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Personality and motivational characteristics of the successful mentor

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Personality and motivational characteristics of the successful mentor
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Lima, Lizzette
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motivation to mentor
mentoring
big five personality traits
intrinsic motivation
learning goal orientation
Dissertations, Academic -- Psychology -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
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government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between mentor characteristics (i.e., motivational tendencies, personality traits), mentoring provided, and protégé outcomes. A motivational approach was taken, in the sense that motives to mentor, as well as personality characteristics of the mentor, were considered in regard to their ability to predict the type of mentoring provided and outcomes for the protégé. Specifically, the potential relationships between personality traits (Intrinsic Motivation, Learning Goal Orientation, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Machiavellianism) and mentor motives, as well as the provision of career and psychosocial mentoring, were examined. In addition, the current study examined the ability of mentor characteristics to predict several protégé outcomes. Ninety-one mentors (i.e., college juniors and seniors) were paired with 91 protégés (i.e., college freshmen) and were asked to meet for a half hour each week for four consecutive weeks. Self-report measures were collected from both mentors and protégés before the mentoring sessions began (T1) and after (T2) they were completed to determine the effect of having a mentor on various outcomes. All mentoring sessions were videotaped so that trained raters could code the type of mentoring behaviors that occurred within a given session. Results were analyzed via correlational analyses, exploratory regression analyses, and hierarchical regression analyses. Individuals who were generally more intrinsically motivated and learning goal oriented reported being more motivated to mentor others for intrinsic satisfaction reasons. Mentors who were more extraverted and agreeable than their peers reported being more motivated to mentor in order to benefit others. In addition, having a mentor who provided career mentoring reduced school-related stress for a protégé. The key findings of the current study provide support for the view that personality and motivational characteristics of the mentor affect the type of mentoring provided, albeit indirectly in some cases. In addition, it is important to consider multiple sources of mentoring data provided (i.e., mentor, protégé,independent rater) rather than just the protégé's point of view because this will provide a more well-rounded picture of the mentoring relationship, as well as identify potential gaps in perception that may exist between mentors and protégés.
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Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2004.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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by Lizzette Lima.
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Includes vita.
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Title from PDF of title page.
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Document formatted into pages; contains 259 pages.

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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between mentor characteristics (i.e., motivational tendencies, personality traits), mentoring provided, and protg outcomes. A motivational approach was taken, in the sense that motives to mentor, as well as personality characteristics of the mentor, were considered in regard to their ability to predict the type of mentoring provided and outcomes for the protg. Specifically, the potential relationships between personality traits (Intrinsic Motivation, Learning Goal Orientation, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Machiavellianism) and mentor motives, as well as the provision of career and psychosocial mentoring, were examined. In addition, the current study examined the ability of mentor characteristics to predict several protg outcomes. Ninety-one mentors (i.e., college juniors and seniors) were paired with 91 protgs (i.e., college freshmen) and were asked to meet for a half hour each week for four consecutive weeks. Self-report measures were collected from both mentors and protgs before the mentoring sessions began (T1) and after (T2) they were completed to determine the effect of having a mentor on various outcomes. All mentoring sessions were videotaped so that trained raters could code the type of mentoring behaviors that occurred within a given session. Results were analyzed via correlational analyses, exploratory regression analyses, and hierarchical regression analyses. Individuals who were generally more intrinsically motivated and learning goal oriented reported being more motivated to mentor others for intrinsic satisfaction reasons. Mentors who were more extraverted and agreeable than their peers reported being more motivated to mentor in order to benefit others. In addition, having a mentor who provided career mentoring reduced school-related stress for a protg. The key findings of the current study provide support for the view that personality and motivational characteristics of the mentor affect the type of mentoring provided, albeit indirectly in some cases. In addition, it is important to consider multiple sources of mentoring data provided (i.e., mentor, protg,independent rater) rather than just the protg's point of view because this will provide a more well-rounded picture of the mentoring relationship, as well as identify potential gaps in perception that may exist between mentors and protgs.
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Personality and Motivational Characte ristics of the Successful Mentor by Lizzette Lima A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Psychology College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: Tammy D. Allen, Ph.D. Walter C. Borman, Ph.D. Douglas Rohrer, Ph.D. Kimberly Smith-Jentsch, Ph.D. Paul E. Spector, Ph.D. Date of Approval: March 26, 2004 Keywords: Big Five Personality Traits, me ntoring, motivation to mentor, intrinsic motivation, learning goal orientation Copyright 2004, Lizzette Lima

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Dedication I would like to dedicate this dissertati on to my beloved family and friends who have continued to support me in my efforts to attain a tr uly wonderful education and an advanced degree from the University of South Florida. Through the trials and tribulations which I have suffered through, of which there were many, my loving and supporting parents, Octavio and Geny Lima my beloved siblings, Danny, Gabby, and Kiki, my wonderful and ador ing husband, Brad Schneider, and my warm and caring inlaws, Shelly and Marlene Schneider, have al ways been there when I needed them. I honestly could not have completed this task without knowing that they were behind me, every step of the way. I would also like to dedicate this dissertation to my beloved grandparents. My grandfather would have cr ied with joy to see hi s oldest granddaughter achieve a dream so far and vast from what he had known throughout his life. I love you all very much and would like to dedicate this dissertation and my Ph.D. to all of you!

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Acknowledgments There are many individuals whom I would like to thank for their help in making this dissertation possible. First and fore most, I would like to thank Tammy Allen, my major professor with whom this research would not have been possible. Tammy has inspired me to surpass my original expecta tions of myself and my abilities by acting as a coach, mentor, and friend over the years. I would like to thank Tammy for her guidance and I hope that we continue to form a me ntoring relationship wh ere we can learn and share from one another. I would like to thank the Naval Air Warfare Center Tr aining Systems Division for allowing me to conduct this research. Kimber ly Smith-Jentsch was responsible for hiring me as an intern and providing me with opportunities that I would not have found elsewhere. I would like to thank Kim for allowing me to conduct this study and for acting as a mentor to me. I would like to thank the members of my dissertation committee – Paul Spector, Walter Borman, Doug Rohrer for accommodati ng my various requests in an expedient and pleasant manner. Robert Dedrick is to be thanked for acting as outside chair with very little notice. Finally, I would like to thank all the undergraduate and graduate students who helped me with my data collect ion and independent rating efforts. Thank you, Meisha Ann Martin, Tim Willis, Xian Xu, James Cannon, Suzanne Haynes, Sarah Hultman, Melissa Day, Marshall Rosbury, and Gabriel Lopez!

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i Table of Contents List of Tables………………………………………………………………………… iii List of Figures……………………………………………………………………….. vi Abstract………………………………………………………………………………. vii Chapter One………………………………………………………………………….. 1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………... 1 Theoretical Background……………………………………………… 4 Literature Review and Hypothesis Development……………………. 13 Intrinsic Motivation a nd Career Mentoring…………………. 13 Intrinsic Motivation a nd Psychosocial Mentoring ………….. 17 Intrinsic Motivati on and Intrinsic Sati sfaction Motive………. 19 Learning Goal Orientation and Career Mentoring…………… 20 Learning Goal Orientation and In trinsic Satisfaction Motive.. 25 Conscientiousness and Career Mentoring……………………. 26 Conscientiousness and Benefit Others Motive………………. 30 Agreeableness and Psychosocial Mentoring…………………. 32 Agreeableness and Benefit Others Motive…………………... 34 Extraversion and Psychosocial Mentoring……………………36 Extraversion and Benefit Others Motive…………………….. 39 Machiavellianism and Psychosocial Mentoring……………... 40 Machiavellianism and Self-Enhancement Motive…………… 42 Machiavellianism and Benefit Others Motive……………….. 43 Motives to Mentor Related to Mentoring Functions…………. 44 Mentoring Functions and Outcomes for the Protg ………... 45 Chapter Two…………………………………………………………………………. 47 Method……………………………………………………………………….. 47 Participants…………………………………………………………… 47 Procedure…………………………………………………………….. 48 Mentor Orientation…………………………………………… 48 Protg Orientation…………………………………………... 49 Mentoring Sessions…………………………………………... 49 Measures……………………………………………………………... 51 Mentor Measures…………………………………………………….. 51 Learning Goal Orientation…………………………………… 51

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ii Intrinsic Motivation………………………………………….. 52 Machiavellianism…………………………………………….. 52 NEO Five Factor Inventory…………………………………...53 Motives to Mentor…………………………………………… 54 Protg Measures…………………………………………………….. 56 School Stress…………………………………………………. 56 Physical Symptoms of Stress………………………………… 57 School Self-Efficacy…………………………………………. 57 Desire to Continue Mentoring Relationship…………………. 57 Satisfaction with the Mentoring Relationship……………….. 57 Shared Measures……………………………………………………... 58 Mentoring Functions…………………………………………. 58 Chapter Three ……………………………………………………………………….. 63 Results ……………………………………………………………………….. 63 Hypothesis Testing……………………………………………………63 Hypothesis 18………………………………………………………... 66 Exploratory Regression Tests……………………………………….. 69 Chapter Four…………………………………………………………………………. 71 Discussion……………………………………………………………………. 71 Theoretical and Practical Implications………………………………. 76 Limitations……………………………………………………............ 82 Conclusion…………………………………………………………… 85 References……………………………………………………………………………. 121 Appendices…………………………………………………………………………… 140 Appendix A: Recruitment Scri pts for Mentors and Protgs………………. 140 Appendix B: Mentor Handbook……………………………………………. 145 Appendix C: Mentor Orientation Script……………………………………. 167 Appendix D: NAVAIR Informed Consent Form……………………………172 Appendix E: UCF Code of Conduct Form…………………………………. 176 Appendix F: Mentor Time 1 Measures…………………………………….. 178 Appendix G: Protg Handbook……………………………………………. 186 Appendix H: Protg Orientation Script…………………………………….198 Appendix I: Protg Time 1 Measures…………………………………….. 202 Appendix J: Experimental Sc ripts for Sessions 1, 2, 3 and 4……………… 207 Appendix K: Mentor Time 2 Measures…………………………………….. 217 Appendix L: Protg Time 2 Measures…………………………………….. 220 Appendix M: Additional Measures…………………………………………. 228 Appendix N: Mentor ing Coding Scheme……………………………………238 About the Author…………………………………………………………………End Page

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iii List of Tables Table 1 Demographic Fre quencies for Mentors……………………………… 86 Table 2 Demographic Frequencies for Protgs……………………………… 87 Table 3 Intercorrelations Among Study Variables…………………………… 88 Table 4 Descriptive Statisti cs for Study Variables…………………………… 91 Table 5 Factor Loadings of Motive to Mentor Items………………………… 92 Table 6 Hierarchical Regression An alysis for Protg Ratings of Psychosocial Mentoring Pred icting Change in Protg School Stress (N=90)………………………………………………… 93 Table 7 Hierarchical Regression An alysis for Protg Ratings of Career Development Mentoring Predicting Change in Protg School Stress (N=90)……………………………………….. 94 Table 8 Hierarchical Regression An alysis for Mentor Ratings of Career Development Mentoring Predicting Change in Protg School Stress (N=90)……………………………………….. 95 Table 9 Hierarchical Regression An alysis for Mentor Ratings of Psychosocial Mentoring Pred icting Change in Protg School Stress (N=90)………………………………………………… 96 Table 10 Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Independent Rater Ratings of Psychosocial Me ntoring Predicting Change in Protg School Stress (N=90)…………………………………….. 97 Table 11 Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Independent Rater Ratings of Career Developmen t Mentoring Predicting Change in Protg School Stress (N=90)……………………………………... 98 Table 12 Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Protg Ratings of Psychosocial Mentoring Pr edicting Change in Protg Physical Symptoms of Stress (N=90)………………………………... 99

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iv Table 13 Hierarchical Regression An alysis for Protg Ratings of Career Development Mentoring Predicting Change in Protg Physical Symptoms of Stress (N=90)…………………………………100 Table 14 Hierarchical Regression An alysis for Mentor Ratings of Career Development Mentoring Pr edicting Change in Protg Physical Symptoms of Stress (N=90)…………………………………101 Table 15 Hierarchical Regression An alysis for Mentor Ratings of Psychosocial Mentoring Predic ting Change in Protg Physical Symptoms of Stress (N=90)………………………………... 102 Table 16 Hierarchical Regression An alysis for Independent Rater Ratings of Psychosocial Mentor ing Predicting Change in Protg Physical Symptoms of Stress (N=90)………………………. 103 Table 17 Hierarchical Regression An alysis for Independent Rater Ratings of Career Development Mentoring Predicting Change in Protg Physical Symptoms of Stress (N=90)……………………. 104 Table 18 Hierarchical Regression An alysis for Protg Ratings of Psychosocial Mentoring Predic ting Change in Protg School Self-Efficacy (N=90)………………………………………… 105 Table 19 Hierarchical Regression An alysis for Protg Ratings of Career Development Mentoring Pr edicting Change in Protg School Self-Efficacy (N=90)………………………………………… 106 Table 20 Hierarchical Regression An alysis for Mentor Ratings of Career Development Mentoring Pr edicting Change in Protg School Self-Efficacy (N=90)………………………………………… 107 Table 21 Hierarchical Regression An alysis for Mentor Ratings of Psychosocial Mentoring Predic ting Change in Protg School Self-Efficacy (N=90)………………………………………… 108 Table 22 Hierarchical Regression An alysis for Independent Rater Ratings of Psychosocial Mentor ing Predicting Change in Protg School Self-Efficacy (N=90)……………………………….. 109 Table 23 Hierarchical Regression An alysis for Independent Rater Ratings of Career Developm ent Mentoring Predicting Change in Protg School Self-Efficacy (N=90)……………………. 110

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v Table 24 Exploratory Regression Anal ysis for Independent Variables Predicting Mentor Ratings of Career Development (N=91)………… 111 Table 25 Exploratory Regression Anal ysis for Independent Variables Predicting Protg Ratings of Ca reer Development (N=91)………… 112 Table 26 Exploratory Regression Anal ysis for Independent Variables Predicting Independent Rate r Ratings of Career Development (N=90)………………………………………………… 113 Table 27 Exploratory Regression Anal ysis for Independent Variables Predicting Mentor Ratings of Ps ychosocial Mentoring (N=90)……... 114 Table 28 Exploratory Regression Anal ysis for Independent Variables Predicting Protg Ratings of Ps ychosocial Mentoring (N=90)……... 115 Table 29 Exploratory Regression Anal ysis for Independent Variables Predicting Independent Rater Ratings of Psychosocial Mentoring (N=89)……………………………………………………. 116 Table 30 Exploratory Regression Anal ysis for Independent Variables Predicting Intrinsic Satisfaction Motive to Mentor (N=91)…………. 117 Table 31 Exploratory Regression Anal ysis for Independent Variables Predicting Benefit Others Mo tive to Mentor (N=90)………………... 118 Table 32 Support for Hypothesis Tests………………………………………… 119

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vi List of Figures Figure 1. Model of Proposed Relati onship Between Mentor’s Personality Traits, Motives to Mentor, Me ntoring Functions and Outcomes for the Protg……………………………………………………….. 13

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vii Personality and Motivational Characte ristics of the Successful Mentor Lizzette Lima ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to inves tigate the relationship between mentor characteristics (i.e., motivational tendencies, personality traits), mentoring provided, and protg outcomes. A motivati onal approach was taken, in the sense that motives to mentor, as well as personality characteristics of the mentor, we re considered in regard to their ability to predict the type of mentor ing provided and outcomes for the protg. Specifically, the potential relati onships between personality tr aits (Intrinsic Motivation, Learning Goal Orientation, Conscientious ness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Machiavellianism) and mentor motives, as well as the provis ion of career and psychosocial mentoring, were examined. In addition, the current study examined the ability of mentor characteristics to predict several protg outcomes. Ninety-one mentors (i.e., college juni ors and seniors) were paired with 91 protgs (i.e., college freshmen) and were as ked to meet for a half hour each week for four consecutive weeks. Se lf-report measures were colle cted from both mentors and protgs before the mentoring sessions began (T1) and after (T2) they were completed to determine the effect of having a mentor on various outcomes. All mentoring sessions were videotaped so that trai ned raters could code the type of mentoring behaviors that

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viii occurred within a given session. Results were analyzed via correlational analyses, exploratory regression an alyses, and hierarchical regression analyses. Individuals who were generally more in trinsically motivated and learning goal oriented reported being more motivated to me ntor others for intrinsic satisfaction reasons. Mentors who were more extraverted and agre eable than their peers reported being more motivated to mentor in order to benefit others. In addition, having a mentor who provided career mentoring reduced school -related stress for a protg. The key findings of the curre nt study provide support for the view that personality and motivational characteristics of the mentor affect the type of mentoring provided, albeit indirectly in some cases. In addition, it is important to consider multiple sources of mentoring data provided (i.e., mentor, protg, independent rater) ra ther than just the protg’s point of view because this will provide a more well-rounded picture of the mentoring relationship, as well as identify pot ential gaps in perception that may exist between mentors and protgs.

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1 Chapter 1 Introduction Throughout the past few decades, many orga nizations have recognized the value of initiating programs to facilitate suc cessful mentoring among their employees. Mentoring programs within organizations can either be aimed at fostering spontaneous, informal mentoring relationships that are not monitored by the organization or they may involve assignment or matching of mentors a nd protgs as part of a formal mentor program. Regardless of whether these type s of programs are formal or informal, evidence stemming from both empirical resear ch and anecdotal repo rts has shown that protgs receive many career benefits as a resu lt of having a mentor (For a review, please see Allen, Eby, Poteet, Lentz & Lima, 2004). Other types of non-traditional mentoring relationships (e.g., peer mentors) and relati onships occurring within non-organizational settings (e.g., academic setting with students) have also shown that individuals who are mentored will benefit (Allen, McManus, & Russell, 1999; Green & Bauer, 1995; Kram & Isabella, 1985). To date, most research has focused on the positive outcomes that mentoring can have on the protg. Only recently have authors focused their attention on the mentor (Allen, Poteet, Russell, & Dobbins, 1997; Arye e, Chay, & Chew, 1996). However, the majority of these studies have examined the im pact of variables such as race, gender, and past experience as a mentor on the mentor ing relationship (Dreher & Ash, 1990; Dreher

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2 & Cox, 1996; Fagenson-Eland, Marks, & Am endola, 1997), rather than mentor characteristics (e.g., personality traits that may lead to being a successful mentor). Researchers have suggested that individual differences on the part of the mentor can influence the mentoring relationship (Allen & Poteet, 1999; Roche, 1979). A number of studies have examined the role that i ndividual differences (e.g., altruism, upward striving) on the part of the me ntor may play in the mentori ng relationship (Allen et al., 1997; Aryee, Chay, & Chew, 1996); however, res earchers have yet to examine the impact that personality characteristics on the part of the mentor may have on the type and quality of mentoring provided. In addition, little research exists aimed at uncovering why mentors are motivated to engage in a mentoring rela tionship. Given the amount of time and effort often required to mentor others, it may be of value to unders tand what motivates one to engage in such behaviors. In fact, given th at individuals will likely choose to become mentors for different reasons, these motives may actua lly impact the quality and quantity of mentoring functions (Allen, in press). For example, mentors who are motivated to mentor out of a desire to in crease their visibility and re putation within an organization may not put a large amount of effort into providing career development and psychosocial functions to their protg. Rather, they ma y focus their attention on engaging in enough face time to convince others that they are engaged in a mentoring relationship, but the quality of each interaction with the protg may be poor given that the mentor may not be truly interested in he lping the protg. On the other hand, mentors who are motivated to become a mentor out of a sincere desire to have an impact on the life of another

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3 individual may provide a hi gh level of both mentoring f unctions, thus improving the overall quality of the mentor ing relationship. Thus, it is important to examine how motives for mentoring are related to both car eer development and psychosocial functions, as well as to the benefits one receives as a pr otg. In addition, it is important to examine potential antecedents of motives for mentori ng in order to provide an overall framework for understanding how these variables impact mentor behavior. The current study examines the impact that individual differences of the mentor can have on the mentoring relationship. A motiv ational approach is taken, in the sense that motives to mentor, as well as persona lity characteristics of the mentor, are considered in regard to their ability to predict the type of mentoring provided and outcomes for the protg. Accordingly, the present study has four main objectives. The first is to examine how different mentor motiv es impact the quality and type of mentoring provided. The second objective is to identify individual differences that are related to motives to mentor. Specifically, the potential relationships between personality traits (Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivation, Goal Orient ation, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Machiavellianism) and mentor motives, as well as the provision of mentoring functions, are examined. The thir d objective is to examine the ability of mentor characteristics to pred ict several protg outcomes (School Self-Efficacy, School Stress, Physical Symptoms of Stress, Satisf action with the Relationship, and Desire to Continue the Relationship). Finally, the four th objective is to address a number of limitations inherent in the e xploration of mentoring thr ough the design of the current study.

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4 Typically, mentoring studies are cross-sec tional and consist of either surveys or self-report measures, which tend to be very subjective. In additi on, most research has only gathered perceptions of the protg, and su ch data are often not matched with that of the mentor. The current study matched 91 mentor s (i.e., college junior s and seniors) with 91 protgs (i.e., college freshmen) who were asked to meet for a half hour each week for four consecutive weeks. Se lf-report measures were collect ed from both the mentors and the protgs. In addition, all mentoring sessi ons were videotaped so that trained raters could code the type of mentor ing behaviors that occurred within a given session. This methodology allowed judgments to be made as to the extent that th e self-report measures of mentoring functions corresponded to act ual ratings of behaviors representing the mentoring functions. Theoretical Background Mentors are traditionally viewed as i ndividuals with advanced knowledge and skill that provide both career development (e.g., sponsorship, exposure and visibility, coaching, protection, challenging assignment s) and psychosocial functions (e.g., role modeling, acceptance and confir mation, counseling, and friendshi p) to a junior colleague, or protg (Kram, 1985). Having a mentor t ypically results in positive career outcomes for the protg. Some of the outcomes that protgs receive include higher promotion rates (Dreher & Ash, 1990; Whitely, Doughe rty, and Dreher, 1991), higher compensation (Dreher & Ash, 1990; Whitely et al., 1991) perceived career success (Turban & Dougherty, 1994), career satisfact ion (Fagenson, 1989), and career mobility (Scandura, 1992).

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5 Some researchers have focused on protg characteristics that may impact the mentoring relationship. Turban and Doughert y (1994) found that protgs’ personality characteristics influence the amount of ment oring they receive by having an impact on the amount of effort they put forth in initia ting the mentoring relati onship. Protgs who had an internal locus of control, were high self-monitors, and had hi gh emotional stability were more likely to initiate a mentoring relationship, thus infl uencing the amount of mentoring received. However, as Noe (1988) pointed out, “mentor characteristics may be equally important determinants of the su ccess of mentoring rela tionships” (p. 476). The motivation literature sheds light on the importance of examining why mentors are motivated to engage in a mentoring relationship. Motivati on implies that an individual’s behavior w ill be directed by his or her pers onal goals. “The goals that an individual adopts have direct ramifications for the activ ation and opera tion of selfregulation processes. The effectiveness of self-regulation processes for accomplishing specific goals, in turn affects the individua l’s goal choice” (Kanfer & Heggestad, 1997, p. 5). Indeed, Cropanzano, James, and Citera ( 1993) stated that “once a goal is chosen and accepted…individuals begin to place a higher va lue on successful performance” (p. 274). This process suggests that individuals who are motivated to engage in a specific task will be more successful than others at completi ng it. Along those lines it is important to discover why individuals are motivated to be come mentors. Chao, Walz, and Gardner (1992) suggested that, “motivation to particip ate in a mentorship [should] be a primary concern for formal programs” (p. 634). Aryee, Chay, and Chew (1996) echoed this

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6 thought by stating that, “very little research effort has been devoted to understanding the motivational basis of assuming the mentor role” (p. 274). Thus, individuals who are motivated to mentor, whether it be for intrinsic satisfaction, the desire to help others, or essentially any r eason, may be more likely to persist in the mentoring relati onship and to engage in tasks that fall within the domain of psychosocial or career development functions than mentors who have less motivation to engage in a mentoring relationship. In fact, knowledge of a mentor’s specific reasons or motives for engaging in the mentoring relationshi p may even enable us to predict the type of mentoring in which they will engage. Personality characteristics of the mentor may play an important role in explaining the amount of motivation a mentor may have. For example, Schmid t and Hunter (1981) and Barrick and Mount (1991) ha ve argued that trait motivat ion is largely captured by individual differences in c onscientiousness. The research of Kanfer and Ackerman (2000) suggests that differences in persona lity may explain why some individuals are more motivated than others to engage in certain behaviors. Accordingly, specific personality traits may lead to a greater likelihood that mentors will be motivated to engage in a mentoring relationship. Allen (2003) found that helpful individuals are more likely to have served as a mentor to others, while indivi duals higher in other-oriented empathy, a facet of prosocial personality, reported greater willingness to ment or others. This implies that individuals who have an altruistic personality may be more likely to seek out and engage in mentoring relationships than those who are lo w on this personality trait. In addition,

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7 specific personality tr aits of the mentor may predict which types of motives drive mentors. In fact, it has been suggested that personality theory should be integrated with current theories of motivation since both dom ains involve the accomplishment of specific task goals (Cropanzano et al., 1993). Inte restingly, not only may personality influence the level of motivation an indivi dual has to mentor, but it ma y also influence the type of motivation (e.g., desire to help others, self -interest) to mentor (Allen, in press). Unfortunately, the published literature is limite d in regard to exploring this avenue of research. Some researchers have looked at the im portance of individual differences on the part of the mentor in general. Roche (1979) generated a list of se ven key characteristics that focus on the mentor’s power, position, knowledge and respect. Hunt and Michael (1983) suggested that mentors should be high in self-confidence a nd concerned about the needs and development of their subordinates Cronan-Hillix, Gens heimer, Cronan-Hillix, and Davidson (1986) asked 90 graduate st udents to list the fi ve most important characteristics of good and bad mentors. The mo st frequently mentione d characteristic of good mentors was that they we re supportive of the student. Thus, researchers have suggested that individual di fferences on the part of the mentor can influence the mentoring relationship. It is interesting to note that Cronan-Hill ix et al. (1986) also found that specific personality traits on the part of the mentor might impact the mentoring experience. For example, personality characte ristics such as a good sense of humor, honesty, dedication, empathy, compassion, genuineness, flexibility, patience, and loyalty, were frequently

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8 listed as desirable traits in a mentor. Personal ity also played a formid able role in regard to the qualities that were not desired in a mentor. For example, bad mentors were described as rigid, critical, egocentric, prejudiced, pathol ogical, rushed, overextended, disorganized, dishonest and unt rustworthy. The authors conclude d that the “personality of mentors is a prime determinant of their desi rability” (Cronan-Hillix et al., 1986, p. 127). While Cronan-Hillix et al. (1986) examined desirable me ntor characteristics from the viewpoint of the protg, others have considered similar information from the viewpoint of the mentor. Allen and Poteet (1999) examined the perceived characteristics of an ideal mentor based on interviews with 27 mentors from five different organizations and content-analyzed the findi ngs. Results indicated that the ideal mentor should possess a variety of personality characteristics. These include: Patience, honesty, peopleoriented, common sense, self-confidence, ope nness to suggestions, and willingness to share information. The authors suggested th at, “a study in which mentor characteristics are assessed and then correlated with pr otg reports regarding outcomes of the mentoring relationships would be especially useful” (Allen & Poteet, 1999, p. 68). Thus, researchers have clearly pointed to the potential value of st udying mentor characteristics and the role that personality may play in th e quality of mentoring. A benefit of the current study is that I examine personality ch aracteristics on the part of the mentor in regard to their influence on the protg’s mentoring experience. Although previous research has hinted at the importance of studying mentor personality traits, most studies have only ex amined mentor characteristics from the focus of demographic variables, such as the imp act of race (Ragins, 1997), gender (Burke &

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9 McKeen, 1997; Hurley & Fagenson-Eland, 199 6), organizational tenure (Dreher & Ash, 1990; Fagenson, 1989; Kizlos, 1990; Whitely et al., 1991) and organizational level (Burke & McKeen, 1989; Ragins, 1997), as well as prior mentoring experience, either as a protg or as a mentor (Allen, 1999; Allen et al., 1997; Ragins & Scandura, 1999). Thus, while individual difference variables other than demographics may affect the nature of the mentoring relationship, they have rarely been studied. A few researchers who have examined pe rsonality characteristics of mentors outside of demographic variables, focusing on tr aits that are related to an individual’s willingness or motivation to become a mentor, have found promising results. For example, traits such as positive affectivity, altruism, internal locus of control, and upward striving have been positively related to will ingness to mentor (Allen et al., 1997; Aryee, Chay, & Chew, 1996). While these researchers ha ve considered the impact of personality on one’s willingness to become a mentor, it is of perhaps greate r importance to uncover the type of motives one has to engage in su ch behavior. Different motives for mentoring may have an impact on the quality and quantit y of mentoring provided as they may lead mentors to only provide specifi c functions that, while fulfil ling their own needs, may not be in the best interest of the organization or protg. Individuals are willing to be mentors for a variety of reasons. These include the desire to enhance their own self-esteem, help others, pass on information, and gain potential rewards (Allen et al., 1997; Murray, 1991). A llen, Poteet, and Burroughs (1997) found that individual reasons for ment oring others could be grouped into two overall higher-order factors: other-focused (e.g., desire to pa ss information on to others,

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10 help others in general) and self-focused (e.g., desire to increase personal learning, gratification seeing others succeed). They we nt on to suggest that the “specific motives [for mentoring] may determine what mentori ng functions are most likely to be provided, the type of individual who will be selected as a protg, and the amount of time that a mentor is willing to invest into a mentori ng relationship” (p. 83). Thus, motivation to mentor may be linked to the t ype of mentoring functions pr ovided and ultimately to the benefits one receives as a protg. Allen (2003) conducted a study to discover if prosocial personality variables (other-oriented empathy, helpfulness) were rela ted to a willingness to mentor others. She found that both other-oriented empathy and he lpfulness were related to willingness to mentor others. In addition, other-oriented em pathy related to psychosocial functions and not career development functions, while he lpfulness was correlated with career development but not psychosocial functions Motives for mentoring were factoranalyzed and broken down into three motiv es: self-enhancement (e.g., to enhance your visibility within the organization, to earn resp ect from others), intr insic satisfaction (e.g., personal pride that mentoring someone brings to gain a sense of self-satisfaction by passing on insights), and to benefit others (e .g., desire to help ot hers succeed in the organization, to ensure that knowledge a nd information is passed on to others). Mentors who reported greater motivation to mentor for self-enhancement reasons provided more career functions. Those who were motivated by intrinsic satisfaction provided more psychosocial but not career func tions, and mentors who were motivated to mentor in order to benefit others provid ed both types of func tions. Allen (2003)

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11 suggested that, “continued rese arch concerning how mentor personality is related to various aspects of the mentoring relationshi p seem warranted” (p. 24). The current study expands on Allen’s work by exploring whether personality differences account for which types of motives individuals have for ment oring, as well as the quality and type of mentoring functions prov ided to the protg. Clearly, the need exists to determine the personality characteristics of individuals who are most likely to be motiv ated to mentor for reasons th at benefit the protg and to determine which motives influence the type and quality of mentoring provided. It is also important to determine which mentor personal ity traits directly influence the type and quality of mentoring provided. A careful review of the personality and motivational literature suggests that a numb er of traits may be important in predicting motives for mentoring, as well as mentoring functions, given what we know about ideal mentor characteristics. Ideally, mentors should have a desire to engage in a mentoring relationship for the intrinsic satisfaction it may offer them, as opposed to engaging in them for the sake of gaining extrinsic rewards. Research suggest s that intrinsically motivated individuals outperform those who are extrinsically motivated in a variety of contexts (Amabile, Hill, Hennessey, & Tighe, 1994). Similarly, it is im portant that mentors be proactive in mastering the skills required in such a ro le, enjoy the challenge of the mentoring experience, and persist in the relationship despite potential difficulties. Learning goaloriented individuals are defi ned by these characteristics, t hus it seems reasonable that such individuals would be more likely to be successful mentors.

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12 The Big Five Personality Taxonomy has seen considerable debate in recent times (Goldberg, 1990). Many researchers view th e Big Five as valuable predictors of performance in a number of different cont exts (Cortina, Dougherty, Schmitt, Kaufman, & Smith, 1992; Hogan, 1991; Salgado, 1997). Some of the Big Five have been found to be more predictive than others (Barrick & Mount, 1991). Interestingly, many of the adjectives used to describe certain Big Five f actors have appeared in the literature as ideal mentor characteristics. For example, peopl e who are agreeable, compassionate, peopleoriented, and willing to share their expe rtise with others; conscientious, honest, trustworthy, dedicated, and achie vement-oriented; and extraverted, confident, effective communicators who possess leadership qual ities, are sought out as mentors. Conversely, bad or dysfunctional mentors ar e described as exploitative, dishonest, untrustworthy, manipulative, and unwilling to share their expertise with others. Therefore, it seems reasonable to assume th at these Machiavellian-like characteristics may negatively impact the mentoring relationship. The following sections will review persona lity characteristics (i.e., intrinsic motivation, goal orientation, Conscientious ness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Machiavellianism) that may be related to mo tives for mentoring (i.e., self-enhancement, intrinsic satisfaction, to bene fit others) and the type and quality of mentoring functions, as well as the impact that motives for ment oring may have on the type and quality of mentoring that occurs. A pict orial representation of the pr oposed relationships among the variables of interest is provided in Figure 1.

