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The history and results of achaeological investigations at 1Cv32, the Mitchell site, in Covington County Alabama

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The history and results of achaeological investigations at 1Cv32, the Mitchell site, in Covington County Alabama
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English
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Earnest, Tray G
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University of South Florida
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Subjects / Keywords:
southeast Alabama prehistory
middle Woodland mound
Weeden Island
Conecuh River
Dissertations, Academic -- Applied Anthropology -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
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government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Abstract:
ABSTRACT: This thesis examines the history and results of investigations at 1Cv32, the Mitchell Site, in Covington County, Alabama. The Mitchell Site is perhaps the largest recorded Middle Woodland mound center in southeast Alabama. Data from limited testing are examined here with particular emphasis on the ceramic assemblage. Ceramic data indicate that the portion of this site investigated is predominately Middle Woodland, with distinct Weeden Island attributes.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2004.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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by Tray G. Earnest.
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Title from PDF of title page.
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Document formatted into pages; contains 110 pages.

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oclc - 55497152
notis - AJR1097
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0000246
usfldc handle - e14.246
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The History and Results of Ar chaeological Investigations at 1Cv32, the Mitchell Site, in Covington County, Alabama by Tray G. Earnest A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Anthropology College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: Nanc y Marie White, Ph.D. Brent R. Weisman, Ph.D. Robert H. Tykot, Ph.D. Date of Approval: March 17, 2004 Keywords: southeast Alabama preh istory, Middle Woodland Mound, Weeden Island Copyright, 2004, Tray G. Earnest

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This work is dedicated to my wife, Samantha, for her constant support and encouragement.

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Acknowledgments I would like to thank my parents, Glenn and Melba Earnest, for a lifetime of love and support, without which I would likely have never had so many great opportunities and experiences. A special thanks to McDonald Brooms at Troy State University for encouraging my initial interest in archaeology and offering so many great field and lab experiences. Bill Grantham provided much appreciated badgering and encouragement to persevere, and helped keep me from straying too far off the path of progress. The Mitchell family provided gracious hospitality while allowing access to 1Cv32, and continue to serve as exemplary caretakers of this valuable archaeological site. Last, I would like to thank my committee for their hours of editing and the knowledge I have gained from their efforts.

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Table of Contents List of Tables .........................................................iii List of Figures .........................................................iv Abstract ..............................................................vi Introduction ...........................................................1 Chapter One. Site Description and History of Area Research ....................2 Site Description ..................................................2 History of Area Research ..........................................9 Chapter Two, Field and Laboratory Methods ................................14 Field Methods ..................................................14 Laboratory Methods .............................................15 Lithics ........................................................15 Ceramics ......................................................17 Chapter Three. Results of Excavations .....................................19 Unit Descriptions ...............................................19 Features .......................................................24 Feature 1 ......................................................24 Feature 2 ......................................................24 Chapter Four. Data Synthesis ............................................27 Summary of Ceramic Types .......................................27 Incising .......................................................32 Stamping ......................................................35 Punctation .....................................................38 Ceramic Temper ................................................40 Vessel Form Attributes ...........................................41 Clay Objects ...................................................43 Ceramic Density ................................................44 Lithics ........................................................47 Cores .........................................................52 Tools .........................................................52 Lithics Summary ................................................55 i

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Chapter Five. Discussion and Conclusions ..................................56 Regional Context ...............................................60 Directions for Future Research .....................................69 References ...........................................................72 Appendices ..........................................................77 Appendix A. Excerpt from Sears’s Notes on the Mitchell Site ............77 Appendix B. Supplemental Ceramic Data ............................80 Appendix C. Supplemental Lithics Data .............................89 ii

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List of Tables Table 3.1. Summary of levels excavated at 1Cv32 .............................19 Table 4.1. Summary of ceramic types by level, counts .........................29 Table 4.2. Summary of ceramic types by level, weights ........................30 Table 4.3. Ceramic temper types by weight and count ..........................40 Table 4.4. Summary of total lithic debitage by raw material .....................48 Table 4.5. Summary of thinning flakes by counts .............................50 Table 4.6. Summary of thinning flakes by weight .............................51 Table 4.7. Distribution of formal tools ......................................54 iii

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List of Figures Figure 1.1. Regional location of 1Cv32 ......................................2 Figure 1.2. Location of 1Cv32, USGS Dozier Alabama Quadrangle, 1971 ...........4 Figure 1.3 Aerial photograph of 1Cv32 showing known site boundaries ............4 Figure 1.4. Location of 2x1-meter test units excavated by Troy State University ......5 Figure 1.5. Location of major rivers within the study area .......................10 Figure 3.1. Unit 1, east wall profile ........................................20 Figure 3.2. Unit 2, west wall pofile ........................................20 Figure 3.3. Unit 3, east wall profile ........................................23 Figure 3.4. Unit 4, west wall profile ........................................23 Figure 3.5. Plan view of Feature 1 .........................................25 Figure 3.6. Plan view of Feature 2 .........................................25 Figure 4.1. Decorated ceramics by count ....................................28 Figure 4.2. Decorated ceramics, % by count .................................28 Figure 4.3 Decorated ceramics by weight ...................................28 Figure 4.4. Decorated ceramics, % by weight ................................28 Figure 4.5. Keith Incised sherds ...........................................32 Figure 4.6. Carrabelle Incised sherds .......................................33 Figure 4.7. Incised, unspecified, possibly Indian Pass Incised ....................33 Figure 4.8. Incised, unspecified sherds ......................................34 Figure 4.9 Weeden Island sherds ..........................................34 Figure 4.10. Incised unspecified, shell tempered ..............................34 Figure 4.11. Complicated stamped patterns on Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped sherds recovered from the Mitchell Site ..........................36 Figure 4.12. Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped sherds .........................36 Figure 4.13. Check-stamped, unspecified sherds ..............................37 Figure 4.14. Punctated sherds .............................................38 Figure 4.15. Punctated sherds .............................................39 Figure 4.16. Weeden Island Punctate .......................................39 Figure 4.17. Cord-marked or cob-marked sherds, unspecified ....................39 Figure 4.18. Rim sherds, sand-tempered, plain ...............................41 Figure 4.19. Typical Rim Forms at 1Cv32 ...................................42 Figure 4.20. Clay objects ................................................44 Figure 4.21. Effigy adorno, possible dog ....................................44 Figure 4.22. Illustration of effigy adorno ....................................44 Figure 4.23. Intrasite ceramic counts .......................................45 Figure 4.24. Intrasite ceramics, percents by count .............................45 Figure 4.25. Intrasite ceramic weights ......................................45 Figure 4.26. Intrasite ceramics, percents by weight ............................45 Figure 4.27. Intrasite MNV totals ..........................................45 iv

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Figure 4.28. MNV frequency distribution ...................................45 Figure 4.29. Summary of thinning flakes by count ............................49 Figure 4.30. Summary of thinning flakes, % by count ..........................49 Figure 4.31. Summary of thinning flakes by weight ...........................49 Figure 4.32. Summary of thinning flakes, % by weight .........................49 Figure 4.33. TQ core thinning flake and flake tools ............................53 Figure 4.34. Bifacial distal ends ...........................................53 Figure 4.35. Quartz fragments ............................................53 Figure 4.36. Coastal plain chert notching flakes ..............................54 Figure 5.1. Location of archaeological sites mentioned in text ...................59 Figure 5.2. Location of sites in close proximity to 1Cv32 .......................62 Figure 5.3. Location of Woodland mound sites and additional sites mentioned in text.63 v

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The History and Results of Archaeological Investigations at 1Cv32, the Mitchell Site, in Covington County Alabama Tray G. Earnest ABSTRACT This thesis examines the history and results of investigations at 1Cv32, the Mitchell Site, in Covington County, Alabama. The Mitchell Site is perhaps the largest recorded Middle Woodland mound center in southeast Alabama. Data from limited testing are examined here with particular emphasis on the ceramic assemblage. Ceramic data indicate that the portion of this site investigated is predominately Middle Woodland, with distinct Weeden Island attributes. vi

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IntroductionThis thesis examines the history of archaeological investigations at 1Cv32, the Mitchell Site, in Covington County, Alabama (Figures 1.1-1.3). The Mitchell Site is one of the largest recorded Woodland sites in southeast Alabama. This site was first reported by Sears (1959), who identified the Mitchell Site as a major Weeden Island ceremonial center due to its size and the presence of two earthen mounds. It was later visited and surface-collected by Jenkins during a survey of the Conecuh River (Jenkins and Mann 1985). The most recent investigation of the Mitchell Site was conducted by Troy State University (TSU) in 1996 under my direction and serves as the only source of contextual data (Earnest et al 1995; Solomon et al 1996). This thesis will provide a detailed description of data recovered from subsurface context and examine the culture history at the Mitchell Site, with particular emphasis on the Woodland occupation here. This work should serve as a foundation for future research concerning this little known multi-component site within the upper coastal plain of Alabama. 1

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Chapter 1 Site Description and History of Area Research Site Description The Mitchell Site is located in northeastern Covington County, Alabama (Figures 1.1-1.3) approximately one mile southeast of the Conecuh River (UTM coordinates: Zone 16, 5601870E, 3479779N, USGS Dozier quadrangle, 370 feet amsl). This site was examined in 1995 by Troy State University archaeologists during a cultural resource assessment designed to identify sites in south-central Alabama potentially threatened by flooding or erosion. Surface collections during this visit verified the presence of both Woodland and Mississippian ceramics (Earnest et al. 1995). Diagnostic Dalton and Bolen projectile points within the landowner's collection indicate a preliminary occupation by at least the Paleo-transitional period. None of these early point types were recovered during TSU investigations. Site boundaries at the Mitchell Site are based upon the 2 Figure 1.1. Regional location of 1Cv32 in the state of Alabama.

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known distribution of cultural material on the surface (Figures 1.2-1.3, site boundaries depicted in red). The Mitchell Site contains two earthen mounds which are most likely the result of aboriginal mortuary activities (Figures 1.2-1.3). Both mounds exhibited evidence of looting to an undetermined extent. Five shovel tests approximately 30 cm in diameter were excavated in the area adjacent to Mound B which produced evidence of cultural material to a depth ~75 cm (Earnest et al. 1995). No shovel tests were conducted within either mound. Data and materials from these shovel tests are still curated at TSU but were not available for this thesis. The eastern portion of the Mitchell Site was actively cultivated at the time of the 1995 survey and has been terraced to varying degrees. Southeastern portions of the site containing pine trees had also been clear cut. Further investigations were deemed necessary due to the potential importance of this site and the possibility of future looting within both mounds. Limited testing was initiated at the Mitchell Site in 1996 by TSU in conjunction with a second phase of the original flood damage project. The goals of this investigation were to map site attributes and boundaries and determine the nature and preservation condition of cultural strata. Four 2 x 1-meter test units were excavated in the southeastern portion of the site in the vicinity of Mound B (Figure 1.4) Funding and time limitations restricted the extent of excavation to only four units. This portion of the site was chosen for investigation due to potential threats of future erosion and looting and the absence of livestock. 3

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4 Figure 1.2. Location of 1Cv32, USGS Dozier, Alabama Quadrangle 1971. Figure 1.3. Aerial photograph of 1Cv32 showing known site boundaries (terraserver-usa.com).

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5 Figure 1.4. Location of 2 x 1-meter test units excavated by Troy State University (based on Solomon et al. 1996). Note looter holes in top of mound.

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The Mitchell site is located 1.42 kilometers (1.24 miles) southeast of the Conecuh River on a prominent upland terrace with substantial relief. Such landforms are common on the south side of the Conecuh River in this area. These upland terraces are typically bordered by steep ravines which were formed as a result of gradual erosion by spring-fed creeks. The Mitchell Site is bordered to the south and west by numerous intersecting ravines which contain active springs and dense stands of hardwood forest. The spring-heads along the perimeter of the site probably served as a reliable water source for prehistoric residents and may have been an important factor in choosing this location. Soils at the Mitchell Site consist of Orangeburg sandy loam (5-8% slopes) and Lucy loamy sand (2-5% slopes; USDA 1990). Limited paleo-climate data for this area suggests the establishment of modern climatic conditions coupled with the presence of upland pine forests and mixed hardwood lowlands by 5000 B.C. (Delcourt 1980). Much of the area encompassing this site has been terraced and cultivated. Shovel tests conducted throughout the Mitchell Site during Phase I investigations verified the presence of subsurface cultural material down to approximately 70 centimeters (Earnest et al. 1995). These shovel tests were excavated within cultivated portions of the site to determine if cultural strata existed below the plow zone. Tree-falls within the wooded perimeter of the site were also found to have sand-tempered ceramics in the exposed soil. These wooded portions showed no evidence of agricultural disturbance and have the potential to possess undisturbed cultural components. Site boundaries are based upon the known surface distribution of ceramics. Areas east of these known boundaries were not investigated due to the absence of access permission. Local residents stated that particular area was not known to produce cultural material. 6

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The Mitchell Site contains two earthen mounds which were not investigated, in compliance with NAGPRA legislation. Both mounds are considered mortuary tumuli based upon information from local informants. Mound B is located on the perimeter of a cultivated field and served as the focal point for the 1996 investigations, which produced the primary data examined within this thesis (Figures 1.2-1.4). Mound B is roughly oval in shape and measures approximately nine meters wide by 1.5 meters high. Minimal evidence of Mississippian shell-tempered ceramics was observed in the area of Mound B. The overwhelming majority of sherds from this portion of the site indicate a Middle Woodland occupation dating from about A.D. 0-600 (Willey 1949). Sears's description of Mound B (1959) still applies today. He noted the presence of large sandstone rocks within the mound and considered Mound B a Weeden Island burial mound. Sears likely based his interpretations upon the presence of Woodland ceramics in the area of Mound B and its roughly conical shape. His experiences at Kolomoki, in southwest Georgia, no doubt influenced his interpretation, as he compared Mound B at the Mitchell Site with Mound E at Kolomoki (Sears 1956). Considering the fact that we have no mound-derived data from the Mitchell Site, such comparisons can only be considered conjecture. Kolomoki, however, did have at least one mound with large rock fill similar to that of others in the Gulf Coastal Plain, such as the Aucilla River Mound (Brose and White 1999:327-331) and Warrior River Mounds A and B (Brose and White 1999:333-346). Mound A at the Mitchell Site is located at a higher elevation and may be associated with a later Mississippian occupation (ca. AD 1000-1500, Willey 1949) as indicated by an associated concentration of shell-tempered (Pensacola?) ceramics 7

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surrounding the mound. No excavations were conducted within the area of Mound A due to the presence of a herd of antagonistic goats. Sears described Mound A as a temple mound, but provides no basis for such an interpretation. If Mound A did once possess any semblance of a flattened top, no evidence survives today. Mound A had been looted to an undetermined extent at the time of Sears's visit, He provides a second-hand description of a burial discovered within this mound which contained "Conchshell, stone and copper artifacts" which he associated with the "Pensacola-Moundville type of culture" (Sears 1959). Sears considered this an intrusive burial due to a scarcity of related ceramics on the surface and attributed its presence to an undiscovered Mississippian site nearby (Sears 1959). The presence of this burial and the sparse distribution of shell-tempered ceramics certainly indicate a Mississippian component within Mound A. However, the likelihood of Woodland components within Mound A cannot be discounted at this time. Sears refers to a plaza which is almost devoid of ceramics between the mounds at the Mitchell Site. Contemporary examination during more recent investigations provides no evidence for such a plaza. The surface distribution of ceramics shows no discrepancy in density across the space between the two mounds. Sears' interpretation of a plaza at the Mitchell site may have been skewed by his search for a Weeden Island state at this location, and by his theoretical framework of that era. His work at Kolomoki suggested to him that mound centers with plazas were indicative of levels of social organization more complex than a chiefdom (Sears 1968:144-146). Sears saw many similarities between the Mitchell Site and Aspalaga (8Gd1). Aspalaga, a Middle Woodland mound center, is also situated in an upland setting 8

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bordered by steep ravines. With at least three earthen mounds and an abundance of Swift Creek and Weeden Island ceramics, Aspalaga does appear to exhibit commonalties with the Mitchell Site (Florida Site File 2003; Moore 1918: 515-581). History of Area Research The Choctawhatchee, Pea and Conecuh Rivers compose the three primary drainage systems within the south-central coastal plain of Alabama. The Yellow River also drains a small portion of south-central Alabama (Figure 1.5). Archaeological investigations within these river drainages have been limited in both frequency and scope compared to other areas in the tri-states region. This may be due in part to the absence of major universities in this part of the state. Moore's explorations apparently extended no farther inland in this area than the Pate Place (1Ho40) and the McLaney Place (unrecorded) on the Choctawhatchee River (Brose and White 2001:309-310). Difficulties in navigating this far inland and the absence of grandiose burial mounds apparently discouraged Moore from exploring farther up river. Investigation and excavation during the WPA days in Alabama were mainly conducted in the northern portion of the state. These WPA projects generated tremendous amounts of data on state and regional prehistory and formed the basis for our perceptions of area research potential. Models of prehistoric culture history and process derived from these WPA projects have been applied to the state as a whole with little regard to physiographic variation. Much of the existing literature concerning the coastal plain of Alabama is speculative and based upon limited data. Chase notes the presence of “ample evidence of 9

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Late Swift Creek and Weeden Island occupation” in Russell County Alabama at 1Ru48 (Chase 1967:60). 1Ru48, however, is located within the Chattahoochee River drainage basin well beyond the area considered for this thesis. Middle Woodland Weeden Island ceramics have been discovered as far north as well above the Fall Line of Alabama. Excavations at the Miller’s Creek Site (1Mt52), east of Montgomery, Alabama, produced Late Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped and Weeden Island Plain, West Florida Cord-Marked, Weeden Island Incised, Carrabelle Punctated, and Basin Bayou Stamped sherds. These Swift Creek and Weeden Island 10 Figure 1.5. Location of major rivers within the study area.

