell Altura and Cuddia dei Scauri are only identifi ed as ‘glass’. It is also important to note that geological samples were tak en from all the afor ementioned locations but not Balata dei Turchi (see Figure 21).

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56 Figure 21: Location of obsidian and ‘green pantel lerite’ identified by Washington and Mahood and Hildreth (after Civetta et al 1984, 1998) Green Pantellerite Costa Zeneti Punta del Formaggio Cuddia dei Scauri Salto la Vecchia Balata dei Turchi

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57 In contrast, Francaviglia’s (1988) XRF analysis of geological samples and artifacts from Pantelleria i dentified five chemically di screte sources of obsidian: one at Upper Balata dei Turchi, two at Lower and Upper Balata dei Turchi, one at Bagno dell’Acqua and an unidentified deposit in the Gelkhamer region (near an archaeological site identified as Murs ia 11). There is no mention in Francaviglia’s study of any obsidian depos its at Grotta del Formaggio, nor was that area included in my study. Sampling Strategy The collection strategy used in th is study was not based on previous reports, since these could only be used as a general ‘guide’ to primary sources. For example, Francaviglia’s report lack ed sufficient details to determine the specific locations where he collected his geological samples and artifacts. Washington’s survey primarily focu sed on non-obsidian bearing areas in the northern portion of the is land and Mahood and Hildreth’s analysis used the same nomenclature as Washington and ident ified numerous formations under the heading of ‘glass’ and ‘pantel lerite’ without specifying which areas contained workable obsidian. Therefore, a broader more comprehensive survey was required. General survey areas were delineated using maps from Francaviglia (1988) and Civetta et al. (1998). Maurizio Tosi and Valentin a Colella of the University of Bologna, and Rosario di Fresco, a member of t he Archeoclub of Pantelleria, provided valuable assistance in locating pr imary source deposits and supplied data

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58 regarding the location of arc haeological sites on the island. In addition, Tosi and Colella granted access to artifact collecti ons from a number of Late Neolithic and Bronze Age sites on Pantelleria for use in the comparative analysis of geological samples and cultural material. Collection areas were assigned a wa ypoint number based on UTM coordinates generated with a Garmin G PS hand-held unit. No datum were established since the sample collection was random. Secondary collection points located within each area were assign ed either a sub-wayp oint number or a unique number. This number assignment was based on the proximity of the sample collection point to the initial waypoint. Sub-numbers were used if the location was less than five meters from an original point, while new waypoint numbers were designated if the sample wa s located more than five meters from the original point. These coordinates established loci for each source of workable obsidian. Secondary source deposits were collected randomly to include the widest range of possible variables within a designated co llection area. Sample collection during the 2000 season included specimens from surface, secondary, and potent ial primary deposits. Some samples were clearly not workable, as was the case with the Punta Spadillo and Gelkhamer material, but were collected in order to estab lish the range of differentiation between workable and non-workable sources (see Figure 14 for collection points). Specific locations for primary obsidian deposits were not provided by Washington, Francaviglia or Civetta, t herefore obsidian collection areas were

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59 designated based on Francaviglia’s m ap and his somewhat vague geographic descriptions. The 2001 survey focused on specific areas of the island that had been identified as the location of primary source material Only primary source material and secondary source material in close proximity to a primary source was collected. This included deposits at Salto la Vecchia that were below the Green Tuff layer (see Figure 20) wher e obsidian had been observed during the 2000 season but was impossible to reac h without rock climbing equipment; the ridge above the 2000 collection points at B agno dell’Acqua that were thought to contain additional workable obsidian; and at Balata dei Turchi where the collection strategy included the identification of in situ obsidian deposits at several points on the slope and a random collection of secondary source material. The number of samples taken from each location was determined by the abundance of primary and seco ndary deposits, the quality of the samples (e.g. workability) and accessibility. Sample co llections varied fr om point to point, depending on the abundance of obs idian. Each sampling was large enough to provide ample material for a variety of testing procedures. Sample bags were assigned a unique number that coincided with the GPS waypoint number for that collection poi nt. Each specimen was categorized as either part of a surface collection or ex tracted from primary (in situ) deposits. Back at the USF lab, the physical characte ristics of each piece of obsidian were recorded. Material that appeared to be mo dified or was clearly an artifact was

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60 identified using the terms: fl ake, shatter, core, blade, bifa ce or modified flake. All collected materials were photographed and assigned a University of South Florida catalog number. Survey Locations and Collection Points Three locations were selected in the northern portion of Pantelleria: Punta Spadillo, Mt. Gelkhamer and Bagno dell’Acqua (see Figure 22). Mt. Gelkhamer and Bagno dell’Acqua had previously been identified by Washington (1913a, 1913 b and 1914) and Francaviglia (1988). Punta Spadillo Eleven samples were collected from the northeastern coastal area east of the town of Pantelleria (see Figure 22). Although no workabl e obsidian has been observed in this area it was Figure 23: Pantellerite deposits and WW II bombing sites at Punta Spadillo. Figure 22: Location of northern sample collection points (red squares = sample collection points, yellow circles = archaeological sites).

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61 felt that as much geological material as possible should be collected including non-workable glass. Samples from Punt a Spadillo are highly crystallized, brown in color and slightly crumbly. T he area had been heavily bombed by Allied troops during World War II in an effort to des troy Axis gun emplacements (see Figure 23). Sections of the formation appeared to be burnt and it was determined that it was highly unlikely that any workable obsid ian was ever located in this area. Gelkhamer Thirty-two samples were collected from three locations in the Mt. Gelkhamer area: the road leading up to the western slope, the upper sections of t he western side of the formation, and the northeastern slope. Colors for the Mt. Gelkhamer deposits ranged from greenish brown to brown, displayed banding in a linear flow pattern and most samples appeared highly crystallized (see Figures 24 and 25). Although this material was measured to determine Figure 24: In-situ pantellerite from the northeastern slo p e of Mt. Gelkhamer Figure 25: In-situ pantellerite from the eastern slope of Mt. Gelkhamer

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62 density, these results were not used in this study. No workable obsidian was observed in the area that Francaviglia (1988) suggested as potential sources for raw material. Mt. Gelkhamer has been heavily im pacted by modern construction, including an Italian military installation that covers a large portion of the upper levels of the area. As a result, we we re unable to survey this section of Mt. Gelkhamer. Although Francaviglia does not mention any military activity in his 1988 report, it is possible that the obsid ian source he suggests exists may be located within the confines of the milit ary compound. Other sections of Mt. Gelkhamer are covered with a variety of formations associated with volcanic activity and no obsidian was observed during a pedestrian survey of this area. Bagno dell’ Acqua Eighty-eight obsidian samples were collected from several locations above and west of the lake (see Figure 26). The first group was collected from a section of pumice/ash depo sits that were ex posed approximately sixty meters above a modern roadway leading to several small farms (see Figure 27). Samples extracted from this area were very small, most were less than five centimeters in diameter. Although this ma terial could be considered high quality Figure 26: Bagno dell’Acqua

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63 obsidian, the pieces now present were cl early not workable because of their size, but they may represent evidence of se condary deposits that might have been in the area in the form of larger obsidian bombs. In 2001, a second investigation of t he area provided additional material. These deposits were located appro ximately 100 meters above the 2000 collection point (see Figure 22) and may be pa rt of the material that Washington (1913a, 1913b and 1914) mentions observing during his survey. No worked material was observed near these formati ons, however a core was found along a farm road during the 2000 survey. The landscape surrounding Bagno dell’Acqua has been severely altered due to agricultural activity that dates back to at least the Roman period. It is likely that primary obsidian deposits never existed in th is area and that workable bomb obsidian was extracted from the pumic e layers that were easily accessible Figure 27: Secondary obsidian deposits in pumice/ash at Bagno dell’Acqua.

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64 along the escarpment above the lake. Ho wever, this question may never be completely resolved without excavation since any such evidence is probably buried under modern vegetation, buildings and roads. Finally, a survey of the Costa Zenet i formation during 2001 did not provide any additional information regarding any ot her obsidian deposits in the area. The violent nature of the erupt ions and subsequent collaps e of the caldera that formed these escarpments is evident in the terrain (see Figure 28). Two locations were chosen from the s outhern coastline: Salto la Vecchia and Balata dei Turchi. Francaviglia (1988) indicated that the Balata dei Turchi formation contained at least two deposits id entified as Upper Balata dei Turchi and Lower Balata dei Turchi that could be associated with cultural material. Figure 28: Bagno dell’Acqua – Costa Zeneti formation

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65 Balata dei Turchi Balata dei Turchi is located approximat ely 1.5 kilometers east of Salto la Vecchia at the southern end of the isl and (see Figures 14, 29 and 33). Recent construction and natural disasters have caused a great deal of disturbance and altered the landscape to some degree. A rockslide prevented us from surveying the area near a paved road that runs betw een Balata dei Turchi and Salto la Vecchia during the 2000 season. By the 2001 season the road had been cleared of rock fall and the survey team had acce ss to the areas above Balata de Turchi. During the 2000 survey samples were collected from three locations in this area: 1) new roadways above the shoreline – which may be composed of fill from other areas and deposited when the dirt roads were created; 2) the naturally deposited formation that is above the beach area; and 3) secondary deposits along the shore and offshore in areas less than five meters deep (see Figure 29). Figure 29: Location of southern collection points (red = sample collection points, yellow = cultural material deposits).

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66 In 2001, sample collection focused on the entire slope above the shoreline. Artifacts were observed al ong the slope with high concentrations of debitage found at or near in-s itu primary source material Samples of in-situ and secondary obsidian deposits were taken from at least three discrete extraction points on the slope (see Figure 30). Tabl e 2 shows the number of geological samples taken from each collection point. Primary source material was exposed on the surface at each location along with what appears to be primary, secondary and tertiary flaking, cores and shatter. The grade of the slope did not allow ea sy access to the entire formation. Nevertheless, in spite of the fact that this area has su ffered from erosion over the millennia, the generally moderat e climatic conditions have left the area relatively intact. Figure 30: Location of discrete geologic layers at Balata dei Turchi BT 1 (out of view from this angle) BT 2 BT 3

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67 Waypoint # Balata dei Turchi Sample Location Collection Type Frequency Total # Collected PN 6 S of Balate dei Turchi road surface low 17 PN 7 S of PN 6road surface low 3 PN 8 Unimproved road surface low 17 PN 9 Unimproved road surface low 8 PN 25.1 Base of slope secondary deposit medium 12 PN 25.2 Lower and upper slope to cave surface medium to high 42 PN 25.3 Crumbly boulder in-situ low 13 PN 25.4 Boulder reduction site in-situ medium 4 PN 25.5 Reduction site surface low 1 PN 106 Reduction site surface high 104 PN 110 Reduction site surface medium 10 PN 111 Reduction site surface medium 16 PN 112 Reduction site surface medium 9 PN 113 Reduction site surface medium 12 PN 114 Reduction site surface medium 7 PN 115 Reduction site surface high 16 PN 116 Reduction site surface medium 16 PN 118 Reduction site surface medium 9 PN 120 SW edge of slope surface low 14 PN 122 Reduction site surface medium 6 PN 123 Point east of car < 30 m reduction site surface low 1 PN 124 Reduction site surface medium 5 PN 125 Near road by small structure <10 m down slope reduction sitesurface medium 10 PN 126 BT4 west of ash flow near wall, lo wer first layer -reduction site in-situ high 14 PN 127 BT2 reduction site in-situ high 27 PN 128 BT1 – r eduction site in-situ high 18 PN 129 BT3 south face ~ 80 m above su rface reduction site in-situ high 41 Table 2: Balata dei Turchi collection frequency by waypoint

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68 Obsidian from Balata dei Turchi contained few phenocrysts or other nonobsidian material (see Figure 31). The 452 samples collected contained 76 banded specimens, 38 mottled, 47 streaked, 277 uniform s pecimens that expressed no banding, streaking or mottling, and 14 specimens that were weathered or covered with a rusty patina that prevented visual analysis (see Figure 32). Figure 31: In-situ obsidian at BT3 PN127 B d T2Figure 32: Obsidian debitage collected from Balata dei Turchi

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69 Salto la Vecchia Primary deposits were not easily acce ssible due to the extreme slope of the formation and the amount of erosion that caused a large overhang of rock that limited the survey team ’s ability to reach in-sit u deposits. During the 2000 survey collections were confined to t he slope immediately below the escarpment, and some poor quality material along the surf ace (see Figure 33). More in situ deposits were observed to the east of this collection point, but the team was not able to reach it without rappelling equi pment (see Figures 34 and 35). Figure 33: Salto la Vecchia collection points with proximity to Balata dei Turchi (~1.5 kilometers). Figure 34: Salto la Vecchia escarpment looking east toward Balata dei Turchi

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70 Figure 35: R. Tykot and V. Colella co llecting secondary source obsidian on the Salto la Vecchia slope During the 2000 survey season obsidian nodules were also collected at the shoreline below Salto la Vecchia. Th is was facilitated with the use of a small boat that enabled the team to reach the beach area bel ow Salto la Vecchia. Samples were collected from the s hallow waters down to five meters below surface immediately off the beach to approximately twenty meters offshore at both Salto la Vecchia and Balata dei Turchi (see Figure 36). The purpose of collecting secondary deposits wa s to determine if this material was the same as primary deposits from higher elevations, and if so, if it could have been used by prehistoric people. Determining the associ ation between primary source material and deposits along shorelines was essential to this study. If workable obsidian were available in shoreline deposits then the issue of accessibility would have to be reexamined.

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71 Sample collection at Salto la Vecchia did not prove difficult, but except for a small beach there was no area where a boat or a raft could have easily negotiated the rocky shoreline, nor were there any areas where a group could set up some type of ‘camp’ to wait fo r favorable tides or better weather. Shackleton et al.’s (1984) study of glacial shorelines in the Mediterranean suggests that the coastline of Pante lleria was relatively unaffected by the transgression and recession of the sea levels after the last major glacial period. This would imply that by 6500 BC the c oastlines of Pantelleria would have appeared very much as they do today, providing us with a ‘reasonably accurate’ (author’s emphasis) view of what prehist oric explorers saw when they came to the island. Figure 36: R. Tykot collecting secondary samples at Salto la Vecchia shoreline

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72 The shore along Balata dei Turchi was much better suited for landing a small craft. The small cove and natural jetty would have provided some protection and would have provided a substantial flat area suitable for camping and easy access to the upper slope (see Figures 37 and 38). Figure 37: Balata dei Turchi shoreline and slo p e Figure 38: Balata dei Turchi looking southeast from BT1

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73 During the 2001 season rock climbing equipment was brought in to collect samples from the lower deposits at Salto la Vecchia (see Figures 39 and 40). Considering the difficultie s experienced in an effort to reach these primary deposits, it is highly unlikely that Neolithic explorers expended the energy required to reach these layers, nor would it be logical for them to expose themselves to the dangerous conditions associated with obtaining raw material from these slopes when there were abundant resources in other more accessible areas. Figure 39: B. Vargo, T. Setzer and C. Ruppe collecting obsidian at Salto la Vecchia. Figure 40: T. Setzer climbing to Pre-Green Tuff obsidian vein

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74 Chapter Six Density Measurements of Geol ogical Samples and Artifacts Although refraction index and density have been used to characterize geological specimens, little work has been done to determine if the density of obsidian can show sufficient variability bet ween primary source flows or outcrops contained at one obsidian source location (Bigazzi et al. 1971). The density of a solid (1) is determined with the aid of a liquid whose density (0) is known (usually distilled water or ethanol). The material’s dry weight (measurement in dry air) is di vided by its buoyancy weight (measurement in the auxiliary liquid) and multiplied by the density weig ht of the liquid (determined by the temperatur e of the auxiliary liquid) The formula for this calculation is: Procedure Raw material samples were cut in or der to remove any cortex material. Specimens were ultrasonically cleaned to remove dirt, debris and any oils or residues from the surface of each piece. Artifacts were subjected to the same cleaning procedure, but were not cut or altered in any way. A B 1 = • 0 [g/cm3]

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75 Three dry and suspended measurements were taken of each geological specimen to ensure that each sample was pr oviding an accurate density reading. The mean and standard deviation for each co llection point was established after ranking the density totals to determine t he range of densities for each location. Non-obsidian material and material of poor quality (e.g. highly porous or highly crystallized) were not used in determini ng the range or mean of any group. Outlying density weights were also ex cluded as being non-repr esentative of the source material (see Appendix A: Table 3). Density measurements on artifacts from Zembra and Pantelleria proved to be somewhat problematic. Since the purpose of this part of the study was to see if a low cost, non-destructive testing methodology could be used to determine specific primary source locations, none of the artifacts were altered in any way other than the aforementioned cl eaning regime. As a resu lt, some of the pieces proved to be too large for the balance and had to be excluded from the analysis. Each piece was considered unique and no attempt was made to determine an average density measurement for any ar chaeological site (see Appendix A: Table 4). Another unforeseen problem that complicated the density testing process was created by the construction of new student housing near th e science center. The vibration from heavy equipment, ja ckhammers, and the placement of steel girders in the ground was so severe at times that the dens ity equipment was unable to give consistent readings. Testing frequently had to be rescheduled for later in the day or on the weekends w hen construction crews were not present.

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76 Although every precaution was taken to insure consistent temperature and stability and the scale was recalibrated before each testing session, some samples had to be retested to ensur e the accuracy of the readings. Results A comparison of the densit y weights of the four source islands in the western Mediterranean suggests that us ing this testing method provides sufficient variability to ident ify general provenance (see Figure 41). However, it must be noted that the obsid ian from Lipari may contain samples from historic flows and the material from Palmarola is a mixture of workable and non-workable obsidian. On Pantelleria density test results for Balata dei Turchi, Salto la Vecchia and Bagno dell’Acqua where workable obsidi an was collected indicate that there is sufficient variability to discriminate between some island sub-sources. These Lipari Palmarola Pantelleria Sardinia 2.22.252.32.352.42.452.52.552.6 Density Comparison For Western Mediterranean Obsidian Sources Figure 41: Comparison of western M editerranean obsidian sources showing range of variability for each source.

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77 findings support, in part, Francaviglia’s ( 1988) survey where he located flows at Bagno dell’Acqua, Salto la Vecchia, Upper and Lower Balata dei Turchi and Mt. Gelkhamer. However, it must be noted that since no workable obsidian was observed or collected in or around Mt. Ge lkhamer during this investigation the validity of Francaviglia’s i dentification of Mt. Gelkhamer as an obsidian source is still unconfirmed (see Figure 42). Density Test Results By Location Bagno dell’ Acqua (Lago di Venere) The density test results on the eightyeight samples collected from Bagno dell’Acqua indicate that obsidian in this area is not homogeneous (see Figure 43). This may indicate that these depos its represent a mixt ure of debris from different eruptive events. In general, Bagno dell’Acqua obsidian appears to be of a lower density than other samples. Figure 42: Plot showing average density between Balata dei Turchi, Salto la Vecchia, Gelkhamer and Bagno dell’Acqua

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78 There is an indication, based on these density test results and the comparative analysis of artifa cts with these samples, t hat workable obsidian must have been available at Bagno dell’Acqua, possi bly from the pumice/ash flow wall area and the in-situ deposits to the northeast of this location. It is possible that the original extraction location no longer exists because of modern construction, or is buried under buildings or roadways. The comparison of Zembra artifacts wit h material collected on the surface at Bagno dell’Acqua does not provide any conclusive information since these artifacts cannot be linked only to t he Bagno dell’Acqua geologic samples collected during this study (see Figure 44) Although the density test results suggest that the higher Bagno dell’Acqu a deposits may have been the source for some of the artifacts from Zembra and fo r the archaeological sites on Pantelleria (see Appendix A: Table 5), t he evidence is not strong enough to confidently state Figure 43: Density range of geologi cal samples from Bagno dell’Acqua

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79 that only these upper deposits were used as a primary source of raw materials. Without evidence of flakes, cores or other debitage in the area the density results from Bagno dell’Acqua must be considered inconclusive. Balata dei Turchi The 452 geological samples from Balata dei Turchi are divided into three groups: 1) off shore and beach deposits; 2) in-situ samples along with debitage associated with the in situ deposits; and 3) general surface collections from an area located below the first in-situ collection point. Density measurements of raw material collected from in-situ locations on the slope indicate that ther e are three and possibly four distinct primary sources located in the area. Figure 44: Comparison of Bagno dell’Acqua geological samples and Zembra (Tunisia) artifacts

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80 Francaviglia chemically i dentified three groups at Balata dei Turchi: 1) Upper Balata dei Turchi; 2) Lower Bala ta dei Turchi; and 3) one unidentified group that fell in between Upper and Lower Balata dei Turchi. Unfortunately, his report does not specify where these deposits were located. Therefore, it would appear that samples collected from Balata dei Turchi 1 might represent his Upper Balata dei Turchi, while the obsidian co llected on the lower section of the slope and designated as Balata dei Turchi 3 ma y be identified as Francaviglia’s Lower Balata dei Turchi. Balata dei Turchi 1 and Balata dei Turchi 4 appear to have a similar density range, while Balata dei Tu rchi 3 has less variability. Balata dei Turchi 2 exhibits the widest range of va riability and is less of a match with when compared to the other thr ee locations (see Figure 45). Most of the thirty-three artifacts from Zembra display similar density signatures as the geological material from BdT1, BdT3 and BdT4 while the location designated as BdT2 is poorly r epresented (see Figure 46). The reasons Figure 45: Four potential primary sour ce points at Balata dei Turchi

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81 for this are unclear but may indicate t hat obsidian from BdT2 was less workable than the other three sources. Future st udies of additional artifacts from North Africa, Sicily and Malta will be required to resolve this issue. In a comparison of 115 artifacts fr om eight archaeological sites on Pantelleria, Balata dei Turchi obsidian is moderately represented. Based on the results of the comparison of these arti facts with geological samples from BdT1, BdT2, BdT3 and BdT4 it appears that the ma jority of the artifacts represented by Balata dei Turchi obsidian originated from BdT1, BdT3 and BdT4, while once again BdT2 is only represent ative of a few pieces (s ee Appendix A: Chart 6 for Pantelleria artifa ct analysis). Figure 46: Comparison of Zembra artifacts with geological samples from BdT1, BdT2, BdT3 and BdT4

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82 Salto la Vecchia When compared with the Balata dei Turc hi samples, it appears that the majority of the samples collected from t he Salto la Vecchia formation fall within the same density range (see Figure 47). Th is probably indicates that portions of the Salto la Vecchia obsidian deposits were created during the same eruptive event that formed t he obsidian found at Balata dei Turchi. A comparison of the artifacts from Zembra indicates that the geologic similarity between Balata dei Turchi and Sa lto la Vecchia makes it difficult to determine if any of these artifacts act ually came from the Salto la Vecchia deposits. The comparison of artifacts from Pantelleria also has the same interpretive problems (see Appendix A: C hart 7 for Pantelleria artifact analysis). Figure 47: Comparison of geologic samples from Balata dei Turchi and Salto la Vecchia

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83 Offshore Collections Test results indicate that Salto la Vecchia contains two distinct density groups and these findings probably re flect separate depositional events (see Figure 49). Since the lower range is similar to Balata dei Turchi, it is highly likely that these samples are deposits from the same eruptive events. The wide disparity between the two readi ngs strongly suggests that they are indicative of volcanic material separated by a sufficient amount of time to alter the density of the obsidian. In contrast, the Balata dei Turchi offshore samples are more homogeneous and these density m easurements are consistent with the material collected from shoreline and upper depos itional levels (see Figure 50). Figure 48: Comparison of geologic samples from Salto la Vecchia and Zembra Artifacts

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84 Figure 49: Density results of Salto la Vecchia offshore geological samples Figure 50: Density results of Balata dei Turchi offshore geologic samples

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85 Because there was no way to determine provenance of these offshore samples, neither the Salto la Vecchia nor the Balata dei Turchi material was used in the artifact comparison study. Although the majority of artifacts tested in this density study match the density signatures for Balata dei Turchi/S alto la Vecchia and Bagno dell’Acqua, it is also clear that another s ource must have been exploited. It is possible that this unnamed source is the Mt. Gelkhamer depos it. No comparative studies were conducted with the Mt. Gelkhamer geologica l samples we collected since those specimens do not represent workable source material.