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13 Mentor Characteristics Motives for Mentoring Mentoring Functions Protg Outcomes (-) (-) Figure 1. Model of Proposed Relationship Between Me ntors Personality Traits, Motives to Mentor, Mentoring Functions a nd Outcomes for the Protg Literature Review and Hypothesis Development Intrinsic Motivation and Career Mentoring Intrinsic motivation can be defined as the motivation to engage in work primarily for its own sake, because the work itself is interesting, engaging, or in some way satisfying (Amabile, Hill, Hennessey, & Tighe, 1994, p. 950). Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, involves the motivation to work primarily in response to something apart Intrinsic Motivation SelfEnhancement High Machiavellianism Career Development Functions Co n sc i e n t i ous n ess Learning Goal Orientation Extraversion Psychosocial Functions Protg Satisfaction with Relationship Protg Desire to Continue Relationship Protg School Stress and Physical Symptoms of Stress Protg School SelfEfficacy Intrinsic Satisfaction Benefit Others A g reeableness

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14 from the work itself, such as reward or rec ognition or the dictates of other people” (p. 950). Although Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motiva tion have often been depicted as temporarily induced motivational states, much of the research conducted in this area suggests that it may be worthwhile to st udy these constructs as stable individual differences that are strong and salient. For example, extrinsically motivated individuals tend to show more impatient, rigid behavi or in task engagement (Garbarino, 1975); poorer concept attainment (McCullers & Martin, 1971); impaired complex problem solving (Glucksberg, 1962); and poorer incide ntal learning (Bahrick, Fitts, & Rankin, 1952). It may be of value in a variety of settings (e.g., selection, performance management) to determine if these differences are a result of stable motivational traits within individuals (Amabile et al., 1996). People who are intrinsically motivated are more likely to engage in challenging and developmental opportunities. They pref er activities that are complex, challenging, and entertaining. They respond with greater effort and persistence after encountering failure (Boggiano & Barrett, 1985), show in creased capacity for conceptual learning (Grolnick & Ryan, 1987) and display cogniti ve flexibility in their problem-solving attempts (Condry, 1977). As a result, it seems r easonable to assume that such individuals amass more technical knowledge than their counterparts, regard less of whether it is in an organizational or academic setting. Individua ls who seek out challenging opportunities on a regular basis may have mastered skills that others who are not as proactive may lack. For example, intrinsically motivated individu als tend to persist when confronted with a

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15 challenging project rather than giving up in the face of potential failure. This may lead to the attainment of a greater depth of both knowledge of one’s own capabilities, as well as knowledge of the specific task. Intrinsi cally motivated individuals may acquire important, performance-related skills to a gr eater extent than extrinsically motivated individuals as a result of learning from thei r mistakes and their propensity to look for more than one way to solve a problem. It is likely that intrinsically motivated individuals, in their pursuit of developmental opp ortunities, may develop a wider variety of valuable skills than extrinsically mo tivated individuals. Through these learning experiences of trial and error, these individuals may be more capable at identifying tasks that lead to career advancement for those th ey mentor since they may have mastered those tasks in pursuit of their own career goals. Similarly, it seems reasonable to assume that intrinsically motivated students will gain greater knowledge and skills through their pursuit of challenging opportunities in the academic arena (e.g., challenging classes or assignments), allowing them to impart this knowledge to their protgs. Individuals with intrinsic motivational or ientations toward their jobs initiate and regulate job-related activities autonomously (Deci & Ryan, 1 985). They select job tasks and strategies that are consistent with th eir own conceptions of how to do a job well rather than being controlled by outside for ces (Condry & Chambers, 1978). Salespeople with higher intrinsic motivational orientations toward their jobs tend to possess greater technical knowledge (Goolsby, Lagace, & Boorom, 1992) and have more highly developed knowledge about various selling strategies (Sujan, 1986). Intrinsically motivated salespeople are more likely to enga ge in adaptive selling behavior (Spiro &

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16 Weitz, 1990), to provide informational feedback to their companies, and to engage in behaviors to control their sel ling expenses (Goolsby et al., 19 92). These are all indicators of successful career management. Intrinsi cally motivated individuals prefer more complex problems to easier tasks (Pittma n, Emery, & Boggiano, 1982), focus on subtle aspects of the task and utilize informati on sources not obviously relevant to the immediate solution. Each of these findings supports the premise that intrinsically motivated individuals stand to be in a position to provide career development functions to their protgs. Career development functions are those as pects of the mentoring relationship that enhance learning the ropes and preparing the protg for adva ncement in the organization (Kram, 1985). These career-related functions are possible because of the senior person’s experience and knowledge. In the academic arena, career development functions may represent those aspects of the undergraduate experience that prepare the protg for advancement within the university. For exam ple, this may involve coaching the protg on the university’s general educ ational requirements, the correct courses to take with regard to a specific major, or extracurricula r activities that build experience and look good on one’s academic resume. If the mentor does not possess the relevant knowledge to impart to his or her protg, he or sh e will be limited in the breadth and depth of academic and career-related functio ns he or she can provide. It is evident that a successful mentor is one who has mastered a wide variety of skills and who has been successful in achievi ng his or her academic goals. In addition, successful mentors will be able to pass on advice and information regarding how to

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17 advance within the university (e.g., specific courses to take ) based on their own personal experiences. The attainment of one’s own academic goals will also allow the mentor to be in a better position to pr ovide guidance, support, or id eas for pursuing challenging opportunities to a protg. Thus, given the na ture of intrinsically motivated individuals to be proactive in selecting and choosing task s that allow them to be challenged and to acquire new skills, it seems likely that these individuals will be bett er equipped to coach protgs and/or provide them with tips on how to succeed academically. It is therefore hypothesized that: Hypothesis 1 – Mentors who are higher on Intrinsic Motivation will provide more career development mentori ng than will mentors lower in Intrinsic Motivation. Intrinsic Motivation and Psychosocial Mentoring Deci and Ryan (1987) sugge sted that motivational orie ntations have different effects on the emotional tone of interpers onal relationships. In a study of tutors, Gabarino (1975) found that intrinsically mo tivated tutors had more positive, less demanding behavior toward their students, ye t received better performance from them than did extrinsically motivated tutors. Keaveney (1995) found that intrinsically motivated retail buyers expended effort to maintain positive work environments and maintained significantly more relationships w ith vendors than did extrinsically motivated buyers. Children with high need for achievement scores, which reflects an intrinsic form of competence motivation, were rated by their teachers as work ing well with others (Feld, 1967) and received higher sociometric ratings fr om their peers (Lifshitz, 1974). Finally, individuals high on need for achievement te nded to adopt a coope rative interpersonal

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18 style when working with ot hers (Terhune, 1966). These st udies clearly support a link between intrinsic motivation and success in interpersonal relationships. With regard to the mentoring relationship, success in interpersonal relationships is an important requirement in a potential ment or when it comes to providing psychosocial functions. “Psychosocial functions are thos e aspects of a relati onship that enhance a protg’s sense of competence, clarity of id entity, and effectiveness in a professional [or academic] role” (Kram, 1985, p. 22). This type of function is possible because of an interpersonal relationship that fosters mutual trust and intimacy between the mentor and the protg. If a mentor lacks important ski lls such as the ability to listen, give and receive feedback, or manage conflict or di sagreement, the interpersonal facet of the relationship may suffer, thus narrowing the range of psychosocial functions that are provided (Kram, 1985). It is evident that me ntors who possess personal ity traits that are related to having good interpersonal skills may be more successful than those who do not. Intrinsically motivated mentors may show more positive regard for their protg, act in a more cooperative manner, and expend more effo rt to maintain a strong relationship with their protg than extrinsically motivated individuals. Given that psychosocial mentoring func tions include highly interpersonal behaviors such as serving as a role model and conveying unconditional positive regard toward the protg, it seems reasonable to a ssume that intrinsically motivated mentors would provide more of this type of ment oring. It is therefore hypothesized that: Hypothesis 2 Mentors who are higher on Intrinsic Motivation will provide more psychosocial mentoring than will mentor s who are lower on Intrinsic Motivation.

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19 Intrinsic Motivati on and Intrinsic Sa tisfaction Motive People who are intrinsically motivated seek out environments where they are challenged and do things for the sake of doing them. These individuals are attracted to opportunities where they are allowed to show gr eater initiative, to in terpret their existing situations as more autonomy promoting a nd to organize their ac tions on the basis of personal goals and interests (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Intrinsi cally motivated individuals tend to be less controll ed by extrinsic rewards and experience them as affirmations of their competence. Self-reports of interest, enjoyment, spont aneity, and creativity in one’s activities are related to intrinsic motivation (Amabile et al., 1986; Deci & Ryan, 1987; Harackiewicz, 1979). Intrinsically motivated st udents may have a tendency to seek out academic majors that are more challenging than others and to be motivated to succeed academically out of a sense of enjoyment and interest in their chosen endeavor, as opposed to seeking out less demanding courses or being motivated to succeed solely to receive an ‘A’ in a class. It is reasonable to assume that intrinsically motivated individuals may be motivated to become a mentor because they wa nt to feel a sense of intrinsic satisfaction and pride in a job well done. Intrinsically mo tivated individuals may be attracted to the opportunity to act as a mentor because the relationship has th e potential to provide them with a sense of enjoyment or because they ar e curious and interested in pursuing such a relationship. A mentor who is motivated for reasons of intrinsic satisfaction is participating in the relationshi p because he or she wants to feel a sense of pride, selfsatisfaction, or personal gratifi cation that mentoring may bring to him or her. This type

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20 of motive for mentoring is very similar to engaging in an activity out of a sense of intrinsic motivation. Therefor e, it is hypothesized that: Hypothesis 3 Mentors who are higher on Intrinsic Motivation will be more motivated to mentor for Intrinsic Satisf action reasons than will mentors who are lower on Intrinsic Motivation. Learning Goal Orientation and Career Mentoring The concept of goal orientation emerged in the 1980s from research conducted with grade school children by Carol Dweck and her colleagues (Vandewalle, 2001). Children worked on a set of problem-solving task s they were able to successfully solve, and then they were given a second set of pr oblems that were very difficult for their age level. As the children encount ered failure, two distinct re sponse patterns emerged. A portion of the children exhibi ted a helpless response and quickly became demoralized, expressed little interest in continuing with the activity, exhibited a loss of confidence in their ability, experienced feelings of di stress and unhappiness, while their problemsolving strategies became more random a nd counterproductive (Vandewalle, 2001). “[O]ther children exhibited a more construc tive response pattern and appeared to enjoy the challenge, remained confident that th ey could eventually solve the problems and worked at developing more productive problem -solving strategies” ( p.163). Helpless and mastery-oriented individuals, it was concluded, pursue di fferent goals in achievement situations, with helpless individuals seeking to document their ability and masteryoriented individuals seeking to increase their ability (Vandewalle, 2001).

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21 As a result of these initial studies, Dw eck proposed two basic orientations: 1) Learning goal orientation, which is a pr eference to develop one’s competence by acquiring new skills and mastering new situations, and 2) Performance goal orientation, which is a preference to demonstrate and va lidate one’s competence by seeking favorable judgments and avoiding negative judgments from others. Individuals with high learning goal orientation tend to be proa ctive in learning and mastering a variety of activities. In gaining knowledge and experience that less pr oactive individuals might not acquire, these individuals become better positi oned to provide guidance and dire ction to others. That is, by having experienced more lear ning opportunities than others they are more capable at passing their knowledge on to the protg. A number of studies suppor t the advantages of learni ng goal orientation. Diener and Dweck (1978) demonstrated that helple ss children showed marked performance decrements under failure and made attributions for failure to lack of ability, whereas mastery-oriented children showed enhanced performance and made surprisingly few attributions. Instead, the mastery-oriented children engaged in self-monitoring and selfinstruction, focusing on remedies for failure In another study Elliot and Dweck (1988) manipulated both relative goal value (learni ng vs. performance) and perceived ability (high vs. low) in a sample of 101 fifth grader s. They found that lear ning goals promoted challenge seeking and a mastery-oriented res ponse, regardless of pe rceived ability, while performance goals produced challenge-a voidance and learned helplessness when perceived ability was low and certain forms of risk-avoidance, even when perceived ability was high. The authors concluded that:

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22 performance goals, which focus individuals on the adequacy of their ability, will render them vulnerable to the helpless re sponse in the face of failure, setting up low ability attributions, negative affect, a nd impaired performance. In contrast, learning goals, which focus individuals on increasing their ability over time, will promote the mastery-oriented response to obstacles: strategy formulation, positive affect, and sustained performance. (Elliot & Dweck, 1998, p. 5) Thus, it seems evident that individuals who e xhibit a learning goal or ientation will pursue challenging goals regardless of their perceive d ability. They will focus on developing their abilities by acquiring new skills and mast ering the tasks they encounter, as opposed to exhibiting a helpless response. It seems r easonable to assume that mentors who have a learning goal orientation will be more likely th an their peers to have mastered academicor career-related skills, allo wing them greater expertise to pass on to others. A number of studies have demonstrated si milar trends regarding the superiority of learning goal orientation. Ames and Ames (1981) demonstrated th at adopting personal standards, as opposed to normative standards, assists in sustaini ng the benefits of previous success even in th e face of failure. Performance goals tend to lead to the adoption of normative standards, while le arning goals tend to encourage personal standards (Farr, Hoffman, & Ringenback, 1993). This implies that performance-oriented individuals base their expecta tions of success on perceptions of their ability to others, while learning-oriented indivi duals base expectations on pe rceptions of the degree of effort required to accomplish one’s goals.

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23 Vandewalle (2001) suggests th at individuals with a lear ning goal orientation view effort as a means for activating one’s current ability and as a strategy for developing the additional capabilities needed for future task mastery. Such individuals tend to engage in greater effort and persist longer when they believe that success is possible and tend to show high levels of self-efficacy. Individuals with a learning goal orientation are more likely to choose a task with moderate ch allenge or difficulty, regardless of their expectations of success (Ba ndura & Dweck, 1981). These indi viduals are interested in developing their skill and ability and believe that such development is possible. In one study, Vandewalle (2001) found that a learning goal orientation led to setting skill improvement goals (i.e., goals to develop new presentation skills and to refine existing presentation skills), which were positively related to performance on a final presentation. However, a performance or ientation was related to setting comparison goals and avoidance goals. Dweck (1989) suggested that performance-oriented individuals might sabotage their own performa nce by either developing excuses for their performance or not trying. With “perform ance goals, low or shaky expectancies of success may lead one to shun the very tasks th at foster learning a nd mastery experience, or to pursue them in ineffective ways” (p. 101). It seems likely that learning goal-oriented individuals will be in a better position to provide career or academic guidance to othe rs. After all, they have a greater likelihood of mastering those academicor career-relat ed tasks that will allow them the knowledge and positioning to do so. They prefer to acq uire new skills, master new situations, are more likely to choose moderately difficult or challenging tasks, regardless of their

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24 expectations of success, and are more likel y to have discovered effective means for solving problems. These preferences may allow them to provide career development functions more readily than mentors who may not be high on learning goal orientation. For example, the coaching func tion involves the “senior coll eague suggest[ing] specific strategies for accomplishing work objectives for achieving recognition, and for achieving career aspirations,” (Kram, 1985, p. 28), while the provision of challenging assignments requires the mentor to support the protg through training and ongoing feedback on performance. Mentors who are higher on lear ning goal orientation may be more apt at providing these functions because they may have acquired more knowledge about which strategies will be effective with regard to wo rk in their pursuit of mastering new tasks. Students who are high on learning goal orient ation may be better equipped to suggest specific strategies on how to accomplish acad emic objectives, achieve recognition from faculty or administrators, or pur sue challenging o pportunities. In addition, Farr et al. (1993) suggested that “managers may be more likely to provide feedback that is consistent with their own goal orientations, thus the learning goal-oriented manager may be more likely to discuss developmenta l aspects of the job and strategies for task improvement” (p. 208). Thus, when learning goal-oriented individuals are engaged in a mentoring relationship, they may be more likely to provide career development functions. That is, mentors who are motivated to master skills within their own academic careers will be more likel y to provide protgs with direction geared toward helping them master academic task s. It is therefore hypothesized that:

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25 Hypothesis 4 Mentors who are higher on Learni ng Goal Orientation will provide more career development mentoring than will mentors who are lower on Learning Goal Orientation. Learning Goal Orientation and Intrinsic Satis faction Motive A learning goal orientation is a preference to develop one’s comp etence by acquiring new skills and mastering new situations. Individuals with a strong learning goal orientation are interested in developing their skill and ability and express a willingness to set challenging goals and seek opportunities that foster personal growth, such as mentoring others. It is likely that these individuals will be motivated to engage in activities simply for the intrinsic satisfacti on it would bring them when they succeed in learning a new skill. Steele-Johnson, Beauregard, Hoover, and Schmidt (2000) found that individuals with a learni ng goal orientation reported high er levels of motivation in terms of self-efficacy and intrinsic mo tivation on an inconsistent task. Dweck (1989) believes that high-effort mastery experiences are more likely to produce pleasurable experiences, feelings of pride in one’s work, and to engender intrinsic motivation and thus a greater f eeling of personal control for learning goal oriented individuals. Yoo (1999) conduc ted a study with 218 men attending physical education classes. It was expected that task-oriented (i.e., learning goal-oriented) students would choose a challenging task, ex ert maximum effort, experience intrinsic motivation, and persist in the task over time However, ego-oriented individuals (i.e., performance goal-oriented) would avoid challe nging tasks, exert minimum effort, impair performance, and withdraw from the spor t following failure. Yoo (1999) found that

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26 students with a learning goal orientation were more like ly to report experiencing enjoyment, exert effort, and were more intrinsically motivated. Allen, Poteet, and Burroughs (1997) suggest ed that mentors seek out mentoring relationships because they are motivated to increase their own personal learning and to gain a sense of pride that mentoring some one brings. Mentors who are motivated to mentor for reasons of intrinsic satisfacti on are likely to engage in a mentoring relationship because they want to feel good inside. Mentors who are high on learning goal orientation may be motivat ed to mentor for intrinsic reasons as well. They may choose to become a mentor because they are looking for a developmental opportunity, something that mentoring can provide. Theref ore, it seems likely that individuals with a learning goal orientation will be more willing and, thus, more motivated to act as a mentor because they may view it as a challenging task where they can acquire new skills and experience intrinsic motivation. Thus, it is hypothesized that: Hypothesis 5 Mentors who are higher on Lear ning Goal Orientation will be more motivated to mentor for Intrinsic Satisfaction reasons than will mentors who are lower on Learning Goal Orientation. Conscientiousness and Career Mentoring The Five Factor Model of personality, al so known as the “Big Five”, is perhaps one of the most frequently discussed pers onality taxonomies of recent times (Goldberg, 1990). The five personality factors that cons titute this model are: 1) Extraversion – sociability, dominance, ambition, positive em otionality and excitement-seeking; 2) Agreeableness – cooperation, trustfulness, compliance, and affability; 3) Emotional

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27 Stability – lack of anxi ety, hostility, depression, and personal insecurity; 4) Conscientiousness – dependability, achiev ement striving, and planfulness; and 5) Openness to Experience – intellectance, creativity, unconventionality, and broadmindedness (Barrick, Mount, & Judge, 2001). These personality factors have been shown to be stable across the lifespan (Conl ey, 1984; Costa & McCrae, 1988) and have a genetic influence (Bouchard, 1997). They also consistently emerge despite different measurement approaches, languages, cultures, and using ratings from different sources (Digman & Shmelyov, 1996). Barrick et al. (2001) conclude “while there is not universal agreement on the Big Five model, it is a useful taxonomy a nd currently the one considered most useful in personality resear ch” (p. 11). After a t horough review of both the personality and mentoring literature, it was determined that th ree of the Big Five dimensions were relevant to the current study: Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Agreeableness. Conscientious individuals tend to be careful, dependable, thorough, responsible, organized and planful (Barrick & Mount, 199 1). “Because highly conscientious people are hardworking, achievement oriented, and pers everant, they tend to do what needs to be done to accomplish work” (LePine & VanDyne, 2001, p. 327). A number of studies have demonstrated that conscientious individuals tend to be more successful at a variety of tasks due to persistence, self-discipline a nd achievement orientation. Holland, Johnston, Asama, and Polys (1993) found that the impor tance of achievement, working hard, and persisting in the face of obstacles is highly re lated to Conscientiousness. Taggar, Hackett and Saha (1999), in a study of 480 undergraduat es in 94 initially leaderless teams, found

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28 that leadership emergence was highly asso ciated with Conscientiousness. They concluded that conscientious in dividuals display many of the tr aits that are necessary for effective leadership, such as being careful, responsible, self-disciplined, task-oriented, and capable of setting achievable goals and motivating others (Taggar et al., 1999). Conscientiousness has been linked to achievement, competence, and discipline. Costa and McCrae (1992) have noted that hi gh Conscientiousness is associated with academic and occupational achievement. Paunonen and Ashton (2001) conducted a study with 717 undergraduate students. A C onscientiousness composite, consisting of Jackson’s (1984) Personality Research Form scales (i.e., the sum of Achievement, Cognitive Structure, Desirability, Endurance, Order and negative Impulsivity) was significantly correlated with fi nal grades, indicating that conscientious students are successful in their courses partially as a result of their personality. Conscientious individuals are successfu l at performing job-related tasks. Anderson and Viswesvaran (1998) found that Co nscientiousness is the strongest predictor of job performance. A recent meta-analysis of 15 prior meta-analytic studies confirmed this relationship (Barrick, Mount, & Judge, 2001). If those high on Conscientiousness tend to be more successful at their jobs, then they may be more likely to provide others with tips on how to succeed in their jobs. That is, c onscientious individuals are positioned to provide direction to others in regard to how to succeed at career-related activities. Having pushed themselves to su cceed in their own car eers, they are more capable than others to provi de career-related guidance. Similarly, students who are high on Conscientiousness may be more successful in their academic careers and may be in a

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29 better position to provide other students with successful tips on how to succeed academically. For example, highly conscienti ous students may be absent less, pay more attention to their professors’ lectures, ta ke more comprehensive notes during class, manage their time more effectively, get bett er grades, and study with sufficient time to prepare for a test as opposed to their less conscientious c ounterparts. These types of behaviors are typically associated with su ccess (e.g., high grade point average) in the academic arena. Thus, students who have su cceeded academically as a result of their conscientious study habits may be in a better position to offer academic advice to other students. Additionally, consci entious individuals tend to en gage in active planning and problem-solving strategies when they enc ounter challenging tasks (Watson & Hubbard, 1996). Along these lines, Craik, Ware, Ka mp, O’Reilly, Staw, and Zedeck (2002) explored the construct validity of managerial performance dimensions in an assessment center setting. In a sample of 114 MBA candida tes, they factor analyzed 14 managerial performance dimensions. As a result, two mana gerial styles, a strate gic managerial style and an interpersonal managerial style, emer ged. The Strategic Mana gerial Style had high loadings for seven important determinants of managerial success (i.e., decision-making, fact-finding, delegation, an alytic approach, planning, control, and written communication). Conscientiousness was signifi cantly correlated with this managerial style. Thus, conscientious students may be more likely to be in a position to provide protgs with advice for pursuing developmen tal course assignments, as they tend to exhibit behaviors that as sist them in attaining leadership positions.

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30 The provision of career development func tions requires that a mentor be in a position to aid a protg in advancement up the hierarchy of an organization or institution (Kram, 1985). Sponsorship involves actively nominating an individual for lateral moves and promotions, while exposure and visibi lity allow the protg to demonstrate competence and performance. A mentor who coaches his or her protg may be giving various tidbits of advice and sharing a more e xperienced perspective w ith the protg. It may be that conscientious students are proac tive in seeking out opportunities to interact with faculty or administrative st aff at their university. They may be more likely to be in a position to recommend another student to a faculty member or coach them on how to succeed in their academic program. In f act, conscientious mentors may be more successful in attaining career-related or academic achievements and passing this information on than those who are less conscienti ous. Therefore, it is hypothesized that: Hypothesis 6 Mentors who are higher on Conscientiousness will provide more career development mentoring than will mentors who are lower on Conscientiousness. Conscientiousness and Benefit Others Motive Conscientious individuals are known for th eir strong work ethic, reliability, and diligence. Such individuals are likely to engage in activities that support the overall functioning of their organization and ope rationalize their sense of duty. These individuals are committed to engaging in acti ons that benefit their organization. For example, Kirchmeyer and Bullin (1997) found that conscientious nurses showed greater commitment to their organization when compared to those who scored low on

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31 Conscientiousness. In addition, Conscien tiousness predicted nurses’ valuing of the people with whom they work, innovation a nd leadership. Along those lines, Konovsky and Organ (1996) assessed the Conscientiousne ss of 402 professional and administrative VA employees and then obtai ned supervisors’ ratings of these same employees’ organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). Conscientiousness was predictive of generalized compliance, civic virtue and altrui sm, which are all subscales of OCB. These findings seem to suggest that conscientious students may show greater commitment to their university and thus are more likely to engage in activitie s that support the university in some way (e.g., participate as a mentor in a mentoring program). In addition, it seems likely that those who engage in a mentoring relationship may be doing it for reasons other th an extrinsic rewards. For ex ample, some mentors may not receive outward recognition with in the university for their evident support of another student, however they may have been motivat ed for intrinsically rewarding reasons. Similarly, mentors who are motivated in orde r to benefit others take part in the relationship for various reasons. They may have a desire to benefit the university or to build competent students. They may be motivat ed out of a general desire to help other students succeed. Mentors who are motivated for these reasons may see the mentoring relationship as an opportunity to give back to the university. Thus, it stands to reason that conscientious mentors may be likely to be motiv ated to mentor in order to benefit others given that they tend to be more committed to their organization or university, place a high value on fellow employees or students, and act in altruistic ways that benefit the organization. Therefore, it is hypothesized that:

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32 Hypothesis 7 Mentors who are higher on Conscientiousness will be more motivated to mentor in order to Benef it Others than will mentors who are lower on Conscientiousness. Agreeableness and Psychosocial Mentoring Individuals who are high in Agreeablen ess tend to be courageous, flexible, trusting, good natured, cooperative, forgivi ng, empathic, soft-hearted, tolerant, avoid controversy and defer to others when c onflict arises (Wanberg & Kammeyer-Mueller, 2000). Because of these tendencies, they are more likely to have positive interactions with others (Costa & McCrae, 1992). In a longitudinal study of 132 first-year undergraduate students, Asendorf and Wilp ers (1998) found that agreeable students tended to engage in less conf lict with peers. Bono, Bo les, Judge, and Lauver (2002) replicated this finding. Similarly, Grazi ano, Jensen-Campbell, and Hair (1996) found that agreeable people minimize interpersonal conflict by being less aggressive or by provoking less aggression in others. Agreeableness is negatively related to adolescent antisocial behavior and delinquency (Robins, John, & Caspi, 1994). This may be due to the fact that these individuals tend to control ne gative affect and exhibit high levels of self-control in interpersonal settings (Jensen-Campbell, Graziano, & Hair, 1996). Similarly, such individuals respond to interper sonal conflict more constructiv ely (Graziano et al., 1996), work harder to suppress nega tive emotions during social in teractions (Tobin, Graziano, Vanman, & Tassinary, 2000), and cooperate more productively during interdependent group tasks (Graziano, Hair, & Finch, 1997).

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33 Barrick, Mount, and Judge (2001) conducted a meta-analysis that investigated the relationship between the Big Five personali ty traits and job performance. They concluded, “the one situation in which Agreeableness appears to have high predictive validity is in jobs that invol ve considerable interpersonal interaction, particularly when the interaction involves helpi ng, cooperating and nurturing others” (Barrick et al., 2001, p. 12). LePine and Van Dyne (2001) suggested that agreeable indi viduals have higher quality interpersonal interactions given that th ey tend to be viewed as likeable, friendly, good-natured, and courteous. It is possible that agreeable individuals are more likely to be amenable to building the esteem of others during the course of c onversation or interpers onal interactions. That is, they are less confronta tional and willing to express support for the protg. Agreeableness is positively associated with pe rformance in jobs involving interpersonal relations (Mount, Barrick, & Stewart, 1998) and with motives to maintain positive interpersonal relations and the number of fr iends a person has (Jensen-Campbell, Adams, Perry, Workman, Furdella, & Egan, 2002). In addition, agreeable people reported liking other people more than their less agreeab le counterparts (Grazi ano et al., 1996). “Psychosocial functions affect each partne r on a more personal level than career functions and depend more on the quality of the interpersonal relationship. The role relationship is not as crucial as the emotional bond that underl ies the relationship” (Kram, 1985, p. 32). Role modeling involves the mentor setting a desirable example and the protg identifying with it, while accepta nce and confirmation occurs when the relationship is characterized by mutual li king and mutual respect (Kram, 1985). A

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34 mentor who counsels his or her protg may beco me a confidante to his or her protg. Finally, some mentors provide friendship to their protg and this function is characterized by social intera ction that results in mutu al liking and understanding and enjoyable informal exchanges (Kram, 1985). Psychosocial functions require a mentor who has a high level of interpersonal skill wh en interacting with others. Mentors who like their protg, are less conf rontational and aggressive in relations with others, and who tend to be more cooperative and nurturi ng in general, are more likely to provide psychosocial functions than mentors who dislik e their protg, act aggressively, and have negative attitudes. The aforementioned traits are indicative of a me ntor who is high in Agreeableness. Based on these findings, it seems reasonable that those high in Agreeableness are more likely to provide ps ychosocial functions such as friendship and role modeling since it is part of their inherent nature to do so. Thus, it is hypothesized that: Hypothesis 8 Mentors who are higher on Ag reeableness will provide more psychosocial mentoring than will ment ors who are lower on Agreeableness. Agreeableness and Benefit Others Motive Mentoring, in some cases, constitutes an al truistic activity. Those who engage in mentoring activities may be motivated to mentor out of a willingness to help others, often at the cost of their own time and expense. With regard to the mentoring relationship, Aryee, Chay, and Chew (1996) found that altr uism is related to motivation to mentor others. A number of studies have shown that agreeable individuals may be well suited to the task of providing mentoring functions to pr otgs given that Agreeableness, which is

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35 considered a socially oriented characteristic (Costa & McCrae, 1992), tends to be related to altruism. Kirchmeyer and Bullin (1997) found that greater Agreeableness predicted nurses’ commitment to the organization and valuing of the people with whom they work. Ashton, Paunonen, Helmes, and Jackson (1998) conducted a study with 118 introductory psychology students aimed at identifying person ality characteristics a ssociated with kin altruism (i.e., behaving in a way that benefits a genetic relative’s ch ances of survival in reproduction at some cost to one’s own chances ) and reciprocal altrui sm (i.e., acting in a way that benefits another indivi dual at some expense to onese lf, with the expectation that the recipient will return such help in the futu re). Both kin and reciprocal altruism were positively related to Agreeableness. In addi tion, they found that empathy/attachment and forgiveness/non-retaliation factors were high ly related to Agreeableness. DePue and Collins (1999) suggested that Agreeableness is a personality dimension that involves a preference for affiliation and affection fo r others. Saucier and Goldberg (1996) concluded that, of the Big Five personality dimensions, only Agreeableness is generally thought to be strongly related to behavior that is altruistic versus antagonistic or prosocial versus antisocial. In add ition, Graziano, Jensen-Campbell, and Hair (1996) suggested that agreeable individuals are motivated to ma intain harmonious social relationships with others. It may be that agreeable individuals ma y be motivated to mentor in order to benefit other students or the university in some manner given that this motive tends to be altruistic in nature. In addition, those high in Agreeableness tend to be motivated to

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36 maintain positive interpersonal relationships, an important function of the mentoring relationship (Graziano et al., 1996) Given that agreeable individuals tend to engage in activities that may be altruistic in nature (e.g., mentoring others), to be motivated in order to maintain positive relationships with others, and to value other individuals, it is hypothesized that: Hypothesis 9 Mentors who are higher on Agreeableness will be more motivated to mentor in order to Benefit Others than will mentors who are lower on Agreeableness. Extraversion and Psychosocial Mentoring People who are extraverted are sociable, gregarious, assertive, talkative, and active. Extraversion relates to individuals’ energy levels and positive affectivity, traits that may promote positive and cooperative inte ractions with others in the course of accomplishing work (LePine & Van Dyne, 2001). There is evidence that Extraversion is linked with positive peer relations because it consists of characteristics such as sociability, social interest, a nd a preference for social intera ction (Elphick, Halverson, & Marzal-Wisniewska, 1998). A number of studies have demonstrated a relationship between Extraversion and inte rpersonal relationships. For example, Barrick and Mount (1991) f ound that Extraversion is related to job performance in occupations wher e interactions with others are a significant portion of the job. In a study with 90 adol escents, Cheng and Furnham (2 002) found that Extraversion was a significant predictor of general confid ence, happiness, and social interactions. Extraverted fifthand sixthgrade children tended to be accepted by their peers more and

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37 to have more friends than their counterpa rts (Jensen-Campbell, Adams, Perry, Workman, Furdella, & Egan, 2002). Similarly, As endorf and Wilpers (1998) conducted a longitudinal study with 132 entering freshmen in a university. Extraversion and two of its sub factors, Sociability and Shyness, aff ected the size of the peer network of the participants and the amount of time they spen t in social interaction in general. They concluded that “the more extroverted and sociable, and the less shy the participants described themselves at the be ginning of the term, the more their peer network grew over the next few months” (Asendorf & Wilpers, 1998, p. 1537). These findings suggest that extraverted individuals are more successful at building and maintaining interpersonal relationships than are most individuals. That is, they enjoy and s eek out these types of interactions. They prefer to be around pe ople most of the time and spend more time socializing than introverts (Costa & McCrae, 1992). This research suggests that extraverted mentors may be more successful at building interpersonal relationships with their protgs than in troverted mentors. Weaver, Watson, and Barker (1996) conduc ted a study with 1,631 students in an introductory-level professional communication course. Extrav erted individuals perceived themselves as friendly, open, and supportive list eners. In addition, extraverts are more likely to engage in contextual performan ce (Gellatly & Irving, 2001) which implies they are better suited for the social and interpersonal demands of contextual activities, such as fostering positive work relationships, interacti ons with subordinates, and public relations. Due to their propensity toward gregariousness and their desire to engage in warm and uplifting conversation, extraverts are more likel y to present a positive view to others. In

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38 addition, they may be more supportive a nd accepting of people when engaged in interpersonal interactions with others. In a mentoring relationship, this is likely to result in interactions that are geared toward enha ncing the protg’s sense of accomplishment in a given task. Psychosocial functions seem dependent upon a high level of interpersonal interest in others. Functions (i.e., psychosocial) that “enhance personal development and an increasing sense of competence and self-wor th, like role modeling, or friendship, are common to those relationships characterized by considerable interpersonal intimacy” (Kram, 1985, p. 9). Mentors who excel in interpersonal situati ons may feel more comfortable acting as a role model or friend to a protg because they enjoy interacting with others and may have become proficie nt at making others feel comfortable and secure. Mentoring is an inte rpersonal relationship that re quires individuals who enjoy engaging others in conversation and seek out relationships with others. Extraverted mentors may spend more time getting to know their protg, thus strengthening the bond between the two partners. Mentors who are extraverted may be more likely to provide psychosocial functions, which require a high leve l of social interac tion, since they excel in interpersonal relations. Individuals who are introverted might be less inclined to approach others and take the initiative to begi n an interaction. Due to the nature of the mentoring relationship, where interaction is clearly essential, ex traverted individuals would seem more apt to take part in such act ivities. Therefore, it is hypothesized that: Hypothesis 10 Mentors who are higher on Extraversion will provide more psychosocial mentoring than will me ntors who are lower on Extraversion.

