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The development and validation of the Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale

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The development and validation of the Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale
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Herbozo, Sylvia
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comments
body image
eating disorders
feedback
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ABSTRACT: This study involves the development and validation of a measure of physical appearance-related comments, The Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale (VCOPAS). Previous research has shown that the development of body image and eating disturbances is greatly influenced by teasing and negative appearance-related feedback. The limited research on positive appearance-related feedback is likely due to the lack of an empirically validated scale of positive appearance-related commentary. Consequently, the VCOPAS was developed to assess the frequency and effect of positive appearance-related comments and other types of appearance-related comments. In Study 1, 50 undergraduate female students of ages 18 to 25 completed the revised VCOPAS and 8 of these students also attended a focus group session. The revised VCOPAS and its subscales demonstrated adequate internal consistency. This scale was subsequently modified based on the findings of Study 1. In Study 2, 320 undergraduate female students of ages 18 to 25 completed the VCOPAS. Factor analyses indicated that four factors should be retained. The VCOPAS and its subscales exhibited low to high internal consistencies. Study 3 was a confirmatory factor analysis study that used 246 undergraduate female students of ages 18 to 25. An exploratory factor analysis was also conducted to cross-validate the VCOPAS with a new sample. Given the importance of interpretability and theory in scale development, a four-factor model was retained for the final VCOPAS. The final VCOPAS consists of 26 items and contains four subscales (Negative Appearance, Positive Body, Positive General Appearance, and Exercise Commentary). The total scale and subscales demonstrated adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Significant correlations were found between a number of VCOPAS subscales and measures of physical appearance-related feedback, body image disturbance, self-objectification, and self-esteem. Regression analyses indicated the utility of the Negative Appearance, Positive Body, and Positive General Appearance subscales in predicting body image disturbance. It seems that different types of appearance-related commentary influence the body image of females in distinct ways. The VCOPAS is likely to be useful in future research examining the role of appearance-related commentary, specifically positive appearance-related commentary, in the development of body image and eating disturbances among females.
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Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2004.
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by Sylvia Herbozo.
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The Development and Validation of the Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale by Sylvia Herbozo A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Psychology College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: J. Kevin Thompson, Ph.D. Michael Brannick, Ph.D. Karen Brandon, Ph.D. Date of Approval: April 6, 2004 Keywords: feedback, comments, body image, eating disorders Copyright 2004 Sylvia Herbozo

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i Table of Contents List of Tables iii Abstract v Chapter One Introduction 1 Overview 1 Sociocultural Factors 5 Interpersonal Factors 8 Theoretical Explanations 11 Teasing and Negative Verbal Commentary 11 Self-Objectification Theory 13 Measures of Teasing and A ppearance-Related Feedback 17 Limitations of Current Research on Appearance-Related Feedback 19 Chapter Two Study 1 25 Method 25 Participants 25 Measures 26 Procedures 27 Data Analyses 28 Results 29 Quantitative Results 29 Qualitative Results 32 Chapter Three Study 2 34 Method 34 Participants 34 Measures 35 Procedures 35 Data Analyses 36 Results 38 Chapter Four Study 3 52 Method 52 Participant 52

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ii Measures 53 Procedures 57 Data Analyses 58 Results 60 General Discussion 96 References 113 Appendices 122 Appendix A: Original Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale (VCOPAS) 123 Appendix B: Demographic Information Sheet 127 Appendix C: Two-month Version of the 24-item VCOPAS 128 Appendix D: Two-year versi on of the 24-item VCOPAS 134 Appendix E: Debriefing Form for Study 1 140 Appendix F: 37-item VCOPAS 141 Appendix G: Debriefing Form for Study 2 and 3 149 Appendix H: Two-year Version of the 28-item VCOPAS 150 Appendix I: Co mmentary Interpretation Scale 156 Appendix J: Feedback on Physical Appearance 157 Appendix K: Multidimensional Body -Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Evaluation Subscale 158 Appendix L: Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Orientation Subscale 159 Appendix M: Fear of Nega tive Appearance Evaluation 160 Appendix N: Eating Disorders Inventory 2 Body Dissatisfaction Subscale 161 Appendix O: Self-Objectific ation Questionnaire 162 Appendix P: Objectified Body Conscious ness Scale Surveillance Subscale 163 Appendix Q: Objectified Body Conscious ness Scale Body Shame Subscale 164 Appendix R: Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale 165 Appendix S: The Ma rlow-Crowne Social Desirability Scale 166

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iii List of Tables Table 1 Study 1 Item Means and Standard Deviations, Item-Total Correlations (Factors and Total Measure), and Cronbachs Alphas for the Original VCOPAS 31 Table 2 Study 1 Inter-subscale Correlations and Subscale-total Scale Correlations 32 Table 3 Study 1 Summary Statistics 32 Table 4 Study 2 Factor Loadings of the Four Factor Solution for the 37-item VCOPAS 40 Table 5 Study 2 Item Means and Standard Deviations for the 37-item VCOPAS 42 Table 6 Study 2 Factor Loadings of the Four Factor Solution for the 28-item VCOPAS 46 Table 7 Study 2 Inter-factor Correlations and Factor-total Correlations for the 28-item VCOPAS 48 Table 8 Study 2 Item Means and Standard Deviations, Item-Total Correlations (Factors and Total Measure), and Cronbachs Alphas for the 28-item VCOPAS 49 Table 9 Study 2 Summary Statistic s for the 28-item VCOPAS 50 Table 10 Study 3 Factor Loadings of th e Four Factor Solution for the 28-item VCOPAS 62 Table 11 Study 3 Factor Loadings of th e Four Factor Solution for the 26-item VCOPAS 64 Table 12 Study 3 Inter-factor Correlations a nd Factor-total Correla tions for the 26-item VCOPAS (Using the Frequency and Effect Ratings of the VCOPAS) 67

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iv Table 13 Study 3 Item Means and Standard Deviations, Item-Total Correlations (Factors and Total Measure), and Cronbachs Alphas for the Final VCOPAS 68 Table 14 Study 3 Summary Statistics 71 Table 15 Study 3 Correlations Among Final VCOP AS and Other Measures (Using the Frequency Ratings of the Final VCOPAS) 75 Table 16 Study 3 Correlations Among Final VCOP AS and Other Measures (Using the Effect Ratings of the Final VCOPAS) 81 Table 17 Study 3 Study 3 Simultaneous Regression Analysis for VCOPAS Subscales Predicting Body Image Disturbance (Using the Frequency Ratings of the VCOPAS) 87 Table 18 Study 3 Study 3 Simultaneous Regression Analysis for VCOPAS Subscales Predicting Body Image Disturbance (Using the Effect Ratings of the VCOPAS) 91 Table 19 Study 3 Study 3 Simultaneous Regression Analysis for VCOPAS Subscales Predicting Body Image Disturbance (Using the Frequency and Effect Ratings of the VCOPAS) 94