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86 Chapter Seven Analysis of Geological Samples and Artifacts Geological sources of obsidian generally express a homogeneous composition, but t here is enough intersource variabilit y to distinguish individual deposits (Skinner et al. 1997). This geol ogical signature provides important information pertaining to the origin of ra w materials used in lithic technology. Therefore, the analysis of primary and secondary geological sources must be considered in the study of obsidian proc urement strategies. The ability to trace artifacts to primary extraction poi nts and secondary deposits expands the ‘footprint’ of source material and provi des greater insight regarding prehistoric trade/exchange networks. Sample Preparation Samples are usually restricted to clean specimens (cleaning methods vary according to the amount of non-obsidian ma terial attached to the sample) with a relatively flat surface at least 10 mm in diameter and at leas t 1.5 mm thick. Smaller samples or samples that do not present a flat surface and cannot be altered, as in the case of artifacts, may show some distortion in trace element values and thus provi de unreliable results.

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87 Obsidian Provenance Research Although various, such analytical methods as IINAA, XRF, and LA-ICPMS have been applied to obsidian prov enance research each one has had limited success with varying degrees of cost and reliability. In spite of the fact that a substantial amount of data are available, mo st of the results are noncomparable because; 1) the original sa mples were destroyed in the testing process; 2) sample sizes were so small that it is not realistic to attempt a comparative analysis; 3) selective colle ction and/or sampling strategies may have skewed the test results; and 4) t he artifact collections are no longer available for analysis. Another major limiting factor in prov enance research stems from the fact that some of the more accurate testi ng procedures are destructive, a situation that is acceptable when testing geological samples since the resource is readily available and can be replaced, but unacc eptable when small or unique artifacts are involved (Shackley 1998a, 1998b, Bigazzi et al. 1996). This makes the use of these testing methods on artifact asse mblages prohibitive since the amount of material is so small – in some cases only one or two pieces – therefore making any testing that requires a destructive process unacceptable. Analytical Methods Various analytical methods to dete rmine provenance are available to the researcher, including macr oscopic examination; the measurement of physical parameters; chemical analysis of majo r and trace elements; and fission track

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88dating (Ammerman et al. 1990; Bigazzi et al. 1971, 1984, 1996; Dixon 1976; Durrani et al. 1971; Franc aviglia 1988; Gratuze 1999). The use of trace elements to dete rmine obsidian provenance for artifacts has shown the greatest overall success. Three different trace element techniques were employed in this study to provide the greatest analytical precision possible for creat ing a geo-database that could be used in comparative analyses of obsidian artifacts. Neutron Activation Analysis Neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a sensitive analytical technique useful for performing both qualitative and quantitative multi-el ement analysis of major, minor and trace elements in samples. INAA offers sensitivities that are superior to those attainable by other methods. Because of its accuracy and reliability, INAA is generally recognized as the ‘referee method ’ of choice when new procedures are being developed or when other methods yield results that do not agree. The application of INAA to archaeology is primarily seen in the characterization of archaeological specimens such as pottery, obsidian, chert, basalt, and limestone and to relate artifact s to sources through their chemical signatures. Glascock (2000) states that INAA is nearly 100 percent successful for determining prehistoric trade routes si nce sources of obsidian are easily differentiated from one another through their compositions.

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89The obsidian samples were analyzed by IINAA using sample preparation and analysis procedures previously descr ibed in Ambroze (1985) and Glascock et al. (2000), so they are onl y briefly described here. The original samples were crushed to create a number of interior fragments (approx. 25-50 mg in size). The fragments were inspected under a magnifier to eliminate thos e with crush fractures, meta llic streaks, etc. Two samples were prepared for IINAA from eac h source sample. First, a sample weighing about 100 mg was placed into a clean polyethylene vial used for short irradiations at MURR. A second sample weighing 250-300 mg was placed into a high-purity quartz vial used for long irradiations. The irradiation short samples were s equentially irradiated for five seconds each in a neutron flux of 8 x 1013 neutrons cm-2 s-1 after which they decayed for 25 minutes before being counted for 12 minutes with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The short-lived elem ents Ba, Cl, Dy, K, Mn and Na were measured in most samples. The long i rradiation samples were irradiated in bundles of about 30-35 samples each for 70 hours in a neutron flux of 5 x 1013 neutrons cm-2 s-1. After decaying for about eight days, the long irradiation samples were loaded on a sample changer where they were counted for 2,000 seconds each to measure the mediumlived elements: Ba, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, U, and Yb. In most cases, the value for Ba determined from long irradiation was superior to that measured following short irradiation. Three weeks later the long irradiation samples were counted again fo r 10,000 seconds to measure the longlived elements: Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb Sb, Sc, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Zn and Zr.

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90Standards made from SRM-278 Obsidi an Rock and SRM-1633a were similarly prepared and irradiated for calibration and q uality control of the analytical data. X-ray Fluorescence X-ray fluorescence is a widely accepted and economical method of analysis that can be used to accurate ly measure major and trace element content (Skinner et al. 1997; Francavig lia 1986, 1988; Acquafredda 1999; Tykot and Ammerman 1997; Bigazzi et al. 1992; Shackley 1998a, 1998b; Cann 1983). The energy-dispersive x-ray fluore scence measurements were performed at MURR with a Spectro X-lab 2000 t hat is equipped with a Bragg-polarized excitation source. Because the plane-polar ized photons may not scatter into the plane of polarization, the amount of Co mpton and coherent scattered radiation seen by a detector when using a Bragg-pola rized source in a Cartesian geometry is greatly reduced. In the X-lab 2000, with a typical degree of polarization of ca. 85%, the scattered radiation background is reduced by a factor of 7 in comparison with direct excitation of the sa mple. As a result, the detection limits and sensitivities are improved by factors of 4 for geological samples and 7 for biological samples. The full-width-hal f-maximum energy resolution of the detector used in these measurements is 135 eV for the 5.90 keV Mn Ka x-ray. Obsidian samples larger than 1 cm diameter were mounted on the XRF with the most flat surface face downw ard. The XRF measurements were made using a combination of fi ve excitation targets with a Pd anode molybdenum for Fe thru Sr and Hf thru Th (35 kV, 4.4 mA), aluminum oxide for Ag thru Nd (52 kV,

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915.7 mA), palladium for Y th ru Mo (40 kV, 6 mA), cobal t for K thru Mn (30 kV, 1 mA), and highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite for Na thru Cl (15 kV, 13 mA). The method was calibrated with data from 22 pressed-pellets made from geological standard reference materials. Laser Ablation-Inductively C oupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry ICP-MS has been used to identify rare earth element patterns on source samples and archaeological materials usi ng either the liquid mode or the laser mode. Monitoring the amount of material removed by the laser and transported to the ICP is complicated by several factors making normalization difficult. Conditions such as the text ure of the sample, hardness of the sample, location of the sample in the laser chamber, lase r energy, and other factors affect the amount of material introduced to the torc h. This method yields satisfactory concentrations for most major an d trace elements (Gratuze 1999). Samples of obsidian were also an alyzed by LA-ICP-MS using a Thermo Elemental Axiom high resolution magnet ic sector ICP capable of resolving masses as close as 0.001 atomic mass units apart. The ICP-MS is coupled to a Merchantek Nd-YAG 213-nanometer laser ablation unit. Approximately ten samples were mounted in the laser ablati on chamber at any one time. The laser was operated at 80% power (~1.5 mJ) usin g a 200 Fm diameter beam, firing at 20 times per second. A rectangular ra ster pattern of approximately 4 mm2 was drawn over a relatively flat spot on each sample. The laser scanned across the raster area at 70 Fm per se cond. The laser beam was allowed to pass over the ablation area one time prior to data acqui sition in order 1) to remove possible

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92contaminants from the surf ace of the sample, and 2) to permit time for sample uptake and for the argon plasma to st abilize after the introduction of fresh material. Analytes of interest were scanned three times and averaged. In most cases, the %RSD was 5-10%. Standardization was accomplished by ca librating the instrument with the NIST SRM-610 and SRM-612 glass wafe rs doped with 61 elements. Two obsidian glasses calibrated in a round-r obin exercise by the International Association of Obsidian St udies were also used. The latter were obsidian from Glass Buttes, Oregon and Pa chuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Monitoring the amount of material remo ved by the laser and transported to the ICP is complicated by several fa ctors making normalization difficult. Conditions such as the text ure of the sample, hardness of the sample, location of the sample in the laser chamber, lase r energy, and other factors affect the amount of material introduced to the torc h. A normalization method described by Gratuze (2001) describes the method employed here. In the current study, about 40 elements were measured using a resolution of 6000. The high resolution was necessary to reduce the number of ions striking the multiplier caused by severa l of the high concentration elements (esp. Na, Al, Si, K, and Fe). Relative concent rations for all elements were determined by comparing the unknowns to the NIST glass and obsidian standards. To convert the relative concentrations into absolute, normalization was accomplished converting the relative concentrations to oxides and then

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93normalizing the total to 100%. The method yields satisfactory concentrations for all major and trace elements. Analysis of Pantellerian s ource materials and artifacts Francaviglia’s (1988) analysis of 143 geological samples suggested that Balata dei Turchi, Salto la Vecchia and Bagno dell’Acqua can be distinguished by their trace elements, although he does adm it that the three sources from the Lower and Upper Balata dei Turchi ar ea are poorly differentiated. Attempts for mo re exact provenance analysis have been attempted using neutron activation analysis (Williams-Thor pe et al. 1995; Bigazzi et al. 1984; Durrani et al. 1971) with some degree of success. However, small sample and artifact numbers did not provide adequat e data to determine anything more than general location variability between islands. Acquafredda et al. (1999) used a non-destructive SEM-EDS analytical method to determine obsidian sources in the Mediterranean. Pantellerian samples were collected from Bagno dell’Ac qua, Balata dei Turchi, and Salto la Vecchia. The analysis also included a sa mpling of artifacts from unspecified areas on the island (Acquafredda et al 1999). Their test results supported Francaviglia’s 1988 work, but instead of th ree source locations, only two were identified; Fossa della Perrace (Bagno del l’Acqua) and Balata dei Turchi (with Salto la Vecchia included in the Balata dei Turchi data). Un fortunately, because of the small sample numbers used in this study (two pieces from Bagno dell’Acqua and four from Balata dei Turchi /Salto la Vecchia) these results are

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94questionable since they do no provide sufficient information to determine variability for each location. Trace Element Analysis of Geological Samples INAA INAA test results of the geological samples from all collection points provide an adequate display of the diffe rences between Bagno dell’Acqua, and the Salto la Vecchia/Balata dei Turchi group (see Figure 51). The Mt. Gelkhamer samples were included in this study to determine if this material could be differentiated from the wo rkable obsidian sources. Although there appears to be some overlap with the Bagno dell’Acqua samples, this cannot be viewed as some sort of geologic connecti on between the two locations. Figure 51: INAA analysis of geologic material from all collection points. Balata dei Turchi and Salto la Vecchia Bagno dell’Acqua Gelkhamer and Outliers

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95The samples from Salto la Vecchia and Balata dei Turchi are tightly clustered in this analysis since their c hemical signatures are very similar and therefore do not provide enough variability to be clearly expressed as separate clusters. A comparison of the geologic samples fr om Salto la Vecchia and Balata dei Turchi show that they fall into three groups with two outliers (see Figure 52). These data substantiate the findings of t he density analysis, which indicate that there may be a geochemical relati onship between the two locations. Consequently, the result s support the argument that IINAA analysis offers a more reliable method of determining unique signatures of potential obsidian flows within a primar y source location. Figure 52: Comparison of Balata dei Turchi and Salto la Vecchia geological sources

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96XRF XRF results on geological samples from Balata dei Turchi and Bagno dell’Acqua appear to be consistent with si milar tests conducted by Francaviglia (1988) where he identified three potential sources for workable obsidian. Only two locations were tested in this study since the Gelkhamer material is not considered workable obsidian and the Salto la Vecchia deposits express a similar density signature as those located at Balata dei Turchi. This comparison does provide a clear break between the tw o locations, and the Balata dei Turchi geologic samples appear to be grouped in at least three clusters (see Figure 53). When only the Balata dei Turchi geolog ic samples from BT1, BT2, BT3 and BT4 were analyzed, the results show a difference between at least three sub-sources (see Figure 54). This cluste ring indicates that BT1 and BT4 have Figure 53: XRF analysis of Balata dei Turchi and Bagno dell’Acqua samples Bagno dell’Acqua Balata dei Turchi

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97similar chemical compositions and may r epresent volcanic activity within a short period of time that would have creat ed two deposits with similar chemical compositions. These data support the premise that XRF analysis will provide an accurate differentiation between flows from a singl e source if the sample base is large enough to allow for the range of variabilit y for within some primary sources. LAICP-MS ICP test of source samples proved to be less accurate and the results were inconclusive. The differentiation between each location is not as clear as those provided using XRF or INAA (see Figures 51 through 54). Figure 54: XRF analysis of possible Balata dei Turchi sub-sources

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98Although there is some differentiation (see Figure 55), it is clearly not as precise as INAA or XRF suggesting a lar ger variance in the test results. However, this non-destructive method does offer a means to analyze artifacts and geological specimens that ar e too small to be destroyed. A comparison of only the Balata dei Turchi geologic samples also proved to be inclusive (see Figure 56) since this testing methodology could not provide any differentiation between sub-source samples. ICP-MS Analysis of Geologic Samples10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 250.00300.00350.00400.00450.00500.00550.00600.00Nb (ppm) Bagno dell’Acqua Salto la Vecchia Balata dei Turchi Figure 55: ICP-MS analysis of geologic sample s from Bagno dell’Acqua, Balata dei Turchi and Salto la Vecchia

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99 ICP-MS Analysis of Balata dei Turchi Geologic Samples15.00 17.00 19.00 21.00 23.00 25.00 27.00 400.00450.00500.00550.00Nb (ppm) Figure 56: Comparison of geologic samples from Balata dei Turchi

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Chapter Eight Pantelleria Obsidian and Neolithic Trade Networks We may never be able to determine the principal reasons why early explorers ventured across the dangerous wa ters separating North Africa, Malta and Sicily from Pantelleria (Procelli 1995). It has been suggested that these islands were discovered by accident while groups were searching for new fishing or hunting areas or while attempting to locate land that was not controlled by other groups. It is also possible that these islands were visited by groups of explorers before the end of t he last glaciation when the coastlines of North Africa and Sicily extended far beyond their current positions. Navigation and Island Colonization Although there is little archaeological ev idence to support this hypothesis, the fact remains that the navigational skills used by Neolithic groups did not suddenly appear, but must hav e been acquired through tria l and error. Various types of vessels were probably tested to fi nd the most seaworthy and it is highly likely that there were more failures t han successful voyages until the technology was perfected and people gai ned a greater understandi ng of the effects of weather and seasonal changes on thes e new sea craft and their passengers.

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The study of marine based economies such as the one found at Uzzo Cave (Costantini 1989; Tusa 1985; Tagliacozzo 1993) and early sea craft (Cherry 1990) suggests that deep-sea vessels may have been used as early as the eighth millennium BC. Although there is little evidence to support this it is likely that these early settlements were exploiting local terrestrial and marine habitats for game and fish. The size and type of sea craft is open to debate (Pennacchioni 1996; Camps 1986; Schle 2000; Malone 1997-1998; Fix 1999; Rainbird 1999) and it is reasonable to assume that these vesse ls must have been large enough and seaworthy enough to withstand open wate r navigation over long distances (Kapitn 1988). Kapitn’s (1988) and Williams-Thorpe et al.’s (1986) belief that Neolithic technology was too ‘primitive’ to hav e developed anything more sophisticated than a log raft ignores the fact that these vessels had to have been seaworthy enough to transport livestock, people and supplies. It is highly unlikely that Neolithic sea cr aft were simply constructed of logs lashed together or narrow ‘canoes’. I belie ve that in order to cross the western Mediterranean these boats must have been c onstructed of materials that could withstand the impact of rough seas and inclement weather. My personal experience with the unpredict ability of these waters occurred during sample collection on Palmarola where the shor t voyage from Ponza to Palmarola was occasionally made over very rough wate rs (see Figure 57). The captains of these small craft were experienced in traversing this short distance and

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102 negotiated treacherous shorelines and capr icious currents with the stoic calm that only comes with years of experience. Whether these boats were equipped with some type of sail is unknown, since no archaeological evidence exists that depicts these vessels. It is possible that the knowledge to construct boats may have been transmitted to the western Mediterranean via immigrants or may hav e occurred independently via trial and error. It is also reasonable to assume that whatever shape or size these vessels were they would have been equipped with so me type of rudder. These early navigators were not striking out blindl y across open waters – they must have used some type of steering mechanism to ensure that they stayed on course and must have been able to plot thei r course once they lost si ght of the coast. It is Figure 57: Rough seas between Ponza and Palmarola

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103 possible that they used the stars to navigate, or relied on the sun and the currents (see Figure 58). If we accept the possibility that late Palaeolithic groups were actively utilizing coastal regions and were crossing the existing waters in search of food and other resources, then the probabilit y that these crossings would have continued even as the rising waters made t he journeys longer is extremely high. Therefore, during the latter part of the Me solithic it is probable that groups from North Africa, Sicily and Malta woul d have continued to follow the same navigational routes that their ancestors used to obtain food. Figure 58: Direction of Mediterranean Sea currents (after Pennacchioni 1996)

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104 Coastal Settlements – The Missing Evidence Because these coastline communities were inundated by the rising waters early researchers were unaware of thei r existence and mistakenly assumed that Mesolithic and Early Neolithic groups lived for the most part, in caves and rock shelters, with occasional foraging along t he coastlines. This misinterpretation portrayed Early Neolithic life as primitive, with small family groups operating independently. Williams-Thorpe (1995) st ated that technology in the Early Neolithic was primitive, and sea voyages we re limited to short trips on rafts that stayed within sight of the shoreline. Recent investigations of Neolithic settlements on Sicily show that these early sites were scattered along the coas tlines in areas where harbors would have provided access to safe landing sites and nearby fishing areas. Archaeological evidence fr om Pantelleria, Malta and Lampedusa indicate that they were probably settled by 5900 BC (Whi ttle 1996). However, recent research on Pantelleria suggests that the earliest settlements on the island may have been as early as the Late Mesolithic (Tosi 2001: personal communication). However, this dating should be viewed with some c aution since no radiocarbon dates have been established for these sites. The problem of chronology and settl ement patterns extends beyond the islands to the Italian mainland where the Neolithization of northern and southern Italy during the Neolithic does not follow a set time line. This is probably because the Italian peninsula did not transition to the Neolithic simu ltaneously, but was populated by different groups moving gradua lly westward from the Adriatic and

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105 Southeastern Europe spreading their domesti cation technology as they migrated west. However, these groups were probably not the ‘first’ settlers’ in some of these areas. Their arrival must have pr ovided the catalyst that initiated new agricultural technology and different cultural perspectives. Sett lers from the east probably encountered indige nous hunter/gatherer groups and small hamlets that were already well established throughout the Italian peninsula. According to Whittle “. .the primary means of change throughout the central and west Mediterranean was acculturation, start ed through the sea-borne transmission of contacts, ideas and resources. .” (Whittle 1996:291). There is no archaeological evidence t hat supports this hypothesis, nor is there any evidence that provides in formation regarding the mobility (or lack thereof of early hunter/ gatherer groups that populated Italy during the Late Mesolithic. This point also brings to light another area of debate regarding the transition from the Mesolithic to the Neol ithic in the wester n Mediterranean. The argument centers around t he degree of change that took place with the introduction of agriculture and what impact this new subsistence strategy had on the hunter/gather groups that came in c ontact with newly established agricultural communities. Trade, Exchange and the Value of Obsidian Although the causes of cultural change are often blamed on external factors involving assimilation or aggressive intr usions, some of these changes could be

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106 brought about by the evolving relationship between groups witho ut the impact of cultural change. Trade, exchange, and to some degree the adaptation of outside cultural traits began to reshape these so cieties into more complex cultural groups. Evidence from Uzzo Cave represent s this transition with the members of this community incorporating some new ideas about agriculture and animal husbandry into their social framework wh ile rejecting those elements of the intrusive cultural package that did not meet their needs (Leighton 1999). Several theories have been put forth to explain this transition. For example, Leighton’s (1999) s ubsistence theory for the Neol ithic is defined by four assumptions: 1. changes in subsistence strategies a greater diversity in food sources with the use of domestic animals such as sheep, pigs, horse and oxen and the introduction of agriculture reducing dependence on hunting and foraging. 2. exploration – people began moving into new territories in search of better grazing lands for livestock, better growing conditions and possibly to retain their freedom of movement as more sedentary groups gained control of ex ploitable environments. 3. technological advances in sea cra ft more seawor thy vessels were designed enabling explorers to make longer voyages over open water and carry larger payloads of animals and people. 4. awareness of other communities contacts with groups outside the extended family unit or ‘tribe’ in an increasingly complex

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107 trade/exchange network that encom passed most of the Western Mediterranean. Note: An example of this is the presence of obsidian, greenstone and Cardial ceramics far re moved from the primary source of the raw material. Leighton (1999) also points out that although there is evidence of a transition from hunting and gathering to farming, this does not appear to be a wholesale move away from earlier food gathering strategies. While there may have been some attempts to domesticate wild species of pig or sheep there is no evidence of this in the western Mediterranea n. It is more likel y that the increased use of boats would have encouraged s edentary communities to develop along coastlines which, in turn might have pr ompted prehistoric communities to choose areas that provided safe harbors with easy access to open waters. As explorers ventured further away from familiar shores contact wit h other communities would have extended the boundaries of the ‘know n world’ and could have been the impetus for more complex trade interact ion. Leighton also believes that the diversity of subsistence strategies may indi cate that not all Early Neolithic groups were sedentary and that, in fact there were different groups operating within the Neolithic landscape. This is an important point for it sugges ts that a mixture of groups operating at different levels of cultural and soci al complexity might have been cohabitating the western Mediterranean during most of the Neolithic. It is possible that some of these groups were sedentary, some ma y have moved seasonally following or maintaining domesticated herd animals, and some could have continued to hunt

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108 and forage, gradually adapting their nom adic lifestyle to accommodate the ‘intrusion’ of sedentary communities in what had heretofore been open country. A more graphic example of how these early communities responded to the changing cultural landscape can be seen in the presence of ditches or palisades surrounding early hamlets in Southern Europe and the southern regions of the Italian peninsula (Skeates 1993, 1998, 2000 ). As communities accumulated ‘wealth’ in the form of food, domestica ted animals and permanent dwellings, they may have felt the need to ‘protect’ t hese possessions. Claiming the land and determining ‘ownership’ by groups co mposed of numerous family units may represent some of the earliest effo rts to change and control the environment. These ditches have been identified as a defensive system, as drainage ditches, as barriers for livestock, wate r sources, and pits left from stone excavation. All are possible explanations for the presence of these features and it is probable that this list is incomplete (Skeates 2000; Leighton 1999). The use of these ditches as barriers for livestock seems the most plausible. However, Skeates’ (2000) theor y that the ditches and palisades were used as a defense against the nomadic hunt er/gatherer groups that continued to operate throughout Europe is a plausible one and would support the premise that a switch to a more sedentary, agricul tural food strategy was not universally accepted and that by the Middle to Late Neolithic a more stratified complex society existed in the western Medi terranean, with both sedentary and mobile groups operating in the same environment.