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39 Extraversion and Benefit Others Motive Extraverts are generally positive, social, energetic, joyful and interested in other people (Costa & McCrae, 1992). These indivi duals tend to express sympathy for others (Richendoller & Weaver, 1994) and are f ound to be perceptiv e listeners during interpersonal interactions (Weaver & Viallaume, 1995). Weaver, Watson, and Barker (1996) conducted a study of 1,631 students and found that extraverts endorse a people listening style. The people listening style is a preference where concern for others’ feelings and emotions are considered to be important. In a meta-analysis of the relationship between personality and organi zational citizenship behavior, Organ and Ryan (1995) found that extraverted individua ls tended to engage in these types of behaviors due to a desire to help others, or altruistic tendencies. Kirchmeyer and Bullin (1997) found that Extraversion predicted nurses ’ valuing of the people with whom they work. These findings suggest that extraver ted mentors may engage in the mentoring relationship out of a desire to make a differe nce in the life of a protg, given their altruistic tendencies and ge neral concern for others. In addition, research suggests that these individuals te nd to be more sympathetic towards others, engage in organizational citiz enship behaviors, and place a high value on the company and welfare of others. Mentors who are motivated to mentor in order to benefit others do so out of a de sire to help the organization or other people, in general. Extraverted mentors might be motivated to ment or in order to benef it others given that they are generally sympathetic, have positive attitudes, and genuinely care about others. Thus, it seems likely that individuals high on Extraversion would be more motivated to

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40 mentor in order to benefit others since they are generally positive in dividuals, exude lots of energy and are more interested in others than introverts. It is therefore hypothesized that: Hypothesis 11 Mentors who are higher on Extrav ersion will be more motivated to mentor in order to Benefit Others than will mentors who are lower on Extraversion. Machiavellianism and Psychosocial Mentoring Machiavellianism is a personality style that is characterized by manipulativeness, cynicism about human nature and shrewdness in interpersonal behavior (Christie & Geis, 1970). A number of studies have linked high Machiavellians to negative indicators of interpersonal relationships. For example, Touhey (1977) found that subjects were less attracted to individuals who di splayed traits such as coldne ss, detachment, and the taking of social distance. That is, they were less attracted to high Machiavellians. Interpersonally, high Ma chiavellians tend to be taskra ther than person-oriented and adopt an emotionally detached, pragmatic style (Geis, 1978). High Machiavellians are more adept at lying and deceiving others (Geis & Moon, 1981), lack interpersonal warmth (Gurtman, 1991) and have a preference for the use of indirect and nonrational influe nce tactics with others (Grams & Rogers, 1989). These individuals are apt to be have unethically (Hegarty, 1995; Jones & Kavanagh, 1996), demonstrate high levels of neuroticis m (Allsopp, Eysenck, & Eysenck, 1991), and are viewed as opportunistic (C hristie & Geis, 1970), manipulat ive (Cherulnik Way, Ames, & Hutto, 1981) and exploitative (Vecchio & Sussmann, 1991). In addition, high

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41 Machiavellians tend to take advantage of ex tended trust (Harrell & Hartnagel, 1976), are negatively associated with indicators of adju stment, such as self-esteem and subjective well-being (McHoskey et al., 1999), and ar e perceived as suspicious, judgmental, uncaring, overbearing, untrustworthy, and undepe ndable. All of thes e studies indicate that high Machiavellians are unl ikely to act as role models counselors, or friends to protgs, which are roles associated with providing psychosocial support as a mentor. That is, they do not trust pe ople in general, are cold and hostile toward others, and generally use others for their own ends. These characteristic s are surely not conducive to a mentoring relationship. Allen (2003) stated that, “indivi dual difference variables such as Machiavellianism might relate to self-focused motives for mentoring others, particularly self-enhancement. This type of personality-motive combination may be more likely to produce some of the negative or dysfuncti onal mentoring behaviors that mentoring researchers recently have begun to investigat e” (p. 24). Clearly, such individuals would be less likely to provide psychosocial support to protgs. Mentoring is an intense interpersonal relationship, and the provision of psychosocial functions requires a mentor to act as a coach, advisor, or counselor to his or her protg. Mentors who are high on Machiavellianism may act cold and emoti onally detached when meeting with their protg, thus conveying the sens e that they are not interested in their protg’s problems or issues. Psychosocial functions require a sense of mutual trust between the mentor and the protg in order for the protg to feel comf ortable sharing his fears and desires with his

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42 mentor. High Machiavellian mentors may lie or deceive their protg in pursuit of enhancing their own image, thus decreasing the level of trust the protg may have in his mentor. Their tendency to be less trusting a nd to act in an aloof manner may discourage the protg from discussing personal issues with the mentor or to view them as a role model or friend. Given that mentors who ar e higher on Machiavellianism tend to be perceived as suspicious, judgmental, un caring, overbearing, untrustworthy, and undependable, which are all tr aits that are not conduciv e to a positive interpersonal relationship, it is evident that these individuals will provide less coach ing, counseling, or friendship to their prot g. Therefore, it is hypothesized that: Hypothesis 12 Mentors who are higher on Machiavellianism will provide less psychosocial mentoring than will ment ors who are lower on Machiavellianism. Machiavellianism and Self-Enhancement Motive Mudrack (1990) conducted a meta-analyti c review of 20 studies and found a positive relationship between Machiavellianism a nd external locus of control. Solar and Bruehl (1971) explained th is relationship by stating th at, “high Machiavellians manipulate others out of a feeling of power lessness and endorse external beliefs in reinforcement” (p. 1080). McHoskey (1995) found that Machiavellianism was positively associated with the entitlement and exploita tiveness aspects of narcissism, which implies that these individuals may enga ge in activities that enhance their need for attention and admiration. Finally, Machiavellians tend to emphasize extrinsic goals (e.g., financial success) and are not driven by intrinsic goals (e.g., community feeling) (McHoskey, 1999). McHoskey’s results imply that those scoring high on Machiavellianism devote

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43 their time to acquiring money rather than deve loping the meaningful social relationships that are critical for human well being. Given that Machiavellians te nd to be narcissistic and to emphasize extrinsic goals over intr insic goals, it is hypothesized that: Hypothesis 13 Mentors who are higher on Machiavellianism will be more motivated to mentor for Self-Enhancemen t reasons than will mentors who are lower on Machiavellianism. Machiavellianism & Benefit Others Motive High Machiavellians tend to be detached and typically feel little emotional involvement with either people or situations (Christie & Geis 1970). They are less likely to accept others’ wishes or beliefs without jus tification, are suspicious of others, and are politic, not personal. High Machiavell ians are manipulative (McLaughlin, 1970), aggressive (Russell, 1974), have no trust in others and are not cons cientious or nurturing towards them (Lamdan & Lorr, 1975), have litt le empathic capacity and little respect for others (Abramson, 1973), and, in a study of th e choice of values, tend to rank equality, honesty, and forgiveness significantly lo wer than others (Okanes, 1974). McHoskey (1999) conducted three studi es which examined the goals and motivational orientations associated with M achiavellianism. He concluded that “highscoring Machiavellian participants reporte d a general control-or iented motivational orientation that is manifested in aspira tions for financial success and a relative deemphasis on community, family, and self-love related goals, [as well as] a high degree of alienation and antisocial behavior, but li ttle social interest or prosocial behavior” (McHoskey, 1999, p. 280). Wolfson (1981) found similar results, which indicated that

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44 Machiavellians are not motivated for prosocia l or altruistic reasons. In his study, while working on an apparent experi mental task, students heard a loud crash and cries for help coming from outside the experimental room. Low Machiavellians helped significantly more (89% of the trials) than did high M achiavellians (67% of the trials). Individuals high in Machiavellianism te nd to be untrusting of others, and may therefore be unwilling to pass their knowledge on to a protg or, for that matter, even engage in such relationships. That is, it seems reasonable that su ch individuals would refrain from engaging in mentoring activities that are, by their very nature, intended to share knowledge and support with others. In addition, given their lack of interest in others and the fact that they tend to be mo tivated for self-serving reasons, rather than altruistic ones, it is reasonable to assume that mentor s who are high on Machiavellianism will be less likely to be motivated in order to benefit others. Thus, it is hypothesized that: Hypothesis 14 Mentors who are higher on Machiavellianism will be less motivated to mentor in order to Benef it Others than will mentors who are lower on Machiavellianism. Motives for Mentoring Relate d to Mentoring Functions With regard to motives for mentoring, Allen (2003) found that mentors reporting greater motivation to mentor for self-enhan cement reasons were more likely to provide career development functions, while mentors motivated by intrinsic satisfaction provided psychosocial functioning. In addition, she found that ment ors who were motivated to mentor in order to benefit others report ed providing both career and psychosocial functions to protgs. The current study will be a replication and extension of Allen’s

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45 findings due to the fact that the study will be conducted within an academic sample and there will be multiple sources of data with regard to mentoring functions (i.e., mentor, protg, raters). Therefore, it is hypothesized that: Hypothesis 15 Self-enhancement motives will be positively related to career functions. Hypothesis 16 Intrinsic satisfaction motives will be positively related to psychosocial mentoring. Hypothesis 17 – Benefit others motives will be related to both career and psychosocial functions. Mentoring Functions and Outcomes for the Protg The mentoring literature has provided ev idence suggesting that having a mentor results in a number of benef its to the protg. Allen et al. (2003) conducted a metaanalysis to determine both subjective (e.g., career satisfaction) and objective (e.g., compensation) career benefits associated with mentoring for the protg. Comparisons were made between mentored versus nonment ored groups, as well as the relationships between mentoring functions provided and outcomes. Their results indicated that mentored individuals were more satisfied w ith their jobs, more satisfied with their careers, more likely to believe that they would advance in their careers, more likely to be committed to their careers, and had greater intentions to stay with their current organizations than were non mentored individuals. Allen et al. (2003) found that career mentoring was posit ively related to greater compensation, greater salary growth, more promotions, career satisfaction, job

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46 satisfaction and satisfaction w ith the mentor. Psychosocia l mentoring was related to greater compensation, more promotions, greater career satisfaction, greater job satisfaction, stronger inte ntions to stay with the organiza tion, and greater satisfaction with the mentor. These results suggest that indivi duals who are mentored will benefit in some way. The current study will examine a number of outcomes from the viewpoint of the protg. Protgs will be asked to indicate their level of satisfaction with the mentoring relationship, as well as their desire to continue the relatio nship with their mentor. In addition, several outcome measures that ar e relevant to an academic setting will be assessed. School self-efficacy, school stress, and physical symptoms of stress will be evaluated both before and afte r the mentoring relationship occurs in an attempt to explore the positive effect that mentoring may have on these variables. Given that individuals who are in a mentoring relations hip experience a numb er of benefits as a result of having a mentor, it is hypothesized that: Hypothesis 18 – Protgs who receive higher levels of mentoring functions will be (a) more satisfied with the relationshi p, (b) feel greater desire to continue the relationship, (c) will experience less sc hool and (d) physical stress, and (e) will show greater school self-efficacy than will protgs who receive lower levels of mentoring functions.

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47 Chapter 2 Method Participants One hundred eighty-two undergraduate stude nts from the University of Central Florida took part in this st udy. Participants were grouped in to 91 mentor/protg dyads. Both mentors and protgs were recruited from a variety of academic colleges and programs (e.g., College of Arts and Sciences, Business Administration, Criminal Justice) (See Appendix A for recruitment information). The mentor sample ( N = 91) consisted of 25 (27.5%) males and 66 females. The average age was 21.81 ( SD = 2.10), and mentors we re either juniors ( N = 46) or seniors ( N = 45). Seventy-eight percent ( N = 71) of the mentors were Caucasian/white, 5.6% (N = 5) were African-American/black, 7.8% ( N = 7) were Hispanic, and 7.7% ( N = 7) were from other minority groups. The average G.P.A. for mentors was 3.24 (Range = 2.0 to 3.93). Demographic frequencies fo r mentors are found in Table 1. The protg sample ( N = 91) consisted of 26 males (28.6%) and 65 females. The average age was 18.53 ( SD = 0.57), and protgs were freshm en either in their first or second semester. Sixty-seven percent ( N = 59) of the protgs were Caucasian/white, 15.9% ( N = 14) were African American, 10.2% ( N = 9) were Hispanic, and 6.8% ( N = 6) were from other minority groups. Data were missing from three protg s regarding race.

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48 The average G.P.A. for protgs was 3.33 (Range = 1.30 to 4.20). Demographic frequencies for protgs are found in Table 2. All participants were paid $8 an hour for their participation. The Office of Naval Research funded this study. Procedure Protgs were randomly assigned to ment ors. Both mentors and protgs took part in a one-hour orientation. Mentor Orientation. At the start of the mentor orientation, mentors were given a Mentor Handbook (See Appendix B) cont aining information concerning their responsibilities, payment information, possible topics of discussion with their protg, current UCF facts, rules and regulations of UCF, the UCF Code of Conduct, frequently asked questions about UCF, information about obtaining a SASS degree audit, and university requirements. Mentor orientation (See Appendix C) consis ted of the following: 1) Mentors read and signed an Informed Consent form (S ee Appendix D) for the Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division, and receiv ed a copy with thei r signature and the researcher’s signature; 2) Me ntors read over the UCF Code of Conduct and signed a form (See Appendix E) agreeing to abide by the C ode of Conduct while participating in the study; 3) Mentors were info rmed of their responsibilit ies as a mentor, payment information, possible topics of discussion and the UCF Code of Conduct; 3) Mentors were informed that all sessions would be videotaped; and 4) Mentors filled out a number of measures (See Appendix F).

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49 Protg Orientation. At the start of the protg or ientation, protgs were given a Protg Handbook (See Appendix G) cont aining information concerning their responsibilities, payment information, possibl e topics of discussi on with their mentor, and the UCF Code of Conduct. Protg orie ntation (See Appendix H) consisted of the following: 1) Protgs read and signed an Informed Consent form for the Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division a nd received a copy with their signature and the researcher’s signature; 2) Protgs read over the UCF Code of Conduct and signed a form agreeing to abide by the Code while par ticipating in the study; 3) Protgs were informed of their responsibilities as a prot g, payment informati on, possible topics of discussion and the UCF Code of Conduct; 3) Protgs were informed that all sessions would be videotaped; and 4) Protgs filled out a number of measures (See Appendix I). Mentoring Sessions. Mentors and protgs met once a week for four weeks. Each session was thirty minutes in length a nd occurred at the same time each week. If either the mentor or protg missed a session, they made it up that week in order to continue with the study. Reminder calls and email messages were placed to all participants the day before a nd the day of their mentoring se ssion in order to ensure few dropouts. In addition, each participant was given a contact card with a phone number they could call in case they antici pated being late or missing a session. Each session consisted of the mentor and protg sitting in a closed room on two chairs facing each other. The mentor wa s given a Mentor Handbook, blank paper, and a pen. The video camera was set up on a tripod so that the lens was facing the mentor in order to capture the mentor’s body language for coding of mentori ng functions. Lapel

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50 microphones were attached to each participant’ s shirt to record sound. The researcher read an experimental script throughout each of the four sessions (See Appendix J). At the beginning of each mentoring session, the researcher welcomed the participants and reminded them that one of the researchers would let them know when there was one minute left and when the session was completed. In addition, the researcher reminded the participants that th ey would be videotaped during the entire session. The researcher starte d the videotape and a stopwatch and then left the room. When there was one minute left, the resear cher opened the door and said, “One minute left”, and then closed the door. When thir ty minutes had passed, the researcher opened the door and said, “Ok, time’s up. Please say goodbye.” Once the participants had completed the session, the researcher stoppe d the videotape and removed it from the video camera. Both participants and the re searcher signed a payment form for the session and the participants left the room. After the fourth and final mentori ng session, the researcher allowed both participants to exchange personal informati on and had them fill out a number of measures (See Appendices K & L). While the participants were filling out their final measures, the researcher calculated the total payment fo r each participant and had them sign a form verifying this. Before the participants left the researcher debriefed them and provided contact information if they wished to l earn more about the study once it had been completed.

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51 Measures Both mentors and protgs filled out measures during orientation and after the fourth experimental session. At orientati on, mentors filled out a demographic form, a measure of goal orientation, a measure of in trinsic/extrinsic motivation, a measure of Machiavellianism, a measure of the Big-Fi ve Personality Traits and a measure of motivation to mentor. At the final session, mentors filled out a measure of career and psychosocial functions. At orientation, protgs filled out a dem ographic form, a measure of school stress, a measure of physical symptoms of stress, a nd a measure of school self-efficacy. After the final mentoring session, protgs filled out a measure of career development and psychosocial functions, a measure of school st ress, a measure of physical symptoms of stress, a measure of school self-efficacy, a measure of their desire to continue the mentoring relationship, and a measure of their satisfaction with the relationship. Mentor Measures Learning Goal Orientation. Learning goal orientation (e .g., “The opportunity to learn new things is important to me”) was measured by an eight-item scale developed by Button, Mathieu, and Zajac (1996). Higher scor es indicate a higher de gree of learning goal orientation. Participants were asked to select the response that best reflected their level of agreement or disagreement with each statement on a 7-point Likert-scale, ranging from (1=Strongly Disagree) to (7=Strongly Agre e). Coefficient alpha in the current study was .94.

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52 Intrinsic Motivation. Subjects responded to the Colle ge Student Version of the Work Preference Inventory (WPI). It was de signed as a direct, explicit assessment of individual differences in the degree that co llege students perceive themselves to be intrinsically and extrinsically motivated toward what they do. For intrinsic motivation, these elements included (a) self-determinati on, (b) competence, (c) task involvement, (d) curiosity, and (e) intere st. Items were written in the fi rst person, and participants were asked to indicate the extent th at each of the 15 items described them (on a 4-point scale, from 1 = never or almost never true of me to 4 = always or almost always true of me ). In the current study, coefficient alpha was .62 for Intrinsic Motivation. Machiavellianism The Mach V, developed by Ch ristie and Geis (1970), is an instrument that attempts to distinguish betw een the behavior of a person who agrees with Machiavelli’s ideas (a “high Mach”) and that of a person who disagrees with such ideas (a “low Mach”). It was desi gned to measure a person’s gene ral strategy for dealing with people, especially the degree that he or sh e feels other people ca n be manipulated in interpersonal situations. The Mach V consists of twenty groups of three statements, which fall into three areas: 1) the nature of interpersonal tactics; 2) views of human nature; and 3) abstract or generalized morality. Participants must res pond in a forced-choice format. In each group of statements, one statement is keyed to the variable the scale is supposed to measure; another statement refers to a different variable that has been judged to be equal to the first in social desirability; a third st atement is a “buffer” statement that is either much lower or much higher in social desirability th an the other two (Christie, 1978).

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53 Participants were asked to fi rst choose the statement that is most true and to assign it a plus (+) sign. Then he or she d ecided which of the remaining two statements was most false and assigned it a minus (-) sign. The third statement was left unmarked. The Machiavellian scale was scored two differe nt ways. In the original scorekey, the number of points associated with each gr oup of statements (items) was determined by assigning 1, 3, or 5 points for the particular comb ination of letters (a, b, or c) and plus or minus items that was chosen. For example, if for the first group of statements the participant marked Statement B with a plus (+) and statement C with a minus (-), his or her score for that particular item (group of statements) would be 3. The points for each item were then summed up and 20 points were added. The scores ranged from 40 to 160 with 100 acting as the neutra l point. Higher scores were more indicative of High Machiavellianism. Christie and Geis (1970) reported a co efficient alpha of .78, however in the current study the result ing coefficient alpha was .37. In an effort to improve the low reliability that resulted from the original scoring method, the scores were derived in another manner. Each of the 20 items were dummycoded so that if a participant chose the High Machiavellian response, he or she received 1 point; if a participant chose a ny other response combination, he or she did not receive any points for that item. Using the revised scor ing system, the range of possible scores was from 0 to 20 points, with higher scores mo re indicative of high Machiavellianism. Coefficient alpha was .42. This scoring was used in all subsequent analyses. NEO Five Factor Inventory. The NEO-FFI is a sixtyitem questionnaire designed to operationalize the five-factor model of pe rsonality. It was de veloped by McCrae and

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54 Costa (1992) through rational and factor-analytic methods in a series of studies using adult volunteers ranging in age from 20 to 90 years. There are five global scales measuring Neuroticism (N), Extraversi on (E), Openness to Experience (O), Agreeableness (A), and Conscientiousness (C ). In the current study, participants completed the Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness scales, which consisted of 12 items each. A sixth-grade r eading level is sufficient to understand the items, and most respondents require about 10-15 minutes to complete the questionnaire. The NEO-FFI has been used with college students and with adults of all ages. Research has shown that after age 30, ther e are few changes in personality; thus, two normative age groupscollege students and adults -are sufficient, and separate profiles are offered for each (McCrae & Costa, 1991). In a longitudinal retest of the normative sample, 3-to-6 year stability coefficients fo r the scales ranged from .68 to .83. Coefficient alphas for the E, A, and C scales were .87, .76, and .86 (Costa & McCrae, 1988). Spouse and peer ratings on the observer form show si milar levels of reliab ility, and the scales have been validated in a number of studi es (See Costa & McCrae, 1988). Participants were asked to indicate the extent that they agreed or disagreed with each statement on a 5-point Likert scale, rangi ng from (1=strongly disagree ) to (5=strongly agree). Coefficient alphas for Extraversion, Agreeablene ss, and Conscientiousness in the current study were .79, .78, and .86, respectively. Motives to Mentor. Motives to mentor were measured with an eleven-item scale based on Allen’s (2003) original eleven-item scale. The three factors that comprise this scale include: 1) self-enhan cement (e.g., “To earn respect from others”), 2) intrinsic

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55 satisfaction (e.g., “The personal pride that me ntoring someone brings”), and 3) benefit others (e.g., “To benefit my university”). The benefit others and se lf-enhancement scales were each comprised of four items, while the intrinsic satisfaction sc ale was comprised of three items. Participants were asked to indi cate the extent that each item motivated them to become a mentor as part of this study on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from (1=no extent) to (5=great extent). Since items were modified to fit th e academic setting, and because some new items were created, a pilot study was conduc ted. Ten subject matter experts (i.e., graduate psychology students familiar with mentoring theory) were provided with definitions for the three factors (i.e., self -enhancement, intrinsic satisfaction, benefit others) and asked to sort a lis t of 19 items (i.e., Allen’s elev en plus eight new potential items) into each factor. Pilot study particip ants also rated the a ppropriateness of each item given the specific constraints of the cu rrent study (e.g., limited interaction between mentor and protg). Items were retained if seven or more subject matter experts assigned them to the same f actor and found them applicable to the present study. As a result, three items were removed from Allen’s or iginal scale, as they did not fit within the academic context of the current study. Six of the nine new items were included with the original scale due to their academic nature. A factor analysis was conducted to ascerta in the loadings of the motivation to mentor items. In a recent study conducted by Allen (2003), three factors representative of three different motivations to mentor (i .e., self-enhancement, intrinsic satisfaction, benefit others) emerged. One aim of the curr ent study was to ascertain the robustness of

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56 the 3-factor structure. A prin cipal axis factor analysis with a forced 3-factor solution and oblimin rotation was conducted. The factor lo adings are presented in Table 5. Although the items were not identical to the items us ed in the original A llen study, a similar 3factor structure emerged, with the exception of three items, which were removed due to low loadings on the expected factors or comp arable loadings across multiple factors. Item 4 (“Because I am being paid for participating in this mentoring program”), which was expected to load on the self-enhancement s cale, was removed from that scale. Item 6 (“To benefit my university”), which was expect ed to load on the benefit others scale, was removed. Finally, item 14 (“A desire to gain mentoring experience”), which was expected to load on the intrinsic satisfac tion scale, was also removed. The final coefficient alphas were .90 for the intrinsic satisfaction motive scale, .92 for the benefit others motive scale, and .85 for th e self-enhancement motive scale. Protg Measures School Stress. School-related stress was measured with three items (e.g., “I have been under a great deal of tension this se mester”) adapted from Allen, McManus, and Russell (1999), and was administered to all protgs at the beginning and end of the study. To assess the extent that mentors helped reduce their school-related stress, protgs were asked to indicate their level of agreement with each item on a 6-point Likert scale, ranging from (1=s trongly disagree) to (6=strong ly agree). Coefficient alpha for this scale at Time 1 was .84 and at Time 2 was .85, and this is consistent with reliability estimates found in othe r research (Allen et al., 1999).

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57 Physical Symptoms of Stress. The Physical Symptoms Inventory was developed by Spector and Jex (1998) to assess physical somatic health symptoms thought to be associated with psychological distress. E ach item is a condition/state about which a person would likely be aware (e.g., headache). Protgs were asked to indicate for each symptom how many times they might have expe rienced it in the past thirty days (e.g., none, 1, 2, 3, 4, or more than four times). Coefficient alpha for this study was .84 at Time 1 and .88 at Time 2. School Self-Efficacy. School Self-Efficacy is a measure developed by SmithJentsch (2003) that contains 15 task statements pertaining to an academic situation (e.g., “Do well on your exams” and “Take good class notes”). Participants were asked to indicate their degree of confidence in comp leting a number of academically related tasks on a 6-point Likert scale, ra nging from (1=strongly disagree ) to (6=strongly agree). Coefficient alpha for this measure in previ ous studies has been found to be .86; in the current study, it was .90 and .89 at Time 1 and Time 2. Desire to Continue Me ntoring Relationship. At the end of the study, protgs were asked if they would like to continue the relationship with their mentor. This measure, which was developed for this study, cons ists of four items (e.g., “I would like to continue the relationship with my mentor”). Participants we re asked to indicate their level of agreement with each statement on a 6-point Likert scale, ranging from (1=strongly disagree) to (6=strongly ag ree). Coefficient alpha was .87. Satisfaction with the Me ntoring Relationship. At the end of the study, protgs were asked if they were satisfied with the mentoring relationship. This measure, which

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58 was developed for this study, consists of six items (e.g., “I was extremely satisfied with my assigned mentor”). Participan ts were asked to indicate their level of agreement with each statement on a 6-point Likert scale, ranging from (1=strongly disagree) to (6=strongly agree). Coefficient alpha was .96. Shared Measures Mentoring Functions. Mentoring functions were gath ered from three sources. These sources included mentor self-reports of career and psychosocial functions, protg self-reports of career an d psychosocial functions, and behavi oral coding of videotapes for mentoring functions by independent raters. Noe’s (1988) Mentor Function Scale was us ed to assess mentor and protg selfreports of mentoring functions. All items were adapted to fit within an academic context. Twelve items measured psychosocial ment oring (e.g., “My mentor demonstrated good listening skills in our conve rsations”). Nine items measured career development mentoring (e.g., “I helped my protg revi ew assignments or meet deadlines that otherwise would be difficult to complete”). Pa rticipants were asked to indicate the extent that they provided/received mentoring using a five-point Likert-t ype response scale, ranging from (1=no extent) to (5 =great extent). Coefficient alpha for mentor self-reports was .81 for career development mentoring and .80 for psychosocial mentoring. Coefficient alpha for protg self-reports wa s .89 for career development mentoring and .88 for psychosocial mentoring. In addition to survey measures, two trai ned independent raters viewed the four mentoring sessions for each mentor on videot ape. The three raters were advanced

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59 graduate students who were enrolled in an Industrial/Organizational Psychology doctorate program. Raters were trained us ing mock videotapes, as well as written exercises, until they achieved a high level of reliability in rating. These individuals used behaviorally anchored rati ng scales (Please see Appendi x N), based upon Noe’s Mentor Function Scale (1988), to rate each session on a 5-point Likert scale in regard to the sub dimensions of career development (i.e., coaching, exposure and visibility, and sponsorship) and psychosocial mentoring (i .e., counseling, accepta nce and confirmation, and role modeling). The protection sub dime nsion of career development was taken out given its similarity to coaching and the lim itations under which it could manifest in the current study (e.g., mentors and protgs were not allowed to interact outside of the study, thus the mentor woul d not be able to protect the protg from any academic/personal risks). For each mentori ng session, raters took notes and made an overall rating for each dimension after th ey had watched the complete session. Each mentor dyad was assigned a videotap e on which all four mentoring sessions were recorded. Each week and over the cour se of four weeks, the same videotape was used to record that particul ar dyad’s mentoring sessions. Th ree raters were trained on the coding scheme and two of the three raters ra ted each session. Rater 1 rated all of the mentoring sessions for all of the dyads (N =90), Rater 2 rated all of the mentoring sessions for half of the dyads (N=46), and Ra ter 3 rated all of the mentoring sessions for the remaining dyads (N=44). A single videot ape was damaged (Dyad 82), thus no ratings were recorded for that particular dyad. The videotapes were divided among the three raters, who then provided ratings on each of the mentoring sessions starting with Session

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60 1 and proceeding in numerical order (e.g., Dyad 1, Dyad 2). For example, Rater 1 independently rated Session 1 for Dyad 1 firs t, then Session 1 for Dyad 2, and so forth, until he or she had rated all of the first sessions for the batch of videotapes he or she had. The process was then repeated for Sessions 2, 3 and 4. When the rater had completed ratings for all four sessions for the set of vi deotapes they were rating, he or she switched videotapes with another rater a nd repeated the process. Theref ore, the initial ratings were conducted independent of one another. Once all the ratings were completed, the individual ratings assigned by each rater were examined to determine whether or not a consensus meeting was required with regard to a particular rating. If the ratings assigned for a given dimens ion were within one point of each other (e.g., one rater assigned a 3 and the second assign ed a 4), the two ratings were averaged. If the ratings assigned were more than one poi nt apart (e.g., one rater assigned a 3 and the second assigned a 5), the two raters met and ca me to consensus. The two raters assigned ratings for all four sessions for each mentor. The average rating across the four sessions was used in the analyses as the best es timate of overall career and psychosocial mentoring provided thro ughout the relationship. There were a number of missing sessions th at did not receive ratings due to sound problems (i.e., mentor or protg inaudibl e or no sound recorded), incorrect dyads recorded on the wrong videotape, and failure to record some sessions. The following sessions were not rated due to sound problem s: Dyad 1, Session 1; Dyad 8, Session 3; Dyad 38, Session 3; Dyad 39, Session 1; Dy ad 43, Session 3; Dyad 46, Session 2; Dyad 49, Session 2; Dyad 64, Session 2; and Dyad 95, Session 3. The following sessions were

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61 not rated due to incorrect dya ds recorded on the videotape: Dyad 12, Session 3; and Dyad 78, Session 3. Finally, Dyad 92, Se ssion 4, was not rated due to the fact that the session was not recorded. In the af orementioned instances where a particular session could not be rated, calculations for the dyad in questi on were based on the remaining sessions (e.g., calculations for Dyad 64 were based on three sessions rather than four). Interrater reliability between the original ratings of the three raters was assessed using the intraclass correlation. In order to determine the average intracla ss correlation for career mentoring and psychosocial mentor ing, the average intraclass correlation was first calculated between the two raters for each mentoring session and for each dimension. For example, the intraclass corr elation was calculated for Dyad 1, Session 1, Acceptance and Confirmation between Rater 1 and Rater 2, and between Rater 1 and Rater 3. When the sample size was equivale nt, the average of these two ratings was taken (e.g., average intraclass correlation fo r Session 1, Acceptance and Confirmation). However, when the sample size was not equivalent (e.g., 44 and 46), the weighted average of the two ratings was calculated. This resulted in a total of 48 intraclass correlations at the sess ion/dimension level. The average intraclass correlation for a pa rticular dimension across sessions was calculated next. For example, the average intraclass correlation was calculated for the sub dimension labeled Acceptance and Confir mation, across Sessions 1, 2, 3 and 4. This procedure was followed for all six of the ment oring sub dimensions. Finally, the average intraclass correlation for the psychosocial ratings was calcu lated by taking the average across the three psychosocial mentoring sub di mensions. This procedure was repeated

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62 for career development ratings. The intracl ass correlation for the psychosocial ratings was ICC (2,2) = .33 and for the career de velopment ratings was ICC (2,2) = .41. Coefficient alpha in the current study was .42 for career development and .86 for psychosocial ratings.