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types were underlain by an earlier component of the proposed Calloway phase, which is characterized by distinctive mica-temperd ceramics. Limited evidence of Swift Creek and Weeden Island ceramics has also been recovered from Dallas and Lowndes Counties, Alabama (Chase 1967:62). Excavations at 1Cv30 on the Conecuh River near Andalusia produced more robust evidence of Weeden Island influences in Alabama’s Coastal Plain (Fornaro 1974). The majority of ceramics recovered (97.67%) from 1Cv30 were classified as Weeden Island types, with the remaining sherds attributed to a Fort Walton (Mississippian) occupation. Lithic artifacts from 1Cv30 were primarily associated with the Woodland occupation. Two stemmed projectile points were also recovered from pre-ceramic levels, suggesting the likelihood of an earlier undetermined Archaic occupation, as well. 1Cv30 was determined to represent a “seasonal habitation site used intermittently by Weeden Island peoples” (Fornaro 1974:19). Ned Jenkins’ survey of the Conecuh River provided one of the first regional examinations of cultural resources in this area and serves as a commonly cited reference on southeast Alabama’s cultural resources (Jenkins and Mann 1985). Based primarily on this survey, the Conecuh River area is considered to have been "uninhabited" from "around 500 B.C. until A.D. 400," possibly as a result of migrations to coastal areas due to drier climatic conditions (Jenkins and Mann 1985:143). Conecuh River populations are believed to have been drawn to the rich resources areas of the lower Escambia and Pensacola Bay areas (Jenkins and Mann 1985:138). Jenkins’ abandonment hypothesis is based primary upon a scarcity of diagnostic Early Woodland ceramics, particularly Deptford series, from sites investigated in his own 11

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work in the middle and upper Conecuh River drainage, and unpublished research by other archaeologists. This abandonment hypothesis appears to have become a persistent idea in archaeological literature (e.g. Ensor and Largent 1996). A later attempt to synthesize the prehistory of this area was derived from an examination of 122 helicopter landing sites in southeast Alabama leased by the United States Army (Ensor and Largent 1996). Twenty-seven archaeological sites were recorded as a result of this reconnaissance. The results of this synthesis led the authors to postulate a moderate occupation throughout the Archaic stage for southeast Alabama. However, significant occupational gaps during the Woodland stage are proposed for the Conecuh River drainage, specifically during the Early and Middle Woodland Periods. Similar occupational gaps are not proposed for the Choctawhatchee River drainage, where Deptford-Swift Creek sites were recorded during landing site surveys. An increase in occupational density is proposed for both the Choctawhatchee and Conecuh River drainages during the Late Woodland period. This population increase is attributed to an influx of Weeden Island peoples from Florida who apparently were supposed to have migrated north due to population pressure. Ensor and Largent propose that southeast Alabama was once again abandoned during the Mississippian period, with the exception of limited numbers Roods-Lamar sites in the upper Conecuh and Pensacola sites in the lower Conecuh (1996). Ensor and Largent (1996) base their synthesis of southeast Alabama’s prehistory on a limited sample of upland locales. Data recovered as a result of these landing site surveys is not representative of all ecosystems within the study area. In addition, data from excavated sites in south Alabama and adjacent Florida are not referenced or 12

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considered as part of their synthesis. Excavations at 1Bu18 (Brooms and Earnest 1996), 1Co54 (Brooms et al. 1997), 1Da326 (Solomon et al. 1996), 1Pk2 and 1Pk11 (Brooms 2003) have produced evidence of multi-component occupations from the Late Paleoindian period through the Late Woodland Period. Numerous unexcavated sites are listed in the Alabama site file which indicate no occupational gaps in the prehistoric occupation of this area. The abandonment hypothesis for the middle Conecuh River exemplifies the pitfalls inherent in diffusionist theories and the inaccurate interpretations which can occur when cultural chronologies are applied over a broad geographic area. As stated previously, much of Alabama's models of prehistoric chronology are based upon work in the northern part of the state. In the case of the middle Conecuh River drainage, and perhaps southeast Alabama in general, the absence of specific northern ceramic types has been equated to abandonment of this region. Future interpretations should consider data from previously excavated sites in this region and from Florida sites, as well, and not be based so strongly on models less applicable to the Coastal Plain. 13

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Chapter 2 Field and Laboratory Methods Field Methods Test units excavated at the Mitchell Site were tied to a metric grid system established for this portion of the site. This grid system was based upon a primary datum placed approximately 8 meters north of Mound B (Figure 1.4). A secondary datum was established on the south side of Mound B as a backup datum. Soils from each unit were removed by shovel and trowel using ten-centimeter arbitrary levels due to the absence of information on natural or cultural levels. Levels were divided in soil zones designated as 'A' and 'B'. Zone A likely corresponds to the plow zone, while Zone B consists of the lighter, potentially undisturbed soils underneath. Such a division by zones was intended to separate cultural strata potentially disturbed by plowing from what would typically be less disturbed, or perhaps even intact, cultural strata. All units were excavated to the depth of culturally sterile strata. Upon reaching culturally sterile strata, a 20 cm x 1 -meter test trench was excavated within all units to verify that deeper cultural material was not present. Soil colors are based upon the Munsell soil color charts. The majority of soil removed from each unit was dry screened through hardware cloth. One liter of soil from each level was reserved for flotation. All artifacts and ecofacts recovered were bagged and labeled according to horizontal and vertical provenience. Photographs were taken at all stages of excavation and stratigraphic drawings were completed for each unit excavated. 14

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Laboratory Methods Ceramic artifacts were classified according to Willey's typology (1949); lithic formal tools were classified according Cambron and Hulse (1990) and Powell (1990). Attributes of cultural materials recovered from test units were recorded on standardized TSU catalogue forms. Each artifact was assigned a field specimen (FS) number coded to provide information on provenience. Metric attributes of cataloged artifacts were obtained with a Bel-Art vernier type H13415 caliper. Lithic and ceramic weights were obtained using a digital scale. Lithics Lithics examined from the Mitchell Site were classified using a model which I developed for stone tool resources which are endemic to the coastal plain of Alabama. This model was developed during the course of more than ten years of lithic manufacturing experiments using both Tallahatta quartzite and coastal plain chert obtained from the research area. Application of this model has proved useful in determining the nature and development of lithic assemblages at other sites (see Brooms and Earnest 1996 for examples and theoretical background). This model includes three primary tool classes, formal tools, informal tools and expedient tools. Formal tools include artifacts with culturally predetermined morphological aspects requiring substantial manufacturing effort. Examples of flaked stone formal tools include projectile points, biface knives, axes, adzes, drills and patterned unifacial scrapers (i.e. thumbnail scrapers). Common projectile points found in classification manuals are considered formal tools. Formal tools are manufactured according to a cognitive map in 15

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the mind of the maker which is predetermined by cultural norms. Most, but not all, formal tools are designed to be hafted. Informal tools are artifacts created with minimal manufacturing effort to perform specific functions. Examples are spokeshaves, gravers, burins and unifacial or bifacial scrapers and flake knives. Informal tools are seldom hafted due to their relatively short use life. The manufacturing style of informal tools is dictated by function rather than stylistic cultural norms. Expedient tools are tools which have been used with no modification and then discarded. These tools exhibit microscopic or macroscopic use-wear evidence indicative of expedient use. Examples include flake knives or scrapers which have not been rejuvenated by intentional flaking. Lithic artifacts recovered from Phase II test units are the result of flaked stone technology. No ground stone tools were recovered. Lithic raw materials found at 1Cv32 fall within three broad categories which include quartz, Tallahatta quartzite (TQ), and Coastal Plain chert (CPC). Quartz materials were further subdivided into the categories of clear quartz and milky-white quartz based upon the attributes of color and clarity. Tallahatta quartzite occurs locally, while quartz and Coastal Plain chert are not endemic to the middle Conecuh region. Quartz debitage was divided into the categories of shatter and flake. Tallahatta quartzite debitage was divided into the categories of core fragment, thinning flake, and shatter (Purdy 1981:147-148). The category of thinning flake was further subdivided into core thinning flake to differentiate from larger flakes removed from cores for the purpose of striking platform preparation or tool sized flake removal. Subdivision of 16

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of Tallahatta quartzite flakes into primary, secondary, and pressure categories was not considered feasible due to the highly weathered state of this material, making it difficult to distinguish if cortex was present. Chert debitage was divided into the categories of core fragment, thinning flake, pressure flake and notching flake. Subdivision of chert debitage into more specific categories such as primary or secondary flakes was not considered feasible due to small sample size and the large degree of bias in accurately identifying these flake categories. The generic term thinning flake has been applied here to classify flakes which are the byproduct of bifacial tool manufacturing. Tools and tool fragments were recorded according to material type, mode of manufacture, and diagnostic attributes. Ceramics A total of 2154 sherds (4999.5g) recovered from Phase II test units were cataloged using standardized TSU catalogue forms. Information recorded on these catalogue forms includes sherd weight, ceramic type, temper, and provenience. Ceramic classification was based upon Willey's (1949) typology. Decorated Woodland ceramic types include Keith Incised, Carrabelle Incised, Carrabelle Punctate, Weeden Island Incised, Weeden Island Punctate, and Tucker Ridge-Pinched (Willey 419-429: 1949). Stamped types include Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped (Willey 429-435: 1949), Wakulla Check-Stamped (Willey 437-438: 1949), and Deptford Simple-Stamped (Willey 357-358: 1949). Checked-stamped examples are typically classified as check-stamped, unspecified because of the ambiguity of this surface treatment (White 1994). Sherds 17

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with residual or ambiguous surface treatments were assigned a provisional type (e.g. incised, unidentified). Provisional categories used in this analysis are based upon temper or surface treatment. 18

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Chapter 3 Results of Excavations Unit Descriptions Unit 1, measuring 2 x 1-meters (6-8S, 0-1E), was placed north of and adjacent to Mound B with the goal of obtaining data related to mortuary activities. Unit 1 produced cultural material to a maximum depth of 150 cm below surface, making it the deepest unit excavated during this phase of testing. Soils in this unit consisted of four stratigraphic zones. Zone A (0-~30 cm) is a grayish brown sandy loam which has been interpreted as representing mound fill due to a direction of slope towards Mound B (Figure 3.1). The direction of slope within this zone, however, may also be the result of decades of topsoil migration associated with agriculture. Zone B (~30-60 cm) consists of brown sand. Zones C and D consist of increasingly reddish brown sand to sandy clay. Unit 1 produced 431 (620 g) lithic artifacts which included core fragments, flakes, preform/tool fragments, informal tools, and shatter. Formal tools recovered include one Hamilton (Cambron and Hulse 1990:64) projectile point (TQ) from Level 1, one bifacial scraper/graver (Knox chert) from Level 3 (20-30 cm), one Provisional Type 2 Expanded Base (Cambron and Hulse 1990:130) projectile point/knife (CPC) from Level 6 (50-60 19 Table 3.1. Summary of levels excavated at 1Cv32. 1Cv32, Levels ExcavatedDepth Below Surface:0-1010-2020-3030-4040-5050-6060-7070-8080-9090-100100-110110-120120-130130-140140-150 Unit 1 (6-8S, 0-1E) 1-21-23456789101112131415 Unit 2 (0-2S 6-7E) A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8B9 Unit 3 (10-12N, 20-21E) A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8 Unit 4 (50-52N, 0-1E) A1A2A3B1B2B3B4B5B6B7

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20 Zone A, 10YR 4/3 Zone B, 5YR 4/46S/1E 8S/1E Surface 60 cm 80 cm 40 cm 20 cm 100cm 120cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 7 13 14 15 Zone C, 2.5YR 3/4 Zone D, 2.5YR 4/4 Figure 3.1. Unit 1, east wall profile showing arbitrary 10 cm levels and soil strata. B2 120cm 100cm 80 cm B7Zone C, 5YR 4/6B9 B8Zone B, 5YR 4/6 Mottled with 10YR 5/4B6 B5 B4 B3 20 cm 40 cm 60 cm 2S/6EA2Zone A, 10YR 5/4B1 A3 A4Surface 0S/6EA1 Figure 3.2. Unit 2, west wall profile showing arbitrary 10 cm levels and soil strata.

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cm), and one Elora (Cambron and Hulse 1990:46) projectile point (TQ) from Level 13. In addition, Unit 1 produced 243 (981.4 g) ceramic sherds and one effigy adorno (Figure 4.21). No features were encountered in Unit 1. Unit 2, also measuring 2 x 1-meters (0-2S, 6-7E), was excavated northeast of Unit 1 at the southern perimeter of the cultivated field with the goal of obtaining data with minimal disturbance from cultivation and terracing. Unit 2 was excavated to a maximum depth of 130 cm. Soils in this unit consist of ~30 cm of grayish brown sandy loam over reddish brown sandy loam. Some evidence of mixing of soils between these two zones is evident within the unit profile (Figure 3.2). Unit 2 produced 454 (388.9 g) lithic artifacts which included core fragments, flakes, preform/tool fragments, informal tools, and shatter. Formal tools recovered include one Madison-like (Cambron and Hulse 1990:84) projectile point (MWQ) from Level A4 (30-40 cm), one bifacial stemmed knife (CPC) from Level B3 (60-70 cm), and one bifacial stemmed knife (CPC) from Level B7 (100-110 cm). In addition, Unit 2 produced 623 (1773.1g) ceramic sherds. Unit 2 contained a pottery concentration designated as Feature 1 (Figure 3.5). Unit 3, also measuring 2 x 1-meters (10-12N, 20-21E), was also excavated at the southern perimeter of the cultivated field with the goal of obtaining data with minimal disturbance from cultivation and terracing. Unit 3 was excavated to a maximum depth of 120 cm. Soils in this unit consist of ~30 cm of grayish brown sandy loam over reddish brown sandy loam. A shallow midden zone designated as Feature 2 was encountered approximately 30 cm below surface (Figures 3.3, 3.6). Mottled stains 21

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depicted within the east wall profile of this unit (Figure 3.3) are considered the result of floral-turbation. Unit 3 produced 609 (555.4 g) lithic artifacts which included core fragments, flakes, preform/tool fragments, informal tools, and shatter. Formal tools recovered include one Hamilton (Cambron and Hulse 1990: 64) projectile point (CPC) from Level A4 (30-40 cm), one Pidgeon Creek (Powell 1990: 46) projectile point (TQ) from Level B1 (40-50 cm), one Ledbetter (Cambron and Hulse 1990: 130) projectile point/knife (TQ) from Level B5 (80-90 cm) and one expanded base projectile point/knife (CPC) from Level B6 (90-100 cm). In addition, Unit 3 produced 1,158 (1,826.1 g) ceramic sherds. This unit also produced a moderate amount of bone fragments, including one identifiable white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) left tibia from Level A4. Unit 4, measuring 2 x 1-meters (50-52N, 0-1E), was excavated within the adjacent cultivated field in order to obtain data away from Mound B and also to determine the extent of damage to site stratigraphy from farming related activities. The location of Unit 4 also served as a preliminary test of Sears's (1959) hypothesis concerning a plaza in this vicinity of the site. Unit 4 produced the lowest amounts of cultural material and was excavated to a maximum depth of 100 cm below surface. Soils in this unit consisted of a medium brown sandy loam plowzone over reddish brown sandy loam subsoils (Figure 3.4). Unit 4 produced 111 (105.6 g) lithic artifacts which included core fragments, flakes, preform/tool fragments, informal tools, and shatter. Formal tools recovered include one ambiguous projectile point/knife from Level B1 (30-40 cm). In addition, Unit 4 produced 130 (419.7 g) ceramic sherds. Two fiber-tempered body sherds were 22

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23 60 cm B2 Zone B, 2.5YR 4/8 120cm 80 cm 100cm B7 B8 B6 B5 B3 B4 Zone A, 7.5YR 4/4Surface 40 cm 20 cmMottled Stain Feature 2, 7.5YR 3/412N/21EA4Mottled StainB1 A3 A210N/21EA1 Figure 3.3. Unit 3, east wall profile showing arbitrary 10 cm levels and soil strata. SurfaceZone A, 10YR 5/6 Root 60 cm 80 cm 40 cm 20 cm 100cm A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 Zone B, 2.5YR 4/852N/0E 50N/0E Figure 3.4. Unit 4, west wall profile showing arbitrary 10 cm levels and soil strata.

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recovered from Level B2, the only known examples of this ceramic type thus far from 1Cv32, indicating an earlier, Late Archaic component. No features were encountered in Unit 4. The relatively low quantity of ceramics from Unit 4 does provide support for a plaza that might have been swept clean, although no stratigraphic evidence for a prepared surface was observed within the profile of this unit. Features Feature 1 Feature 1 was discovered in Unit 2 at 35 cm below surface (Figure 3.5). This feature is classified as an artifact cluster. No evidence of feature outlines in the soil was present from the plan or cross-section view. Feature 1 contained thirteen bone fragments (.5 g), six charcoal fragments (.1 g), ten Tallahatta quartzite thinning flakes, one eroded CPC fragment, four charred hickory nut fragments, ten blackberry seeds, one Keith Incised rim sherd, four plain, sand-tempered rim sherds, and fifteen sand-tempered plain body sherds. Although no evidence of feature delineation was observed, cultural materials recovered suggest the possibility that Feature 1 represents the remains of some type of pit. Feature 2 Feature 2 consisted of a midden zone discovered in Unit 3 at 28 cm below surface (Figure 3.6). Substantially darker soil within this zone extended across the entire unit and produced eight charcoal fragments (1.7 g), ten unidentifiable bone fragments (3.3 g), one quartz flake, one Tallahatta quartzite flake, one Tallahatta quartzite bifacial fragment, two Coastal Plain chert flakes, one Coastal Plain chert fragment, one blackberry seed, 24

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25 Figure 3.6. Plan view of Feature 2 in north half of Unit 3. Figure 3.5. Plan view of Feature 1 (artifact cluster) in north end of Unit 2. Unlabeled objects are sand-tempered sherds. Keith Incised Rim Sherd 10 cm .50S/6E .50S/7E N 0S/6E 0S/7E

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one maypop seed, and fifty-one hickory nut fragments. Ceramics recovered from Feature 2 include one Swift Creek Complicated-stamped body sherd, one plain sand-tempered rim sherd, two sand-tempered incised body sherds, one sand-tempered cord-marked body sherd, and twenty-four sand-tempered plain body sherds. The boundaries of Feature 2 likely extend outside of Unit 3. Darker soils which are probably associated with this feature extend across the entire unit as depicted within the unit profile (Figure 3.3). Cultural material, however, was restricted to the northern half of Unit 3. Additional excavations adjacent to Unit 3 are necessary for a more precise determination of the boundaries of Feature 2. 26

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Chapter 4 Data Synthesis Summary of Ceramic Types Ceramic types represented in the test unit data indicate a Woodland occupation within this portion of the site. Figures 4.1-4.4 and Tables 4.1 and 4.2 provide a summary of ceramic types recovered from test units. The majority of the ceramic assemblage, not surprisingly, is temporally non-diagnostic sand-tempered, plain sherds. Conversely, the quantity of sherds with diagnostic attributes is relatively low and limits the reliability of interpretations on cultural stratigraphy, as well as subsurface cultural integrity. Keith Incised sherds are evenly distributed down to 60 cm, with the exception of being absent in Level 2. Because Keith Incised occurs in both Middle and Late Woodland contexts, the distribution of this ceramic type appears normal. It is difficult to generalize on trends due to the relatively small numbers of this type here. Identifiable Carabelle Incised and Carrabelle Punctate sherds also occur too infrequently for generalizations here and were included in the general categories of "Incised" and "Punctated." Incised unspecified sherds appear most frequently between 20 and 60 cm below surface. Punctated sherds appear to increase earlier and in smaller quantities than incised examples. The largest quantity of incised sherds occurs by count in Level 4 (30-40 cm) and by weight in Level 3 (20-30 cm). The presence of incised and punctated sherds below 70 cm is likely the result of soil disturbance by natural agents, although some of these sherds may represent decorated types that pre-date the Middle Woodland. One definite Weeden Island 27

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28 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12Level 00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.8 Percent Keith Incised (n=9) Incised (n=91) Punctated (n=31 Red Filmed (n=9) Check-Stamped (n=17) Complicated-Stamped (n=10)Decorated Ceramics, % by Count 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12Level 0510152025 Count Keith Incised (n=9) Incised (n=91) Punctated (n=31 Red Filmed (n=9) Check-Stamped (n=17) Complicated-Stamped (n=10)Decorated Ceramics by Count 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12Level 0102030405060708090 Weight (g) Keith Incised (n=54.20 Incised (n=251.4 Punctated (n=95.10 Red Filmed (n=26.2) Check-Stamped (n=134.2) Complicated-Stamped (n=49.5)Decorated Ceramics, by Weight 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13Level 00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.8 Percent Keith Incised (n=54.20 Incised (n=251.4 Punctated (n=95.10 Red Filmed (n=26.2) Check-Stamped (n=134.2) Complicated-Stamped (n=49.5)Decorated Ceramics, % by Weight Fi g ure 4.2 Fi g ure 4.1 Fi g ure 4.3 Figure 4.4

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1Cv32, Summary of Ceramic Types by Level, CountsDepth Below Surface:0-1010-2020-3030-4040-5050-6060-7070-8080-9090-100100-110110-120120-130130-140140-150Totals Keith Incised 12321 9 Carrabelle Incised 11 2 Carrabelle Punct. 11 2 incised, unspec. 918172098511189 Weeden Island Punctate 1 1 punctated, unspec. 33465122228 red filmed 162 9 check-stamped 143314117 Swift Cr. Comp.-Stamped 124111 10 body sherd, gtp 1111318 body sherd, stp 33137950130113792673217812111879 rim sherd, stp 1016222871111197 cord-marked 11 fiber-tempered plain 2 2 Totals by Level: 357418553372170117783921101431002154 1Cv32, Summary of Ceramic Types by Level, Percents by CountDepth Below Surface:0-1010-2020-3030-4040-5050-6060-7070-8080-9090-100100-110110-120120-130130-140140-150Totals Keith Incised 0.1110.0000.2220.3330.2220. 1110.0000.0000.0000.0000.000 0.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 Carrabelle Incised 0.0000.0000.5000.0000.0000. 5000.0000.0000.0000.0000.000 0.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 Carrabelle Punct. 0.0000.0000.0000.0000.5000. 5000.0000.0000.0000.0000.000 0.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 incised, unspec. 0.1010.2020.1910.2250.1010. 0900.0000.0560.0000.0110.011 0.0110.0000.0000.0001.00 Weeden Island Punctate 0.0000.0000.0000.0000.0001. 0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.000 0.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 punctated, unspec. 0.1070.1070.1430.2140.1790. 0360.0710.0710.0710.0000.000 0.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 red filmed 0.1110.0000.0000.6670.2220. 0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.000 0.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 check-stamped 0.0590.0000.2350.1760.1760. 0590.2350.0000.0000.0000.059 0.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 Swift Cr. Comp.-Stamped 0.0000.1000.2000.4000.1000. 1000.1000.0000.0000.0000.000 0.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 body sherd, gtp 0.1250.1250.0000.1250.1250. 0000.3750.0000.1250.0000.000 0.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 body sherd, stp 0.1760.2020.2670.1600.0730. 0490.0360.0170.0090.0040.006 0.0010.0010.0000.0001.00 rim sherd, stp 0.1030.1650.2270.2890.0720. 1130.0100.0000.0100.0100.000 0.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 cord-marked 0.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000. 0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.000 1.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 fiber-tempered plain 0.0000.0000.0000.0001.0000. 0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.000 0.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 Totals by Level: 0.170.190.260.170.080. 050.040.020.010.000.01 0.000.000.000.001.00 Table 4.1. Summary of ceramic types by level, counts.

