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Exploring the relationship of emotional intelligence to transformational leadership within mentoring relationships

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Title:
Exploring the relationship of emotional intelligence to transformational leadership within mentoring relationships
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English
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Webb, Shannon
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University of South Florida
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Tampa, Fla.
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Subjects / Keywords:
self awareness
self confidence
mentor
empathy
supervisor
protégé
professor
Dissertations, Academic -- Psychology -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: The present study examines the extent to which emotional intelligence is related to transformational leadership within mentoring relationships. One hundred and twelve faculty members responsible for mentoring doctoral students completed the Schutte Self Report Inventory of Emotional intelligence, as well as measures of empathy, self awareness, and self confidence. Transformational leadership ratings for each professor were provided by the doctoral student(s) who were advised by him or her. Study results indicate that emotional intelligence can predict several aspects of transformational leadership, including charisma and inspirational motivation. The predictive power of emotional intelligence was, in several cases, explained by the personality construct of empathy.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2004.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
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Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Shannon Webb.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
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Document formatted into pages; contains 96 pages.

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oclc - 54938315
notis - AJQ2284
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0000229
usfldc handle - e14.229
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SFS0024925:00001


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ABSTRACT: The present study examines the extent to which emotional intelligence is related to transformational leadership within mentoring relationships. One hundred and twelve faculty members responsible for mentoring doctoral students completed the Schutte Self Report Inventory of Emotional intelligence, as well as measures of empathy, self awareness, and self confidence. Transformational leadership ratings for each professor were provided by the doctoral student(s) who were advised by him or her. Study results indicate that emotional intelligence can predict several aspects of transformational leadership, including charisma and inspirational motivation. The predictive power of emotional intelligence was, in several cases, explained by the personality construct of empathy.
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Exploring the Relationship of Emotional In telligence to Transformational Leadership Within Mentoring Relationships by Shannon Webb A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Psychology College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: Paul Spector, Ph.D. Walter Borman, Ph.D. Cynthia Cimino, Ph.D. Date of Approval: February 3, 2004 Keywords: self awareness, self confidence, empathy, supervisor, protg, professor Copyright 2004, Shannon Webb

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i Table of Contents List of Tables ii List of Figures iii Abstract iv Introduction 1 Emotional Intelligence: Ability Models 2 Emotional Intelligence: Mixed Models 11 Leadership 16 Contexts of Leadership 27 Method 32 Participants 32 Procedure 34 Materials 35 Emotional Intelligence 35 Self Awareness 36 Self Confidence 36 Empathy 37 Leadership Style 37 Results 39 Group Effects 39 Descriptive Statistics 41 Scale Reliability 42 Rater Reliability 43 Relationships Among Study Variables 44 Hypothesis Testing 44 Discussion 47 References 62

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ii Appendices 81 Appendix A: Schutte Self Report I nventory (Schutte et al., 1998) 82 Appendix B: New General Self Efficacy Scale (NGSE) (Chen, Gully & Eden, 2001) 84 Appendix C: Private Self-Consciousness subscale of the Self Consciousness Scale 85 Appendix D: Questionnaire Measure of Emotional Empathy (Mehrabian & Epstein, 1972) 86 Appendix E: MLQ 5x Advisor Scale 88 Appendix F: Study Cover Lett er (for participants) 89 Appendix G: Cover Letter (f or graduate students) 90

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iii List of Tables Table 1 Univariate F tests of Diffe rences by Data Collection Method 68 Table 2 Descriptive Sta tistics by Scale Type 69 Table 3 Skewness and Kurtosis Values by Scale 70 Table 4 Scale Outliers 71 Table 5 Scale Alpha Level 72 Table 6 Rater Reliability for k Raters 73 Table 7 Correlations Among All Variables Used in Study 74 Table 8 Results of Regression of Persona lity Variables and EI on Leadership Scales 75

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iv List of Figures Figure 1. Hypothesis 1 77 Figure 2. Hypotheses 2 and 3 78 Figure 3. Hypothesis 4 79 Figure 4. Hypothesis 5 80

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v Exploring the Relationship of Emotional In telligence to Transformational Leadership Within Mentoring Relationships Shannon Webb ABSTRACT The present study examines the extent to which emotional in telligence is related to transformational leadership within mentor ing relationships. One hundred and twelve faculty members responsible for mentoring do ctoral students completed the Schutte Self Report Inventory of Emotional intelligence, as well as measures of empathy, self awareness, and self confidence. Transforma tional leadership rati ngs for each professor were provided by the doctoral student(s) w ho were advised by him or her. Study results indicate that emotional intelligence can predict several aspect s of transformational leadership, including charisma and inspira tional motivation. The pr edictive power of emotional intelligence was, in several cases explained by the personality construct of empathy.

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1 Exploring the Relationship of Emotional In telligence to Transformational Leadership Within Mentoring Relationships Emotional intelligence (EI) is a term that refers to a field of theories relating to the understanding and use of emotions. Debate currently rages as to what, exactly, emotional intelligence is. There are two wide ly recognized schools of thought at present. One views emotional intelligence as a pr ecisely defined form of intelligence, encompassing only emotion related abilities. The recognized model based upon this view is referred to as an ability model. The s econd school of thought ta kes a broader view of emotional intelligence, conceptualizing it as expressed via a wider range of skills and traits related to emotions. Models of emotional intelligence created from this viewpoint are often referred to as mixed models. Altern ately they have been labeled personality models or trait models, due to their significan t relationships with pe rsonality traits. No matter which model is considered, there are clear theoretical ties between EI and leadership. The present st udy examines and empirically te sts some of those ties. In what follows, both types of EI models are reviewed and differences in models are discussed. These differences are important b ecause of the measure used in the present study. That measure, the Schutte Self-Repor t Inventory (SSRI) (Schutte, et al, 1998) combines elements of both models. It claims to capture three components of the ability model of emotional intelligence. However, it us es a self report format that asks subjects about their typical behaviors, rath er than testing their abilities directly. In this sense, it is

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2 a mixed measure rather than an ability one. Because of this, discussion of both types of models is merited. Following that, relevant leadership theory is reviewed. This review focuses on the construct of transformational, or charismatic, leadership. Transformational leadership, while not representative of all forms of leadership, provides a model with clear theoretical relationships to emotional intelligence. This makes it an excellent type of leadership to study in the pr esent context. Thus, based on the model of transformational leadership, relationships between emotional in telligence and leadership are presented and study hypotheses are given. After hypotheses are pr esented, contexts in which leadership is demonstrated are discussed. This discu ssion explains why the present study uses mentoring relationships as the context in whic h transformational leader ship is assessed. It should be noted that this study measures several personality constructs, such as empathy and self confidence, in addition to the EI measure used. These constructs are measured so that variance in scores on the SSRI that is due to these relevant personality factors can be removed prior to correla tions with measures of transformational leadership. This addresses the concern that mi xed measures of EI provide no advantage in prediction over measures of personality constructs such as empathy. By examining the relationship of EI to leadership with theoretically related personality constructs such as empathy partialed out, the unique cont ribution of EI will be clearer.

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3 Emotional Intelligence: Ability models Of the two schools of thought on emotiona l intelligence, the position with the greatest construct clarity is that which focuse s on EI as an ability. This school of thought views emotional intelligence as a set of ab ilities directly related to emotions. These abilities are a natural pa rt of every individuals daily func tioning. However, as is the case with other cognitive abilities, individuals with greater ability in the area of emotional intelligence should have enhanced functioning co mpared to those with lesser ability. The model encompassing this school of thought, genera lly referred to as an ability model, is most often conceptualized as having four subcomponents. The component labels used by Mayer, Caruso and Salovey (2000) to desc ribe these subcomponents are: Emotional perception, emotional facil itation of thought, emotional understanding and emotional management. The first component, emotional percepti on, involves the ability to recognize emotion in the self and in external targets. Examples of external targets include other people, visual art and music. The second co mponent, emotional facilitation of thought, encompasses the abilities to link emotions to other objects and to use emotions to enhance reasoning and problem solving. An exam ple of this would be an individual who, upon perceiving anger in himself, is capable of analyzing the cause of that anger and thereby addressing that cause and resolvi ng the anger. The abili ty to understand how emotions relate to each other and what emotions mean is subsumed under the third component, emotional understanding. The f ourth and final component, emotional

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4 management, refers to an ability to understa nd and manipulate emotions in the self and in others. An example of this would be an i ndividual who is able to invoke a positive mood in himself when he is depressed, and thereby be able to function and interact with other people in a positive manner. Mayer, Salovey, Caruso and Sitarenios (2001) further clarify these four components. They explain that the four com ponents act as a four branch hierarchy, with perception of emotions acting as the most basic or bottom branch and emotional management as the most complex, or top branch. That is, perception of emotions is a necessary precursor to the next three branches. If an individual lacks the ability to process emotional input on the lowest le vel of the model, perception of emotion, they would also lack the ability to manage emotions at a higher level of the model. Research on the construct of alexithymia has supported this hi erarchy. Alexithymia is a constellation of symptoms characterized by difficulty recognizi ng ones own emotions. The research has shown that alexithymics also have difficulty recognizing emotions in others, using emotions to enhance reasoning, and managing their own emotions (Parker, Taylor & Bagby, 2001). This supports the premise that those who lack the ability to perceive emotions, the lowest branch of the model, also lack the ability to function at higher branches of the model. Once perception has occurred, then emotions can be utilized to facilitate thought, whether this process is conscious or not. Research done by Levine (1997) has demonstrated that different emotions, such as anger, sadness or joy ar e related to different problem solving strategies. She argues that the strategies related to each emotion are those which are most adaptive for the cause of the emotion. For example, sadness, which

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5 is evoked when a goal or desire is permanently blocked, leads to coping strategies. Due to the permanent nature of the blockage, copi ng is the most appropriate strategy, according to Levine. Thus specific emotions can lead an individual to appropriate cognitive responses. This finding supports the idea that emotions, once perceived, can be used to enhance thought. More complex still is the ability to unde rstand what emotions mean. This involves cognitive processing to recognize how multiple emotions can combine and to anticipate how one emotion leads to another. Finally, the highest and most complex branch is managing emotions, which involves a great deal of cognitive processing in order to translate emotional knowledge to behavior. For example, to manage the emotion of sadness in another person an individual mu st determine what words to say and what physical behaviors to enact. Several studies have found significant correlations between emotional intelligence and verbal intellig ence (Mayer, Caruso & Salovey, 1999). It is possible that these correlations are significant in part because verbal skills are necessary to manage emotions in others. This adds to the complexity of the f ourth branch, and helps to explain its position in the hierarchy. Recent research provides support for the id ea that this definition of emotional intelligence meets the criteria of an intelligence (Mayer, Caruso & Salovey, 1999; Ciarrochi, Chan & Caputi, 1999; Roberts, Zeider & Matthews, 2001). Because the construct validity of emotional intelligence has been so greatl y debated in the literature, a review of the evidence for c onstruct validity is merited here One of the earliest articles focusing on the construct validity of the four branch ability model was written by Mayer, Caruso and Salovey (1999). The authors began by conceptualizing emotional intelligence

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6 as a new form of intelligence, one that falls under the umbrella of general mental abilities. They then argued that in order for emotional intelligence to be a new and valid type of intelligence, it must meet three criteri a that apply to the valid ation of all types of intelligence. The first criterion was referred to as a conceptual one, and stated that intelligence must reflect mental performance rather than simply preferred ways of behaving (pp. 268). Thus with this model, emotional intelligence should only include cognitive information processing, and not pe rsonality factors su ch as self-esteem. Inclusion of personality traits would refl ect preferred ways of behaving and would thereby invalidate the ability model. The second criteri on given by Mayer and his coauthors was what they referred to as a corr elational criterion. Based upon this criterion, any intelligence, should describe a set of clos ely related abilities th at are similar to, but distinct from, mental abilitie s described by already establis hed intelligences (pp 268). The expectation that arises from this crit erion is that emoti onal intelligence should correlate with established intelligences to such an extent that a relationship is demonstrated, but not so much that emotiona l intelligence cannot be distinguished from those established intelligences. The final criterion listed was called a developmental criterion. It stated that all intelligences are expected to increase with age and experience. Thus an individuals emotional intelligence s hould increase as th at individual gains experience. Having articulated these three criteria Mayer, Caruso and Salovey (1999) attempted to demonstrate that their ability m odel of EI, as measured by the MEIS (Mayer, Caruso & Salovey, 1999) or the MSCEIT (Mayer, Salovey, Caruso & Sitarenios, 2001), met all three. In order to meet the first, th e conceptual criterion, the authors pointed out

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7 that they had operationalized emotional intelligence as an ability. Further, the method used to measure emotional intelligence, the ME IS, was designed to be an ability measure, with objectively correct a nd incorrect answers. Based upon this operatio nalization, the authors concluded that emotional intelligence had successfully met th e first criterion of an intelligence. The authors then administered the MEIS, m easures of verbal IQ and measures of personality traits to a large (N=503) subject pool. The personal ity trait measures used fell into two groupings. The first grouping was composed of pers onality factors related to empathy. It included measures of positive shar ing, avoidance and feeling for others. The second grouping was composed of personality factors that the aut hors labeled life space criteria. These included life satisfaction, se lf-improvement, and parental warmth. After measures had been administered, scores on the MEIS were factor analyzed. A three factor solution was consistently found. The three fa ctors obtained repres ented perception of emotions, understanding and utilizing emotions, and managing emotions. Thus the two middle branches of the four branch hierarchy app ear to be joined. It is interesting to note that the original model of emotional intel ligence, authored by Sal ovey and Mayer (1990) did combine these branches. A hierarchical factor analysis that was subsequently completed demonstrated that all the subscales of the MEIS loaded onto a single, general emotional intelligence factor. Following the factor analysis of the MEIS analysis, th e authors then looked for evidence that emotional intelligence, as measured by the MEIS, met the correlational criterion discussed above. They discovered a correlation of r =.36 between overall scores on the MEIS and verbal intelligence. The au thors felt that this correlation was of a