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63 Chapter 3 Results Tables 3 and 4 present intercorrelations, means and standard deviations of the study variables. Hypothesis Testing Zero order correlations were used to test Hypotheses 1 through 17. Hypothesis 1 stated that mentors higher on intrinsic motivation would provide more career development mentoring than would mentor s lower on intrinsic motivation. This hypothesis was partially supported. Mentors with higher intrinsi c motivation reported providing greater career de velopment mentoring ( r = .21, p = .05) than did mentors with lower intrinsic motivation. However, protg and independent rate r reports of career development received were not significantly correlated with the mentor’s intrinsic motivation. Hypothesis 2, which stated that mentor s higher on intrinsic motivation would provide more psychosocial mentoring than would mentors lower on intrinsic motivation, was not supported. Mentor, pr otg, and independent rater ratings of psychosocial mentoring were not related to mentor intrin sic satisfaction. However, as predicted in Hypothesis 3, mentor intrinsic motivation was positively associated with motivation to mentor for intrinsic satisfaction reasons ( r = .25, p < .05).

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64 Hypothesis 4, which stated that mentors hi gher on learning goal orientation would provide more career development mentoring than would mentors lower on learning goal orientation, was not supported. Mentor, protg, and independe nt rater ratings of career development mentoring were not related to mentor learning goal orientation. Mentors higher on learning goal orientat ion were more motivated to mentor for intrinsic satisfaction reasons than were mentor s lower on learning go al orientation ( r = .28, p < .01), thus supporting Hypothesis 5. Mentor conscientiousness was not rela ted to career development mentoring (Hypothesis 6). In addition, mentor conscien tiousness was not relate d to the motivation to mentor for the benefit of others (Hypot hesis 7). Although not predicted, mentor conscientiousness was related to mentor re ports of psychosocial mentoring provided ( r = .23, p < .05) and to motivation to ment or for intrinsic satisfaction ( r = .35, p < .01). Hypothesis 8, which stated that mentor s higher on agreeableness would provide more psychosocial mentoring than would mentors lower on agreeableness, was not supported. It was predicted that mentor s higher on agreeableness would be more motivated to mentor in order to bene fit others than would mentors lower on agreeableness (Hypothesis 9). This hypothesis was supported ( r = .21, p < .05). Although it was not predicted, mentor agreeable ness was also related to motivation to mentor for intrinsic satisfaction reasons ( r = .25, p < .05). Hypothesis 10, which stated that mentor s higher on extraversion would provide more psychosocial mentoring than woul d mentors lower on extraversion, was not supported. Extraverted mentors were more motivat ed to mentor in order to benefit others

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65 than were mentors lower on extraversion ( r = .21, p < .05) (Hypothesis 11). Although it was not predicted, extraverted me ntors were also more motivated to mentor for intrinsic satisfaction reasons than were mentors lower on extraversion ( r = .32, p < .01). Hypothesis 12 stated that mentors higher on Machiavellianism would provide less psychosocial mentoring than would mentors lower on Machiavellianism. This hypothesis was partially supported in that protg (but not mentor or i ndependent rater) reports of psychosocial mentoring were negativ ely related to Machiavellianism ( r = -.24, p < .05). It was predicted in Hypothesis 13 that mentors higher on Machiavellianism would be more motivated to mentor for self-enhancem ent reasons than would mentors lower on Machiavellianism. However, this hypot hesis was not supported. Hypothesis 14 was supported. Mentors higher on M achiavellianism reported that they were less motivated to mentor in order to benefit others ( r = -.25, p < .05) than were mentors lower on Machiavellianism. Hypothesis 15 stated that self-enhancem ent motives would positively relate to career development mentoring. This hypothesis was partially supported. Mentors who reported being motivated to mentor for self -enhancement reasons also reported providing more career development mentoring ( r = .34, p < .01) than mentors who were not motivated to mentor for self-enhancement reasons (but not protg or independent raters). In addition, although it was not predicted, self -enhancement motivation to mentor related to mentor reports of psychosocial mentoring ( r = .28, p < .01). Hypothesis 16, which stated that intrinsic satisfacti on motives would positively relate to psychosocial mentoring, was fully supported. Mentors who were motivated to

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66 mentor for intrinsic satisfaction reasons re ported providing higher le vels of psychosocial mentoring ( r = .30, p < .01). Protg reports ( r = .28, p < .01) and independent rater ratings ( r = .26, p < .05) of psychosocial mentoring we re also significantly related to intrinsic satisfaction motivation to mentor. In addition, although it was not hypothesized, mentor reports of career mentoring ( r = .37, p < .01) were significantly related to intrinsic satisfaction motives to mentor. Hypothesis 17 stated that benefit others motives would positively relate to both career and psychosocial mentoring. This hypot hesis was partially supported. The benefit others motive was significantly related to mentor ratings of career development mentoring ( r = .25, p < .01). Hypothesis 18 Hypothesis 18 was tested using both corre lational (18a, 18b) and hierarchical regression analyses (18c, 18d, 18e ). Hierarchical regression analyses were employed to determine the relationship between career and psychosocial mentoring and protg reports of school self-efficacy, school stress, and physical symptoms of stress at Time 2, while controlling for these variables at Time 1. In each analysis, the Time 1 measure (e.g., school self-efficacy at Time 1) was entere d at Step 1, thus cont rolling for the Time 1 measure’s effect on the Time 2 measure. The mentoring function (e.g., mentor report of career mentoring) was entered at Step 2 to determine if there was a significant change in R2. Six hierarchical regression equations were conducted for each of the three outcome variables, resulting in a total of 18 equations.

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67 Hypothesis 18a stated that protgs who received higher levels of career development and psychosocial mentoring woul d be more satisfied with the mentoring relationship than would protgs who rece ived lower levels of mentoring. This hypothesis was partially supporte d. Mentor reports of pr oviding career development ( r = .21, p < .05) and psychosocial mentoring ( r = .27, p < .05) both related to protg satisfaction with the relationship. Pr otg reports of career development ( r = .48, p < .01) and psychosocial mentoring ( r = .63, p < .01) both significantl y related to protg satisfaction with the mentoring relationshi p. Finally, independent rater ratings of psychosocial (but not career development) mentoring ( r = .39, p < .01) related to protg satisfaction with the relationship. Hypothesis 18b, which stated that prot gs who received greater career development and psychosocial mentoring would be more likely to want to continue the mentoring relationship, was part ially supported. Mentor re ports of career development and psychosocial mentoring were not relate d to protg desire to continue the relationship. Protg repo rts of career development ( r = .46, p < .01) and psychosocial mentoring ( r = .57, p < .01) were significantly related to protg desire to continue the relationship. Finally, protg desire to continue the relatio nship was significantly related to independent rater ra tings of psychosocial mentoring provided ( r = .31, p < .01), but not to career development mentoring. Hypothesis 18c stated that protg repor ts of greater career development and psychosocial mentoring would relate to less school stress. Time 1 school stress was entered at Step 1 in the hierarchical regressi on equation and each of the sources of career

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68 development and psychosocial mentoring (p rotg, mentor, independent raters) were entered separately at Step 2, resulting in si x different equations (See Tables 6-11). This hypothesis was partially supported. Protgs who reported higher levels of career development mentoring also reported less school stress at Time 2 ( = -.17, p < .05) than did protgs who reported lower levels of career mentoring when Time 1 school stress was controlled. Independent rater ratings of career development ( = -.18, p < .05) and psychosocial mentoring ( = -.27, p < .01) also resulted in less school stress at Time 2. Hypothesis 18d stated that protgs who reported more career development and psychosocial mentoring would report less phy sical stress than would protgs who reported less mentoring. Time 1 physical symptoms of st ress was entered at Step 1 in the hierarchical regression equation and each of the sources of career development and psychosocial mentoring (protg, mentor, indepe ndent raters) were entered separately at Step 2, resulting in six different equations (See Tables 12-17). This hypothesis was not supported. Hypothesis 18e stated that protgs who reported greater career development and psychosocial mentoring would report higher sc hool self-efficacy than would protgs who reported less mentoring. Time 1 school se lf-efficacy was entered at Step 1 in the hierarchical regression equation and each of the sources of career development and psychosocial mentoring functions (protg, mentor, independent raters) were entered separately at Step 2, resulting in six differe nt equations (See Tables 18-23). This hypothesis was not supported.

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69 Exploratory Regression Tests Exploratory regression te sts were conducted in order to provide additional information regarding Hypotheses 1-17. In the first set of regr ession equations, the following independent variables were entere d simultaneously at Step 1: Intrinsic motivation, learning goal orie ntation, conscientiousness, th e self-enhancement motive, and the benefit others motive. This proce ss was conducted for the dependent variables of mentor reports, protg reports, and indepe ndent rater ratings of career development mentoring (See Tables 24, 25, and 26). Both the self-enhancement motive ( = .24, p < .05) and the benefit others motive ( = .24, p < .05) contributed unique variance toward the prediction of mentor repor ts of career development. In the second set of regression equati ons, the following independent variables were entered simultaneously at Step 1: In trinsic motivation, agreeableness, extraversion, Machiavellianism, the intrinsic satisfaction motive, and the benefit others motive. This process was conducted for the dependent variab les of mentor reports protg reports, and independent rater ratings of psychosocial mentoring (See Tables 27, 28, and 29). None of the independent variables used in this set of regression equati ons contributed unique variance toward the prediction of psychosocial mentoring. In the third set of regression equations, two independent variables, intrinsic motivation and learning goal or ientation, were entered simu ltaneously at Step 1. This process was conducted for the dependent vari able of intrinsic satisfaction motive (See Table 30). Learning goal orie ntation contributed unique va riance toward the prediction of the intrinsic satisfaction motive for mentoring ( = .22, p < .05).

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70 In the final set of regression equations, the following independent variables were entered simultaneously at Step 1: Conscien tiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and Machiavellianism. This process was conducte d for the dependent variable of benefit others motive (See Table 31). None of the i ndependent variables used in this set of regression equations contribute d unique variance toward th e prediction of the benefit others motive.

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71 Chapter 4 Discussion The main purpose of this study was to inve stigate the relationsh ip between mentor characteristics (i.e., motivational tendencies, personality traits), mentoring provided, and mentorship outcomes. Several links between mentor dispositional variables, mentoring motives, and mentoring provided were identified. The key fi ndings of the current study provide support for the view that personal ity and motivational characteristics of the mentor may affect the type of mentoring provided, albeit in directly in some cases. In addition, it is important to consider multiple sources of mentoring provided (i.e., mentor, protg, independent rater) rath er than just the protg’s poi nt of view because this can provide a more well rounded picture of the mentoring relationship, as well as identify potential gaps in perception that may exis t between mentors and protgs. Please see Table 32 for a list of hypotheses and wh ether or not they were supported. As hypothesized, mentors who were genera lly more intrinsically motivated and learning goal oriented reported being more motivated to mentor others for intrinsic satisfaction reasons. In a ddition, although it was not hypothesi zed, individuals who were more conscientious, agreeable, and extraverte d also reported being more motivated to mentor for intrinsic satisfaction reasons. This is important in that the intrinsic satisfaction motive related to mentor, protg, and i ndependent rater report s of psychosocial mentoring provided, as well as mentor reports of career mentoring provided. Due to the

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72 fact the relationship was supported across multip le data sources, we can rule out common method bias as a potential explana tion for this relationship. The current study also found that mentors who were generally more intrinsically motivated reported providing more career ment oring. However, protg and independent rater reports of career mentor ing did not reflect this rela tionship. Similarly, although it was not hypothesized, mentors who were more c onscientious tended to rate themselves as providing more psychosocial mentoring. This finding is consistent with research demonstrating a relationship between cons cientiousness and performance in jobs involving the development of positive social relationships and a high level of social interaction (Mount, Barrick, & Stewart, 1998). In addition, conscientiousness is negatively correlated with many items on the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (e.g., “I am too easily bothered by other people ma king demands of me” and “Hard to get out of relationships I don’t want to be in”) developed by Gurtman ( 1995), indicating that conscientious individuals usually don’t expe rience large amounts of difficulty with interpersonal relationships. These studies may explain why conscientious mentors reported providing greater psychosocial ment oring to their protgs than did less conscientious mentors. Mentors who were more extraverted and ag reeable than their peers reported being more motivated to mentor in order to benefit others. This may be due to the fact that individuals high in Agreeable ness and Extraversion tend to be motivated to maintain positive interpersonal relationships with ot hers (Graziano et al., 1996; Organ & Ryan, 1995).

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73 Mentors who scored high on Machiavellia nism were less likely to report being motivated to mentor in order to benefit others and were less likely to provide psychosocial functions, as reported by the pr otg. Given the nature of the high Machiavellian individual to be untrusting, col d, and less nurturing of others, it stands to reason that mentors high on Machiavellianism will not be motivated to mentor for prosocial or altruistic reasons nor to act as role models counselors, or friends to protgs, roles that are typi cally associated with provi ding psychosocial support as a mentor. However, these findings should be viewed with cau tion, as the scores from the Machiavellianism scale showed lo w reliability in the current study. Attempts were made to address the low reliability ( = .37), which occurred when the original scoring method was used. An alternative scoring method involved dummycoding items as either a hi gh-Machiavellian resp onse or not. This method slightly improved the resulting reliability of the Machiavellian scale ( = .42). One potential explanation for why the reliability estimate fo r this scale was low i nvolves the nature of the sample itself. College students may ha ve yet to form strong opinions about many sensitive issues. It may be that they were less reliable in choosing the statements that were most true or least true of them, rather than consiste ntly choosing the high Machiavellian statement over the low. Colle ge students may have been reluctant to endorse items that were more controvers ial and emotionally charged (e.g., “The construction of such monuments as the Egyp tian pyramids was worth the enslavement of the workers who built them”), thus making the scale highly susceptible to social desirability.

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74 Another potential explanation for the low re liability stems from the fact that the coefficients for internal consistency and stab ility for the forced-choi ce scale of 20 triads are not very consistent and of ten not even reported by author s using this scale (Vleeming, 1979). More specifically, Vleeming suggests th at the format and the scoring method for the Machiavellian scale may cause low and ne gative intercorrelations (preference for one item implies automatically rejection of anothe r), which may yield scores with a limited amount of empirical support. This may e xplain why the reliability was low for this particular instrument. With regard to the relationship betwee n motives for mentoring and mentoring provided, the current study repl icates the findings of Alle n (2003) in that the selfenhancement motive was significantly related to mentor reports of career mentoring, the intrinsic satisfaction motive was significantly related to mentor a nd protg reports of psychosocial mentoring, and the benefit others motive was significantly related to mentor reports of career mentoring. In fact, th e strongest relationshi p was found between the self-enhancement motive and career mentoring in that it was the only variable that explained unique variance in the regression equations. However, in the Allen study, the intrinsic satisfaction motive contributed uni quely to psychosocial mentoring and the benefit others motive contributed uniquely to both psychosocial and career mentoring. These findings were not repli cated in the current study. The current results also differ from the results reported by Allen (2003) in that a relationship between the intrinsic satisfac tion motive and career mentoring from the mentor’s perspective was detected. In addition, a relationship was found between the

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75 self-enhancement motive and psychosocial ment oring from the mentor’s perspective. These additional findings may be due to di fferences between the two studies. For example, in the current study, students in an academic setting were asked to act as mentors, while in the original Allen st udy, participants who were working in a professional setting were asked to complete su rveys about their experi ences as a mentor. In addition, participants in th e current study were recruited in person and were paid to participate, whereas in the A llen study, participants were re cruited through mail and were not paid to participate. Finally, in the current study the instrument was modified to fit an academic setting, whereas in the Allen study, the items were more appropriate for a professional setting. Past research has demonstrated that part icipants who are paid versus those who are not can impact the type of motivation (Deci, 1971). It is also possible that people in different stages of their careers are motiv ated for different reasons. For example, students might be motivated to participate in this type of study to build their resume or gain new skills that will better enable them to succeed in the workforce. However, more seasoned workers at later career stages might be more motivated than students to impart their knowledge to others. It seems reasonable that differences in the career stage of the participants and the study context could impact the r easons why someone would be motivated to mentor. Researchers may find it va luable to investigate these differences in the future. With regard to protg outcomes, in a ll but one rating source (i.e., independent rater ratings of career mentor ing), career and psychosocial mentoring were significantly

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76 related to protg satisfaction with the mentori ng relationship. Protg desire to continue the relationship was related to protg reports of both career and psychosocial mentoring. It is reasonable to assume that protgs who feel they are rece iving a high level of mentoring will be more satisfied and more likely to want to continue the mentoring relationship. The current study did not fi nd support for mentoring effecting changes on physical symptoms of stress, or protg school self-efficacy. It may be that the period of time between Time 1 and Time 2 – four week s – was too short to allow the mentoring relationship to have an eff ect on these particular outcome s. Future research should involve more long-term longitudinal studies th at examine the impact of having a mentor on changes in physical stress and general self-efficacy. Finally, independent rater ratings of bot h career development and psychosocial mentoring related to less school stress for pr otgs at Time 2. These findings support the rationale that having a mentor may help to relieve protg school-rela ted stress. Future research should examine the impact of the mentoring relationship on other types of stress in order to pinpoint the exact types of stress that may be alleviated. Theoretical and Practical Implications The current study provides both theoretical and practical im plications for the field of mentoring. The aforementioned findings regarding the relationship between the intrinsic satisfaction motive and many of the personality traits that were measured in the current study suggest that there are many i ndividual characteristics of the mentor that may predispose him or her to be motivated to mentor for intrinsic satisfaction reasons. Therefore, it wouldn’t be surprising to find th at other personality traits are highly related

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77 to the intrinsic satis faction motive for mentoring (e.g., ope nness to experience). We must also consider the fact that all of the ment ors in the current study were paid for their participation. This likely served as a major motivating factor for why they participated in the study. This lends more credibility to the fi nding that, despite the fact that they were getting paid to be mentors, many of the me ntors were also motivated in terms of the intrinsic satisfaction they might feel in helping someone out. Future research should examine the diffe rences between soliciting mentors who will not receive payment for taking part and co mparing their intrinsic satisfaction scores with those who will receive payment, much lik e in the current study. It is possible that mentors who are not being paid to mentor will have significantly higher intrinsic satisfaction scores than in the current study. In addition, this may sh ed more light on how to structure mentoring relati onships in organizations. Fo r example, paying mentors a bonus for taking part in a structured mentor ing program may result in poorer quality mentorships than if one were to ask fo r volunteers, thus ensu ring that those who volunteer are much more likely to be motivat ed for intrinsic satisfaction reasons. The findings have several potential implications for the selection of mentors in formal mentoring programs. For example, an assessm ent of intrinsic motivation may be used as a screening device for potential mentors in formal mentoring programs. Selecting intrinsically motivated mentors may help ensu re that a greater degree of mentoring is provided. In addition, selecting mentors based on their motives to mentor may be the key to ensuring a stronger relationship.

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78 The data also suggest that mentor pers onality may be a consideration in the selection of mentors for formal mentoring programs. In th e future, researchers should examine other personality tra its that may lead to bette r understanding the personality profile of an ideal mentor or perhaps specific facets of the aforementioned personality traits in an effort to provide even st ronger prediction (Schne ider, Hough, & Dunnette, 1996). For example, mentors who are hi gh on Openness to Experience and low on Neuroticism may also prove to be effective mentors. Mentors who are high on Openness to Experience or its facets may be better equipped to provide their protg s with ideas for improving thei r careers. They may also be more open-minded with regard to explori ng new ideas with their protgs. Openness to Experience is characterized by curiosity, imagination, creativity, and originality. It may be that mentors who are high on Ope nness to Experience will share a broader spectrum of experiences with th eir protgs than would those who are low on this trait. This is due to the fact that these individuals may be more proactive in regard to seeking out various career and life experiences and th erefore gaining a unique knowledge set that others might not acquire. For example, thes e individuals may choose to engage in new and unique experiences en route to attaini ng goals, while their counterparts may choose more direct and less creative path s. By virtue of these uni que learning experiences, such mentors are equipped to share knowledge with their protgs that others might not possess. Likewise, mentors who are high on Neuroticis m are less likely to be successful mentors since they may tend to be insecure and anxious in inter acting with others.

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79 Neuroticism measures emotional stability, with those individuals scor ing high on this trait exhibiting anxiety, nervousness, and insecur ity. Mentors who are high on Neuroticism may be less confident when interacting with their protg, thus i nhibiting the level of confidence that a protg may have in their a dvice. They also may feel less comfortable with themselves and thus less comfortable enga ging in social interactions with others. Therefore, protgs may not feel at ease wh en conversing with their mentor. Finally, less secure and worrisome mentors may place t oo great an emphasis on how the protg perceives them than on how best to benefit th e protg. It may be that mentors who are high on Neuroticism may be less successful at providing psychosocial mentoring due to their tendency to be nervous and anxi ous in many of their interactions. In the current study, having a mentor w ho provided career mentoring may have reduced school-related stress for a protg. Considering the lim ited length of time and number of engagements that dyads took part in regarding the current study suggests that an even more profound reduction in stress coul d be experienced by protgs in a formal mentoring program of a more common length (e .g., 1 year). It is not unreasonable to assume that similar reductions in stress could be experienced by protgs in an organizational setting. Along similar lines Sosik and Godshalk (2000) found that mentoring received was negatively related to protg job-related stress, and Allen, McManus, and Russell (1999) reported that prot gs who reported receiving a greater degree of mentoring were more likely to report that their mentors helped them cope with stress. Considering the demonstrated impact that stress can have on an individual’s job performance (Jamal, 1990) and thus on th e organization (Motowidlo, Packard, &

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80 Manning, 1986), this finding may be of partic ular importance. Future researchers may find it valuable to continue to conduct research on whet her or not having a mentor reduces work-related stress in an organizational setting. Finally, this is one of the first studies to measure mentoring from multiple sources (i.e., mentor, protg, independent raters). Previous research has traditionally relied on a single perspective (Higgins & Kram, 2001), how ever researchers have suggested that mentors’ and protgs’ perceptions cannot be generalized to one another and each require attention (Fagenson-Eland et al., 1997). In the current study, mentor and protg perceptions of career mentori ng were significantly related ( r = .23, p < .05), while mentor and protg perceptions of psyc hosocial mentoring were not ( r = .15, ns). The modest correlations between mentor and protg re ports of mentoring are consistent with previous research. For example, Raab e and Beehr (2003) re ported nonsignificant correlations between the two sources of .21 for psychosocial and .01 for career mentoring. Raabe and Beehr concluded th at psychosocial mentoring might be the mentoring function in which there is the best chance for convergent reports. However, in the current study the correlation regarding career mentoring was larger than was the correlation regarding psychosocial mentoring. Thus, while the current study adds to the literature, it also reiter ates the need for future research to clarify the relationship between mentor and protg perceptions. A closer examination of the intercorrela tions among the three rating sources also highlights a number of interesting observati ons. Mentor reports of career development are significantly correlated with independent rater reports ( r = .29, p < .01), while mentor

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81 reports of psychosocial mentoring are not significantly related to independent rater reports ( r = .14, ns). Similarly, protg repor ts of career development are also significantly correlated with independent rater reports ( r = .34, p < .01). In addition, protg reports of psychosocial mentoring ar e significantly related to independent rater reports ( r = .35, p < .01). Although it is not uncommon for reports from different rating sources to exhibit modest correlations (Harris & Schaubroeck, 1988), given the fact that all three sources were rating the same behaviors within a highl y structured situation over a short period of time, it is surprising that the correlations observed in the pr esent study were not greater in magnitude. One problem was range restricti on in the ratings provided by independent observers, which may have suppressed the co rrelations (Howell, 1992). For example, with regard to the ratings a ssigned to the sub dimensions of Exposure and Visibility and Sponsorship, the range was typica lly from 1 to 2 or from 1 to 3 on a possible 1 to 5 scale, regardless of the rater. Rater 2 also exhibited restriction of ra nge (1 to 3) with regard to ratings provided for the sub dimension of Ro le Modeling, regardless of the session, when compared to the other raters. It may be that the nature of the study i nhibited the opportunity for this behavior to be exhibited by the mentors. Another possibl e explanation is that training was not as rigorous as desirable nor the competencies a nd behaviors as well-de fined as they could have been. In retrospect, it would have been helpful to do a check of interrater reliability after raters had completed rating a portion of the tapes to ensure that the training had transferred.

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82 Another potential reason for the differences between rating sources may be due to the fact that the independent raters were rating behaviors that may need further refinement and definition. This possibility is suggested by the low intraclass correlations. The fact that this study viewed mentoring from different perspectives allowed us to identify that differences in perception (i .e., between mentor and independent observer) do exist. The independent observer perspe ctive provides one additional source of reference documenting which mentoring f unctions may actually be occurring in a mentoring dyad. Future research should further examine mentoring from multiple perspectives (e.g., independent observers, coworker s, supervisors) in order to gain greater insight into why these differences may exis t. This study takes an initial step by highlighting the existence of these differences. More theoretical work is also needed to delineate the reasons why these differences in reports occur. Limitations Although the current study has a number of strengths ge nerally not found in the mentoring literature, such as data collected over multiple time periods and from multiple sources (i.e., mentors, protgs, independe nt raters), several limitations must be discussed. The current study was conducted within an academic setting over a short period of time. The first limitation involves th e ability to generalize from a population of student “mentors” to an organizational setti ng. Formal mentoring programs typically allow mentors and protgs to meet more ofte n over a longer period of time (e.g., 1 year). It may be that the limited amount of time a llowed for interaction in the current study hindered the ability of mentor personality to play a stronger role th an it did. The short

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83 relationship duration also may not have allo wed the mentor and protg to get to know each other very well, or for the appropriate le vel of trust to build, enabling the protg to confide in the mentor. Hence, it is uncer tain the extent that these results can be generalized to organizational settings or to fo rmal relationships of a longer duration. One way to improve upon this limitation would be to conduct a similar study using a more long-term design in order to allow the me ntor and protg to develop a stronger relationship. Mentors and protgs in the current study were randomly assigned to one another. The ability to match mentors and protgs ba sed on similar personality characteristics or academic majors might have allowed a stronger relationship to build within the short time frame that was allotted. Future research should examine the effects of matching based on personality and other interests in an organi zational setting. The context of the formal program was highly structured in that partic ipants met for a specified amount of time on a specified schedule. The participants were not allowed to interact outside of the specified meeting time until the program was finish ed, contrary to traditional mentoring relationships. It may be that mentoring re lationships are effective partially due to scheduled as well as impromptu meetings that may occur between mentors and protgs. One improvement to the current study design is to allow the mentor and protg to interact outside of the sche duled meeting times in order to better mimic naturally occurring mentorships. These impromptu or less formal meetings could be logged in a diary and their effects could be measured.

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84 Another limitation is that the modest sample size may have inhibited our ability to detect significant relationships among the st udy variables. In a ddition, opportunities for career mentoring to occur in the current sett ing were restricted. For example, career mentoring in the current study consisted of coaching (e.g., mentor shared history of his/her academic career), exposure and visibili ty (e.g., mentor suggested ways to meet other students/faculty), and sponsorship (e .g., mentor offered to introduce protg to people who could help his/her academic success). Given that the mentor and protg were not allowed to interact outside of the scheduled meeti ng, the exposure and visibility and sponsorship dimensions were rarely observed. Future research might examine the effect s of personality and motivation within a formal peer mentoring or student advisor pr ogram that exists in an academic setting (e.g., college or university), with the difference being the amount of time they spend together and the amount of interaction they are allo wed between meeting sessions. Many of these programs involve pairing advanced college students with incoming freshman and may extend over the course of a semester or academ ic year. This would allow the mentor and protg to develop a stronger relationship since the length of time they would spend together would be much longer than 4 weeks (e.g., 16 week se mester). Typically, student advisor programs allow the mentor and prot g to exchange contact information, thus allowing them to interact whenever they de sire to. The current study only allowed the participants to spend 2 hours in total together, which may not be enough time to develop a strong relationship. This limited time peri od may also have limited the effect that personality and motivation could have on the mentoring relationship.

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85 Conclusion This study is one of the first to examine the effect that mentoring personality may have on motives for mentoring and the type of mentoring provided as defined by multiple sources. Very little resear ch has attempted to explain why some mentors are more successful at mentoring than others, which ma y in part be due to characteristics on the part of the mentor. Future research should continue to examine the impact of mentor personality traits on the mentoring relationshi p, as well as the manner in which career and psychosocial mentoring are measured (e.g., independent raters rating videotaped behaviors). This study takes a meaningful step toward rectif ying this apparent dearth in the literature.