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v The Development and Validation of the Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale Sylvia Herbozo ABSTRACT This study involves the development and validation of a measure of physical appearance-related comments, The Verbal Co mmentary on Physical Appearance Scale (VCOPAS). Previous research has shown th at the development of body image and eating disturbances is greatly influe nced by teasing and negative appearance-related feedback. The limited research on positive appearance-related feedback is likely due to the lack of an empirically validated scale of positive appearance-related commentary. Consequently, the VCOPAS was developed to assess the fre quency and effect of positive appearancerelated comments and other types of appearance-related comments. In Study 1, 50 undergraduate female students of ages 18 to 25 completed the revised VCOPAS and 8 of these students also attended a focus group session. The revised VCOPAS and its subscales demonstrat ed adequate internal consistency. This scale was subsequently modified based on the findings of Study 1. In Study 2, 320 undergraduate female students of ages 18 to 25 completed the VCOPAS Factor analyses indicated that four factors s hould be retained. The VCOPAS and its subscales exhibited low to high internal consistencies. Study 3 wa s a confirmatory factor analysis study that

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vi used 246 undergraduate female students of ages 18 to 25. An explorat ory factor analysis was also conducted to cross-validate th e VCOPAS with a new sample. Given the importance of interpretability and theory in scale development, a four-factor model was retained for the final VCOPAS. The final VCOPAS consists of 26 items and contains four subscales (Negative Appearance, Pos itive Body, Positive General Appearance, and Exercise Commentary). The total scale and subscales demonstrated adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Significant correlations were found between a number of VCOPAS subscales and measures of physical appearance-related feedback, body image disturbance, self-objectification, and self-esteem. Regression analyses indicated the utility of the Negative App earance, Positive Body, and Positive General Appearance subscales in predicti ng body image disturbance. It seems that different types of appearance-related commentary influence th e body image of females in distinct ways. The VCOPAS is likely to be useful in future research examining the role of appearancerelated commentary, specifically positive appearance-related commentary, in the development of body image and eating disturbances among females.

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1 Chapter 1. Introduction Overview Over the past few decades, research in the area of body image has dramatically increased. The physical appearance-related aspect of body image has received the most attention. Body image is most commonly define d as the internal representation of your own outer appearance (Thompson, Heinber g, Altabe, & Tanleff-Dunn, 1999, p.4). This internal view of the physical self has per ceptual, affective, cognitive and behavioral components (Offman & Bradley, 1990; Thompson, 1990). The feelings and thoughts associated with the self-perception of appear ance may lead to changes in behavior and ultimately, affect overall functioning (Thom pson, 1990). Furthermore, it has become evident that body image is strongly influen ced by many different factors and can be altered in certain situatio ns (Altabe & Thompson, 1995). Body image research has primarily focused on the subjective evaluation of ones body, which is best conceptualized using a satis faction-dissatisfaction continuum model. According to this continuum approach, leve ls of disturbance are determined by ones body dissatisfaction, ranging from none to ex treme. Body dissatisfaction refers to unhappiness with ones overall appearance or a particular area of ones body. Higher levels of body dissatisfaction are considered by most researchers to reflect greater distress with ones body. Individuals falling at th e extreme end of the continuum have been

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2 found to exhibit eating disturbances and/or significant impairment in areas, such as social and occupational functioning (Thompson et al., 1999). This strong association between higher levels of body image disturbance and eating disturbances has led to a greater emphasis on body image-related criteria for the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) currently recognizes various as pects of body image disturbance as primary features of eating disorders. The body image-related criteria for anorexia nervosa includes an intense fear of gaining wei ght or becoming fat, even though underweightdisturbance in the way in which ones body weight or shape is experienced, undue influence of body weight or shape on self-evaluation, or denial of seriousness of current low body weight (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, pp. 589). For bulimia nervosa, the criterion relevant to body image disturbance specifically focuses on how ones self-concept is affected by ones body image. A diagnosis of bulimia nervosa requires that selfevaluation is unduly influenced by body shap e and weight (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, p. 594). The inclusion of su ch criteria in the DSM-IV indicates the importance of body image in relation to the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Nevertheless, there is overwhelmi ng evidence suggesting that body image disturbances are not specific to eating disordered populati ons. Previous research has indicated that body dissatisfac tion is quite prevalent, especially among females, leading researchers to recognize this occurrence as a normative discontent (Rodin, Silberstein,

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3 Striegel-Moore, 1984). In a recent nationw ide survey (Garner, 1997) conducted by Psychology Today 56% of women and 43% of men repor ted that they were dissatisfied with their overall physical appearance. Mo re than half of the women (66%) and men (52%) were unhappy with their weight. However, 89% of the women who were dissatisfied with their bodies wanted to lose weight whereas 22% of such men wanted to gain weight. An overwhelming majority of the women and men surveyed (71% and 63%, respectively) were also dissatisfied with a particular area of their body, the abdomens. A comparison of these findings to those of previous large-scale surveys conducted in 1972 and 1985 suggests that body dissatisfaction has dramatically increased at an accelerating rate (Garner, 1997). For instance, in 1972, overall appearance dissatisfaction was reported by 23% of women and 15% of men and as mentioned earlier, in 1997, 56% of women and 43% of men were di ssatisfied with their overall appearance. Although these studies had several methodologic al flaws, such as inadequate sampling procedures, they provide a good indication of how body image changed over the 25-year period. Other large-scale studies using more empirically based procedures (e.g., randomized and stratified sampling procedures) have also demonstrated the extent of body dissatisfaction among women. In a study of 60,681 adults aged 18 to 59, Serdula, et al. (1993) found that 40.4% to 41.7% of the wo men were attempting to lose weight. The percentages were much lower among men (18.7 28.9%). In this same study, 11, 467 high school students in grades 912 were also surveyed. Over 40% of the female students (42.5-45.3%) were trying to lose weight, whic h is significantly greater than the male