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109 Colonization of the Islands There is sufficient evidence in the arc haeological record to accept the fact that complex trade and exchange systems existed by the Early Neolithic and possibly even earlier in the Mesolithic. It is also clear that as groups began to establish larger, more stratified communities, there must have been an increasing dependence on trade to provide commodities such as pottery and finished tools to communities which lack ed the resources to create their own products. Evidence suggesting that such in teraction existed is found at Neolithic sites in Sicily where crude Incised Impr essed Ware and domesticates reveal that there were external cultur al influences impacting local ceramic styles and food strategies (Tagliacozzo 1993; Tusa 1992). Cherry (1985) and others contend that is olated islands such as Pantelleria were probably not permanently settled durin g the Neolithic. In spite of the apparent lack of archaeological evidence in dicating any long term habitation, it is possible that temporary ‘camps’ were es tablished on the island. These ‘camps’ might have been used as a ‘base’ for groups that would arrive on Pantelleria to collect raw material. Temporary shelters would have provided some protection from the elements, especia lly if a return trip wa s dependent on weather and sea conditions, and it is highly likely that these groups took adv antage of whatever wild game was living on the island to s upplement whatever food they carried with them (Camps 1986; Bogucki 1993). Although this hypothesis is highly speculative, future research focus ed on temporary encampments rather then

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110 permanent settlements may reveal evidence of seasonal occupation of islands such as Pantelleria. Nevertheless, there is also good evi dence that obsidian from Pantelleria, in the form of debitage and unfinished t ools was actively being used in Malta (Trump 1966, 1995-1996, 1996; Savona-Vent ura 1996). The presence of this type of assemblage rather than finished pro ducts indicates that raw material was transported from Pantelleria. However, Malta’s strong connection to Sicily prior to the collapse of the Temple period may be representational of contact with outside groups who were exchanging and/or trading obsidian and other goods with the Maltese. The ‘Value’ of Pantellerian Obsidian Chapman (1998) states that it is an “… implied part of each person’s worldview, that there are some places in the world …(that)…have value” (Chapman 1998: 106). Therefore, ‘places’ hav e two distinct aspects. The first is directly connected to institutional or resi dual memories of the activities of past generations in connection with a specific location or ‘place.’ The second considers a place, by virtue of its locati on, as a center of power and therefore an area that is considered ‘sacred’ or ‘special’. It is possible that for Neolithic comm unities, Pantellerian obsidian was highly regarded because of ‘where’ it came from rather than it s functionality as a tool. Voyages to Pantelleria might have been considered a “rite of passage” or were thought to be so dangerous as to elevate the partici pants to a special

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111 status. This theory may account for the possible use of Salto la Vecchia obsidian, since the risk involved in obtaini ng workable obsidian from this location would require significant risk, and might have provided the means for individuals to be elevated to a higher social status. Furthermore, there is no clear evi dence to indicate that the tools themselves were considered valuable, and this is supported by the fact that debitage and finished products are generally found in domestic settings rather than burial or ritual ones. Archaeological evidence from Sicily Malta and Zembra indicates that Pantellerian obsidian was actively colle cted throughout the Neo lithic. The time and energy required to obtain raw material and return home determined the ‘cost’ that each group was willing to pay. This also implies that not everyone within each Neolithic community embraced agricultu re. It is possible that some people began to specialize in certain food gatherin g strategies, such as fishing while living within the newly developi ng agricultural communities. Since there is evidence of trade during t he Neolithic it is highly likely that there were people who resisted a more sedentary way of life in favor of maintaining the hunter/forager lifestyle or embarking on new ventures that involved exploration for new lands, food sources or raw materials. Procurement of obsidian from Pante lleria may have been only a part of the reason that groups journeyed t here. Pantellerian obsidia n was, to be sure, the closest source for the North Africans, but it is unclear how much obsidian was traded or exchanged for other goods betwe en North African communities.

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112 Secondly, Pantellerian obsidian was not the only source of workable raw material to make stone tools for the Sicilians who were in close proximity to Lipari or for the Maltese whose link to Sicilian communities continued until just prior to the collapse of the temple society (Bas ile et al. 1988). It is possible that Pantelleria’s value as a source of workable obsidian must be considered secondary to other reasons that go beyond its functional use. Whitehouse’s (1993) work on Neolithi c wall paintings provides some insight as to the value and importance of real or symbolic objects. Things that researchers perceive as common symbols might imply recurrent ritualistic themes. In the case of Pantelleria this could be that the island was part of some symbolic rite such as an initiation or a passage from child to ‘manhood.’ Secondly, Whitehouse implies that the retention of hunting iconography even after communities had transitioned to more agriculturally focused subsistence strategies may indicate thei r strong connection to this older way of life and the possibility that these sedentary communities were in contact with nomadic groups that crossed their lands Whitehouse also discusses unusual ways that water is depicted which ma y indicate that water had become increasingly important to these early farmers and that water held a special power. The use of obsidian throughout the Neol ithic may indicate that a more complex society existed during this per iod (Renfrew 1969; Skeates 1993), which might have included farmers, craftspeople, non-agricultural groups that may have provided the means for trade items to be mo ved from one location to another. Without this complexity, the trade of obs idian and other materials might not have

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113 been as successful and as far-reaching as we see expressed in the archaeological record. Nevertheless, we must be cautious not to impose ‘western’ market economy theories on Neolit hic lifeways, but t he concept of trade or exchange, where finished products and services are exchanged for other commodities, may have been more common by the start of the Ea rly Neolithic.

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Chapter Nine Conclusion Final analysis To speculate what motivated Neolithi c groups or what cultural, economic or social choices they may have made is a worthy exercise only if the ‘interpretation’ does not go beyond the sc ope of the data recovered (Whittle 1996; Williams-Thorpe 1995). We only have the data that was generated by our investigations, to go beyond that point diminishes the work and creates an illusionary scenario that cannot be proven. Although interpretive archaeology is a useful tool, especially when dealing with prehistoric cultures that l eave scant evidence, it must be tempered with solid facts and repeatable testing me thodology. Speculation on what motivated Neolithic groups or what cultural economic or social choices they might have made must be supported to some degree in the archaeological record. Speculative interpretations are not scienc e, nor should they be represented as such. Based on the results of the trace el ement and density analyses, it appears that by the Early Neolithic and conti nuing through the beginning of the Bronze Age different groups from North Africa exploited obsidian from Pantelleria.

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These tests also reveal that early se ttlers on the island extracted obsidian from Balata dei Turchi, Bagno dell’Ac qua and an undetermined source that may be associated with the Mt. Gelkhamer area. Visual observations of the Balata dei Tu rchi slope indicate that the area is easily accessible by water and provides an adequate landing site where boats or rafts could be safely moored. The presenc e of high-density pr imary, secondary, and tertiary flakes, cores, preforms and point, uniface, and biface fragments provides visual evidence of the extensive processing activity in the area. However, the chronology for the exploitation of this area is still unclear since no artifacts that could provide radi ocarbon dates have been recovered. While it appears that workable obsi dian from the Bagno dell’Acqua area was utilized during the Neolithic and Ea rly Bronze Age the results of the comparative density analysis of geologic samples and artifacts from Zembra and Pantelleria suggest that only one primary sour ce location was heavily utilized by prehistoric groups from Zembra and Pantelleria (see Figure 41). Figure 59: Balata dei Turchi Shoreline

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116 The obsidian from Salto la Vecchia while workable, is not easily accessible and is not considered a likely sour ce of raw material. However, since some of the in situ and off shore material expresses a chemical signature similar to Balata dei Turchi, it is impossible to determine at this time whether any obsidian was collected from Salto la Vecchia. Figure 60: Bagno dell’Acqua Fi g ure 61: Salto la Vecchia

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117Evidence of early exploitation of Pantellerian obsidian is found in transitional Early Neolithic levels at Grotta Uzzo and at Grotta d’Oriente on the island of Sicily (Tusa 1985) but the dat es for these artifacts are considered unreliable since these levels were apparent ly highly disturbed and may represent ambiguous deposition. Archaeological material from Sk orba (Malta) and Lam pedusa, although not included in this study, also indicate that Neolithic communities on these islands were aware of the loca tion of this serviceable, if not aesthetically beautiful obsidian (Trump 1995-1996, 1996; Savona-V entura 1996). Future analysis of artifacts from Neolithic and Bronze Age sites on Malta, Lampedusa, and Sicily and in North Africa will hopefully clarify the role that Pantelleria obsidian played in the establishment of prehi storic trade networks. Conclusion This extensive study has proven that a large source sample assemblage can provide sufficient data to determine s pecific flows on source islands that were exploited by groups during the Neolit hic. Secondly, it has demonstrated that density measurements can be used in so me cases as a low cost preliminary testing method when time, funding, and the need to preserve artifactual material become research issues.

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118The expansion of the prim ary source data base and the identification of specific source flows through a multi-di sciplinary approach provides a tool for researchers to explore in more dept h the methods and conditions by which Neolithic groups collected raw material for tool production which might present a clearer picture of the te chnical and social struct ure of Neolithic society. Further research in the western M editerranean should continue to explore coastal areas for prehistoric settlements. Another future project should entail a reassessment of obsidian artifact assemb lages from earlier excavations using the data collected during this investigation. The result s of this reexamination may enable researchers to ascertain more a ccurately the primary source location of obsidian artifacts recovered from prehistoric sites in the western Mediterranean.

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127 Randle, K., L. H. Ba rfield and B. Bagolini 1993 Recent Italian Obsidian Analyses. Journal of Archaeological Science 1(20): 503-509. Renfrew, Colin. 1969 Trade and Culture Process in European Prehistory. Current Anthropology 10(2-3): 151-169. Renfrew, Colin, J. E. Dixon, and J. R. Cann 1966 Obsidian and Early Cultural Contact in the Near East. Proceedings of the Pr ehistoric Society 32:30-72. 1968 Further Analysis of Near East Obsidian. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 34:319-331. Robb, John E. 1998 Great persons and big men in the Italian Neolithic. In R. Tykot, J. Morter and J. Robb (eds.), Social Dynamics of the Prehistoric Central Mediterranean. Accordia Specialist Series on the Mediterranean 3: 111-121. London, A ccordia Research Centre. Russell, Nerissa 1998 Cattle as wealth in Neolithi c Europe: where’s the beef? In Archaeology of Value: Essays on prestige and the processes of valuation Douglass Bailey and S. Mills (eds.), BAR International Series 730: 42-54. Savona-Ventura, Charles 1996 The Influence of Neolithic man on Maltese Environment. Internet: http://www.geocities.com/RainFore st/3096/neolit.html. Accessed 2/24/99. Savona-Ventura, C. and A. Mifsud 1997 The Maltese Neolithic Dome sticated Mammals. Internet. http://www.geocities.com/Ra inForest/3096/cattle.html. Accessed 2/4/99. Schule, Wilhelm 2000 Preneolithic Navigatio n in the Mediterranean: a paleo-ecological approach. Mediterranean Prehistory Online Issue 2, June 15, 2000. Serio, Giorgia Fodera, Michael Hoskin, and Frank Ventura 1992 The orientations of the Temples of Malta. Journal for the History of Astronomy 23 : 107-119.

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128 Shackleton, J., T. H. van Andel, and C. N. Runnels 1984 Coastal Paleogragraphy of the Central and Western Mediterranean during the Last 125, 000 Years and Its Archaeological Implications. Journal of Field Archaeology 11(3): 307-314. Shackley, Steven M. 1998a Archaeologists, Archaeometrists, and the Notion of Obsidian in Prehistory. Paper pres ented in the symposium: “From Glass to Ceramics: Archaeometry in Arch aeological and Technological Studies.” Society for American Arc haeology, Seattle Washington. 1998b Gamma Rays, X-Rays and Stone Tools: Some Recent Advances In Archaeological Geochemistry. Journal of Archaeological Science 25:259-270. Skeates, Robin 1993 Neolithic Exchange in Cent ral and Southern Italy. In, Trade and Exchange in Prehistoric Europe. C. Scarre and F. Healy (eds.). Oxford: Oxbow Books: 109-114. 1998 The social life of Italian Neo lithic painted pottery. In Bailey: D, and Mills S. (eds.), The Archaeology of Value: Essays on prestige and the processes of valuation BAR International Series 730:131-139. 2000 The Social Dynamics of Encl osure in the Neolithic of the Tavoliere, Southeast Italy. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 13(2): 155-188. Skeates and Whitehouse 1995-1996 New radiocarbon dates fo r prehistoric Italy 2. Accordia Research Papers : 179-191. Skinner, Craig E., Jennifer J. Thatcher, M. Kathleen Davis 1997 X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis and Obsidian Hydration Rim Measurement of Artifact Obsidian from Casale del Dolce and Pantelleria, Italy. Northwest Research Obsidian Studies Laboratory Report 96-15. Stoddart, Simon 1998 Contrasting political strategies in the island of the southern central Mediterranean. In Bailey, D. and Mills, S. (eds.), Archaeology of Value: Essays on prestige and the processes of valuation. BAR International Series 730:59-73.

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129 Simon Stoddart 1999 Redirected light on the indigenous Mediterranean. Antiquity 73 (281): 703. Tagliacozzo, Antonio 1993 Archaeozoologia della Grotta dell ’Uzzo, Sicilia: da un’ economici di caccia ad un’ econocia de pesca ed allevenamento. Rome: Instituto Polegrafico e Zeca deleo Statio. Torrence, R. 1982 The obsidian quarries and their use. In Renfrew A. C. and Wagstaff, M. (eds.), An island polity. The archaeology of exploitation in Melos: 193-221. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1986 Production and Exchange of Stone Tools : Prehistoric Obsidian in the Aegean. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Tozzi, C. 1968 Relazione preliminare sulla I e II campagna di scavi effettuati a Pantelleria. Scienze Preistoriche XXIII (2): 315-388. 1978 Nuovi dati sul villaggio dell’et del bronzo di Mursia a Pantelleria Scientifica 100: 149-157. Trump, D. H. 1995-1996 Radiocarbon dat es from Malta. Accordia Research Papers 6: 173-177. 1996 Skorba: Reports of the Research Co mmittee of the Society of Antiquaries of London. No. XXII. Oxford: Un iversity Press. Tusa, Sebastiano 1985 The Beginning of Farming communi ties in Sicily: The Evidence of Uzzo Cave. In Papers in Italian Archaeology IV. Part ii: Prehistory C. Malone and Simon St oddart (editors). BAR International Series 244:61-82. 1992 La Sicilia nella preistoria. Sellerio Editore, Palermo.

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130 Tykot, Robert H. 1994 Radiocarbon dating and absol ute chronology in Sardinia and Corsica. In Skeates, R. and Whitehouse, R. (eds.), Radiocarbon Dating and Italian Prehistory : 115-145. London: Accordia Research Centre, University of London. 1995 Prehistoric Trade in the Wester n Mediterranean: The Sources and Distribution of Sardinian Obsidian PhD Dissertation, Harvard University. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms. 1996 Obsidian procurement and distri bution in the central and western Mediterranean. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 9: 39-82. 1997 Characterization of the Monte Ar ci (Sardinia) obsidian sources. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:467-79. 1998 Mediterranean islands and mult iple flows: the sources and exploitation of Sardinian obsidi an. In Shackley, M. S. (ed.) Method and Theory in Archaeological Obsidian Studies Advances in Archaeological and Mu seum Science 3: 67-82. New York: Plenum. 2002 Written in Stone: The Multiple Dimensions of Lithic Analysis. In Kardulias P. N. and Yerkes, R. (eds.), Written in Stone Maryland: Lexington Press. Tykot, R. H., and A. J. Ammerman 1997 New Directions in central Mediterranean obsidian studies. Antiquity 71: 1000-1006. Tykot, Robert H., J. Morter, and J. E. Robb 1998 Social Dynamics of the Prehistoric Central Mediterranean London: Accordia Research Centre, University of London Van Dommelen 1999 Island in History. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 12(2): 246-251. Vargo, Barbara, R. Tykot and Maurizio Tosi 2001 Sources and Exploitation of Ob sidian from Pantelleria, Italy Presentation at the 66th Annual Conference of the Society for American Archaeology, Ne w Orleans, Louisiana.

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131 2002 The Identification of Primary Obsidi an Sources on Pantelleria, Italy. Presentation at the 67th Annual Conference of the Society for American Archaeology, Denver, Colorado. Veen, Veronica and Adrian Van der Blom 1992 The First Maltese: origins, c haracter and symbolism of the Ghar Dalam Culture Haarlem, Holland: A & M Printing Ltd. Voytek, Barbara A. 1996 The organization of technolog y and the study of stone tools: cases from the Mediterranean basin. XIII U.I.S.P.P. Congress Proceedings. Forli, Italy. 1997 The Ancient Technology and the study of stone tools: cases from the Mediterranean Basin. In XIII U.S.I.S.P.P. Congress Proceedings Berkley: Universi ty of California. Washington, H. S. 1913a The Volcanoes and Rocks of Pant elleria Part I: Introduction. Journal of Geology 21:653-670. 1913b The Volcanoes and Rocks of Pant elleria, part II: Petrography. Journal of Geology 21:683-713. 1914 The Volcanoes and Rocks of Pante lleria, Part III: Petrology. Journal of Geology 22:17-27. Webster, Gary S. 1997 Islands in Time: Island Sociogeography and Mediterranean Prehistory. Antiquity 71(271): 241-242. Wernick, Robert 1996 Rising from the sea, the m ysterious handwork of giants. Smithsonian 27(6): 62-73. Whitehouse, Ruth D. 1971 The Last Hunter-Gatherers in Southern Italy. World Archaeology 2(3): 239-254. Whittle, Alasdair 1996 Europe in the Neolithic: The Creation of New Worlds Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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132 Williams-Thorpe, Olwen 1995 Obsidian in the Mediterranean and the Near East: A Proveniencing Success Story. Archaeometry 37(2): 217:248. Williams-Thorpe, Olwen, S. E Warren and Jean Courtin 1984 Sources of Archaeological Ob sidian from Southern France. Journal of Archaeological Science 11: 135-146. Williams-Thorpe, O., Warren, S. E. and Nandris, J. 1986 The distribution and provenance of archaeological obsidian in Central and Eastern Europe. Journal of Archaeological Science 11: 183-212. Zoughlami, L. 1991 La recherch prhistorique en Tunisie. Attivit di ricerca e di tutela del patrimonio archaeolog ico e storico-artistico della Tunisia. Seminario di studi. Cagliari 7-11 April 1986.