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86 Table 1 Demographic Frequencies for Mentors (N=91) Demographic Frequency Percentage Age 18-20 20 22.0 21-23 58 63.8 24-26 8 8.7 27-29 5 5.5 Ethnicity Caucasian/White 71 78.0 African American 5 5.5 Hispanic 7 7.7 Other 7 7.7 Missing 1 1.1 Gender Male 25 27.5 Female 66 72.5 Class Junior 46 50.5 Senior 45 49.5 Major Psychology 54 59.3 Business 18 19.8 Liberal Studies 6 6.6 Criminal Justice 5 5.5 Communications 2 2.2 Engineering 2 2.2 Nursing 1 1.1 Statistics 1 1.1 Hospitality Management 1 1.1 History 1 1.1

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87 Table 2 Demographic Frequencies for Protgs (N=91) Demographic Frequency Percentage Age 18 45 49.5 19 45 49.5 21 1 1.0 Ethnicity Caucasian/White 59 64.8 African American 14 15.4 Hispanic 9 9.9 Other 6 6.6 Missing 3 3.3 Gender Male 26 28.6 Female 65 71.4 Major Education 15 16.5 Biological Sciences 14 15.4 Psychology 13 14.3 Undecided 10 11.0 Business 9 9.9 Criminal Justice 8 8.8 Nursing/Health Sciences 7 7.7 Information Technology 5 5.5 Communications 2 2.2 Legal Studies 2 2.2 English 2 2.2 Engineering 2 2.2 Theatre 1 1.1 Mathematics 1 1.0

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88Table 3 Intercorrelations Among Study Variables 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1. Intrinsic Motivation 2. Learning Goal Orientation .35** 3. Conscientiousness .14 .27* 4. Extraversion .24* .20 .31** 5. Agreeableness .00 .07 .28** .44** 6. Machiavellianism -.04 -.20 .13 -.20 -.32** 7. Self-enhancement Motive .06 .13 .09 .01 .04 -.18 8. Intrinsic Satisfaction Motive .25* .28** .35** .32** .25* -.17 .35** 9. Benefit Others Motive .15 .10 .16 .21* .21* -.25* .31** .61** 10. Mentor Career Development .21* .16 .1 6 .04 .04 -.20 .34** .37** 11. Mentor Psychosocial .14 .15 .23* .08 .09 -.06 .28** .30** 12. Protg Career Development -.15 -.04 06 -.12 .02 -.13 -.10 .20 13. Protg Psychosocial -.06 .04 .10 .02 .20 -.24* -.07 .28** 14. Raters Career Development -.13 .07 -.01 .05 .02 -.14 .02 .19 15. Raters Psychosocial -.03 .05 -.10 .11 .16 -.22 -.01 .26* 16. Protg Satisfaction with .04 .08 .06 .02 -.06 -.12 .06 .18 Relationship 17. Protg Desire to Continue -.14 .02 -.05 .05 -.01 -.09 -.00 .09 Relationship 18. Protg T1 School Stress .10 -.02 -.01 -.04 -.01 -.03 -.04 -.05 19. Protg T2 School Stress -.05 -.29** -.01 .02 .04 .11 -.02 -.15 20. Protg T1 Physical Stress .18 -.00 .10 -.01 .01 .04 -.01 .11 21. Protg T2 Physical Stress .05 -.05 .10 .13 .15 .13 .08 .09 22. Protg T1 School Self-Efficacy .05 .17 .11 .12 .02 .18 -.10 .01 23. Protg T2 School Self-Efficacy -.04 .16 .01 -.06 -.05 .05 -.07 .10 Note: Correlations based on two-tailed test and N =91 dyads. p < .05, ** p < .01

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89Table 3 (Continued) Intercorrelations Among Study Variables 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1. Intrinsic Motivation 2. Learning Goal Orientation 3. Conscientiousness 4. Extraversion 5. Agreeableness 6. Machiavellianism 7. Self-enhancement Motive 8. Intrinsic Satisfaction Motive 9. Benefit Others Motive 10. Mentor Career Development .35** 11. Mentor Psychosocial .20 .59** 12. Protg Career Development .10 .23* .09 13. Protg Psychosocial .20 .09 .15 .73** 14. Raters Career Development .08 .29** .09 .34** .21* 15. Raters Psychosocial .06 .03 .14 .22* .35** .64** 16. Protg Satisfaction with .13 .21* .27* .48** .63** .21 .39** Relationship 17. Protg Desire to Continue .15 .10 .20 .46** .57** .16 .31** .61** Relationship 18. Protg T1 School Stress -.03 .01 .11 .03 .04 -.09 -.11 .16 19. Protg T2 School Stress -.08 -.10 .04 -.15 -.05 -.33** -.25* .07 20. Protg T1 Physical Stress .03 -.10 .10 .05 .10 -.12 .09 .13 21. Protg T2 Physical Stress .08 -.10 .10 -.02 .14 -.21 -.01 .08 22. Protg T1 School Self-Efficacy -.09 -.03 -.05 -.09 -.09 -.05 -.11 -.06 23. Protg T2 School Self-Efficacy -.08 -.02 .10 -.02 .05 .05 .05 .13 Note: Correlations based on two-tailed test and N =91 dyads. p < .05, ** p < .01

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90Table 3 (Continued) Intercorrelations Among Study Variables 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1. Intrinsic Motivation 2. Learning Goal Orientation 3. Conscientiousness 4. Extraversion 5. Agreeableness 6. Machiavellianism 7. Self-enhancement Motive 8. Intrinsic Satisfaction Motive 9. Benefit Others Motive 10. Mentor Career Development 11. Mentor Psychosocial 12. Protg Career Development 13. Protg Psychosocial 14. Raters Career Development 15. Raters Psychosocial 16. Protg Satisfaction with Relationship 17. Protg Desire to Continue Relationship 18. Protg T1 School Stress .06 19. Protg T2 School Stress -.03 .69** 20. Protg T1 Physical Stress -.03 .55** .37** 21. Protg T2 Physical Stress -.01 .46** .52** .72** 22. Protg T1 School Self-Efficacy -.11 -.20 -.11 -.21* -.07 23. Protg T2 School Self-Efficacy .07 -.18 -.27** -.11 -.14 .70** Note: Correlations based on two-tailed test and N =91 dyads. p < .05, ** p < .01

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91 Table 4 Descriptive Statistics for Study Variables Study Variable Mean SD Min Max Alpha 1. Intrinsic Motivation 3.79 0.34 2.40 4.13 0.73 2. Learning Goal Orientation 5.52 1.06 1.13 7.00 0.94 3. Conscientiousness 3.86 0.56 2.25 4.83 0.87 4. Extraversion 3.79 0.51 2.42 4.83 0.79 5. Agreeableness 3.86 0.51 2.58 4.83 0.78 6. Machiavellianism 6.54 2.49 0.00 12.00 0.42 7. Self-enhancement Motive 2.84 1.07 1.00 5.00 0.85 8. Intrinsic Satisfaction Motive 3.79 1.01 1.00 5.00 0.90 9. Benefit Others Motive 4.15 0.78 1.75 5.00 0.92 10. Mentor Career Development 3.32 0.67 1.67 4.78 0.81 11. Mentor Psychosocial 3.79 0.46 2.25 4.83 0.80 12. Protg Career Development 3.23 0.89 1.22 4.89 0.89 13. Protg Psychosocial 3.79 0.68 1.83 5.00 0.89 14. Raters Career Development 1.69 0.31 1.17 2.44 0.42 15. Raters Psychosocial 2.98 0.55 1.75 4.00 0.86 16. Protg Satisfaction with 4.77 1.09 1.90 6.00 0.96 Relationship 17. Protg Desire to Continue 4.15 1.13 1.00 6.00 0.87 Relationship 18. Protg T1 School Stress 2.79 1.15 1.00 6.00 0.84 19. Protg T2 School Stress 3.19 1.25 1.00 6.00 0.85 20. Protg T1 Physical Stress 1.24 0.74 0.00 3.67 0.84 21. Protg T2 Physical Stress 1.20 0.80 0.00 3.72 0.88 22. Protg T1 School Self-Efficacy 4.69 0.80 2.33 6.00 0.90 23. Protg T2 School Self-Efficacy 4.90 0.69 2.27 6.00 0.89

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92 Table 5 Factor Loadings of Motive to Mentor Items with Oblimin Rotation (N=91) Items Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Benefit Self Intrinsic Others Enhancement Satisfaction To ensure that knowledge and .89 -.03 .06 information is passed on to other students To help other students succeed within my .87 -.10 .12 university To contribute to research aimed at .80 -.03 .12 helping students To make a difference in a freshman’s .79 -.07 .27 academic career *To benefit my university .33 .17 .28 *Because I am being paid for participating -.17 -.11 .12 in this mentoring program To enhance my reputation with others -.05 .95 .03 (e.g., faculty, other students) To earn respect from others (e.g., faculty, -.02 .92 -.05 other students) with in your university To be recognized for my academic -.11 .63 .12 accomplishments A desire to put this on my resume or .06 .62 .02 curriculum vita The personal gratifica tion that comes .16 .07 .82 from helping another student grow and develop The personal pride that mentoring .06 .17 .81 someone brings To gain a sense of self-satisfaction by .25 .09 .65 passing on insights to other students *A desire to gain mentoring experience .31 .33 .35 Eigenvalue 6.29 2.18 1.28 Variance 44.9% 15.5% 9.1% *Items removed from final version.

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93 Table 6 Hierarchical Regression A nalysis for Protg Ratings of Psychosocial Mentoring Predicting Change in Protg School Stress (N=90) Variable B SE B Step 1 Time 1 School Stress .75 .08 .69*** Step 2 Protg Psychosocial Mentoring -.14 .14 -.07 Note: Beta weights are reported fo r each step of the equation. R2 = .471*** for Step 1; R2 = .005 (ns) for Step 2. p <.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001

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94 Table 7 Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Protg Ratings of Career Development Mentoring Predicting Change in Protg School Stress (N=90) Variable B SE B Step 1 Time 1 School Stress .75 .08 .69*** Step 2 Protg Career Development Mentoring -.24 .11 -.17* Note: Beta weights are reported fo r each step of the equation. R2 = .471*** for Step 1; R2 = .030* for Step 2. p <.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001

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95 Table 8 Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Ment or Ratings of Career Development Mentoring Predicting Change in Protg School Stress (N=90) Variable B SE B Step 1 Time 1 School Stress .75 .08 .69*** Step 2 Mentor Career Development Mentoring -.19 .14 -.10 Note: Beta weights are reported fo r each step of the equation. R2 = .471*** for Step 1; R2 = .011 for Step 2. p <.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001

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96 Table 9 Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Me ntor Ratings of Psychosocial Mentoring Predicting Change in Protg School Stress (N=90) Variable B SE B Step 1 Time 1 School Stress .75 .08 .69*** Step 2 Mentor Psychosocial Mentoring -.01 .21 -.03 Note: Beta weights are reported fo r each step of the equation. R2 = .471*** for Step 1; R2 = .001 (ns) for Step 2. p <.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001

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97 Table 10 Hierarchical Regression A nalysis for Independent Rate r Ratings of Psychosocial Mentoring Predicting Change in Protg School Stress (N=90) Variable B SE B Step 1 Time 1 School Stress .75 .08 .69*** Step 2 Independent Raters Psychosocial -.41 .18 -.18* Mentoring Note: Beta weights are reported fo r each step of the equation. R2 = .453*** for Step 1; R2 = .033* for Step 2. p <.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001

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98 Table 11 Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Inde pendent Rater Ratings of Career Development Mentoring Predicting Change in Protg School Stress (N=90) Variable B SE B Step 1 Time 1 School Stress .75 .08 .69*** Step 2 Independent Raters Career Mentoring -1.06 .29 -.27** Note: Beta weights are reported fo r each step of the equation. R2 = .453*** for Step 1; R2 = .072** for Step 2. p <.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001

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99 Table 12 Hierarchical Regression A nalysis for Protg Ratings of Psychosocial Mentoring Predicting Change in Protg Physic al Symptoms of Stress (N=90) Variable B SE B Step 1 Time 1 Physical Symptoms of Stress .78 .08 .72*** Step 2 Protg Psychosocial Mentoring .01 .09 .90 Note: Beta weights are reported fo r each step of the equation. R2 = .521*** for Step 1; R2 = .004 (ns) for Step 2. p <.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001

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100 Table 13 Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Protg Ratings of Career Development Mentoring Predicting Change in Protg Physic al Symptoms of Stress (N=90) Variable B SE B Step 1 Time 1 Physical Symptoms of Stress .78 .08 .72*** Step 2 Protg Career Development Mentoring .01 .07 -.79 Note: Beta weights are reported fo r each step of the equation. R2 = .521*** for Step 1; R2 = .003 (ns) for Step 2. p <.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001

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101 Table 14 Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Ment or Ratings of Career Development Mentoring Predicting Change in Protg Physic al Symptoms of Stress (N=90) Variable B SE B Step 1 Time 1 Physical Symptoms of Stress .78 .08 .72*** Step 2 Mentor Career Development Mentoring .00 .09 -.03 Note: Beta weights are reported fo r each step of the equation. R2 = .521*** for Step 1; R2 = .001 (ns) for Step 2. p <.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001

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102 Table 15 Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Me ntor Ratings of Psychosocial Mentoring Predicting Change in Protg Physic al Symptoms of Stress (N=90) Variable B SE B Step 1 Time 1 Physical Symptoms of Stress .78 .08 .72*** Step 2 Mentor Psychosocial Mentoring .00 .13 .03 Note: Beta weights are reported fo r each step of the equation. R2 = .521*** for Step 1; R2 = .001 (ns) for Step 2. p <.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001

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103 Table 16 Hierarchical Regression A nalysis for Independent Rate r Ratings of Psychosocial Mentoring Predicting Change in Protg Ph ysical Symptoms of Stress (N=90) Variable B SE B Step 1 Time 1 Physical Symptoms of Stress .78 .08 .72*** Step 2 Independent Raters Psychosocial -.11 .11 -.08 Mentoring Note: Beta weights are reported fo r each step of the equation. R2 = .509*** for Step 1; R2 = .006 (ns) for Step 2. p <.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001

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104 Table 17 Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Inde pendent Rater Ratings of Career Development Mentoring Predicting Change in Protg Ph ysical Symptoms of Stress (N=90) Variable B SE B Step 1 Time 1 Physical Symptoms of Stress .78 .08 .72*** Step 2 Independent Raters Career Mentoring -.31 .19 -.12 Note: Beta weights are reported fo r each step of the equation. R2 = .509*** for Step 1; R2 = .015 (ns) for Step 2. *p<.05, **p<.01, ***p<.001

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105 Table 18 Hierarchical Regression A nalysis for Protg Ratings of Psychosocial Mentoring Predicting Change in Protg Sc hool Self-Efficacy (N=90) Variable B SE B Step 1 Time 1 School Self-Efficacy .60 .07 .70*** Step 2 Protg Psychosocial Mentoring .11 .08 .11 Note: Beta weights are reported fo r each step of the equation. R2 = .486*** for Step 1; R2 = .012 (ns) for Step 2. p <.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001

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106 Table 19 Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Protg Ratings of Career Development Mentoring Predicting Change in Protg Sc hool Self-Efficacy (N=90) Variable B SE B Step 1 Time 1 School Self-Efficacy .60 .07 .70*** Step 2 Protg Career Development Mentoring .00 .06 .04 Note: Beta weights are reported fo r each step of the equation. R2 = .486*** for Step 1; R2 = .002 (ns) for Step 2. p <.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001

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107 Table 20 Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Ment or Ratings of Career Development Mentoring Predicting Change in Protg Sc hool Self-Efficacy (N=90) Variable B SE B Step 1 Time 1 School Self-Efficacy .60 .07 .70*** Step 2 Mentor Career Development Mentoring -.00 .08 -.00 Note: Beta weights are reported fo r each step of the equation. R2 = .486*** for Step 1; R2 = .000 (ns) for Step 2. p <.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001

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108 Table 21 Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Me ntor Ratings of Psychosocial Mentoring Predicting Change in Protg Sc hool Self-Efficacy (N=90) Variable B SE B Step 1 Time 1 School Self-Efficacy .60 .07 .70*** Step 2 Mentor Psychosocial Mentoring .20 .11 .13 Note: Beta weights are reported fo r each step of the equation. R2 = .486*** for Step 1; R2 = .018 (ns) for Step 2. p <.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001

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109 Table 22 Hierarchical Regression A nalysis for Independent Rate r Ratings of Psychosocial Mentoring Predicting Change in Prot g School Self-Efficacy (N=90) Variable B SE B Step 1 Time 1 School Self-Efficacy .60 .07 .70*** Step 2 Independent Raters Psychosocial Mentoring .10 .10 .08 Note: Beta weights are reported fo r each step of the equation. R2 = .478*** for Step 1; R2 = .007 (ns) for Step 2. p <.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001

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110 Table 23 Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Inde pendent Rater Ratings of Career Development Mentoring Predicting Change in Prot g School Self-Efficacy (N=90) Variable B SE B Step 1 Time 1 School Self-Efficacy .60 .07 .70*** Step 2 Independent Raters Career Mentoring .20 .17 .09 Note: Beta weights are reported fo r each step of the equation. R2 = .478*** for Step 1; R2 = .008 (ns) for Step 2. p <.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001

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111 Table 24 Exploratory Regression Analysis for Independe nt Variables Predicting Mentor Ratings of Career Development (N=91) Variable B SE B Step 1 Intrinsic Motivation .26 .21 .13 Learning Goal Orientation .00 .07 .05 Conscientiousness .01 .12 .07 Self-enhancement Motive .15 .06 .24* Benefit Others Motive .21 .09 .24* Note: R2 = .210*** for Step 1. *p<.05, **p<.01, ***p<.001

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112 Table 25 Exploratory Regression Analysis for Indepe ndent Variables Predicting Protg Ratings of Career Development (N=91) Variable B SE B Step 1 Intrinsic Motivation -.46 .30 -.17 Learning Goal Orientation .00 .10 .00 Conscientiousness .12 .18 .08 Self-enhancement Motive -.12 .09 -.15 Benefit Others Motive .18 .13 .16 Note: R2 = .062 (ns) for Step 1. *p<.05, **p<.01, ***p<.001

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113 Table 26 Exploratory Regression Analysis for Inde pendent Variables Predicting Independent Rater Ratings of Career Development (N=90) Variable B SE B Step 1 Intrinsic Motivation -.19 .11 -.21 Learning Goal Orientation .00 .04 .17 Conscientiousness -.00 .06 -.06 Self-enhancement Motive -.01 .03 -.00 Benefit Others Motive .00 .05 .09 Note: R2 = .047 (ns) for Step 1. *p<.05, **p<.01, ***p<.001

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114 Table 27 Exploratory Regression Analysis for Independe nt Variables Predicting Mentor Ratings of Psychosocial Mentoring (N=90) Variable B SE B Step 1 Intrinsic Motivation .01 .15 .05 Agreeableness .01 .11 .06 Extraversion .00 .12 .00 High Machiavellianism .01 .02 .03 Intrinsic Satisfaction Motive .12 .06 .26 Benefit Others Motive .00 .08 .02 Note: R2 = .091 (ns) for Step 1. *p<.05, **p<.01, ***p<.001

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115 Table 28 Exploratory Regression Analysis for Indepe ndent Variables Predicting Protg Ratings of Psychosocial Mentoring (N=90) Variable B SE B Step 1 Intrinsic Motivation -.23 .22 -.11 Agreeableness .19 .16 .14 Extraversion -.15 .17 -.11 High Machiavellianism .00 .03 -.15 Intrinsic Satisfaction Motive .16 .09 .24 Benefit Others Motive .00 .11 .04 Note: R2 = .143* for Step 1. *p<.05, **p<.01, ***p<.001

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116 Table 29 Exploratory Regression Analysis for Inde pendent Variables Predicting Independent Rater Ratings of Psychosocial Mentoring (N=89) Variable B SE B Step 1 Intrinsic Motivation -.17 .18 -.11 Agreeableness .01 .13 .07 Extraversion .01 .14 .08 High Machiavellianism .00 .03 -.16 Intrinsic Satisfaction Motive .11 .07 .21 Benefit Others Motive .01 .09 -.97 Note: R2 = .098 (ns) for Step 1. *p<.05, **p<.01, ***p<.001

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117 Table 30 Exploratory Regression Analysis for Inde pendent Variables Predicting Intrinsic Satisfaction Motive to Mentor (N=91) Variable B SE B Step 1 Intrinsic Motivation .52 .32 .17 Learning Goal Orientation .21 .10 .22* Note: R2 = .105** for Step 1. *p<.05, **p<.01, ***p<.001

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118 Table 31 Exploratory Regression Analysis for Indepe ndent Variables Predicting Benefit Others Motive to Mentor (N=90) Variable B SE B Step 1 Conscientiousness .23 .16 .16 Extraversion .22 .18 .14 Agreeableness .13 .19 .08 High Machiavellianism -.00 .04 -.14 Note: R2 = .106* for Step 1. *p<.05, **p<.01, ***p<.001

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119 Table 32 Support for Hypothesis Tests Note: Relationships assessed using only mentor data have N/A in the supported by boxes. Supported by: Hypothesis Variables Supported (Yes, No, or Partial)? Mentor SelfReport Protg SelfReport Independent Raters 1 Intrinsic Motivation & Career Mentoring Partial Yes No No 2 Intrinsic Motivation & Psychosocial Mentoring No No No No 3 Intrinsic Motivation & Intrinsic Satisfaction Motive Yes N/A N/A N/A 4 Learning Goal Orientation & Career Mentoring No No No No 5 Learning Goal Orientation & Intrinsic Satisfaction Motive Yes N/A N/A N/A 6 Conscientiousness & Career Mentoring No No No No 7 Conscientiousness & Benefit Others Motive No No No No 8 Agreeableness & Psychosocial Mentoring No No No No 9 Agreeableness and Benefit Others Motive Yes N/A N/A N/A 10 Extraversion & Psychosocial Mentoring No No No No 11 Extraversion & Benefit Others Motive Yes N/A N/A N/A 12 Machiavellianism & Psychosocial Mentoring Partial No Yes No 13 Machiavellianism & Selfenhancement Motive No N/A N/A N/A 14 Machiavellianism & Benefit Others Motive Yes N/A N/A N/A 15 Self-enhancement Motive & Career Mentoring Partial Yes No No 16 Intrinsic Satisfaction Motive & Psychosocial Mentoring Yes Yes Yes Yes 17 Benefit Others Motive & Career and Psychosocial Mentoring Partial Partial No No

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120 Table 32 (continued) Note: Note: Relationships assessed using only mentor data have N/A in the supported by boxes. Supported by: Hypothesis Variables Supported (Yes or No)? Mentor SelfReport Protg SelfReport Independent Raters 18a. Career & Psychosocial Mentoring & Protg Satisfaction with the Mentoring Relationship Yes Yes Yes Yes 18b. Career & Psychosocial Mentoring & Protg Desire to Continue the Mentoring Relationship Partial No Yes Partial 18c. Career & Psychosocial Mentoring & Protg School Stress Partial No No Yes 18d. Career & Psychosocial Mentoring & Protg Physical Symptoms of Stress No No No No 18e. Career & Psychosocial Mentoring & Protg School Self-Efficacy No No No No

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133 Kram, K.E. (1985). Mentoring at work: Developmental rela tionships in organizational life. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman. Kram, K.E., & Isabella, L.A. (1985). Ment oring alternatives: The role of peer relationships in career development. Academy of Manageme nt Journal, 28(1), 110-132. Lamden, S., & Lorr, M. (1975). Untangli ng the structure of Machiavellianism. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 2, 301-302. LePine, J.A., & Van Dyne, L. (2001). Voi ce and cooperative behavior as contrasting forms of contextual performance: Evidence of differential rela tionships with big five personality characterist ics and cognitive ability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(2), 326-336. Lifshitz, M. (1974). Achievement motiva tion and coping behavior of normal and problematic preadolescent kibbutz children. Journal of Personality Assessment, 38, 138-143. McCullers, J.C., & Martin, J.A.G. (1971). A re examination of the role of incentive in children’s discrimination learning. Child Development, 42, 827-837. McHoskey, J. (1995). Narcissism and Machiavellianism. Psychological Reports, 77, 755-759. McHoskey, J.W. (1999). Machiavellianism, in trinsic versus extrinsic goals, and social interest: A self-determination theory analysis. Motivation and Emotion, 23(4), 267-283.

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134 McHoskey, J.W., Hicks, B., Betris, T., Szya rto, C., Worzel, W., Kelly, K., Eggert, T., Tesler, A., Miley, J., & Suggs, T. (1999) Machiavellianism, adjustment and ethics. Psychological Reports, 85, 138-142. McLaughlin, B. (1970). Incidental learning and Machiavellianism. Journal of Social Psychology, 82 109-116. Motowidlo, S.J., Packard, J.S., & Manning, M. R. (1986). Occupational stress: Its causes and consequences for job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71 618629. Mount, M.K., Barrick, M.R., & Stewart, G.L. (1998). Five-factor model of personality and performance in jobs involvi ng interpersonal interactions. Human Performance, 11 (2/3), 145-165. Mudrack, P.E. (1990). Machiave llianism and locus of control: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Social Psychology, 130(1), 125-126. Murray, M. (1991). Beyond the myths and magic of ment oring: Identifying mentors who serve both. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Noe, R.A. (1988). An investigation of the determinants of successful assigned mentoring relationships Personnel Psychology, 41, 457-477. Okanes, M.M. (1974). Machiavellian attitude s and choice of values among students in a business college. Psychological Reports, 35, 255-259. Organ, D.W., & Ryan, K. (1995). A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizationa l citizenship behavior. Personnel Psychology, 48 775802.

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135 Paunonen, S.V., & Ashton, M.C. (2001). Big Five predictors of academic achievement. Journal of Research in Personality, 35, 78-90. Pittman, T.S., Emery, J., & Boggiano, A.K. ( 1982). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations: Reward-induced change s in preference for complexity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 789-797. Pullins, E.B., Fine, L.M., & Warren, W.L. (1996). Identifying peer mentors in the sales force: An exploratory investig ation of willingness and ability. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 24(2), 125-136. Raabe, B., & Beehr, T.A. (2003). Formal mentoring versus supervisor and coworker relationships: Differences in perceptions and impact. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24 271-293. Ragins, B.R. (1997). Antecedents of diversified mentoring relationships. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 51, 90-109. Ragins, B.R., & McFarlin, D. (1990). Per ception of mentor roles in cross-gender mentoring relationships. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 37 321-339. Ragins, B.R., & Scandura, T.A. (1999). Burden or blessing? Expected costs and benefits of being a mentor. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20(4), 493-509. Richendoller, N.R., & Weaver, J.B. III. (1994) Exploring the links between personality and empathic response style. Personality and Individual Differences, 17 303311.

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139 Weaver, J.B. III, & Villaume, W.A. (1995). Individual differences in communication apprehension. Unpublished manuscript, Auburn University. Weaver, J.B., III, Watson, K.W., & Barker, L.L. (1996). Individual differences in listening styles: Do you hear what I hear? Personality and Indivi dual Differences, 20(3), 381-387. Whitely, W., Dougherty, T.W., & Dreher, G.F. (1991). Relationship of career mentoring and socioeconomic origin to managers’ a nd professionals early career progress. Academy of Manageme nt Journal, 34, 331-351. Wolfson, S.L. (1981). Effects of Machia vellianism and communication on helping behavior during an emergency. British Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 189195. Yoo, J. (1999). Motivational-behavioral co rrelates of goal orientation and perceived motivational climate in physical education contexts. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 89, 262-274.

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140 Appendix A: Recruitment Scripts for Mentors and Protgs

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141Outline for Mentor Recruitment Introduce everyone Introduce mentoring project o We are conducting a mentoring progra m sponsored by the Office of Naval Research. o As we all know, the first year of co llege can be a very stressful time for freshmen and we hope that projects lik e this mentoring program will help freshmen to cope with the challenges of their first year. Our two main goals in this pilot program are to determine: • If mentoring will benefit the incoming freshmen. • If 30 minutes a week is enough time to give the incoming freshmen any benefit or do we need to make the sessions longer. This is why we ask you not to interact with your protg outside the mentoring sessions until the program is over. o We are pairing Juniors or Seniors w ith Freshmen to participate in a mentoring relationship. Each mentor, who will be either a junior or a senior, will be paired with one protg , who will be a Freshman, and will meet with their protg for a half hour every week for four weeks o I am looking for students who would like to be mentors for any of the following reasons: Because you enjoy helping others So you can put it on your resume Because it gives you a chance to meet new people Because you can make a difference in a freshman’s academic career Because you want to be recognized for your academic accomplishments Because it allows you to gain valuable mentoring experience Because you will get paid o Pay is $8 an hour. You must be avai lable for 5 consecutive weeks at the same time each week for a period of one hour, however you will only spend 30 minutes with your mentor/protg! Rules o I am looking for 100 mentors o Selection will be based on availability of schedule o Mentors must have at least a 2.0 GPA to be considered for selection o You must bring a printout of your aca demic transcript to the orientation session

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142 o Mentors will be expected to attend 1 orientation sessi on and 4 mentoring sessions with their protg. Each session will last approximately one hour, however, you will only spend ha lf an hour with your protg. o The 4 sessions with your protg will be at the same time every week for four consecutive weeks o You must make up a missed session the same week that you missed in order to continue with the study Close o Sign up sheets will be passed out to anyone interested in participating o On the sign up sheet we need some contact information about you o We also need you to circle all the 1 hour blocks you are available to mentor, but you will only be expected to attend for a half hour during that block for the first four sessions. o Finally, circle the orientation sessions that you might be able to attend the week of February 24 – 28. Orientat ion should only take about one hour and you will get paid for that time as well. o We are located on campus near the Writing Center in the portables o We try to work around your schedul e however scheduling is based upon your level of availability so if you want to be considered, try to circle as many time blocks as you can o If you are selected to par ticipate, you will receive a call from one of us to schedule your orientation and your re gular mentoring time before next week Say Thank You

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143Outline for Protg Recruitment Introduce yourself Introduce mentoring project o We are conducting a mentoring progra m sponsored by the Office of Naval Research. o As we all know, the first year of co llege can be a very stressful time for freshmen and we hope that projects lik e this mentoring program will help freshmen to cope with the challenges of their first year. Our two main goals in this pilot program are to determine: • If mentoring will benefit the incoming freshmen. • If 30 minutes a week is enough time to give the incoming freshmen any benefit or do we need to make the sessions longer. This is why we ask you not to interact with your protg outside the mentoring sessions until the program is over. o We are pairing Juniors or Seniors w ith Freshmen to participate in a mentoring relationship. Each mentor who will be either a junior or senior, will be paired with one protg , who will be a Freshmen, and will meet with them for a half hour every week for four weeks o I am looking for students who would lik e to be protgs for any of the following reasons: To improve your school-related skills To learn about what is necessary to succeed at UCF To build your confidence To reduce your school -related stress To meet new people To experience what it is like to be mentored Because you will get paid o Pay is $8 an hour. You must be avai lable for 5 consecutive weeks at the same time each week for a period of 1 hour. o This is a good opportunity for you to make some money and receive advice from a senior on his or her ac ademic experience here at UCF. Rules o I am looking for 100 protgs o You must be a first or second-semest er freshman to be considered for participation o Selection will be based on availability of schedule o You must bring a printout of your aca demic transcript to the orientation session.

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144 o You will be expected to attend 1 or ientation session and 4 mentoring sessions with your mentor. Each se ssion will last approximately 1 hour, however, you will only spend half an hour with your mentor. o The 4 sessions with your mentor will be at the same time every week for four consecutive weeks. o You must make up a missed session the same week that you missed in order to continue with the study. Close o Sign up sheets will be passed out to anyone interested in participating o On the sign up sheet we need so me contact information about you. o We also need you to circle all the 1 hour blocks you are available to be mentored but will only be expected to attend for a half hour during that block. o We are located on campus near the Writing Center in the portables o We try to work around your schedul e however scheduling is based upon your level of availability so if you want to be considered, try to circle as many time blocks as you can o Finally, circle the orientation sessions that you might be able to attend the week of March 3 – 7. Orientation shou ld only take about one hour and you will get paid for that time as well. o If you are selected to par ticipate, you will receive a call from one of us to schedule your orientation and your regular mentoring time. Say Thank You

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145 Appendix B: Mentor Handbook

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146 MENTOR HANDBOOK TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction..……………………………………………………………….. 3 2. Responsibilities…………………………………………………………….. 4 3. Payment..……………………………………...……………………………. 5 4. Possible Topics of Discu ssion with Protg……..………………………… 6 5. Current UCF Facts………...………………………………………….……. 7 6. Rules and Regulations of UCF…………………..………………………… 8 7. Code of Conduct………...………………………………………….……… 9 8. Frequently Asked Questions……………………………….….……..……. 15 9. Top Ten Strategies for Effective Stress Management……………………... 18 10. Top Ten Strategies for Improving Time Management…………………….. 19 11. Top Ten Test-Taking Strategies……………………………………………. 20 12. Additional Sources of Information………………………………………… 22

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147

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148INTRODUCTION Thank you for agreeing to participate as a mentor in our pilot mentoring program. As we all know, the first year of college can be a very stressful time for freshmen and we hope that pr ojects like this mentoring program will help freshmen to cope with the ch allenges of their first year. Our two main goals in this pilot program are to determine: • If mentoring will benefit the incoming freshmen. • If 30 minutes a week is enough time to give the incoming freshmen any benefit or do we need to make the sessions longer. This is why we ask you not to interact with your protg outside the mentoring sessions until the program is over. BACKGROUND Mentoring is defined as a relationshi p in which one person, the mentor, helps another person, the protg, to reach his or her goals. Since these goals may vary among people, the form of mentoring may vary, as well. Historically, we tend to think of ment oring as an informal relationship in which someone in authority takes a j unior person under his or her wing. Informal mentors are not managed, st ructured, or formally recognized by any type of organization. Traditionally they are spontaneous relationships that occur without any external involveme nt. In contrast, formal mentorship programs are manage d and sanctioned by an organization. Formal mentoring relationships have be en shown to provide protgs with two major types of support: career and psychosocial. Career support is any activity in which the mentor help s the protg move towards the accomplishment of an acad emic/career goal. For ex ample, a mentor could assist his or her protg by providi ng constructive feedback, opportunities for improvement, or help in refini ng various skills (e.g., study habits). Psychosocial Support is any activity in which the mentor helps increase the protg’s feelings of competence and treats them in a respectful manner. For example, the mentor could serve as a role model or a person with whom the protg feels comfortable discussing various issues.

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149RESPONSIBILITIES Attend orientation session and all assigned meetings with your protg. Utilize your handbook and the resources in it to answer various questions that your protg might have. Be flexible and patient with the scheduling. Do not use your last name when speaking with your protg. Do not ask your protg for their last name. Do not contact your protg until the program has ended. You must make-up any missed sessi on the same week that it was originally scheduled. PAYMENT You will be paid one time at the end of the program. It may take 4 6 weeks for your ch eck to arrive after the program has ended and you have f illed out the appropriate paperwork. We will need a current addr ess to send your check to.