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4 students (14.5-16.0%) invested in this goal. It is likely that such weight-loss attempts reflect unhappiness with their current weight (Thompson et al., 1999). There is also mounting evidence that indi cates children are not immune to the body image and weight concerns commonly expr essed by adolescents and adults. Schur, Sanders, and Steiner (2000) found that 52% of the girls and 48% of the boys in grades three through six wanted to lo se weight. They also found th at 42% of the girls and 36% of the boys desired a thinner body shape. Simila r concerns are even expressed by children as young as six years old, with girls showing an increase in body dissatisfaction as they age (Ricciardelli & McCabe, 2000; Gardner, Sorter, & Friedman, 1997; Thelen, Powell, Lawrence, & Kuhnert, 1992; Maloney, McGuire, Daniels, & Specker, 1989). In a study of first through third grade children, Collins (1991) reported that 42% of the girls and 30% of the boys preferred thinner ideal figur es than their current body figures. Davison, Markey, and Birch (2000) found that 21% of 5year-old girls were concerned about their weight. Thus, a preoccupation with body size and shape is clearly present during early childhood, especially for girls. It appear s that by middle childhood, a substantial number of girls have acquired a desire to be thinner and a fear of becoming fat (Rolland, Farnill, &Griffiths, 1997; Shapiro, Newcomb, & Loeb, 1997). This is an issue of concern given th at high levels of body dissatisfaction are associated with numerous health concerns, in cluding eating disturbances, social anxiety, self-consciousness, depression, sexual diffi culties, and poor self-esteem (Pruzinsky, 1990; Thompson, 1990; Streigel-M oore et al., 1986; Ricciardelli & McCabe, 2001). Body dissatisfaction is also recognized as one of the main risk factors for problem eating

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5 attitudes and behaviors (Killen et. al, 1994; Thompson, Coovert, Richards, Johnson, & Cattarin, 1995). Correlational and prosp ective studies have shown that body dissatisfaction is a strong predictor of eati ng disorder symptoms and dieting in teenage girls and female college students (e.g., Br own, Cash, & Lewis, 1989; Attie & BrookesGunn, 1989; Cattarin & Thompson, 1994; Stice, Killen, Hayward, Taylor, 1998). Taken together, these findings suggest that negative body image plays a signi ficant role in the onset of eating disorder sy mptomatology and may lead to poorer psychological functioning. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction in clinical and nonclinical populations has led researchers to offer several explanati ons for the development and maintenance of body image and eating disturbance. Sociocultura l and interpersonal factors, in particular, have received much attention and strong empi rical support. Both of these areas will be reviewed in the following sections. Si nce the current study is primarily based on interpersonal factors, these variables will be further examined in later portions of the paper. Specifically, this st udy involves developing and valid ating a scale to measure the frequency and effect of verbal commen tary regarding physical appearance. Sociocultural Factors According to the sociocultural model of body image and eating disturbance, current societal standards for feminine beauty greatly emphasize the importance of thinness and drive women to achieve a body sh ape that is often una ttainable (Tiggemann & Pickering, 1996). In Western cultures, a thin body shape is commonly portrayed as the beauty ideal for women (Rodin, Silberstei n, & Streigel-Moore, 1984). Thinness has

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6 become associated with attributes that ar e equated with beauty, such as goodness and virtue (Streigel-Moore, S ilberstein, & Rodin, 1986; T hompson, 1990). The what is beautiful is good stereot ype (Dion, Berscheid, & Wals ter, 1972, p. 285) appears to develop during early childhood (Rodin et al., 198 4), a time when positive stereotypes are often assigned to body figures considered physically attractive (K irkpatrick & Sanders, 1978; Grogan, 1999) and negative characteristic s to obese figures (Tiggemann & WilsonBarrett, 1998; Gilbert, 1998; Edelman, 1989). It is likely that Western societys portrayals of thinness and obesity pressure fe males to strive for cultural standards of beauty. This is an important issue given that the ideal female body shape has become thinner over the years while the average woma ns body shape has become larger (Garner, Garfinkel, Schwartz, & Thompson, 1980). A perceived discrepancy between ones body weight and the cultural standard may lead females to believe their weight is unacceptable (Posavac, Posavac, & Posavac, 1998). Some researchers note that most women are overweight in comparison to the ultraslim ideal (Rosen, 1992). Therefore, it appears that Western society promotes a standard of female physical attractiveness that is virtually impossible for any woman to attain and/or ma intain (Heinberg, 1996). A vast amount of research has demonstr ated that mass media, family, and peers play an important role in communicating the th in ideal to females of varying ages. Many researchers recognize mass media as one of the most influential communicators of the ideal body shape for females (Raphael & La cey, 1992; Silberstein, Perdue, Peterson, & Kelley, 1986). The extent to which women are affected by mass media is evident in the results of the Psychology Today survey (Garner, 1997). Twenty-three percent of the

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7 3,452 female respondents indicated that wh en they were young, movie or television celebrities shaped their body image. Similarl y, 22% of the females reported that fashion magazine models influenced their body imag e. Yet the males appeared to be less influenced by movie-television celebrities or fashion magazine models (13% and 6%, respectively). Furthermore, research exam ining teen and womens fashion magazines indicates that such magazines endorse societ al standards promoting thinness and beauty (Thompson & Cusmano, 1997) Proponents of sociocultural theories re garding the development of body image and eating disturbance have ar gued that mass media is only one of many socialization agents, including family and peers, that in teract to endorse id eals of thinness and attractiveness (Levine & Smol ak, 1996). Recent research has focused on the mechanisms by which parents and peers transmit messages concerning the thin ideal and maintain beliefs about the importance of thinness. Th ere is evidence suggesting that parents and peers may directly and/or indirectly foster the thin ideal through teasing or negative verbal commentary and modeling of we ight concerns (Levine & Smolak, 2001; Ricciardelli and McCabe, 2001). Such parent al and peer influences may also make individuals more sensitive to sociocultural pressures for thinness and attractiveness (Thompson, 1999). Thus, it is likely that pare nts and peers accept societal messages regarding the thin ideal and in turn, comm unicate these messages to others via negative appearance-related feedb ack and/or modeling.