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8 magnitude sufficient to indicate that emotiona l intelligence was indeed related to other intelligences, but was also significantly different from those others. Correlations between the MEIS and the empathy measures were then examined. All were significant, however all had lower correlations th an the one found between verb al IQ and EI. Finally, the authors tested the correlations between emo tional intelligence and the life space criteria, after partialing out both verbal IQ and empathy from EI. Of the three correlations between EI and life space factor s that had been significant pr ior to partialing out verbal IQ and empathy, two remained significant. The authors tentatively concluded that the MEIS does measure more than just personality or IQ factors, and in fact is capable of capturing the EI construct. Several subsequent studies that used diffe rent but theoretically sound personality measures such as the NEO-PI-R (Ciarrochi, Chan & Caputi, 2000; Mayer, Salovey, Caruso & Sitareni os, 2000) supported this conclusion. Finally, Mayer, Caruso a nd Salovey (1999) tested sa mples of both adolescents and adults in order to demonstrate that emotional intelligence met the developmental criterion mentioned above. They found signi ficant differences between the adolescent and adult samples, such that adults did appe ar to outperform the a dolescents. Thus the authors felt that the third criterion for an intelligence had been met. Based on this research, the authors concluded that the em otional intelligence construct was indeed valid. They noted the need for further researc h, however, especially on the relationship of EI to personality. This need was subsequently addressed by Ciarrochi, Chan and Caputi (2000). These authors evaluated the emotional inte lligence construct using the MEIS, Ravens Standard Matrices (an intelligence test), measures of empathy, self esteem and four

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9 personality measures taken from the NEO-PI-R. Those four measures captured extraversion, neuroticism, ope nness to feelings and openness to expression. Three criteria measures were also obtained, representing life satisfaction, rela tionship quality and parental warmth. These authors found that EI was not significantly related to the measure of intelligence used. However, they pointed ou t that the IQ measure they used is related more closely to performance IQ than to verbal IQ, and therefore perhaps emotional intelligence is also related more closely to verbal intelligence. This result raises the concern that the MEIS and MS CEIT measure verbal ability, and not necessarily EI. It could be the case that some of the subscales assess verbal ability, while others such as regulating emotions assess personality. The understanding emotions subscale is quite vulnerable to such concerns. The following question from that subscale on the MSCEIT demonstrates why such concern is warranted : Optimism most closely combines which two emotions? (a) pleasure and anticipation; (b ) acceptance and joy; (c) surprise and joy; (d) pleasure and joy. (Mayer, Caruso & Sa lovey, 1999). It could be argued that this question and others like it that comprise this subscale re quire more of a knowledge of word meaning than of emotional understand ing. If questions like this, which make up several subscales, do measure ve rbal ability, they could expl ain the moderate correlation of EI to verbal intelligence, and the lack of correlation to pe rformance IQ. This could also explain the moderate correlations to persona lity traits such as empathy, which are discussed below. An alternate explanation of the modera te relationship between EI and verbal intelligence is that verbal intelligence is a component of emotional intelligence that has not been formally included in the construct. Because verbal ab ility is related to a persons

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10 ability to express himself or herself, and ther efore to regulate emoti ons in others, it could be necessary to have a certain level of verbal ability in order to ha ve a certain level of emotional intelligence. No matter what the tr ue relationship between EI and verbal and performance IQ is, results of the studies presented above provide support that emotional intelligence, as measured by the MEIS or MSCEIT, meets the correlational criterion of an intelligence. However, as with any developing construct, emotional intelligence should be examined with a critical eye. Ciarrochi and his colleagues proceeded to examine the relationship of EI to the personality measures. They found signifi cant relations between EI and empathy, extraversion and openness to feelings. Signifi cant correlations were also found between EI and relationship quality and life satisfacti on, two of the three criterion measures. As was found in the Mayer study, Ciarrochi, Ch an and Caputi also found that significant correlations to these criteria remained, even after IQ, empathy and the other personality measures had been partialed out of the rela tionship. Thus this study provides evidence that the emotional intelligence construct correl ates with theoretically related constructs such as empathy, but also has incrementa l validity beyond those c onstructs. However, caution should be taken not to assume that EI can become a replacement for personality measures. While emotional intelligence was found to have increm ental validity beyond the performance IQ and personality measures the incremental validity of personality beyond EI was never addressed in this study, nor in any of the other studies mentioned. Also, considering the concerns raised ear lier regarding verbal intelligence, the incremental value of EI in the case of this study does remain in question. If verbal IQ had also been partialed out, findings would be more supportive of the in cremental validity of

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11 EI. Thus Ciarrochi, Chan and Caputis (2000) work provides tentative support of the construct validity of emotional intelligen ce, as captured by ability measures. Emotional Intelligence: Mixed models The second school of thought on emotional intelligence is considerably broader than the pure ability school. It begins with measures that attempt to capture components of the ability model of EI through self reports of typical behavior. It also encompasses models and associated measures that include not just emotiona l abilities, but also abilities that emotions and management of emotions ca n facilitate. An example of this would be leadership skills, which can be facilitated though skilled understanding and use of emotions. The facets composing mixed models and the measures used to capture them vary greatly by theorist, but the work of Bar-On has been particular ly influential in the field, and much research has been done on the usef ulness and validity of his model. Bar-On himself describes his model as an extensi on of an ability model by Salovey and Mayer (Bar-On, et al., 2000a). Moreover, his model t ypifies the mixed or personality approach to EI. Bar-Ons emotional and social intelligence framework encompasses the following five factors: Intrapersonal capacity, interpers onal skills, adaptability, stress management, and motivation and general mood factors (B ar-On, et al., 2000a) The first factor, intrapersonal capacity, involves th e ability to understand the self and emotions in the self, and to coherently express ones emotions a nd ideas. Interpersonal skill, which is the second factor, refers to an ability to recogni ze others emotions and to maintain mutually satisfying relationships with t hose others. The third factor, adaptability, encompasses the

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12 ability to use emotions in the self, as well as external cues, in various ways. Those ways include interpreting a situation, altering cogniti ons and emotions as situations change and solving problems. The ability to cope with stro ng emotions and with stress is the fourth factor of stress management. Finally, the fifth factor, motiv ation and general mood, refers to an ability to manifest positive moods, enjoy those positive moods and to experience and express positive emotions. As can be seen here, the factors or co mponents that make up ability models are significantly different from those that form Bar-Ons model and others like it, such as Golemans (1995) Emotional Quotient model. However, emotions are involved in both ability and mixed models. In the ability mode l, emotions are directly related to the abilities being considered. In the second se t of models, mixed models, emotions can either be directly related to abilities, or they may instead assist abilities. For example, within the motivation and genera l mood factor, an individual with no ability to perceive emotions could still motivate himself to act for external reward. On the other hand, an individual able to motivate himself by r ecognizing the positive rewards and also the positive mood that will arise from action may well experience greater success in life due to multiple sources of motivation. It is important to note that mixed models are highly correlat ed with personality constructs such as empathy and self-esteem (Dwada & Hart, 2000; Petrides & Furnham, 2001; Newsome, Day, & Catano, 2000). Dwada and Hart (2002) repor ted correlations between the EQ-i (Emotional Quotient Invent ory) (Bar-On, 2000a) and four of the five NEO-PI-R scales to be between r =.33 and r =.72, with the majority of the correlations falling above r =.51. Newsome, Day and Catano (2000) found that all but one of the

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13 factors obtained from the 16PF, a personality measure, were significantly correlated with both the EQ-i total score and the EQ-i composite scores ( r s=.18 to -.77). Taking a slightly different approach, Pe trides and Furnham used fact or analysis to examine the relationship of trait emotional intelligence, as measured by the EQ-i, to both the Big Five personality construct, and Eysenck s P-E-N personality model. These authors interpreted the results of their study to indicate that EI could be viewed as a lower order composite construct that would fit into eith er model. In their view, EI was a part of personality, albeit a part some what different from existing pe rsonality structures. Based on this stream of research, many resear chers argue that mixed model Emotional Intelligence measures little more than pe rsonality, and adds insignificant incremental validity to predictions of anything beyond what is given by existing personality measures (Petrides & Furnham, 2001; Caruso, Ma yer & Salovey, 2002; Charbonneau & Nichol, 2002). However, those researchers who advocate mi xed models of emotional intelligence point to the importance of personality factors, especially empathy and self-esteem, in their models (Goleman, 1995; Bar-On, 2000). They note that their models of emotional intelligence subsume the components of ability m odels and cover related traits (Bar-On, 2000). For example, the four branches of th e ability model are contained in various components of Bar-Ons (2000) emotional and social intelligence model. The first and second branches of the ability model, percepti on of emotions in the self and others and understanding emotions, fall unde r Bar-Ons domains of intrap ersonal and interpersonal capacity. The third branch of using emotions to facilitate thought is subsumed within the component of adaptability. The final branch, managing emotions in the self and others,

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14 relates to both the factor of interpersona l capacity and the factor of motivation and general mood. Thus, these theorists argue, mixed models do encompass ability models. But these mixed models include far more than just the components of ability models. Goleman (1995) speculates than an individual high on emotional intelligence should also be high on empathy, self-aware ness, openness to experience and related traits. In fact, if the individual was lacking in emotional intelligence, he or she would also be lacking in empathy, self-awareness and other traits. With mixed models, emotional intelligence is the key trait that leads to other traits. Becau se of this, the relationship between emotional intelligence and these person ality traits becomes part of the overall mixed model of emotional intelligence. As a corollary of the inclusion of personality traits in the model, personality traits become part of the measures used to capture mixed models of emotional intelligence. Due to the use of personality in mixed models and their associated measures, it can be difficult to make a strong case for the discriminant validity of mixed measures of emotional intelligence beyond that of existi ng personality measures. Despite this, mixed model theorists argue that there is eviden ce that a single mixed measure of emotional intelligence can predict certain criteria as well as a personality measure. Examples of this do exist in the literature. Mixed models have been used to predict different types of success, such as academic success or success in relationships (Sc hutte et al., 2001; Van der Zee, Thjis & Schakel, 2002). It is also necessary to point out that not all mixed models attempt to measure so wide a range of personality traits as does Bar-Ons model. Schutte (2001) and his colleagues created the Schutte Self-Report In ventory (SSRI). This inventory measures typical beha vior, like the EQ-i, and thus can not be classified with the

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15 ability models and measures. However, it is based upon Salovey and Mayers (1990) early three factor ability m odel of EI. Therefore it attempts to measure perception of emotions, regulation of emotions and utilization of emotions. Bar-Ons model and measure includes components such as maintaining mutually satisfying relationships and enjoying positive moods. These are both factor s that could be direct expressions of personality, and seem to be only distantly related to EI. The SSRI, on the other hand, measures a smaller range of typical behavior th at is more closely related to EI. This could explain why the SSRI successfully predicts succe ss in school, but is correlated with only one of the 16 PF personality factors (Schutte et al., 2001). Thus when considering the value of mixed measures of EI, it is necessa ry to carefully examine the makeup of each specific measure. Having examined the current research on mi xed models of emo tional intelligence, it appears that such models and their associated measures hold promise. It is likely that some measures, such as the SSRI, capture more than just personality traits, and are useful in predicting various outcomes. More resear ch is clearly needed to determine when mixed models and measures should be used. In terms of predicting practical outcomes, such as leadership skills, mixed measures have one key advantage over ability measures. The data on ability measures is far from conclu sive that they do capture the pure ability of EI. Further, even if they do assess an individuals ability, they will assess maximum ability. That is, a true ability measure will capture what an individual is capable of. On the other hand, personality measures are mo re likely to capture typical performance. Measures like the SSRI ask individuals how they normally think and behave. When predicting everyday behavior, it is arguably better to have a measure of typical

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16 performance, such as the SSRI, than a measure of maximum possible performance, such as the MSCEIT. Because the present study is interest ed in predicting everyday leadership behaviors, it is advantageous to select a meas ure of typical performance. In an attempt to combine the best of both models, the SSRI is used in the present study as the measure of emotional intelligence. To address concerns th at mixed measures capture little more than personality, personality traits of empathy, se lf confidence and self awareness are included in study hypotheses and measured so that they can be statistically removed, allowing for an assessment of the unique contribution of emotional intelligence to predicting leadership. Leadership When considering the components of any model of EI, it is easy to see a clear influence of emotional intelligence on ev eryday life. Day to day interactions and cognitions are influenced by how well we deal with our own and others emotions. One way EI is likely to have a large impact on people is through so cial interactions. Emotional intelligence will have a pervasive impact on the leadership, which is one type of social interaction. Leader ship can occur in many contex ts. It can range from the informal leadership seen when one member of a social group picks the location for a weekly lunch, to the formal leadership seen when a mentor assigns a protg a challenging new assignment. If these lead ers are not sensitive to the emotional information they receive from their followers, conflict may well occur. If the leaders are

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17 aware and are capable of managing emotions in others, this can placa te their friends or protgs, allowing interpersonal in teractions to proceed smoothly. Managing emotions in the self and in others is a critical component of leadership. According to Yukl (1994), as cited in Ashkana sy and Tse (2000), all leadership involves mobilizing human resources toward the atta inment of organizational goals (2000). Many researchers have stressed the importa nce of the proper use of emotions to successful leadership (e.g., Ashkanasy & Tse, 2000; Pescosolido, 2002; Sosik & Megerian, 1999; Barling, Slater & Kelloway, 2000). These authors note that leaders use emotional tone to secure coope ration within groups, to motivate followers and to enhance communication. Furthermore, as Caruso, Mayer and Salovey (2000) point out, leaders must be aware of their followers emotiona l reactions. Without such awareness, the leader will have difficulty knowing when, or if, his orders are followed. One specific field of leadership study th at appears to hold great promise for relationships with emotional intelligence is that of transformational or charismatic leadership. Yukl (1999) writes th at theories of transformationa l or charismatic leadership focus on the importance of emotions, unlike other leadership theories. Before discussing any specific model of transfor mational or charismatic leadership, the general relationship between the two types of leadership should be explained. Numerous definitions of both types of behavior exist, and for each definiti on there is a different view on how one type relates to the other. In Yukls (1999) article on the subject, he notes that the number of definitions make it difficult to compare the tw o terms. However, Yukl continues, recent research has resulted in transformational a nd charismatic leadership theories becoming conceptually similar. Congers (1999) recent analyses of the relevant literature indicate