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150 POSSIBLE TOPICS TO DISCUSS WITH YOUR PROTG Mentoring relationships have been shown to provide protgs with two major types of support: Career and Ps ychosocial. Thus, topics that you might want to address with your pr otg include, but are NOT limited to: Campus Life Student Organizations School Policy Career Development Personal Issues Health and Well-being Stress Management Fitness/Sports Conflicts with Roommates Time Management Class Scheduling/Advising Course Work Study Habits

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151CURRENT UCF FACTS Established 1956 Fall 2002 Enrollment 39,170 Out-of-State Students 6.17% H.S. GPA Average 3.6 Average SAT Total 1056 Tuition & Fees (per credit hour) Resident $88.01 Non-Resident $181.00 Single Dorm Room (per semester) $1,950 to $2,450 Double Dorm Room (per semester) $1,750 to $2,025 Population Orlando 184,639 UCF Employees 3,892 Student/Faculty Ratio 18.7:1 Meal Plans Fee (per semester) $567.10 to $1,444.48 Total Operating Budget (2001-2002) $536,845,189 76 Baccalaureate Programs 56 Master’s Programs 3 Specialist Programs 18 Doctoral Programs Academic Support and Advising Programs Available

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152UCF RULES AND REGULATIONS 1. UCF is a Drug-Free Campus You must be 21 or older to consume alcohol. The possession of alcoholic beverages in open or unsealed containers is prohibited, except in designated areas or at approved special events. 2. UCF is a Smoke-Free Campus You cannot purchase cigarettes anywhe re on campus, but you are allowed to smoke outside of the buildings. 3. Student Grade Appeals Grades can be appealed under the following alleged conditions: Deviation from established a nd announced grading policy. Errors in application of grading procedures. Lowering of grades for non-academic reasons. More information on student grade app eals can be found in the Golden Rule book or online at http://www.ucf.edu/goldenrule/conduct.html 4. Academic Dishonesty/Cheating Cheating includes unauthorized assistan ce, plagiarism, or helping another student violate academic behavior standards. More information can be found in the Golden Rule book or online at http://www.ucf.edu/goldenrule/conduct.html 5. The Golden Rule Book Covers issues including: Misconduct at University Sponsored Activities, Possession of a Firearm, Misuse of Computing Resources, Gambling, and Commission of a Felony or a Misdemeanor. You can pick up a copy of the Golden Rule book at the Admissions office or you can find it online at http://www.ucf.edu/goldenrule/conduct.html 6. UCF has an academic policy of maintaining a 2.0 or higher GPA If your GPA is below a 2.0, you will be put on academic probation for one semester. If you don’t bring your GPA up after you have been put on academic probation, then you will have to meet w ith a committee and they will discuss your case.

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153UCF RULES OF CONDUCT These conduct rules shall apply to all undergraduate students, graduate students, and student organizations of the university and its area campuses and shall be deemed a part of the terms and cond itions of admission and enrollment of all students. Failure to comply with duly establishe d laws or university regulations may subject violator(s) to appropr iate civil authorities. Seri ous violations of university regulations shall be recorded in the record of the individua l(s) and/or the organization. Generally, authority necessary to enforce regulations is vested in the vice president for Student Development and Enro llment Services or designee. Selected functions of this authority ar e shared with faculty, staff a nd students. Some functions of student judicial affair s administration are assisted thr ough review boards or councils. Students and student organizations ar e also subject to univer sity judicial sanctions for the violation of a Board of Regents or uni versity rule or a federal, state, county, or city law, which has an advers e impact on the university. The following defined and describe d actions include, but are not limited to, conduct for which judicial action may be taken. These rules apply to all students for intentional conduct that occurs against ot her students or non-students on university premises, while participating in university sponsored or re lated activities, duri ng school sessions, during holidays, and during periods of continuous enro llment, or off-campus when that conduct is determined to adversely affect the interest (s) of any part of the university. A student is continuously enrolled, once admitted, unless the student fails to register in two consecutive terms, excluding summer terms, and must re-apply for university admission.

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154CODE OF CONDUCT 1. Academic Dishonesty/Cheating A. Cheating is a violation of student academic behavior standards. The common forms of cheating include: 1. Unauthorized assistance: communication to another through written, visual, or oral means. The presentation of material which has not been studied or learned, but rather was obtained through someone else’s efforts and used as part of an examination, course assignment or project. The unauthorized possession or use of examination or course related material may also constitute cheating. 2. Plagiarism: whereby another’s work is deliberately used or appropriated without any indication of the source, thereby attempting to convey the impression that such work is the student’s own. Any student failing to properly credit ideas or materials taken from another is plagiarizing. B. Any student who knowingly helps another violate academic behavior standards is also in violation of the standards. 2. Providing False and Misleading Informatio n and/or Falsification of University Records. A. Withholding related information, or furnishing false or misleading information (oral or written) to university officials, faculty or staff, including use or attempted use of a fraudulent identification card or driver’s license. B. Forgery, alteration or misu se of any university document, material, file, record or instrument of identification. C. Deliberately and purposefully providing false or misleading verbal or written information about another person that results in damage to that person’s reputation. 3 Disruptive Conduct A. An act which intentionally impairs, interferes with, or obstructs the orderly conduc t, processes, and functions of the university or any part thereof. B. Violence which deliberately impedes or interferes with the normal flow of pedestrian and vehicular traffic.

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155 C. An act which deliberately impedes or interferes with the normal flow of pedestrian and vehicular traffic. D. An act which tampers with the election(s) of any university student organization or group. E. Willful destruction of university property or property of members or guests of the university. F. Misuse of any university safety equipment, firefighting equipment, or fire alarm. G. An act which deliberately interferes with the academic freedom or the freedom of speech of any member or guest of the university community. H. A false report of an explosive or incendiary device, which constitutes a threat or bomb, scare. I. Conduct which is lewd or indecent. J. Breach of peace: an act, which aids, abets, or procures another person to breach the peace on the university premises or at university sponsored/related functions. K. Failure to comply with oral or written instruction from duly authorized university officials or law enforcement officers acting in the performance of their duties, including failure to identify oneself to these persons when requested to do so. 4. Personal Abuse A. Verbal abuse of any person in cluding lewd, indecent, or obscene expressions of conduct. B. Physical abuse or threat of physical abuse to any person. C. Harassment: defined as behavior directed at a member of the university community which would cause severe emotional distress, intimidation, or coercion to a reasonable person in the victim’s position, or would place a reasonable person in the victim’s position in fear of bodily injury or death. This definition, however shall not be interpreted to abridge the right of any member of the university community to freedom of expression protected by the 1st amendment of the United States Constitution and any other applicable law.

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156D. Failure to respect the privacy of other individuals. E. Retaliation against or harassment of complainant(s) or other person(s) alleging misconduct. 5. Sexual Misconduct A. Sexual Assault: acquaintance rape (date, friend, someone the victim knows casually or through mutual friends) or any other form of rape. Rape is defined as unconsenting sexual penetration, coer cion, or penetration against the victim’s will. Any sexual c onduct which occurs between members of the university community on or off the UCF campus shall be consensual, mean ing that willing and verbal agreement shall be clearly given in advance by all persons involved at each new level of such conduct. A person shall not knowingly take advantage of another person who is under 18 years of age, mentally defective, under the influence of prescribed medication, alcohol or other chemical drugs, or who is not conscious or aw ake, and thus is not able to give consent as defined above. Fu rther, a person shall not physically or verbally coerce another pe rson to engage in any form of sexual conduct, to the end that consent as defined above is not given. B. Sexual Harassment: unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature which prevents or impairs another person’s full enjoyment of the educational be nefits, atmosphere, or opportunities provided as part of the university. C. Public Indecency: exposure of one’s body in such a manner that another party r easonably could be offende d or to display sexual behavior which another person reasonably finds offensive. D. Voyeurism: sexual stimulation sought through trespass, spy, or eavesdrop activities. 6. Larceny/Property Damage A. Unauthorized use, possession, or services or theft of property. Such property may be personal or public. B. Damage or defacing of university property or the property of another person wh ether or not it is on university premises. 7. Hazing A. Any action or situation whic h recklessly or intentionally

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157 endangers the mental or physical health and/or safety of a student for the purpose of initiation or admission into, or affiliation with any organization operating under registration with the university. B. Brutality of a physical nature such as whipping, beating, branding, forced calisthenics, exposure to the elements; forced consumption of an y food, liquor, drug, or other substances; or other forced elements; or other forced activity which could adversely affect the physical health or safety of the individual. C. Any activity which could subject the individual to mental stress such as sleep deprivation, forced exclusion from social contact, forced contact which could result in embarrassment, or any other activity which could adversely affect the mental health or dignity of the individual. 8. Unauthorized Use of Keys, and/or Entry A. Unauthorized possession, duplication or use of keys to any university premises. B. Unauthorized entry or attempted entry to university premises. 9. Misconduct at University Sponsored/Related Activities Violation of university rules, or regulations of a host institution sponsored/related activity. 10. Unlawful Possession Use or Sale of any Controlled Substance Use, possession, sale, distribution or attempt to obtain any narcotic or other controlled substances, except as expressly permitted by law. 11. Alcoholic Beverages Violation The use, possession, sale and/or distribution of alcoholic beverages except as expressly permitted by the law and university rules, and behavior under influence of alcoholic beverages, are prohibited. 12. Possession and/or Use of a Firearm and/or Dangerous Material A. Possession or use of firearms or any weapon on university premises or at university sponsored/related activities. B. Possession or use of fireworks of any description, explosives, or chemicals which are disruptive, explosive, or corrosive on university premises or at university sponsored/related activities.

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158 13. Instigation or Participation in Group Disturbances During Demonstrations, Parades, or Picketings A. Participation in a demonstra tion(s), parade(s), or picketing which invades the rights of others, interferes with the educational function of the university or jeopardizes public order and safety. B. Leading or inciting others to disrupt scheduled and/or normal activities within any campus building or area. 14.Misuse of Computing and Telecommunications Resources. The university supports open access to el ectronic communication and information. Nevertheless, the preservation of an open computing and communications environment requires adherence by users to applicable law and university’s rules regarding the responsible use of computing systems, so ftware and telecommunication networks. 15. Gambling A. To play in an unlawful game of chance for money or for anything of value on university premises or at any affair sponsored by a student organization. B. To unlawfully sell, barter or dispose of a ticket, order, or any interest in a scheme of chance by whatever name on university premises or at a ny affair sponsored by a student organization. C. To wage on a university team or organization in a competition, with a direct interest in the success of the competition. 16. University Designated Student Residence Violations Repeated or flagrant violations of regulati ons governing uni versity student residences. 17.University Wordmark Unauthorized use of the official university wordmark, Pegasus, monogram, seal, or other graphic identity symbol. 18.Commission of a Felony or a Misdemeanor Commission of an act, which is a felony or misdemeanor as provided in local, state, or federal law.

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159FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS 1. Where can I go if I need help deciding what I want to major in? The Counseling & Testing Center is lo cated in the Student Resource Center, Room 203, (407) 823-2811. You can call to make an appointment with a counselor who can provide you with career counseling and standardized testing. The service is free and the counsel ors are qualified professionals. 2. Where do I go if I live on campus and I don’t get along with my roommate? Your Resident Advisor is qualified to help you with conflic t resolution issues, and if the situation doesn’t get resolved they can assist you in looking for a new living arrangement. 3. How can I get involved on Campus? There are many different organizations on-campus that you can become active in. Some numbers you may find us eful are: Greek life (407) 823-2072, Student Government (407) 823-2191, Campus Activity Board (407) 8236471. 4. Where can I go on campus to talk to so meone about a persona l issue that I am struggling with? The Counseling & Testing Center is lo cated in the Student Resource Center, Room 203, (407) 823-2811. You can call to set up an appointment with a qualified psychologist who can assist you with whatev er issues you may have. The service is free and confidential. 5. If I live on Campus, should I get a meal plan? UCF Dining Services offers a number of diverse packages for information call (407) 823-2651. You can put money on your campus ID card, which works like an ATM card, and use it to make purchases at th e Student Union or other on-campus establishments. 6. How can I check my grades, register for classes, add or drop classes, or look at my transcript? Polaris is an online system that lets you register and l ook at your personal information https://connect.ucf.edu/heprod/signon.asp 7. Where can I go if I need to use a computer?

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160 There are computer labs on campus that provide free Internet access and other programs for students. For comput er lab schedules, please go to http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/ ~enrsvc/schedweb/labs.html 8. Where is a good place to study on campus? The Library – for more information, please go to http://library.ucf.edu The Student Union provides certain ta bles and couches where students may study. Curriculum Material Center in the Edu cation Building also provides an area to study. 9. What is in the Student Union? Food Court contains Wendy's, Sbarros, Sweet Retreat, Subway, Baja Burrito Kitchen, Pretzel Time, Steak Escape, and other services. Convenience store, CD store, ST A Travel, and an optical store. If you have any questions about events that are happening in the Union or you want to rent a room (free for stude nt organizations), you can go to the information desk located on th e first floor or you can call (407) 823-0001. 10. Where can I go on campus if I get sick, need medical advice, or just need to pick up some medicine? The Student Health Center provides dia gnosis and treatment of most illnesses and injuries. The co-pay is included in your tuition, however you do have to pay for any lab work or medicine that you need. To make an appointment or for general medical questions call (407) 823-2701. A pharmacy is located in the Student Health Center where you can pick up prescriptions or over the counter medicine. The Campus Wellness Center, which is located on campus in trailer 617, next to the CREOL building, provides a variety of different health services to UCF students. Some of these services in clude: Stress Management, a Registered Dietitian, CHAMP Test, Fitness Consu ltants, Anonymous HIV testing, Free condoms, AA meetings, and Heath Aware ness Events. The number is (407) 823-5841. 11. Where can I go on campus to exercise? The Fitness center is currently locate d by the Student Resource Center. It gives UCF Students access to free weights, cardiovascular equipment, and a variety of aerobic classes. You can go online to find out more information http://rec.ucf.edu or you can call (407) 823-3090.

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161 12. Where can I go if I need help with schoolwork? The Student Academic Resource Center is located on the 1st floor of Phillips Hall. Some of the services offered include free academic advising, tutoring, a college achievement program, and a CLAS T review. You can walk in or call to make an appointment at (407) 823-5130. The University Writing Center provides free writing support for students. It is located in TR MOD 608, behind the Classroom Building. You can make an appointment online at http://reach.ucf.edu/~uwc or by phone (407) 8232197. 13. How safe is our campus and what can I do if I need help with a safety issue? Public Safety and the UCF Police web site is http://www.police.ucf.edu or you can call (407) 823-5555. Safety Escort Service (SES) operates during the hours of 6:30 p.m. to 12:30 a.m. You can call them from anywhere on campus and they will take you where you need to go on campus (407) 823-2424. 14. Where can I go if I have questions about Financial Aid? The Office of Student Financial Assistan ce is located on the first floor of the administration building. The web site is http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~finaid or you can call them at (407) 823-2827 to get information about scholarships, loans, or grants. 15. Where can I go if I am looking for a job? The Career Resource Center offers resu me counseling, help with interviews, a career service manual, information about career expositions, and part-time job fairs. To contact them you can go online at www.crc.ucf.edu or you can call (407) 823-2361. 16. Where can I get information about football games? You can go online at www.sports.ucf.edu/football/QuickFacts.htm

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162TOP TEN STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE STRESS MANAGEMENT 1. Organize yourself. Take better control of the way you’re spending your time and energy. 2. Control your environment by controllin g who and what is surrounding you. In this way, you can either get rid of stress or get support for yourself. 3. Love yourself by giving yourself positive feedback. 4. Reward yourself by planning le isure activities into your life. 5. Exercise your body since your health and productivity depend upon your body’s ability to bring oxygen and food to its cells. Exercise your heart and l ungs regularly, a minimum of three days peer week for 15-30 minutes. This includes such ac tivities as walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, aerobics, etc. 6. Relax yourself by taking you mind o ff your stress and concentrating on breathing and positive thoughts. Dreaming counts, along with meditati on, progressive relaxation, exercise, listening to relaxing music, communicati ng with friends and loved ones, etc. 7. Rest yourself as regularly as possible. Sleep 7-8 hours a night. Take study breaks. There is only so much your mind can absorb at one time. It needs time to pr ocess and integrate information. A general rule of thumb: take a ten-minute break every hour. 8. Be aware of yourself. Be aware of distress signals such as in somnia, headaches, anxiety, upset stomach, lack of concentration, colds/fl u, excessive tiredness, etc. 9. Feed yourself / Do not poison your body. Eat a balanced diet. Avoid high calorie foods that are high in sugar and fats. Don’t depend on drugs or alcohol. Caffeine will keep you awake, but it also makes it harder for some to concentrate. 10. Enjoy yourself! It has been shown that happier people tend to live longer, have less physical problems, and are more productive.

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163TOP TEN STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING TIME MANAGEMENT 1. Use an appointment calenda r to keep track of all due dates, meetings and scheduled activities. 2. Make and use “to do” lists everyday. 3. Set priorities. Categorize “to do” lis t tasks into high, medium, and low priorities and focus on high priorities first. 4. Divide large tasks into several small er tasks. Focus on a small task to complete one part at a time. This will make a big project feel more manageable. 5. Regularly ask yourself “What is the best use of my time right now?” Do that task. 6. Anticipate deadlines and foreseeable hi gh stress periods (midterms, finals week, deadlines for papers) and plan for extra study hours. 7. Schedule time for breaks. It can be ha rd to stay focused when you’re tired or hungry. Get up and stretch or have a sn ack. Keep breaks to 10-15 minutes. 8. Make time to take care of yourself. Proper sleep, exercise and nutrition help you stay physically fit and mentally alert. 9. Learn to say “No.” Commit yourself to only those activities you have time for. 10. Learn to say “Later.” Postpone phone calls, visits from friends, and other interruptions or distractions for breaks or after studying.

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164TOP TEN TEST-TAKING STRATEGIES PREPARING FOR THE TEST 1. Find out what material the exam will cover, the format of the test (i.e., multiple choice, essay) and prioritize the material you need to review. 2. Use as many study strategies as possi ble: note cards, outlines, diagrams and pictures, talking with friends about materials, and self-testing. 3. Make sure you understand the mat erial before you memorize it. 4. If you have to cram, accept that yo u can’t learn everything. Start by reviewing key concepts and sections you already understand well. If time, think about examples. 5. Tips for different kinds of exams: a) For essay exams – predict the types of que stions you might be asked and develop outlines for your answers. b) For problem solving exams – review all homework and solve extra problem sets in your textbook. c) For open book exams – prepare as if it were a closed book exam and use post-it notes for tabs in yo ur text so you can easily access material. d) For take home exams make sure you sche dule enough time to complete the exam; gather all of yo ur resources together so you don’t waste time trying to find material. TAKING THE TEST 6. Listen for any oral instructions, re ad written directions carefully, and underline key words in the instructions. 7. Survey the entire test to get a feel fo r its order and content. Note the point values for the various sections a nd allocate time to spend on each section appropriately. 8. Utilize important information and insights you acquired in working through the entire test to go back and answer earlier items where you were uncertain.

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165 9. When reviewing your answers, if you were fairly certain you were correct the first time, leave the answer as it is. 10. Tips for different kinds of exam questions: a) For problem solving questions – make sure you show all your work so you can get partial credit; writ e down equations you will need and then plug in the given data and solve for the remaining variable. b) For true-false questions – read the question and see if it makes sense as it stands; think of reasons why th e question would be true or false. c) For matching questions – read both columns first, define key words, complete the easy ones first and use a process of elimination. d) For essay questions – remember to take time to think, make notes, and prepare a rough outline before you begin to write the essay. Include an introductory statement, supporting evidence and a summary statement. Read through your answer to make sure you have answered what is asked. e) For multiple choice questions – read the question followed by each option and eliminate the incorrect choices. When your options include “all of the above,” “none of the above” or “a, b, not c”, treat each option as a true-false question a nd relate it back to the original question.

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166ADDITIONAL SOURCES OF INFORMATION UCF WEBSITE: On this website, you can look up the class schedule, register for classes, check on the status of your financia l aid, see what courses you need to complete in order to graduate, or find out what so cial events are occurring around campus. http://www.ucf.edu UCF INFORMATION LINE : This number will provide you with general information about important dates and allows you to speak with an operator if you are searching for a specific number on campus. (407) 823-2000 RESIDENT ADVISOR : Each dorm has a resident advisor who can help you find information concerning conflict resolution, where to get help with cla sses, or direct you to other types of miscellaneous assistance or campus services. COLLEGE OF YOUR MAJOR : You can meet with peer advisors or the head of your department to ask questions concerning requirements for graduation and/or other academic information concerning your major. MAIN INFORMATION KIOSK : This is a small building which is located to the right of the reflection pond where they can provi de you with different pamphlets, phone numbers, and lost and found for the campus. INFORMATION DESK AT STUDENT UNION : This desk is located on the first floor of the Student Union and can provide you with schedules of various events going on around campus. UNDERGRADUATE REQUIREMENTS WEB PAGE: This page contains information concerning Foreign Language Requirements, the Gordon Rule, and the CLAST. http://www.ucf.edu/catalog/0102/UndergraduateDegreeRequirements/home.html

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167 Appendix C: Mentor Orientation Script

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168 MENTOR ORIENTATION PREPARE PACKETS WITH TH E FOLLOWING MATERIALS: TWO COPIES OF THREE SEPA RATE INFORMED CONSENT FORMS CODE OF CONDUCT FORM COPY OF THE MENTOR HANDBOOK COPY OF TIME 1 MEASURES WITH APPROPRIATE MENTOR NUMBER ASK MENTORS TO COME IN, CH ECK MENTOR’S NAME OFF OF ORIENTATION LIST AND GIVE THEM APPROPRIATE PACKET CORRESPONDING TO THEI R MENTOR NUMBER 1. Introduction INTRODUCE ALL EXPERIMENTERS Hello, before we start I need everyone to fill out the Informed Consent Forms and a Code of Conduct form. We are giving you two copies of each Informed Consent form: one for you to sign and give to us, the other for you to take home. By signing the Informed C onsent form you are agreeing to participate in this study. In addition, we need you to look over and sign the Code of Conduct form. By signing this form you are agreeing to abide by the UCF Code of Conduct while participating in this study. The entire C ode of Conduct can be found on page 8 of the Mentor Handbook. MAKE SURE TO PICK UP AND SI GN ONE COPY OF THE INFORMED CONSENT FORMS/CODE OF CONDUCT FORM HAVE MENTORS KEEP ONE COPY OF INFORMED CONSENT FORMS AND YOU KEEP THE FORMS YOU SIGNED We would like to thank all of you for agr eeing to participate as mentors in our pilot program. We know that the first year of college can be a very stressful time for freshmen and we are hoping that project s like this mentoring program will help freshmen to cope with their first year. Our two main goals in this pilot program are to determine:

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169 • If mentoring will benefit the incoming freshmen. • If 30 minutes a week is enough time to give the incoming freshmen any benefit, or do we need to make the sess ions longer. This is why we ask you not to interact with your pr otg outside the mentorin g sessions until the program is over. The purpose of today’s orient ation session is to familiarize you with what will be required of you as a mentor. Additionally we will be asking you to fill out a number of questionnaires. Th is session should only ta ke one hour to complete, however you will be paid for th e time you spend here today. If you turn to page 3 in your Mentor Handbook, it gives you a brief introduction concerning the purpose of our program, which you may read over at your convenience. 2. Responsibilities and Regulations Page 4 of your Mentor Handbook describes your resp onsibilities as a mentor in this program. You must attend all assigned meetings wi th your protg. If you are going to be unable to make one of your sessions please call one of the numbers on this list to reschedule. HANDOUT PH ONE CARD You must make up any missed session the same week that you were originally scheduled to meet. Please remember th at we will not have a great deal of flexibility in rescheduling you, as we will be conducting se ssions around the clock, therefore it is imperative th at you do not miss a session. Do not use your last name wh en speaking with your protg. Do not ask your protg fo r his or her last name. Do not contact your protg outside of the context of the program until the mentoring sessions have en ded. You are free to provide them with any information you like after the program is over.

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170 3. Payment On page 4 of the Mentor Handb ook, payment is explained. You will be paid at the e nd of the program once yo u have completed all of your sessions. You will be paid $8 per hour of participation. It may take 2-4 weeks for your check to arrive after the program has ended and the appropriate paperwork has been turned in. We will need a current address to send you r check to; so if you do not provide us with it, you might not get paid. 4. Possible Topics of Discussi on and the Code of Conduct While you are allowed to discuss anything with your protg, we have provided you with some suggested topics of discu ssion for your sessions on page 5 of the Mentor Handbook. We have also provid ed you with some information in the handbook that may be helpful in answer ing some of your protg’s questions. There are current facts about UCF on pa ge 6, UCF Rules and Regulations are found on page 7, the Code of Conduct is on page 8, and a list of Frequently Asked Questions regarding UCF are found on page 11. Department Locations and Phone Numbers for the College of Arts and Sciences are on page 12. Information about how to Obtain Your SASS Degree Audit is on page 13 and University Requirements is on page 14, including Gordon Rule Requirements and General Education Requirements. 5. Showing Transcripts We would like to see your current degree au dit that we asked you to bring. All you need to do is give it to one of us and we will ch eck you off our list. If you do not have a copy of your degree audit with you, pl ease bring it to your first mentoring session. 6. Video Taping Please be aware that all sessions will be videotaped to record your conversations since the experimenter will not be in the room with you. We will have both you and your protg wear a lapel mike during the session. We ask that you try to stay seated so that you will be facing the vide o camera at all times during the session.

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171 7. Filling Out Questionnaires Now we need you to complete some paperwork. Please note that on the NEO form you will be responding to questions going across the rows and not down the columns. ALL MENTORS MUST FI LL OUT THESE FORMS: COMPLETE TIME 1 MEASURES COMPLETE NEO 10. CONCLUSION This concludes our orientation. Does anyone have any questions? Thank you very much for attending. We will be conducting the mentoring sessions here in the same room. Please be sure to arrive promptly on time. Please wait outside the door until the experimenter co mes out to get you as there may be an experimental session in progress. See yo u next week at your scheduled time for your first mentoring session!

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172 Appendix D: NAVAIR Informed Consent Form

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173 INFORMED VOLUNTARY CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE 1. I am being asked to voluntarily particip ate in a research study titled, “Effects of Personality and Motivation on the Mentori ng Relationship.” I will be asked to participate in a series of mentor/pro tg communication sessions. Various questionnaire measures will be collected at both the beginning and end of the study, and the conversations between the mentor and protg will be reco rded on videotape. The experimenter will monitor all interacti ons between my protg/mentor and me to ensure there are no risks invol ved. I will be asked to attend a one-hour orientation session, 4 half-hour sessions over a period of four weeks with my mentor/protg, and at the last session extra time to complete payment information and final questionnaires. I realize that my pe rformance throughout the experiment will be recorded using video recording equipment. I understand that I do not have to answer any questions th at I do not wish to answer on any of the questionnaires, and that I have the right to examine the questionnaires before signing this informed consent form. 2. I understand that the investigators believ e that the risks or discomforts to me are as follows: None. I understand that during the study, all pers onal data or information (such as demographic data/video and audio recordings) will be secured under lock and key until destroyed. Any subject identification keys will be destroyed at the end of the study. This procedure will insure that my personal data cannot be used in any way that might impact my career, academic progress, or standing in my respective professional or educational communities. 3. The benefits that I may expect from my participation in this study are minimal. I understand that I will receive no direct benefit other than the knowledge that participation in this study will aid efforts to improve the performance, safety, and/or the effectiveness of the US Navy. I may have a copy of any publications resulting from the current study if I so desire. As a mentor or prot g, I will receive $8 per hour for my participation. 4. My confidentiality during the study will be ensured by assigning me a coded identification number. My name will not be directly associated with any data. The confidentiality of the information related to my participation in this research will be ensured by maintaining records only code d by identification numbers. Video and photographic images of me will not be publ ished or displayed without my specific written permission. All videotapes will be maintained in the laboratory of NAWCTSD by the Principal Inve stigator. These tapes wi ll be used for coding the content of the communications and viewed only by the research ers. Individual images will not be used in any public research reports, presentations, etc.

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174 5. If I have questions about this study I should contact the following individuals: Principal Investigator : Dr. Kimberly A. Jentsch, NAVAIR Orlando Training Systems Division, Part nership 1 Building, Room 211, 12350 Research Parkway, Orlando, Florida, 32826-3275, (407) 380-4645, kimberly.jentsch@navy.mil Co-Investigator : Lizzette Lima, NAVAIR Orlando Training Systems Division, Partnership 1 Building, Room 211, 12350 Research Parkway, Orlando, Florida, 32826-3275, (407) 380-4766, limal@navair.navy.mil Dr. Robert T. Hays, CPHS Ch airman, NAVAIR Orlando Training Systems Division, Partnership 1 Building, Room 214, 12350 Research Parkway, Orlando, FL 32826-3275, (407) 380-8358, haysrt@navair.navy.mil 6. My participation in this study is completely voluntary. 7. My participation in this study may be stopped by the investigator at any time without my consent if it is believed the deci sion is in my best interest. There will be no penalty or loss of benefits to which I am otherwise entitled at the time my participation is stopped. 8. No out of pocket costs to me may result from my voluntary participation in this study. 9. If I decide to withdraw from further participation in this study, there will be no penalties. To ensure my safe and orderly withdrawal from the study, I will inform the Principal Investigator, Dr. Kimberly Jentsch 10. Official government agencies may have a need to inspect th e research records from this study, including mine, in order to fulfil l their responsibilities. 11. I have received a statement informing me about the provisions of the Privacy Act (attached). 12. I have been informed that the CPHS Coordinator is responsible for storage of research records related to my participation in this study. My consent form will be stored under lock an d key in compliance with NAVAIRWARCENACDIV Instruction, Protection of Human Subjects, dated 05 March 2002. 13. I have been given an opportunity to as k questions about this study and its related procedures and risks, as well as any of the other information contained in this consent

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175 form. All my questions have been answered to my satisfaction. I understand what has been explained in this consent form about my participation in this study. I do not need any further information to make a d ecision whether or not to volunteer as a participant in this study. By my signatu re below, I give my voluntary informed consent to participate in the research as it has been explained to me, and I acknowledge receipt of a c opy of this form for my own personal records. ________________ _____________________ _____________ _____________ Volunteer Signature Name SSN Date ________________ _____________________ _____________ _____________ Investigator Signature Name SSN Date

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176 Appendix E: UCF Code of Conduct Form

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177Code of Conduct I have been given a copy of the UCF Rules of Conduct, and agree that my communications during the mentoring se ssions will not violate these rules. I am aware that the mentoring pr ogram has specifical ly prohibited: • Academic Dishonesty/Cheating • Personal Abuse • Sexual Misconduct • Gambling • Commission of a Felony or a Misdemeanor _______________________________________________ Participant's Signature Date ________________________________________________ Experimenter's Signature Date

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178 Appendix F: Mentor Time 1 Measures

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179 Demographic Data Form for Mentors 1. Gender: Male Female 2. Age: _______________ 3. Class A. Freshman B. Sophomore C. Junior D. Senior E. Other 4. Major: ______________ 5. GPA: _______________ 6. SAT/ACT Score: __________ 7. Race: _______________ 8. GRE Score: ___________ 9. Please list any organizations (e.g. honor society, sorority/fra ternity, etc.) that you part icipate in and please provide an estimate of how many hours each week you spend on that particular organization. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Please list any sports and extracurri cular activities that you participate in and please provide an estimate of how many hours each week you spen d on that particular activity. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. If you engage in community service or volunteer activitie s, please list them and provi de an estimate of how many hours each week you may spend in that particular activity. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. We would like to be able to contac t you at the end of the semester to find out if this program was helpful to you. You are under no obligation to provide us with this info rmation, however, if you don't mind us calling you or emailing you, please provide both your local and perm anent phone numbers, and/or your email address. Local phone number: _________________________________ Permanent phone number: _____________________________ Email Address: _______________________________________

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180 Individuals have different views about how they approach an y type of work. Please read each statement below and select the response that reflects how much you agree or disagree with the statement. Strongly Strongly Disagree Agree 1. I prefer to do things that I can do well rather than things that 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I do poorly. 2. I’m happiest at work when I perform tasks on which I know that 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I won’t make any errors. 3. The things I enjoy the most are the things I do best. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. The opinions others have about how well I can do certain things 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 are important to me. 5. I feel smart when I do something wit hout making any mistakes. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6. I like to be fairly confident that I can successfully perform a task 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 before I attempt it. 7. I like to work on tasks that I have done well on in the past. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. I feel smart when I can do something better than most other 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 people. 9. The opportunity to do challenging work is important to me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10. When I fail to complete a difficult task, I plan to try harder 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 the next time I work on it. 11. I prefer to work on tasks that force me to learn new things. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12. The opportunity to learn new things is important to me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13. I do my best when I’m working on a fa irly difficult task. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14. I try hard to improve on my past performance. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 15. The opportunity to extend the range of my abilities is 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 important to me. 16. When I have difficulty solving a problem, I enjoy trying 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 different approaches to see which one will work.