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1Cv32, Summary of Ceramic Types by Level, Weights (g)Depth Below Surface:0-1010-2020-3030-4040-5050-6060-7070-8080-9090-100100-110110-120120-130130-140140-150Totals Keith Incised 0.712.00.237.23.11.0 54.2 Carrabelle Incised 5.13.6 8.7 Carrabelle Punct. 4.514.5 19.0 incised, unspec. 16.832.166.459.013.717.62.520.13.79.21.6242.7 Weeden Island Punctate 4.0 4.0 punctated, unspec. 6.710.012.89.914.213.11.83.672.1 red filmed 5.113.27.9 26.2 check-stamped 2.619.977.78.01.522.61.9134.2 Swift Cr. Comp.-Stamped 2.317.116.82.78.42.2 49.5 body sherd, gtp 9.49.212.15.95.141.7 body sherd, stp 341.4585.8917.4737.2387.7306.8159.073.676.19.645.60.40.00.03640.6 rim sherd, stp 57.648.1181.1199.896.752.64.544.3684.7 cord-marked 9.09.0 fiber-tempered plain 7.8 7.8 Totals by Level: 440.3690.31226.11160.0550.5417.9209.895.5132.820.754.62.00.80.00.04994.4 1Cv32, Summary of Ceramic Types by Level, Percents by Weight (g)Depth Below Surface:0-1010-2020-3030-4040-5050-6060-7070-8080-9090-100100-110110-120120-130130-140140-150Totals Keith Incised 0.0130.2210.0040.6860.0570.0180.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 Carrabelle Incised 0.0000.0000.5860.0000.0000.4140.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 Carrabelle Punct. 0.0000.0000.0000.0000.2370.7630.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 incised, unspec. 0.0690.1320.2740.2430.0560.0730.0100.0830.0150.0380.0000.0070.0000.0000.0001.00 Weeden Island Punctate 0.0000.0000.0000.0000.0001.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 punctated, unspec. 0.0930.1390.1780.1370.1970.0000.1820.0250.0500.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 red filmed 0.1950.0000.0000.5040.0000.3020.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 check-stamped 0.0190.0000.1480.5790.0600.0110.1680.0000.0000.0140.0000.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 Swift Cr. Comp.-Stamped 0.0000.0460.3450.3390.0550.1700.0440.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 body sherd, gtp 0.2250.0000.0000.2210.2900.0000.1410.0000.1220.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 body sherd, stp 0.0940.1610.2520.2020.1060.0840.0440.0200.0210.0030.0130.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 rim sherd, stp 0.0840.0700.2640.2920.1410.0770.0070.0000.0650.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 cord-marked 0.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0001.0000.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 fiber-tempered plain 0.0000.0000.0000.0001.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 Totals by Level: 0.090.140.250.230.110.080.040.020.030.000.010.000.000.000.001.00 Table 4.2. Summary of ceramic types by level, weights.

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Punctated was recovered between 50-60 cm, which may be a bit deep for this Middle Woodland type. Check-stamped sherds occur with relative consistency down to 70 cm. This ceramic type occurs throughout the Woodland, but generally increases in frequency during the Late Woodland Period. A larger sample of this type would offer an interesting opportunity to examine synchronic differences in the nature of check-stamped surface treatment within this region. Other efforts at examining chronological trends in checked-stamped patterns have shown no significant differences, however (White 1981: 626-631, 652-659; 1982: 139-157, 215-222, Appendix F). Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped sherds occur most commonly between 20-40 cm deep. The distribution of this Early-Middle Woodland ceramic type corresponds nicely with the peak in overall decorated ceramics and serves an indication of an early Middle Woodland occupation. Like most open air sites, the Mitchell Site has experienced some degree of subsurface disturbance. A cord-marked sherd, typically Middle-Late Woodland, from Level 14 and a fiber-tempered sherd, Late Archaic (~1000-2000 years earlier) from Level 5 are certainly indicative of less than perfect cultural stratigraphy here. However, most archaeological sites have experienced disturbance from a wide variety of factors. A larger data set would likely show more statistically viable trends in ceramic distribution. The absence of absolute dates prevents determining if these represent overlapping Early and Middle Woodland components as opposed to the presence of a single Woodland occupation. 31

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Incising The nine examples of Keith Incised recovered exhibited a broad range of variation in the size of incised patterns (Figure 4.5) Two examples of Carrabelle Incised were recovered, suggesting the probability that other incised, unspecified sherds may be also be attributed to this type (Figure 4.6). Two incised sherds with fine curvilinear incisions may represent the type Indian Pass Incised (Figure 4.7). Sherds classified as ‘incised, unspecified’ may be fragments of Carrabelle Incised or Weeden Island Incised vessels, but lack sufficient diagnostic attributes to confidently classify them as such (Figure 4.8). The likelihood that these sherds are fragments of Weeden Island type vessels is considered good due to the recovery of Weeden Island Incised from surface 32 Figure 4.5 Keith Incised sherds. A. Unit 2, Level A4, fs 2A4F/1, incurvate rim sherd with round lip, jar/bowl vessel form; rim thickness 10.0 mm, body: min. 5.8 mm, max. 6.0 mm, avg.: 5.9 mm, width between parallel lines: 4.1 mm; (see Figure 3.xD for cross section) B Unit 2, Level A4, fs 2A4/2; body: min. 4.8 mm, max. 5.2 mm, avg. 5.0 mm, width between parallel lines: 8.8 mm; C. Unit 1 Level A3, fs 1B1/10; body: min. 5.7 mm, max. 6.0 mm, avg. 5.9, width between parallel lines ranges between 2.2 mm and 4.9 mm; D. Unit 3, Level B1, fs 3B1/10; body: min. 3.8 mm, max. 4.2 mm, avg. 4.0 mm, width between parallel lines 1.3 mm; E. Unit 3, Level A3, fs 3A3/16; split sherd, no thickness measurement possible, width between parallel lines 1.3 mm.

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33 Figure 4.6. Carrabelle Incised sherds. A. Carrabelle Incised rim sherd, Unit 3, Level A3, fs 3A3/26; straight rim sherd with round lip, beaker vessel form; rim thickness: 7.2 mm, body: 6.8 mm, width between parallel lines: 2.8 mm; B. Incised, unspecified, Unit 2, Level A2, fs 2A2/5; body: min.7.4 mm, max. 7.6 mm, avg. 7.5 mm, width between parallel lines ranges between 2.4 and 2.5 mm; C Carrabelle Incised rim sherd, Unit 3, Level B2, fs 3B2/3; straight rim sherd with round lip, beaker vessel form; rim thickness: 8.3 mm, body: min. 4.8 mm, max. 7.2 mm, avg. 6.0mm, width between parallel lines 3.7 mm; D Incised, unspecified, similar to Carabelle Incised, but with more widely spaced intersecting lines, Unit 2, Level B2, fs 2B2/6; body: min. 4.9 mm, max. 5.1 mm, avg. 5.0 mm, strongly irregular incisions. Figure 4.7. Incised, unspecified, possibly Indian Pass Incised A. Unit 3, Level A4, fs 3A4/6; body: min. 4.7 mm, max. 4.9 mm, avg. 4.8 mm, width between incisions 4.8 mm; B. Unit 2, Level B2, fs 2B2/3; body: min. 5.5 mm, max. 6.0 mm, avg. 5.8 mm width between incisions 2.3 mm.

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34 Figure 4.9. Weeden Island sherds. A. Weeden Island Incised, from surface, fs 1Cv32/9; straight rim sherd with round lip, beaker vessel form; rim thickness: 7.4 mm, body: min. 6.2 mm, max. 8.6 mm, avg. 7.4 mm, incised pattern is bold stab and drag; B. Weeden Island Zoned Red, from surface, fs 1Cv32/16; body: min. 7.0 mm, max. 7.8 mm, avg. 7.4 mm. Figure 4.8. Incised, unspecified sherds. A. Unit 3, Level A3, fs 3A325; body: min. 5.0 mm, max. 6.1 mm, avg. 5.6 mm; B. Unit 2, Level B2, fs 2B2/2, body: min. 5.8 mm, max. 5.9 mm, avg. 5.9 mm; C. Surface collection; straight rim sherd with flattened lip (lip has two parallel rows of fine stab and drag p unctations), possible beaker vessel form; rim thickness: 10.2 mm, body: min. 7.4 mm, max. 8.6 mm, avg. 8.0 mm; D. Unit 2, Level A4, fs 2A4/15; excurvate rim sherd with round lip, rim thickness: 6.1 mm, body: min. 7.2 mm, max. 7.8 mm, avg. 7.5 mm, width between incised lines 4.3 mm; E. Unit 3, Level A3, fs 3F1A3/3; body: min. 8.0 mm, max. 8.9 mm, avg. 8.5 mm. Figure 4.10. Incised unspecified, shell tempered, Unit 1, Level A3, fs 1A3/5; incurvate rim sherd with round lip, flattened globular bowl vessel form; rim thickness: 6.7 mm, body: min. 7.0 mm, max. 8.0 mm, avg. 7.5 mm.

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context (Figure 4.9). The presence of Weeden Island Incised and Weeden Island Zoned Red provide definitive indications of early Weeden Island at the Mitchell Site. One shell-tempered rim sherd, possibly Pensacola Incised (Stowe 1985), was also recovered (Figure 4.10). Although shell-tempered plain sherds were observed on the surface in the vicinity of Mound A, this sherd represents the sole example recovered from subsurface context in the area of Mound B. S tamping Ten Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped sherds were recovered from the test units, but are too small to associate with recognized decorative motifs (Figures 4.11-4.12) (Williams and Elliott 1998). Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped ceramics can be indicative of a later Early Woodland occupation, and as such, are not always associated in large numbers with Weeden Island ceramics. Only eight examples of this type were recovered from the McKeithen Site (Milanich 1984:67). At the Otis Hare Site and the Overgrown Road Site in the Apalachicola River Valley, Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped ceramics dated to as early as A.D. 400 were found with no associated Weeden Island ceramics. Weeden Island ceramics only appear in relatively small number in later components at the Otis Hare Site (White 1991), and are not present at the Overgrown Road Site (White 1992). No evidence for a "pure" Swift Creek component has been observed at the Mitchell Site. The presence of these sherds, however, does provide definitive evidence for an early Middle Woodland occupation at the Mitchell Site due to their relatively even distribution with other Weeden Island types. 35

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36 Figure 4.11. Complicated-stamped patterns on Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped sherds recovered from the Mitchell Site. Figure 4.12. Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped sherds. A. Unit 3, Level A4, fs 3A4/5; body: min. 7.2 mm, max. 7.7 mm, avg. 7.5 mm; B. From surface, fs 1Cv32-12; excurvate rim sherd with round lip, jar/bowl vessel form; rim thickness: 4.8 mm, body: min. 5.7 mm, max. 5.9 mm, avg. 5.8 mm; C. From surface, fs 1Cv32/6; body: min. 6.5 mm, max. 6.9 mm, avg. 6.7 mm.

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Seventeen check-stamped, unspecified examples were recovered (Figure 4.13). Check-stamped sherds appear throughout this portion of the site, but occur substantially less frequently than decorated sherds. A large range of check sizes is represented here, but the small sample size precludes any analysis of this variation. The relatively low number of check-stamped sherds supports the idea of a predominately Middle Woodland occupation within this portion of the site. A Late Woodland occupation should have a large number of check-stamped sherds and relatively low numbers of decorated ceramics (Willey 1949). Check-stamped sherds occur with relative consistency and show no pattern of substantial increase over time as demonstrated at other Southeastern Woodland sites (e.g. White 1991). 37 Figure 4.13. Check-stamped, unspecified sherds. A. Unit 3, Level A4, fs 3A4/2; excurvate rim sherd with round lip, flattened globular bowl vessel form; rim thickness: 5.0 mm, body: min. 9.2 mm, max. 10.1 mm, avg. 9.7 mm, approximate width of grooves 1.5 mm; B. From surface, fs 1Cv32/15; body: min. 4.1 mm, max. 4.1 mm, avg. 4.1 mm, approximate width of grooves 1.0 mm; C. Unit 4, Level B4, fs 4B4/1; body: min. 3.0 mm, max. 4.1 mm, avg. 3.6 mm, approximate width of grooves 3.1 mm; D. Unit 1, Level A5, fs 1A5/5; straight rim sherd with flattened lip, possible beaker form; rim thickness: 6.7 mm, body: min. 7.1 mm, max. 7.4 mm, avg. 7.3 mm, approximate width of grooves 2.5 mm.

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Punctation Only three of the 30 punctated sherds from test unit data possessed rim attributes necessary for classification as diagnostic punctated types, specifically Carrabelle Punctate (Figures 4.14, 4.15). Many unspecified punctated sherds (see, for example, Figure 4.14D) may well be portions of Carrabelle Punctate vessels. Fine zoned punctate examples also exist which may represent portions of Weeden Island Punctate within the test unit data. These sherds, however, are too small to classify within a specific type and may also be derived from later Fort Walton vessels. The presence of Weeden Island Punctate within the test unit data is suggested by two sherds of this type which includes the classic triangular or circular punctation within the center of a punctated zone (Figure 4.16). These Weeden Island Punctate sherds support the presence of an early Middle Woodland occupation at the Mitchell Site. 38 Figure 4.14. Punctated sherds. A. Carrabelle Punctate, Unit 3, Level B2, fs 3B2/1; incurvate rim sherd with round lip, flattened globular bowl vessel form; rim thickness: 5.6 mm, body: min. 7.0 mm, max. 7.3 mm, avg. 7.2 mm, diameter of punctations 4.8 mm; B. Carrabelle Punctate, from surface, fs 1-16; incurvate rim sherd with round lip, flattened globular bowl vessel form; rim thickness: 3.0 mm, body: min. 4.1 mm, max. 4.3 mm, avg. 4.2 mm, diameter of punctations 6.2 mm; C. Carrabelle Punctate, from surface, fs 1Cv32/15; body sherd, min. 4.3 mm, max. 4.4 mm, avg. 4.4 mm, diameter of punctations 6.6 mm; D. Punctated, unspecified, Unit 3, Level A1, fs 3A1/199; body: min. 3.4 mm, max. 3.8 mm, avg. 3.6 mm, diameter of punctations 2.3 mm.

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39 Figure 4.16. Weeden Island Punctate. A. From surface, fs 1Cv32/3; body: min. 3.6 mm, max. 4.7 mm, avg. 4.2 mm; B. Unit 3, Level B2, fs 3B2/6; body: min. 5.4 mm, max. 5.7 mm, avg. 5.6 mm. Figure 4.17. Cord-marked or cob-marked, unspecified. A. Unit 1, Level A13, fs 1A13/1; body: min. 5.8 mm, max. 6.0 mm, avg. 5.9 mm; B. From surface, fs 1Cv32/1; body: min. 5.1 mm, max. 6.0 mm, avg. 5.6 mm. Figure 4.15. Punctated sherds. A. Carrabelle Punctate, Unit 3, Level B2, fs 3B2/1, incurvate rim sherd with round lip, jar/bowl vessel form; rim thickness: 5.6 mm, body: min. 7.0 mm, max. 7.3 mm, avg. 7.2 mm; B Carrabelle Punctate, Unit 3, Level B1, fs 3B1/6, incurvate rim sherd with round lip, jar/bowl vessel form; rim thickness: 5.3 mm, body: min. 5.5 mm, max. 5.6 mm, avg. 5.6 mm; C Punctated, unspecified, Unit 3, Level B1, fs 3B1/7, body: min. 5.9 mm, max. 6.4 mm, avg. 6.2 mm.

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Two cord-marked or cob-marked body sherds were recovered from subsurface context (Figure 4.17). These sherds are not included in the comparison of decorative ceramic modes due to small sample size. Cord-marked ceramics are associated with Middle Woodland sites throughout the tri-states area (White 1981). If the stamping on the sherd from Unit 1 (Figure 4.17A) was produced using a maize cob, this sherd would indicate use of this food source, which was not found in large quantities until the Late Woodland Period. Ceramic Temper Sand tempering was most common (98% wt. and ct.), although minor occurrences of grit temper (.01% wt, .004% ct.) and mica temper (.01% wt., .02% ct.) were also present within plain sherds. Temper and paste appear relatively uniform within the sandtempered sample. Two small body sherds tempered with a mixture of both fiber and sand were recovered from Unit 4, Level B2 (40-50 cm) (Table 4.3). One shell-tempered rim sherd was recovered from Unit 1, Level A3 (20-30 cm) (Figure 4.6). 40 1Cv32, Temper Types by Weight (g)1Cv32, Temper Types by CountSandMicaGritFiber/SandSandMicaGritFiber/Sand Unit 1 (6-8S, 0-1E) 974.26.40.80.0 Unit 1 (6-8S, 0-1E) 238410 Unit 2 (0-2S 6-7E) 1719.020.433.40.0 Unit 2 (0-2S 6-7E) 6021470 Unit 3 (10-12N, 20-21E) 1803.222.90.00.0 Unit 3 (10-12N, 20-21E) 11401700 Unit 4 (50-52N, 0-1E) 396.55.40.017.8 Unit 4 (50-52N, 0-1E) 125202Totals:4892.955.134.217.8Totals:21053782% (n=499.5 g):0.980.010.010.004% (n=2152)0.980.020.0040.001 Table 4.3. Ceramic temper types by weight and count.