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18 that many researches feel either that charis matic and transformational leadership refer to the same leadership construct, or that charismatic leadership is subsumed within the construct of transformational leadership (Ashkanasy & Tse, 2000; Conger, 1999; Hunt & Conger, 1999). Furthermore, the majority of empirical research completed to date has used complimentary models of transformational or charismatic leadership, rather than models that strictly differentiate the tw o. With this research in mind, a model of transformational leadership that encompasses charisma is presented here. Several models of transformational or charismatic leadership exist, however three main models have become recognized in th e leadership field. As Conger (1999) notes, only one of those models, the transformati onal leadership model created by Bass and Avolio (1988), focuses on transformational l eadership rather than charisma. The other two models focus on charisma and the leadersh ip qualities associated with it. While those leadership qualities bear striking similarity to the leadership behaviors included in the transformational model, differences remain between the models. According to Conger, due to the value connotations associated w ith the term charisma, Bass and Avolios transformational model has become more often used. Thus their four component transformational leadership model is well suppor ted in the literature, and thus it is used here. The first component, or f actor, of the transformati onal leadership model is idealized influence. Most taxonomies of transf ormational leadership place charisma into this factor. In fact, Bass (2000) specifically la bels this factor Charismatic Leadership. Whichever label is used, the factor refers to the extent to which followers trust and emotionally identify with the leader as a result of the leader s behavior (Pillai,

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19 Schriesheim & Williams, 1999; Sosik & Megerian, 1999). The second factor is inspirational motivation, and it refers to the ex tent to which the leader provides followers with emotional or tangible resources that will lead to achievement of the leaders goals. Intellectual stimulation is the third component of transformational lead ership. It refers to the extent to which the leader encourages followers to question their current knowledge, beliefs and modes of action. Finally, the last component is indivi dualized consideration. This refers to the leaders tendency to provide followers with tasks and feedback appropriate for their skill level. Lending support to the notion that charismatic leadership is a key component of transformational leadership, a study by Bass (1 985) found that charisma accounted for 66 percent of the response variance in the transformati onal leadership model. Other research has come to similar conclusions about the relationship between charisma and transformational leadership (Ashkanasy & Tse, 2000). This finding is likely due in part to the fact that one of the exp ected results of transformational leadership behavior is identical to one of the main components of nearly all charismatic leadership models. A product of transformational leader ship behavior is that the le aders values and standards are transferred to the followers, thus resul ting in changes in the followers values and associated cognitions and behaviors (MacKenzi e, Podsakoff, & Rich, 2001). Likewise, a product of charismatic leadership behavior is the transference of the leaders vision and associated behaviors to the followers (C onger, 1988; Wasielewski, 1985; Yukl, 1981). Thus charisma is a core part of transformational leadership. Because of the relationship of charismatic leadership to transformational leadership, charismatic leadership become s a good starting point for examining the

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20 relationship of transformational leadership to emotional intelligen ce. Before beginning on such an examination, however, it is necessary to define the construct of charisma. Max Weber was the first to discuss charismatic l eadership, and other theories on the subject have grown from his writings (Conger 1988). Weber discussed an ideal and extraordinary leader who had authority over ot hers based upon the fo llowers trust in the leaders character. Yukl (1981) listed a number of outcomes that arise from a charismatic leader. These outcomes include: (1) followers tr ust in the leaders beliefs, (2) followers assimilate or internalize the leaders beliefs (3) followers feel positive emotion regarding the leader, (4) followers become emotionally involved in the goals of the leader, (5) followers believe they can aid in the success of the leaders goals. Thus, a charismatic leader is one with the ability to instill in his followers his own beliefs, trust in himself and a sense of efficacy for accomplishing those beliefs. Emotional intelligence should be an integr al part of charisma tic leadership. In fact, Wasielewski (1985) argues that emotions are the basis of charisma. She postulates that at the lowest level, a charismatic leader cannot instill values in his or her followers unless he or she is able to sincerely c onvey his own belief. In order to convey such sincerity, a leader must first understand the em otions felt by his or her followers. He or she must then speak to those emotions in su ch a way that the followers become conscious of them. Finally, the leader must present his or her own ideas in terms of new emotions that the followers must adopt. Wasielewski cites the example of Martin Luther King, Jr. In his famous I have a dream speech, he began by evoking the crowds own feelings of anger at social inequality. Immediately follo wing that, however, he evoked pride and pity in the crowd: pride toward themselves for enduring challenges, and pity toward those

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21 who live in anger and use violence. Thus Ki ng spoke to his followers emotions first, thereby demonstrating his understanding of them. He followed that by proposing a different set of emotions, and a vision for be haviors (nonviolence) to be associated with those emotions. The ability to transform followers emotions in such a manner is clearly related to emotional intelligence. First, perception of emo tions in the self and in others is necessary for a leader to recognize both the emotions associated with his own vision, and the emotions associated with his followers ini tial values and beliefs. Next, understanding of emotions and how they relate to each other, and to external sources, is key. The leader must understand how the emotions his beliefs en tail relate to the emotions his followers beliefs entail. Through this relationship, the l eader can draw a logical connection between the two. Also, and of extreme importance, a charismatic leader must understand how emotions relate to physical gestures, speech patterns and other cultural information he shares with his followers. For example, King understood the pride and hope associated with the spiritual Let Freedom Ring and therefore he was able to use those words in his speech to maximum effect. Finall y, managing emotions in the self and others is necessary so that the leader can transfer his values to his followers. Thus the basic components of emotional intelligence are all directly related to charismatic leadership. Beyond this, emotional intelligence has even more ability to influence charisma. As Yukl (1981) mentions, followers of char ismatic leaders will feel positive emotion toward the leader, and also to ward the leaders goals. Kell y and Barsade (2001) discussed the role of emotional contagi on in creating strong emotional states within a group. In the context of groups, emotional contagion refers to a spread of emotion from one member of

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22 the group, often the leader, to the rest of the group. This spread is unconscious and mostly automatic. That is, those individuals who receive emoti onal contagion are not aware of it. Emotional contag ion occurs when receivers mimic the physical emotional behaviors of an individual, such as facial expressions, language and gestures. Research has demonstrated that this unconscious physical mimicry results in the receiving individuals reporting the same emotions that the sender reports (Doherty, 1998; Kelly & Barsade, 2001). Emotional intelligence should play a role in emotional contagion. A leader who is able to manage emotions in the self and in others will be better able to propagate emotional contagion within the group. As wa s mentioned previously, managing emotions in others includes understanding and using relevant gestures, language and facial expressions. Assuming that the leader selects and displays positive emotions regarding her or her goals, or toward himself or herself, such contagion will be a part of charismatic leadership. A leader who is unable to manage em otions in the self or others will likewise find it difficult to spread such positive emotions about goals a nd himself or herself. Based on this, the following two hypotheses are postulated: Hypothesis 1: Emotional intelligence will predict charisma 1 Having considered the relationship of idealized influence, or charisma, to emotional intelligence, the second factor of the transformational leadership model, inspirational motivation, will be considered. Several researchers have demonstrated that two key factors in determining a leaders succes s in inspirational motivation are his or her self confidence and self aw areness (Yukl, 1988; Sosik & Me gerian, 1999). Individuals 1 Please see Figures 1 through 4 for diagrammatic representations of all hypotheses.

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23 who are able to perceive a nd understand their own emotions and the emotions of others should have greater self awareness. They s hould be better able to understand emotional feedback they receive regardi ng their performance. Thus emo tional intelligence should be related to self-awareness. Work by Sosik a nd Megerian (1999) supports this. Emotional intelligence, as measured by the SSRI, should not have a direct relationship to self confidence. While some mixed measures such as Golemans (1995) directly assess self confidence, the SSRI does not. Rather it atte mpts to measure an individuals typical expression of perceiving emoti ons, managing emotions and utilizing emotions. None of these components bear a direct relationship to self confidence. It is likely, however, that those with higher levels of emotional intellig ence have greater success in certain aspects of life, due to the abilities a ssociated with EI. These successe s should lead to greater self confidence. For example, the ability to su ccessfully manage ones own emotions could lead to a feeling of mastery ove r the self, and thereby to self confidence. Also, individuals who are aware and who thus correctly receive and interpret feedback they receive from others regarding their perfor mance may feel a heightened sense of confidence because their interpretations of others are often correct. Based on this, the following hypotheses are proposed: Hypothesis 2a: Emotional intellig ence will predict self awareness. Hypothesis 2b: Emotional intellig ence will predict self confidence Hypothesis 2c: Emotional intelligence will ha ve a stronger relationship to self-awareness than to self confidence. Beyond the role that emotional intelligence plays in explaining self awareness and self confidence, two factors necessary for in spirational motivation, emotional intelligence

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24 should also play a direct role in inspirational motivation. Th e ability to manage emotions in the self and in others, a component included in all EI models and measured by the SSRI, should allow leaders to provide emotional motivation to their followers. A leader who is aware of his or her followers emotions and who alters them in such a way as to direct them toward a feeling of empowerment uses his or her ability to manage emotions to motivate. Conger and Kanguno (1998) specifica lly posit that a transformational leader uses his or her own strong emotions to arouse similar emotions in followers. Thus: Hypothesis 3a: Emotional intelligence shoul d significantly predict inspirational motivation. The previous five hypotheses raise the possibi lity that the relationship of emotional intelligence to inspirational motivation coul d be due to self awareness and self confidence. Therefore, the followi ng hypothesis is also postulated: Hypothesis 3b: The relationship between emotional intelligen ce and inspirational motivation will be accounted for by self confidence and self awareness. The third factor of transformational leadership is intellectual stimulation. Emotional intelligence can be expected to have an influence on this aspect of leadership through several routes. First, as Bass (2000) notes, an emotionally in telligent leader will avoid using harsh or condescending criticis m of his followers. Thus when followers behave in less than ideal ways, or make quest ionable decisions, an emotionally intelligent leader will provide feedback with empathy and understanding. An emotionally intelligent leader will recognize, because of understandi ng of emotions, that harsh criticism could likely create a negative emotional tone. Thus the emotionally intelligent leader would use his or her ability to manage emotions to present feedback in a more positive light. A

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25 result of such feedback is likely to be that followers are more willing to try new things, since they do not have to fear the repercussions of harsh criticism. Caruso, Mayer and Salovey (2000) s uggest a second way that emotional intelligence will enhance intellect ual stimulation. They believe that another component of emotional intelligence, using emotions to faci litate thought, will be directly related to intellectual stimulation. Leaders who are able to use emotions to facilitate thought will be able to invoke in themselves and in thei r followers moods that lead to innovation. Specifically, these authors expect that an emotionally intelligent leader will, for instance, use a happy mood to assist in generating creative, new ideas (pp. 58). Research by Vosburg (1998) has demonstrated that indi viduals in positive moods performed better on divergent thinking tasks. As divergent th inking is one way of measuring creativity, this research supports the idea that positiv e moods such as happiness will enhance creativity. Thus a leader who causes a positive mood in his or her followers will help to intellectually stimulate them. Based on th is the following hypothesis was proposed: Hypothesis 4a: Emotional intelligence w ill predict intellectual stimulation. Finally, the last factor of transformational leadership is individualized consideration. Leaders skilled at individualized considera tion are capable of assessing individual followers needs and assigning tasks appropriate to those needs. In order to do this, the leader must truly understand the followers needs, both emotional and developmental. This would require emotiona l perception on the part of the leader, and thus would be related to emotional intel ligence. While no studies have previously addressed the relationship of emotional intelligence to in dividualized consideration, several have addressed a related topic: empathy. A leader who can understand and

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26 sympathize with a followers emotional needs is experiencing empathy for that follower (Kellett, Humphrey & Sleeth, 2002). When that leader then works with the follower to meet those emotional needs, his actions shoul d signal his empathy to the follower. Thus when a leader engages in individualized consideration, he also engages in empathy. Furthermore, empathy is considered to be a key characteristic of transformational leaders (Behling & McFillen, 1996). As was disc ussed earlier, emotional intelligence is a necessary precursor to empat hy. Perceiving emotions in ot hers, understanding emotions and managing emotions in others are all components of empathy. Hence emotional intelligence is related to empathy, while em pathy is related to both individualized consideration and overall transf ormational leadership. A concer n that arises from the use of a mixed measure of EI such as the SSRI is that empathy is what is being measured, rather than emotional intelligence. Because the SSRI uses self reports of typical behaviors like empathic behavior, this is a pa rticularly large concer n in the present study. To address the issue, empathy will be measured separately from EI, and the EIindividualized consideration relationship will be examined with empathy partialed out. Based on this, the following hypotheses were postulated: Hypothesis 5a: Emotional intelligence will be significantly related to empathy. Hypothesis 5b: Emotional intelligence will be significantly related to individualized consideration. Hypothesis 5c: The relationship between emotional intelligence and individualized consideration will be accounted for by empathy.