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181Please rate each item in terms of how true it is of yo u. Please circle one and only one letter for each question according to the following scale: N = Never or almost never true of you S = Sometimes true of you O = Often true of you A = Always true of you N S O A 1. I am not that conc erned about what other people think of my work. N S O A 2. I prefer having someone set clear goals for me in my work. N S O A 3. The more difficult the problem, the more I enjoy trying to solve it. N S O A 4. I am keenly aware of the goals that I have for getting good grades. N S O A 5. I want my work to pr ovide me with opportunities for in creasing my knowledge and skills. N S O A 6. To me, su ccess means doing better than other people. N S O A 7. I prefer to figure things out for myself. N S O A 8. No matter what the outcome of a project, I am satisfied if I feel I gained a new experience. N S O A 9. I enjoy relatively simple, straightforward tasks. N S O A 10. I am keenly aware of th e GPA (grade point average) goals I have for myself. N S O A 11. Curiosity is the driving force behind much of what I do. N S O A 12. I’m less concerned with what work I do than what I get for it. N S O A 13. I enjoy tackling problems that are completely new to me. N S O A 14. I prefer work that I know I can do well over work that stretches my abilities. N S O A 15. I’m concerned about how other people are going to react to my ideas. N S O A 16. I sel dom think about gr ades and awards. N S O A 17. I’m more comfortable when I can set my own goals. N S O A 18. I believe there is no point in doing a good job if nobody else knows about it. N S O A 19. I am strongl y motivated by the grades I can earn. N S O A 20. It is important for me to be able to do what I enjoy most. N S O A 21. I prefer working on projects with clearly specified procedures. N S O A 22. As long as I can do what I enjoy, I’m not concerned about exactl y what grades or awards earn. N S O A 23. I enjoy doing work that is so absorbing that I forget about everything else. N S O A 24. I am strongly motivat ed by the recognition I can earn from other people. N S O A 25. I have to feel that I’m earning something for what I do. N S O A 26. I enjoy trying to solve complex problems. N S O A 27. It is important for me to have an outlet for self-expression. N S O A 28. I want to find out how good I really can be at my work. N S O A 29. I want other people to find out how good I really can be at my work. N S O A 30. What matters most to me is enjoying what I do.

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182 Instructions: You will find twenty groups of statements listed below. Each group is composed of three statements. Each statement refers to a way of thinking about people or things in general. The statements reflect opinions and not matters of fact – there are no ri ght or wrong answers, and different pe ople have been found to agree with different statements. Read each of the three statements in each group. First decide which of the statements is most true or closest to your own beliefs. Put a plus sign (+) in the space provided before that statement. Then decide which of the remaining two statements is most false or the farthest from your own beliefs. Put a minus sign (-) in the space provided before that statement. Leave the last of the three statements unmarked. Most True = + Most False = – Here is an example: ______ A. It is easy to persuade peop le but hard to keep them persuaded. + B. Theories that run counter to common sense are a waste of time. – C. It is only common sense to go along with what other people are doing and not be too different. In this example, statement B wo uld be the one you believe in most strongly and statements A and C would be the ones that are not as characteristic of your opinions. Of these two, statement C would be the one you believe in least strongly and the one that is least characteristic of your beliefs. You will find some of the choices easy to make; others will be quite difficult. Do not fail to make a choice no matter how hard it may be. Remember: mark two statements in each group of three – the one that is closest to your own beliefs with a + and that is farthest from your beliefs with a -. Do not mark the remaining statement. 1. _____ A. It takes more imagination to be a suc cessful criminal than a su ccessful business person. _____ B. The phrase “the road to hell is paved with good intentions” contains a lot of truth. _____ C. Most people forget more easily the d eath of their parents than the loss of their property. 2. _____ A. People are more concerned with the car they drive than with the clothes their spouses wear. _____ B. It is very im portant that imagination and crea tivity in children be cultivated. _____ C. People suffering from incurable diseases s hould have the choice of being put painlessly to death. 3. _____ A. Never tell anyone the real reason you did something unless it is useful to do so. _____ B. The well-being of the individual is th e goal that should be worked for before anything else. _____ C. Once a truly intelligent person makes up his mind about the answer to a problem he rarely continues to think about it. 4. _____ A. People are getting so lazy and self-indulgent that it is bad for our country. _____ B. The best way to handle a pers on is to tell them what they want to hear. _____ C. It would be a good thing if people we re kinder to others less fortunate than themselves. 5. _____ A. Most people are basically good and kind. _____ B. The best criterion for a wife or husband is compatibility – other ch aracteristics are nice but not essential. _____ C. Only after you have gotten what you want fro m life should you concern yourself with the injustices of the world. 6. _____ A. Most people who get ahead in the world lead clean, moral lives. _____ B. Any person worth his salt should not be blamed for putting career above family. _____ C. People would be better off if they were con cerned less with how to do things and more with what to do.

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183 7. _____ A. A good teacher is one who points out unanswe red questions rather than gives explicit answers. _____ B. When you ask someone to do something for you, it is best to give the real reasons for wanting it rather than giving reasons that might carry more weight. _____ C. A person’s job is the best sing le guide to the sort of person he or she is. 8. _____ A. The construction of such monumental works as the Egyptian pyramids was worth the enslavement of the workers who built them. _____ B. Once a way of handling problems ha s been worked out it is best to stick to it. _____ C. You should take action only wh en you are sure that it is morally right. 9. _____ A. The world would be a much better place to liv e in if people would let the future take care of itself and concern themselves only with enjoying the present. _____ B. It is wiser to flatter important people. _____ C. Once a decision has been made, it is best to keep changing it as new circumstances arise. 10. _____A. It is a good policy to act as if you are doing the things you do because you have no other choice. _____ B. The biggest difference be tween most criminals and other people is that criminals are stupid enough to get caught. _____ C. Even the most hardened and vicious criminal has a spark of decency somewhere inside. 11. _____ A. All in all, it is better to be humble and honest than to be important and dishonest. _____ B. People who are able and willing to work ha rd have a good chance of succeedin g in whatever they want to do. _____ C. If a thing does not help us in our daily lives, it is not very important. 12. _____ A. People should not be punished for br eaking a law that they think is unreasonable. _____ B. Too many crimin als are not punished for their crimes. _____ C. There is no excuse for lying to someone else. 13. _____ A. Generally speaking, people will not work hard unle ss they are forced to do so. _____ B. Every person is entitled to a s econd chance, even after committing a serious mistake. _____ C. People who cannot make up their minds are not worth bothering about. 14. _____ A. A person’s first responsib ility is to spouse, not to parents. _____ B. Most people are brave. _____ C. It is best to pick friends who are intellectually stimulating rather than ones who are comfortable to be around. 15. _____ A. There are very few people in the world worth concerning yourself about. _____ B. It is hard to get ahea d without cutting corner s here and there. _____ C. A capable person motivated for his or her own gain is more useful to society than a well-meaning but ineffective person. 16. _____ A. It is best to give others the impression that you can change your mind easily. _____ B. It is a good working policy to keep on good terms with everyone. _____ C. Honesty is the best policy in all cases. 17. _____ A. It is possible to be good in all respects. _____ B. To help oneself is good; to help others is even better. _____ C. War and threats of war are unchangeable facts of human life. 18. _____ A. Barnum was probably right when he sa id there is at least one sucker born every minute. _____ B. Life is pretty dull unle ss one deliberately stir s up some excitement. _____ C. Most people would be bett er off if they controlled their emotions.

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184 19. _____ A. Sensitivity to the feelings of others is worth more than poise in social situations. _____ B. The ideal society is one in which all people know thei r place and accept it. _____ C. It is safest to assume that all people have a vicious streak and that it will come out when the chance arises. 20. _____ A. People who talk about abstract problems usually do not know what they are talking about. _____ B. Anyone who completely trusts anyone else is asking for trouble. _____ C. It is essential for the f unctioning of a democracy that everyone vote.

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185Please indicate on the scale from 1 5 the extent to wh ich each item motivated or influenced your desire to become a mentor in this mentoring program. No Great Extent Extent 1. A desire to put this on my resume or curriculum vita. 1 2 3 4 5 2. To enhance my reputation with others (e.g., faculty, 1 2 3 4 5 other students). 3. To earn respect from others (e.g ., faculty, other students) 1 2 3 4 5 within your university. 4. Because I am being paid for participating in this mentoring 1 2 3 4 5 program. 5. To be recognized for my academic accomplishments. 1 2 3 4 5 6. To benefit my university. 1 2 3 4 5 7. To help other students succeed within my university. 1 2 3 4 5 8. To contribute to research aimed at helping students. 1 2 3 4 5 9. To ensure that knowledge and information is passed on to other 1 2 3 4 5 students. 10. To make a difference in a freshman’s academic career. 1 2 3 4 5 11. The personal pride that mentoring someone brings. 1 2 3 4 5 12. The personal gratification that comes from helping another 1 2 3 4 5 student grow and develop. 13. To gain a sense of self-satisf action by passing on insights 1 2 3 4 5 to other students. 14. A desire to gain ment oring experience. 1 2 3 4 5

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186 Appendix G: Protg Handbook

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187 PROTG HANDBOOK TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction..…………………………………………………………………. 3 Responsibilities..……………………………………...………………………. 4 Payment..………………………………………………………………………. 5 Possible Topics of Disc ussion with Mentor….…………………..………….. 6 Code of Conduct………...………………………………………….………… 7

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188 INTRODUCTION Thank you for agreeing to participate as a pr otg in our pilot mentoring program. We know that the first year of co llege can be a very stressful time for freshmen and we hope that projects like this mentoring program will help freshmen to cope with the challenges of their first year. Our two ma in goals in this pilot mentoring program are to determine: • If mentoring will benefit the incoming freshmen. • If 30 minutes a week is enough time to give the incoming freshmen any benefit or do we need to make the sessions longer. This is why we ask you not to interact with your mentor outside the mentoring sessions until the program is over. BACKGROUND Mentoring is defined as a relationship in which one person, the mentor, helps another person, the protg, to reach his or her goals Since these goals may vary among people, the form of mentoring may vary, as well. Hi storically, we tend to think of mentoring as an informal relationship in which someone in authority takes a junior person under his or her wing. Informal mentors are not managed, structured, or formally recognized by any type of organization. Traditionally, they are spontaneous relationships that occur without any external involvement. In contrast, fo rmal mentorship programs are managed and sanctioned by an organization. Formal mentoring relationships have been shown to provide protgs with two major types of support: career and psychosocial. Ca reer support is any activity in which the mentor helps the protg move towards the accomplishment of an academic/career goal. For example, a mentor could assist his or her protg by providing constructive feedback, opportunities for improvement, or help in refi ning various skills (e.g., study habits). Psychosocial Support is any activity in which the mentor helps incr ease the protg’s feelings of competence and trea ts them in a respectful manner. For example, the mentor could serve as a role model or a person with whom the protg feels comfortable discussing various issues.

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189 RESPONSIBILITIES and REGULATIONS Attend orientation session and all assigned meetings with mentor. Be flexible and patient with the scheduling. Do not use your last name when speaking with your mentor. Do not ask your mentor for their last name. Do not ask your mentor for their location. Do not contact your mentor until the program has ended. You must make-up any missed session the same week that it was originally scheduled. PAYMENT You will be paid one time at the end of the program. You will be paid $8 an hour. It may take 4 6 weeks for your check to arrive after the program has ended and you have filled out the appropriate paperwork. We will need a current address to send your check to.

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190 POSSIBLE TOPICS TO DISCUSS WITH YOUR MENTOR Mentoring relationships have been shown to provide protg s with two major types of support: Career and Psychosocial. Thus, topics that you might want to address with your mentor include, but are NOT limited to: Campus Life Student Organizations School Policy Career Development Personal Issues Health and Well-being Stress Management Fitness/Sports Conflicts with Roommates Time Management Class Scheduling/Advising Course Work Study Habits

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191 UCF Rules of Conduct These conduct rules shall apply to all undergraduate students, graduate students, and student organizations of the university and its area campuses and shall be deemed a part of the terms and cond itions of admission and enrollment of all students. Failure to comply with duly establishe d laws or university regulations may subject violator(s) to appropr iate civil authorities. Seri ous violations of university regulations shall be recorded in the record of the individua l(s) and/or the organization. Generally, authority necessary to enforce regulations is vested in the vice president for Student Development and Enro llment Services or designee. Selected functions of this authority ar e shared with faculty, staff a nd students. Some functions of student judicial affair s administration are assisted thr ough review boards or councils. Students and student organizations ar e also subject to univer sity judicial sanctions for the violation of a Board of Regents or uni versity rule or a federal, state, county, or city law, which has an advers e impact on the university. The following defined and describe d actions include, but are not limited to, conduct for which judicial action may be taken. These rules apply to all students for intentional conduct that occurs against ot her students or non-students on university premises, while participating in university sponsored or re lated activities, duri ng school sessions, during holidays, and during periods of continuous enro llment, or off-campus when that conduct is determined to adversely affect the interest (s) of any part of the university. A student is continuously enrolled, once admitted, unless the student fails to register in two consecutive terms, excluding summer terms, and must re-apply for university admission.

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192 Code of Conduct 1. Academic Dishonesty/Cheating A. Cheating is a violation of student academic behavior standards. The common forms of cheating include: 1. Unauthori zed assistance: communicat ion to another through written, visu al, or oral means. The pr esentation of material which has not been studied or learned, but rather was obtained th rough someone else’s efforts and used as part of an examination, course assignment or project. The unauthorized possession or use of examination or course related material may also constitute cheating. 2. Plagiarism: whereby another’s work is deliberately used or appropria ted without any indication of the source, thereby attempting to convey the impression that such work is the student’s own. Any student failing to properly credit ideas or ma terials taken from another is plagiarizing. B. Any student who knowingly he lps another violate academic behavior standard s is also in violati on of the standards. 2. Providing False and Misleading Informat ion and/or Falsification of University Records. A. Withholding related informa tion, or furnishing false or misleading informati on (oral or written) to university officials, faculty or staff, including use or attempted use of a fraudulent identification card or driver’s license. B. Forgery, alteration or misuse of any university document, material, file, record or instrument of identification. C. Deliberately and purposefully providing false or misleading verbal or written information about another person that results in damage to that person’s reputation. 3. Disruptive Conduct A. An act which intentio nally impairs, interferes with, or obstructs the orderly conduct, processes, and functions of the university or

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193 any part thereof. B. Violence which deliberately im pedes or interferes with the normal flow of pedestrian and vehicular traffic. C. An act which deliberately impedes or interferes with the normal flow of pedestrian and vehicular traffic. D. An act which tampers with th e election(s) of any university student organization or group. E. Willful destruction of university property or property of members or guests of the university. F. Misuse of any university sa fety equipment, firefighting equipment, or fire alarm. G. An act which deliberately inte rferes with the academic freedom or the freedom of speech of any member or guest of the university community. H. A false report of an explosive or incendiary device, which constitutes a threat or bomb, scare. I. Conduct which is lewd or indecent. J. Breach of peace: an act, which aids, abets, or procures another person to breach the peace on the university premises or at university sponsored/related functions. K. Failure to comply with oral or written instruction from duly authorized univ ersity officials or law enforcement officers acting in the perf ormance of their duties, including failure to identify oneself to these persons when requested to do so. 4. Personal Abuse A. Verbal abuse of any person including lewd, indecent, or obscene expressions of conduct. B. Physical abuse or threat of physical abuse to any person. C. Harassment: defined as behavior directed at a member of the university community which would cause severe emotional

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194 distress, intimi dation, or coercion to a reasonable person in the victim’s posi tion, or would place a reasonable person in the victim’s position in fear of bodily injury or death. This definition, however, shall not be interprete d to abridge the right of any member of the university community to freedom of expression protected by the 1st amendment of the United States Constitution and any other applicable law. D. Failure to respect the priv acy of other individuals. E. Retaliation against or harassment of complainant(s) or other person(s) alleging misconduct. 5. Sexual Misconduct A. Sexual Assault: acquaintance rape (date, friend, someone the victim knows cas ually or through mutual friends) or any other form of rape. Rape is defined as unconsenting sexual penetration, coer cion, or penetration agains t the victim’s will. Any sexual conduct which occurs between members of the university community on or off the UCF campus shall be consensual, mean ing that willing and verb al agreement shall be clearly given in advance by all persons involved at each new level of su ch conduct. A person shall not knowingly take advantage of another person who is under 18 years of age, mentally de fective, under the infl uence of prescribed medication, alc ohol or other chemical drugs, or who is not conscious or awak e, and thus is not able to give consent as defined above. Fu rther, a person shall not physically or verbally coerce another pe rson to engage in any form of sexual conduct, to the end that consent as defined above is not given. B. Sexual Harassment: unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or ve rbal or physical conduc t of a sexual nature which prevents or impairs another person’s full enjoyment of the educational bene fits, atmosphere, or opportunities provided as part of the university. C. Public Indecency: exposure of one’s body in such a manner that another party reas onably could be offended or to display sexual behavior which another person reasonably finds offensive. D. Voyeurism: sexual stimulation sought through trespass, spy, or eavesdrop activities.

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195 6. Larceny/Property Damage A. Unauthorized use, possession, or services or theft of property. Such property may be personal or public. B. Damage or defacing of univers ity property or the property of another person wh ether or not it is on university premises. 7. Hazing A. Any action or situation whic h recklessly or intentionally endangers the ment al or physical health and/or safety of a student for th e purpose of initiation or admission into, or affiliation wi th, any organization ope rating under registration with the university. B. Brutality of a physical natu re such as whipping, beating, branding, forced cal isthenics, exposure to the elements; forced consumption of any food, liquor, drug, or other substances; or other forced elements; or other forced activity which could adversely affect the physical health or safety of the individual. C. Any activity which could subject the individual to mental stress such as sleep deprivation, forced exclusion from social contact, forced contact whic h could result in embarrassment, or any other activity which could adversely affect the mental health or dignity of the individual. 8. Unauthorized Use of Keys, and/or Entry A. Unauthorized possession, duplication or use of keys to any university premises. B. Unauthorized entry or attempted entry to university premises. 9. Misconduct at University Sponsored/Related Activities Violation of university rules, or regulations of a host institution sponsored/related activity. 10. Unlawful Possession Use or Sale of any Controlled Substance

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196 Use, possession, sale, distri bution or attempt to obtain any narcotic or other controlled substances, except as expressly permitted by law. 11. Alcoholic Beverages Violation The use, possession, sale and/or distribu tion of alcoholic beverages except as expressly permitted by the law and university rules, and behavior under influence of alc oholic beverages, are prohibited. 12. Possession and/or Use of a Firea rm and/or Dangerous Material A. Possession or use of firearms or any weapon on university premises or at university sponsored/r elated activities. B. Possession or use of firework s of any description, explosives, or chemicals which are disruptive, explosive, or corrosive on university premises or at university sponso red/related activities. 13. Instigation or Participation in Gro up Disturbances During Demonstrations, Parades, or Picketings A. Participation in a demonstra tion(s), parade(s), or picketing which invades th e rights of others, interferes with the educational function of the university or jeopardizes public order and safety. B. Leading or inciting others to disrupt scheduled and/or normal activities within any campus building or area. 14. Misuse of Computing and Telecommunications Resources. The university supports open access to elec tronic communication and information. Nevertheless, the preservation of an open computing and communications environment requires adherence by users to applicable law an d university’s rules regarding the responsible us e of computing systems, software and telecommunication networks. 15. Gambling A. To play in an unlawful game of chance for money or for anything of value on univers ity premises or at any affair sponsored by a student organization. B. To unlawfully sell, barter or di spose of a ticket, order, or any

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197 interest in a sc heme of chance by whatever name on university premises or at any affair sponsored by a student organization. C. To wage on a university team or organization in a competition, with a direct interest in the success of the competition. 16.University Designated Stude nt Residence Violations Repeated or flagrant violations of regulations governing university student residences. 17. University Wordmark Unauthorized use of the official unive rsity wordmark, Pegasus, monogram, seal, or other graphic identity symbol. 18. Commission of a Felony or a Misdemeanor Commission of an act, which is a felony or misdemeanor as provided in local, state, or federal law.

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198 Appendix H: Protg Orientation

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199 PROTG ORIENTATION PREPARE PACKETS WITH TH E FOLLOWING MATERIALS: TWO COPIES OF INFO RMED CONSENT FORMS CODE OF CONDUCT FORM PROTG HANDBOOK COPY OF TIME 1 MEASURES FOR PROTG WITH APPROPRIATE NUMBER ASK PROTEGES TO COME IN, GIVE THEM APPROPRIATELY NUMBERED PACKET WITH THEI R DYAD NUMBER 1. Introduction INTRODUCE ALL EXPERIMENTERS Hello, before we start I need everyone to fill out Informed Consents and a Code of Conduct form. We are giving you two copies of each Informed Consent form: one for you to sign and give to us, th e other for you to take home. By signing the Informed Consent form you are agreeing to participate in this study. In addition, we need you to look over and sign th e Code of Conduct form. By signing this form you are agreeing to abide by the UCF Code of Conduct while participating in this study. The entire Code of Conduct can be found on page 6 of your handbook. MAKE SURE TO PICK UP SIGNED COPY OF THE IN FORMED CONSENT FORMS/CODE OF CONDUCT FORM HAVE PROTG KEEP ON E COPY OF EACH OF INFORMED CONSENT FORMS AND YOU KEEP THE FORMS YOU SIGNED We would like to thank all of you for agreeing to participate as pr otgs in our pilot program. We know that the firs t year of college can be a very stressful time for freshmen and we hope that projects like this mentoring program will help freshmen cope with their first year. Our two main goals in this pilot program are to determine: • If mentoring will benefit the incoming freshmen. • If 30 minutes a week is enough time to give the incoming freshmen any benefit, or do we need to make the sessions longer. This is why we ask you not to interact with your mentor outside the mentoring sessions until the program is over.

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200 The purpose of today’s orientation session is to familiarize you with what will be required of you as a protg. Additionally, we will be asking you to fill out a number of questionnaires. This session should only take one hour to complete, however you will be paid for the time you spend here today. If you turn to page 3 in your Protg Handbook, it gives you a brief introduction concerning the purpose of our research, whic h you may read over at your convenience. 2. Responsibilities and Regulations Page 4 of your Protg Handbook describes your responsibilities as a Protg in this program. You must attend all assigned meetings w ith your mentor. If you are going to be unable to make one of your sessions call one of the numbers on this list to reschedule. HANDOUT PHONE NUMBER CARD You must make up any missed session the sa me week that you were originally scheduled to meet. Please remember that we will not have a great deal of flexibility in rescheduling you, as we will be conducti ng sessions around the clock, therefore it is imperative that you do not miss a session. Do not use your last name when speaking with your mentor. Do not ask your mentor for their last name. Do not contact your mentor outside of the context of the program until the mentoring sessions have ended. You are free to pr ovide them with any information you like after the program is over. 3. Payment On page 4 of the Protg Handbook, payment is explained. You will be paid at the e nd of the program once you have completed all of your sessions. You will be paid $8 per hour of participation. It may take 2 – 4 weeks for your check to arrive after the program has ended and the appropriate paperwork has been turned in. We will need a current address to send your check to; so if you do not provide us with it, you might not get paid.

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201 4. Possible Topics of Discussion While you are allowed to discuss anything w ith your mentor, we have provided you with some suggested topics of discussion for your sessions on page 5 of the Protg Handbook. 5. Videotaping Sessions Please be aware that all sessions will be videotaped to reco rd your conversations since the experimenter will not be in the room with you. We will have both you and your mentor wear lapel mikes during the session. 6. Giving Transcripts/Degree Audits We would like to see your current degree aud it that we asked you to bring. All you need to do is give it to one of us and we will ch eck you off our list. If you do not have a copy of your degree audit with you, please bri ng it to your first mentoring session. 7. Filling Out Questionnaires Now we need you to complete some paperwork. 8. CONCLUSION This concludes the orientation. Does anyone have any questions? Thank you very much for attending. We will be conducting the mentoring sessions here in the same room. Please be sure to arri ve promptly on time. Please wait outside the door until the experimenter comes out to get you as there may be a mentoring session in progress. See you next week at your schedul ed time for your first mentoring session!

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202 Appendix I: Protg Time 1 Measures

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203Demographic Data Protgs 1. Gender: Male Female 2. Age: _______________ 3. Intended Major: ______________________________________________________________________ 4. GPA: (High School if no College GPA yet)_______________ 5. SAT/ACT Score: ______________ 6. Race: _____________ _______________ _______________ ____________ ____________ _________ 7. Please list any organizations (e.g. honor society, soro rity, etc.) that you partic ipate in and please provide an estimate of how many hours each week y ou spend on that particular organization. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 8. Please list any sports and extrac urricular activities that you participate in and please provide an estimate of how many hours each week you spend on that particular activity. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 9. If you engage in community service or volunteer activities, please list them and provide an estimate of how many hours each week you may sp end in that particular activity. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 10. We would like to be able to contact you at the end of the semester to find out if this program was helpful to you. You are under no obligation to provide us with this information, however, if you don't mind us calling you or emailing you, please provide both your local and permanent phone numbers, and/or email address. Local phone number: __________________________________________ Permanent phone number: __________________________________________ Email Address: __________________________________________

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204 Please indicate on the scale fr om 1-6 your level of agreement or disagreement with the following statements. Strongly Strongly Disagree Agree 1. My schoolwork this semester has had a negative impact on 1 2 3 4 5 6 my health. 2. I have been under a great deal of tension this semester. 1 2 3 4 5 6 3. Problems with school have kept me awake at night this 1 2 3 4 5 6 semester.

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205 There are many physical symptoms associated with stress. During the past thirty days, how many times did you experience each of the following symptoms? 1. An upset stomach or nausea None 1 2 3 4 More than four 2. A backache None 1 2 3 4 More than four 3. Trouble sleeping None 1 2 3 4 More than four 4. A skin rash None 1 2 3 4 More than four 5. Shortness of breath None 1 2 3 4 More than four 6. Chest pain None 1 2 3 4 More than four 7. Headache None 1 2 3 4 More than four 8. Fever None 1 2 3 4 More than four 9. Acid indigestion or heartburn None 1 2 3 4 More than four 10. Eye strain None 1 2 3 4 More than four 11. Diarrhea None 1 2 3 4 More than four 12. Stomach cramps (not menstrual) None 1 2 3 4 More than four 13. Constipation None 1 2 3 4 More than four 14. Heart pounding when not exercising None 1 2 3 4 More than four 15. An infection None 1 2 3 4 More than four 16. Loss of appetite None 1 2 3 4 More than four 17. Dizziness None 1 2 3 4 More than four 18. Tiredness or fatigue None 1 2 3 4 More than four

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206 How confident are you that you could suc cessfully complete the following tasks? Not at all Extremely Confident Confident 1. Research a term paper. 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. Write course papers. 1 2 3 4 5 6 3. Do well on your exams. 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. Take good class notes. 1 2 3 4 5 6 5. Keep up to date with your schoolwork. 1 2 3 4 5 6 6. Manage time effectively. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. Understand your textbooks. 1 2 3 4 5 6 8. Participate in class discussions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 9. Ask a question in class. 1 2 3 4 5 6 10. Get a date when you want one. 1 2 3 4 5 6 11. Talk to your professors. 1 2 3 4 5 6 12. Talk to university staff. 1 2 3 4 5 6 13. Ask a professor a question. 1 2 3 4 5 6 14. Make new friends at college. 1 2 3 4 5 6 15. Join a student organization. 1 2 3 4 5 6

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207 Appendix J: Experimental Scri pts for Sessions 1, 2, 3 and 4

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208 SCRIPT FOR FIRST EXPERIMENTAL SESSION GATHER FOLLOWING MA TERIALS FOR SESSION: MENTOR HANDBOOK SCRATCH PAPER PEN STOPWATCH VIDEOTAPE FOR THAT MENTOR 2 CONTACT CARDS PUT VIDEO TAPE FOR SESSION IN VIDEO RECORDER ONCE MENTOR AND PROTG ARE BO TH THERE, HAVE THEM SIT IN CHAIRS FACING EACH OTHER SEAT MENTOR IN CHAIR FACI NG THE VIDEO CAMERA ALWAYS!! MAKE SURE LAPEL MIKES ARE ON (CHECK LIGHT ON BOTH) Hello, my name is ______________________. I would like to thank you both ag ain for agreeing to participate in our mentoring program. You have been to orientation, and are fam iliar with what will be required of you. GIVE MENTOR A HANDBOOK, PEN, AND SCRATCH PAPER Here is your handbook, in case you need to refer to it. You are getting ready for your first session and are probably wonderi ng where to start. You might want to begin by introducing your selves (first names only) and telling each other a little about your background and experiences in college. Please remember that you are free to talk abou t anything as long as it does not violate the Code of Conduct. One of the experimenters will let you know wh en there is one minute left and will tell you when the 30 minutes are up. Please remember that if you will not be able to make your mentoring sessions or have any scheduling problems to please le t us know by calling one of th e numbers on this sheet. PROVIDE CONTACT CARDS IF NEEDED

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209 Please feel free to ask questions; if I am unabl e to answer your quest ion at this moment I will be happy to get back to you with an answer during your next session. Please remember that we will be videotaping each session. You may begin. START TIMER ON WATCH START VIDEO BY PRESSING RECORD WHEN THERE IS ONE MINUTE LEFT ON TIMER, OPEN DOOR AND SAY “ONE MINUTE LEFT”, THEN CLOSE THE DOOR WHEN 30 MINUTES HAVE PASSED, OPEN THE DOOR AND SAY “OK, TIME’S UP. PLEASE SAY GOODBYE.” ONCE THEY HAVE SAID GOODBYE, STOP VIDEO RECORDER AND TAKE OUT THE VIDEO TAPE. GO INTO ROOM. Do you have any questions before we let you go? Thanks so much for coming. See you next week for your second session, same time, same place. CHECK OFF EXPERIMENTAL SESSION COMPLETED ON VIDEOTAPE SPINE. PUT VIDEO BACK IN LOCKBOX. WRITE IN DATE THAT BOTH ME NTOR AND PROTG COMPLETED FIRST SESSION ON LABLE ON ENVELOPE PREPARE FOR NEXT SESSION BY GATHERING MATERIALS.

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210 SCRIPT FOR SECOND EXPERIMENTAL SESSION GATHER FOLLOWING MA TERIALS FOR SESSION: MENTOR HANDBOOK SCRATCH PAPER PEN STOPWATCH VIDEOTAPE FOR THAT MENTOR 2 CONTACT CARDS PUT VIDEO TAPE FOR SESSION IN VIDEO RECORDER. ONCE MENTOR AND PROTG ARE BO TH THERE, HAVE THEM SIT IN CHAIRS FACING EACH OTHER SEAT MENTOR IN CHAIR FACI NG THE VIDEO CAMERA ALWAYS!! MAKE SURE LAPEL MIKES ARE ON (CHECK LIGHT ON BOTH) Hello, my name is ______________________. I would like to thank you both again for agreeing to participate in our mentoring program. This is your second session. GIVE MENTOR A HANDBOOK, SCRATCH PAPER AND PEN Here is your handbook, in case you need to refer to it. Please remember that you are free to talk abou t anything as long as it does not violate the Code of Conduct. One of the experimenters will let you know wh en there is one minute left and will tell you when the 30 minutes are up. Please remember that if you will not be able to make your mentoring sessions or have any scheduling problems to please le t us know by calling one of th e numbers on this sheet. PROVIDE CONTACT CARDS IF NEEDED Please feel free to ask questions; if I am unabl e to answer your quest ion at this moment I will be happy to get back to you with an answer during your next session.

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211 Please remember that we will be videotaping each session. Please give me a few seconds once I have left the room to start the videotape before you st art speaking with each other so that we can record the entire session. START TIMER ON WATCH START VIDEO TAPE WHEN THERE IS ONE MINUTE LEFT ON TIMER, OPEN DOOR AND SAY “ONE MINUTE LEFT”, THEN CLOSE THE DOOR WHEN 30 MINUTES HAVE PASSED, OPEN THE DOOR AND SAY “OK, TIME’S UP. PLEASE SAY GOODBYE.” ONCE THEY HAVE SAID GOODBYE, STOP VIDEO RECORDER AND TAKE OUT THE VIDEO TAPE. Thanks so much for coming. See you next week for your third session, same time, same place. CHECK OFF EXPERIMENTAL SESSION COMPLETED ON VIDEOTAPE SPINE. PUT VIDEO BACK IN LOCKBOX. WRITE IN DATE THAT BOTH ME NTOR AND PROTG COMPLETED FIRST SESSION ON LABLE ON ENVELOPE PREPARE FOR NEXT SESSION BY GATHERING MATERIALS.