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Vessel Form Attributes Sixty-five rim sherds from Phase II testing were examined in order to determine the range of vessel forms represented by this sample. Objectively determining a specific vessel form from a single rim sherd can be difficult. In consideration of this potential for bias, most rim sherds were associated with a range of possible forms rather than a specific form. Rim sherds which do not possess sufficient size or curvature to determine 41 Figure 4.18. Rim sherds, sand-tempered, plain. A. Unit 1, Level A4, fs 1A4/1; incurvate rim sherd with round lip, bowl vessel form; rim thickness: 11.2 mm, body: min. 5.9 mm, max. 9.2 mm, avg. 7.6 mm; B. Unit 1, Level A6, fs 1A6/1; excurvate rim sherd with round lip, collared vessel, single incised line on both sides of sherd, rim thickness: 9.5 mm, body: min. 9.1 mm, max. 9.9 mm, avg. 9.5 mm; C. Unit 1, Level A4, fs 1A4/2; straight rim sherd with flattened lip, beaker vessel form; rim thickness: 10.2 mm, body: min. 7.5 mm, max. 9.5 mm, avg. 8.5 mm; D. Unit 2, Level A4, fs 2A4/5; possible Weeden Island Red incurvate rim sherd with round lip, possible flattened globular bowl vessel form; rim thickness: 9.0 mm, body: min. 7.0 mm, max. 7.4 mm, avg. 7.2 mm; E. Unit 1, Level A10, fs 1A10/1; excurvate rim sherd with flattened lip, collared vessel, rim thickness: 16.2 mm, body: min. 9.0 mm, max. 11.5 mm, avg. 10.25 mm.

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42 Figure 4.19. Typical rim forms at 1Cv32. Scale = 1:1 C. FS 3A4/4. A. FS 3A4/3. B. FS 2A4/15. D. FS 2A4F/1. E. FS 2A4F/2. F. FS 3A6/1. G. FS 3A4/1. H. FS 2A4/1.

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vessel form are not included here. Figures 4.18-4.19 provide a representative sample of rim sherds from test units at 1Cv32. Potential vessel forms considered include jars/bowls, globular bowls, and collared vessels, unspecified (Willey 1949:496-506). No evidence of effigy vessels has been recovered from the Mitchell Site. A quantitative analysis of vessel forms was not conducted due to the subjective nature of this endeavor. Rim sherds within the available sample were not large enough to estimate original vessel rim diameter. Vessel forms were determined by examining the arcs within a rim sherd’s interior which would have formed the horizontal plane of the intact vessel orifice. Rim sherds examined here can be positioned at only one angle at which the interior arcs can extend to complete a horizontal circle (Figure 4.19). Solid red lines evident in Figure 4.19 represent the projected extension of interior arcs. Vessel forms represented in the available data include flattened globular bowls and simple bowls (or jars), with collared, unspecified vessels also represented. Both decorated and plain sherds fall within the overall bowl category, with no discernible pattern based on ceramic type. Bowl forms appear most common, overall, but the available rim sherds are simply too small to provide a more definitive statement concerning trends or patterns in vessel form. Clay Objects Four fired clay objects were recovered from the Mitchell Site (Figures 4.20-4.22). One clay appendage (Figure 4.20A) may represent a figurine arm or some form of vessel adorno. A fired clay lump was recovered which may simply be the result of a small lump 43

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of clay thrown into a campfire, or could also be daub (Figure 4.20B). A single clay ball fragment with red painted exterior indicates the possibility of gaming at the Mitchell Site (Figure 4.20C). Perhaps the most interesting clay object recovered here is an effigy adorno (Figures 4.21, 4.22). This effigy is similar to an example recovered from the Buck Burial Mound (8Ok11), and may represent a dog (Lazarus 1979). Ceramic Density This section provides an examination of ceramic density by vertical provenience. Changes in ceramic density through time could be interpreted as evidence of variations in population density, or could be the result of numerous variables in cultural behavior. 44 Figure 4.20. Clay objects. A. Clay appendage (arm?), Unit 1, Level B4, fs 1B4/1; length: 28.1 mm, width: 9.2 mm; B. Fired clay lump, Unit 3, Level B3, fs 3B3/2; length: 28.0 mm, width: 14.4 mm. C. Fired clay ball with red painted exterior, Unit 1, Level A7, fs 1A7/1; estimated diameter: 20.5 mm. Figure 4.21. Effigy adorno, possible dog, Unit 1, Level A6, fs 1A4/1; A. Front view, width between 'ears': 18.9 mm; B Side view, maximum length: 31.1 mm Figure 4.22. Illustration of effigy adorno (fs 1A4/1).

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45 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12Level 00.050.10.150.20.25 Percent All UnitsMNV Frequency Distribution (n=96) Figure 4.28 Figure 4.26 Fi g ure 4.24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13Level 0100200300400500600 Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4Intrasite Ceramic Counts Figure 4.23 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13Level 050010001500 Weight (g) Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4Intrasite Ceramic Weights Figure 4.27 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12Level 0510152025 All UnitsIntrasite MNV Totals (n=96) Figure 4.25 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13Level 00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.9 Percent Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4Intrasite Ceramic, Percents by Counts 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13Level 00.20.40.60.811.2 Percent Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4Intrasite Ceramics, Percents by Weight

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Variability in ceramic counts (i.e. quantities) may represent meaningless differences in sherd sizes between levels which hypothetically could have possessed the same size and quantity of vessels. Examining ceramic densities by weight provides an alternative measure of ceramic occurrence which is not skewed by the extent of ceramic breakage. Densities by weight, however, can be skewed by variations in weight between ceramic types. Differences in vessel size between levels provides no meaningful information on potential differences in population. Variations in ceramic density could simply represent an increase in ceramic production with no changes in population. Sampling strategies applied during excavations and site formational processes could also skew the reality of occupational history. Data on ceramic densities presented here can at least provide some degree of guidance for future research at the Mitchell Site. Differences do exist between these units in terms of overall volume excavated. However, for the purposes of this comparison, difference in volume excavated is not considered a significant factor due to the fact that all units were excavated well into culturally sterile strata. Levels not excavated are given a value of "0" when compared to excavated levels. This poses no problem when comparing the vertical density of ceramics between levels in different units. The primary goal of this exercise is simply to see if trends in ceramic density exist here. All units show a substantial peak in ceramic density within Level 3 (30-40 cm) by count and in Level 4 by weight (Figures 4.23-4.28). Ceramic density by count and weight appears greatest between 20 cm and 60 cm below surface. While I cannot propose that these levels represent the period of greatest population density, the data do 46

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show a general trend in overall ceramic volume at depths which are similar among the units excavated here. A minimum number of vessels was determined for each level in order to identify an approximate number of vessels represented in the sample, and to determine trends similar to the overall ceramic distribution are evident. A minimum number of vessels (MNV) was calculated by examining rim sherds within each level to determine the quantity of sherds which exhibited unique modes of manufacture or decoration (Figures 4.27-4.28). Comparisons were also made to rim sherds from the preceding and following levels in order to improve accuracy. This MNV for each level is useful as a comparison by which to increase confidence in data concerning counts and weights. A minimum of 95 vessels is represented in the total sample. Ceramic density in all four test units peaks between 20 and 50 cm below surface. A noticeable increase in overall ceramic density and in the presence of decorated ceramics by both weight and count occurs within this zone. This range of increased ceramic density corresponds to the greatest range of vessels represented in the MNV analysis. An examination of the distribution of the MNV supports the statement that a pattern of ceramic density peaks between 20 and 60 cm below surface. (Figures 4.23-4.28). Lithics Tallahatta quartzite was the most frequent lithic raw material from all four test units (80% wt, 81% ct.). This is not surprising considering that high quality Tallahatta quartzite is endemic to the middle Conecuh River drainage. Coastal plain chert was present in moderate quantities throughout all units (16% wt. and ct.). Clear quartz (1% 47

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wt. and ct.) and milky white quartz (2% wt. and ct.) were present in minor quantities (Table 4.4). The nearest source of milky white quartz occurs in the Alabama River drainage in central Alabama approximately 65 miles north. Clear quartz was most likely obtained from the Piedmont region of Alabama or Georgia approximately 120 miles northeast. Both quartz materials are not local to the middle Conecuh River drainage and their presence here provides evidence of possible interaction with aboriginal populations north of this region. In addition, one bifacial distal end made from Fort Payne chert, a north Alabama lithic material, was obtained from Unit 2, Level B6 (90-100 cm) (Figure 4.34C). Fort Payne chert occurs as far south as Cullman County, Alabama, approximately 185 miles north. An examination of thinning flake distribution by weight shows that use of Tallahatta quartzite occurred with relative consistency throughout all levels (Figures 4.31-4.32). Level 7 (60-70 cm) appears to be an exception, possibly due to a disproportionate amount of larger, heavier flakes in this level. Distribution of Tallahatta quartzite thinning flakes by count shows a gradual increase through time, which may coincide with the production of smaller triangular points and less preform manufacturing in upper levels (Figures 4.29-4.30). 48 1Cv32 Summary of Total Lithic Debitage by Raw Material Type wt.(g)%wtcount%count Clear Quartz 11.80.01150.01 MWQ 30.70.02390.02 CPC 261.40.162500.16 TQ 1364.90.8213010.81 Totals: 1668.81.0016051.00 MWQ: milky white quartz; CPC: coastal plain chert; TQ: Tallahatta quartzite Table 4.4.

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49 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15Level 050100150200250 Count Clear Quartz MWQ CPC TQSummary of Thinning Flakes by Count 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15Level 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 Percent Clear Quartz MWQ CPC TQSummary of Thinning Flakes, % by Count Fi g ure 4.30 Fi g ure 4.29 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15Level 0100200300400500 Percent Clear Quartz MWQ CPC TQSummary of Thinning Flakes by Weight (g) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15Level 00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.8 Percent Clear Quartz MWQ CPC TQSummary of Thinning Flakes, % by Weight Fi g ure 4.31 Figure 4.32

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Table 4.5. Summary of thinning flakes by count. 1Cv32, Summary of Lithic Debitage, Counts Type Level:0-1010-2020-3030-4040-5050-6060-7070-8080-9090-100100-110110-120120-130130-140140-150Totals Clear Quartz 20523110001000015 MWQ, Thinning 668114022000000039 CPC 15283357269152116944463250 TQ 54671211391211381361531319040223740121301 Totals 77101167209154148154176147994526414615 1605 1Cv32, Summary of Lithic Debitage, Counts, % within Each Level Type Level:0-1010-2020-3030-4040-5050-6060-7070-8080-9090-100100-110110-120120-130130-140140-150Totals Clear Quartz 0.030.000.030.010.020.010.010.000.000.000.020.000.000.000.000.01 MWQ, Thinning 0.080.060.050.050.030.000.010.010.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.02 CPC 0.190.280.200.270.170.060.100.120.110.090.090.150.100.130.200.16 TQ 0.700.660.720.670.790.930.880.870.890.910.890.850.900.870.800.81 Totals 1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00 1Cv32, Summary of Lithic Debitage, Counts, % Across Each Level Type Level:0-1010-2020-3030-4040-5050-6060-7070-8080-9090-100100-110110-120120-130130-140140-150Totals Clear Quartz 0.130.000.330.130.200.070.070.000.000.000.070.000.000.000.001.00 MWQ, Thinning 0.150.150.210.280.100.000.050.050.000.000.000.000.000.000.001.00 CPC 0.060.110.130.230.100.040.060.080.060.040.020.020.020.020.011.00 TQ 0.040.050.090.110.090.110.100.120.100.070.030.020.030.030.011.00 Totals 0.050.060.100.130.100.090.100.110.090.060.030.020.030.030.011.00

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Table 4.6. Summary of thinning flakes by weight. 1Cv32, Summary of Lithic Debitage, Weights (g) Type Level:0-1010-2020-3030-4040-5050-6060-7070-8080-9090-100100-110110-120120-130130-140140-150Totals Clear Quartz 1.40.02.50.71.81.53.80.00.00.00.10.00.00.00.011.8 MWQ, Thinning 6.810.25.13.44.20.00.81.10.00.00.00.00.00.00.031.6 CPC 9.413.116.126.724.71.817.021.18.262.55.511.40.642.80.6261.4 TQ 67.675.258.476.161.461.7415.6112.3116.6107.188.428.030.348.717.51364.9 Totals 85.298.582.1106.992.165.0437.2134.5124.8169.694.039.430.991.518.1 1669.7 1Cv32, Summary of Lithic Debitage, Weights (g), % within Each Level Type Level:0-1010-2020-3030-4040-5050-6060-7070-8080-9090-100100-110110-120120-130130-140140-150Totals Clear Quartz 0.0160.0000.0300.0070.0200.0230.0090.0000.0000.0000.0010.0000.0000.0000.0000.007 MWQ, Thinning 0.0800.1040.0620.0320.0460.0000.0020.0080.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.019 CPC 0.1100.1330.1960.2500.2680.0280.0390.1570.0660.3690.0590.2890.0190.4680.0330.157 TQ 0.7940.7640.7110.7120.6670.9490.9510.8350.9340.6310.9400.7110.9810.5320.9670.817 Totals 1.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.0001.000 1Cv32, Summary of Lithic Debitage, Weights (g), % Across Each Level Type Level:0-1010-2020-3030-4040-5050-6060-7070-8080-9090-100100-110110-120120-130130-140140-150Totals Clear Quartz 0.1190.0000.2120.0590.1530.1270.3220.0000.0000.0000.0080.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 MWQ, Thinning 0.2150.3230.1610.1080.1330.0000.0250.0350.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0001.00 CPC 0.0360.0500.0620.1020.0940.0070.0650.0810.0310.2390.0210.0440.0020.1640.0021.00 TQ 0.0500.0550.0430.0560.0450.0450.3040.0820.0850.0780.0650.0210.0220.0360.0131.00 Totals 0.0510.0590.0490.0640.0550.0390.2620.0810.0750.1020.0560.0240.0190.0550.0111.00

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The distribution of exotic thinning flakes appears to increase over time. Use of non-local materials appears to coincide with increases in ceramic density, suggesting the possibility of greater external contact here during the Middle Woodland Period. Cores Six relatively small core fragments were recovered from test excavations. Three core fragments were Tallahatta quartzite (349.8 g) and three were milky white quartz (11.8 g). The limited data on core industries at the Mitchell Site suggest that amorphous core technology was employed here. Thirty-seven (332.7 g) core thinning flakes were recovered. Lithic material type for the majority of these core thinning flakes (76% wt., 86% ct.) was Tallahatta quartzite. Tools Three unifacial tools were recovered from test excavations. These include one unifacial scraper and two unifacial tools with undetermined function (Figure 4.33; red brackets delineate tool edge). Seven bifacial fragments were recovered. Five of these were fashioned from Tallahatta quartzite, two from coastal plain chert, and one from milky white quartz. These bifacial fragments are considered the distal ends of late stage preforms due to the absence of pressure flaking and the presence of irregular blade edges (Figure 4.34). Two coastal plain chert notching flakes were recovered from test excavations (Figure 4.36). These flakes indicate the manufacture of corner or basal notched formal tools at this location. It is impossible to determine what diagnostic formal tool types 52

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53 Figure 4.34. Bifacial distal ends. A. TQ bifacial distal end, Unit 1 Level 5, (fs 41/30); B. TQ bifacial distal end, Unit 3, Level B2 (fs 6/92); C Fort Payne Chert bifacial distal end, Unit 2, Level B6 (fs 23/5). Figure 4.35. Quartz fragments. A. clear quartz fragment, Unit 1, Level 7 (fs 43/1); B,C. milky white quartz fragments, Unit 2, Level A4, (fs 17/21-22); D. milky white q uartz base Unit 2 Level A4 ( fs17/23 ) Figure 4.33. TQ core thinning flake and flake tools. A. TQ core thinning flake, Unit 2, Level 3 (fs 20/54); B. TQ unifacial tool, Unit 2, Level B6 (fs 23/24); C TQ unifacial scraper, Unit 1, Level 14 (fs 50/50); D Coastal Plain Chert unifacial tool, Unit 2, Level 2 ( fs 18/3 ) .

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these notching flakes are associated with. Their presence, however, corresponds with the occurrence of Early Archaic projectile points within the landowner's private collection. Lithics within this private collection were not available for this thesis. Diagnostic formal tools recovered from test excavations span the time range from the Late Archaic to the Late Woodland Periods (Table 4.7). The relatively low numbers recovered prevent any meaningful examination of vertical distribution. Diagnostic types, however, do show a trend in distribution which corresponds to the temporal association of the various formal tool types recovered here. Larger, stemmed types are present at depths preceding peaks in ceramic density, while smaller Middle and Late Woodland types occur at depths which correspond to the greatest amounts of decorated ceramics, as 54 1Cv32, Formal Tools from Test UnitsDepth Below Surface:0-1010-2020-3030-4040-5050-6060-7070-8080-9090-100100-110110-120120-130 Hamilton 11 Madison-like 1 Pidgeon Creek 1 Ledbetter 1 Elora 1 Prov. Type 2, Expanded Base 11 Stemmed Bifacial Knife/Point 11 Point, unidentified 1 Bifacial Scraper/Graver 1 Table 4.7. Distribution of formal tools. Figure 4.36. Coastal Plain chert notching flakes; A. Unit 1, Level 14 (fs 50/9); B. Unit 1, Level 5 (fs 41/7). Red lines delineate area of notch.