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133 APPENDICES

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134 Appendix A Analysis Charts

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Provenience Visual Analysis USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2368 PN 4.1 Punta Spadillo/Coastal Hwy surface 1.53.5Pantellerite Weathered Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2370 PN 4.2 Punta Spadillo/Coastal Hwy surface 02Pantellerite Weathered Bla ck White Uniform Yes None Irregular 2371 PN 4.2 Punta Spadillo/Coastal Hwy surface 02Pantellerite Weathered Bla ck White Uniform Yes None Irregular 2372 PN 4.3 Punta Spadillo/Coastal Hwy surface 01.5Pantellerite Weathered Black White & Brown Uniform Yes None Irregular 2373 PN 4.3 Punta Spadillo/Coastal Hwy surface 01Pantellerite Weathered Bla ck Gray Uniform Yes None Irregular 2374 PN 4.3 Punta Spadillo/Coastal Hwy surface 00.5Pantellerite Weathered Grayblack White Mottled Yes None Irregular 2375 PN 5 Punta Spadillo/Coastal Hwy in-situ 01Pantellerite Weathered Bla ck None Uniform No None Irregular 2376 PN 5 Punta Spadillo/Coastal Hwy in-situ 01.5Pantellerite Weathered Bl ack Gray Uniform Yes None Irregular 2377 PN 5 Punta Spadillo/Coastal Hwy in-situ 00.5Pantellerite Weathered Dark Gray White Mottled Yes None Irregular 2378 PN 5 Punta Spadillo/Coastal Hwy in-situ 00.5Pantellerite Weathered Dark Gray White Mottled Yes None Irregular Table 3: Visual Analysis of Geologic Samples from Pantelleria 135

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2379 PN 5 Punta Spadillo/Coastal Hwy in-situ 00.5Pantellerite Weathered Dark Gray White Mottled Yes None Irregular 2380 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 13.5Obsidian Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 2381 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 14recut to see Weathered Green None Uniform No Unable to See Smooth 2382 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 14Obsidian Weathered Green Wh ite Banded No Directional Smooth 2383 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 0.54Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No Directional Smooth 2384 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 13.5Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No NonDirectional Smooth 2385 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No NonDirectional Smooth 2386 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 1.53Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform No None Smooth 2387 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 0.53Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Cloudy No None Smooth 2388 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 0.53.5Obsidian Weathered Green Gr ay Uniform No Directional Irregular 2389 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 0.52.5Obsidian Weathered Green Gray Banded No Directional Smooth 2390 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2391 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 1.54Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform No None Smooth 2392 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 13.5Obsidian Weathered Green None Cloudy No None Smooth 2393 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Smooth 136

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2394 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2395 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2396 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi/Road surface N/AN/APumice N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2397 PN 7 S of PN 6 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 22Obsidian Weathered Green White Mottled Yes NonDirectional Irregular 2398 PN 7 S of PN 6 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 2.53Pantellerite Weathered Green Brown Mottled Yes None Irregular 2399 PN 7 S of PN 6 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 22Pantellerite Weathered Green White & Brown Uniform Yes None Irregular 2400 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 0.53Obsidian Weathered Gr een White Uniform Yes None Smooth 2401 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 13.5Obsidian Weathered Green Gray Banded No Directional Smooth 2402 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 0.53Obsidian Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 2403 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 13Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No Directional Smooth 2404 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 0.53Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No Directional Smooth 2405 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 14Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Banded No Directional Smooth 2406 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2407 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 13Obsidian Weathered Green Gr ay Banded No Directional Smooth 2408 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 1.53.5Obsidian Weathered Green Gray Banded No Directional Smooth 2409 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 1.54Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2410 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes None Smooth 137

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2411 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 0.54Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2412 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2413 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 0.53Obsidian Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 2414 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 0.53.5Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform No None Smooth 2415 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 0.53Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform No None Smooth 2416 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 0.53Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform No None Smooth 2417 PN 9 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 11Pantellerite Weathered Grayblack White Mottled No None Irregular 2418 PN 9 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 0.51Pantellerite Weathered Grayblack Gray Mottled No None Irregular 2419 PN 9 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 0.51Pantellerite Weathered Grayblack Gray Mottled No None Irregular 2420 PN 9 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 00.5UnidentifiableWeathered Grayblack Gray Banded No Directional Irregular 2421 PN 9 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 1.52.5Obsidian Weathered Greenbrown (?) None Uniform No None Smooth 2422 PN 9 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 12Pantellerite Weathered Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2423 PN 9 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 11.5Pantellerite Weathered Greenbrown (?) None Uniform No None Smooth 2424 PN 9 Balata dei Turchi/Road surface 0 0 dull/low Pantellerite Weathered Greenbrown (?) None Uniform No None Smooth 2425 PN 11 Mt Gelkhamer/Road surface 0. 51Pantellerite Weathered Grayblack Gray Banded Yes Directional Irregular 138

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2426 PN 11 Mt Gelkhamer/Road surface 0.51Pantellerite Weathered Grayblack None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2427 PN 11 Mt Gelkhamer/Road surface 11.5Pantellerite Weathered Grayblack None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2428 PN 11 Mt Gelkhamer/Road surface 00.5Pantellerite Weathered Grayblack None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2429 PN 11 Mt Gelkhamer/Road surface 0.50.5Pantellerite Weathered Grayblack None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2430 PN 11 Mt Gelkhamer/Road surface 0 0 dull/low Basalt Weathered Light Gray None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2431 PN 11 Mt Gelkhamer/Road surface 0.50.5Pantellerite Weathered Grayblack None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2432 PN 11 Mt Gelkhamer/Road surface 0 0 dull/low Basalt Weathered Grayblack None Uniform No None Irregular 2433 PN 11 Mt Gelkhamer/Road surface 22.5Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2434 PN 11 Mt Gelkhamer/Road surface 01Pantellerite Weathered Brownblack Brown Mottled No None Irregular 2435 PN 11 Mt Gelkhamer/Road surface 1.52Pantellerite Weathered Gr een None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2436 PN 11 Mt Gelkhamer/Road surface 1.52Pantellerite Weathered Gr een None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2437 PN 11 Mt Gelkhamer/Road surface 1.52Pantellerite Weathered Gr een None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2438 PN 11 Mt Gelkhamer/Road surface 1.52Pantellerite Weathered Grayblack Brown Mottled Yes None Irregular 2439 PN 11 Mt Gelkhamer/Road surface 1.52Pantellerite Weathered Grayblack None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2440 PN 11 Mt Gelkhamer/Road surface 3.52Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No Directional Smooth 2441 PN 11 Mt Gelkhamer/Road surface 32.5Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform No None Smooth 139

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2442 PN 11 Mt Gelkhamer/Road surface 1.52Pantellerite Weathered Gr een None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2443 PN 11 Mt Gelkhamer/Road surface 11Pantellerite Weathered Gr een None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2444 PN 12 Road to Gelkhamer/Westside surface 0.51Pantellerite Weathered Grayblack Brown Mottled Yes None Irregular 2445 PN 12 Road to Gelkhamer/Westside surface 0.51Pantellerite Weathered Grayblack None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2446 PN 12 Road to Gelkhamer/Westside surface 0 0 dull/low Pantellerite Weathered Grayblack None Mottled No None Irregular 2447 PN 12 Road to Gelkhamer/Westside surface 0.51Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2448 PN 12 Road to Gelkhamer/Westside surface 0.50.5Pantellerite Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2449 PN 12 Road to Gelkhamer/Westside surface 0.50.5Pantellerite Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2450 PN 12 Road to Gelkhamer/Westside surface 2.53Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform No None Smooth 2451 PN 12 Road to Gelkhamer/Westside surface 2.53Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform Yes Directional Smooth 2452 PN 12 Road to Gelkhamer/Westside surface 0.50.5Pantellerite Weathered Green Gray Uniform No None Irregular 2453 PN 12 Road to Gelkhamer/Westside surface 33Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2454 PN 12 Road to Gelkhamer/Westside surface 01Pantellerite Weathered Grayblack None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2455 PN 12 Road to Gelkhamer/Westside surface 00.5Pantellerite Weathered Grayblack None Uniform No None Irregular 2456 PN 13 Road to Gelkhamer/Eastside surface/slope 0.51Pantellerite weathered Green Brown Mottled Yes NonDirectional Irregular 2457 PN 14.1 Road above Bagno dell’ Acqua surface 0.52.5Pantellerite Weathered Green None Mottled Yes None Irregular 140

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2458 PN 14.1 Road above Bagno dell’ Acqua surface 0.52.5Pantellerite Weathered Grayblack None Mottled Yes None Irregular 2459 PN 14.1 Road above Bagno dell’ Acqua surface 0.52.5Pantellerite Weathered Blackgray None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2460 PN 14.1 Road above Bagno dell’ Acqua surface 12Pantellerite Weathered Gr een None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2461 PN 14.1 Road above Bagno dell’ Acqua surface 01Pantellerite Weathered Bl ack None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2462 PN 14.1 Road above Bagno dell’ Acqua surface 0 0 dull/low Pantellerite Weathered Blackgray None Mottled Yes None Irregular 2463 PN 14.2 Road above Bagno dell’ Acqua surface/sample from core 33.5Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No Directional Smooth 2464 PN 14.2 Road above Bagno dell’ Acqua surface/sample from core 33.5Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No Directional Smooth 2465 PN 14.2 Road above Bagno dell’ Acqua surface/sample from core 33.5Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No Directional Smooth 2466 PN 15.1 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ/wall & surface 0 0 dull/low UnidentifiableWeathered Dark Gray None Uniform No None Irregular 2467 PN 15.1 Road above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ/wall & surface 0.5 0 dull/low Pantellerite Weathered Green None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2468 PN 15.1 Road above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ/wall & surface 1 0 dull/low Obsidian Weathered Green Gray B anded No Directional Irregular 2469 PN 15.1 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ/wall & surface 0.5 0 dull/low UnidentifiableWeathered Redbrown None Uniform No None Irregular 2470 PN 15.1 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ/wall & surface 0 0 dull/low UnidentifiableWeathered Dark Gray None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2471 PN 15.1 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ/wall & surface 23Obsidian Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 2472 PN 15.1 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ/wall & surface 0 0 dull/low UnidentifiableWeathered Dark Gray None Uniform No None Smooth 2473 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ 0 0 dull/low Pantellerite Weathered Dark Gray None Mottled No None Irregular 141

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2474 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ 11Pantellerite Weathered Gr een None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2475 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ 0.51Pantellerite Weathered Gr een None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2476 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ 01UnidentifiableWeathered Black Gray Banded Yes Directional Irregular 2477 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ 0.52Obsidian Weathered Greenbrown (?) None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2478 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ 33Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No Directional Smooth 2479 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ 11Pantellerite Weathered Gr een None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2480 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ 0.51Pantellerite Weathered Gr een None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2481 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ 0.50.5Pantellerite Weathered Grayblack None Mottled Yes None Irregular 2482 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ 0.50.5Pantellerite Weathered Grayblack None Mottled Yes None Irregular 2483 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ 0 0 dull/low Pumice Weathered Light Gray None Mottled Yes None Irregular 2484 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ 0.50.5Pantellerite Weathered Grayblack None Mottled Yes None Irregular 2485 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ 0 0 dull/low UnidentifiableWeathered Red Dark gray Mottled No None Smooth 2486 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ 00.5Pantellerite Weathered Bl ack Gray Banded No Directional Smooth 2487 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ 3.52Obsidian Weathered Gr een Gray Uniform No None Smooth 2488 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ 0.53.5Pantellerite Weathered Green None Uniform Yes None Irregular 142

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2489 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ 00.5UnidentifiableWeathered gr ay None Uniform No None Smooth 2490 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ 0 0 dull/low UnidentifiableWeathered Dark Gray None Uniform No None Smooth 2491 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ 13.5Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform No None Smooth 2492 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ 0 0 dull/low UnidentifiableWeathered Medium Dark Gray Dark Gray StreakedNo NonDirectional Smooth 2493 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2494 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ 0.53Pantellerite Weathered Green Dark Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 2495 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ N/AN/APantellerite Weather ed N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2496 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ N/AN/APantellerite Weather ed N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2497 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ N/AN/APantellerite Weather ed N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2498 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ N/AN/APantellerite Weather ed N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2499 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ N/AN/APantellerite Weather ed N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2500 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ N/AN/APantellerite Weather ed N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2501 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ N/AN/APantellerite Weather ed N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2502 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ N/AN/APantellerite Weather ed N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2503 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ N/AN/APantellerite Weather ed N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 143

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2504 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ N/AN/APantellerite Weather ed N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2505 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ N/AN/APantellerite Weather ed N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2506 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ N/AN/APantellerite Weather ed N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2507 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ N/AN/APantellerite Weather ed N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2508 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ N/AN/APantellerite Weather ed N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2509 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ N/AN/APantellerite Weather ed N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2510 PN 15.2 Above Bagno dell’ Acqua in-situ N/AN/APantellerite Weather ed N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2511 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam 23Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2512 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2513 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2514 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2515 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2516 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2517 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2518 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2519 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 144

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2520 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2521 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2522 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2523 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2524 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2525 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2526 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2527 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2528 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2529 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2530 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2531 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2532 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2533 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2534 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2535 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 145

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2536 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2537 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2538 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2539 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2540 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2541 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2542 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2543 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2544 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2545 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2546 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2547 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2548 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2549 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2550 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2551 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 146

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2552 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2553 PN 18.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/from a seam N/AN/APantellerite Weathered N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Irregular 2554 PN 18.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 2.53Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform No None Smooth 2555 PN 18.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 12.5Obsidian Weathered Green Gray StreakedYes NonDirectional Smooth 2556 PN 18.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 2.52.5Obsidian Weathered Green Dark Green Banded Yes Directional Smooth 2557 PN 18.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 2.52.5Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2558 PN 18.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 2.52.5Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2559 PN 18.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 33Obsidian Weathered Green None (?) Banded (?) Yes Directional Smooth 2560 PN 18.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 33Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2561 PN 18.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 3.53.5Obsidian Fresh Green none Banded No Directional Smooth 2562 PN 18.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ N/AN/APantellerite Weather ed Green N/A N/A No N/A Irregular 2563 PN 18.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 3.5N/AObsidian Weathered Green None N/A No N/A Smooth 2564 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 3.53.5Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2565 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 2.53Pantellerite Weathered Green RedBrown StreakedYes (?) NonDirectional Irregular 2566 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 33.5Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform No None Smooth 2567 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 2.53Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2568 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 33Obsidian Weat hered Green None Uniform No None Smooth 147

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2569 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 1.53.5Obsidian W eathered Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2570 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 2.53Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform No None Smooth 2571 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 3.52.5Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform No None Smooth 2572 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 22.5Pantellerite Weathered Green None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2573 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 2.53Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2574 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 2.52.5Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform No None Smooth 2575 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 33Obsidian Weathered Greengray None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2576 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 2.52.5Obsidian Weathered Greengray None Uniform No None Smooth 2577 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 2.52.5Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2578 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 23.5Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2579 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia in-situ N/AN/AObsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform No None Smooth 2580 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia in-situ N/AN/AObsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform No None Smooth 2581 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia in-situ N/AN/AObsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform No None Smooth 2582 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia in-situ N/AN/AObsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform No None Smooth 2583 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia in-situ N/AN/AObsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform No None Smooth 2584 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia in-situ N/AN/AObsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform No None Smooth 148

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2585 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia in-situ N/AN/AObsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform No None Smooth 2586 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam 2.53Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2587 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam 32.5Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2588 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam 2.52.5Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2589 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam 1.52.5Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2590 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam 23.5Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2591 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam 1.53Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2592 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam 1.52Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2593 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam 1.52Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2594 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam 1.52Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2595 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam 1.53Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2596 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam 2.52Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2597 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam 2.52Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2598 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam 1.52.5Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2599 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam 0.52.5Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2600 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam 2.52Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform No None (?) Smooth 2601 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam 1.52.5Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Smooth 149

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2602 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam N/AN/AUnidentifiableN/A Dark Gray black Mottled N/A N/A Irregular 2603 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam 2.52.5Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2604 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam 1 0 dull/low Pantellerite Weathered Green Brown Uniform No NonDirectional Irregular 2605 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam 23Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2606 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam 2.53Obsidian Fresh Gr een None Uniform No None Smooth 2607 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam N/AN/AObsidian Weather ed N/A N/A N/A No N/A Irregular 2608 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam N/AN/AObsidian Weather ed N/A N/A N/A No N/A Irregular 2609 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam N/AN/AObsidian Weather ed N/A N/A N/A No N/A Irregular 2610 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam N/AN/AObsidian Weather ed N/A N/A N/A No N/A Irregular 2611 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam N/AN/APantellerite Weat hered N/A N/A N/A No N/A Irregular 2612 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam N/AN/APantellerite Weat hered N/A N/A N/A No N/A Irregular 2613 PN 19.1 Salto la Vecchia in-situ/seam N/AN/APantellerite Weat hered N/A N/A N/A No N/A Irregular 2614 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2615 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 14Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2616 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2617 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2618 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 10.5Obsidian Weathered Green Brown Mottled No None Irregular 150

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2619 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2620 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2621 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2622 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2623 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2624 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2625 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2626 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2627 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 12Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2628 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 12Obsidian Weathered Green Br own StreakedNo None Irregular 2629 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 12Obsidian Weathered Green Br own StreakedNo None Irregular 2630 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green Brown Mottled No None Irregular 2631 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2632 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2633 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 12Obsidian Weathered Green Brown Mottled No None Irregular 2634 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2635 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 14Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 151

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2636 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 14Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2637 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 14Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2638 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 14Obsidian Weathered Green Brown Mottled No None Irregular 2639 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 14Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2640 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 14Obsidian Weathered Green Brown Mottled No None Irregular 2641 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 12Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2642 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2643 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green Br own StreakedNo None Irregular 2644 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 23Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2645 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2646 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green Br own StreakedNo None Irregular 2647 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green Br own StreakedNo None Irregular 2648 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2649 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green Br own StreakedNo None Irregular 2650 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 13Obsidian Weathered Green No ne Uniform No None Irregular 2651 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ N/AN/AObsidian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2652 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ N/AN/AObsidian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 152

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2653 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ N/AN/AObsidian N/A N/ A N/A N/A N/A N/A Irregular 2654 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ N/AN/AObsidian N/A N/ A N/A N/A N/A N/A Irregular 2655 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ N/AN/AObsidian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2656 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia in-situ N/AN/AObsidian N/A N/ A N/A N/A N/A N/A Irregular 2657 PN 19.3 Salto la Vecchia in-situ 2.54Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2658 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m secondary deposits/base of slope 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2659 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m secondary deposits/base of slope 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2660 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m secondary deposits/base of slope 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2661 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m secondary deposits/base of slope 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2662 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m secondary deposits/base of slope 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2663 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m secondary deposits/base of slope 14Obsidian Weathered Green Brown Mottled No None Irregular 2664 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m secondary deposits/base of slope 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2665 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m secondary deposits/base of slope 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 153

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2666 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m secondary deposits/base of slope 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2667 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m secondary deposits/base of slope 13Obsidian Weathered Green Brown Banded No None Irregular 2668 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m secondary deposits/base of slope 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2669 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m secondary deposits/base of slope 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2670 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 13Obsidian Weathered Green Brown Mottled No Unable to See Irregular 2671 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2672 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2673 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 13Obsidian Weathered Green Brown StreakedNo None Irregular 2674 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 0.50.5Obsidian Weathered Green White StreakedNo Unable to See Irregular 2675 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2676 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 154

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2677 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2678 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2679 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 13Obsidian Weathered Green Brown StreakedNo Unable to See Irregular 2680 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2681 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green Brown Mottled No None Irregular 2682 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2683 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2684 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2685 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2686 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2687 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green White StreakedNo None Irregular 155

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2688 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green Brown Mottled No None Irregular 2689 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green Brown Mottled No None Irregular 2690 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2691 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes None Irregular 2692 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2693 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2694 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green Brown Mottled No None Irregular 2695 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2696 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2697 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green Brown Mottled No None Irregular 2698 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 156

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2699 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2700 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2701 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2702 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2703 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2704 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2705 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2706 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2707 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2708 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2709 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 157

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2710 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave N/AN/AObsidian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2711 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface/high & slope up to cave 0 0 dull/low Obsidian Weathered Green Brown Mottled No Unable to See Irregular 2712 PN 25.3 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m crumbly boulder surface 0.52.5Obsidian Slighty Weatherd Green None Uniform No Unable to See Smooth 2713 PN 25.3 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m crumbly boulder surface 0.52.5Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform No Unable to See Smooth 2714 PN 25.3 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m crumbly boulder surface 0.52.5Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform No Unable to See Smooth 2715 PN 25.3 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m crumbly boulder surface N/AN/AObsidian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2716 PN 25.3 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m crumbly boulder surface N/AN/AObsidian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2717 PN 25.3 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m crumbly boulder surface N/AN/AObsidian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2718 PN 25.3 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m crumbly boulder surface N/AN/AObsidian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2719 PN 25.3 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m crumbly boulder surface N/AN/AObsidian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2720 PN 25.3 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m crumbly boulder surface N/AN/AObsidian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 158

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2721 PN 25.3 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m crumbly boulder surface N/AN/AObsidian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2722 PN 25.3 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m crumbly boulder surface N/AN/AObsidian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2723 PN 25.3 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m crumbly boulder surface N/AN/AObsidian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2724 PN 25.3 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m crumbly boulder surface N/AN/AObsidian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2725 PN 25.4 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m in-situ boulder 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No Unable to See Irregular 2726 PN 25.4 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m in-situ boulder 13Obsidian Weathered Gr een None Uniform No None Irregular 2727 PN 25.4 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m in-situ boulder 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No Unable to See Irregular 2728 PN 25.4 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m in-situ boulder 0.53Obsidian W eathered Green None Uniform No Unable to See Irregular 2729 PN 25.5 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m surface 13Obsidian Weathered Green Green Uniform No Directional Irregular 2730 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow secondary /20 cm thick seam in pumice N/AN/APumice N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2731 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow secondary /20 cm thick seam in pumice N/AN/APumice N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 159

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2732 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow secondary /20 cm thick seam in pumice N/AN/APumice N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2733 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow secondary /20 cm thick seam in pumice 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2734 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow secondary /20 cm thick seam in pumice 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2735 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow secondary /20 cm thick seam in pumice 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2736 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow secondary /20 cm thick seam in pumice 24Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2737 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow secondary /20 cm thick seam in pumice 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2738 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow secondary /20 cm thick seam in pumice 23Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2739 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow secondary /20 cm thick seam in pumice 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2740 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow secondary /20 cm thick seam in pumice 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2741 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow secondary /20 cm thick seam in pumice 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2742 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow secondary /20 cm thick seam in pumice 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 160

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2743 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow secondary /20 cm thick seam in pumice 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2744 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow secondary /20 cm thick seam in pumice 0.54Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No Unable to See Irregular 2745 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow secondary /20 cm thick seam in pumice N/AN/APumice N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2746 PN 26.2 Balata dei Turchi/offshore 1-15 m secondary/tertiary 14Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Grainy 2747 PN 26.2 Balata dei Turchi/offshore 1-15 m secondary/tertiary 14Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Grainy 2748 PN 26.2 Balata dei Turchi/offshore 1-15 m secondary/tertiary 14Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Grainy 2749 PN 26.2 Balata dei Turchi/offshore 1-15 m secondary/tertiary 24Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Grainy 2750 PN 26.2 Balata dei Turchi/offshore 1-15 m secondary/tertiary 24Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Grainy 2751 PN 26.2 Balata dei Turchi/offshore 1-15 m secondary/tertiary 24Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Grainy 2752 PN 26.2 Balata dei Turchi/offshore 1-15 m secondary/tertiary 24Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Grainy 2753 PN 26.2 Balata dei Turchi/offshore 1-15 m secondary/tertiary 34Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Grainy 161