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27 Contexts of Leadership As was mentioned above, leadership can be generally conceptualized as a process where one individual influences other indivi duals to obtain certain goals. Based on this, there are many contexts in which individua ls can demonstrate leadership. Casual interactions between two people, formal social groups and official workplace relationships are all situations where leadersh ip can occur. One particularly interesting opportunity for leadership is that which occurs between a mentor and a protg. Mentors, whether in formal, organization sponsored ro les or in an informal capacity, have the opportunity to provide leadersh ip and guidance to their prot gs. They influence their protgs, so that certain goals, such as career development can be met. Within any mentor-protg relationship, it is possible fo r the mentor to exhibit transformational leadership behaviors. Several studies have demonstrated that a mentors leadership behaviors can be transformational, and that significant individual differences can be found in terms of transformational leader ship behavior among mentors (Sosik & Godshalk, 2000; Godshalk & Sosik, 2000). Noe ( 1988) identified nine key functions that comprise all mentoring relati onships. Transformational leader ship, as demonstrated by the mentor, will enhance each of these nine functions. Specifically, each of the four components of transformational leadership co rresponds to different mentoring functions. In order to clarify this point, a brief review of Noes (1988) mentor ing functions follows. After that, the relationship of transformati onal leadership to mentoring functions is described, demonstrating how transformational leadership behaviors can be observed in

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28 mentoring relationships. Because the mento r-protg relationship used to examine transformational leadership in the present st udy is that of faculty advisor to graduate student, examples of each ment oring function have been derived from that relationship. These examples will be used to explain Noes mentoring functions in what follows. Noe (1988) divided the nine mentoring functions into two groups. The first type of mentoring function is what Noe termed career functions. This career functions portion of mentoring is subdivi ded into five functions. The first function, challenging, is seen when the mentor provides the protg with work that is demanding, or near the upper limit of the protgs abil ities. In the profes sor-student relationship, this function can be seen in the assignment of duties, such as research projects, that are demanding for the student. Second, all mentors can enga ge in the coaching function by providing feedback and suggesting strategies for m eeting objectives. This coaching function is demonstrated when professors work with students to complete requirements such as theses or dissertations. The third function is protection. This occurs when the mentor keeps the protg from taking unnecessary ri sks, and works to protect the protgs reputation. Professors provide the protecti on function by helping students to select appropriate topics for resear ch, or assisting students in understanding correct procedures for their field of study. Mentors provide the fourth function, exposure, when they help the protg gain the recognition of decision ma kers. For example, prof essors provide this function when they encourage students to present joint work at conferences in the field, or allow students to be co-authors in jour nal articles. Sponsorship, the fifth function, occurs when the mentor helps the protg obtain a new and advantageous position. This

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29 occurs in the faculty-student relationship when professors provide stud ents with letters of recommendation for future positions. The remaining four functions of Noes me ntoring model fall under the second type of mentoring function. Noe ( 1988) called this component p sychosocial functions. The four functions that fall under this component are referred to as counseling, role modeling, acceptance and confirmation and friendship. Th e first function, counseling, occurs when mentors provide protgs with opportunities to discuss anxietie s and fears. This is often seen when professors encourage students to share concerns over both academic issues and personal ones. Role modeling, which is th e second function, is just what its title implies. In the faculty-student mentoring rela tionship, role modeling is seen when faculty members openly act in a manner appropriate for their field, such as engaging in collaborative research, delving into controversial areas, or making decisions in keeping with the ethical principles of their specific discipline. The third function, acceptance, is seen when mentors display unconditional positive regard to their protgs. Professors demonstrate this function when they support students efforts despite mistakes and setbacks. The final component of psychos ocial functions is friendship, and it is demonstrated when mentors interact on an informal, social basis with protgs in workplace settings. An example of this is when professors are friendly toward their graduate student protgs, interacting informally with them while at school. These are the nine components of mentoring, according to Noe (1988). As can be seen here, it is possible to see each of these components in professor-graduate student relationships. While it is certainly not the case that all profe ssors perform all of th ese functions for their students, it is not unreasonable to assume that any and all co uld and should be provided.

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30 Thus, the professorgraduate student rela tionship can be described as a mentoring relationship. Having explored mentoring functions and how they relate to this sort of relationship, it is important to understand how mentors can display transformational leadership. As was mentioned previously, transformational leadership can be seen in any number of contexts. Mentoring relationships are one such cont ext. Several studies (Sosik & Godshalk, 2000; Godshalk & Sosik, 2000) have demonstrated this. Further, Sosik and Godshalk (2000) provide a deta iled description of how tran sformational leadership is possible within mentoring relationships. They begin by noting that the different components of transformational leadership correspond to both car eer and psychosocial mentoring functions. They point out that idealized influence, which is the extent to which followers trust and emotionally identify with the leader, is a necessary part of role modeling. This is because role modeling occu rs when the protg identifies himself or herself with the mentor. It is also likely that idealized influence or charisma would also assist with the acceptance and friendship functions of ment oring. Inspirational motivation, or the extent to wh ich the leader provides emoti onal or tangible resources that will lead to the achievement of goals, is related to both coaching and counseling, according to Sosik and Godshalk (2000). The third component of transformational leadership, intellectual stimulation, is al so important in mentoring relationships. Intellectual stimulation, or th e extent to which followers are encouraged to question current modes of action and to attempt new one s without fear of criti cism, is related to the challenging assignments, coaching and unconditional positive regard functions of mentoring. Finally, the fourth component of tr ansformational leadership also assists in

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31 mentoring relationships. Individualized consideration, or the extent to which the leader provides feedback and tasks appropriate for indi vidual followers, is directly related to the coaching and challenging assignment functi ons of mentoring. Thus, as Sosik and Godshalk demonstrated, transformational lead ership behaviors will assist a mentor in providing the various mentoring functions. As their study noted, some mentors may act in a more transformational manner than othe rs do. Thus individual differences in transformational leadership can be meas ured within the mentoring context. Based upon this, the present study measur es the transformational leadership behaviors exhibited by mentors, as well as the mentors emotional intelligence, empathy, self-awareness and self confid ence. Each of the hypotheses listed above can be tested using these data. This study proposes an exam ination of the relationship of emotional intelligence to transformational leadership. It extends the existing literature in several ways. First, it provides empirical evidence to support the numerous theories about the relationship of emotional intelligence to transformational leadership. Second, it moves beyond the general relationships predicted in exis ting literature to test the relationship of emotional intelligence to specific factors of transformational leadership. Finally, it seeks to demonstrate the incremental validity of the SSRI, a self-report measure of emotional intelligence, beyond several personality constructs.

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32 Method Participants One hundred and thirty two professors from major universities around the United States participated in this study. For 112 of those professo rs, the doctoral students under their direct supervision provided leadership ratings, resulting in a final sample of 112 sets of data used for hypothesis testing. Participants were recruite d via phone calls and e-mail. Phone calls were utilized to recruit participants at the Un iversity of South Florida. In total, 101 professors from departments w ith doctoral programs were contacted. Of these, 54 reported that they did not have any doctoral students. An additional 47 agreed to participate, and were mailed packets containing all survey materials. Approximately one month after the initial mailing, a reminder notice was sent out, to improve the response rate. Based on this, a total of 30 completed surveys were returned, resulting in a 62% response rate. E-mail recruitment with online data collection was utilized for professors at schools other than USF. A total of 2,000 requests for pa rticipation were sent via electronic mail. From those requests, 381 professors replied to indicate that they were not currently supervising doctoral students. Additionally, 84 of the original requests were returned as undeliverable. This left a maximum possi ble respondent pool of 1,535. Of those, 102 individuals participated for a response rate of 6.6%.

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33 While this response rate is far below th e average e-mail response rate of 28.5% cited by Schaefer and Dillman (1998), it is co mparable to the 8% cited in Smith (1997) and the 6% cited in Tse (1998). There are se veral reasons why such a low response rate is to be expected. First, it is likely that far more than 381 professors were not supervising doctoral students, and thus were ineligible for participation. Wh en conducting telephone recruiting for the present study, approximately 53% of the professors (N=54 out of 101 contacted) indicated that th ey were not supervising gra duate students. While it is impossible to know if this figure applies to the group of e-mailed par ticipants, it is likely that more than 19% of the 2000 contacted via e-mailed were not supervising doctoral students. If it were the case that 50% of the professors contacted via e-mail were not supervising doctoral students, then the final response rate would be approximately 11%. In their article Schaefer and Dillman (1998) alluded to a second reason why the low response rate should be unsurprising: Th e increasing presence of unsolicited e-mail. While every research request was personalized with the professors name, as recommended by Schaefer and Dillman, they were also all unsolicited. As Cho and LaRose (1999) discuss, surveys such as th e present one are ofte n considered to be noxious unwanted e-mail or spam. The Sc haefer and Dillman article, with its 28.5% response rate, was published in 1998. However, the incidence of spam has grown to account for over 50% of all internet e-mail as of November 2003 (Brightmail, 2003). Thus, the growth of spam mail since the Schafer and Dillman article was penned only serves to exacerbate a cond ition that the authors cited as a problem in 1998. Cho and LaRose (1999) also point out that internet da ta collection can raise privacy concerns that bar potential subjects from participating. Further, several pa rticipants expressed ethical

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34 concerns that their graduate students would feel required to participate if they did. Because of this, at least two individuals chose no t to participate. It is likely that the same concern effected many other potential participants. Based on a ll of this, the response rate of 6% for the present study is unsurprising, a nd is likely a function of the data collection method utilized. Procedure Subjects recruited via phone were mailed pa ckets containing all testing materials. The packets contained several items. First was a cover letter, which described the nature of the study (Appendix G). This letter explained to participants that no identifying information would be collected. It also explai ned that participants would write down a six digit number of their own choosing on the main survey and on the materials they would later distribute to their gra duate students. This number would be used to match up all data. The second page of the packet was an instructions page. It included a blank space for participants to write down their unique six digit number. It also instructed participants to write that same number on each of the pages labeled Dear Graduate Student, and then to distribute those pages to the graduate students under the part icipants supervision. The final instruction asked the participant to complete the survey materials, insert them into the included addressed envelope, and deposit them into campus mail. The procedure used for subjects at other universities was analogous to this. Subjects received an initial e-mail asking fo r their participation. The same language was used in this message as was used during telephone recruitment. The e-mail message also contained a link to the on-line survey materials. The first page of these survey materials

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35 was a cover letter, which detailed the purpose of the study, and the anonymity of responses. Subjects were instructed to enter a six digit code of their own choosing and the e-mail addresses of the students they supervised. This caused a copy of the student survey materials, complete with the professors unique code, to be mailed to each doctoral student. Participants then completed the survey online, and responses were written to a file when they finished. The final product from both methods of data collection were surveys completed by both faculty members and the graduate student s they supervised. These surveys could be matched by a six digit code. Materials Emotional Intelligence : All participants completed the 33 item Schutte SelfReport Inventory of emotional intelligence (Schutte et al., 1998). This inventory measures overall emotional intelligence, and the components of perception of emotions in the self and others, regulation of emotions in the self and others, and utilization of emotions to facilitate thought. The SSRI uses a five point Likert re sponse scale. Several studies have reported Cronbachs alpha to be 0.9 0 for the scale. Test-retest reliability was reported to be 0.78. While this inventory is a self-report measure, it has been found to have the same factor structure as the WEIS (Bar-On, 2000a). Furthermore, while it has demonstrated significant correlations with conceptually related variables such as alexithymia, (r(24)=-0.65) (Schutte et al., 1998), it has also demons trated discriminant validity through non-signifi cant correlations with four out of the five scales of the NEOPI-R (Schutte et al., 1998). It has also been found to significantly predict outcome

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36 variables such as success in school, as measured by GPA (Bar-On, 2000a). See Appendix B for a copy of this measure. Self-awareness : Participants completed 10 items comprising the Private SelfConsciousness subscale of th e Self Consciousness Scale (SCS) (Fenigstein, Scheier & Buss, 1975). Fenigstein and colle agues note that self consci ousness is the tendency of individuals to focus attention on themselves. Self-awareness is one portion of this focus. The Private Self-Consciousness subscale of the SCS measures the extent of an individuals inward focus, or self-awareness. Factor analysis of the SCS has confirmed that all 10 items fall into the Private Se lf-Consciousness factor. Like the SSRI, the Private-Self Consciousness subs cale utilizes a five point Likert-style response format. Internal consistency reliability for this subscale is =.73, while test-retest reliability is reported to be 0.84. See Appendix D for a copy of this measure. Self confidence : Participants completed the New General Self-Efficacy Scale (NGSE) (Chen, Gully & Eden, 2000). As the measures authors explain, general self efficacy captures differences among individuals in their tendency to view themselves as capable of meeting task demands in a broa d array of contexts (pp. 63). Based on this definition, the NGSE scale captu res self-confidence. Validati on studies have indicated that the NGSE measures a construct that is re lated to, but distinct from both self-esteem and situational self efficacy (Chen, Gully & Eden, 2000). The NGSE is a self report measure. It uses Likert style four point scoring for each item. Points are anchored with not at all true, hardly true , moderately true, and exac tly true. Internal consistency reliability has been found to be between a= .85 to a=.88, based on the sample. Test-retest reliability over a 16 week period, during wh ich subjects experienced events likely to

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37 affirm or damage their self confidence, was r=.67 (Chen & Gully, 2000). See Appendix C for a copy of this measure. Empathy : Participants completed a 33 item measure of emotional empathy (Mehrabian & Epstein, 1972). This scale has four point Likert style response options. Split-half reliability for the scale was reported to be r =.84. The scale was uncorrelated (r=.06, p>.10) with a social desirability scale and was capable of predicting the amount of help given to an individual in distress and need (Mehrabian & Epstein, 1972). See Appendix E for a copy of this measure. Leadership style : All members of the follower group completed a revised version of the Multifactor Leadersh ip Questionnaire 5X (MLQ-5X) (Bass, 1988). The original MLQ 5X-short measures transformational l eadership. Each of the components of transformational leadership is assessed with four questions, and all questions use Likertstyle five point responses. Validation studies on the scale have reported Cronbachs alpha to be as follows for each of the subscales: idealized influence ( = 0.75), inspirational motivation ( = 0.72), intellectual stimulation ( = 0.72) and individual ized consideration ( = 0.64) (Sosik & Godshalk, 2000). The orig inal MLQ-5X short was amended by Sosik and Godshalk (2000) to be appropriate fo r mentoring relationships. Because of the particular sample used in this study, the scal e has been further revised. The term mentor has been replaced with the term advisor where appropriate. Ini tial pilot testing among graduate students with adviso rs indicated that the current scale is appropriate for the graduate advisor-graduate stud ent relationship. Six graduate students were given copies of this modified version of the MLQ-5x. Each student was given the directions Please read the statements below. If you believe it is possible for a faculty advisor to

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38 demonstrate such behaviors within the contex t of an advising relationship, please circle yes. If you believe it is not possible for a facu lty advisor to demonstrate such behaviors in that context, please circle no. I am only inte rested in the extent to which you think these behaviors are possible, NOT the extent to wh ich your advisor demonstrates them. For 13 of 16 items, there was perfect agreement that an advisor could demonstrate the behaviors. For two items, five out of six raters agr eed that advisors could demonstrate such behaviors. For the final item, four out of six raters agreed. The items with the least agreement were two which measure char isma, and one measuring inspirational motivation. (Please see Appendix F for this scale.)