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well as overall ceramic density. This provides assurance that cultural stratigraphy here exhibits a reasonable degree of integrity. Additional data are considered necessary to verify the observations presented here. Lithic Summary Not surprisingly, Tallahatta quartzite was the most abundant lithic material used here throughout the entire prehistoric occupation. Exotic lithic materials are present, but in relatively low quantities. Use of non-local quartz appears to coincide with the greatest density of decorated ceramics, a trend typical of Coastal Plain Middle Woodland societies who apparently used exotic materials more than earlier or later societies. The overall lithic assemblage indicates that intrasite production of tools did occur here, although core industries appear to have been a minor activity. The presence of a small number of broken preforms supports this statement. Limited data on lithics precludes more specific interpretations concerning activities represented by the lithic assemblage, as well as the testing of extant hypotheses concerning tool assemblage formation. 55

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Chapter 5 Discussion and Conclusions The cumulative investigations at the Mitchell Site have demonstrated the presence of prehistoric occupation at this location for more than 9000 years. Although no Early Archaic cultural material was recovered from test excavations, diagnostic Dalton and Bolen projectile points within the landowner's collection indicate a preliminary occupation by at least the Paleo-transitional period. The Middle and Late Archaic Periods are poorly defined here at this time. The limited occurrence of fiber-tempered ceramics (two sherds) indicates an unspecified ceramic Late Archaic occupation. Based upon available data, the most intensive human activity occurred here during the Middle Woodland Period, and possibly Late Woodland, although there is no preponderance of check-stamped ceramics that would support this later affiliation. Sand-tempered, decorated ceramics occur within stratified context in association with diagnostic Middle Woodland types such as Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped and Weeden Island Punctated. The presence of Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped and Weeden Island Punctated strongly indicate a Middle Woodland occupation. Based upon the available data at the Mitchell Site, the Woodland occupation here could be characterized according to Willey's (1949) chronology as Weeden Island I due to the presence of Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped and the abundance of decorated ceramics. Although check-stamped ceramics are present within most levels, their relatively low numbers here 56

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compared to those of decorated types do not provide strong evidence for a substantial occupation during Willey's (1949) Weeden Island II period. According to the chronology of Percy and Brose (1974) we could also place the occupation here within their Weeden Island 2 and 3 periods due to the relatively low numbers of both Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped and check-stamped ceramics. The almost complete absence of Mississippian ceramics in the area of Mound B suggests that this mound and portion of the site can be attributed to the Middle Woodland occupation. The possibility of later intrusive burials within Mound B cannot be discounted, however. Mound A continues to be considered associated with the Mississippian occupation based upon the presence of shell tempered ceramics within that portion of the site. An earlier Woodland component within Mound A is considered likely, but unverified. Sears's (1959) initial assessment of the Mitchell Site was that of a major Weeden Island ceremonial center. He classified Mound A as a temple mound, and Mound B as a burial mound. Unfortunately, Sears did not label either mound on his site map. He noted the presence of ironstone boulders in Mound A, however, both mounds contain ironstone boulders (Appendix A). Based upon his theoretical framework of the day, Sears (1956; Steinen 1977) likely saw the Mitchell Site as a satellite center within a larger Weeden Island state dominated by Kolomoki. Based upon decades of additional research, we now know that Weeden Island was not a state-level society, or probably even a chiefdom level society (Milanich 1980:12). The Weeden Island component at the Mitchell Site probably represents a lineage-oriented, ranked society with informal leadership, or at least substantial influence, by a religious figure. The Woodland occupation was most likely 57

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autonomous from any external political influence. Sears (1959) associated the Mississippian components at the Mitchell Site with a Pensacola-Moundville complex, based upon the presence of shell tempered ceramics. Additional data are required to verify this hypothesis. The lithic assemblage appears to contradict the hypothesis that informal and expedient tools increase in direct proportion to the availability of high quality lithic raw material and the degree of sedentism (Andrefsky 1994). Tallahatta quartzite is abundant and easily accessible in this area. Based on the available data, stockpiling of cores does not appear to have been common at the Mitchell Site, contrary to the hypothesis that such activities increase in frequency with increased sedentism (Andrefsky 1994). In addition, both informal and expedient tools occur in minuscule numbers. Only three unifacial flake tools were recovered from the Mitchell Site. Informal and expedient tools are much more common at other relatively contemporaneous sites investigated in this area, such as 1Cv35, 1Cv135 (Brooms and Gilchrist 1998) and 1Bu18 (Brooms and Earnest 1996). Few examples of cores and core-related debris and a relatively low occurrence of lithic cultural material were recovered from the Mitchell Site. This difference in lithic tool assemblages may reflect sampling bias, or may be a factor of distance from available Tallahatta quartzite quarry/workshop sites closer to the Conecuh River. The Alabama Site File lists numerous Tallahatta quartzite quarry/workshop sites in the vicinity of Gantt Lake (Figure 5.1) It is possible that the majority of early stage lithic industries occurred away from the Mitchell Site, with the final stages of formal tool production occurring at this site. It is also possible that changes in settlement patterns from earlier pre-ceramic occupations are reflected here. Further testing is recommended 58

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to determine if the small numbers of informal and expedient tools present in the available data are representative of the overall lithic tool assemblage here. Regional Context Lithic artifacts provide evidence for exchange or interaction outside the middle Conecuh River drainage. Fort Payne chert from north Alabama, quartz from the Piedmont region and milky white quartz from at least as far south as the Montgomery area provide evidence for involvement in lithic resource exchange networks to the north. Coastal Plain chert artifacts provide evidence of trade with populations in southeast Alabama and north Florida. Although no soapstone was recovered during test excavations, examples of this material have been recovered from the perimeter of Point A Lake (Figure 5.1) by local artifact collectors. The absence of soapstone here may indicate a minor role for this site location during the Middle and Late Archaic periods. Greenstone is also absent in the available data, although examples of greenstone celts are reported to have been recovered from both mounds by pothunters. Networks of upland terraces east and west of the Mitchell Site were examined during the 1995 (Earnest et al ) river drainage survey with the goal of discovering sites which may fit the pattern of Weeden Island site distribution proposed by Sigler-Lavelle (1980). Her research in central Florida suggests a Weeden Island settlement pattern composed of primary habitation sites, with or without mounds, and special purpose campsites associated with seasonal or technology specific (e.g.. chert or clay) resource procurement (Sigler-Lavelle 1980:25). 60

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Survey of upland terraces near the Mitchell Site provides evidence for at least eleven prehistoric sites (Figure 5.2). Sites located northeast of the Mitchell Site are small lithic scatters with the occasional gratuitous sand tempered plain sherd which may represent short-term activities associated with the Mitchell Site. 1Cr15, located on the north side of the Conecuh River, contains Middle Woodland components and may also be associated with the Mitchell Site. Sites 1Cv74 and 1Cv73, located southwest of the Mitchell Site, are recorded as "Late Paleoindian, Archaic, and Late Woodland," and may also have some ephemeral association (Earnest et al. 1995). The temporal association of these nearby sites with the Mitchell Site is unknown due to questionable stratigraphic integrity resulting from tree farming and related erosion. The Mitchell Site does not serve as an isolated example of a Woodland mound site in this area. At least six other sites are recorded in the Alabama site file. The closest of these is the Alford site, located in the headwaters of the Yellow River (Figure 5.3). Unfortunately, this site was destroyed during the construction of Lake Jackson. Information from a local resident indicates that this site consisted of a single burial mound with an associated lithic and ceramic scatter. Portions of at least five Weeden Island vessels were recovered by this informant during the mound's destruction (Earnest et al. 1995:43). One source of confusion in comparing the Mitchell Site with other recorded sites in this area is the potentially inaccurate use of "Late Woodland" noted on site forms. Having visited many of these sites, I believe they are not exclusively Late Woodland, as I have also found Swift-Creek Complicated-Stamped and Weeden Island ceramics on the 61

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surface. Site files examined seldom note the types of ceramics used for temporal classification. 1Co6 is recorded in the Alabama site file as a "Late Woodland, Mississippian (Fort Walton)" site with two mounds and is located on a tributary of the Pea River (Figure 5.3). Inspection of this site during the 1995 river drainage survey revealed only one mound, which was severely pothunted, and a sparse distribution of flakes and sand tempered plain ceramics to 55 cm below surface (Earnest et al. 1995:43). The smaller mound recorded here was not located and has likely been destroyed by plowing and looting. 1Pk115 is located approximately twenty miles upriver and is recorded in the Alabama site file as "Late Woodland (Weeden Island), Middle Mississippian" (Figure 5.3). Inspection of this site during the 1995 survey produced no evidence of the recorded mound. This site appears to have been destroyed by cultivation. Inspection of vessels and sherds from private collections indicate an additional Middle Woodland component at this site. Several sites with Woodland ceramics exist in the surrounding area (e.g. 1Cr21 and 1Pk35, Earnest et al. 1995:26-27). 1Pk20 is located within the headwaters of Whitewater Creek, a major tributary of the Pea River (Figure 5.3). This site is recorded in the Alabama site file as "Late Woodland, Mississippian" and consists of a single mound and associated village site. Middle Woodland complicated stamped and incised ceramics, however, have also been recovered from this site. Numerous sites with Woodland components also exist in the surrounding area. 64

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The connection between these mound sites and the Mitchell Site is not clear due to limited investigations and the absence of comparative dates. However, some form of connection through trade or kinship is likely. Similarities in ceramics and mound size are evident, but quantitatively unverified at this time. Establishing an accurate chronology for all these sites would be an important step toward determining the nature of interaction between Woodland mound centers in this area. Recorded Woodland mound sites are located both on primary riverine terraces and upland locales. The presence of sites such as the Alford Site and 1Pk20 within the drainage headwaters suggests that accessibility to navigable waterways was not a deciding factor in site location. Narrow, winding streams which form these headwaters would have been extremely difficult to navigate heading upstream by canoe, although such activities cannot be discounted due to possible ge omorphological changes through time. An interesting aspect of these Woodland mound sites is their distribution across the landscape. The Mitchell Site, the Alford Site, 1Co6, 1Pk115, and 1Pk20 each exist within approximately twenty miles of another Woodland mound site. The implications of this potential settlement pattern suggest the hypothesis that the location of mound sites in this area reflect social, or perhaps environmental, 'comfort' zones between major sites. Further surveys designed to locate Woodland mound sites would be required to test this settlement pattern hypothesis. Investigations at the Mitchell Site contradict current settlement models proposed for this area. These models propose that Alabama's coastal plain experienced no significant occupations of Weeden Island I societies during A.D. 300-700. The only 65

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significant occupation in this region has been attributed to migrations of Weeden Island II societies during A.D. 700-900 (Jenkins and Mann 1985; Milanich et al. 1984). Current settlement models propose that population levels during the Weeden Island II period appear to have increased throughout southwest Georgia and northern Florida, concomitant with an increase in horticultural activities. Increased competition for arable land is believed to have resulted in the migration of Weeden Island II societies from Florida and Georgia into southeast Alabama (Brose and Percy 1978). These settlement models are strongly based upon the perception that southeast Alabama possessed no significant population levels, particularly during the Early Woodland period. Data recovered from the Mitchell Site and other sites in the upper Coastal Plain provide contradictory evidence. The presence of fiber-tempered ceramics here and other area sites in the Gantt Lake area indicate that the middle Conecuh River drainage was not uninhabited during the Late Archaic period. Most of these fiber-tempered examples are of the plain variety, although several punctated/incised fiber-tempered sherds from 1Cv75 were observed within a private collection. While our understanding of Early Woodland in this area is not well defined, the presence of diagnostic Deptford Simple-Stamped (two sherds) and Deptford Linear Check-Stamped (three sherds) in the landowner's collection from the Mitchell Site does indicate occupation during the earlier portion of this period. If this area was truly uninhabited for over a thousand years as some have proposed (e.g. Jenkins and Mann 1985), we would expect that such a gap would be apparent within the cultural stratigraphy at the Mitchell Site. No gap in cultural strata was encountered during test excavations. 66

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Several excavated sites throughout the upper Coastal Plain provide additional evidence for occupation throughout the Woodland Period. Stringent comparison of these sites with the data from the Mitchell Site is not possible at this time due to limitations in the published data and differences in the overall volume of soil excavated per site. Discussion of these sites is important, however, in that they at least provide a general overview of ceramic assemblages this area. Data from excavations at 1Cv30 provide evidence for a Weeden Island occupation which spanned the early Middle Woodland through possibly the Late Woodland periods. No evidence for an Early Woodland occupation was observed at 1Cv30. Ceramics recovered from this site include eight Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped, ninety Weeden Island Incised, fifty-four Weeden Island Punctated, twenty-four Carrabelle Incised, fourteen Carrabelle Punctated, and five Keith Incised sherds. Ninety-six check-stamped sherds were also recovered which appear to have been dispersed throughout all levels excavated (Fornaro 1974:15). Data from sites excavated at Gantt Lake provide definitive evidence for an Early Woodland occupation within this portion of the Conecuh River (Figure 5.1). Excavations at 1Cv36 produced 55 examples of Deptford ceramics which included Deptford Check-Stamped, Deptford Simple-Stamped, dentate-stamped/punctated combinations, dentate-stamped, and check-stamped/simple stamped combinations. A radiocarbon date of A.D. 1 (uncalibrated) was obtained for this Early Woodland occupation (Brooms and Gilchrist 1998: 257). Excavations at 1Bu18, a multi-component campsite, produced eighty-six fiber-tempered sherds and seventy sand/fiber-tempered sherds. This site was excavated to 67

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approximately one meter deep within a total area of 80 m2 While 1Bu18 produced a good sample of Late Archaic and Early Woodland ceramics, diagnostic sherds from the Middle and Late Woodland are somewhat limited, particularly in terms of decorated ceramics. Middle Woodland ceramics recovered from 1Bu18 include one Swift-Creek Complicated-Stamped, one Weeden Island Zone Punctated and six Carrabelle Punctate. In addition, eighteen check-stamped sherds were dispersed throughout the upper stratum (Brooms and Earnest 1996:72). 1Bu18 appears to have functioned as a short term campsite, which may partially explain the relatively low quantity of decorated ceramics. Excavations at 1Co54 (204 m2 excavated to approximately 1.2 meters deep) produced ceramics from throughout the Woodland Period. Late Archaic and Early Woodland ceramics included 207 fiber-tempered sherds, 94 sand/fiber-tempered sherds, 22 Deptford Simple-Stamped, and fifteen Deptford Linear-Stamped sherds. Ceramics from an early Middle Woodland context included thirty-five Swift Creek-Complicated Stamped and nine St. Andrews Complicated-Stamped sherds. Decorated Weeden Island ceramics recovered included only three examples of Keith Incised and four of Carrabelle Punctate. No incised sherds other than Keith Incised were recovered (Brooms et al. 1997:168). Considering the sheer volume of soil excavated (204 m2), 1Co54 produced a surprisingly low quantity of diagnostic early Middle Woodland and decorated Middle-Late Woodland ceramics. 1Da326 was another site tested during the same River Drainage Survey which involved the Mitchell Site. Four 2 x 1 -meter units were also excavated at 1Da326, which perhaps makes a comparison with the Mitchell Site more reliable than other sites mentioned here. Comparison here is by counts because of the absence of published 68

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ceramic weights for 1Da326. Fifty-six Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped sherds were recovered from 1Da326, compared with only nine for the Mitchell Site. Decorated Weeden Island sherds from 1Da326 included three Carrabelle Punctate, 49 Weeden Island Red, nine sand-tempered punctate, and twelve sand-tempered incised. Only one check-stamped sherd was recovered from 1Da326. The dearth of check-stamping, relatively high number of Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped, and very low quantity of Weeden Island decorated sherds indicates a very early Middle Woodland occupation for 1Da326. The presence of Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped, Weeden Island Punctated, Weeden Island Incised, and Weeden Island Zoned Red at the Mitchell Site suggest that occupation of this area was not strictly a Late Woodland phenomenon resulting from external population migration as suggested by others (e.g. Jenkins and Mann 1985; Milanich et al. 1984). In fact, the majority of ceramic data recovered from test units at the Mitchell Site are indicative of a Middle Woodland Period occupation. Directions for Future Research As with most projects limited by time and funding, we are left wanting more data and with as many questions as on the first day of field work. Such limitations during investigation of the Mitchell Site were unavoidable, as this was one of many sites tested during the summer of 1996. Investigations at the Mitchell Site were designed primarily to determine the nature and integrity of cultural strata. Limited excavations here have certainly verified that this site contains an abundance of data which spans much of Southeastern prehistory. The Mitchell Site has the potential to contribute to a better 69

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understanding of the nature and distribution of inland Weeden Island sites, and to the question of what constitutes Weeden Island as a taxonomic category. One of the primary goals of future investigations at the Mitchell Site should be the establishment of an absolute chronology. Relative dates for the various components here are possible due to the presence of diagnostic artifacts. However, any chronological comparison with other archaeological sites will require reliable, absolute dates. Organic materials suitable for absolute dating were encountered, albeit in very small quantities. Additional funding for AMS dates and excavation would provide the opportunity to establish an accurate chronology for the Mitchell Site. The nature of the Early Woodland occupation prior to the appearance of Swift-Creek and Weeden Island ceramics is perplexing. Insufficient evidence exists to support any assertion that this area was abandoned until the supposed diffusion of external Weeden Island populations. Obtaining Deptford ceramics from datable context would certainly help clarify the nature of the Early Woodland occupation at this site and within the middle Conecuh River drainage. Further excavation in the area of Mound B should provide a larger data set suitable for the analysis of ceramic assemblages at this site and better qualify the identity of the Middle Woodland occupation within this portion of the site. We know very little about the Mitchell Site in the area of Mound A. Future investigations should involve this area in order to understand better how this portion of the site was used during the Woodland period and what types of changes occurred during the Mississippian occupation. 70

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Excavation in the wooded perimeter of the Mitchell Site offers the opportunity to obtain data from later components with minimal disturbance from agriculture. Test units should also be located at the springheads due to the presence of both Woodland and Mississippian ceramics there. These peripheral areas are important if we are to obtain a more complete understanding of prehistoric lifeways at this location. It would perhaps be presumptuous to include the Mitchell Site in the list of major Weeden Island mound centers due to the limited amount of data available at this time. However, this site should not be relegated to the category of Weeden-Island related sites that we perceive to exist far up into the 'hinterlands' or 'borderlands'. Our perception of the potential research contribution of archaeological sites in this area in perhaps diminished when such labels are applied to the Coastal Plain of Alabama. This thesis has demonstrated that the Mitchell Site has the potential to contribute significantly to our understanding of Southeastern Middle Woodland mound centers, and strongly indicates that our contemporary political boundaries have no relevance when considering the development of prehistoric societies. It is likely that the prehistoric residents of the Mitchell Site saw themselves as being right in the middle of everything, rather than out there in the borderlands. 71

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References Cited Andrefsky, William, Jr. 1994Raw Material Availability and the Organization of Technology. American Antiquity 59 (1):21-24. Braley, C.O., and E.J. Misner 1986 The Archaeological Testing and Evaluation of Eight Sites at Fort Rucker, Alabama Report submitted to the National Park Service, Interagency Archaeological Services, Atlanta, Southeastern Wildlife Research Services, Athens, Georgia. Braley, C.O., and R.L. Mitchelson 1984 A Cultural Resource Survey of Fort Rucker, Alabama Report submitted to the National Park Service, Interagency Archaeological Services, Atlanta, Southeastern Wildlife Research Services, Athens, Georgia. Brooms, McDonald, and Tray G. Earnest 1996 The McKenzie Site: Phase III Mitigation at 1Bu18 Report submitted to Alabama Department of Transportation. TSU Archaeological Research Center, Troy State University, Troy, Alabama. Brooms, McDonald, Tray G. Earnest, and Sharon B. Hendrick 1997 Phase III Mitigation of 1Co54 in Association with the Enterprise Bypass Project F-395(14) in Coffee County, Alabama. Report submitted to Alabama Department of Transportation. TSU Archaeological Research Center, Troy State University, Troy, Alabama. Brooms, McDonald, and Kathy Gilchrist 1998 Archaeological Investigations at 1Cv135, 1Cv136, and 1Cv35 in Covington County, Alabama in Association with the Highway 29 Conecuh River Bridge Replacement Project. Report submitted to Alabama Department of Transportation. TSU Archaeological Research Center, Troy State University, Troy, Alabama. Brooms, McDonald 2003Personal communication concerning unpublished archaeological sites in southeast Alabama. Brose, David S. 1985“Willey-Nilly” or the Archaeology of Northwest Florida and Adjacent Borderlands Revisited. In Archaeology of Northwest Florida and Adjacent Borderlands: Current Research Problems and Approaches, edited by Nancy White, pp. 156-162. Florida Anthropological Society Publication 11. 72

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Brose, David S., and George W. Percy 1974An Outline of Weeden Island Ceremonial Activity in Northwest Florida. Paper presented at the 39th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C. 1978Fort Walton Settlement Patterns. In Mississippian Settlement Patterns, edited by Bruce D. Smith, pp. 81-114. Academic Press, New York. Brose, David S., and Nancy White, editors 1999 The Northwest Florida Expeditions of Clarence Bloomfield Moore. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Bullen, Ripley P., and James Stoltman (editors) 1972Fiber-tempered Pottery in Southeastern United States and Colombia: Its Origins, Context, and Significance. Florida Anthropological Society Publications No. 6. Cambron, James W. and David C. Hulse 1990 Handbook of Alabama Archaeology. Part I, Point Types. Alabama Archaeological Society, Huntsville, Alabama. Chase, David W. 1967Weeden Island Period Sites in Centeral Alabama. Journal of Alabama Archaeology 13 (1):61-63. 1978Weeden Island-Swift Creek Affinities in the Middle Chattahoochee Valley. Journal of Alabama Archaeology 24 (1):60-64. Delcourt, Paul A. 1980The Quaternary Vegetation of South Alabama. Ecology 61 (2):371-376. Earnest, Tray G., MacDonald Brooms and Kate McLaurin-Wright 1995 A Cultural Resource Reconnaissance of Selected Portions of the Conecuh, Pea and Choctawhatchee Rivers Report submitted to Alabama Historical Commission. TSU Archaeological Research Center, Troy State University, Troy, Alabama. Ensor, Blaine and L. B. Largent, Jr. 1996Recent Survey and Archaeological Research in the Vicinity of Fort Rucker, Southeastern Alabama. Journal of Alabama Archaeology 43 (1):48-83. Fornaro, Robert J. 1974A Conecuh River Site (Cv30), Alabama. The Florida Anthropologist 27 (1):9-20. Jenkins, Ned J., and C. B. Mann 1985An Archaeological Study of the Conecuh River Drainage. The Florida Anthropologist 38 (1-2):136-143. 73