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2754 PN 26.2 Balata dei Turchi/offshore 1-15 m secondary/tertiary 14Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Grainy 2755 PN 26.2 Balata dei Turchi/offshore 1-15 m secondary/tertiary 24Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Grainy 2756 PN 26.3 Balata dei Turchi/shore lg boulder 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2757 PN 26.3 Balata dei Turchi/shore lg boulder 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2758 PN 26.4 Balata dei Turchi/shore surface/15 m from base of pumice 0.54Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No Unable to See Irregular 2759 PN 26.5 Balata dei Turchi/shore surface/beach collection 14Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform Yes None Smooth 2760 PN 26.5 Balata dei Turchi/shore surface/beach collection 24Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2761 PN 26.5 Balata dei Turchi/shore surface/beach collection 24Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2762 PN 26.5 Balata dei Turchi/shore surface/beach collection 14Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2763 PN 26.5 Balata dei Turchi/shore surface/beach collection 24Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2764 PN 26.5 Balata dei Turchi/shore surface/beach collection 24Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2765 PN 26.5 Balata dei Turchi/shore surface/beach collection 14Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2766 PN 26.5 Balata dei Turchi/shore surface/beach collection 14.5Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No Directional Smooth 2767 PN 26.5 Balata dei Turchi/shore surface/beach collection 14.5Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2768 PN 26.5 Balata dei Turchi/shore surface/beach collection 14Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2769 PN 26.6 Balata dei Turchi/shore surface/at base of pumice 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 162

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2770 PN 26.6 Balata dei Turchi/shore surface/at base of pumice 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2771 PN 26.6 Balata dei Turchi/shore surface/at base of pumice 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2772 PN 26.6 Balata dei Turchi/shore surface/at base of pumice 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2773 PN 26.6 Balata dei Turchi/shore surface/at base of pumice 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2774 PN 26.6 Balata dei Turchi/shore surface/at base of pumice 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2775 PN 26.6 Balata dei Turchi/shore surface/at base of pumice 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2776 PN 26.6 Balata dei Turchi/shore surface/at base of pumice 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2777 PN 26.6 Balata dei Turchi/shore surface/at base of pumice 24Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2778 PN 26.6 Balata dei Turchi/shore surface/at base of pumice 24Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No None Irregular 2779 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 11Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2780 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 11Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2781 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 13Obsidian Waterworn Green Gray Banded Yes None Smooth 2782 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 11Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2783 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 0 0 dull/low UnidentifiableWaterworn Grayblack None Uniform no None Smooth 2784 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 0 0 dull/low Obsidian Waterworn Greengray None Uniform No None Smooth 2785 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 14Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2786 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 01Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 163

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2787 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 14Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2788 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 01Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2789 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 11Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2790 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 11Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2791 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 0 0 dull/low Obsidian Waterworn Green Gray StreakedNo None Smooth 2792 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 14Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2793 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 0 0 dull/low UnidentifiableWaterworn Grayblack None Mottled No None Smooth 2794 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 14Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2795 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 12Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2796 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 0 0 dull/low Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2797 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 11Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2798 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 11Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2799 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 0 0 dull/low Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2800 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 11Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2801 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 11Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2802 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 23Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2803 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 13Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 164

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2804 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 0 0 dull/low Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2805 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 14Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2806 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 11Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2807 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 11Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2808 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 11.5Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2809 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 1.53Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2810 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 12Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2811 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 0.52Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2812 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia offshore collection ~20m 0.52Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None Smooth 2813 PN 28 Balata dei Turchi offshore collection ~ 20m 14Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No Unable to See waterworn irregular 2814 PN 28 Balata dei Turchi offshore collection ~ 20m 14Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform Yes None waterworn irregular 2815 PN 28 Balata dei Turchi offshore collection ~ 20m 0.54Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None waterworn irregular 2816 PN 28 Balata dei Turchi offshore collection ~ 20m 14Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None waterworn irregular 2817 PN 28 Balata dei Turchi offshore collection ~ 20m 0.54Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None waterworn irregular 2818 PN 28 Balata dei Turchi offshore collection ~ 20m 14Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None waterworn irregular 2819 PN 28 Balata dei Turchi offshore collection ~ 20m 1.54Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None waterworn irregular 165

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 2820 PN 28 Balata dei Turchi offshore collection ~ 20m 14Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None waterworn irregular 2821 PN 28 Balata dei Turchi offshore collection ~ 20m 14Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None waterworn irregular 2822 PN 28 Balata dei Turchi offshore collection ~ 20m 14Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None waterworn irregular 2823 PN 28 Balata dei Turchi offshore collection ~ 20m 13Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None waterworn irregular 2824 PN 28 Balata dei Turchi offshore collection ~ 20m 13Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None waterworn irregular 2825 PN 28 Balata dei Turchi offshore collection ~ 20m 13Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform no None waterworn irregular 2828 PN 28 Balata dei Turchi offshore collection ~ 20m 14Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform No None waterworn irregular 4843 PN 104 Punta li Marsi surface by lighthouse 23Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Brownblack Gray Banded Yes Directional Irregular 4844 PN 104 Punta li Marsi surface by lighthouse 23Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Brownblack Gray Banded Yes Directional Irregular 4845 PN 104 Punta li Marsi surface by lighthouse 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 4846 PN 104 Punta li Marsi surface by lighthouse 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4847 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4848 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4849 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface 34Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4850 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface 33Obsidian Fresh/W eathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4851 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface 14Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Mottled Yes Nondirectional Smooth 166

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 4852 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface 34Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4853 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface 34Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4854 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4855 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4856 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 13Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4857 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4858 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4859 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 4860 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4861 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 12Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 4862 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Waterworn Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4863 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4864 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4865 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4866 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Mottled Yes Nondirectional Irregular 4867 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Banded Yes Directional Smooth 4868 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 167

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 4869 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 23Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4870 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform No Not visible Smooth 4871 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 12Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 4872 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 4873 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4874 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4875 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 4876 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4877 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4878 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4879 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4880 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green White StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 4881 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No Not visible Smooth 4882 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 4883 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 4884 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 168

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 4885 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 34Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4886 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 13Obsidian Fresh Green None Banded Yes Directional Smooth 4887 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 4888 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 4889 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Nondirectional Smooth 4890 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Nondirectional Smooth 4891 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4892 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4893 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 4894 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 4895 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 4896 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4897 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 13Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Nondirectional Smooth 4898 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 4899 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 23Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 4900 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 23Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Nondirectional Smooth 169

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 4901 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 13Obsidian Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Nondirectional Smooth 4902 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4903 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4904 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 23Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 4905 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 13Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 4906 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4907 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4908 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Mottled Yes Nondirectional Smooth 4909 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray StreakedYes Directional Smooth 4910 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 13Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Nondirectional Smooth 4911 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4912 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 4913 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4914 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 4915 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 33Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4916 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 170

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 4917 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 4918 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 4919 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4920 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 23Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4921 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 4922 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4923 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 34Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4924 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 13Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Blackred None Uniform No Not visible Smooth 4925 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4926 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 13Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4927 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green White StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 4928 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 4929 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4930 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4931 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 13Obsidian Weathered Green Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 4932 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 171

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 4933 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Whit e StreakedYes Directional Smooth 4934 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4935 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4936 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4937 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4938 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4939 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 4940 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4941 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform No Not visible Smooth 4942 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform No Not visible Smooth 4943 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 12Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4944 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4945 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4946 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform No Nondirectional Smooth 4947 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4948 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 13Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 172

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 4949 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4950 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 13Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4951 PN 110 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4952 PN 110 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4953 PN 110 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 23Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4954 PN 110 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Nondirectional Smooth 4955 PN 110 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 23Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Nondirectional Smooth 4956 PN 110 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4957 PN 110 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4958 PN 110 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 34Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4959 PN 110 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4960 PN 110 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 23Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Grainy 4961 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4962 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4963 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Directional Smooth 4964 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 02Obsidian Weathered Greengray Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 4965 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 173

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 4966 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4967 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 24Obsidian Fresh Greengray Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 4968 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4969 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 13Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform No Not visible Smooth 4970 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4971 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4972 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4973 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 13Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4974 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 4975 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 14Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 4976 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic workshop 34Obsidian Fresh Green Green Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4977 PN 112 Balata dei Turchi surface medium to high density lithic debitage 12Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4978 PN 112 Balata dei Turchi surface medium to high density lithic debitage 14Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Nondirectional Smooth 4979 PN 112 Balata dei Turchi surface medium to high density lithic debitage 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4980 PN 112 Balata dei Turchi surface medium to high density lithic debitage 34Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 174

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 4981 PN 112 Balata dei Turchi surface medium to high density lithic debitage 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Nondirectional Smooth 4982 PN 112 Balata dei Turchi surface medium to high density lithic debitage 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 4983 PN 112 Balata dei Turchi surface medium to high density lithic debitage 23Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4984 PN 112 Balata dei Turchi surface medium to high density lithic debitage 13Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4985 PN 112 Balata dei Turchi surface medium to high density lithic debitage 34Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform No Not visible Smooth 4986 PN 113 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site, eastern edge of western wash 34Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 4987 PN 113 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site, eastern edge of western wash 33Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4988 PN 113 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site, eastern edge of western wash 34Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 4989 PN 113 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site, eastern edge of western wash 34Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 175

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 4990 PN 113 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site, eastern edge of western wash 24Obsidian Weathered Brownblack Gray StreakedYes Directional Smooth 4991 PN 113 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site, eastern edge of western wash 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Directional Smooth 4992 PN 113 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site, eastern edge of western wash 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4993 PN 113 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site, eastern edge of western wash 21Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4994 PN 113 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site, eastern edge of western wash 34Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 4995 PN 113 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site, eastern edge of western wash 14Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Directional Smooth 4996 PN 113 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site, eastern edge of western wash 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 176

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 4997 PN 113 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site, eastern edge of western wash 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Directional Smooth 4998 PN 114 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 13Obsidian Fresh Green Brown StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 4999 PN 114 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5000 PN 114 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Directional Smooth 5001 PN 114 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 34Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 5002 PN 114 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 34Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5003 PN 114 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 5004 PN 114 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 34Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5005 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi surface highhigh density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Mottled Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5006 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi surface highhigh density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5007 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi surface highhigh density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 177

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5008 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi surface highhigh density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5009 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi surface highhigh density lithic reduction site 13Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Mottled Yes Directional Irregular 5010 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi surface highhigh density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5011 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi surface highhigh density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5012 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi surface highhigh density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5013 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi surface highhigh density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5014 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi surface highhigh density lithic reduction site 14Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 5015 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi surface highhigh density lithic reduction site 23Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Mottled Yes Nondirectional Irregular 5016 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi surface highhigh density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Mottled Yes Nondirectional Irregular 5017 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi surface highhigh density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5018 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi surface highhigh density lithic reduction site 13Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Nondirectional Smooth 178

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5019 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi surface highhigh density lithic reduction site 14Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5020 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi surface highhigh density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Directional Smooth 5021 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 14Obsidian Fresh Green Brown Mottled Yes Not visible Smooth 5022 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 14Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5023 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5024 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5025 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 13Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5026 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 5027 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray StreakedYes Directional Smooth 5028 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 12Obsidian Fresh Greengray Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5029 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Banded Yes Directional Smooth 179

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5030 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5031 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5032 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 13Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5033 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5034 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5035 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5036 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 23Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5037 PN 118 Balata dei Turchi surface reduction site artifacts, do not cut 23Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform No Not visible Smooth 5038 PN 118 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5039 PN 118 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 14Obsidian Fresh Greengray None Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5040 PN 118 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 180

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5041 PN 118 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5042 PN 118 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5043 PN 118 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Mottled Yes Not visible Smooth 5044 PN 118 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5045 PN 118 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 14Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Directional Smooth 5047 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi surface 23Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5048 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi surface 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5049 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi surface low density lithic reduction area SW edge 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5050 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi surface low density lithic reduction area SW edge 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5051 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi surface low density lithic reduction area SW edge 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5052 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi surface low density lithic reduction area SW edge 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 181

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5053 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi surface low density lithic reduction area SW edge 34Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5054 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi surface low density lithic reduction area SW edge 13Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5055 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi surface low density lithic reduction area SW edge 13Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5056 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi surface low density lithic reduction area SW edge 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5057 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi surface low density lithic reduction area SW edge 13Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5058 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi surface low density lithic reduction area SW edge 23Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5059 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi surface low density lithic reduction area SW edge 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5060 PN 122 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction area 14Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 5061 PN 122 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction area 33Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform No Not visible Smooth 182

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5062 PN 122 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction area 11Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Mottled Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5063 PN 122 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction area 33Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 5064 PN 122 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction area 33Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5065 PN 122 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction area 34Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5066 PN 123 Balata dei Turchi surface on point east of car < 30 m 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5067 PN 124 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5068 PN 124 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 14Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5069 PN 124 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 14Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5070 PN 124 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 14Obsidian Fresh Green Brown StreakedYes Nondirectional Irregular 5071 PN 124 Balata dei Turchi surface medium density lithic reduction site 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5072 PN 125 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site near rd by small structure <10 m down slope 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 183

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5073 PN 125 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site near rd by small structure <10 m down slope 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5074 PN 125 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site near rd by small structure <10 m down slope 02Obsidian Weathered Green Brown StreakedYes Nondirectional Irregular 5075 PN 125 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site near rd by small structure <10 m down slope 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5076 PN 125 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site near rd by small structure <10 m down slope 13Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5077 PN 125 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site near rd by small structure <10 m down slope 03Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5078 PN 125 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site near rd by small structure <10 m down slope 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5079 PN 125 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site near rd by small structure <10 m down slope 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 184

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5080 PN 125 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site near rd by small structure <10 m down slope 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5081 PN 125 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site near rd by small structure <10 m down slope 12Obsidian Weathered Greengray Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5082 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi in situ west of ashflow near wall, lower first layer 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Banded Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5083 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi in situ west of ashflow near wall, lower first layer 23Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Brown Banded Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5084 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi in situ west of ashflow near wall, lower first layer 13Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5085 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi in situ west of ashflow near wall, lower first layer 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5086 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi in situ west of ashflow near wall, lower first layer 23Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5087 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi in situ west of ashflow near wall, lower first layer 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Brown Mottled Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5088 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi in situ west of ashflow near wall, lower first layer 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5089 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi in situ west of ashflow near wall, lower first layer 23Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 185

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5090 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi in situ west of ashflownear wall, lower first layer 24Obsidian Weathered Green Brown Mottled Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5091 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi in situ west of ashflow near wall, lower first layer 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5092 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi in situ west of ashflow near wall, lower first layer 23Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5093 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi in situ west of ashflow near wall, lower first layer 13Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5094 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi in situ west of ashflow near wall, lower first layer 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5095 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi in situ west of ashflow near wall, lower first layer 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5096 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi in situ 13Obsidian Fresh Greengray Gray Mottled Yes Nondirectional Irregular 5097 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi in situ 24Obsidian Fres h Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5098 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi in situ 24Obsidian Weathered Green Gray Mottled Yes Nondirectional Irregular 5099 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi in situ 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5100 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi in situ 13Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5101 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi in situ 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5102 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi in situ 24Obsidian Fresh/W eathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 186

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5103 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi in situ 24Obsidian Fres h Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5104 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi in situ 24Obsidian Fres h Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5105 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi in situ 24Obsidian Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5106 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi in situ 24Obsidian Fres h Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5107 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi in situ 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5108 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi in situ 23Obsidian Fresh/W eathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5109 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi in situ 14Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Mottled Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5110 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi in situ 12Obsidian Fresh Greengray Green Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5111 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi in situ 24Obsidian Fresh/W eathered Green Gray Streaked Yes Directional Smooth 5112 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi in situ 13Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5113 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi surface BT2 24Obsi dian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 5114 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi surface BT2 24Obsidian Fresh/ Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5115 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi surface BT2 24Obsidian Fres h/Weathered Green Gray Band ed Yes Directional Smooth 5116 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi surface BT2 23Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5117 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi surface BT2 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Mottled Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5118 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi surface BT2 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 187

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5119 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi surface BT2 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5120 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi surface BT2 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5121 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi surface BT2 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5122 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi surface BT2 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5123 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi in situ 24Obsidian Fresh/W eathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5124 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi in situ 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5125 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi in situ 24Obsidian Fres h Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5126 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi in situ 13Obsidian Fres h Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5127 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi in situ 13Obsidian Weather ed Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5128 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi in situ 13Obsidian Fresh/W eathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Irregular 5129 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi in situ 13Obsidian Fresh/ Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5130 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi in situ 13Obsidian Fresh/W eathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5131 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi in situ 13Obsidian Fres h Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5132 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi in situ 24Obsidian Fresh/W eathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5133 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi in situ 24Obsidian Fres h Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5134 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi in situ 12Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 188

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5135 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi in situ 24Obsidian Fresh/W eathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5136 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi in situ 24Obsidian Fresh/ Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5137 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi in situ 23Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Light gray None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5138 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi in situ 24Obsidian Fresh/Weat hered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5139 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi in situ 12Obsidian Weathered Greengray Gray Banded Yes Directional Irregular 5140 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi in situ 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5141 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 13Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Mottled Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5142 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Directional Smooth 5143 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 5144 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5145 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded No Directional Smooth 5146 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform No Not visible Smooth 5147 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 189

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5148 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5149 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5150 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5151 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 34Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5152 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 24Obsidian Fresh Light gray Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5153 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 13Obsidian Fresh Greengray None Banded Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5154 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 11Obsidian Fresh Greengray Brown Banded Yes Nondirectional Irregular 5155 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5156 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5157 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5158 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 190

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5159 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 24Obsidian Fresh Green Brown Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5160 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5161 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 23Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5162 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 14Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Mottled Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5163 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 13Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5164 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 13Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Mottled Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5165 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 13Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5166 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi surface lithic reduction site on south slope 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5167 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi in situ south face ~ 80 m above surface 23Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Irregular 5168 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi in situ south face ~ 80 m above surface 14Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 5169 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi in situ south face ~ 80 m above surface 03Obsidian Weathered Green Brown St reakedYes Directional Irregular 191

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5170 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi in situ south face ~ 80 m above surface 23Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5171 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi in situ south face ~ 80 m above surface 13Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Greengray None Mottled Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5172 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi in situ south face ~ 80 m above surface 13Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Mottled Yes Nondirectional Irregular 5173 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi in situ south face ~ 80 m above surface 13Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray StreakedYes Directional Irregular 5174 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi in situ south face ~ 80 m above surface 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray StreakedYes Directional Irregular 5175 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi in situ south face ~ 80 m above surface 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray StreakedYes Directional Smooth 5176 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi in situ south face ~ 80 m above surface 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Greengray None Mottled Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5177 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi in situ south face ~ 80 m above surface 12Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Greengray None Mottled Yes Nondirectional Irregular 5178 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi in situ south face ~ 80 m above surface 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5179 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi in situ south face ~ 80 m above surface 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 5180 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi in situ south face ~ 80 m above surface 23Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Greengray None Mottled Yes Nondirectional Irregular 192

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5181 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi in situ south face ~ 80 m above surface 13Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Greengray None Mottled Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5182 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surfacea and in situ 4 m below surface 23Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5183 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surfacea and in situ 4 m below surface 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5184 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surfacea and in situ 4 m below surface 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5185 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surfacea and in situ 4 m below surface 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5186 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surfacea and in situ 4 m below surface 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5187 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surfacea and in situ 4 m below surface 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5188 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surfacea and in situ 4 m below surface 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Green Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5189 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 13Obsidian Weathered Greengray None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5190 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 13Obsidian Weathered Greengray Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5191 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 12Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 193

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5192 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5193 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 12Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5194 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 23Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5195 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5196 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5197 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5198 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 13Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Greengray None StreakedYes Directional Smooth 5199 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5200 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 12Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5201 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 23Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Brownblack None Mottled Yes Nondirectional Grainy 5202 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 12Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 194

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5203 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 13Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5204 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 13Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5205 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 13Obsidian Fresh Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5206 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5207 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 14Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Directional Smooth 5208 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 13Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5209 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5210 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 14Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5211 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 23Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5212 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 13Obsidian Weathered Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5213 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 12Obsidian Fresh Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 195

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5214 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 12Obsidian Weathered Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5215 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 12Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5216 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5217 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5218 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 13Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5219 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 13Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5220 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5221 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5222 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5223 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia surface ~ 3 m below 2000 collection point 24Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5224 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Nondirectional Irregular 5225 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 196

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5226 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5227 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5228 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 24Obsidian Weathered Light gray None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5229 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5230 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 12Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No Not visible Grainy 5231 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 14Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Mottled Yes Nondirectional Irregular 5232 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 24Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5235 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 13Obsidian Fresh Green Gray Banded Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5236 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 14Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Smooth 5237 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 14Obsidian Fresh Green Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Irregular 5238 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 24Obsidian Weathered Green Gray Mottled Yes Nondirectional Irregular 5239 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5240 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5241 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 14Obsidian Weathered Green Gray Mottled Yes Nondirectional Irregular 5243 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 13Obsidian Weathered Green Gray Mottled Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5244 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 13Obsidian Weathered Green Gray StreakedYes Nondirectional Irregular 197

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5245 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5246 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5247 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5248 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5249 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5250 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5251 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 14Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5252 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5253 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 15Obsidian Weathered Green Gray Banded No Nondirectional Smooth 5254 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 13Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform No Not visible Irregular 5255 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 15Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5256 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 14Obsidian Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5257 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 24Obsidian Weathered Green Green Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5258 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 24Obsidian Weathered Light gray None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5259 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 24Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5260 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 23Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Grainy 5261 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 15Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 198

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5262 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface Obsidian Weathered Yes 5263 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 14Obsidian Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5264 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia in situ ~ 60m below surface 15Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5265 PN 132 Salto la Vecchia surface lithic scatter top of cliff past rift 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5266 PN 132 Salto la Vecchia surface lithic scatter top of cliff past rift 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5267 PN 132 Salto la Vecchia surface lithic scatter top of cliff past rift 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5268 PN 132 Salto la Vecchia surface lithic scatter top of cliff past rift 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5269 PN 132 Salto la Vecchia surface lithic scatter top of cliff past rift 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5270 PN 132 Salto la Vecchia surface lithic scatter top of cliff past rift 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5271 PN 132 Salto la Vecchia surface lithic scatter top of cliff past rift 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5272 PN 132 Salto la Vecchia surface lithic scatter top of cliff past rift 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5273 PN 132 Salto la Vecchia surface lithic scatter top of cliff past rift 23Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 199

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5274 PN 132 Salto la Vecchia surface lithic scatter top of cliff past rift 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5275 PN 132 Salto la Vecchia surface lithic scatter top of cliff past rift 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5276 PN 132 Salto la Vecchia surface lithic scatter top of cliff past rift 13Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5277 PN 132 Salto la Vecchia surface lithic scatter top of cliff past rift 24Obsidian Weathered Green Gray Banded Yes Directional Smooth 5278 PN 132 Salto la Vecchia surface lithic scatter top of cliff past rift 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5279 PN 132 Salto la Vecchia surface lithic scatter top of cliff past rift 24Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform No Not visible Smooth 5280 PN 132 Salto la Vecchia surface lithic scatter top of cliff past rift 13Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5281 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua in situ first two exposures near house 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5282 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua in situ first two exposures near house 24Obsidian Fresh Green Brown Mottled Yes Nondirectional Smooth 5283 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua in situ first two exposures near house 02Obsidian Weathered Green Green Mottled Yes Nondirectional Grainy 5284 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua in situ first two exposures near house 23Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 200