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39 Results Group Effects To begin analyzing the obtained data, scores on each of the four personality measures were computed for each particip ant. Missing responses on each scale were replaced with the mean response for the rema inder of the scale. Subjects who had failed to answer one third of the items on a particular scale did not receive a score for that scale. Of the 112 sets of data, this affected a singl e participants scores on two of the scales. Leadership data for each participant was obtained by finding the average score on each of the four leadership subscales across all protgs who provided ratings. As was the case with the personality measures, when res ponses were missing for an item, they were replaced with the individuals average res ponse on the subscale that the specific item came from. For example, when a single rate r neglected to answer one of the four questions comprising the Indivi dualized Consideration subs cale, the average of that individuals responses on the other three questions for that scale was substituted for the missing value. After all missing values had been imputed using this method, responses for each item were summed across all raters who provide d data for a single participant, and were then divided by the number of raters. In total, 53 participants were rated by 1 protg, 29 were rated by 2 protgs, 16 were rated by 3, 12 were rated by 4 and two were rated by 5. Averaged responses for each item were then summed to create a subscale score for each

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40 of the four subscales. A tota l leadership score, comprise d of the sum of all of the transformational leadership items, was also computed for each participant. As was the case with the leadership subscale scores, this total score utilized the average score for each participant. In order to ensure that it was appropr iate to pool the data obtained by phone and e-mail recruitment, a MANOVA was run comparing the two groups on all of the outcome measures. Overall, the results were nonsignificant ( =0.88, p=.11). Univariate F tests on the eight measures used in the study indicat ed that there were significant differences between the two sets of data on two of the measures, inspirational motivation and intellectual stimulation. The largest signifi cant difference was associated with the measure of inspirational motiv ation (F=5.67, p<.05). The difference between the data sets on the measure of intellectual stimulation wa s also significant at the .05 level (F=5.65, p<.05). These differences equa ted to a difference in mean scores of 1.23 and 1.13 on a 20 point scale. All other tests were non significant. (See Table 1 for a complete listing.) While the significant group differences on tw o of the eight scales are a cause for concern, they do not automatically merit the separation of the data sets for several reasons. First, because of the number of measures being compared, it is possible that the significant results are due solely to chance. If a modified Bonferroni criterion is used to assess the significance of each of the 8 tests, no significant differences are found. A final, practical concern is the loss of power associated with k eeping the groups separate. The decrease in sample size would lead to a decrease in statistical power for further tests. There are no logical reasons why group differences woul d be expected from the two methods of data collection. All participants were professors, and all were holding similar

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41 positions which involved the supervision of graduate students. In a research study comparing paper and electronic data collec tion, Tse reported no differences in response quality due to data collection format (Tse, 1998). Thus it is unlik ely that the present differences arise from the method of data co llection. Because of thes e considerations, all responses were pooled for further analyses. Descriptive Statistics Means and standard deviations for each of the measures are displayed in Table 2. Examination of descriptive sta tistics, skewness values and kurt osis values indicated that the four personality measures were larg ely normally distributed. The leadership measures, on the other hand, showed considerab ly greater negative skew. See Table 3 for a listing of skew and kurtosis values. Of particular concern is the measure of Individualized Consideration, with a skewness value of -1.04. This is nearly double the next greatest value, which was -.62 for Inspirational Motivation. Th is indicates that the lead ership ratings provided by participants doctoral students tended to clus ter at the top of the scales, with a few outlying responses pulling the mean values dow n. In the case of each of these scales, mean values were lower than median or mode values. This is of some concern to the present study as it represents a restriction of range in the outcome measure. A result of this could be a reduction due to attenuation in the correlations calculated to test the study hypotheses. However, the current skew valu e of -1.04 is smaller than the suggested maximum skewness value of plus or minus 2.0 (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2000). Further, the use of a logarithmic transformation on the in dividualized consideration data fails to

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42 produce a normal distribution. Because of these factors, all subsequent analyses utilize the original, skewed data. The data were also examined for the presence of extreme outliers. The two highest and two lowest scores from each scale were transformed into z scores in order to look for outliers. See Table 4 for a listing of these results. Only three observations had z scores greater that 3.0. Of those three, two we re seen on the leadership scales. Because of the negative skew on those scales due to th e ceiling effect, this is not surprising and therefore does not merit exclusion of the observations. The remaining outlying observation had a z score of -3.30, and was asso ciated with the self confidence measure. The next most extreme score on that scale had a z score of -2.40. While there was no indication that this outlying observation was erroneous, all of the hypothesis testing subsequently discussed was run with and without the observati on. In no case did significance levels change. Because of this, this outlying observation was kept in the data, and is included in all further discussion. Scale Reliability After data imputation had been complete d and average leadership scores on each of the leadership subscales had been calcula ted, coefficient alpha was computed for each of the four personality scal es, the four leadership scal es and the overall leadership measure. See Table 5 for a listing of the al pha level for each measure. Overall, each of the scales demonstrated acceptable reliability in the present context. The lowest reliability ( =.73) was associated with the Idealized In fluence sub scale of the MLQ-5X. However, even this is above the minimum reliabil ity level recommended by Nunally (1999). The

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highest reliability (=.90) was associated with both the overall leadership measure and with the emotional intelligence measure (SSRI). Rater Reliability Interrater reliability was computed using the method recommended by Shrout and Fleiss (1979). Specifically, these authors describe the computation of an intraclass correlation coefficient when each target is rated by a different set of judges. This method utilizes a one way ANOVA on the ratings to obtain a between targets mean square (BMS) and a within targets mean square (WMS). The ICC is then obtained through the following formula, where k equals the number of raters. WMSkBMSWMSBMSICC1)1,1( Because the number of raters was not constant across targets, the average number of raters per target was substituted for k. Based on this, the obtained value for the reliability of a single rater was fairly low (ICC(1,1)=.115). Utilizing the Spearman-Brown formula, the reliability for each of the possible number of raters, two through five, can be estimated. These estimates range from .207 to .394, and can be found in Table 6. The average interrater reliability, using an average weighted by the number of targets who were rated by groups of size k (see Table 6) is ICC=.19. While this coefficient seems to indicate low reliability, Shrout and Fleiss note in their article that the ICC(1,1) reliability statistic produces the smallest possible values of all the reliability statistics. They state that it likely underestimates the true reliability 43

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44 value. In fact, the authors note the difficulty of interpreting this figure. It is presented here so that individuals reading the present study can draw their own, informed conclusions. Relationships Among Study Variables Prior to conducting hypothesis testing, zero order correlations among all of the study variables were computed. See Table 7 for the correlation matrix. As was expected, correlations between emotional intelligence a nd each of the personality measures were significant. These correlations range from .35 with self awareness to .47 with self confidence. Similarly, correlations between each of the leadership measures were significant, ranging from a low of .43 to a high of .87. Hypothesis Testing Hypothesis 1 predicted that emotional in telligence would be significantly related to charisma. In order to test this, th e zero order correlation between emotional intelligence, as measured by the SSRI, and the idealized influence subscale of the MLQ5X was examined. This correlation was signi ficant (r=.20, p<.05), supporting hypothesis 1. Hypothesis 2a predicted that emotional in telligence would be significantly related to self awareness. This hypothesis was te sted by examining the zero order correlation between emotional intelligence and self aw areness, as measured by the SCS. The correlation was significant (r=.35, p<.01), providing support for hypothesis 2a. Similarly, hypothesis 2b predicted that emotional intellig ence would be significan tly related to self

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45 efficacy. The zero order correlation between emo tional intelligence and self efficacy, as measured by the NGSE, was significant (r=.47, p<.01). Thus, hypothesis 2b was supported. Hypothesis 2c stated that the correlation between emotional inte lligence and self awareness should be significantly greater th an the correlation be tween EI and self efficacy. A Hotelling-Williams test of depe ndent correlations was run to assess this hypothesis. The results showed that the two co rrelations were not si gnificantly different (t (.05, 128) =1.1, p=.27). Based on this, hypot hesis 2c was not supported. Hypothesis 3a predicted that emotiona l intelligence would be related to inspirational motivation. The zero order corr elation between these two constructs was significant (r=.28, p<.01), supporting the hypothesis. Hypothesis 3b proposed that the relationship between emotional intelligence a nd inspirational motivation would decrease in magnitude when self confidence and self awareness were added to the regression equation. To test this, insp irational motivation was init ially regressed on emotional intelligence. The resulting beta weight ( =.28, p<.01) was significan t. Next, inspirational motivation was regressed on emotional intellig ence, self awareness and self confidence. Only the beta weight for emotional intelligence was significant ( =.34, p<.01), while the beta weights for self awareness ( =-.01, p=.89) and self confidence ( =-.12, p=.26) were not. Thus, hypothesis 3b was not supported. Hypothesis 4a predicted that emotio nal intelligence would be related to intellectual stimulation. To test this hypothesis, the zero orde r correlation between EI and the intellectual stimulation subscale of the MLQ-5X was examined. Based on the nonsignificant correlation (r=.03, p=.79), the hypothesis was not supported.

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46 Hypothesis 5a stated that emotional intelligence would be related to empathy. Once again, zero order correlations between EI and empathy, as measured by the MEE, were examined. The significant correlat ion (r=.38, p<.01) supported hypothesis 5a. Hypothesis 5b predicted that th ere would be a significant re lationship between emotional intelligence and individualized considerati on. As the zero order correlation was nonsignificant, (r=.11, p=.25), this hypothesis was not supported. Hypot hesis 5c predicted that the relationship between EI and indivi dualized consideration would decrease in magnitude when empathy was added to the regression equation. Because there was not a significant relationship between EI and individualized cons ideration, this hypothesis was not supported. Zero order correlations between empathy and individualized consideration were statistically significan t, however (r=.19, p<.05). In addition to the proposed hypothesis te sting, a series of regressions were conducted to explore the unique predictive power of emotiona l intelligence for leadership when all measured personality variables were included. For each of the four leadership subscales and for the overall leadership meas ure, two regressions were computed. (See Table 8) The first regression e quation utilized all three of the personality measures. The second equation included the thr ee personality measures and emotional intelligence. Of these regressions, only in the case of inspir ational motivation did the contribution of emotional intelligence remain significant afte r all three of the personality measures had been included ( =.30, p<.05). Especially pertinent to the hypotheses discussed above is the finding that charisma was significantly predicted by empathy and not by emotional intelligence when both were includ ed in the regression equation.

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47 Discussion The construct of emotional intelligence (EI) appears to hold much promise in terms of its ability to predict various skills and behaviors. While there are two competing schools of thought regarding the ba sic construct that is called emotional intelligence, both sides feel that emotional intelligence shoul d be capable of predicting certain things. Researchers who argue for a pure ability model of emotional intelligence suggest that EI should be capable of predicting various types of success, social skills and other factors (Caruso, Mayer & Salovey, 2000; Mayer, Caru so, Salovey & Sitarenios, 2001). Those individuals who champion mixed models of emotional intelligence, which combine emotional skills and personality traits, also agree that emotional intelligence should be related to a diverse range of constructs. They have sugge sted variables ranging from academic success to success in roman tic relationships (Goleman, 1995). Many researchers, includi ng Bass (2000), and Caruso, Mayer and Salovey (2000), have suggested that emotional intelligence shoul d be related to leadership. In particular, the transformational model of leadership, w ith its braches of ch arisma or idealized influence, inspirational mo tivation, individualized cons ideration and intellectual stimulation holds the potential for significant relationships with emotional intelligence. The present study empirically examines those relationships. Several authors have hypothe sized that emotions are a key component of the first factor of transformational le adership: Charisma (Wasiele wski, 1985; Bass 2000). It is

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48 likely that individuals who are capable of recognizing emoti ons in themselves and in others and who can successfully manipulate t hose emotions are capable of the type of behaviors characteristic of a charismatic leader. In fact, Wasielewski argues that recognition and manipulation of emotions are behaviors at the heart of charismatic leadership. Likewise, key components of emotional intelligence are the recognition and manipulation of emotion. Thus a significant relationship between EI and charisma was posited in hypothesis 1. The present study found support for this hypothesis, with a significant correlation (r=.20, p<.05) between emotional intelligence and charisma. In predicting charisma, it is important to l ook not just for ability to act in a certain way, but also propensity to act That is, many people may have the ability to recognize and manipulate emotions, but only those who do so on a regular basis are likely to be seen as charismatic. The measure used in the present study asked partic ipants to describe their typical behavior. This measure, the Schutte Self Report Inventory of Emotional Intelligence (SSRI), is consider ed to be a mixed measure, although it is based upon an ability model of EI. The present findings lend support to the argument that mixed measures of emotional intelligence, like the one used here, do have pr actical applications. This is in contention with the arguments of those who favor a pure ability measure, such as Mayer, Caruso and Salovey (1999). It sugges ts that while the self report format of the present measure may introduce inaccuracies not seen in an objective ability measure, this format can predict typical behavior. Since more objective measures are likely to capture only maximum performance, they may have less utility in situations like the present one.

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49 Arguing against the utility of the presen t self report measure of emotional intelligence is the finding that only empathy significantly predicts charisma when charisma is regressed on empathy and emotional intelligence. While empathy and EI have very similar zero order correlations w ith charisma, this result suggests that a measure of empathy can serve just as well as can a measure of emotional intelligence in predicting charisma. Further, it suggests that the predictive power of emotional intelligence is due solely to its shared vari ance with empathy, at least in the case of charisma. This result supports the criticisms put forth by Petrides and Furnham (2001) that emotional intelligence is little more th an a combination of personality measures. Based on this, there is little to recommend c hoosing a measure of EI over a measure of empathy when one is seeking to predict charisma. Moving past charisma, it has also been suggested by numerous authors that emotional intelligence should be related to various personality constructs (Goleman, 1995; Bar-On, 2000). Specifically, several au thors have argued that emotional intelligence should predict self awareness and self confid ence (Goleman, 1995; Sosik & Megerian, 1999). The extent of the relationship between EI and any personality variable will likely be a function of the type of model of EI used, and the related measure used to capture that model. The presen t study utilized the SSRI. Whil e this measure relies on self reports, it is based on an ability model of EI. Therefore, hypotheses 2a and 2b predicted a relationship between EI and self awaren ess and between EI and self-confidence, respectively. Both of these hypotheses were supported, with corre lations of .35 and .47, respectively.