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Lazarus, Yulee W. 1979 The Buck Burial Mound: a Mound of the Weeden Island Culture Temple Mound Museum, Fort Walton Beach, Florida. Milanich, Jerald T 1980Weeden Island Studies: Past, Present and Future. Southeastern Archaeological Conference Bulletin 22:11-18. 1994 Archaeology of Precolumbian Florida. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. Milanich, Jerald T., Ann S. Cordell, Vernon J. Knight Jr., Timothy A. Kohler, and Brenda J. Sigler-Lavelle 1984 McKeithen Weeden Island: the Culture of Northern Florida, AD 200-900. Academic Press, Orlando. Reprinted 1997 by University Press of Florida, Gainesville. Milanich, Jerald T. and Charles H. Fairbanks 1980 Florida Archaeology. Academic Press, New York. Moore, Clarence B. 1918The Northwest Florida Coast Revisted. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (second series) 16:515-581. Percy, George W. and David S. Brose 1974Weeden Island Ecology, Subsistence, and Village Life in Northwest Florida. Paper presented at the 39th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C. Powell, John 1990 Points and Blades of the Coastal Plain. American Systems of the Carolinas, Inc., West Colombia, South Carolina. Sears, William H. 1954The Sociopolitical Organization of the Pre-Colombian cultures on the Gulf Coastal Plain. American Anthropologist 56 (3):339-346. 1956Excavation at Kolomoki, Final Report. University of Georgia Series in Anthropology 5 The University of Georgia Press, Athens. 1959 An Investigation of Prehistoric Processes on the Gulf Coastal Plain. NSF G-5019, Final Report National Science Foundation, Washington D.C. 1968The State and Settlement Patterns in the New World. In Settlement Archaeology in the New World edited by K.C. Chang, pp134-153. National Press Books, Palo Alto, California. Sheldon, Craig T., Jr., editor 2001 The Southern and Central Alabama Expeditions of Clarence Bloomfield Moore. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 74

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Sigler-Lavelle, B. 1980On the Non-random Distribution of Weeden Island Period Sites in North Florida. Southeastern Archaeological Conference Bulletin 22:22-28. Solomon, Brad, MacDonald Brooms and Calleb Curren 1996 Phase II Testing of Selected Sites from the Cultural Resource Reconnaissance of Conecuh, Pea, and Choctawhatchee Rivers Submitted to Alabama Historical Commission. Copies available from TSU Archaeological Research Center, Troy State University, Troy, Alabama. Steinen, Karl 1977Weeden Island in Southwest Georgia. Early Georgia 5 (1-2):73-87. Stowe, Noel R. 1985The Pensacola Variant and the Bottle Creek Phase. The Florida Anthropologist 38:144-149. 1990USDA Soil Survey of Covington County, Alabama USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service. White, Nancy 1981Archaeological Survey at Lake Seminole. Cleveland Museum of Natural History Archaeological Research Report No. 9. 1982 The Curlee Site (8Ja7) and Fort Walton Development in the Upper Apalachicola-Lower Chattahoochee Valley. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. 1985Nomenclature and Interpretation in Borderland Chronology: A Critical Overview of Northwest Florida Prehistory. The Florida Anthropologist 38 (1-2, Pt. 2): 163-174. 1991Public Archaeology and Middle Woodland Research in the Middle Apalachicola Valley, Northwest, Florida. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Florida Anthropological Society, Pensacola, Florida. 1992The Overgrown Road Site (8Gu38): A Swift Creek Camp in the Lower Apalachicola Valley. The Florida Anthropologist 45 (1):18-38. 1994 Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. Archaeological Investigations at Six Sites in the Apalachicola River Valley, Northwest Florida. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS SRD 26, Washington D.C. Willey, Gordon R. 1945The Weeden Island Culture: A Preliminary Definition. American Antiquity 10: 225-54. 1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Volume 113, Publication 3988. Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. 75

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Willey, Gordon R. and Richard B. Woodbury 1942A Chronological Outline for the Northwest Florida Gulf Coast. American Antiquity 3:233-254. Williams, Mark and Daniel T. Elliott, editors 1998 A World Engraved, Archaeology of the Swift Creek Culture. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 76

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Appendix A Excerpt from Sears's (1959) Notes Concerning the Mitchell Site 77

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Mitchell Covington County, Alabama. NEW SITE CEREMONIAL CENTER This is undoubtedly a major Weeden Island ceremonial center, the only Weeden Island site, of any brand, with a temple mound excepting Kolomoki. As the map below indicates, the topographic situation also resembles that at Kolomoki and at Aspalaga, with the land dropping off very abruptly to springheads and swamps on two sides of the site. The Conecuh is about 1 mile away, and a hundred feet lower. One suspects that these locations were selected for defensive purposes. Ceramics Weeden Island Complex Weeden Island Plain rims -------58 Weeden Island Red Filmed -----29 Carrabelle Incised ----------------4 Keith Incised ---------------------3 Carrabelle Punctated ------------10 Indian Pass Incised ---------------7 Weeden Island Punctated ---------7 Weeden Island Incised ------------1 Mound Field Net Marked --------2 Swift Creek II C.S. --------------14 Napier C.S. ------------------------2 Larton Red Filmed ---------------2 French Fork Incised ---------------2 Churupa Punctated -----------------1 McLeod Simple Stamped ---------1 Wakulla Check Stamped ----------17 Although the Swift Creek II, Napier, and Wakulla stamped sherds indicate contact between this site and the many sites where these types were important, my impression of this complex is that Weeden Island ceramics are the representation of a distinct culture, rather than being representative of an element in a complex dominated by complicated or check stamping. To the east, and on the coast, the Weeden Island element comes from the west and is grafted on to a tradition of complicated simple stamped ceramics. What the pre-Weeden Island complex is here on the Conecuh I am not sure. More survey in the area, as well as excavation at Mitchell, should produce answers. Mound A is, obviously, a small temple mound. Some pitting has been done by an unidentified amature. After he left, neighborhood boys found a burial in the side of this pit. Conchshell, stone and copper artifacts with the burial definitely tie it to the Pensacola-Moundville type of culture. This might tend to cast doubt on the affiliation of the temple mound with Weeden Island. However, (a) large surface collection contains very few sherds of the complex (Mississippian), so I believe the burial to be intrusive, from a site, probably nearby, which I have not been able to locate. Possibly it is beneath Gantt Lake, formed by damming the Conecuh below the site. 78 Pensacola Complex Pensacola Incised --------------------------1 Mercier Check Stamped -----------------1 Plain Wares Sand-tempered plain ---------------------424 Clay tempered plain ----------------------14 Chalky plain --------------------------------4 Lake Jackson Plain -------------------------2 Shell-tempered plain -----------------------5

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Mound B is very similar, superficially, to Mound E at Kolomoki. Sandstone rocks, some of them huge, protrude through the surface and have inhibited pot-hunting. I am quite certain that it is, in fact, a Weeden Island period burial mound. The plaza area between the temple mound and the burial mound is quite marked. Very few sherds can be found in this part of the site. As at Kolomoki, the concentration of sherds is on the opposite side of the plaza from the temple mound. This major ceremonial center contains, I think, answers to many Gulf tradition culture-historical problems. Complete excavation will give us the sort of data we need from community pattern, burial mound excavation, and temple mound excavation to attempt reconstruction of social and political patterns. Further, it will, certainly, enlighten us concerning Gulf tradition development and the flow and interchange of ideas across the coastal plain. As with Aspalaga, I hope to assure support for complete excavation at some time within the next few years. (Sears 1959) 79

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Appendix B Supplementary Ceramic Data 80

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81 Unit 1 (6-8S, 0-1E) Ceramic Weights (n=981.4g) Type Level:1-23456789101112Totals by Type Keith Incised 0.012.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.012.0 Carrabelle Incised 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0 Carrabelle Punctate 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0 incised, unidentified 3.410.23.16.86.00.00.00.03.79.20.042.4 Weeden Island Punctate 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0 punctated, unidentified 0.34.112.80.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.017.2 red filmed 0.00.00.05.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.05.0 check-stamped 0.00.00.028.20.00.00.00.00.01.90.030.1 Swift Cr. Comp.-Stamped 0.00.04.80.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.04.8 body sherd, gtp 8.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.08.0 body sherd, stp 139.294.881.154.657.0127.9 34.124.727.19.60.0650.1 rim sherd, stp 18.07.499.60.037.80.00.00.040.00.00.0202.8 cord-marked 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.09.09.0 fiber-tempered plain 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0 Totals by Level: 168.9128.5201.494.6100.8127.934.124.770.820.79.0 981.4 Unit 1 (6-8S, 0-1E) Ceramics, % by Weight (n=981.4g) Type Level:1-23456789101112%by Type Keith Incised 0.000.090.000.000.000.00 0.000.000.000.000.000.01 Carrabelle Incised 0.000.000.000.000.000.00 0.000.000.000.000.000.00 Carrabelle Punctate 0.000.000.000.000.000.00 0.000.000.000.000.000.00 incised, unidentified 0.020.080.020.070.060.00 0.000.000.050.440.000.04 Weeden Island Punctate 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0 punctated, unidentified 0.000.030.060.000.000.00 0.000.000.000.000.000.02 red filmed 0.000.000.000.050.000.00 0.000.000.000.000.000.01 check-stamped 0.000.000.000.300.000.00 0.000.000.000.090.000.03 Swift Cr. Comp.-Stamped 0.000.000.020.000.000.00 0.000.000.000.000.000.00 body sherd, gtp 0.050.000.000.000.000.00 0.000.000.000.000.000.01 body sherd, stp 0.820.740.400.580.571.00 1.001.000.380.460.000.66 rim sherd, stp 0.110.060.490.000.010.00 0.000.000.560.000.000.21 cord-marked 0.000.000.000.000.000.00 0.000.000.000.001.000.01 fiber-tempered plain 0.000.000.000.000.000.00 0.000.000.000.000.000.00 Totals: 1.001.001.001.001.001.00 1.001.001.001.001.001.00 Percent by Level: 0.170.130.210.100.100.13 0.030.030.070.020.011.00

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82 Unit 1 (6-8S, 0-1E) Ceramic Counts (n=243) Type Level:1-23456789101112Totals by Type Keith Incised 010000000001 Carrabelle Incised 000000000000 Carrabelle Punctate 000000000000 incised, unidentified 4234300011018 Weeden Island Punctate 000000000000 punctated, unidentified 112000000004 red filmed 000200000002 check-stamped 000200000103 Swift Cr. Comp.-Stamped 002000000002 body sherd, gtp 100000000001 body sherd, stp 51323132122165830201 rim sherd, stp 2230200010010 cord-marked 000000000011 fiber-tempered plain 000000000000 Totals by Level: 593841401721651051 243 Unit 1 (6-8S, 0-1E) Ceramics, % by Count (n=243) Type Level:1-23456789101112%by Type Keith Incised 0.000.030.000.000.000.00 0.000.000.000.000.000.00 Carrabelle Incised 0.000.000.000.000.000.00 0.000.000.000.000.000.00 Carrabelle Punctate 0.000.000.000.000.000.00 0.000.000.000.000.000.00 incised, unidentified 0.070.050.070.100.180.00 0.000.000.100.200.000.07 Weeden Island Punctate 0.000.000.000.000.000.00 0.000.000.000.000.000.00 punctated, unidentified 0.020.030.050.000.000.00 0.000.000.000.000.000.02 red filmed 0.000.000.000.050.000.00 0.000.000.000.000.000.01 check-stamped 0.000.000.000.050.000.00 0.000.000.000.200.000.01 Swift Cr. Comp.-Stamped 0.000.000.050.000.000.00 0.000.000.000.000.000.01 body sherd, gtp 0.020.000.000.000.000.00 0.000.000.000.000.000.00 body sherd, stp 0.860.840.760.800.711.00 1.001.000.800.600.000.83 rim sherd, stp 0.030.050.070.000.060.00 0.000.000.100.000.000.04 cord-marked 0.000.000.000.000.000.00 0.000.000.000.001.000.00 fiber-tempered plain 0.000.000.000.000.000.00 0.000.000.000.000.000.00 Totals: 1.001.001.001.001.001.00 1.001.001.001.001.001.00 Percent by Level: 0.240.160.170.160.070.09 0.020.020.040.020.001.00

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83 Unit 2 (0-2S 6-7E) Ceramic Weights (n=1,773.1g) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5 B6B7B8B9Totals by Type Keith Incised 0.70.00.034.10.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.034.8 Carrabelle Incised 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0 Carrabelle Punctate 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0 incised, unidentified 0.015.87.532.80.017.62.56.90.00.00.01.60.084.7 Weeden Island Punctate 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0 punctated, unidentified 1.43.30.07.63.90.0 13.1 1.83.60.00.00.00.034.7 red filmed 5.10.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.05.1 check-stamped 0.00.03.710.18.01.517.90.00.00.00.00.00.041.2 Swift Cr. Comp.-Stamped 0.02.30.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.02.3 body sherd, gtp 1.40.00.09.212.10.05.90.05.10.00.00.00.033.7 body sherd, stp 5.1300.6303.7399.049.280.638.928.947.60.045.60.40.81300.4 rim sherd, stp 25.624.420.2146.66.04.64.50.04.30.00.00.00.0236.2 cord-marked 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0 fiber-tempered plain 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0 Totals by Level: 39.3346.4335.1639.479.2104.382.837.660.60.045.62.00.8 1773.1 Unit 2 (0-2S 6-7E) Ceramics, % by Weight (n=1,773.1g) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8B9%by Type Keith Incised 0.020.000.000.050.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.02 Carrabelle Incised 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Carrabelle Punctate 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 incised, unidentified 0.000.050.020.050.000.170.030.180.000.000.000.800.000.05 Weeden Island Punctate 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 punctated, unidentified 0.040.010.000.010.050.000.160.050.060.000.000.000.000.02 red filmed 0.130.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 check-stamped 0.000.000.010.020.100.010.220.000.000.000.000.000.000.02 Swift Cr. Comp.-Stamped 0.000.010.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 body sherd, gtp 0.040.000.000.010.150.000.070.000.080.000.000.000.000.02 body sherd, stp 0.130.860.900.620.620.690.470.770.790.001.000.200.000.72 rim sherd, stp 0.650.070.060.230.080.040.050.000.070.000.000.000.000.13 cord-marked 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 fiber-tempered plain 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Totals: 1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.000.001.001.001.001.00 Percent by Level: 0.020.200.190.360.040.060.050.020.030.000.030.000.001.00

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84 Unit 2 (0-2S 6-7E) Ceramic Counts (n=623) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5 B6B7B8B9Totals by Type Keith Incised 10020000000003 Carrabelle Incised 00000000000000 Carrabelle Punctate 00000000000000 incised, unidentified 0751315 0 40001036 Weeden Island Punctate 00000000000000 punctated, unidentified 110210222000010 red filmed 10000000000001 check-stamped 00101130000006 Swift Cr. Comp.-Stamped 01000000000001 body sherd, gtp 10011030100007 body sherd, stp 1341075211420242518110911516 rim sherd, stp 8991302101000043 cord-marked 00000000000000 fiber-tempered plain 00000000000000 Totals by Level: 1461256714524323424150921 623 Unit 2 (0-2S 6-7E) Ceramics, % by Count (n=623) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8B9%by Type Keith Incised 0.010.000.000.010.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Carrabelle Incised 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Carrabelle Punctate 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 incised, unidentified 0.000.060.070.090.040.160.000.170.000.000.000.500.000.06 Weeden Island Punctate 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 punctated, unidentified 0.010.010.000.010.040.000.060.080.130.000.000.000.000.02 red filmed 0.010.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 check-stamped 0.000.000.010.000.040.030.090.000.000.000.000.000.000.01 Swift Cr. Comp.-Stamped 0.000.010.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 body sherd, gtp 0.010.000.000.010.040.000.090.000.070.000.000.000.000.01 body sherd, stp 0.920.820.760.790.830.660.740.750.730.001.000.500.000.83 rim sherd, stp 0.050.070.130.090.000.060.030.000.070.000.000.000.000.07 cord-marked 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 fiber-tempered plain 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Totals: 1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.000.001.001.001.001.00 Percent by Level: 0.230.200.110.230.040.050.050.040.020.000.010.000.001.00

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85 Unit 3 (10-12N, 20-21E) Ceramic Weights (n=1,820.0 g) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8B9Totals by Type Keith Incised 0.00.00.20.03.11.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.04.3 Carrabelle Incised 0.00.05.10.00.03.60.00.00.00.00.00.00.08.7 Carrabelle Punctate 0.00.00.00.04.514.50.00.00.00.00.00.00.019.0 incised, unidentified 13.46.155.88.02.30.00.013.20.00.00.00.00.098.8 Weeden Island Punctate 0.00.00.00.00.04.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.04.0 punctated, unidentified 5.02.60.01.38.90.0 0.0 0.00.00.00.00.00.017.8 red filmed 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0 check-stamped 0.00.016.221.90.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.038.1 Swift Cr. Comp.-Stamped 0.00.012.316.80.00.02.20.00.00.00.00.00.031.3 body sherd, gtp 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0 body sherd, stp 187.3185.7503.8228.1140.171.478.520.01.40.00.00.00.01416.3 rim sherd, stp 14.016.361.326.432.631.10.00.00.00.00.00.00.0181.7 cord-marked 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0 fiber-tempered plain 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0 Totals by Level: 219.7210.7660.8302.5191.5125.680.733.21.40.00.00.00.0 1820.0 Unit 3 (10-12N, 20-21E) Ceramics, % by Weight. (n=1,820.0 g) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8B9%by Type Keith Incised 0.000.000.000.000.020.010.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Carrabelle Incised 0.000.000.010.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Carrabelle Punctate 0.000.000.010.000.020.120.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.01 incised, unidentified 0.060.030.080.030.010.030.000.400.000.000.000.000.000.05 Weeden Island Punctate 0.000.000.000.000.000.030.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 punctated, unidentified 0.020.010.000.000.050.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.01 red filmed 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 check-stamped 0.000.000.020.070.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.02 Swift Cr. Comp.-Stamped 0.000.000.020.060.000.000.030.000.000.000.000.000.000.02 body sherd, gtp 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 body sherd, stp 0.850.880.760.750.730.570.970.601.000.000.000.000.000.78 rim sherd, stp 0.060.080.090.090.170.250.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.10 cord-marked 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 fiber-tempered plain 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Totals: 1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.000.000.000.000.001.00 Percent by Level: 0.120.120.360.170.100.070.040.020.000.000.000.000.001.00

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86 Unit 3 (10-12N, 20-21E) Ceramic Counts (n=1,158) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8B9Totals by Type Keith Incised 00102100000004 Carrabelle Incised 00100100000002 Carrabelle Punctate 00101100000003 incised, unidentified 9710420 0 10000033 Weeden Island Punctate 00000100000001 punctated, unidentified 213130000000010 red filmed 00000000000000 check-stamped 00320000000005 Swift Cr. Comp.-Stamped 00220010000005 body sherd, gtp 00000000000000 body sherd, stp 1902123881565339178100001064 rim sherd, stp 2511634000000031 cord-marked 00000000000000 fiber-tempered plain 00000000000000 Totals by Level: 203225419171644718910000 1158 Unit 3 (10-12N, 20-21E) Ceramics, % by Count (n=1,158) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8B9%by Type Keith Incised 0.000.000.000.000.030.020.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Carrabelle Incised 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Carrabelle Punctate 0.000.000.000.000.020.020.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 incised, unidentified 0.040.030.020.020.030.020.000.110.000.000.000.000.000.03 Weeden Island Punctate 0.000.000.000.000.000.020.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 punctated, unidentified 0.010.000.010.010.050.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.01 red filmed 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 check-stamped 0.000.000.010.010.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Swift Cr. Comp.-Stamped 0.000.000.000.010.000.000.060.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 body sherd, gtp 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 body sherd, stp 0.940.940.930.910.830.830.940.891.000.000.000.000.000.92 rim sherd, stp 0.010.020.030.040.050.090.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.03 cord-marked 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 fiber-tempered plain 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Totals: 1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.000.000.000.000.001.00 Percent by Level: 0.180.190.360.150.060.040.020.010.000.000.000.000.001.00