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8 Interpersonal Factors Given the high value society places on physical attractiveness, it is not surprising that ones physical appearance influences th e reactions of others and elicits different types of feedback (Rosen, 1992). Accordi ng to Lerners developmental view (1986), social interactions and feedback about ones body during socializa tion are interpersonal factors that shape ones body image (Ler ner & Jovanovic, 1990) The notion that appearance-related feedback has a strong impact on othe rs is well supported (Rieves & Cash, 1996; Schwartz, Phares, TantleffDunn, & Thompson, 1999). Many surveys, correlational studies, and long itudinal studies have shown that negative appearancerelated feedback significantly affects ones body image, eating behavior, and psychological functioning (Cash, 1990; Le rner & Jovanovic, 1990; Cattarin & Thompson, 1994). Such critical incidents may trigger or solidify an individuals misconceptions about their app earance (Rosen, 1992). Teasing, in particular, appears to have the most profound effect. This is ev ident by examining the findings of several large-scale surveys as well as more em pirically-based studies. The 1997 Psychology Today survey mentioned earlier s uggests that appearancerelated feedback strongly influences ones body satisfac tion. Of the 4,000 respondents, 44% of the women and 35% of the men reporte d that being teased by others shaped their body image during childhood and adoles cence. Several of the respondents comments indicate the extent to which thei r body image has been affected by prior appearance-related teasing. For example, a 37-year-old woman wrote, No matter how thin I become, I always feel like the fat kid everyone made fun of (p. 42). A 59-year-old

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9 man said, Being teased when I was a child made me feel bad about my body for years and years (p. 42). The results of this survey also suggest that parental attitudes about their body also influenced their body image wh en they were young. It appears that mothers and fathers attitudes had a greater impact on women (31% and 23%, respectively) than men (13% and 11%, respec tively). A number of the respondents also indicated that their current body image is aff ected by some interpersonal factors. Forty percent of the women and 29% of the men said that their partners opinion about their appearance makes them feel bad about their body. Thirty percent of the women and 19% of the men reported that being around someone critical also makes them feel bad about their body. Using both descriptive and quantitative information, Cash (1995) examined the influence of appearance-rela ted teasing and criticism during childhood and adolescence on womens body image development. The resu lts indicated that 72% of the women had been teased or criticized about their appearance for an average duration of 5.8 years. In terms of frequency, 46% of the women teased or criticized said it had occurred moderately often (26%), often (14%), or very often (6%). The negative effects of being teased or criticized are apparent by the following findings: 71% of the women reported that the experiences were moderately upset ting or more upsetting, 71% said that the experiences had influenced their current body image to some extent, and 70% noted that they think about the past experiences. In a similar study, Rieves and Cash (1996) investigated the influence of several social developmental factors on womens body image. For the present study, the results

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10 concerning the impact of appearance-rela ted teasing and criticism on body image development are of particular interest. Rieves and Cash (1996) found that 72% of women were teased (39%) or criticized (12%) about their appearance, or both (21%), during their childhood or adolescence. Of th e teased/criticized wo men, 55% reported that the teasing/criticism occurred sometimes to moderately often and that the median duration was 6.6 years. Seventy-one percent of these women also reported that such experiences had been moderately to extrem ely upsetting and 38% believed they had a negative impact on their body image developmen t. The face and head and weight were found to be the most frequently teased physic al attributes (45% a nd 36%, respectively). Other targets of recurrent appearance teas ing/criticism were as follows: upper torso (19%), height (17%), clothes/ attire (13%) and lower torso (1 1%). In addition, peers in general were the most common (62%) as we ll as the worst perpetrators (28%) of teasing/criticism about appear ance. Friends (47%) and fam ily members (24%-41%) were also frequent perpetrators. However, of th e respondents with one or more brothers, an overwhelming majority (79%) mentioned brothe rs as teasers and approximately one third said they were the worst perpetrators. Th ese findings have led some researchers to recognize negative appearance-re lated commentary, especially teasing, as an important developmental factor in the forma tion of ones body image (Thompson, 1992). Several studies have also demonstrated the importance of appearance-related feedback in the development of body imag e and eating disturbance (Fabian & Thompson, 1989; Thompson, Fabian, Moulton, & Altabe 1991; Cattarin & Thompson, 1994; Brown, Cash, & Lewis, 1989). Fabian and Thompson (1989) found that the frequency of weight-

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11 size teasing was significantly related to body dissatisfa ction, eating disturbance, depression, and self-esteem in adolescent fema les. Brown et al. (1989) reported that adolescents with an eating disturbance had a greater history of being teased about physical appearance. In a 3-year long itudinal study, Cattarin and Thompson (1994) found that teasing history predicted later body dissatisfaction in adolescent females. The negative impact of appearance -related teasing on body image is also evident in research with adult females. A history of being teas ed during adolescence is strongly related to current levels of body dissatisfaction, eati ng disturbance, and overall psychological functioning (Thompson et al., 1991; Thom pson, 1991; Thompson and Psaltis, 1988; Cash, 1995). Clearly, recurrent teasing during childhood and a dolescence has a lasting, and often, detrimental effect on the individual. Theoretical Explanations Teasing and negative verbal commentary Teasing and criticism are common during childhood and adolescence. In a study of elementary school children, Shapiro, Baumeister, and Kessler (1991) found that the primary focu s of teasing is physical appearance (39%), with wei ght teasing being the most frequently reported specific appearance target (33% of the total). Interest ingly, the girls, regardless of age, were more likely than boys to report being teased a bout some physical attribute (48% vs. 29%). After the appearance-based teasing events, the following teasing c ontent was also cited by the children in decreasing order of frequenc y: intellectual abilities, physical abilities, family, and interest in the opposite sex. In regards to the motives for teasing, reciprocation (teasing as a re sponse to being teased first; 35%), playing or joking

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12 around (Shapiro et. al, 1991, p. 463; 16%), and di sliking the target (12%) were the most common reasons. As one would expect, a majority of the children (97%) reported negative reactions, such as anger, embarrass ment, hurt, and sadness, when they were teased. Of the eighth graders, 78% had a negative response; however, the remaining 22% did not report enjoyment or pleasure. Researchers have developed hypotheses about the motivations of the teaser and the reactions of the target of teasing. Shapiro et al. (1991) proposed that teasing is an expression of status dominance and a mech anism for promoting conformity within groups (p. 459). Children frequently desc ribe teasers as bullies or popular, funny children, which tend to be individuals w ho exhibit dominant status within a group (Shapiro et al., 1991). The notion of a soci al dominance component in teasing is also supported by the finding that ch ildren who frequently get teased are of low status within peer groups, such as fat and unpopular children (Shapiro et al., 1991) In reference to norm deviation and teasing, Shap rio et al. (1991) notes that the teaser may point out the targets nonconformity in an attempt to demonstrate his or her knowledge and support for group norms. Other individuals may participate in join-in teasing (Shapiro et al., 1991, p. 465) and renounce norm deviations. It is likel y that some forms of appearance-related teasing, such as weight teasi ng, are intended to inform the i ndividual of current standards of attractiveness and may even pressure him or her to conform to such standards. Therefore, teasing may be used to express social dominance and/or promote conformity with norms.