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50 This finding has several interesting impli cations. First, it sup ports the contention of Goleman and others that individuals hi gh on EI must necessarily be high on self awareness and self confidence. Goleman (1995) believes that, individuals who are high on EI are those who are aware of their own emotions and the emotions of others. They are also those who can utilize and manipulate these emotions. The simple awareness of emotions should be related to self awareness, as emotions are a key part of the self. The present study supports this conclusion. Gole man (1995) also argues that those who can successfully recognize and manipulate emotions are apt to be more successful at many endeavors than are those who can not. This su ccess should lead to greater self confidence, over a lifetime of experiences. While the pr esent study does not examine the reasons for the relationships between EI and self conf idence and EI and self awareness, it does provide tentative support for the existing theori es mentioned here. Thus the first implication of the present findings is support for these theories. The second major implication of the fi ndings presented above speaks to the argument that EI measures nothing more th an personality. As was mentioned above, many critics of emotional intelligence, especi ally those who criticize mixed models of emotional intelligence, claim that EI cap tures nothing more than personality. The correlations presented above s uggest that those claims are not completely valid. While the correlations between EI and self awareness and se lf confidence are strong and significant, they do not account for 100% of the variance in EI. This mirrors the findings of numerous other researchers, who have reported that a subs tantial portion of the variance in EI is explained by personalit y, but not 100% of it (e.g., Caruso, Mayer &

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51 Salovey, 2002; van der Zee, Thijs & Schake l, 2002). Based on this, the present study provides evidence that EI is not compos ed solely of personality traits. While emotional intelligence should be related to both self awareness and self confidence, the theoretical ties between EI and self awareness are stronger than are the ties between EI and self confidence. That is awareness of ones emotions and awareness of how to utilize emotions to obtain specific ou tcomes should be direc tly related to self awareness. On the other hand, self confiden ce requires successful awareness of emotions, successful utilization of those emotions, and then perception of a pattern of successes. Based on this, it was posited in hypothesis 2c th at emotional intelligence would be more strongly related to self awar eness than to self confidence. This hypothesis was not supported, however. A Hotelling-Williams de pendent t-test found that the relationship between self confidence and EI was not significantly different from the relationship between self awareness and EI. There are several possible explanations for this finding. An initial explanation for the present finding may come from the measure of emotional intelligence used in the pres ent study. The SSRI included several questions that were highly similar to questions on the measure of self confid ence. For instance, a reverse scored question on the SSRI read: Whe n I am faced with a challenge, I give up because I know I will fail. This was extrem ely similar to the following item from the self confidence scale: When facing difficult tasks, I am certain I will achieve them. Thus the strength of the rela tionship between EI and self confidence could be a function of the way EI is operationa lized in the present study. A second explanation for the finding that self confidence was related to EI as strongly as was self awareness could come from the sample us ed here. The strength of the

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52 EI-self confidence relationship could be a func tion of the current participants. All of the participants were successful faculty members at major universities in the United States. Each participant had earned a PhD at some point during his or her past, and all had reached a point in his or her career where he or she was capable of supervising doctoral students. These professors might have reached their current status in part due to their emotional intelligence. Because their position as faculty memb ers is quite prestigious, the position itself may lead to the experience of greater self confidence than would be seen in a sample of mentors from other professions. Th us a feedback loop might exist for those in high prestige positions, whereby EI leads to a professorship of a certain, highly salient status, which leads to greater self confidence. This would appear to strengthen the EI-self confidence relationship. On the other hand, ther e is no reason to expect that professors would have greater levels of self awareness than would individuals from other professions. So while the EI-self confidence relationship could become stronger because of the participants position, the EI-self awar eness relationship could not. Thus job type could be a moderating factor in the EI-self confidence relationship. A conclusion stemming from either of th e possible explanations suggested above is that more research is needed on the relationships between emotional intelligence, self confidence and self awareness. It would be wise to examine these relationships for potential moderators. Also, it would be valuab le to note if the relationship between EI and self confidence remains as high as it is in the present study when alternate measures of EI are utilized. While self confidence and self awareness have been repeatedly cited as constructs that should be related to emotional intelligen ce, they have also been cited as key to the

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53 expression of a second component of tran sformational leadersh ip: Inspirational motivation (Yulk, 1998; Sosik & Megerian, 1999). Likewise, emotional intelligence itself has also been suggested as a predictor of inspirational motivation. Conger and Kanguno (1998) among others, have sugge sted that individuals who ca n recognize and manipulate emotions should be able to use those emotions to motivate others. As motivation through the use of emotions is a key component of inspirational motivation, hypothesis 3a in the present study stated that em otional intelligence should pr edict inspirational motivation. Further, because of the importance of se lf awareness and self confidence to the expression of inspirational motivation, hypothe sis 3b stated that the addition of these variables would decrease the magnitude of th e relationship between EI and inspirational motivation. As was expected, a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and inspirational motivation was found (r=.28, p<.01). This supports the arguments mentioned previously. However, self confid ence and self awareness were not found to decrease the relationship between emotional intelligence and inspirational motivation. In fact, even the inclusion of empathy into th e regression equation with EI, self awareness and self confidence did not decrease the EI inspirational motivati on relationship. It did, however, render the beta weight associated w ith empathy completely nonsignificant. In one sense, this is an exciting finding, because it supports the argument made by many emotional intelligence theorists that emotiona l intelligence is a separate construct from personality measures such as self confidence and self awareness. While EI is clearly related to self confidence and self awareness, it is able to provide predictive power beyond these constructs, when it is related to inspirational motiva tion. This supports the

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54 results found by Ciarrochi, Chan and Caputi (2000) as well as Mayer, Salovey and Sitarenios (2000). It also retains its predictive powe r when empathy is included. However, it shares a sufficient amount of va riance with empathy that empathy retains no predictive power when EI is included in th e regression equation. As was the case with charisma, this suggests that EI and empathy share a great deal of variance. However, the R 2 values associated with the two regression equations suggest that emotional intelligence does have predictive value beyond that found with the personality measures. The three personality measures, on their own, account for 4% of the variance in inspirational motivation, while the three person ality measures and em otional intelligence account for 10%. This appears to refute the claims by Petrides a nd Furnham (2001) that EI does not provide any predictive power be yond that found with personality measures. However, it suggests that caution should be taken when examining the influence of EI beyond empathy. The third component of tran sformational leadership, intellectual stimulation, was also hypothesized to be related to emotional intelligence (hypothesis 4). This relationship was not supported, however. While individuals with high emotional intelligence are, by definition, better able to use emotions to facilitate thought than are individuals with low emotional intelligence, in the present sample th ey did not automatically use this ability to facilitate new thought in others. One potential ex planation for this finding is that it is an artifact of the current sample. The participants, as advisors to doctoral students in a university setting, should be providing intellect ual stimulation as part of their mentoring functions. Thus it is not surpri sing that the smallest range a nd standard deviation of any of the leadership measures was associated wi th intellectual stimulation. This restriction of

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55 range could result in atte nuation of the correlation between EI and intellectual stimulation, and explain the cu rrent non significant finding. An alternate and conflicting explanation for the present finding is that some percentage of professors in the sample ar e very set in their th ought patterns. These individuals may be uninterested in pursuing theories other th an the ones with which they are currently working. Anecdotal evidence indi cates that a non trivial percentage of graduate students feel their advisors are unwilling to study id eas that compete with those ideas currently in the advisors favor. If this were the case, then it would be logical to assume that the mentors would still engage in charismatic leadership and inspirational motivation. They might do this in order to encourage their prot gs to work hard on ideas that compliment or support their own. This w ould explain the significant results seen here between EI and charisma and EI and inspirat ional motivation, while also accounting for the non-significant relati onship between EI and intellectual stimulation. The final component of transf ormational leadership that is included in the present study is individualized consideration. Hypothe sis 5b stated that emotional intelligence should be significantly related to individualized consideration. It wa s expected that an individual capable of recognizing others em otions should be capable of speaking and acting to those emotions, and thus engaging in individualized cons ideration. However, it has been repeatedly noted that empat hy is a good predictor of individualized consideration (Behling & McFillen, 1996). Furthe r, empathy is theoretically related to emotional intelligence, and it has been suggested previously that measures of EI capture little more than empathy. Thus it was also hypothesized that empathy and EI would be related (hypothesis 5a), and that empat hy would decrease th e EI-individualized

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56 consideration relationship (hypothesis 5c). The contention that emotional intelligence would be related to empathy was strongly supported in the present study (r=.38, p>.01). As was the case with self confidence and se lf awareness, this co rrelation suggests that while EI and empathy are related, empathy does not account for all of the variance in EI. This finding belies the argument that measures of EI are little more than measures of empathy. The next hypothesis, that emotional intelligence would be related to individualized consideration, wa s not supported. At this point it is necessary to return to the finding mentioned previous ly: Individualized consideration, as measured in the current study, had an extremely skewed distribution. The majority of the responses were clustered around the upper end of the scale. This could potentially have led to the attenuation of the correlati on between EI and individuali zed consideration. The final hypothesis, that empathy would reduce th e magnitude of the EI-individualized consideration relationship, wa s not supported due to the l ack of such a relationship. However, there was a significant relations hip between empathy and individualized consideration in the current study (r=.20, p<.05). Once again, this implies that emotional intelligence, at least as it was measured in the current study, captures something different than empathy. Two regression equations were co nducted to test this idea. In the first, inspirational motivation was re gressed on empathy, and in th e second it was regressed on empathy and emotional intelligence. The beta weight associated with empathy in the first regression equation was significant ( =.19, p<.05). The beta weight in the second regression equation, while only differing by .01, was only significant at the .10 level ( =.18, p=.08). This result suggests that while empathy and emotional intelligence share

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57 some variance in the prediction of individuali zed consideration, the overlap is not great. It provides some support for the contention that emotional intelligence and empathy are distinct constructs. While this is encouragi ng for the future of emotional intelligence, it doesnt explain the lack of a relationsh ip found between EI and individualized consideration in the present study. A potential explanation for this finding is that it could be the case that understanding the emotions of a protg is a necessary but insufficient precursor to individualized considerati on. That is, a mentor who is skilled at individualized consideration is capable of assessing each protgs needs, and assigning tasks appropriate to those needs. This means that the mentor must assess not only the emotional needs of each protg, but also the developmental needs. Further, the mentor must be able to provide suitable support for each person. Thus, understanding the emotions being experienced by a protg is only one step of several that are necessary to engage in individualized cons ideration. Those mentors who de monstrate a high degree of empathy may provide individualized consideration in the form of tangible emotional support. This provision of such support is no t something that woul d automatically be expected from someone with high emotional intelligence. Rather, only if the mentor utilized or manipulated emotions in an empathetic fashion would this support be provided. If emotions were utilized for ot her purposes, then th e EI-individualized consideration relationship would be diminished, as is seen here It could be the case that mentors utilize and manipulate emotions primaril y to encourage protgs to work hard on the mentors pet projects. If the protgs ha d other interests, they could perceive this behavior as a lack of indi vidualized consideration. This explanation is supported by the

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58 significant relationship between EI and inspirational motivation, and also by the nonsignificant relationship between EI and intellectua l stimulation. The present study provides mixed empirical support for the relationships between emotional intelligence and two of the bran ches of transformational leadership. In addition, a test of the correlation between emotional intelligence and the overall leadership measure demonstrated a signifi cant relationship (r=.19, p<.05). At a basic level, these findings help to validate ma ny researchers theories regarding EI and transformational leadership. At the same time, they also suggest that criticisms regarding the extent to which EI and personality meas ures are related are wa rranted. The study as a whole provides evidence that significant relationships do exist between emotional intelligence and charisma, and emotional inte lligence and inspirational motivation. The present study also tentatively supports the contention that emotional intelligence is composed of more than just personality characteristics, as each of those constructs are currently operationalized. Wh en emotional intelligence was regressed on the three personality variables, they acc ounted for 44% of the variance. As is the case with other findings in this study, this result suggests that while EI and pe rsonality are strongly related, not all of the variance in EI is accounted for by person ality. However, even if the constructs are distinct, this research provides only mixed support fo r the ability of emotional intelligence to provide predicti ons in the leadership arena, beyond those provided by personality measures. These findings suggest a number of direc tions for future research. Several flaws in the present study could be repaired or avoi ded in future research. An initial change would be to find a more reliable way to m easure a mentors leadership. An ideal method

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59 would be to utilize several trained raters to assess the leadership sk ills of each mentor. Because of the nature of transformationa l leadership, this would be difficult to accomplish for a large sample of leaders. However, a minimum for future studies should be the utilization of 2 or more raters per leader. Future studies should also seek a more diverse sample. The gene ralizability of the findings in the present study is called into que stion due to the unique sample. It would be beneficial to replicate the present study with mentors and protgs from varied professions. As was mentioned earlier, the a cademic world, and the position of professor in particular, is unique in many ways. It would be worthwhile to study how well the present findings replicate in other samples of mentors and protgs or supervisors and subordinates. Another aim of this replication should also be to increase the range of responses and also the response rate. While the low res ponse rate in the pres ent study is likely a function of the data collection method used, it calls into question th e generalizability of the present findings, especially in light of the restriction of range seen on the leadership scales. Future research should seek ways to encourage mentors with a wide range of leadership skills to participate. Perhaps this could be done simply by expanding the sample to include other professions. No matte r what method is used to address it, the current restriction of range seen in the leader ship scores is proble matic, and could likely be resolved by using a more diverse sample. Another fascinating research direction would be to study the relationship between emotional intelligence and indi vidualized consideration in greater depth. It seems likely that moderating variables exist which w ould be capable of reliably predicting a

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60 relationship between EI and i ndividualized consideration. Fo r example, time constraints could serve as a moderator. Individuals w ho are high on EI and on time constraints might demonstrate less individualized considerati on, while those who are high on EI and low on time constraints might demonstrate more. The field of emotional intelligence would also benefit a great deal from more indepth study of the different measures used to capture EI. The measure used in the present study has been criticized in a number of fo rums (Petrides & Furnham, 2001, Ashkanasy, personal communication, Novemb er 12, 2003). Some researchers have found it to have high correlations with personality measures (Petrides & Furnham, 2001). Others have criticized it because it is base d on an early ability model of emotional intelligence that has only three factors (Schutte et al., 1998, Ashkanasy, personal communication, November 12, 2003). Several participants, unaware of what was being measured, complained that items from the SSRI and the empathy scale were too similar. There is a real need for a simple, self report measure of EI that cleanly captures the construct. Thus this is one more avenue open for new research. A final suggestion, and one that has been called for repeatedly in the emotional intelligence literature, is to continue the investigation of the relationship between emotional intelligence and personality. The pr esent study provides mixed results in this direction. While there were several instances where EI and personality measures like empathy and self awareness appeared to be capturing unique construc ts, there were also instances where the opposite was true. In te rms of the practical utility of emotional intelligence, it makes little sense to use a measure of EI if a personality measure provides equal or superior prediction. On the positive side, the present measure of EI had the same

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61 number of items and took the same amount of time to complete as did the measure of empathy. However, when looking at the zero order correlations, empathy provided more value in terms of the number of leadership facets that it was related to. Thus more research designed to explain the relations hip between EI and personality could be beneficial, as could research to develop be tter measures of emotional intelligence. There are countless other research possibi lities suggested by th e present work. As the topic of emotional intelligence ga ins attention and study (and increases in controversy) the utility of studies such as th is increases. As it is, the present study serves as fuel to two separate fires: It adds to the raging debate surrounding emotional intelligence and it suggests new directions for research.