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87 Unit 4 (50-52N, 0-1E) Ceramic Weights (n=419.7g) Type Level:A1A2A3B1B2B3B4Totals by Type Keith Incised 0.000.000.003.100.000.000.003.10 Carrabelle Incised 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Carrabelle Punctate 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 incised, unidentified 0.000.000.0011.405.400.000.0016.80 Weeden Island Punctate 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 punctated, unidentified 0.000.000.001.001.400.000.002.40 red filmed 0.000.000.008.200.007.900.0016.10 check-stamped 2.600.000.0017.500.000.004.7024.80 Swift Cr. Comp.-Stamped 0.000.000.000.002.708.400.0011.10 body sherd, gtp 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 body sherd, stp 9.804.7028.8055.50141.4026.907.50274.60 rim sherd, stp 0.000.000.0026.8020.3016.900.0064.00 cord-marked 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 fiber-tempered plain 0.000.000.000.007.800.000.007.80 Totals 12.404.7028.80123.50179.0060.1012.20 419.70 Unit 4 (50-52N, 0-1E) Ceramics, % by Weight (n=419.7g) Type Level:A1A2A3B1B2B3B4Totals Keith Incised 0.000.000.000.030.000.000.000.01 Carrabelle Incised 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Carrabelle Punctate 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 incised, unidentified 0.000.000.000.090.030.000.000.04 Weeden Island Punctate 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 punctated, unidentified 0.000.000.000.010.010.000.000.01 red filmed 0.000.000.000.070.000.130.000.04 check-stamped 0.210.000.000.140.000.000.390.06 Swift Cr. Comp.-Stamped 0.000.000.000.000.020.140.000.03 body sherd, gtp 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 body sherd, stp 0.791.001.000.450.790.450.610.64 rim sherd, stp 0.000.000.000.220.110.280.000.15 cord-marked 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 fiber-tempered plain 0.000.000.000.000.040.000.000.02 Totals: 1.001.001.001.001.001.001.00 1.00 Percent by Level: 0.030.010.070.290.430.140.03 1.00

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88 Unit 4 (50-52N, 0-1E) Ceramic Counts (n=129) Type Level:A1A2A3B1B2B3B4Totals by Type Keith Incised 00010001 Carrabelle Incised 00000000 Carrabelle Punctate 00000000 incised, unidentified 00002002 Weeden Island Punctate 00000000 punctated, unidentified 00011002 red filmed 00060006 check-stamped 10010013 Swift Cr. Comp.-Stamped 00001102 body sherd, gtp 00000000 body sherd, stp 792903217498 rim sherd, stp 000643013 cord-marked 00000000 fiber-tempered plain 00002002 Totals 89291542215 129 Unit 4 (50-52N, 0-1E) Ceramics, % by Count (n=129) Type Level:A1A2A3B1B2B3B4Totals Keith Incised 0.000.000.000.070.000.000.000.01 Carrabelle Incised 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Carrabelle Punctate 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 incised, unidentified 0.000.000.000.000.050.000.000.02 Weeden Island Punctate 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 punctated, unidentified 0.000.000.000.070.020.000.000.02 red filmed 0.000.000.000.400.000.000.000.05 check-stamped 0.130.000.000.070.000.000.200.02 Swift Cr. Comp.-Stamped 0.000.000.000.000.020.050.000.02 body sherd, gtp 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 body sherd, stp 0.881.001.000.000.760.810.800.74 rim sherd, stp 0.000.000.000.400.100.140.000.10 cord-marked 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 fiber-tempered plain 0.000.000.000.000.050.000.000.02 Totals 1.001.001.001.001.001.001.00 1.00 Percent by Level: 0.060.070.220.120.330.160.04 1.00

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Appendix C Supplementary Lithics Data 89

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90 Unit 1 (6-8S, 0-1E) Lithic Weights (n=620.0 g) Type Level:1-23456789101112131415Totals Clear Quartz Thinning 0.00.00.20.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.20 Clear Quartz Fragment 0.00.20.00.10.03.80.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.04.10 MWQ, Core Fragment 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00 MWQ, Thinning 0.04.10.01.80.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.05.90 CPC, Core 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00 CPC, Core Thinning 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.039.40.039.40 CPC, Shatter 0.00.06.10.00.00.00.00.50.00.00.70.00.50.07.80 CPC, Pressure 0.00.10.00.10.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.30.00.50 CPC, Bifacial Thinning (BT) 1.70.51.60.11.00.10.20.00.10.90.00.62.60.610.00 CPC, BT w/Cortex 0.00.00.03.00.00.00.20.20.00.00.00.00.00.03.40 TQ, Core 76.10.00.00.00.0184.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0260.10 TQ, Shatter 3.20.00.00.00.20.00.00.00.00.00.00.08.20.011.60 TQ, Core Thinning 0.010.40.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.013.10.023.50 TQ, Thinning 8.910.010.09.86.220.79.223.315.031.518.723.221.117.5225.10 TQ, Thinning w/Cortex 0.00.00.00.00.00.03.50.00.00.02.07.16.30.018.90 TQ, Bifacial Fragment 0.00.00.09.50.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.09.50 Totals 89.925.317.924.47.4208.613.124.015.132.421.430.991.518.1 620.00 MWQ: milky white quartz; CPC: coastal plain chert; TQ: Tallahatta quartzite 620.00 Unit 1 (6-8S, 0-1E) Lithics, Frequency Distributions by Weight (n=620.0 g) Type Level:1-23456789101112131415Totals Clear Quartz Thinning 0.000.000.010.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Clear Quartz Fragment 0.000.010.000.000.000.020.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.01 MWQ, Core Fragment 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 MWQ, Thinning 0.000.160.000.070.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.01 CPC, Core 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 CPC, Core Thinning 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.430.000.06 CPC, Shatter 0.000.000.340.000.000.000.000.020.000.000.030.000.010.000.01 CPC, Pressure 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 CPC, Bifacial Thinning (BT) 0.020.020.090.000.140.000.020.000.010.030.000.020.030.030.02 CPC, BT w/Cortex 0.000.000.000.120.000.000.020.010.000.000.000.000.000.000.01 TQ, Core 0.850.000.000.000.000.880.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.42 TQ, Shatter 0.040.000.000.000.030.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.090.000.02 TQ, Core Thinning 0.000.410.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.140.000.04 TQ, Thinning 0.100.400.560.400.840.100.700.970.990.970.870.750.230.970.36 TQ, Thinning w/Cortex 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.270.000.000.000.090.230.070.000.03 TQ, Bifacial Fragment 0.000.000.000.390.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.02 Totals 1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00 1.00 Percent by Level: 0.150.040.030.040.010.340.020.040.020.050.030.050.150.03 1.00 MWQ: milky white quartz; CPC: coastal plain chert; TQ: Tallahatta quartzite

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91 Unit 1 (6-8S, 0-1E) Lithic Counts (n=431) Type Level:1-23456789101112131415Totals Clear Quartz Thinning 000000000000000 Clear Quartz Fragment 011101000000004 MWQ, Core Fragment 000000000000000 MWQ, Thinning 040100000000005 CPC, Core 000000000000000 CPC, Core Thinning 000000000000101 CPC, Shatter 0030020200201010 CPC, Pressure 010100000000103 CPC, Bifacial Thinning (BT) 2251412212043332 CPC, BT w/Cortex 000100100000002 TQ, Core 100001000000002 TQ, Shatter 300010000000206 TQ, Core Thinning 010000000000102 TQ, Thinning 1020192021442640341918353412352 TQ, Thinning w/Cortex 000000300012309 TQ, Bifacial Fragment 000300000000003 Totals 1629282826493244352121414615 431 MWQ: milky white quartz; CPC: coastal plain chert; TQ: Tallahatta quartzite 431 Unit 1 (6-8S, 0-1E) Lithics, Frequency Distributions by Count (n=431) Type Level:1-23456789101112131415Totals Clear Quartz Thinning 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Clear Quartz Fragment 0.000.030.040.040.000.020.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.01 MWQ, Core Fragment 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 MWQ, Thinning 0.000.140.000.040.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.01 CPC, Core 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 CPC, Core Thinning 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.020.000.00 CPC, Shatter 0.000.000.110.000.000.040.000.050.000.000.100.000.020.000.02 CPC, Pressure 0.000.030.000.040.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.020.000.01 CPC, Bifacial Thinning (BT) 0.130.070.180.040.150.020.060.050.030.100.000.100.070.200.07 CPC, BT w/Cortex 0.000.000.000.040.000.000.030.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 TQ, Core 0.060.000.000.000.000.020.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 TQ, Shatter 0.190.000.000.000.040.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.040.000.01 TQ, Core Thinning 0.000.030.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.020.000.00 TQ, Thinning 0.630.690.680.710.810.900.810.910.970.900.860.850.740.800.82 TQ, Thinning w/Cortex 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.090.000.000.000.050.050.070.000.02 TQ, Bifacial Fragment 0.000.000.000.110.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.01 Totals 1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00 1.00 Percent by Level: 0.040.070.060.060.060.110.070.100.080.050.050.100.110.03 1.00 MWQ: milky white quartz; CPC: coastal plain chert; TQ: Tallahatta quartzite

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92 Unit 1 (6-8S, 0-1E) Summary of Total Lithic Debitage within Unit Type wt.%wtcount%count Clear Quartz 4.30.0140.01 MWQ 5.90.0150.01 CPC 61.10.10480.11 TQ 548.70.893740.87 Totals: 6201.004311.00 Unit 1 (6-8S, 0-1E) Lithic Debitage, Weights (n=620.0 g) Type Level:1-23456789101112131415Totals Clear Quartz 0.00.20.20.10.03.80.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.04.3 MWQ 0.04.10.01.80.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.05.9 CPC 1.70.67.73.21.00.10.40.70.10.90.70.642.80.661.1 TQ 88.220.410.019.36.4204.712.723.315.031.520.730.348.717.5548.7 Totals: 89.925.317.924.47.4208.613.124.015.132.421.430.991.518.1620.0 620.0 Unit 1 (6-8S, 0-1E) Lithic Debitage, % by Weight Within Each Level (n=620.0 g) Type Level:1-23456789101112131415Totals Clear Quartz 0.000.010.010.000.000.020.000. 000.000.000.000.000.000.000.01 MWQ 0.000.160.000.070.000.000.000. 000.000.000.000.000.000.000.01 CPC 0.020.020.430.130.140.000.030. 030.010.030.030.020.470.030.10 TQ 0.980.810.560.790.860.980.970. 970.990.970.970.980.530.970.89 Totals: 1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001. 001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00 Unit 1 (6-8S, 0-1E) Lithic Debitage, % by Weight Across All Levels (n=620.0 g) Type Level:1-23456789101112131415Totals Clear Quartz 0.000.050.050.020.000.880.000. 000.000.000.000.000.000.001.00 MWQ, Thinning 0.000.690.000.310.000.000.000. 000.000.000.000.000.000.001.00 CPC 0.030.010.130.050.020.000.010. 010.000.010.010.010.700.011.00 TQ 0.160.040.020.040.010.370.020. 040.030.060.040.060.090.031.00 Totals 0.150.040.030.040.010.340.020. 040.020.050.030.050.150.031.00 Unit 1 (6-8S, 0-1E) Lithic Debitage, Counts (n=431) Type Level:1-23456789101112131415Totals Clear Quartz 011101000000004 MWQ, Thinning 040100000000005 CPC 2383433412246348 TQ 1421192322452940341919374012374 Totals 1629282826493244352121414615431 Unit 1 (6-8S, 0-1E) Lithic Debitage, % by Count Within Each Level (n=431) Type Level:1-23456789101112131415Totals Clear Quartz 0.000.010.010.000.000.020.000. 000.000.000.000.000.000.000.01 MWQ, Thinning 0.000.160.000.070.000.000.000. 000.000.000.000.000.000.000.01 CPC 0.020.020.430.130.140.000.030. 030.010.030.030.020.470.030.10 TQ 0.980.810.560.790.860.980.970. 970.990.970.970.980.530.970.89 Totals 1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001. 001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00 Unit 1 (6-8S, 0-1E) Lithic Debitage, % by Count Across All Levels (n=431) Type Level:1-23456789101112131415Totals Clear Quartz 0.000.250.250.250.000.250.000. 000.000.000.000.000.000.001.00 MWQ, Thinning 0.000.800.000.200.000.000.000. 000.000.000.000.000.000.001.00 CPC 0.040.060.170.060.080.060.060. 080.020.040.040.080.130.061.00 TQ 0.040.060.050.060.060.120.080. 110.090.050.050.100.110.031.00 Totals 0.040.070.060.060.060.110.070. 100.080.050.050.100.110.031.00

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93 Unit 2 (0-2S, 6-7E) Lithic Weights (n=388.9 g) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8Totals Clear Quartz Thinning 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Clear Quartz Fragment 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 MWQ, Core Fragment 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 MWQ, Thinning 2.000.500.201.400.000.000.000.700.000.000.000.004.80 MWQ, Bifacial Fragment 0.000.000.000.400.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.40 CPC, Core 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 CPC, Core Thinning 0.000.000.000.008.700.000.006.900.000.000.000.0015.60 CPC, Shatter 0.000.803.900.500.000.000.800.600.000.000.000.006.60 CPC, Pressure 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 CPC, Bifacial Thinning (BT) 0.302.701.806.900.200.000.302.901.300.704.600.0021.70 CPC, BT w/Cortex 0.101.500.900.600.400.000.101.200.000.000.000.004.80 CPC, Bifacial Fragment 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.200.000.000.000.000.000.20 TQ, Core 0.000.000.000.000.000.0089.700.000.000.000.000.0089.70 TQ, Shatter 0.200.602.402.700.000.500.402.300.000.000.000.009.10 TQ, Core Thinning 0.000.003.300.000.000.0023.508.6013.407.5017.400.0073.70 TQ, Thinning 3.9011.5014.2027.9010.4010.606.9026.9025.7010.103.800.00151.90 TQ, Thinning w/Cortex 0.000.000.003.800.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.003.80 TQ, Bifacial Fragment 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.006.600.000.000.000.006.60 Totals 6.5017.6026.7044.2019.7011.10121.9056.7040.4018.3025.800.00 388.90 MWQ: milky white quartz; CPC: coastal plain chert; TQ: Tallahatta quartzite388.90 Unit 2 (0-2S, 6-7E) Lithics, Frequency Distributions by Weight (n=388.9 g) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8Totals Clear Quartz Thinning 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Clear Quartz Fragment 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 MWQ, Core Fragment 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 MWQ, Thinning 0.310.030.010.030.000.000.000.010.000.000.000.000.01 MWQ, Bifacial Fragment 0.000.000.000.010.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 CPC, Core 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 CPC, Core Thinning 0.000.000.000.000.440.000.000.120.000.000.000.000.04 CPC, Shatter 0.000.050.150.010.000.000.010.010.000.000.000.000.02 CPC, Pressure 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 CPC, Bifacial Thinning (BT) 0.050.150.070.160.010.000.000.050.030.040.180.000.06 CPC, BT w/Cortex 0.020.090.030.010.020.000.000.020.000.000.000.000.01 CPC, Bifacial Fragment 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 TQ, Core 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.740.000.000.000.000.000.23 TQ, Shatter 0.030.030.090.060.000.050.000.040.000.000.000.000.02 TQ, Core Thinning 0.000.000.120.000.000.000.190.150.330.410.670.000.19 TQ, Thinning 0.600.650.530.630.530.950.060.470.640.550.150.000.39 TQ, Thinning w/Cortex 0.000.000.000.090.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.01 TQ, Bifacial Fragment 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.120.000.000.000.000.02 Totals 1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.000.00 1.00 Percent by Level: 0.020.050.070.110.050.030.310.150.100.050.070.00 1.00 MWQ: milky white quartz; CPC: coastal plain chert; TQ: Tallahatta quartzite

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94 Unit 2 (0-2S, 6-7E) Lithic Counts (n=454) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8Totals Clear Quartz Thinning 0000000000000 Clear Quartz Fragment 0000000000000 MWQ, Core Fragment 0000000000000 MWQ, Thinning 32320001000011 MWQ, Bifacial Fragment 0001000000001 CPC, Core 0000000000000 CPC, Core Thinning 0000100000001 CPC, Shatter 0022001100006 CPC, Pressure 0000000000000 CPC, Bifacial Thinning (BT) 276111029542049 CPC, BT w/Cortex 121101012000018 CPC, Bifacial Fragment 0000001000001 TQ, Core 0000001000001 TQ, Shatter 01420112000011 TQ, Core Thinning 00100032213012 TQ, Thinning 1024456231372154311860339 TQ, Thinning w/Cortex 1002000000003 TQ, Bifacial Fragment 0000000100001 Totals 17366292343831723823110 454 MWQ: milky white quartz; CPC: coastal plain chert; TQ: Tallahatta quartzite454 Unit 2 (0-2S, 6-7E) Lithics, Frequency Distributions by Count (n=454) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8Totals Clear Quartz Thinning 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Clear Quartz Fragment 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 MWQ, Core Fragment 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 MWQ, Thinning 0.180.060.050.020.000.000.000.010.000.000.000.000.02 MWQ, Bifacial Fragment 0.000.000.000.010.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 CPC, Core 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 CPC, Core Thinning 0.000.000.000.000.030.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 CPC, Shatter 0.000.000.030.020.000.000.030.010.000.000.000.000.01 CPC, Pressure 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 CPC, Bifacial Thinning (BT) 0.120.190.100.120.030.000.060.130.130.170.180.000.11 CPC, BT w/Cortex 0.060.060.020.110.030.000.030.030.000.000.000.000.04 CPC, Bifacial Fragment 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.030.000.000.000.000.000.00 TQ, Core 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.030.000.000.000.000.000.00 TQ, Shatter 0.000.030.060.020.000.030.030.030.000.000.000.000.02 TQ, Core Thinning 0.000.000.020.000.000.000.100.030.050.040.270.000.03 TQ, Thinning 0.590.670.730.670.910.970.680.750.820.780.550.000.75 TQ, Thinning w/Cortex 0.060.000.000.020.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.01 TQ, Bifacial Fragment 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.010.000.000.000.000.00 Totals 1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.000.00 1.00 Percent by Level: 0.040.080.140.200.070.080.070.160.080.050.020.00 1.00 MWQ: milky white quartz; CPC: coastal plain chert; TQ: Tallahatta quartzite