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5285 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua in situ first two exposures near house 02Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Grainy 5286 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua in situ first two exposures near house 03Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5287 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua in situ first two exposures near house 03Obsidian Fresh Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5288 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua in situ first two exposures near house 13Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5289 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua in situ first two exposures near house 01Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5290 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua in situ first two exposures near house 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5291 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua in situ first two exposures near house 03Obsidian Weathered Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5292 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua in situ first two exposures near house 13Obsidian Weathered Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5293 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua in situ first two exposures near house 02Obsidian Weathered Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5294 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua surface and in situ 3rd exposure above lake surface -geo and in situ in wall 02Obsidian Fresh Green None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 201

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5295 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua surface and in situ 3rd exposure above lake surface -geo and in situ in wall 13Obsidian Fresh Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5296 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua surface and in situ 3rd exposure above lake surface -geo and in situ in wall 04Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5297 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua surface and in situ 3rd exposure above lake surface -geo and in situ in wall 23Obsidian Fresh Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5298 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua surface and in situ 3rd exposure above lake surface -geo and in situ in wall 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5299 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua surface and in situ 3rd exposure above lake surface -geo and in situ in wall 14Obsidian Fresh Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5300 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua surface and in situ 3rd exposure above lake surface -geo and in situ in wall 24Obsidian Fresh Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5301 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua surface and in situ 3rd exposure above lake surface -geo and in situ in wall 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Brownblack Brown StreakedYes Directional Irregular 202

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5302 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua surface and in situ 3rd exposure above lake surface -geo and in situ in wall 14Obsidian Fresh Green Brown Mottled Yes Not visible Irregular 5303 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua surface and in situ 3rd exposure above lake surface -geo and in situ in wall 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5304 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua surface and in situ 3rd exposure above lake surface -geo and in situ in wall 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5305 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua surface and in situ 3rd exposure above lake surface -geo and in situ in wall 25Obsidian Weathered Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5306 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua surface and in situ 3rd exposure above lake surface -geo and in situ in wall 24Obsidian Fresh Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5307 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua surface and in situ 3rd exposure above lake surface -geo and in situ in wall 24Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5308 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua surface and in situ 3rd exposure above lake surface -geo and in situ in wall 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 203

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USF# Lot # Location Source Trans.LusterType Surface Color Intrusive Color Color Pattern Pheno. Internal Orientation Texture 5309 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua surface and in situ 3rd exposure above lake surface -geo and in situ in wall 23Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5310 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua surface and in situ 3rd exposure above lake surface -geo and in situ in wall 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 5311 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua surface and in situ 3rd exposure above lake surface -geo and in situ in wall 24Obsidian Fresh Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5312 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua surface and in situ 3rd exposure above lake surface -geo and in situ in wall 14Obsidian Fresh Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5313 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua surface and in situ 3rd exposure above lake surface -geo and in situ in wall 14Obsidian Weathered Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Smooth 5314 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua surface and in situ 3rd exposure above lake surface -geo and in situ in wall 14Obsidian Fresh/Weathered Brownblack None Uniform Yes Not visible Irregular 204

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Provenience Density Analysis USF# Lot # Location Temp Q1 Susp. Mass Mass Wt. (g) Density 2380 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi 22.4 0.99771 2304.833841.1740.432.49448 2381 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi 22.4 0.99771 1051.791762.8337.982.47355 2382 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi 22.4 0.99771 1675.392837.1445.652.43653 2383 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi 22.4 0.99771 1642.542746.5325.712.48212 2384 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 1158.431974.2492.472.41436 2385 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 1493.362496.2416.852.48330 2386 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 2111.063529.8624.682.48215 2387 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 2675.474464.0244.152.49010 2388 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 1323.492262.3327.72.40412 2389 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 1557.282594.6222.772.49542 2390 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 769.531298.717.052.44850 2391 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 4563.027661.798.532.46679 2392 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 1135.861904.397.982.47222 2393 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 4315.557233.098.982.47342 2394 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi 22.4 0.99771 3347.545610.117.462.47385 2395 PN 6 S of Balata dei Turchi 22.4 0.99771 149.84255.370.742.41434 2400 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi 22.6 0.99766 1621.962715.9640.852.47679 2401 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi 22.6 0.99766 1567.862623.6213.512.47924 2402 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi 22.6 0.99766 776.501297.248.032.48532 2403 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi 22.6 0.99766 2472.724135.165.382.48158 2404 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi 22.6 0.99766 593.84993.218.392.48112 2405 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi 22.6 0.99766 963.131615.429.452.47074 2406 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi 22.6 0.99766 3979.846652.357.922.48335 2407 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi 22.6 0.99766 1266.932118.5112.452.48192 2408 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi 22.6 0.99766 621.211042.018.252.47047 2409 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi 22.6 0.99766 430.70721.5513.522.47503 2410 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi 22.6 0.99766 480.00812.748.962.43685 2411 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi 22.6 0.99766 528.59885.574.932.47492 2412 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi 22.6 0.99766 364.91611.333.692.47504 2413 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi 22.6 0.99766 338.40568.882.742.46246 2414 PN 8 Balata dei Turchi 22.6 0.99766 826.681385.971.512.47229 Table 4: Density Measurements of Geologic Samples From Pantelleria 205

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USF# Lot # Location Temp Q1 Susp. Mass Mass Wt. (g) Density 2440 PN 11 Mt Gelkhamar 22.0 0.99780 3300.535504.296.682.49219 2441 PN 11 Mt Gelkhamar 22.0 0.99780 1248.092070.613.12.51186 2450 PN 12 Mt Gelkhamar 22.0 0.99780 561.68940.581.62.47694 2451 PN 12 Mt Gelkhamar 22.0 0.99780 555.28932.615.312.46617 2452 PN 12 Mt Gelkhamar 22.0 0.99780 362.14620.823.132.39467 2453 PN 12 Mt Gelkhamar 22.0 0.99780 740.791239.883.292.47882 2454 PN 12 Mt Gelkhamar 22.0 0.99780 1954.973247.464.512.50703 2457 PN 14.1 Bagno dell’Acqua 22.0 0.99780 2301.463991.7321.732.35640 2458 PN 14.1 Bagno dell’Acqua 22.0 0.99780 1236.722063.8417.942.48972 2459 PN 14.1 Bagno dell’Acqua 22.0 0.99780 794.551332.8411.62.47062 2460 PN 14.1 Bagno dell’Acqua 22.0 0.99780 449.59758.619.372.44949 2461 PN 14.1 Bagno dell’Acqua 22.0 0.99780 684.271146.771.592.47405 2462 PN 14.1 Bagno dell’Acqua 22.0 0.99780 225.88378.935.712.47041 2463 PN 14.2 Bagno dell’Acqua 22.5 0.99768 461.88764.640.82.51971 2464 PN 14.2 Bagno dell’Acqua 22.5 0.99768 38.8164.550.052.50195 2465 PN 14.2 Bagno dell’Acqua 22.5 0.99768 22.0236.470.062.51802 2468 PN 15.1 Bagno dell’Acqua 21.5 0.99791 2140.443493.2964.712.57677 2471 PN 15.1 Bagno dell’Acqua 21.5 0.99791 1288.492131.002.62.52406 2477 PN 15.2 Bagno dell’Acqua 21.5 0.99791 1308.262179.0418.222.49717 2478 PN 15.2 Bagno dell’Acqua 21.5 0.99791 1343.052255.9723.622.46599 2487 PN 15.2 Bagno dell’Acqua 21.5 0.99791 983.891632.225.062.51231 2491 PN 15.2 Bagno dell’Acqua 21.5 0.99791 1117.071861.032.252.49629 2493 PN 15.2 Bagno dell’Acqua 21.5 0.99791 1416.732353.822.442.50659 2554 PN 18.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 1494.842497.853.272.48488 2555 PN 18.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 760.551272.722.062.47949 2556 PN 18.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 1392.282325.932.522.48574 2557 PN 18.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 393.98666.750.852.43899 2558 PN 18.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 313.83524.530.532.48399 2559 PN 18.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 431.93724.100.752.47290 2560 PN 18.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 214.73360.000.912.47269 2561 PN 18.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 142.97239.610.252.47395 2562 PN 18.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 175.06299.500.32.40149 206

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USF# Lot # Location Temp Q1 Susp. Mass Mass Wt. (g) Density 2563 PN 18.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 101.97171.260.192.46620 2564 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 1514.522544.6538.382.46479 2565 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 547.82933.3118.982.41577 2566 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 883.901476.4421.242.48623 2567 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 716.031200.7710.812.47169 2568 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 350.64586.185.682.48319 2569 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 712.601195.6510.622.46976 2570 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 504.08849.834.642.45252 2571 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 653.871092.685.782.48462 2572 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 321.50548.744.052.40949 2573 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 446.65761.443.422.41356 2574 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 176.70295.512.352.48178 2575 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 581.21982.791.632.44192 2576 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 515.86869.821.612.45199 2577 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 626.351053.971.222.45931 2578 PN 18.3 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 160.72269.990.42.46542 2614 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 1666.152819.20172.352.43961 2615 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 4871.998188.04163.342.46378 2616 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 923.401610.77483.132.33823 2617 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 3231.555407.1249.312.47991 2618 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 2514.794493.7245.192.26579 2619 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 2712.384604.5143.012.42815 2620 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 2253.883846.9819.792.40946 2621 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 1643.402756.7928.572.47059 2622 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 3189.905334.9923.482.48160 2623 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 2106.833526.8019.82.47825 2624 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 2994.835006.1716.112.48350 2625 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 1552.392601.6311.952.47408 2626 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 1196.031999.657.692.48283 2627 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 907.551517.1872.48321 2628 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 1511.112571.589.392.41961 2629 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 1844.873092.4411.582.47332 207

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USF# Lot # Location Temp Q1 Susp. Mass Mass Wt. (g) Density 2630 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 1222.532117.466.582.36086 2631 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 1030.591727.226.552.47394 2632 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 1546.982589.3610.52.47862 2633 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 1118.401935.0713.812.36397 2634 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 1457.222442.763.482.47285 2635 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 1152.111923.095.722.48856 2636 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 1466.812449.903.782.48626 2637 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 948.531593.495.572.46495 2638 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 967.061623.915.922.46653 2639 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 579.96969.343.542.48367 2640 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 1164.481969.218.042.44137 2641 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 1048.861754.355.82.48094 2642 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 1247.872089.265.032.47734 2643 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 1083.401826.492.62.45226 2644 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 677.861133.692.062.48132 2645 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 650.601088.071.632.48142 2646 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 792.901328.322.532.47514 2647 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 1019.961707.652.52.47741 2648 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 652.451091.321.212.48089 2649 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 769.881287.211.882.48241 2650 PN 19.2 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 824.641377.391.622.48610 2657 PN 19.3 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 3061.985119.11238.922.48270 2658 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 1503.292514.7127.922.48055 2659 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 2280.913815.9530.482.48013 2660 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 3336.775582.4423.22.48010 2661 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 2587.004325.1129.562.48263 2662 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 732.811226.194.732.47952 2663 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 1966.963289.9011.12.48104 2664 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 796.161339.193.292.46042 2665 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 1095.331832.816.762.47947 2666 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 4855.958136.7870.222.47434 2667 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 1190.771976.849.92.50901 208

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USF# Lot # Location Temp Q1 Susp. Mass Mass Wt. (g) Density 2668 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 1557.352603.125.512.48341 2669 PN 25.1 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 1320.682207.506.252.48346 2670 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 592.721104.74313.442.15261 2671 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 2507.584188.24202.222.48624 2672 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 4119.196899.31117.882.47590 2673 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 2777.554629.0972.792.49433 2674 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 2140.303562.8882.972.49871 2675 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 2229.403731.4270.612.47850 2676 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 3245.525431.2637.122.47910 2677 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 2150.003590.6639.82.48659 2678 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 2569.844288.7066.222.48930 2679 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 4145.776894.3745.22.50250 2680 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 1677.502804.7333.132.48239 2681 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 2540.604246.7641.322.48330 2682 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 4460.477452.0143.332.48525 2683 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 2272.073796.9837.432.48419 2684 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 1058.231774.6632.182.47134 2685 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 2103.563516.2734.262.48325 2686 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 2040.753406.2735.642.48870 2687 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 1468.872447.1719.652.49565 2688 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 2606.434356.7135.32.48338 2689 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 2808.274705.9525.092.47409 2690 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 1695.842834.4122.062.48367 2691 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 1690.012830.0025.512.47672 2692 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 1405.432350.759.652.48095 2693 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 1763.932948.7012.852.48306 2694 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 1550.802592.3012.632.48323 2695 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 1210.572026.7713.162.47742 2696 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 1251.882095.829.182.47761 2697 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 443.79737.162.432.50690 2698 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 2313.463867.0514.862.48333 2699 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 2214.833732.1614.222.45398 209

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USF# Lot # Location Temp Q1 Susp. Mass Mass Wt. (g) Density 2700 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 1905.883203.4712.382.46306 2701 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 762.811274.887.312.48388 2702 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 1025.691715.986.962.48012 2703 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 1149.771927.689.032.47228 2704 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 536.53899.233.592.47351 2705 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 650.961081.934.452.50463 2706 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 816.861375.902.652.45547 2707 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 887.401472.852.482.50992 2708 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 735.971228.041.322.48987 2709 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 691.461158.572.322.47454 2711 PN 25.2 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.5 0.99768 1426.622509.8921.072.31158 2725 PN 25.4 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.0 0.99780 2599.454328.61125.842.49779 2726 PN 25.4 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.0 0.99780 655.401091.154.352.49856 2728 PN 25.4 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.0 0.99780 765.201275.314.122.49457 2729 PN 25.5 Balata dei Turchi/above shore ~20m 22.0 0.99780 1133.191894.69333.62.48263 2733 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow 21.5 0.99791 1093.571863.5628.542.41518 2734 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow 21.5 0.99791 1158.381934.1126.622.48807 2735 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow 21.5 0.99791 845.281413.2821.332.48297 2736 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow 21.5 0.99791 908.821522.1921.972.47650 2737 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow 21.5 0.99791 976.841635.9113.932.47696 2738 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow 21.5 0.99791 1167.611956.6217.222.47466 2739 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow 21.5 0.99791 1065.461782.6513.432.48041 2740 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow 21.5 0.99791 1466.222493.8320.282.42175 2741 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow 21.5 0.99791 1040.461738.648.142.48504 2742 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow 21.5 0.99791 998.201670.539.142.47949 2743 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow 21.5 0.99791 1261.162109.366.62.48167 2744 PN 26.1 Balata dei Turchi/Pumice Flow 21.5 0.99791 476.50796.511.442.48381 2746 PN 26.2 Balata dei Turchi/offshore 1-15 m 22.0 0.99780 2044.943428.91224.122.47214 2747 PN 26.2 Balata dei Turchi/offshore 1 22.0 0.99780 1739.662908.3743.252.48306 2748 PN 26.2 Balata dei Turchi/offshore 1 22.0 0.99780 2013.843363.2670.922.48689 2749 PN 26.2 Balata dei Turchi/offshore 1 22.0 0.99780 3154.435271.5836.642.48446 2750 PN 26.2 Balata dei Turchi/offshore 1 22.0 0.99780 2172.653630.7328.082.48460 210

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USF# Lot # Location Temp Q1 Susp. Mass Mass Wt. (g) Density 2751 PN 26.2 Balata dei Turchi/offshore 1 22.0 0.99780 2182.713652.5728.112.47951 2752 PN 26.2 Balata dei Turchi/offshore 1 22.0 0.99780 1271.602125.4214.582.48383 2753 PN 26.2 Balata dei Turchi/offshore 1 22.0 0.99780 1755.552932.1222.752.48661 2754 PN 26.2 Balata dei Turchi/offshore 1 22.0 0.99780 1619.242704.7914.712.48615 2755 PN 26.2 Balata dei Turchi/offshore 1 22.0 0.99780 918.901535.137.652.48568 2756 PN 26.3 Balata dei Turchi/shore 21.5 0.99791 619.401036.475.362.47993 2757 PN 26.3 Balata dei Turchi/shore 21.5 0.99791 1157.361929.1934.342.49428 2758 PN 26.4 Balata dei Turchi/shore 22.0 0.99780 12010.1420165.7620.132.46718 2759 PN 26.5 Balata dei Turchi/shore 22.4 0.99771 3327.765581.79106.912.47069 2760 PN 26.5 Balata dei Turchi/shore 22.4 0.99771 2249.333758.5638.952.48468 2761 PN 26.5 Balata dei Turchi/shore 22.4 0.99771 2006.843358.3993.952.47915 2762 PN 26.5 Balata dei Turchi/shore 22.4 0.99771 1609.472696.2158.452.47533 2763 PN 26.5 Balata dei Turchi/shore 22.4 0.99771 2052.033426.6032.422.48714 2764 PN 26.5 Balata dei Turchi/shore 22.4 0.99771 1401.092340.7338.552.48539 2765 PN 26.5 Balata dei Turchi/shore 22.5 0.99768 1579.292634.1229.912.49141 2766 PN 26.5 Balata dei Turchi/shore 22.5 0.99768 1668.332793.5227.722.47695 2767 PN 26.5 Balata dei Turchi/shore 22.5 0.99768 1400.972341.2026.472.48425 2768 PN 26.5 Balata dei Turchi/shore 22.5 0.99768 916.841524.9811.742.50180 2769 PN 26.6 Balata dei Turchi/shore 22.0 0.99780 1941.963247.3845.572.48214 2770 PN 26.6 Balata dei Turchi/shore 22.0 0.99780 2922.034888.5734.212.48040 2771 PN 26.6 Balata dei Turchi/shore 22.0 0.99780 1289.172160.5934.042.47394 2772 PN 26.6 Balata dei Turchi/shore 22.0 0.99780 1819.433041.0937.952.48383 2773 PN 26.6 Balata dei Turchi/shore 22.0 0.99780 1849.803106.6133.452.46638 2774 PN 26.6 Balata dei Turchi/shore 22.0 0.99780 1918.653218.2525.942.47089 2775 PN 26.6 Balata dei Turchi/shore 22.0 0.99780 1921.083212.2927.592.48234 2776 PN 26.6 Balata dei Turchi/shore 22.0 0.99780 2421.954053.1014.612.47934 2777 PN 26.6 Balata dei Turchi/shore 22.0 0.99780 1450.952433.9213.182.47064 2778 PN 26.6 Balata dei Turchi/shore 22.0 0.99780 1488.762496.9814.032.47117 2779 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 931.101506.1487.32.61312 2780 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 1851.922990.6363.622.62024 2781 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 850.631416.6537.482.49702 2782 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 1054.861703.7563.392.61955 211

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USF# Lot # Location Temp Q1 Susp. Mass Mass Wt. (g) Density 2783 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 1367.502225.1433.32.58847 2784 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 1188.691932.7227.72.59161 2785 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 591.50992.2620.782.47020 2786 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 495.40800.1015.882.61977 2787 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 697.771169.3515.122.47389 2788 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 693.831128.6221.382.58976 2789 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 371.85597.5712.672.64125 2790 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 309.09495.968.372.64788 2791 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 600.70955.9312.992.68477 2792 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 338.51567.848.162.47034 2793 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 513.65833.2412.22.60117 2794 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 424.15709.849.312.47889 2795 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 610.99990.2113.282.60512 2796 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 554.29895.548.762.61820 2797 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 535.07864.646.342.61745 2798 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 752.181213.507.82.62439 2799 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 569.10917.335.32.62815 2800 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 637.791049.245.592.54419 2801 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 386.53626.454.482.60502 2802 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 483.96807.484.182.49013 2803 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 765.311283.024.952.47251 2804 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 579.76930.832.982.64526 2805 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 673.521125.152.732.48553 2806 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.5 0.99768 1257.562038.302.992.60467 2807 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 834.961348.3122.62071 2809 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 1005.321681.112.762.48215 2810 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 525.86881.051.32.47505 2811 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 620.201034.841.392.49026 2812 PN 27 Salto la Vecchia 22.0 0.99780 400.28679.071.052.43042 2813 PN 28 Balata dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 2056.413445.6329.292.47451 2814 PN 28 Balate dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 2016.183374.8319.852.47820 2815 PN 28 Balate dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 1698.542847.1721.722.47300 212

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USF# Lot # Location Temp Q1 Susp. Mass Mass Wt. (g) Density 2816 PN 28 Balate dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 1560.962610.3016.332.48179 2817 PN 28 Balate dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 1731.112904.9717.752.46897 2818 PN 28 Balate dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 1336.982234.9712.712.48308 2819 PN 28 Balate dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 1253.872096.749.272.48185 2820 PN 28 Balate dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 676.541170.209.092.36496 2821 PN 28 Balate dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 1086.541815.963.762.48382 2822 PN 28 Balate dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 749.331253.497.332.48053 2823 PN 28 Balate dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 995.971690.776.852.42782 2824 PN 28 Balate dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 470.27786.716.082.48036 2825 PN 28 Balate dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 539.70899.587.182.49387 2828 PN 28 Balate dei Turchi 22.5 0.99768 847.671425.063.392.46238 4847 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 1174.211966.89 2.47415 4848 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 2274.163800.75 2.48278 4849 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 376.25628.93 2.48122 4850 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 2157.873618.50 2.47028 4851 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 4824.168075.81 2.47664 4852 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 7211.0912083.27 2.47303 4853 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 75.14125.44 2.47774 4854 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 3249.705442.23 2.47409 4855 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 959.751607.95 2.47377 4856 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 10073.8016790.42 2.49257 4857 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 2308.833864.97 2.47656 4858 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 3503.345882.54 2.46510 4859 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 529.77887.33 2.47378 4860 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 401.30671.95 2.47523 4861 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 1037.781725.57 2.50251 4862 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 380.25642.95 2.43797 4863 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 577.58969.31 2.46693 4864 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 1554.422601.47 2.47730 4865 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 483.34808.89 2.47663 4866 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 12821.6021513.80 2.46804 4867 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 2196.363672.28 2.48085 213