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62 References Ashkanasy, N. M., & Tse, B. (2000). Transformational Leadership as management of emotion: A conceptual review. In Ashkanas y, N. M, Hartel, C. E., & Zerbe, W. J. (Eds) Emotions in the Workplace, 221-235. Ashakanasy, N. M., Hartel, C. E., & Zerbe, W. J. (Eds). (2000). Emotions in the Workplace. Westport, CT: Quorum Books. Bar-On, R. (2000). Emotional and social in telligence: Insights from the Emotional Quotient Inventory. In Bar-On, R. & Pa rker, J. (Eds) The Handbook of Emotional Intelligence, pp 363-388. Bar-On, R., Brown, J., Kirkcaldy, B. and Thom e, E. (2000a). Emo tional expression and implications for occupationa l stress; an application of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I). Personality and Individual Differences, 28 (6), 1107-1118 Bar-On, R. & Parker, J. D. (Eds.) (2000). The Handbook of Emotional Intelligence San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Barling, J., Slater, F. & Ke lloway, E. K. (2000). Transformational leadership and emotional intelligence: an exploratory study. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 21 (3) 157-161. Baron, R. M. & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The Moderator-Mediator variab le distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statis tical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6) 1173-1182. Bass, B. M. (1988). Evolving perspectives on ch arismatic leadership. In Conger, J. A. & Kanungo, R. N. (Eds). Charismatic Leadership: The Elusive Factor in Organizational Effectiveness. (pp. 40-77). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Bass, B. M. (2000). Cognitive, social and emotional intelligence of transformational leaders. In Riggio, R. E., Murphy, S. E. & Pirozzolo, F. J. (Eds.) Multiple Intelligences and Leadership (pp. 105-118). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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63 Bass, B. M. (1988). Transformational leadership, charisma and beyond. In Hunt, J. G. & Baliga, B. R. (Eds.) Emerging Leadersh ip Vistas. International Leadership Symposia Series. (pp. 29 -49). Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath and Company. Behling, O., & McFillen, J. M. (1996). A syncretical model of charismatic/transformational leadership. Group & Organization Management, 21 (2), 163-191. Bennis, W., Mason, R. O., Mitroff, I. I. (Eds.) (1988). Charismatic Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Boyatzis, R. E., Goleman, D. & Rhee, K. (2000). Clustering Competence in Emotional Intelligence. In Bar-On, R. & Parker J. (Eds) The Handbook of Emotional Intelligence, (pp 343-362). Caruso, D. R., Mayer, J. D. & Salovey, P. (2000). Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Leadership. In Reiggio, Mu rphy & Pirozzolo (Eds.) Multiple Intelligence and Leadership (pp 55-74). Mahwah, NJ: La wrence Erlbaum Associates. Caruso, D. R., Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (2002). Relation of an ability measure of emotional intelligence to personality. Journal of Personalit y Assessment, 79 (2) 306-320. Charbonneau, D. & Nicol, A. M. (2002). Emo tional intelligence and leadership in adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 33 (7) 1101-1113. Chen, G., Gully, S. M. & Eden, D. (2001). Validation of a New General Self Efficacy Scale. Organizational Research Methods, 4(1), 62-83. Chlopan, B. E., McCain, M. L., Carbonell, J. L. & Hagen, R. L. (1985). Empathy: A review of available measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48(3), 635-653. Cho, H. & LaRose, R. (1999). Privacy issues in Internet surveys. Social Science Computer Review, 17(4) 421-434. Ciarrochi, J.V., Chan, A. Y.C., & Caputi, P. (2000). A critical eval uation of the emotional intelligence construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 539-561. Conger, J. A. (1988). Theoretical Foundations of charismatic leadership. In Bennis, W., Mason, R. O, & Mitroff, I. I. (Eds.) Charismatic Leadership, pp 12-39.

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64 Conger, J. A. (1999). Charismatic and transformational leadership in organizations: an insiders perspective on these de veloping streams of research. Leadership Quarterly, 10(2) 145-179. Conger, J.A. & Kanungo, R. N. (Eds.). (1988). Charismatic Leadership: The Elusive Factor in Organizational Effectiveness. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Dawda, D. & Hart, S. D. (2000). Assessing emo tional intelligence: reliability and validity of the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inve ntory (EQ-i) in university students. Personality and Individual Differences, 28 (4) 797-812. Doherty, R. W. (1998). Emotional contagion and social judgment. Motivation and Emotion, 22(3) 187-209. Eisenberg, N., Murphy, B. C. & Shepard, S. (1997) The Development of Empathic Accuracy. In Ickes (Ed.) Empathic Accuracy, pp 73-116. Fenigstein, A., Scheier, M. F. & Buss, A. H. (1975). Public and Private SelfConsciousness: Assessment and Theory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43(4) 522-527. Furnham, A. & Rawles, R. (1999). Corre lations between self-estimated and psychometrically measured IQ. The Journal of Social Psychology, 139 (4) 405410. Geher, G., Warner, R. M. & Brown, A. S. (2001). Predictive validity of the emotional accuracy research scale. Intelligence, 29(5) 373-388. Godshalk, V. M. & Sosik, J. J. (2000). Does Mentor-Protg agreement on mentor leadership behavior influence the qu ality of a mentoring relationship? Group & Organization Management, 25(3), 291-317. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence. New York, New York: Bantam. Hunt, J. G., & Conger, J. A. (1999). From where we sit: An assessment of transformational and charismatic leadership research. Leadership Quarterly, 10(3) 335-343. Ickes, W. (1997). (Ed.) Empathic Accurac y. New York, New York: The Guilford Press. Kellett, J. B., Humphrey, R. H., & Sleeth, R. G. (2002). Empathy and complex task performance: two rout es to leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 13 (5) 523-544.

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65 Kelly, J. R. & Barsade, S. G. (2001). Mood and emotions in small groups and work teams. Organizational Behavior and Human Decisions, 86(1) 99-130. Levine, L. J., & Burgess, S. L. (1997). Beyond general arousal: Effects of specific emotions on memory. Social Cognition, 15(3) 157-181, MacKenzie, S., Podsakoff, P. & Rich, G. (2001). Transformational and transactional leadership and salesperson performance. Academy of Marketing Science, 29(2), 115-134. Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (2000). Selecting a Measure of Emotional intelligence. In Bar-On, R. & Parker, J. (Eds) The Handbook of Emotional Intelligence, pp 320-342. Mayer, J., Caruso, D., & Salovey, P. (1999). Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence. Intelligence, 27(4), 267-298 Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D. R. & Sitarenios, G. (2001). Emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence. Emotion, 1 (3), 232-242. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D. R. & Sitarenios, G. (2003). Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards fo r an intelligence again: Findings from the MSCEIT. Manuscript submitted for publication. Mehrabian, A. & Epstein, N. (1972). A measure of emotional empathy. Journal of Personality, 40(4), 525-543. Newsome, S., Day, A. & Catano, V. (2000). Assessing the predictive validity of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individua l Differences, 29(6), 1005-1016. Noe, R. A. (1988). An investigation of the determinants of successful assigned mentoring relationships. Personnel Psychology, 41(3), 457-479. Parker, J. D., Taylor, G. J, & Bagby, R. M. (2001). The relationship between emotional intelligence and alexithymia. Personality and Individual Differences, 30 (1) 107115. Pescosolido, A. T. (2002). Emergent leaders as managers of group emotion. The Leadership Quarterly, 13 (5) 583-599. Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2001). Tr ait emotional intelligence: Psychometric investigation with reference to established trait taxonomies. European Journal of Personality, 15 (6) 425-448.

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66 Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2000). On the dimensional structure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 29 (2) 313-320. Pillai, R., Schreisheim, C. & Williams, E. (1999). Fairness perceptions and trust as mediators for transformational and trans actional leadership: A two-sample study. Journal of Management, 25(6) 897-933. Riggio, R. E., Murphy, S. E. & Pirozzolo, F. J. (Eds.). (2000). Multiple Intelligences and Leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawr ence Erlbaum Associates. Roberts, R. D., Zeidner, M., & Matthews, G. (2001). Does emotional intelligence meet traditional standards for an intelligence? Some new data and conclusions. Emotion, 1 (3), 196-231. Schaefer, D. R. & Dillman, D. A. (1998) Development of a standard e-mail methodology: Results of an experiment. Public Opinion Quarterly, 62(3) 378-397. Shrout, P. E. & Fleiss, J. L. (1979). Intr aclass correlations: Us es in assessing rater reliability. Psychological Bulletin, 86(2) 420-428. Schutte, N., Malouff, J., Bobik, C., Cost on, T., Greeson,C., Jedlick, C., Rhodes, E., & Wendorf, G. (2001). Emotional intelligence and interpersonal relations. The Journal of Social Psychology 141(4) 523-536. Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J., Hall, L. E., Hagge rty, D. J., Cooper, J. T., Golden, C. J. & Dornheim, L. (1998). Development and va lidation of a meas ure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25 (2) 167-177. Smith, C. B. (1997). Casting the net: Surveying an internet po pulation. Journal of Communication Mediated by Comput ers, 3. [Online]. Available: http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol3/issue1/smith.html Sosik, J. (1999). Understanding leader emotiona l intelligence and performance: The role of self-other agreement on transf ormational leadership perceptions. Group & Organization Management, 24(3) 367-390. Sosik, J. J. & Godshalk, V. M. (2000). Leader ship styles, mentori ng functions received, and job-related stress: a conceptu al model and preliminary study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(), 365-390. Sosik, J. J., & Megerian, L. E. (1999). Unders tanding Leader Emotional Intelligence and Performance. Group and Organization Management, 24(3) 367-390.

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67 Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S. (2000). Using Multivariate Statistics Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Tse, A. C. B. (1998). Comparing the respons e rate, response speed and response quality of two methods of sending questionnaires: e-mail vs. mail. Market Research Abstracts, 40(4), 353-361. Van der Zee, K., Thijs, M. & Schakel, L. (2002). The relatio nship of emotional intelligence with academic intelligence and the Big Five. European Journal of Personality, 16 (2) 103-125. Vosburg, S. K. (1998). The effects of positive and negative mood on divergent thinking performance. Creativity Research Journal, 11(2) 165-172. Wasielewski, P. L. (1985). The emotional basis of charisma. Symbolic Interaction, 8(2), 207-222. Yukl, G. A. (1999). An evaluation of con ceptual weaknesses in transformational and charismatic leadership theories. Leadership Quarterly, 10(2) 285-305. Yukl, G. A. (1981). Leadership in Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc

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68 Table 1 Univariate F tests of Differe nces by Data Collection Method Scale F value p value Emotional Intelligence 2.29 .133 Self Awareness .36 .55 Empathy .20 .65 Self Efficacy .09 .76 Inspirational Motivation 5.67 .02 Idealized Influence 3.22 .08 Intellectual Stimulation 5.65 .02 Individualized Consideration 1.44 .23

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69 Table 2 Descriptive Statistics by Scale Type: Scale N Mean SD Emotional Intelligence 132 123.20 12.83 Empathy 131 94.46 9.55 Self Awareness 132 34.70 5.17 Self Efficacy 131 27.17 3.39 Individualized Consideration 115 17.49 2.44 Idealized Influence 115 15.75 2.38 Inspirational Motivation 115 16.63 2.48 Intellectual Stimulation 115 16.79 2.18

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70 Table 3 Skewness and Kurtosis Values by Scale Measure Skewness Kurtosis Emotional Intelligence -.10 .06 Empathy -.27 -.43 Self Efficacy -.29 -.49 Self Awareness .004 -.83 Individualized Consideration -1.04 .631 Idealized Influence -.41 -.11 Inspirational Motivation -.62 -.002 Intellectual Stimulation -.42 -.59

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71 Table 4 Scale Outliers Variable Low score z-score High score z-score Emotional Intelligence 87 -2.88 155 2.49 90 -2.57 151 2.18 Empathy 71 -2.45 115 2.15 74 -2.14 111 1.73 Self Confidence 16 -3.30 32 1.42 19 -2.40 32 1.42 Self Awareness 23 -2.2 46 2.18 25 -1.87 44 1.80 Individualized Consideration 10 -3.07 20 1.03 10 -3.07 20 1.03 Idealized Influence 9 -2.84 20 1.79 10 -2.42 20 1.79 Inspirational Motivation 9 -3.11 20 1.37 11 -2.29 20 1.37 Intellectual Stimulation 12 -2.19 20 1.47 12 -2.19 20 1.47