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212 SCRIPT FOR THIRD EXPERIMENTAL SESSION GATHER FOLLOWING MA TERIALS FOR SESSION: MENTOR HANDBOOK SCRATCH PAPER PEN STOPWATCH VIDEOTAPE FOR THAT MENTOR 2 CONTACT CARDS PUT VIDEO TAPE FOR SESSION IN VIDEO RECORDER. ONCE MENTOR AND PROTG ARE BO TH THERE, HAVE THEM SIT IN CHAIRS FACING EACH OTHER SEAT MENTOR IN CHAIR FACI NG THE VIDEO CAMERA ALWAYS!! MAKE SURE LAPEL MIKES ARE ON (CHECK LIGHT ON BOTH) Hello, my name is ______________________. I would like to thank you both again for agreeing to participate in our mentoring program. This is your third session. GIVE MENTOR A HANDBOOK, SCRATCH PAPER AND PEN Here is your handbook, in case you need to refer to it. Please remember that you are free to talk abou t anything as long as it does not violate the Code of Conduct. One of the experimenters will let you know wh en there is one minute left and will tell you when the 30 minutes are up. Please remember that if you will not be able to make your mentoring sessions or have any scheduling problems to please le t us know by calling one of th e numbers on this sheet. PROVIDE CONTACT CARDS IF NEEDED Please feel free to ask questions; if I am unabl e to answer your quest ion at this moment I will be happy to get back to you with an answer during your next session. Please remember that we will be videotaping each session. Please give me a few seconds once I have left the room to start the videotape before you st art speaking with each other so that we can record the entire session.

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213 START TIMER ON WATCH START VIDEO TAPE WHEN THERE IS ONE MINUTE LEFT ON TIMER, OPEN DOOR AND SAY “ONE MINUTE LEFT”, THEN CLOSE THE DOOR WHEN 30 MINUTES HAVE PASSED, OPEN THE DOOR AND SAY “OK, TIME’S UP. PLEASE SAY GOODBYE.” ONCE THEY HAVE SAID GOODBYE, STOP VIDEO RECORDER AND TAKE OUT THE VIDEO TAPE. Do you have any questions before we let you go? Thanks so much for coming. After your final session next week, we will ask you to fill out some paperwork. See you next week for your final session, same time, same place. CHECK OFF EXPERIMENTAL SESSION COMPLETED ON VIDEOTAPE SPINE. PUT VIDEO BACK IN LOCKBOX. WRITE IN DATE THAT BOTH ME NTOR AND PROTG COMPLETED FIRST SESSION ON LABEL ON ENVELOPE PREPARE FOR NEXT SESSION BY GATHERING MATERIALS.

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214 SCRIPT FOR FOURTH AND FINAL EXPERIMENTAL SESSION GATHER FOLLOWING MA TERIALS FOR SESSION: MENTOR PAYMENT FORM PROTG PAYMENT FORM TIME 2 MEASURES FOR MENTOR TIME 2 MEASURES FOR PROTG ENVELOPE FOR PROTEGE MENTOR HANDBOOK SCRATCH PAPER PENS STOPWATCH VIDEOTAPE FOR THAT MENTOR 2 CONTACT CARDS PUT VIDEO TAPE FOR SESSION IN VIDEO RECORDER. ONCE MENTOR AND PROTG ARE BO TH THERE, HAVE THEM SIT IN CHAIRS FACING EACH OTHER SEAT MENTOR IN CHAIR FACI NG THE VIDEO CAMERA ALWAYS!! MAKE SURE LAPEL MIKES ARE ON (CHECK LIGHT ON BOTH) Hello, my name is ______________________. I would like to thank you both ag ain for agreeing to participate in our mentoring program. This is your final session. After your session today you will be filling out some paperwork. This should take no longer than 10 minutes. GIVE MENTOR A HANDBOOK, SCRATCH PAPER, PEN Here is your handbook, in case you need to refer to it. Please remember that you are free to talk abou t anything as long as it does not violate the Code of Conduct. One of the experimenters will let you know wh en there is one minute left and will tell you when the 30 minutes are up.

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215 Please remember that if you will not be able to make your mentoring sessions or have any scheduling problems to please le t us know by calling one of th e numbers on this sheet. PROVIDE CONTACT CARDS IF NEEDED Please feel free to ask questions; if I am unabl e to answer your quest ion at this moment I will be happy to get back to you with an answer during your next session. Please give me a few seconds once I have left the room to start the videotape before you start speaking with each ot her so that we can record the entire session. START TIMER ON WATCH START VIDEOTAPE WHEN THERE IS ONE MINUTE LEFT ON TIMER, OPEN DOOR AND SAY “ONE MINUTE LEFT”, THEN CLOSE THE DOOR WHEN 30 MINUTES HAVE PASSED, OPEN THE DOOR AND SAY “OK, TIME’S UP. PLEASE SAY GOODBYE.” ONCE THEY HAVE SAID GOODBYE, STOP VIDEO RECORDER AND TAKE OUT THE VIDEO TAPE. GIVE MENTOR TIME 2 MEASURES AND PROTG TIME 2 MEASURES AND PENS. Please fill out these forms. When you are finished filling them out, please come out to the main room and see me. While you are filling them out, I will be calculating your final payment invoice. Please don't forget to check it and sign it before you leave. You are free to exchange personal informati on with each other now if you like before you start to fill out the forms. INDICATE DATE THAT THE MENTOR AND PROTG FINISHED THEIR FOURTH SESSION. WHILE SUBJECTS ARE FILLING OUT MEASURES, ADD UP THEIR PAYMENT AND ROU ND TO THE NEAREST WHOLE HOUR (E.G., 45 MINUTES = 1 HOUR), ADD BO NUS, AND CALCULATE TOTAL. (TOTAL FOR EVERYONE SH OULD BE 5 HOURS = $40).

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216 CHECK OFF EXPERIMENTAL SESSION COMPLETED ON VIDEOTAPE SPINE. PUT VIDEO BACK IN LOCKBOX. HAVE PARTICIPANTS EACH SIGN PAYMENT FORM AND YOU SIGN THE FORM. HAVE PROTEGES ONLY WRITE TH EIR ADDRESS ON THE ENVELOPE MENTORS DON’T NEED TO. READ LAST PORTION OF SCRIPT TO EACH OF THEM BEFORE THEY LEAVE Thank you very much for participating in this study. There were three objectives we hoped to achieve in this study: To assess what kind of benefits inco ming freshmen would receive from being mentored To determine if thirty minutes for f our weeks was enough time to achieve any benefits To observe the impact of mentor pe rsonality and motivation on mentoring outcomes If you have any questions about this study please contact the following individuals: Lizzette Lima NAVAIR, Research Parkway, Orlando, Florida 407-380-4766 Lizzette_L@yahoo.com Thank you again for your participation. PUT PAYMENT FORMS BACK IN APPROPRIATE FOLDER. PUT MEASURES IN ENVELOPE. PREPARE FOR NEXT SESSION BY GATHERING MATERIALS.

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217 Appendix K: Mentor Time 2 Measures

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218 Exit Scale for Mentors Please indicate on the scale from 1 5 the exte nt to which the following statements describe the relationship you had with your protg. No Great Extent Extent 1. I encouraged my protg to try new ways of behaving in school. 1 2 3 4 5 2. My protg tried to imitate my behavior in school. 1 2 3 4 5 3. My protg agreed with my attitudes and values regarding education. 1 2 3 4 5 4. My protg respected and admired me. 1 2 3 4 5 5. My protg will try to be like me when he/she reaches a similar position 1 2 3 4 5 in his/her academic career. 6. I demonstrated good listening skills in conversations with my protg. 1 2 3 4 5 7. I discussed my protg’s questions or c oncerns regarding feelings 1 2 3 4 5 of competence, commitment to academic advancement, relationships with peers or faculty, or work/family conflicts. 8. I shared personal experiences as alternative perspective to my 1 2 3 4 5 protg’s problems. 9. I encouraged my protg to talk openly about anxiety and fears that 1 2 3 4 5 detract from his/her schoolwork. 10. I conveyed empathy for the concerns and feelings my protg discussed 1 2 3 4 5 with me. 11. I kept the feelings and doubts my protg shared with me in strict 1 2 3 4 5 confidence. 12. I conveyed feelings of respect for my protg as an individual. 1 2 3 4 5

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219Please indicate on the scale from 1 5 the exte nt to which the following statements describe the relationship you had with your protg. No Great Extent Extent 1. I reduced unnecessary risks that could th reaten the possibility of 1 2 3 4 5 my protg staying in school or making good grades. 2. I helped my protg review assignments or meet deadlines 1 2 3 4 5 that otherwise would be difficult to complete. 3. I suggested ways in which my protg can meet other students or offered 1 2 3 4 5 to help my protg meet friends after the me ntoring program was over. 4. I gave my protg ideas for increasing co ntact with school administrators 1 2 3 4 5 and faculty members. 5. I gave my protg ideas for activities th at will prepare him/her for an 1 2 3 4 5 internship or job. 6. I gave my protg ideas for activities th at present opportunities to learn 1 2 3 4 5 new skills. 7. I gave my protg ideas for increasing contact with people who may 1 2 3 4 5 judge my protg’s potent ial for future a cademic success. 8. I shared the history of my academic career with my protg. 1 2 3 4 5 9. I encouraged my protg to prepare for academic advancement. 1 2 3 4 5

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220 Appendix L: Protg Time 2 Measures

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221Exit scale for Protgs Please indicate on the scale from 1 5 the extent to wh ich the following statements describe the relationship you had with your mentor. No Grea t Extent Extent 1. My mentor encouraged me to try new wa ys of behaving in school. 1 2 3 4 5 2. I tried to imitate my mentor’s behavior in school. 1 2 3 4 5 3. I agreed with my mentor’s attitudes an d values regarding education. 1 2 3 4 5 4. I respected and admired my mentor. 1 2 3 4 5 5. I will try to be like my mentor when I reach a similar position in my 1 2 3 4 5 academic career. 6. My mentor demonstrated good listening ski lls in conversations with me. 1 2 3 4 5 7. My mentor discussed my questions or c oncerns regarding feelings of 1 2 3 4 5 competence, commitment to academi c advancement, rela tionships with peers or faculty, or work/family conflicts. 8. My mentor shared personal experiences as an alternative perspective to 1 2 3 4 5 my problems. 9. My mentor encouraged me to talk openly about anxiety and fears that 1 2 3 4 5 detract from my schoolwork. 10. My mentor conveyed empathy for the conc erns and feelings I discussed 1 2 3 4 5 with him/her. 11. My mentor kept the feelings and doubts I sh ared with him/her in strict 1 2 3 4 5 confidence. 12. My mentor conveyed feelings of respect for me as an individual. 1 2 3 4 5

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222Please indicate on the scale from 1 5 the extent to wh ich the following statements describe the relationship you had with your mentor. No Great Extent Extent 1. My mentor reduced unnecessary risks that could threaten the possibility of 1 2 3 4 5 me staying in school or making good grades. 2. My mentor helped me re view assignments or meet deadlines 1 2 3 4 5 that otherwise would be difficult to complete. 3. My mentor suggested ways in which I can meet other students or offered 1 2 3 4 5 to help me meet friends af ter the mentoring program was over. 4. My mentor gave me ideas for increasing co ntact with school administrators 1 2 3 4 5 and faculty members. 5. My mentor gave me ideas for activities that will prepare me for an 1 2 3 4 5 internship or job. 6. My mentor gave me ideas for activities th at present opportunities to learn 1 2 3 4 5 new skills. 7. My mentor gave me ideas for increasin g contact with people who may 1 2 3 4 5 judge my potential for future academic success. 8. My mentor shared the history of his/her academic career with me. 1 2 3 4 5 9. My mentor encouraged me to prepare for academic advancement. 1 2 3 4 5

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223Please indicate on the scale from 1 6 your level of agreement or disagreement with the following statements. Strongly Strongly Disagree Agree 1. My schoolwork this semester had a negative impact on 1 2 3 4 5 6 my health. 2. I have been under a great deal of tens ion this semester. 1 2 3 4 5 6 3. Problems with school have kept me awak e at night this 1 2 3 4 5 6 semester.

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224There are many physical symptoms associated with stress. During the past thirty days, how many times did you experience each of the following symptoms? 1. An upset stomach or nausea None 1 2 3 4 More than four 2. A backache None 1 2 3 4 More than four 3. Trouble sleeping None 1 2 3 4 More than four 4. A skin rash None 1 2 3 4 More than four 5. Shortness of breath None 1 2 3 4 More than four 6. Chest pain None 1 2 3 4 More than four 7. Headache None 1 2 3 4 More than four 8. Fever None 1 2 3 4 More than four 9. Acid indigestion or heartburn None 1 2 3 4 More than four 10. Eye strain None 1 2 3 4 More than four 11. Diarrhea None 1 2 3 4 More than four 12. Stomach cramps (not menstrual) None 1 2 3 4 More than four 13. Constipation None 1 2 3 4 More than four 14. Heart pounding when not exercising None 1 2 3 4 More than four 15. An infection None 1 2 3 4 More than four 16. Loss of appetite None 1 2 3 4 More than four 17. Dizziness None 1 2 3 4 More than four 18. Tiredness or fatigue None 1 2 3 4 More than four

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225How confident are you that you could suc cessfully complete the following tasks? Not at all Extremely Confident Confident 1. Research a term paper. 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. Write course papers. 1 2 3 4 5 6 3. Do well on your exams. 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. Take good class notes. 1 2 3 4 5 6 5. Keep up to date with your schoolwork. 1 2 3 4 5 6 6. Manage time effectively. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. Understand your textbooks. 1 2 3 4 5 6 8. Participate in class discussions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 9. Ask a question in class. 1 2 3 4 5 6 10. Get a date when you want one. 1 2 3 4 5 6 11. Talk to your professors. 1 2 3 4 5 6 12. Talk to university staff. 1 2 3 4 5 6 13. Ask a professor a question. 1 2 3 4 5 6 14. Make new friends at college. 1 2 3 4 5 6 15. Join a student organization. 1 2 3 4 5 6

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226Please indicate on the scale from 1 6 your level of agreement or disagreement with the following statements. Strongly Strongly Disagree Agree 1. I would like to continue the relationship with 1 2 3 4 5 6 my mentor. 2. I hope I get to spend time with my mentor again, 1 2 3 4 5 6 even though the experiment is over. 3. I am not interested in trying to continue 1 2 3 4 5 6 a relationship with my mentor. 4. My mentor and I have developed a relationship 1 2 3 4 5 6 that will continue beyond this experiment.

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227Please indicate on the scale from 1 6 your level of agreement or disagreement with the following statements. Strongly Strongly Disagree Agree 1. The mentoring relationship between my mentor 1 2 3 4 5 6 and I was very effective. 2. I am very satisfied with the mentoring relationship 1 2 3 4 5 6 that developed between my mentor and I. 3. I effectively utilized my mentor. 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. My mentor and I enjoyed a high-quality relationship. 1 2 3 4 5 6 5. Both my mentor and I benefited from the 1 2 3 4 5 6 mentoring relationship. 6. I was extremely satisfied with my assigned mentor. 1 2 3 4 5 6

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228 Appendix M: Additional Measures

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229 Please indicate on the scale from 1 7 your level of agreement or disagr eement with the following statements. Stron gly Strongly Disag ree Agree 1. When I make plans, I am certain I can make them work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. One of my problems is that I cannot get down to work 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 when I should. 3. If I can’t do a job the first time, I keep trying until I can. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. When I set important goals for myself I rarely achieve them. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5. I give up on things before completing them. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6. I avoid facing difficulties. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. If something looks too complicated, I will not even bother 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 to try it. 8. When I have something unpleasant to do, I stick to it until 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I finish it. 9. When I decide to do something, I go right to work on it. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10. When trying to learn something new, I soon give up if I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 am not initially successful. 11. When unexpected problems occur, I don’t handle them well. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12. I avoid trying to learn new things when they look too 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 difficult for me. 13. Failure just makes me try harder. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14. I feel insecure about my ability to do things. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 15. I am a self-reliant person. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16. I give up easily. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 17. I do not seem capable of dealing with most problems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 that come up in life. 18. It is difficult for me to make new friends. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 19. If I see someone I would like to meet, I go to that person 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 instead of waiting for him or her to come to me. 20. If I meet someone interesting who is hard to make friends 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 with, I’ll soon stop trying to make friends with that person. 21. When I’m trying to become friends with someone who 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 seems uninterested at first, I don’t give up easily.

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23022. I do not handle myself well in social gatherings. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 23. I have acquired my friends through my personal abilities 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 at making friends.

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231Please indicate on the scale from 1 6 your level of agreement or disagreement with the following statements. Strongly Strongly Disagree Agree 1. In discussions, I go along with the will of the group. 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. I would avoid a job which required me to supervise 1 2 3 4 5 6 other people. 3. I nearly always argue for my viewpoint if I think I 1 2 3 4 5 6 am right. 4. I am usually the one who in itiates activities 1 2 3 4 5 6 in my group. 5. When an acquaintance takes advantage of me, I 1 2 3 4 5 6 confront him or her. 6. When I meet new peopl e, I usually have little to say. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. I find it easy to talk with all kinds of people. 1 2 3 4 5 6 8. It is uncomfortable for me to exchange a purchase 1 2 3 4 5 6 I found to be defective. 9. I let others take the lead when I am on a committee. 1 2 3 4 5 6 10. It is easy for me to make "sma ll talk" with people 1 2 3 4 5 6 I have just met. 11. I try to dress like the other people I work or go 1 2 3 4 5 6 to school with. 12. If I have been "short-changed," I go back and complain. 1 2 3 4 5 6 13. In an emergency, I get peopl e organized and 1 2 3 4 5 6 take charge. 14. It is difficult for me to start a conversation with 1 2 3 4 5 6 a stranger. 15. I defend my point of view even if someone 1 2 3 4 5 6 in authority disagrees with me. 16. When a friend borrows something of value to me 1 2 3 4 5 6 and returns it damaged, I don't say anything. 17. My opinions are not easily change d by those around me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 18. I follow my own ideas even when pressured by a 1 2 3 4 5 6 group to change them. 19. I work best in a group when I am the person in charge. 1 2 3 4 5 6

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232 Strongly Strongly Disagree Agree 20. At a party, I find it easy to introduce myself and 1 2 3 4 5 6 join a conversation. 21. I have no particular desire to be the leader of a group. 1 2 3 4 5 6 22. I find it difficult to make new friends. 1 2 3 4 5 6 23. I shy away from situations where I might be asked 1 2 3 4 5 6 to take charge. 24. When I am attracted to a person I have not met, 1 2 3 4 5 6 I actively try to get acquainted. 25. If a friend betrays a confidence, I express my 1 2 3 4 5 6 annoyance to him or her. 26. When someone interrupts me in a serious conversation, 1 2 3 4 5 6 I find it hard to ask him or her to wait a minute. 27. If the food I am served in a restaurant is 1 2 3 4 5 6 unsatisfactory, I would complain to the waiter. 28. I seek positions where I can influence others. 1 2 3 4 5 6 29. I feel uncomfortable around people I don't know. 1 2 3 4 5 6 30. When there is a disagreement, I accept the decision 1 2 3 4 5 6 of the majority. 31. When someone repeatedly kicks the back of my chair 1 2 3 4 5 6 in a theater, I don't say anything.

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233Please indicate on the scale from 1 – 6 your leve l of agreement or disagree ment with the following statements, as they relate to your protg. Strongly Strongly Disagree Agree 1. I would like to continue the relationship with 1 2 3 4 5 6 my protg. 2. I hope I get to spend time with my protg again, 1 2 3 4 5 6 even though the experiment is over. 3. I am not interested in trying to continue 1 2 3 4 5 6 a relationship with my protg. 4. My protg and I have developed a relationship 1 2 3 4 5 6 that will continue beyond this experiment.

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234Please indicate on the scale from 1 6 your le vel of agreement or disag reement with the following statements, as they relate to your protg. Strongly Strongly Disagree Agree 1. The mentoring relationship between my protg 1 2 3 4 5 6 and I was very effective. 2. I am very satisfied with the mentoring relationship 1 2 3 4 5 6 that developed between my protg and I. 3. I was effectively utilized as a mentor by my protg. 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. My protg and I enjoyed a high-quality relationship. 1 2 3 4 5 6 5. Both my protg and I benefited from the mentoring 1 2 3 4 5 6 relationship.

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235 Please indicate on the scale from 1 6 your le vel of agreement or disag reement with the following statements, as they relate to your protg. Strongly Strongly Disagree Agre e 1. My protg and I viewed things in much the same way. 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. My protg and I were similar in terms of our outlook, 1 2 3 4 5 6 perspective, and values. 3. My protg and I were alike in a number of areas. 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. My protg and I thought alike in terms of coming up 1 2 3 4 5 6 with a similar solution for a problem. 5. My protg and I analyzed problems in a similar way. 1 2 3 4 5 6

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236How confident do you feel your protg is regarding their ability to successfully complete the following tasks? Not at all Extremely Confident Confident 1. Research a term paper. 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. Write course papers. 1 2 3 4 5 6 3. Do well on your exams. 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. Take good class notes. 1 2 3 4 5 6 5. Keep up to date with your schoolwork. 1 2 3 4 5 6 6. Manage time effectively. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. Understand your textbooks. 1 2 3 4 5 6 8. Participate in class discussions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 9. Ask a question in class. 1 2 3 4 5 6 10. Get a date when you want one. 1 2 3 4 5 6 11. Talk to your professors. 1 2 3 4 5 6 12. Talk to university staff. 1 2 3 4 5 6 13. Ask a professor a question. 1 2 3 4 5 6 14. Make new friends at college. 1 2 3 4 5 6 15. Join a student organization. 1 2 3 4 5 6

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237Please indicate on the scale from 1 6 your level of agreement or disagreement with the following statements. Strongly Strongly Disagree Agree 1. My mentor and I viewed things in much the same way. 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. My mentor and I were similar in terms of our outlook, 1 2 3 4 5 6 perspective, and values. 3. My mentor and I are alike in a number of areas. 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. My mentor and I thought alike in terms of coming up 1 2 3 4 5 6 with a similar solution to a problem. 5. My mentor and I analyzed problems in a similar way. 1 2 3 4 5 6

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238 Appendix N: Mentoring Coding Scheme

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239 MENTORING CODING SCHEME PSYCHOSOCIAL FUNCTIONS – extent to which the mentor provides coaching, counseling, acceptance and confirmation, and serves as a role model to the protg COUNSELING mentor acts as a sounding board for protg to discuss personal concerns, offers p ersonal experience as an alternative perspective, and helps resolve prob lems through feedback and active listening Mentor demonstrated good listeni ng skills in conversations with protg Mentor discussed the protg’s qu estions or concerns regarding feelings of competence in school, commitment to advancement in school, relationships with peers (other students) and professors, or school/family conflicts Mentor shared personal expe riences as an alternative perspective to protg’s problems Mentor encouraged protg to talk openly about anxiety and fears that detract from schoolwork Mentor conveyed empathy for the concerns and feelings the protg discussed with him/her ACCEPTANCE AND CONFIRMATION – mentor provides support and encouragement to protg Mentor encouraged protg to tr y new ways of behaving in school (e.g., new study habits, new wa ys of organizing time) Mentor conveyed feelings of respect for the protg as an individual (e.g., treated protg as an equal) ROLE MODELING – mentor’s attitudes, va lues, and behavior provide model for protg; mentor sets a desirable example and protg identifies with it Protg tried to imitate the academic -related behavior of the mentor (i.e., mirrored the same activities, joined the same organizations) Protg agreed with mentor’s attitudes and values regarding education Protg respected and admired mentor Protg indicated that they would lik e to be like their mentor when they reach a similar positi on in their academic career

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240 CAREER DEVELOPMENT FUNCTIONS – th ose aspects of the mentoring relationship related to the protg’ s academic career and which enhance academic advancement (e.g., protection, ex posure and visibility, sponsorship, and challenging assignments) COACHING – enhances protg’s knowledge and understanding of how to navigate effectively in the academic domain; mentor suggests specific strategies for accomplishing school objectives, for achieving academic recognition, for achi eving academic aspirations Mentor shared history of his or her academic career (e.g., told protg courses he/she took, profe ssors he/she liked, how he/she chose a major) Mentor encouraged protg to prepare for academic success (e.g., told protg he/she should study, attend all classes, etc.) PROTECTION – mentor protects protg from unnecessary risk Mentor reduced unnecessary risks that could threaten the possibility of the protg stayi ng in school or making good grades (e.g., told protg to attend cla ss, take good notes, avoid certain professors, not to work too many hour s, not to take part in too many extracurricular activities) Mentor helped protg review assignments or meet deadlines for coursework EXPOSURE AND VISIBILITY – mentor suggests ways to meet other students/faculty Mentor suggested ways in wh ich the protg could meet other students or offered to help the protg meet friends after the mentoring program was over Mentor gave the protg ideas for increasing contact with school administrators and faculty members Mentor gave the protg ideas for increasing contact with people who may judge his/her potential for future academic success SPONSORSHIP – mentor offered to support and sponsor the protg in some way Mentor gave the protg ideas fo r activities that would help the protg develop employment skills Mentor offered to introduce protg to people who could help his/her academic success Mentor offered to introduce pr otg to influential people in the academic community

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241Directions: Please rate each mentoring session on the extent to which the mentor provided the following mentoring functions on the scal e from 1 –5. Please circle the number. COUNSELING mentor acts as a sounding board fo r protg to discuss personal concerns, offers personal experience as an alternative perspective, and helps re solve problems through feedback and active listening 1 Not at all 2 3 Sometimes 4 5 Frequently Mentor did not demonstrate good listening skills in conversations with the protg Mentor did not discuss the protg’s questions or concerns regarding feelings of competence in school, commitment to advancement in school, relationships with peers (other students) and professors, or school/family conflicts Mentor did not share personal experiences as an alternative perspective to the protg’s problems Mentor did not encourage the protg to talk openly about anxiety and fears that detract from schoolwork Mentor did not convey empathy for the concerns and feelings the protg discussed with him/her Sometimes the mentor demonstrated good listening skills in conversations with the protg Sometimes the mentor discussed the protg’s questions or concerns regarding feelings of competence in school, commitment to advancement in school, relationships with peers (other students) and professors, or school/family conflicts Sometimes the mentor shared personal experiences as an alternative perspective to the protg’s problems Sometimes the mentor encouraged the protg to talk openly about anxiety and fears that detract from schoolwork Sometimes the mentor conveyed empathy for the concerns and feelings the protg discussed with him/her Mentor frequently demonstrated good listening skills in conversations with the protg Mentor frequently discussed the protg’s questions or concerns regarding feelings of competence in school, commitment to advancement in school, relationships with peers (other students) and professors, or school/family conflicts Mentor frequently shared personal experiences as an alternative perspective to the protg’s problems Mentor frequently encouraged the protg to talk openly about anxiety and fears that detract from schoolwork Mentor frequently conveyed empathy for the concerns and feelings the protg discussed with him/her

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242ACCEPTANCE AND CONFIRMATION – mentor provides suppor t and encouragement to protg 1 Not at all 2 3 Sometimes 4 5 Frequently Mentor did not encourage the protg to try new ways of behaving in school (e.g., new study habits, new ways of organizing time) Mentor did not convey feelings of respect for the protg as an individual (e.g., treated protg as an equal) Sometimes the mentor encouraged the protg to try new ways of behaving in school (e.g., new study habits, new ways of organizing time) Sometimes the mentor conveyed feelings of respect for the protg as an individual (e.g., treated protg as an equal) Mentor frequently encouraged the protg to try new ways of behaving in school (e.g., new study habits, new ways of organizing time) Mentor frequently conveyed feelings of respect for the protg as an individual (e.g., treated protg as an equal)

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243 ROLE MODELING – mentor’s attitudes, values, and behavior provide model for protg; mentor sets a desirable example and protg identifies with it 1 Not at all 2 3 Sometimes 4 5 Frequently Protg did not try to imitate the academicrelated behavior of the mentor (i.e., mirrored the same activities, joined the same organizations) Protg did not agree with the mentor’s attitudes and values regarding education Protg did not respect and admire the mentor Protg did not indicate that they would like to be like their mentor when they reach a similar position in their academic career Sometimes the protg tried to imitate the academicrelated behavior of the mentor (i.e., mirrored the same activities, joined the same organizations) Sometimes the protg agreed with the mentor’s attitudes and values regarding education Sometimes the protg respected and admired the mentor Sometimes the protg indicated that they would like to be like their mentor when they reach a similar position in their academic career Protg frequently tried to imitate the academicrelated behavior of the mentor (i.e., mirrored the same activities, joined the same organizations) Protg frequently agreed with the mentor’s attitudes and values regarding education Protg frequently respected and admired the mentor Protg frequently indicated that they would like to be like their mentor when they reach a similar position in their academic career

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244COACHING enhances protg’s knowledge and und erstanding of how to navigate effectively in the academic domain; mentor suggests sp ecific strategies for accomplishing school objectives, for achieving academic recognition, for achieving academic aspirations 1 Not at all 2 3 Sometimes 4 5 Frequently Mentor did not share history of his or her academic career (e.g., told protg courses he/she took, professors he/she liked, how he/she chose a major) Mentor did not encourage protg to prepare for academic success (e.g., told protg he/she should study, attend all classes, etc.) Sometimes the mentor shared the history of his or her academic career with the protg (e.g., told protg courses he/she took, professors he/she liked, how he/she chose a major) Sometimes the mentor encouraged the protg to prepare for academic success (e.g., told protg he/she should study, attend all classes, etc.) Mentor frequently shared history of his or her academic career (e.g., told protg courses he/she took, professors he/she liked, how he/she chose a major) Mentor frequently encouraged protg to prepare for academic success (e.g., told protg he/she should study, attend all classes, etc.)

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245PROTECTION – mentor protects protg from unnecessary risk 1 Not at all 2 3 Sometimes 4 5 Frequently Mentor did not reduce unnecessary risks that could threaten the possibility of the protg staying in school or making good grades (e.g., told protg to attend class, take good notes, avoid certain professors, not to work too many hours, not to take part in too many extracurricular activities) Mentor did not help the protg review assignments or meet deadlines for coursework Sometimes the mentor reduced unnecessary risks that could threaten the possibility of the protg staying in school or making good grades (e.g., told protg to attend class, take good notes, avoid certain professors, not to work too many hours, not to take part in too many extracurricular activities) Sometimes the mentor helped the protg review assignments or meet deadlines for coursework Mentor frequently reduced unnecessary risks that could threaten the possibility of the protg staying in school or making good grades (e.g., told protg to attend class, take good notes, avoid certain professors, not to work too many hours, not to take part in too many extracurricular activities) Mentor frequently helped the protg review assignments or meet deadlines for coursework

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246 EXPOSURE AND VISIBILITY – mentor suggests ways to meet other students/faculty 1 Not at all 2 3 Sometimes 4 5 Frequently Mentor did not suggest ways in which the protg could meet other students or offer to help the protg meet friends after the mentoring program was over Mentor did not give the protg ideas for increasing contact with school administrators and faculty members Mentor did not give the protg ideas for increasing contact with people who may judge his/her potential for future academic success Sometimes the mentor suggested ways in which the protg could meet other students or offered to help the protg meet friends after the mentoring program was over Sometimes the mentor gave the protg ideas for increasing contact with school administrators and faculty members Sometimes the mentor gave the protg ideas for increasing contact with people who may judge his/her potential for future academic success The mentor frequently suggested ways in which the protg could meet other students or offered to help the protg meet friends after the mentoring program was over The mentor frequently gave the protg ideas for increasing contact with school administrators and faculty members The mentor frequently gave the protg ideas for increasing contact with people who may judge his/her potential for future academic success

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247 SPONSORSHIP – mentor offered to support and sponsor the protg in some way 1 Not at all 2 3 Sometimes 4 5 Frequently Mentor did not give the protg ideas for activities that would help the protg develop employment skills Mentor did not offer to introduce the protg to people who could help his/her academic success Mentor did not offer to introduce the protg to influential people in the academic community Sometimes the mentor gave the protg ideas for activities that would help the protg develop employment skills Sometimes the mentor offered to introduce the protg to people who could help his/her academic success Sometimes the mentor offered to introduce protg to influential people in the academic community Mentor frequently gave the protg ideas for activities that would help the protg develop employment skills Mentor frequently offered to introduce the protg to people who could help his/her academic success Mentor frequently offered to introduce the protg to influential people in the academic community

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About the Author Lizzette Lima received a Bachelor’s degree from Florida Atlantic University in Psychology in 1996. She graduated from Flor ida International University in 2000, where she was awarded a Master’s degree in Industrial/Organizational Psyc hology. She worked at the City of Miami in the Testing and Validation and Co mpensation Divisions while she was attending FIU. In 2000, Lizzette was accepted into the Ph.D. program in Industrial/Organizational Psyc hology at the University of South Florida. While attending the University of South Florida, she worked as a Research/Teaching Assistant for one year. In addition, sh e worked for NAWCTSD in Orlando where she conducted research in mentoring and collected data for her dissertation.