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13 The effects of appearance-related te asing and feedback depend on several variables, including ones attr ibution regarding the incide nt and a history of being teased/criticized about one s appearance (Thompson et al., 1999). Those who readily accept negative feedback concerning their physical appearance are likely to have subsequent negative outcomes. For instance, subjective internal attributions, such as I really am fat, may lead to a dysphoric mood (Thompson et al., 1999). This is likely to be more apparent in eating-disordered patie nts with low self-esteem since they tend to selectively recall and believe such negative feedback (Rosen, 1992). Frequent exposure to negative appearance-related feedback (e .g., weight-related teas ing) may also make individuals sensitive to this issue and pr oduce stronger negative responses to future incidents of such feedback (Thomspon, et al ., 1999). In fact, ma ny eating-disordered patients report that their belief that they are physically defective in some way is a result of receiving negative appearance-related f eedback (Rosen, 1992, p. 169). Similarly, body dysmorphic disordered patients recall appearance -related remarks that led to or worsened their preoccupation with thei r appearance defect (Rose n, 1992, p. 169). Nonclinical populations who are dissatisfi ed with their appearance also recall incidents of appearance-related teasing or criticism during their childhood (Cash, 1995; Rieves & Cash, 1995). Such case histories further s uggest that exposure to negative verbal commentary about ones appearance may have an enduring impact on ones body image. Self-objectification Another line of research ha s involved exploring the social construction of the female body. Fredrickson and Roberts (1997) have recently proposed objectification theory as a framework for understanding the experiential consequences

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14 of being female in a culture that sexually objectifies the female body (p. 173). While emphasizing the importance of physical appear ance, this theoretical explanation argues that the feminine body is socially constructe d in Western cultures as an object to be looked at and evaluated. Cons equently, girls and women lear n to view their bodies from an observers perspective and of ten internalize this perspective of their physical self. This process of socializing girl s and women to treat themselves as objects and to adopt an observers perspective on their physical self is referred to as self-obj ectification. It is argued that self-objectifica tion can lead to a habit of self-conscious body monitoring which can negatively affect womens subjec tive experiences. For example, women who engage in habitual body monitoring are likely to experience recurrent shame and anxiety about ones body, fewer peak motivational states and diminished awareness of internal bodily states (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997). An accumulation of these experiences is considered to be an important contributor to three psychological disorders that are most prevalent among women: depression, sexual dy sfunction, and eating disorders. In their discussion of eating disorders, Fredrickson and Roberts (1997) linked girls and womens disturbed eating behaviors and attitudes to the objectificati on of their bodies. Thus, an underlying assumption of the objectification theo ry is that social contexts encouraging womens awareness of actual or potentia l observers perspectives on their bodies predict certain types of nega tive subjective experiences (F redrickson & Roberts, 1997, p. 180). There is evidence of the proposed relati onship between self-objectification and disordered eating. Noll (1996) develope d and validated the Self-Objectification

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15 Questionnaire and reported that women who sc ored high on this measure exhibited higher levels of disordered eating. This relationship between self-o bjectification a nd disordered eating was mediated by experiences of body shame. Similar results were found by McKinley and Hyde (1996) using their Objectified Body Consciousne ss Scale. They reported that body surveillance, a construc t conceptually similar to habitual body monitoring, was related to body shame and that bo th constructs were related to disordered eating. Noll and Fredrickson (1998) found an i ndirect path from self -objectification to disordered eating via body shame in two undergraduate samples. In addition, a direct relationship between self-objec tification and disordered eating was observed. Regarding this latter finding, Noll and Fredrickson (1998) note that anticipated body shame motivates women who self-objectify and are sa tisfied with their weight to engage in disordered eating in an effort to maintain their satisfaction and th ereby avoid the dreaded experience of body shame (p. 633). This hypot hesis coincides with the assumption of objectification theory that even women who ar e satisfied with their physical appearance can experience the negative consequences of self-objectification (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997). Finally, in an experimental study of self-objectification, Fredrickson, Roberts, Noll, Quinn, and Twenge (1998) found that participants who tried on a swimsuit (as opposed to a sweater) experienced increased body shame, which then predicted restrained eating behavior. The strongest support for objectification th eory as proposed by Fredrickson and Roberts (1997) appears to come from a recent study by Tiggemann and Lynch (2001). Unlike previous research in this area, th e study examined both self-objectification and

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16 habitual body monitoring and used a more diverse sample. Consistent with their proposed model, Tiggemann and Lynch (2001) found that self-objec tification leads to habitual monitoring, which in turn leads to increased body shame and appearance anxiety that results in greater disordered eating. This finding supports the work of Noll and Fredrickson (1998) and also indicates that app earance anxiety is an important variable to examine in future research on the proposed model (Tiggemann & Lynch, 2001). Another important contribution of this study was the independent assessment of selfobjectification and habitual body monitoring. The notion that hab itual body monitoring is not a component of self-obj ectification, but rather the result of self -objectification was confirmed. In sum, researchers have concl uded that self-objectification may be a risk factor for eating disorders. Given that self-objectifying females tend to view their bodies from an observers perspective, it is likely that th ey are affected by appearance-r elated feedback to a greater extent. This particular social context makes them aware th at others are evaluating their physical appearance and therefore, reinforces the belief that their bod ies are objects to be looked at and evaluated. The type of appearance-related feedback may also determine how often they engage in body monitoring to ensure they meet cultural body standards. In addition, the degree to whic h self-objectifying females in ternalize appear ance-related feedback may influence the psychologi cal and experiential consequences of objectification (e.g. body shame, appearance anxiety) that they experience.