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72 Table 5 Scale Alpha Level Measure N Alpha level Emotional Intelligence 118 .90 Empathy 113 .82 Self Awareness 126 .74 Self Confidence 127 .89 Individualized Consideration 115 .82 Idealized Influence 115 .73 Inspirational Motivation 115 .81 Intellectual Stimulation 115 .77 Total Leadership 115 .90

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73 Table 6 Rater Reliability for k Raters k Reliability # of targets rated by k raters 1 .1152 53 2 .207 29 3 .281 16 4 .342 12 5 .394 2

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74 Table 7 Correlations Among All Variables Used in Study Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1. EI 2. Empathy .38** 3. Self Conf. .47** -.09 4. Self Aware .35** .32** .07 5. IC .11 .19* -.09 .01 6. II .20* .23* .09 .01 .47** 7. IM .28** .19* .04 .10 .66** .63** 8. IS .03 .06 -.09 .01 .55** .43** .52** 9. Leadership .19* .21* -.02 .04 .83** .78** .87** .75** *values are significant at the .05 level ** values are significant at the .01 level EI = Emotional Intelligence Self Conf = Self Confidence Self Aware = Self Awareness IC = Individualized Consideration II = Idealized Influence/Charisma IM = Inspirational Motivation IS = Intellectual Stimulation

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Table 8 Results of Regression of Personality Variables and EI on Leadership Scales Leadership dimension R R 2 IM Personality variables only .2 .04 empathy .19 self awareness .03 self confidence .06 Personality and EI .3 .09 empathy .07 self awareness -.02 self confidence -.1 EI .30* II Personality variables only .2 .07 empathy .27** self awareness -.07 self confidence .12 Personality and EI .2 .07 empathy .23* self awareness -.09 self confidence .07 EI .09 IS Personality variables only .1 .01 empathy .05 self awareness .01 self confidence -.08 Personality and EI .1 .01 empathy .03 self awareness .01 self confidence -.11 EI .04 Continued on the next page 75

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76 Table 8 (continued) Leadership dimension R R 2 IC Personality variables only .22 .05 empathy .21* self awareness -.06 self confidence -.07 Personality and EI .24 .06 empathy .15 self awareness -.09 self confidence -.14 EI .14 Leadership Personality variables only .22 .05 empathy .22* self awareness -.03 self confidence .01 Personality and EI .24 .06 empathy .15 self awareness -.06 self confidence -.08 EI .18

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Figure 1 Hypothesis 1 77

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Figure 2 Hypotheses 2 and 3 78

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Figure 3 Hypothesis 4 79

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Figure 4 Hypothesis 5 80

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81 Appendices

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82 Appendix A Schutte Self-Report Inventor y (Schutte et al., 1998). Below are a number of statements that conc ern your beliefs about yourself. Please read each statement and circle the number that corresponds with how well the statement describes you. Item # Strongly disagree Disagree Unsure Agree Strongly Agree 1 I know when to speak about my personal problems to others. 0 1 2 3 4 2 When I am faced with obstacles, I remember times I faced similar obstacles and overcame them. 0 1 2 3 4 3 I expect that I will do well on most things I try. 0 1 2 3 4 4 Other people find it easy to confide in me. 0 1 2 3 4 5 I find it hard to understand the non-verbal messages of other people. 0 1 2 3 4 6 Some of the major events of my life have led me to re-evaluate what is important and not important. 0 1 2 3 4 7 When my mood changes, I see new possibilities. 0 1 2 3 4 8 Emotions are one of the things that make my life worth living. 0 1 2 3 4 9 I am aware of my emotions as I experience them. 0 1 2 3 4 10 I expect good things to happen. 0 1 2 3 4 11 I like to share my emotions with others. 0 1 2 3 4 12 When I experience a positive emotion, I know how to make it last. 0 1 2 3 4 13 I arrange events others enjoy. 0 1 2 3 4 14 I seek out activities that make me happy. 0 1 2 3 4 15 I am aware of the non-verbal messages I send others. 0 1 2 3 4 16 I present myself in a way that makes a good impression on others. 0 1 2 3 4 17 When I am in a positive mood, solving problems is easy for me. 0 1 2 3 4 18 By looking at their facial expressions, I recognize the emotions people are experiencing. 0 1 2 3 4 19 I know why my emotions change. 0 1 2 3 4

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83 Appendix A (Continued) 20 When I am in a positive mood, I am able to come up with new ideas. 0 1 2 3 4 21 I have control over my emotions. 0 1 2 3 4 22 I easily recognize my emotions as I experience them. 0 1 2 3 4 23 I motivate myself by imagining a good outcome to tasks I take on. 0 1 2 3 4 24 I compliment others when they have done something well. 0 1 2 3 4 25 I am aware of the non-verbal messages other people send. 0 1 2 3 4 26 When another person tells me about an important even in his or her life, I almost feel as though I have experienced this event myself. 0 1 2 3 4 27 When I feel a change in emotions, I tend to come up with new ideas. 0 1 2 3 4 28 When I am faced with a challenge, I give up because I believe I will fail. 0 1 2 3 4 29 I know what other people are feeling just by looking at them. 0 1 2 3 4 30 I help other people feel better when they are down. 0 1 2 3 4 31 I can tell how people are feeling by listening to the tone of their voice. 0 1 2 3 4 32 I use good moods to help myself keep trying in the face of obstacles. 0 1 2 3 4 33 It is difficult for me to understand why people feel the way they do. 0 1 2 3 4

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84 Appendix B New General Self-Efficacy Scale (NGSE) (Chen, Gully & Eden, 2001). Below are a number of statements that conc ern your beliefs about yourself. Please read each statement and circle the number that corresponds with how well the statement describes you Item Not true at all Hardly true Moderately true Exactly true 1. I will be able to achieve most of the goals I have set for myself. 0 1 2 3 2. When facing difficult tasks, I am certain I will achieve them. 0 1 2 3 3. In general, I think I can obtain outcomes that are important to me. 0 1 2 3 4. I believe I can succeed at most any endeavor to which I set my mind. 0 1 2 3 5. I will be able to successfully overcome many challenges. 0 1 2 3 6. I am confident I can perform effectively on many tasks. 0 1 2 3 7. Compared to other people, I can do most tasks very well. 0 1 2 3 8. Even when things are tough, I can perform quite well. 0 1 2 3

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85 Appendix C Private Self-Consciousness subscale of the Self-Consciousness Scale Below are a number of statements that conc ern your beliefs about yourself. Please read each statement and circle the number that corresponds with how well the statement describes you. Item Extremely uncharacteristic of me Somewhat uncharacteristic of me Neither characteristic or uncharacteristic of me Somewhat characteristic of me Extremely characteristic of me 1 Im always trying to figure myself out. 0 1 2 3 4 2 Generally, Im not very aware of myself. 0 1 2 3 4 3 Im often the subject of my own fantasies. 0 1 2 3 4 4 I never scrutinize myself. 0 1 2 3 4 5 Im generally attentive to my inner feelings. 0 1 2 3 4 6 I sometimes have the feeling that Im off somewhere watching myself. 0 1 2 3 4 7 Im alert to changes in my mood. 0 1 2 3 4 8 Im aware of the way my mind works when I work through a problem. 0 1 2 3 4 9 I reflect about myself a lot. 0 1 2 3 4 10 Im constantly examining my motives. 0 1 2 3 4

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86 Appendix D Questionnaire Measure of Emotional Em pathy (Mehrabian & Epstein, 1972). Below are a number of statements that conc ern your beliefs about yourself. Please read each statement and circle the number that corresponds with how well the statement describes you. Item Not true at all Hardly true Moderately true Exactly true 1. It makes me sad to see a lonely stranger in a group. 0 1 2 3 2. People make too much of the feelings and sensitivity of animals. 0 1 2 3 3. I often find public displays of affection annoying. 0 1 2 3 4. I am annoyed by unhappy people who are just sorry for themselves. 0 1 2 3 5. I become nervous if others around me seem to be nervous. 0 1 2 3 6. I find it silly for people to cry out of happiness. 0 1 2 3 7. I tend to get emotionally involved in a friends problems. 0 1 2 3 8. Sometimes the words of a love song can move me deeply. 0 1 2 3 9. I tend to lose control when I am brining bad news to people. 0 1 2 3 10. The people around me have a great influence on my moods. 0 1 2 3 11. Most foreigners I have met seemed cool and unemotional. 0 1 2 3 12. I would rather be a social worker than work in a job training center. 0 1 2 3 13. I dont get upset just because a friend is acting upset. 0 1 2 3 14. I like to watch people open presents. 0 1 2 3 15. Lonely people are probably unfriendly. 0 1 2 3 16. Seeing people cry upsets me. 0 1 2 3 17. Some songs make me happy. 0 1 2 3 18. I really get involved with the feelings of the characters in a novel. 0 1 2 3

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87 Appendix D (Continued) 19. I get very angry when I see someone being illtreated. 0 1 2 3 20. I am able to remain calm even though those around me worry. 0 1 2 3 21. When a friend starts to talk about his problems, I try to steer the convers ation to something else. 0 1 2 3 22. Anothers laughter is not catching for me. 0 1 2 3 23. Sometimes at the movies I am amused by the amount of crying and sniffling around me. 0 1 2 3 24. I am able to make decisions without being influenced by peoples feelings. 0 1 2 3 25. I cannot continue to feel OK if people around me are depressed. 0 1 2 3 26. It is hard for me to see how some things upset people so much. 0 1 2 3 27. I am very upset when I see an animal in pain. 0 1 2 3 28. Becoming involved in books or movies is a little silly. 0 1 2 3 29. It upsets me to see helpless old people. 0 1 2 3 30. I become more irritated than sympathetic when I see someones tears. 0 1 2 3 31. I become very involved when I watch a movie. 0 1 2 3 32. I often find that I can remain cool in spite of the excitement around me. 0 1 2 3 33. Little children sometimes cry for no apparent reason. 0 1 2 3

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88 Appendix E MLQ 5x Advisor Scale Below is a list of statements regarding your primary advisor. Please read each statement and circle the number that indicates how we ll the statement describes your advisor. Item # Not at all Rarely Occasionally Often Frequently, if not alwa y s 1 My advisor talks optimistically about the future. 0 1 2 3 4 2 My advisor talks enthusiastically about what needs to be accomplished. 0 1 2 3 4 3 My advisor articulates a compelling vision of the future. 0 1 2 3 4 4 My advisor expresses confidence that goals will be achieved. 0 1 2 3 4 5 My advisor talks about his or her most important values and beliefs. 0 1 2 3 4 6 My advisor specifies the importance of having a strong sense of purpose. 0 1 2 3 4 7 My advisor considers the moral and ethical consequences of decisions. 0 1 2 3 4 8 My advisor emphasizes the importance of having a sense of mission. 0 1 2 3 4 9 My advisor re-examines critical assumptions to question whether they are appropriate. 0 1 2 3 4 10 My advisor seeks differing perspectives when solving problems. 0 1 2 3 4 11 My advisor gets others to look at problems from many different angles. 0 1 2 3 4 12 My advisor suggests new ways of looking at how to complete assignments. 0 1 2 3 4 13 My advisor spends time teaching and coaching. 0 1 2 3 4 14 My advisor treats others as individuals rather than just members of a group. 0 1 2 3 4 15 My advisor sees the individual as having different needs, abilities and aspirations from others. 0 1 2 3 4 16 My advisor helps others develop their strengths. 0 1 2 3 4

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89 Appendix F Study Cover Letter (f or participants) Dear USF Faculty member, The following survey represents data collect ion for my Masters Thesis. You are being asked to participate because you have unique experience with mentoring. This study seeks to understand the relationship between pe rsonality factors and leadership behaviors in mentoring relationships. In your capacity as a faculty advisor/mentor for a graduate student, you have many opportunities to demonstr ate leadership skills Because of this, and through your participation in this study, you will help to demonstrate how personality and leadership are related. You will be asked to fill out the attached que stionnaire, measuring several aspects of your personality. This questionnaire contains a pproximately 85 items, and should require no more than 30 to 45 minutes to complete. You wi ll also be asked to distribute two other 16 item questionnaires to one or two of the st udents you supervise. These questionnaires measure your leadership style, and should take no more than 10 minutes to complete. No identifying data will be collected as pa rt of this study. There will be no way to ascertain which responses ar e yours. All of your responses will be matched to your students responses on the basis of a 6 digit code of your creation. As faculty participation is vital to the success of this study, I greatly hope that you are willing to take a few minutes to complete the attached surv ey. If you have any questions regarding this study, please feel free to contact me. My e-mail is webbs@mail.usf.edu If, after reading this, you ag ree to complete the survey, I thank you! To begin, I would like to ask you to write a six digit number of your choosing on the line below. This six digit number will be used to match your answ ers on this survey with the information provided by your graduate students. ___________________________ Now, please write the same six digit number in the blank spaces on the pages labeled Material for Graduate Student Advisees. After you complete and mail the attached survey, please distribute those pages to one or more graduate students whom you advise. Once you have written you six digit number on this page and on the Graduate Student Advisee pages, please turn this page and begin the survey. Thank you, Shannon Webb

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90 Appendix G Cover Letter (for graduate students) Dear USF Graduate Student, Hi! You are being asked to complete the at tached survey, which describes behaviors demonstrated by your major advisor. This info rmation is being collected as part of my masters thesis. I am studying the relationshi p between personality characteristics and leadership behaviors. Your advisor has completed a survey with personality questions. The attached form, for you to complete, measur es your advisors leadership behaviors. It contains only 16 questions and should take from 5 to 10 minutes to complete. As soon as you complete the attached form, you should put it in the included envelope and send it to me via campus mail. Your res ponses will not be shared with you advisor at any time. You are being asked to provide your opinions of the behavior of your advisor. Responses will be entirely confidential, and st udy data will only be reported in aggregate form. Because of this, it will not be possi ble to identify your i ndividual responses. If you have any questions regarding th is, please contact me. My e-mail is webbs@mail.usf.edu Thank you so much for your help, Shannon Webb