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USF# Lot # Location Temp Q1 Susp. Mass Mass Wt. (g) Density 4868 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 2542.484260.95 2.47275 4869 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 1074.351796.88 2.47967 4870 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 126.87212.57 2.47577 4871 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 8819.1815461.83 2.32115 4872 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 1010.901699.33 2.46123 4873 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 1341.372246.51 2.47489 4874 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 346.97580.80 2.47733 4875 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 986.581659.63 2.45959 4876 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 82.36138.34 2.46313 4877 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 267.28447.47 2.47531 4878 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 32107.5653756.56 2.47615 4879 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 886.121485.87 2.47084 4880 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 293.27490.93 2.47606 4881 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 344.62578.60 2.46588 4882 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 1045.241745.94 2.48439 4883 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 15258.0725548.39 2.47581 4884 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 7272.5212168.67 2.47843 4885 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 186.71313.27 2.46891 4886 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 691.371169.11 2.44034 4887 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 8190.9013733.41 2.47089 4888 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 5632.019432.82 2.47491 4889 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 3305.445563.00 2.45735 4890 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.4 0.99722 750.131257.57 2.47121 4891 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.4 0.99722 169.90284.87 2.47064 4892 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.4 0.99722 9993.5316741.60 2.47409 4893 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.4 0.99722 10869.2018234.38 2.46892 4894 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.4 0.99722 7308.2312348.99 2.44296 4895 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.4 0.99722 9321.0015594.10 2.47873 4896 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 5429.849094.37 2.47481 4897 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 7348.8212334.17 2.46715 4898 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 4605.327729.85 2.46713 4899 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 3388.905940.72 2.32147 214

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USF# Lot # Location Temp Q1 Susp. Mass Mass Wt. (g) Density 4900 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 3919.346548.66 2.48358 4901 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 3376.055651.67 2.47668 4902 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 3512.935892.97 2.46915 4903 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 2830.184869.49 2.38113 4904 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 1435.102403.12 2.47567 4905 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 3224.345397.21 2.47699 4906 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 511.64857.12 2.47457 4907 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 1433.162401.07 2.47402 4908 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 2127.753564.63 2.47398 4909 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 3307.595537.91 2.47613 4910 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 2998.195013.99 2.48063 4911 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 1570.772656.18 2.44094 4912 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 1279.202141.15 2.47729 4913 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.7 0.99715 2017.213387.03 2.46563 4914 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.7 0.99715 1306.582187.35 2.47645 4915 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.7 0.99715 575.52964.97 2.47020 4916 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.7 0.99715 1846.903093.00 2.47518 4917 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 723.541211.51 2.47400 4918 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 2863.474791.44 2.47846 4919 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 2433.714094.50 2.45857 4920 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 357.40597.94 2.47689 4921 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.6 0.99717 129.97220.19 2.43867 4922 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.6 0.99717 500.60839.86 2.46934 4923 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.6 0.99717 640.361072.42 2.47552 4924 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.6 0.99717 177.25299.24 2.44376 4925 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.4 0.99722 41272.4369282.30 2.46674 4926 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.4 0.99722 28531.3147732.70 2.47903 4927 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 22137.1137049.18 2.47729 4928 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 25709.7843065.20 2.47441 4929 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.6 0.99717 13197.6622129.54 2.47065 4930 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 13340.0422346.93 2.47389 4931 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 8406.3214083.63 2.47349 215

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USF# Lot # Location Temp Q1 Susp. Mass Mass Wt. (g) Density 4932 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 7633.7212777.69 2.47677 4933 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 6572.4310996.39 2.47858 4934 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 3603.676031.18 2.47759 4935 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 2249.843771.36 2.47175 4936 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 5063.078490.95 2.46746 4937 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 6835.2611528.65 2.44922 4938 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 5466.329206.47 2.45442 4939 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 2040.733416.73 2.47590 4940 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 171.56287.59 2.46956 4941 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 65.08109.40 2.46472 4942 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 629.861054.96 2.47541 4943 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 2221.493747.46 2.44877 4944 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 3946.226604.36 2.47748 4945 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 528.12884.17 2.47597 4946 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 809.131354.58 2.47676 4947 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 1803.773024.84 2.47015 4948 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 3801.766358.36 2.47992 4949 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 2232.513736.56 2.47767 4950 PN 106 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 3330.985646.04 2.43200 4951 PN 110 Balata dei Turchi 23.4 0.99747 18115.1630733.11 2.42968 4952 PN 110 Balata dei Turchi 23.4 0.99747 10575.3317685.44 2.48108 4953 PN 110 Balata dei Turchi 23.6 0.99742 3412.025691.01 2.49087 4954 PN 110 Balata dei Turchi 23.9 0.99735 5518.969231.56 2.47989 4955 PN 110 Balata dei Turchi 23.9 0.99735 5268.978920.71 2.43642 4956 PN 110 Balata dei Turchi 23.9 0.99735 3925.736560.65 2.48252 4957 PN 110 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 1352.942269.85 2.46889 4958 PN 110 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 1191.532013.65 2.44370 4959 PN 110 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 4897.468194.29 2.47896 4960 PN 110 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 504.90846.50 2.47021 4961 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 1313.972203.85 2.46939 4962 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 286.09479.51 2.47241 4963 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 1324.392214.94 2.48023 216

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USF# Lot # Location Temp Q1 Susp. Mass Mass Wt. (g) Density 4964 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 662.691093.70 2.52992 4965 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 883.401481.71 2.46964 4966 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 136.48228.82 2.47343 4967 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 340.78571.27 2.47063 4968 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 1192.741998.30 2.47410 4969 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 81.81137.23 2.46937 4970 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 132.24221.50 2.48553 4971 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi 24.4 0.97722 270.05453.12 2.41926 4972 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi 24.4 0.97722 592.73993.51 2.42299 4973 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi 24.4 0.97722 883.571480.88 2.42279 4974 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi 24.4 0.97722 374.51627.57 2.42340 4975 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi 24.4 0.97722 1279.542146.32 2.41992 4976 PN 111 Balata dei Turchi 24.4 0.97722 169.43284.23 2.41988 4977 PN 112 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 177.46297.77 2.46701 4978 PN 112 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 8756.5015012.18 2.39296 4979 PN 112 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 1066.141786.98 2.47224 4980 PN 112 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 1455.762439.77 2.47269 4981 PN 112 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 2840.614748.69 2.48144 4982 PN 112 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 9718.7916243.93 2.48207 4983 PN 112 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 1596.392663.85 2.48791 4984 PN 112 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 1177.181976.66 2.46594 4985 PN 112 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 279.91468.54 2.48070 4987 PN 113 Balata dei Turchi 24.6 0.99717 518.13871.19 2.46072 4988 PN 113 Balata dei Turchi 24.6 0.99717 2455.604086.86 2.49839 4989 PN 113 Balata dei Turchi 24.6 0.99717 596.491003.50 2.45620 4990 PN 113 Balata dei Turchi 24.6 0.99717 834.111398.30 2.47162 4991 PN 113 Balata dei Turchi 24.6 0.99717 9714.5916264.50 2.47608 4992 PN 113 Balata dei Turchi 24.6 0.99717 285.85480.90 2.45782 4993 PN 113 Balata dei Turchi 24.6 0.99717 858.901457.36 2.42793 4994 PN 113 Balata dei Turchi 24.6 0.99717 1706.142857.80 2.47436 4995 PN 113 Balata dei Turchi 24.7 0.99715 9517.5215944.83 2.47361 4996 PN 113 Balata dei Turchi 24.7 0.99715 1233.322081.59 2.44602 217

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USF# Lot # Location Temp Q1 Susp. Mass Mass Wt. (g) Density 4997 PN 113 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 17712.3829592.66 2.48381 4998 PN 114 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 17252.1228753.33 2.49287 4999 PN 114 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 15640.6026901.13 2.38178 5000 PN 114 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 18677.1831498.20 2.44956 5001 PN 114 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 475.08797.40 2.46678 5002 PN 114 Balata dei Turchi 24.6 0.99717 499.76836.38 2.47767 5003 PN 114 Balata dei Turchi 24.6 0.99717 3258.515446.36 2.48208 5004 PN 114 Balata dei Turchi 24.6 0.99717 423.91711.07 2.46942 5005 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi 24.4 0.99722 3058.785112.69 2.47966 5006 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 1229.562053.09 2.48514 5007 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 2733.434565.75 2.48429 5008 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 902.751506.61 2.48724 5009 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 285.60476.83 2.48691 5010 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 350.41586.14 2.47808 5011 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi 24.4 0.99722 820.621371.16 2.48475 5012 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi 24.4 0.99722 138.89232.89 2.47044 5013 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi 24.4 0.99722 263.82441.64 2.47690 5014 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 7420.5112400.56 2.48291 5015 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 1311.762191.14 2.48336 5016 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi 25.2 0.99702 165.01277.16 2.46237 5017 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi 25.2 0.99702 864.181444.31 2.48204 5018 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 3253.465437.29 2.48317 5019 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 347.38579.88 2.48652 5020 PN 115 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 1334.832230.02 2.48469 5021 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 241.07404.60 2.46615 5022 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 67866.40113557.20 2.47821 5023 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 898.611505.36 2.47413 5024 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 399.36669.90 2.46971 5025 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 1032.041727.34 2.47794 5026 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 9442.1915816.07 2.47451 5027 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 1903.993186.34 2.47742 5028 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 381.47641.65 2.45857 218

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USF# Lot # Location Temp Q1 Susp. Mass Mass Wt. (g) Density 5029 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 1653.422766.52 2.47804 5030 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 1048.731756.71 2.47401 5031 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 2306.003894.77 2.44457 5032 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 345.21578.25 2.47484 5033 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 250.58420.16 2.46944 5034 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 3507.595879.72 2.47171 5035 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 11453.6919188.95 2.47390 5036 PN 116 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 9785.8916373.49 2.47858 5037 PN 118 Balata dei Turchi 24.3 0.99725 73.34123.13 2.46270 5038 PN 118 Balata dei Turchi 24.3 0.99725 156.48263.72 2.45317 5039 PN 118 Balata dei Turchi 24.3 0.99725 8986.1115017.16 2.48315 5040 PN 118 Balata dei Turchi 24.3 0.99725 1466.912453.95 2.47958 5041 PN 118 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 2597.044351.85 2.47328 5042 PN 118 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 6072.3110151.51 2.48174 5043 PN 118 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 3803.616355.13 2.48566 5044 PN 118 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 8771.8414663.71 2.48212 5045 PN 118 Balata dei Turchi 23.9 0.99735 18773.3131396.46 2.48053 5047 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 7550.3112604.12 2.48710 5048 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi 24.1 0.99730 5999.9410073.17 2.46634 5049 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi 23.8 0.99737 9794.0316358.83 2.48532 5050 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi 23.8 0.99737 11374.8418999.84 2.48516 5051 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 1952.753264.76 2.48183 5052 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 1159.961975.58 2.41501 5053 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 385.92646.64 2.47345 5054 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 2397.174014.26 2.47589 5055 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 565.00946.56 2.47483 5056 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 3303.935524.15 2.48134 5057 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 6048.5410091.19 2.48937 5058 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 6434.1610799.85 2.46697 5059 PN 120 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 20358.4234066.58 2.47850 5060 PN 122 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 344.61579.25 2.46110 5061 PN 122 Balata dei Turchi 24.7 0.99715 191.98320.92 2.47921 219

PAGE 234

USF# Lot # Location Temp Q1 Susp. Mass Mass Wt. (g) Density 5062 PN 122 Balata dei Turchi 24.7 0.99715 1065.551769.26 2.50697 5063 PN 122 Balata dei Turchi 24.7 0.99715 674.951129.81 2.47668 5064 PN 122 Balata dei Turchi 24.7 0.99715 781.931311.62 2.46924 5065 PN 122 Balata dei Turchi 24.6 0.99717 2784.744663.01 2.47557 5066 PN 123 Balata dei Turchi 24.6 0.99717 2566.754307.85 2.46730 5067 PN 124 Balata dei Turchi 24.5 0.99720 2605.504363.82 2.47486 5068 PN 124 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 1964.903282.12 2.48449 5069 PN 124 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 726.461216.24 2.47595 5070 PN 124 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 1295.422205.21 2.41706 5071 PN 124 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 4125.476949.12 2.45409 5072 PN 125 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 584.46988.08 2.44036 5073 PN 125 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 2090.353600.95 2.37679 5074 PN 125 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 1406.132419.94 2.38001 5075 PN 125 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 1349.502260.94 2.47076 5076 PN 125 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 395.11662.71 2.46822 5077 PN 125 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 1999.863336.87 2.48852 5078 PN 125 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 3698.656201.91 2.47035 5079 PN 125 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 7466.6312533.62 2.46648 5080 PN 125 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 2209.713723.74 2.45233 5081 PN 125 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 1853.143106.03 2.47161 5082 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 1818.543037.29 2.48536 5083 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 2133.673561.29 2.48684 5084 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 1276.712123.01 2.50156 5085 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 1657.942767.83 2.48690 5086 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 2802.384678.90 2.48573 5087 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 1290.692159.07 2.47901 5088 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 1756.692935.56 2.48289 5089 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 1246.342079.93 2.48771 5090 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 1205.492015.39 2.48094 5091 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 1838.103071.24 2.48346 5092 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 1380.672304.97 2.48640 5093 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 1965.313281.60 2.48709 220

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USF# Lot # Location Temp Q1 Susp. Mass Mass Wt. (g) Density 5094 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 2990.305015.63 2.46959 5095 PN 126 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 2558.274268.98 2.48753 5096 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 1061.401802.92 2.42278 5097 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 1811.423038.33 2.46970 5098 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 2263.353796.35 2.46948 5099 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 805.021702.94 1.88985 5100 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 3049.805094.27 2.48496 5101 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 1002.921754.09 2.32880 5102 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 1588.922666.01 2.46952 5103 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 2345.633942.46 2.46231 5104 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 1142.421935.35 2.43304 5105 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi 23.9 0.99735 1807.533022.84 2.47861 5106 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi 23.9 0.99735 259.66445.28 2.38923 5107 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi 23.9 0.99735 1347.422443.85 2.21883 5108 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi 23.9 0.99735 6985.2811665.86 2.48603 5109 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 2405.204031.56 2.47263 5110 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 2472.004128.49 2.48506 5111 PN 127 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 3013.735047.06 2.47532 5123 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 1044.151750.83 2.47302 5124 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi 24.8 0.99712 1235.622060.14 2.49209 5125 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi 24.7 0.99715 3112.505208.30 2.47795 5126 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi 24.7 0.99715 1834.613066.16 2.48279 5127 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi 24.7 0.99715 1555.842594.48 2.49043 5128 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi 24.7 0.99715 1898.173169.72 2.48558 5129 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi 24.7 0.99715 1742.962909.24 2.48714 5130 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi 24.7 0.99715 1671.702792.91 2.48376 5131 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi 24.7 0.99715 991.351654.23 2.48839 5132 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi 24.7 0.99715 703.271176.97 2.47566 5133 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi 24.7 0.99715 1571.922630.57 2.47782 5134 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi 24.7 0.99715 2809.684705.07 2.47518 5135 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi 24.7 0.99715 1270.172123.80 2.48091 5136 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi 24.7 0.99715 1949.733265.93 2.47418 221

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USF# Lot # Location Temp Q1 Susp. Mass Mass Wt. (g) Density 5137 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi 24.7 0.99715 2339.623899.18 2.49309 5138 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 1311.422191.97 2.48214 5139 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 1648.952742.05 2.50107 5140 PN 128 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 1958.963271.59 2.48534 5141 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 4904.888205.71 2.47889 5142 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 1465.612450.05 2.48124 5143 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 645.451083.90 2.46423 5144 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 352.33590.14 2.47600 5145 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 1053.771767.89 2.46936 5146 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 23.9 0.99735 148.39248.02 2.47676 5147 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 23.9 0.99735 169.95284.83 2.47470 5148 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 23.9 0.99735 165.96278.05 2.46976 5149 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 23.9 0.99735 4073.386808.58 2.48221 5150 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 23.9 0.99735 15103.5525323.90 2.47118 5151 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 23.6 0.99742 3992.276669.89 2.48404 5152 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 23.5 0.99744 24024.0140204.48 2.47835 5153 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 24.0 0.99732 700.771172.12 2.47861 5154 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 23.6 0.99742 1759.502921.68 2.50533 5155 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 23.6 0.99742 1313.792196.08 2.48154 5156 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 23.6 0.99742 8217.3013732.00 2.48369 5157 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 23.2 0.99752 20132.7433701.61 2.47761 5158 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 23.2 0.99752 1521.822550.15 2.47366 5159 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 23.2 0.99752 1659.262781.27 2.47300 5160 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 23.2 0.99752 1220.002038.45 2.48455 5161 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 23.2 0.99752 1030.861728.60 2.47218 5162 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 23.2 0.99752 1283.692146.98 2.48062 5163 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 23.2 0.99752 1053.181764.16 2.47504 5164 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 23.2 0.99752 2188.853668.47 2.47315 5165 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 23.2 0.99752 771.761294.51 2.47063 5166 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 23.3 0.99749 8480.3814174.94 2.48288 5167 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 1383.402349.20 2.42808 5168 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 1138.901902.20 2.48498 222

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USF# Lot # Location Temp Q1 Susp. Mass Mass Wt. (g) Density 5169 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 757.581271.80 2.46778 5170 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 328.16548.00 2.49052 5171 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 2052.673427.10 2.48616 5172 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 1057.701792.40 2.42582 5173 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 603.301008.40 2.48108 5174 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 484.90829.80 2.39750 5175 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 24.9 0.99710 1232.082060.30 2.48038 5176 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 422.57706.00 2.48446 5177 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 1420.022409.41 2.42788 5178 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 1919.533209.24 2.48112 5179 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 1568.402628.09 2.47294 5180 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 1063.781776.57 2.48529 5181 PN 129 Balata dei Turchi 25.0 0.99707 1539.552570.25 2.48585 5182 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia 25.9 0.99684 1702.002838.19 2.49006 5183 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia 25.9 0.99684 1395.952328.96 2.48792 5184 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia 25.3 0.99699 1502.252506.58 2.48777 5185 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia 25.3 0.99699 2451.314088.31 2.48998 5186 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia 25.4 0.99697 354.73594.84 2.46762 5187 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia 25.4 0.99697 3762.456270.79 2.49240 5188 PN 130 Salto la Vecchia 25.3 0.99699 2851.754752.62 2.49246 5224 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.1 0.99704 2151.603660.76 2.41846 5225 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.0 0.99707 1860.473149.74 2.43566 5226 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.0 0.99707 2343.453923.85 2.47554 5227 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 24.8 0.99712 1258.332134.01 2.43006 5228 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.4 0.99697 1894.773171.32 2.47727 5229 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.3 0.99699 1932.233234.58 2.47619 5230 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.2 0.99702 511.05959.68 2.13263 5231 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.1 0.99704 560.52929.67 2.50995 5232 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.7 0.99689 1492.872485.53 2.49672 5233 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.6 0.99691 794.911403.98 2.29781 5235 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.6 0.99691 2219.713695.77 2.49622 5236 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.6 0.99691 2968.894942.15 2.49690 223

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USF# Lot # Location Temp Q1 Susp. Mass Mass Wt. (g) Density 5237 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.6 0.99691 2705.774626.16 2.40149 5238 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 24.5 0.99720 1707.882851.55 2.48681 5239 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 24.5 0.99720 2117.783618.99 2.40376 5240 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 24.5 0.99720 2102.033577.89 2.41657 5241 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 24.5 0.99720 2454.994091.79 2.49241 5242 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.3 0.99699 1072.451780.07 2.50814 5243 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.2 0.99702 1304.392172.19 2.49549 5244 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.1 0.99704 1334.732223.57 2.49406 5245 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.0 0.99707 1230.512059.92 2.47623 5246 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.0 0.99707 883.961479.53 2.47658 5247 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.0 0.99707 1697.762840.66 2.47786 5248 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.0 0.99707 612.461019.36 2.49851 5249 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.0 0.99707 656.491109.84 2.44118 5250 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.0 0.99707 1964.713284.86 2.48066 5251 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.0 0.99707 1667.872790.51 2.47830 5252 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.0 0.99707 1958.693362.70 2.38772 5253 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 25.0 0.99707 1666.132787.24 2.47896 5254 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 23.9 0.99735 1841.913263.72 2.28900 5255 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 23.9 0.99735 2288.343829.80 2.47780 5256 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 23.9 0.99735 2674.404454.95 2.49573 5257 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 23.9 0.99735 4873.618227.73 2.44634 5258 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 24.0 0.99732 1719.202874.92 2.48115 5259 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 24.0 0.99732 1867.603168.60 2.42749 5260 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 24.0 0.99732 1445.202715.80 2.13260 5261 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 24.5 0.99720 3942.996595.07 2.47977 5263 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 23.9 0.99735 1280.512151.34 2.46513 5264 PN 131 Salto la Vecchia 24.1 0.99730 1203.552026.96 2.45386 5281 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua 25.0 0.99707 603.671000.71 2.51242 5282 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua 25.0 0.99707 794.541321.92 2.50008 5283 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua 25.0 0.99707 677.221157.41 2.40341 5284 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua 25.0 0.99707 249.63415.69 2.49377 5285 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua 25.0 0.99707 712.981322.30 2.16407 224

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USF# Lot # Location Temp Q1 Susp. Mass Mass Wt. (g) Density 5286 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua 25.0 0.99707 428.71721.38 2.45775 5287 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua 25.0 0.99707 817.011366.43 2.48005 5288 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua 25.0 0.99707 677.361130.69 2.48775 5289 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua 25.0 0.99707 2187.593622.89 2.51681 5290 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua 25.0 0.99707 1043.091737.69 2.49463 5291 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua 25.0 0.99707 668.451125.60 2.45508 5292 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua 25.0 0.99707 881.471556.57 2.29911 5293 PN 136 Bagno dell'Acqua 25.2 0.99702 1235.322029.34 2.54828 5294 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua 23.6 0.99742 1001.371671.57 2.48833 5295 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua 23.5 0.99744 1039.721768.90 2.42060 5296 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua 23.5 0.99744 470.39800.20 2.41948 5297 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua 23.5 0.99744 1932.543265.23 2.44376 5298 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua 23.5 0.99744 1426.822446.51 2.39300 5299 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua 23.5 0.99744 1200.202047.48 2.41015 5300 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua 23.5 0.99744 964.301693.49 2.31598 5301 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua 23.5 0.99744 1665.702806.95 2.45274 5302 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua 23.5 0.99744 1320.252192.96 2.50640 5303 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua 23.5 0.99744 1166.221979.26 2.42869 5304 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua 23.5 0.99744 1919.913264.74 2.42114 5305 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua 24.0 0.99732 1032.181779.92 2.37533 5306 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua 24.0 0.99732 1186.431999.14 2.45382 5307 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua 24.0 0.99732 1173.461979.76 2.44876 5308 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua 24.0 0.99732 1016.031878.37 2.17269 5309 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua 24.0 0.99732 738.991248.38 2.44378 5310 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua 24.0 0.99732 1287.442191.44 2.41816 5311 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua 24.0 0.99732 558.31945.48 2.43468 5312 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua 24.2 0.99727 1223.532036.53 2.49816 5313 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua 24.2 0.99727 930.071574.81 2.43570 5314 PN 137 Bagno dell'Acqua 24.2 0.99727 1538.032565.13 2.49063 225