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17 Measures of Teasing and Appearance-Related Feedback Since the prominent role of teasing in the formation of negative body image became evident, several questionnaires have b een developed to asse ss various aspects of teasing and negative appearance-related f eedback. The Physical Appearance Related Teasing Scale (PARTS) was designed by Thompson et al. (1991) to retrospectively measure the frequency of weight, size, and general appearance-related teasing. This scale has two subscales, the Weight /Size and Nonweight/General Appearance-Related Teasing subscales, which have demonstrated good inte rnal consistency (.91 and .71) and twoweek test-retest reliability (.86 and .87) for a sample of female college undergraduates. Using this scale, Grilo, Wilfley, Brownell, and Rodin (1994) found that frequency of being teased about weight and size while growing up was associated with current evaluation of ones appearan ce and with body dissatisfaction in obese women. In a study using covariance structural modeling, Th ompson, Coovert, Richards, Johnson, and Cattarin (1995) found that teasing history as assessed by the PARTS directly influenced the development of body image and eating dist urbance in adolescent females. Similar findings were replicated in cr oss-cultural studies. Lunner et al. (2000) reported a strong relationship between teasing a nd the development of body imag e problems in a sample of Australian and Swedish adolescent girls. Van den Berg, Wertheim, Thompson, and Paxton (2002) found that teasing histor y was the strongest predictor for body dissatisfaction in a sample of Australian adolescent girls. Nevertheless, the items of the PARTS do not indicate whether the teasing was aimed at a large or small body size and they do not identify the source( s) of the teasing.

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18 These limitations led to development of the Perception of Teasing Scale (POTS), which is a revision and extension of the PARTS. The POTS consists of two subscales, the General Weight and Competency subscales, which allow researchers to examine weight and competency teasing, identify the specifi c source(s) of the t easing, and assess the effect of teasing (Thompson, Cattarin, Fowler, & Fisher, 1995). For a sample of female college undergraduates, the inte rnal consistency for the Gene ral Weight and Competency subscales was .94 and .78, respectively. The Appearance Teasing I nventory (ATI) was developed by Cash (1995a) to obtain both descriptiv e and quantitative information about ones history of appearancerelated teasing and the effects of such teasing. A modified version of the ATI allows respondents to differentiate between recurrent teasing and criticism. They also identify any physical attributes that were the target s of teasing or criticism, its duration, and frequency. These experiences are rated in terms of their past and current emotional effects and salience as well. For instance, respondents are asked, How did this early teasing or criticism affect how you feel now about your appearance? and How often do you think about these past experiences? In addition, respondents indicate the perpetrators and major source of teasing/criticism. Compared to other measures, the ATI provides more detailed information about the frequency of a particular type of feedback (teasing vs. criticism) and its previous or current effect. Researchers have also examined more subtle aspects of negative appearancerelated feedback than teasing. Tantle ff-Dunn, Thompson, and Dunn (1995) expanded the POTS and developed the Feedback on Physi cal Appearance Scale (FOPAS) to measure

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19 the frequency of verbal as well as nonverb al feedback (e.g., facial expressions and gestures) regarding ones physical appearan ce. The FOPAS assesses more indirect feedback whereas the teasing scales assess unambiguous, direct commentary. This scale has an internal consistency of .84 and a two-week test-retest reliability of .82 for a sample of female and male college undergraduates. Tantleff-Dunn et al. (1995) found that negative appearance-related f eedback, including nonverbal fe edback, is associated with higher levels of body image dissa tisfaction, eating disturbance, and lower self-esteem. In a study using both the POTS and FOPAS, Schwar tz et al. (1999) reported that indirect and nonverbal appearance-related feedback occu r more frequently than direct teasing comments. Feedback was also associated with poorer body image for females. Limitations of the Current Resear ch on Appearance-Related Feedback Although the teasing and appearance-related feedback m easures have facilitated research concerning the development of body image and eating disturbance, they have failed to assess positive feedback regarding physical appearance. Very little is known about the effect of positive feedback on one s body image, eating behavior, and general psychological functioning. Heinberg and Thompson (1992) were one of the first researchers to examine the influence of nega tive versus positive f eedback regarding body size on body image disturbance. They found that female college students who were given body size feedback in reference to a pa rticularistic target group (college student peers) as opposed to a universalistic ta rget group (average USA citizen) experienced greater body image anxiety and distress, regard less of the type of feedback (positive versus negative).

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20 In a study more relevant to the present study, Ricciardelli, McCabe, and Banfield (2000) examined the influence of parents, siblings, friends, and the media on body image and body change methods in adolescent boys. They interviewed 20 boys in 7th grade (aged 12-13) and 20 boys in 9th grade (aged 14-15). The boys were asked to respond to most of the questions using a 5-point Likert scale; however, th ey were also encouraged to provide reasons for their answers. The stru ctured interviews covered the following six topics: body satisfaction, body change technique s, impact of family members and friends on body image and body change methods, social comparisons, the media, and importance of each family member, friends, and media. The results indicated that praise and compliments were the most common types of messages given to boys about their body size and shape. Examples of such messa ges are Youve got a good body and Youve got pretty big muscles. Mo thers (25%) and female friends (20%) were also found to provide higher levels of praise than fathers or male friends. Of particular interest were the findings concerning the effects of the appe arance-related feedback, especially positive feedback. Feedback from mothers and female friends appeared to have a positive impact on boys body image whereas feedback from fa thers and males were found to be more influential in affecting boys body change strate gies. It is important to note that positive messages from mothers were strongly relate d to boys satisfaction with body shape and such messages from female friends were str ongly associated with boys satisfaction with muscle tone. Unfortunately, research studies in the area of positive appearance-related commentary have not examined such feedback using an empirically supported

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21 questionnaire. There currently are ma ny unanswered questions, such as Which recipients of positive appearance-related commentary are affected by such feedback? and Can positive feedback actually have a negative impact on some individuals? If so, how? Research suggests that individuals rate d as more physically attractive elicit more attentiveness and social reinforcement (Cash, 19 90). It is likely that positive appearancerelated feedback, especially in the form of verbal commentary, reinforces societys emphasis on physical appearance and offers powerful messages regarding the acceptability of certain physical attributes. Positive verbal comments may induce a selffocus on physical appearance and encourage so me individuals to continue to meet prevailing standards. For females who are c onsidered to be physica lly attractive, this may involve maintaining a slender body shap e by continuing to diet and exercise. Positive feedback about ones appearance may also lead individuals to evaluate their worth in terms of their physical appearance. Positive appearance-related feedback is likely to have a greater impact on selfobjectifying females in particular. As noted ea rlier, this type of feedback may strengthen their belief that the female body is an object to be looked at and evaluated. Also, given that self-objectifying females s eem to view their bodies from an observers perspective, it is likely that their body imag e is strongly influenced by positive appearance-related commentary. Females who self-objectify may have a greater tendency to internalize positive appearance-related comments, allowing such comments to determine their levels of body satisfaction and body shame. It is possible that self-obj ectifying females who receive and value positive appearance-related commen tary experience more body