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95 Unit 2 (0-2S, 6-7E) Summary of Total Lithic Debitage within Unit Type wt.%wtcount%count Clear Quartz 0.00.0000.00 MWQ 5.20.01120.03 CPC 48.90.13750.17 TQ 334.80.863670.81 Totals: 388.91.004541.00 Unit 2 (0-2S, 6-7E) Lithic Debitage, Weights (n=388.9 g) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8Totals Clear Quartz 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00 MWQ 2.00.50.01.80.00.00.00.70.00.00.00.05.20 CPC 0.45.06.68.09.30.01.411.61.30.74.60.048.90 TQ 4.112.119.934.410.411.1120. 544.439.117.621.20.0334.8 Totals: 6.517.626.744.219.711.1121. 956.740.418.325.80.0388.9 Unit 2 (0-2S, 6-7E) Lithic Debitage, % by Weight Within Each Level (n=388.9 g) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8Totals Clear Quartz 0.000.000.000.000.000.000. 000.000.000.000.000.000.00 MWQ 0.310.030.000.040.000.000. 000.010.000.000.000.000.01 CPC 0.060.280.250.180.470.000. 010.200.030.040.180.000.13 TQ 0.630.690.750.780.531.000. 990.780.970.960.820.000.86 Totals: 1.001.000.991.001.001.001. 001.001.001.001.000.001.00 Unit 2 (0-2S, 6-7E) Lithic Debitage, % by Weight Across All Levels (n=388.9 g) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8Totals Clear Quartz 0.000.000.000.000.000.000. 000.000.000.000.000.000.00 MWQ 0.380.100.000.350.000.000. 000.130.000.000.000.000.96 CPC 0.010.100.130.160.190.000. 030.240.030.010.090.001.00 TQ 0.010.040.060.100.030.030. 360.130.120.050.060.001.00 Totals: 0.020.050.070.110.050.030. 310.150.100.050.070.001.00 Unit 2 (0-2S, 6-7E) Lithic Debitage, Counts (n=454) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8Totals Clear Quartz 0000000000000 MWQ 32330001000012 CPC 3992330512542075 TQ 1125506631382659331990367 Totals: 17366292343831723823110454 Unit 2 (0-2S, 6-7E) Lithic Debitage, % by Count Within Each Level (n=454) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8Totals Clear Quartz 0.000.000.000.000.000.000. 000.000.000.000.000.000.00 MWQ 0.180.060.050.030.000.000. 000.010.000.000.000.000.03 CPC 0.180.250.150.250.090.000. 160.170.130.170.180.000.17 TQ 0.650.690.810.720.911.000. 840.820.870.830.820.000.81 Totals: 1.001.001.001.001.001.001. 001.001.001.001.000.001.00 Unit 2 (0-2S, 6-7E) Lithic Debitage, % by Counts Across All Levels (n=454) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8Totals Clear Quartz 0.000.000.000.000.000.000. 000.000.000.000.000.000.00 MWQ 0.250.170.250.250.000.000. 000.080.000.000.000.001.00 CPC 0.040.120.120.310.040.000. 070.160.070.050.030.001.00 TQ 0.030.070.140.180.080.100. 070.160.090.050.020.001.00 Totals: 0.040.080.140.200.070.080. 070.160.080.050.020.001.00

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96 Unit 3 (10-12N, 20-21E) Lithic Weights (n=555.4 g) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8Totals Clear Quartz Thinning 1.400.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.100.001.50 Clear Quartz Fragment 0.000.000.800.500.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.001.30 MWQ, Core Fragment 2.809.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.0011.80 MWQ, Thinning 1.600.401.001.202.400.000.800.400.000.000.000.007.80 CPC, Core 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 CPC, Core Thinning 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.0012.200.009.5021.70 CPC, Shatter 0.000.000.000.000.600.0011.800.300.3049.500.000.0062.50 CPC, Pressure 1.400.001.800.400.400.100.200.000.100.000.000.004.40 CPC, Bifacial Thinning (BT) 0.001.802.505.700.500.600.008.800.500.000.001.2021.60 CPC, BT w/Cortex 2.504.502.800.006.100.101.300.000.000.000.000.0017.30 TQ, Core 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 TQ, Shatter 0.003.400.000.000.002.300.006.800.000.002.400.0014.90 TQ, Core Thinning 0.000.000.000.000.000.0048.500.0033.7058.900.000.00141.10 TQ, Thinning 15.7014.4014.7015.9022.9028.5028.7029.8020.4012.4033.307.30244.00 TQ, Thinning w/Cortex 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 TQ, Bifacial Fragment 0.000.000.000.000.005.500.000.000.000.000.000.005.50 Totals 25.4033.5023.6023.7032.9037.1091.3046.1055.00133.0035.8018.00 555.40 MWQ: milky white quartz; CPC: coastal plain chert; TQ: Tallahatta quartzite555.40 Unit 3 (10-12N, 20-21E) Lithics, Frequency Distributions by Weight (n=555.4 g) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8Totals Clear Quartz Thinning 0.060.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Clear Quartz Fragment 0.000.000.030.020.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 MWQ, Core Fragment 0.110.270.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.02 MWQ, Thinning 0.060.010.040.050.070.000.010.010.000.000.000.000.01 CPC, Core 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 CPC, Core Thinning 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.090.000.530.04 CPC, Shatter 0.000.000.000.000.020.000.130.010.010.370.000.000.11 CPC, Pressure 0.060.000.080.020.010.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.01 CPC, Bifacial Thinning (BT) 0.000.050.110.240.020.020.000.190.010.000.000.070.04 CPC, BT w/Cortex 0.100.130.120.000.190.000.010.000.000.000.000.000.03 TQ, Core 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 TQ, Shatter 0.000.100.000.000.000.060.000.150.000.000.070.000.03 TQ, Core Thinning 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.530.000.610.440.000.000.25 TQ, Thinning 0.620.430.620.670.700.770.310.650.370.090.930.410.44 TQ, Thinning w/Cortex 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 TQ, Bifacial Fragment 0.000.000.000.000.000.150.000.000.000.000.000.000.01 Totals 1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00 1.00 Percent by Level: 0.050.060.040.040.060.070.160.080.100.240.060.03 1.00 MWQ: milky white quartz; CPC: coastal plain chert; TQ: Tallahatta quartzite

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97 Unit 3 (10-12N, 20-21E) Lithic Counts (n=609) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8Totals Clear Quartz Thinning 2000000000103 Clear Quartz Fragment 0021000000003 MWQ, Core Fragment 1200000000003 MWQ, Thinning 11173021000016 CPC, Core 0000000000000 CPC, Core Thinning 0000000001012 CPC, Shatter 00004011130010 CPC, Pressure 701122230100028 CPC, Bifacial Thinning (BT) 085174205200144 CPC, BT w/Cortex 16406120000020 TQ, Core 0000000000000 TQ, Shatter 02000304002011 TQ, Core Thinning 00000030490016 TQ, Thinning 31304432506552555327103452 TQ, Thinning w/Cortex 0000000000000 TQ, Bifacial Fragment 0000010000001 Totals 43496759697463666140135 609 MWQ: milky white quartz; CPC: coastal plain chert; TQ: Tallahatta quartzite609 Unit 3 (10-12N, 20-21E) Lithics, Frequency Distributions by Count (n=609) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8Totals Clear Quartz Thinning 0.050.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.080.000.00 Clear Quartz Fragment 0.000.000.030.020.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 MWQ, Core Fragment 0.020.040.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 MWQ, Thinning 0.020.020.010.120.040.000.030.020.000.000.000.000.03 CPC, Core 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 CPC, Core Thinning 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.030.000.200.00 CPC, Shatter 0.000.000.000.000.060.000.020.020.020.080.000.000.02 CPC, Pressure 0.160.000.160.030.030.030.050.000.020.000.000.000.05 CPC, Bifacial Thinning (BT) 0.000.160.070.290.060.030.000.080.030.000.000.200.07 CPC, BT w/Cortex 0.020.120.060.000.090.010.030.000.000.000.000.000.03 TQ, Core 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 TQ, Shatter 0.000.040.000.000.000.040.000.060.000.000.150.000.02 TQ, Core Thinning 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.050.000.070.230.000.000.03 TQ, Thinning 0.720.610.660.540.720.880.830.830.870.680.770.600.74 TQ, Thinning w/Cortex 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 TQ, Bifacial Fragment 0.000.000.000.000.000.010.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Totals 1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00 1.00 Percent by Level: 0.070.080.110.100.110.120.100.110.100.070.020.01 1.00 MWQ: milky white quartz; CPC: coastal plain chert; TQ: Tallahatta quartzite

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98 Unit 3 (10-12N, 20-21E) Summary of Total Lithic Debitage within Unit Type wt.%wtcount%count Clear Quartz 2.80.0160.01 MWQ 19.60.04190.03 CPC 127.50.231040.17 TQ 405.50.734800.79 Totals: 555.41.006091.00 Unit 3 (10-12N, 20-21E) Lithic Debitage, Weights (n=555.4 g) Type A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8Totals Clear Quartz 1.40.00.80.50.00.00.00.00.00.00.10.02.8 MWQ 4.49.41.01.22.40.00.80.40.00.00.00.019.6 CPC 3.96.37.16.17.60.813.39.10.961.70.010.7127.5 TQ 15.717.814.715.922.936.377.236.654.171.335.77.3405.5 Totals 25.433.523.623.732.937.191.346.155.0133.035.818.0555.4 Unit 3 (10-12N, 20-21E) Lithic Debitage, % by Weight Within Each Level (n=555.4 g) Type A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8Totals Clear Quartz 0.060.000.030.020.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.01 MWQ 0.170.280.040.050.070.000.010.010.000.000.000.000.04 CPC 0.150.190.300.260.230.020.150.200.020.460.000.590.23 TQ 0.620.530.620.670.700.980.850.790.980.541.000.410.73 Totals 1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00 Unit 3 (10-12N, 20-21E) Lithic Debitage, % by Weight Across All Levels (n=555.4 g) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8Totals Clear Quartz 0.500.000.290.180.000.000.000.000.000.000.040.001.00 MWQ 0.220.480.050.060.120.000.040.020.000.000.000.001.00 CPC 0.030.050.060.050.060.010.100.070.010.480.000.081.00 TQ 0.040.040.040.040.060.090.190.090.130.180.090.021.00 Totals 0.050.060.040.040.060.070.160.080.100.240.060.031.00 Unit 3 (10-12N, 20-21E) Lithic Debitage, Counts (n=609) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8Totals Clear Quartz 2021000000106 MWQ 23173021000019 CPC 8142019165664402104 TQ 31324432506955595736123480 Totals 43496759697463666140135609 Unit 3 (10-12N, 20-21E) Lithic Debitage, % by Count Within Each Level (n=609) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8Totals Clear Quartz 0.050.000.030.020.000.000.000.000.000.000.080.000.01 MWQ 0.050.060.010.120.040.000.030.020.000.000.000.000.03 CPC 0.190.290.300.320.230.070.100.090.070.100.000.400.17 TQ 0.720.650.660.540.720.930.870.890.930.900.920.600.79 Totals 1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00 Unit 3 (10-12N, 20-21E) Lithic Debitage, % by Count Across All Levels (n=609) Type Level:A1A2A3A4B1B2B3B4B5B6B7B8Totals Clear Quartz 0.330.000.330.170.000.000.000.000.000.000.170.001.00 MWQ 0.110.160.050.370.160.000.110.050.000.000.000.001.00 CPC 0.080.130.190.180.150.050.060.060.040.040.000.021.00 TQ 0.060.070.090.070.100.140.110.120.120.080.030.011.00 Totals 0.070.080.110.100.110.120.100.110.100.070.020.011.00

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99 Unit 4 (50-52N, 0-1E) Lithic Weights (n=105.6 g) Type Level:A1A2A3B1B2B3B4B5B6B7Totals Clear Quartz Thinning 0.00.00.00.00.20.00.00.00.00.00.2 Clear Quartz Fragment 0.00.01.50.01.51.50.00.00.00.04.5 MWQ, Thinning 0.40.30.00.40.00.00.00.00.00.01.1 CPC, Core 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0 CPC, Core Thinning 3.10.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.03.1 CPC, Shatter 1.10.40.00.90.00.02.20.05.30.09.9 CPC, Pressure 0.00.50.00.30.2 0.0 0.00.00.00.01.0 CPC, Bifacial Thinning (BT) 0.00.01.81.54.40.00.00.00.00.07.7 CPC, BT w/Cortex 0.00.00.02.20.00.00.00.00.00.02.2 TQ, Core 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0 TQ, Shatter 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.03.23.2 TQ, Core Thinning 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.014.60.00.014.6 TQ, Thinning 3.71.23.415.88.87.913.24.00.10.058.1 TQ, Thinning w/Cortex 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0 TQ, Bifacial Fragment 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0 Totals 8.32.46.721.115.19.415.418.65.43.2 105.6 MWQ: milky white quartz; CPC: coastal plain chert; TQ: Tallahatta quartzite105.6 Unit 4 (50-52N, 0-1E) Lithics, Frequency Distributions by Weight (n=105.6 g) Type Level:A1A2A3B1B2B3B4B5B6B7Totals Clear Quartz Thinning 0.000.000.000.000.010.000.000.000.000.000.00 Clear Quartz Fragment 0.000.000.220.000.100.160.000.000.000.000.04 MWQ, Thinning 0.050.130.000.020.000.000.000.000.000.000.01 CPC, Core 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 CPC, Core Thinning 0.370.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.03 CPC, Shatter 0.130.170.000.040.000.000.140.000.980.000.09 CPC, Pressure 0.000.210.000.010.010.000.000.000.000.000.01 CPC, Bifacial Thinning (BT) 0.000.000.270.070.290.000.000.000.000.000.07 CPC, BT w/Cortex 0.000.000.000.100.000.000.000.000.000.000.02 TQ, Core 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 TQ, Shatter 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.001.000.03 TQ, Core Thinning 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.780.000.000.14 TQ, Thinning 0.450.500.510.750.580.840.860.220.020.000.55 TQ, Thinning w/Cortex 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 TQ, Bifacial Fragment 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Totals 1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00 1.00 Percent by Level: 0.080.020.060.200.140.090.150.180.050.03 1.00 MWQ: milky white quartz; CPC: coastal plain chert; TQ: Tallahatta quartzite

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100 Unit 4 (50-52N, 0-1E) Lithic Counts (n=111) Type Level:A1A2A3B1B2B3B4B5B6B7Totals Clear Quartz Thinning 00001000001 Clear Quartz Fragment 00201100004 MWQ, Thinning 11010000003 CPC, Core 00000000000 CPC, Core Thinning 10000000001 CPC, Shatter 21020010309 CPC, Pressure 03022000007 CPC, Bifacial Thinning (BT) 00112000004 CPC, BT w/Cortex 00020000002 TQ, Core 00000000000 TQ, Shatter 00000000011 TQ, Core Thinning 00000002002 TQ, Thinning 536221791041077 TQ, Thinning w/Cortex 00000000000 TQ, Bifacial Fragment 00000000000 Totals 98930231011641 111 MWQ: milky white quartz; CPC: coastal plain chert; TQ: Tallahatta quartzite111 Unit 4 (50-52N, 0-1E) Lithics, Frequency Distributions by Count (n=111) Type Level:A1A2A3B1B2B3B4B5B6B7Totals Clear Quartz Thinning 0.000.000.000.000.040.000.000.000.000.000.01 Clear Quartz Fragment 0.000.000.220.000.040.100.000.000.000.000.04 MWQ, Thinning 0.110.130.000.030.000.000.000.000.000.000.03 CPC, Core 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 CPC, Core Thinning 0.110.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.01 CPC, Shatter 0.220.130.000.070.000.000.090.000.750.000.08 CPC, Pressure 0.000.380.000.070.090.000.000.000.000.000.06 CPC, Bifacial Thinning (BT) 0.000.000.110.030.090.000.000.000.000.000.04 CPC, BT w/Cortex 0.000.000.000.070.000.000.000.000.000.000.02 TQ, Core 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 TQ, Shatter 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.001.000.01 TQ, Core Thinning 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.330.000.000.02 TQ, Thinning 0.560.380.670.730.740.900.910.670.250.000.69 TQ, Thinning w/Cortex 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 TQ, Bifacial Fragment 0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 Totals 1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00 1.00 Percent by Level: 0.080.070.080.270.210.090.100.050.040.01 1.00 MWQ: milky white quartz; CPC: coastal plain chert; TQ: Tallahatta quartzite

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101 Unit 4 (50-52N, 0-1E) Summary of Total Lithic Debitage Within Unit Type wt.%wtcount%count Clear Quartz 4.70.0450.05 MWQ 0.00.0030.03 CPC 23.90.23230.21 TQ 75.90.72800.72 Totals: 105.60.991111.00 Unit 4 (50-52N, 0-1E) Lithic Debitage, Weights (n=105.6 g) Type Level:A1A2A3B1B2B3B4B5B6B7Totals Clear Quartz 0.00.01.50.01.71.50.00.00.00.04.7 MWQ 0.40.30.00.40.00.00.00.00.00.01.1 CPC 4.20.91.84.94.60.02.20.05.30.023.9 TQ 3.71.23.415.88.87.913.218.60.13.275.9 Totals 8.32.46.721.115.19.415.418.65.43.2105.6 Unit 4 (50-52N, 0-1E) Lithic Debitage, % by Weight Within Each Level (n=105.6 g) Type Level:A1A2A3B1B2B3B4B5B6B7Totals Clear Quartz 0.00.00.20.00.10.20.00.00.00.00.0 MWQ 0.00.10.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0 CPC 0.50.40.30.20.30.00.10.01.00.00.2 TQ 0.40.50.50.70.60.80.91.00.01.00.7 Totals 1.01.01.01.01.01.01.01.01.01.01.0 Unit 4 (50-52N, 0-1E) Lithic Debitage, % by Weight Across All Levels (n=105.6 g) Type Level:A1A2A3B1B2B3B4B5B6B7Totals Clear Quartz 0.00.00.30.00.40.30.00.00.00.01.0 MWQ 0.40.30.00.40.00.00.00.00.00.01.0 CPC 0.20.00.10.20.20.00.10.00.20.01.0 TQ 0.00.00.00.20.10.10.20.20.00.01.0 Totals 0.10.00.10.20.10.10.10.20.10.01.0 Unit 4 (50-52N, 0-1E) Lithic Debitage, Counts (n=111) Type Level:A1A2A3B1B2B3B4B5B6B7Totals Clear Quartz 00202100005 MWQ 11010000003 CPC 341740103023 TQ 536221791061180 Totals 98930231011641111 Unit 4 (50-52N, 0-1E) Lithic Debitage, % by Count Within Each Level (n=111) Type Level:A1A2A3B1B2B3B4B5B6B7Totals Clear Quartz 0.00.00.20.00.10.10.00.00.00.00.0 MWQ 0.10.10.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0 CPC 0.30.50.10.20.20.00.10.00.80.00.2 TQ 0.60.40.70.70.70.90.91.00.31.00.7 Totals 1.01.01.01.01.01.01.01.01.01.01.0 Unit 4 (50-52N, 0-1E) Lithic Debitage, % by Count Across All Levels (n=111) Type Level:A1A2A3B1B2B3B4B5B6B7Totals Clear Quartz 0.00.00.40.00.40.20.00.00.00.01.0 MWQ 0.30.30.00.30.00.00.00.00.00.01.0 CPC 0.10.20.00.30.20.00.00.00.10.01.0 TQ 0.10.00.10.30.20.10.10.10.00.01.0 Totals 0.10.10.10.30.20.10.10.10.00.01.0


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Earnest, Tray G.
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The history and results of achaeological investigations at 1Cv32, the Mitchell site, in Covington County Alabama
h [electronic resource] /
by Tray G. Earnest.
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[Tampa, Fla.] :
University of South Florida,
2004.
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Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2004.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
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System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
500
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 110 pages.
3 520
ABSTRACT: This thesis examines the history and results of investigations at 1Cv32, the Mitchell Site, in Covington County, Alabama. The Mitchell Site is perhaps the largest recorded Middle Woodland mound center in southeast Alabama. Data from limited testing are examined here with particular emphasis on the ceramic assemblage. Ceramic data indicate that the portion of this site investigated is predominately Middle Woodland, with distinct Weeden Island attributes.
590
Adviser: White, Nancy Marie
653
southeast Alabama prehistory.
middle Woodland mound.
Weeden Island.
Conecuh River.
0 690
Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x Applied Anthropology
Masters.
773
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.246