PAGE 240

VRC 11 VRC 22 VRC 45 CDB 4 FRK 15 & 16 FRM Punta Fram MGU 11 MRS II 123 2.48482 2.46981 2.483112.44009 2.48396 2.471992.477992.47201 2.47225 2.42124 2.471662.51016 2.45997 2.480602.476172.47355 2.49277 2.45804 2.474822.47511 2.48228 2.481662.433572.51108 2.48429 2.50817 2.464952.46949 2.50855 2.471662.480262.47404 2.48094 2.46151 2.465012.50438 2.47198 2.479842.484252.47431 2.47455 2.482132.463272. 44500 2.473002.474692.48093 2.48382 2.510892.449022. 46760 2.497532.475972.47340 2.46944 2.473542.467992.486 00 2.488372.483962.48104 2.47772 2.480572.522462. 47422 2.481372.479062.47663 2.48305 2.302092.467362. 48162 2.483672.476912.47854 2.46852 2.479412.461672.48385 2.51075 2.478932.512152.48123 2.46501 2.479102.475642.49141 2.48209 2.481252.481492.45276 2.48809 2.479782.500802.47706 2.50580 2.472512.534532.46630 2.47425 2.452122.475702.48314 2.51319 2.477052.523632.47825 2.47410 2.483962.471132.47378 2.47088 2.477552.443752.47158 Table 5: Density Analysis for artifacts from Pantelleria 226

PAGE 241

USF# Lot # Temp Q1 Dry Mass Suspended Mass Density Average Std. Dev. 1247 -0 x -40 22.50.99768313 8.541868.532.46554 1247 22.50.997683138.351869.842.46830 1247 22.50.997683138.34 1870.352.469312.467720.0016 1248 -0 x -40 22.50.997681356.83818.772.51586 1248 22.50.997681356.89818.422.51405 1248 22.50.997681357.01 818.352.513392.514430.0010 1249 -0 x -40 22.50.99768188 3.121124.782.47745 1249 22.50.997681883.181125.742.48048 1249 22.50.997681883.15 1125.452.479582.479170.0013 1250 -0 x -40 22.50.99768170 3.531016.602.47416 1250 22.50.997681703.451016.722.47477 1250 22.50.997681703.49 1017.332.476882.475270.0012 1251 -0 x -40 22.50.99768258 0.191542.022.47956 1251 22.50.997682580.291542.352.48020 1251 22.50.997682580.23 1541.952.479332.479700.0004 1252 -0 x -40 22.50.997681557.74930.352.47713 1252 22.50.997681557.76930.842.47902 1252 22.50.997681557.80 930.102.476002.477380.0012 Table 6: Density Analysis for artifacts from Zembra (Tunisia) 227

PAGE 242

USF# Lot # Temp Q1 Dry Mass Suspended Mass Density Average Std. Dev. 1253 -0 x -40 22.50.99768919.65549.752.48044 1253 22.50.99768919.57549.562.47949 1253 22.50.99768919.48 549.672.480592.480180.0005 1254 -0 x -40 22.50.99768911.05541.742.46117 1254 22.50.99768910.96542.652.46761 1254 22.50.99768910.90 542.862.469262.466020.0035 1255 -0 x -40 22.50.99768201 2.741192.932.44943 1255 22.50.997682012.731192.982.44960 1255 22.50.997682012.69 1192.562.448422.449150.0005 1256 -0 x -40 22.50.997681175.12699.782.46643 1256 22.50.997681175.12699.702.46602 1256 22.50.997681175.06 699.862.467032.466490.0004 1258 -23 x -90 220.99780291 2.911740.692.47948 1258 220.997802912.741740.052.47835 1258 220.997802912.74174 0.222.478712.478850.0005 1259 -23 x -90 220.99780399 1.622386.292.48101 1259 220.997803991.842386.352.48090 1259 220.997803991.43238 5.812.480442.480780.0002 1260 -23 x -90 220.99780 1478.42886.162.49074 1260 220.997801477.97886.302.49247 1260 220.997801477.97 885.962.491042.491420.0008 228

PAGE 243

USF# Lot # Temp Q1 Dry Mass Suspended Mass Density Average Std. Dev. 1261 -23 x -90 220.99780141 2.98843.442.47546 1261 220.997801413.06843.542.47568 1261 220.997801412.97 843.462.475572.475570.0001 1262 220.99780413.27246.052.46598 1262 220.99780413.42245.782.46069 1262 220.99780413.20245. 682.461142.462600.0024 1263 220.997801117.12666.692.47466 1263 220.997801117.08666.832.47556 1263 220.997801117.06 666.902.476012.475410.0006 1264 220.99780442.26264.922.48837 1264 220.99780442.18265.212.49312 1264 220.99780442.20265. 072.490982.490820.0019 1265 220.99780978.74583.662.47187 1265 220.99780978.69584.002.47419 1265 220.99780978.71583. 902.473492.473180.0010 1266 220.997802187.501308.492.48312 1266 220.997802187.521308.092.48196 1266 220.997802187.59130 7.962.481472.482180.0007 1267 220.99780468.44280.372.48530 1267 220.99780468.39279.822.47844 1267 220.99780468.36279. 992.480912.481550.0028 229

PAGE 244

USF# Lot # Temp Q1 Dry Mass Suspended Mass Density Average Std. Dev. 1268 220.99780519.36311.222.48975 1268 220.99780519.32310.872.48586 1268 220.99780519.35311. 182.489352.488320.0017 1269 220.99780591.82354.462.48786 1269 220.99780591.87354.612.48912 1269 220.99780591.85354. 592.489032.488670.0006 1270 220.99780837.07497.732.46133 1270 220.99780837.08497.922.46267 1270 220.99780837.01498. 342.466022.463340.0020 1271 220.99780540.74320.952.45484 1271 220.99780540.77320.982.45498 1271 220.99780540.85321. 022.454902.454910.0001 1272 220.99780312.95186.762.47453 1272 220.99780312.97187.122.48138 1272 220.99780313.06187. 072.479332.478420.0029 1273 -40 x -80 22.60.99766 339.82203.742.49136 1273 22.60.99766339.75203.622.48994 1273 22.60.99766339.84 203.472.486212.489170.0022 1274 -40 x -80 22.60.99766 388.19233.642.50587 1274 22.60.99766388.14233.482.50376 1274 22.60.99766388.15 233.512.504152.504590.0009 230

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USF# Lot # Temp Q1 Dry Mass Suspended Mass Density Average Std. Dev. 1275 -40 x -80 22.60.99766 1070.05634.592.45154 1275 22.60.997661069.99634.582.45168 1275 22.60.997661069.97 634.562.451632.451620.0001 1276 22.60.9976627.5816.542.49234 1276 22.60.9976627.5516.302.44316 1276 22.60.9976627.45 16.312.458332.464610.0206 1277 22.60.99766197.76119.182.51078 1277 22.60.99766197.70119.082.50874 1277 22.60.99766197.77 119.142.509312.509610.0009 1278 22.60.99766247.82147.512.46476 1278 22.60.99766247.78147.312.46044 1278 22.60.99766247.80 147.522.465302.463500.0022 1279 22.60.9976667.6940.372.47187 1279 22.60.9976667.6340.662.50173 1279 22.60.9976667.56 40.322.474372.482660.0135 1280 22.60.997662896.331732.472.48273 1280 22.60.997662896.321732.222.48221 1280 22.60.997662896.25 1732.382.482642.482530.0002 231

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USF # Location LA LU ND SM U YB CE CS EU FE HF RB TA TB TH ZN ZR CL DY K MN NA 2380 PN 6 204 3 175 32181044134581744318621 533402168833063135879235450164 2383 PN 6 207 3 167 32171044234587274318521 533409176033893232751234749976 2384 PN 6 204 3 167 3217944934596864418922 634418177932193331333234149483 2388 PN 6 204 2 164 3217844634593714418922 633417172032413130736234949625 2395 PN 6 193 2 167 3017941724552494117820 531388162531023331057229548231 2433 PN 11 141 2 112 2213630114449283314016 425303132925102138121218545373 2440 PN 11 208 3 171 3218944534593204419122 634438180234233236273235149999 2441 PN 11 113 1 96 2010524113593282311512 31727695617941641214257951921 2447 PN 12 161 2 127 2416834323536263716518 428289149632122437925197245377 2450 PN 12 203 2 165 3217942324570544218221 532416164532263329109234949884 2451 PN 12 205 3 168 34191044734587564418722 633417172633153233830238350234 2453 PN 12 206 3 173 33181045234592834419222 634427178533763331206237750115 2463 PN 14.2 120 2 115 2110526014636552512313 318288102417961933964268652193 2468 PN 15.1 142 2 136 2610426214604012512013 419282106020402139098249850549 2471 PN 15.1 121 2 107 2111526014627332511813 318290100617451933920269752144 2477 PN 15.2 189 2 157 3118941025678044218720 533444167131493032986277954697 2487 PN 15.2 196 2 165 3217939835667124118219 533434167630542832584274753888 2491 PN 15.2 91 1 89 16941941358248181009 21423576412391440486247150905 2493 PN 15.2 108 1 96 2010522713592002210511 31628089216521633342263052116 2554 PN 18.2 205 3 166 3421944034590824319021 533409171533053232568236250102 2556 PN 18.2 207 3 177 33201045034598924419222 634422178534113233823236149514 2564 PN 18.3 211 3 179 3520946034604504519122 634421182633733231795237048492 2565 PN 18.3 208 3 180 3520943434587534318821 533412176133663233951237946941 2571 PN 18.3 208 3 181 35201044734589244318522 633411175130833040114228548971 2572 PN 18.3 207 3 174 3520944434594984419222 634416176631473431582236250303 2573 PN 18.3 203 2 168 3419944834593394418622 633412174232683032999237048571 2575 PN 18.3 208 3 176 3519946034601214519122 634440176031083133951234748808 Table 7: NAA Test Results 232

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USF # Location LA LU ND SM U YB CE CS EU FE HF RB TA TB TH ZN ZR CL DY K MN NA 2587 PN 19.1 205 2 171 3421944534586364318821 533410175032493334155236249951 2606 PN 19.1 209 3 182 33201045934601254519222 634418181632963332244233149392 2616 PN 19.2 207 3 179 35221045434600114419222 634427174535023230576234549576 2617 PN 19.2 202 3 166 33201044434592674419322 633410175534903633960231949416 2618 PN 19.2 226 3 165 32191043734581204318221 533402171735533933283238346470 2619 PN 19.2 227 3 170 32181044034581214317922 533407168633993231826237249232 2620 PN 19.2 225 3 157 32201043334572414218421 533402167732583132045233449531 2624 PN 19.2 224 3 154 32191043434572584218221 533409166433293029691230249027 2628 PN 19.2 230 3 161 33201044334582734318621 533395167934603730198233947851 2630 PN 19.2 226 3 160 33191043334575194318921 533394169236173234958237550326 2633 PN 19.2 227 3 161 32201043534576344318021 533409169035703234710232949568 2640 PN 19.2 228 3 153 32191044434591214418322 634425172334253731129235148391 2643 PN 19.2 226 3 162 3219943934583674318821 533405171633733434863234649420 2659 PN 25.1 228 2 165 32201044834592254418422 634409172232833631854236350949 2661 PN 25.1 224 3 156 32211043734575104318621 533398167232753834617234150050 2670 PN 25.2 228 3 159 33191044234585514318321 533408169034703335226236250505 2674 PN 25.2 225 2 159 32201043734579914318221 533399168332893139506230449693 2679 PN 25.2 228 3 161 33201043834585514318721 533407171133273634099234550050 2683 PN 25.2 224 2 166 3221942934575824218621 532397167833343637861235750164 2690 PN 25.2 217 2 154 31191042224563874117921 532398161033713140070233049807 2697 PN 25.2 224 2 159 32211043234580654318221 533397169233373230469235349703 2699 PN 25.2 226 2 156 32211043334578024318421 532403168132773335746234850184 2700 PN 25.2 226 3 164 32211043834581854318221 533394171634393234392233649606 2705 PN 25.2 228 3 162 33211043134575274318221 633396167332323437290236750375 2706 PN 25.2 225 2 171 32201143124576194318521 533401170631863433084230849332 2707 PN 25.2 227 3 164 32221043834581364318221 533405167634313230608232449659 2711 PN 25.2 178 2 114 2420933722433834217019 431313160951152437914194642633 2725 PN 25.4 228 3 159 3322943634577074318221 533390170134103332110230149417 2728 PN 25.4 226 3 173 33211043434576904318721 533402169234213234427233749399 2733 PN 26.1 225 3 164 33221245134598074419122 634407176734403233491233249038 233

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USF # Location LA LU ND SM U YB CE CS EU FE HF RB TA TB TH ZN ZR CL DY K MN NA 2740 PN 26.1 225 2 159 32221045334597894418622 634404173434793233951234549859 2753 PN 26.2 225 2 166 32211046434619344619523 635430181033373236293232549976 2755 PN 26.2 225 3 171 32211040624537074017320 530380159834843234322234250087 2765 PN 26.5 227 3 171 3321944124585334319222 633399174235893839023237750552 2768 PN 26.5 229 2 170 33221044534593064418922 533409176434743133504240350019 2772 PN 26.6 229 3 170 33231044534591804419022 533418173033503530929235149856 2779 PN 27 243 3 187 36171848475636514723224 63648418722873438881223828344 2780 PN 27 212 2 155 29151543734577234218221 53241916621233234901220432496 2782 PN 27 228 2 166 34151645324588854418222 63443817652893335117233531218 2785 PN 27 223 2 176 33151644934588794419122 633430178634023231303232749486 2787 PN 27 223 2 174 32161642534589004418922 633440172634483231822236349840 2789 PN 27 215 2 161 29151544244578154221121 53242416742403231429235735553 2790 PN 27 236 2 161 34161746824596404418922 63543417893653735026236534703 2792 PN 27 221 2 150 30161644424583194318522 633424173434563330294235450129 2794 PN 27 221 2 152 29161642634594304418722 633431171736893333681240948972 2803 PN 27 226 2 149 33161644934592704418722 633432171933283732002231749947 2804 PN 27 209 2 152 29161641434591074319521 53543517203423036031220332658 2808 PN 27 228 3 165 31161643834601524519522 634433174535793336897237750351 2812 PN 27 228 2 158 32161746234609794519522 635465173035223728282237450761 2816 PN 28 225 2 160 34161644234583024318322 633443170636703233665237750611 2820 PN 28 222 2 157 30171644634593964419022 633434170835253636002237950718 2823 PN 28 219 2 159 30161644034580344318921 533421167632233133673232849773 234

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ANID Location Al Si Cl K Ca Ti Mn Fe Zn Ga Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Ba La Ce Nd Hf Pb Th U USF50 83 BT 3PN 126 25300 215000 274517070681969315255314035230 153 717219243254347196939136173511 USF50 85 BT 3PN 126 21590 174500 159916070491777116515375036631 167 617819823373341383634438173813 USF50 87 BT 3PN 126 27830 232200 2243206301409086316845302034230 149 915417042904043589736533153210 USF50 88 BT 3PN 126 22370 189600 1851159302932086614234167026123 117 211321466249404208543462213289 USF50 90 BT 3PN 126 32610 266600 260619180338571215555200032729 149 4154173429449503104140834163310 USF50 91 BT 3PN 126 34500 295000 3104224701588090018324756029225 129 10158179030453522107842929133310 USF50 93 BT 3PN 126 23900 211800 2369181101092076016665258035629 150 7170190532344500102542537163613 USF50 97 BT 2PN 127 20830 181000 17421419046710104814194234028923 119 2313414582523940983033826133010 USF50 98 BT 2PN 127 26920 229600 234519040160368916975431035930 161 417419603324043688835239173512 USF51 00 BT 2PN 127 20530 173900 201916980136062015415297034832 158 416719023174140983532935173512 USF51 05 BT 2PN 127 27730 217200 199017860793872915855238034129 153 716418553134543689336235173412 USF51 08 BT 2PN 127 22680 189000 227816390515070915785400036131 163 517519763343236974428537173612 USF51 09 BT 2PN 127 25170 208400 326917720457372517115445037632 168 618020023434144188235437163812 USF51 11 BT 2PN 127 18770 162500 255516120495369716465329037932 170 618420383474043788135738183914 USF51 25 BT 1PN 128 28100 231900 225219890159975217415292034230 157 317619753324347095238836153713 USF51 26 BT 1PN 128 18550 255800 1463160001160081515645825039532 162 717418863224544990835440173612 USF51 27 BT 1PN 128 29580 239700 341619710158872016385628037031 161 517919713354747492339239173512 Table 8: XRF Test Results 235

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ANID Location Al Si Cl K Ca Ti Mn Fe Zn Ga Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Ba La Ce Nd Hf Pb Th U USF51 28 BT 1PN 128 32780 268100 264221020200886517485445035332 160 416418573184245692137535163412 USF51 29 BT 1PN 128 31520 256200 266421160794688217925252034129 156 717219163283942386135136153512 USF51 30 BT 1PN 128 26940 224600 2444190501051081016635029033328 146 1315717312973745191337933153211 USF51 33 BT 1PN 128 29910 235000 228219150900483816525323034931 155 715717613024342486334436153212 USF51 34 BT 1PN 128 29760 240900 250419590195877717415528037032 167 417719933425043386235038173712 USF51 35 BT 1PN 128 30100 227300 21971816033760106615394601028124 124 191361477253393837703052714279 USF51 36 BT 1PN 128 29870 244100 234119780178472717295290034231 154 417119463293740282032533163511 USF51 37 BT 1PN 128 27280 225400 2860168802251081014604513027124 125 131391518255403807933272814299 USF51 38 BT 1PN 128 28320 203600 1643145802962088613404711029026 127 151291423238302935992432914268 USF51 39 BT 1PN 128 24190 201300 1725145804389097112893929024321 109 231211297222404258593352512249 USF51 40 BT 1PN 128 19460 169000 1774151702676087714854441028425 129 1713815332614142786634828132911 USF51 67 BT 3/4 PN 129 16340 139600 2115138902880088414594601029827 136 1714316322764339679931632143111 USF51 68 BT 3/4 PN 129 30630 251000 238217910247570216045129032628 147 316318463104845793937431153312 USF51 71 BT 3/4 PN 129 23090 188100 1667153103876094513493877022921 103 191241379230454489323882012258 USF51 72 BT 3/4 PN 129 28910 204000 1979163901128081516065187033129 151 715917853023638078631934163311 USF51 77 BT 3/4 PN 129 26150 218000 389418320441069115154970030627 141 5156179429948488102341130143311 USF51 78 BT 3/4 PN 129 26570 228600 244616470366481816145373035931 161 516819003243643488035534163512 USF51 81 BT 3/4 PN 129 32470 268800 287618770148461714855293033029 149 315017182903639481331532153010 236

PAGE 251

ANID Location Al Si Cl K Ca Ti Mn Fe Zn Ga Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Ba La Ce Nd Hf Pb Th U USF52 94 LdV PN 137 24140 137500 1144174205446237717665835025334 105 31011128196302144461882210208 USF52 94 LdV PN 137 24140 137500 1144174205446237717665835025334 105 31011128196302144461882210208 USF52 97 LdV PN 137 31820 175700 1350179701668173715334142026932 132 212916662749628055820334133211 USF53 02 LdV PN 137 29840 183100 13041688019250201416275438025229 107 111041156202472835892382312228 USF53 04 LdV PN 137 53600 254000 2733201304555188214733971023627 113 211615072451083076272152813278 USF53 14 LdV PN 137 38010 224500 3552217802740224818725930027331 114 21121281221462825842272512247 237

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238 Appendix B Pantelleria Artifacts and Geologic Density Analysis Charts

PAGE 253

239 Density Analysis of Geologic Samples from Bagno dell’Acqua and Pantelleria Archaeological Sites BdA 3 In-Situ BdA Surface BdA 2 In-Situ BdA 1 Secondar y Bda 3 In-Situ BdA Surface Bda 2 In Situ BdA 1 Secondar y

PAGE 254

Density Analysis of Geologic Samples from Bagno dell’Acqua and Pantelleria Archaeological Sites BdA 1 Secondar y BdA Surface BdA Surface BdA 3 In-Situ BdA Surface BdA 2 In-Situ BdA 1 Secondary240

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Density Analysis of Geologic Samples from Bagno dell’Acqua and Pantelleria Archaeological Sites BdA 2 In-Situ BdA 3 In-Situ BdA Surface BdA 1 Secondar y BdA 3 In-Situ BdA Surface BdA 3 In-Situ BdA 1 Secondary 241

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Density Analysis of Geologic Samples from Bagno dell’Acqua and Pantelleria Archaeological Sites Density Analysis of Geologic Samples Balata dei Turchi and Pantelleria Archaeological Sites BdA 3 In-Situ BdA Surface BdA 3 In-Situ BdA 1 Secondary BdT 2 BdT 2 & BdT 4 BdT 1 & BdT 3 242

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Density Analysis of Geologic Samples from Balata dei Turchi and Pantelleria Archaeological Sites BdT2 & BdT 4 BdT 1 & BdT 3 BdT2 & BdT 4 BdT1 & BdT3 243

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Density Analysis of Geologic Samples from Bala ta dei Turchi and Pantelleria Archaeological Sites BdT1, BdT2, BdT3, BdT4 BdT2 BdT4 BdT1 & BdT3244

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Density Analysis of Geologic Samples from Balata dei Turchi and Pantelleria Archaeological Sites BdT2 BdT4 BdT1 & BdT3 BdT2 BdT1, BdT3 &BdT4 245

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Density Analysis of Geologic Samples from Balata dei Turchi and Pantelleria Archaeological Sites BdT2 BdT4 BdT1 & BdT3246