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22 satisfaction and less body shame. Neverthe less, these body-satisfied females may still experience some negative consequences of se lf-objectification due to their emphasis on physical appearance and perhaps their concern with others evaluati ons of their physical appearance. As suggested by Noll and Fredrickson (1998), in order to avoid experiencing body shame, self-objectifying fe males who are happy with their weight may turn to disordered eating behaviors as a way to continue to mainta in their satisfaction. Thus, a measure of positive appearance-related commentary can prove to be very useful in terms of understanding the effect of such feedback on self-objectifying females and non-self-objectifying females. Given the lack of an empirically valid ated scale of positive appearance-related commentary, a scale was developed to assess positive appearance-related comments as well as other types of appearance-related comm ents. In pilot work, 24 items for the scale were generated by graduate students in the area of body image and eat ing disturbance. These items were intended to reflect a ra nge (negative, ambiguous, and positive) of verbal commentary on physical appearance. An effort was made to develop both weightrelated and overall physical appearance-related comments appropriate for males and females. Eight items were developed for each of the following three domains: Negative, Ambiguous, and Positive. Approximately half of the items on the Negative and Positive subscale represented low levels of the domai n and half represented high levels of the domain. The Negative subscale included commen ts that were perceived as being less negative (Maybe you should consider going on a diet) or extremely negative (That shirt makes you look fat). The Ambiguous subscale included ambiguous comments

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23 (Have you been to the gym lately?), which may be perceived as being negative or positive. The Positive subscale included less positive comments (That outfit looks good on you) and extremely positive comments (You look great. Have you lost weight?). Using a 5-point scale (never, seldom, sometimes, often, alwa ys), participants rated how often they were the recipients of each comme nt. Higher scores indicated more exposure to physical appearance-related commentary. The pilot scale (Appendix A) was administered to a sample of undergraduate students at the University of South Florida, which primarily included Caucasian females of ages 18 to 28 (M = 20.76, SD = 2.54). It ha d a one-week test-retes t reliability of .80 and an internal consistency (Cronbachs alpha) of .81. The test-retest reliabilities for the Negative, Ambiguous, and Positive subscales were adequate. The internal consistencies (Cronbachs alphas) for the Negative, Ambi guous, and Positive subscales were low to high (.87, .62, and .74, respectively). The re sults also indicated that the Ambiguous subscale was significantly correlated with th e Negative subscale (r= .50) and the Positive subscale (r = .39). The Negative subscale wa s not significantly correlated with the Positive subscale (r = -.14), suggesting that the comments included in these subscales were not related in terms of how fr equently they were experienced. Several limitations of the p ilot study indicated the need to further evaluate the original scale. First, the sa mple size was very small. Sec ond, the factorial distinctiveness of the pilot scale was not established. Fact or analysis was not used to determine the factor structure of the pilot scale. Third, correlational an alyses were not conducted to examine the convergent validity of the pilot scale with ot her relevant measures (e.g.,

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24 body image, eating disturbance, and self-esteem). Fourth, the instructions of the pilot scale did not indicate when the physical appearance-related commen ts must have been experienced by the respondents (e .g., within the past two months). It is unclear whether the respondents reported recent exposure to the comments or exposure over the past few years. Fifth, the pilot scale did not assess the effect of the physi cal appearance-related comments. It is important to determine how the respondents interpreted the comments by asking how positively or negatively they experi enced each comment. Thus, a series of studies was conducted to develop and validate th e pilot scale as a measure of three types of physical appearance-related commenta ry: negative, ambiguous, and positive.

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25 Chapter 2. Study 1 The purpose of Study 1 was to improve two particular aspects of the Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale (V COPAS) the instruct ions and content. This study examined whether the responses to the scale differed when the instructions varied as to the time period (two months ve rsus two years) in which the commentary was experienced. The items were also reevaluate d and expanded. Given that the effect of physical appearance-related commentary on females body image and eating disturbances is of primary interest, the revised versi on of the VCOPAS was developed as a scale specifically for females. Also, since the college years is a time period in which body image and eating disturbances are most prev alent among females, the age range of 18 to 25 was used. Methods Participants Participants were 53 undergraduate fema le students drawn from the subject pool at the University of South Florida. Of the entire sample, 45 participants completed the questionnaires in a group setting. The rema ining eight participants attended a focus group session. Data from three part icipants in the group setting were not used because they were older than the age group of interest (18-25). The final sample included a total of 50 female students. The sample for the group setti ng consisted of ages 18 to 25

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26 (M = 20.51, SD = 1.83). These participants were 73% Caucasian, 10% Hispanic, 7% African American, and 5% Asian-Ameri can. Approximately 5% of the sample reported other for their ethnicity. The sample for the focus group also consisted of ages 18 to 25 (M = 20.22, SD = 1.72). These par ticipants were 67% Caucasian and 11% African American. About 22% of this sample indicated other for their ethnicity. All participants received extra credit for a psychology course as compensation for their participation in the study. Measures Demographic Information Participants completed a demographics sheet where they were asked their age, height, weight, race/ethnicity, and student status (see Appendix B). Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale (VCOPAS) This is a 24-item measure that was based on the pilot scale. It assessed the freq uency and effect of physical appearance-related commentary. The participants were as ked to indicate how often they were the recipients of each listed comment using a 5-point scale ranging from never to always Unless the participants responded never to a particular comment, they were also asked to indicate how positively or negatively they experienced each listed comment using a 5-point scale ranging from very positive to very negative They were then asked to list other appear ance-related comments that someone has said to them or any comments they have heard others make. If they were the recipients of the comment, they were asked to rate the comment in te rms of its frequency (using a 5-point scale ranging from never to always ) and effect (using a 5point scale ranging from very positive

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27 to very negative ). Participants completed two versions of the VCOPAS. Both versions consisted of the same items; however, they di ffered in their instructions. In the first version, the past two months was used as the time period in which the commentary must have been experienced whereas in the second version, the past two years was used (see Appendices C and D). Procedures For the first portion of the study, 42 part icipants were administered the two versions of the VCOPAS in a group setting at the end of psychology classes. Informed consent for participation was obtained before the questionnaires were administered. A debriefing form was distributed to the stude nts after they completed the questionnaires (see Appendix E). For the second portion of this study, 8 underg raduate female students participated in a focus group session on physical appear ance-related commentary. Participation involved completing the questionnaires and discussing various types of appearancerelated commentary and the effects of such commentary. The focus group session was videotaped and led by a graduate student a nd research assistant whose research areas were body image and eating disturbance. Informed consent for participation and videotaping was obtained before the que stionnaires were administered. At the beginning of the focus group session, the participants we re provided a brief overview of the present study, with particular emphasis on identifying appearance-related comments that are most prevalent. Tw o versions of the VCOPAS were then administered. After the questionnaires were completed, participants were asked to give

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28 feedback about the wording of the VCOPAS items, the frequency and effect of the VCOPAS items, and the item content of the VC OPAS. Participants were also asked to provide suggestions for additional comments to potentially include in the scale. The following questions were used to prompt a discussion about othe r types of physical appearance-related commentary targeted at females: What do people say to you about your physical appearance?, How does each comment make you feel?, What have you said to others about their physical appearance?, and What types of appearance-related comments have you heard other people say? In addition, participants were asked to provide feedback on the frequency and effect of several physical appearance-relat ed comments listed by participants in this portion of the study. Finally, pa rticipants were asked about the two different types of instructions used. Specificall y, participants ability to remember comments experienced in the past two months versus the past two ye ars was assessed. Differences in the content and frequency of the comments experienced during the two different time periods were also examined. A debriefing form was distri buted to the students after they completed the questionnaires (see Appendix E). Th e group session lasted approximately 45 minutes. Data Analyses Analyses are based on data from the entire sample of undergraduate female students. The distribution of the frequency ratings for both versions (two years and two months) of the VCOPAS were analyzed for normality. For the frequency and effect ratings of both versions of the VCOPAS, the item means and standard deviations for each

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29 VCOPAS subscale were calculated. Items with a mean of one or less and a standard deviation of one or less were classified as having a low frequency of occurrence. The following analyses were conducted only fo r the frequency ratings of the VCOPAS. Internal consistencies (Cronbachs alpha) were computed for each subscale and the total scale. Item-total correlations of each ite m for each subscale and the total scale were computed. The inter-factor corre lations and factor-total corr elations were calculated. The mean, standard deviation, and range for each of the subscales of the VCOPAS and the total scale were computed as well. The additional comments listed by all part icipants at the e nd of both versions were examined qualitatively. The informa tion obtained from the focus group session regarding the VCOPAS was also evaluated qualitatively. Results Quantitative Results In regards to the frequency of exposur e to comments included in the VCOPAS, higher means were found for the two-year version of the VCOPAS than the two-month version. These findings indicated that participants experienced more physical appearance-related comments over the past two years compared to the past two months. The standard deviations were also higher for the two-year version of the VCOPAS, indicating more variability in terms of exposure during this particular time period. For these reasons, a decision was made to use th e two-year version of the VCOPAS to select items for the final scale. The frequency data was found to be fairly normally di stributed for both versions of the Total VCOPAS.

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30 The first part of each item (which assesse d frequency of exposure to a particular comment) from the two-year version of the VCOPAS was examined. Table 1 contains the frequency item means and standard devi ations for each subscale of the two-year version of the VCOPAS. As noted earlier, a 5-point scale ranging from never to always was used. Only a few items had relatively low means ( M < 2) and standard deviations ( SD < 1). Due to low frequency of occurrence, these items were classified as items to potentially eliminate or rephrase for the final scale. The second part of each item (which assessed the effect of a part icular comment) from the twoyear version of the VCOPAS was also evaluated. For this portion of th e questionnaire, a 5-po int scale ranging from very positive to very negative was used. Table 1 contains the effect item means and standard deviations for each subscale of the two-year version of the VCOPAS. These item means and standard deviat ions suggested that particip ants interpretations of the comments were fairly consistent with how th ey were initially categorized (negative, ambiguous, or positive). The internal consistency for the two-year version of the VCOPAS was .82. The corresponding internal consis tencies for the Negative, Ambiguous, and Positive subscales are as follows: .87, .68, and .76. Table 1 contains the item-total correlations of each item for each subscale and the total measure based on the frequency ratings. Table 2 contains the inter-factor correlations and factors-tota l correlations using the frequency ratings. Table 3 contains the mean, standard devi ation, and range for each subscale of the VCOPAS and the total measure based on the frequency ratings.

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31 Table 1 Study 1 Item Means and Standard Deviations Item-Total Correlations (Factors and Total Measure), and Cronbachs Alphas for the Original VCOPAS ___________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Item Frequency Frequenc y Effect Effect Frequency Frequency No. Item Item Item Item Item-Total Item-Total M SD M SD Correlation Correlation (Factor) (Total N = 48) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Negative 1 1.76 1.04 4.00 .86 .76 .52 3 2.04 1.08 4.07 .98 .82 .52 7 1.82 1.19 4.00 .80 .95 .65 10 2.20 .97 3.69 .71 .64 .40 13 1.80 .95 3.83 .64 .76 .59 15 1.48 .79 3.94 .83 .44 .34 21 1.64 1.03 3.88 .89 .82 .60 Frequency Cronbachs Alpha = .87 (N=49) Ambiguous 2 3.12 1.19 2.55 .88 .61 .42 6 2.58 1.11 2.79 1.09 .73 .56 8 3.04 1.14 2.40 1.13 .51 .41 11 2.92 .97 2.30 .74 .60 .60 12 2.28 1.13 3.00 .95 .66 .55 14 3.04 1.14 2.34 .78 .31 .30 17 2.37 1.01 3.51 .69 .16 .23 20 2.60 1.05 2.41 .94 .61 .56 23 1.52 1.15 3.00 1.16 .56 .56 Frequency Cronbachs Alpha = .68 (N=49) Positive 4 3.38 1.12 1.89 1.05 .57 .07 5 2.16 1.17 1.85 .95 .68 .46 9 2.46 1.20 2.03 .85 .49 .34 16 3.34 .80 1.61 .86 .55 .41 18 2.82 1.19 1.86 .93 .59 .62 19 2.62 1.07 1.88 1.09 .77 .28 22 3.30 .79 1.80 .82 .62 .23 24 2.18 1.12 2.10 1.04 .67 .39 Frequency Cronbachs Alpha = .76 (N=50) Total Scale Frequency Cronb achs Alpha = .82 (N=48) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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32 Table 2 Study 1 Inter-subscale Correlations and Subscale-total Scale Correlations ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Negative Ambiguous Positive Total Scale ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Negative 1.00 Ambiguous .61** 1.00 Positive -.09 .31* 1.00 Total Scale .70** .89** .57** 1.0 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note *p<.05. ** p<.01. Table 3 Study 1 Summary Statistics ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Variable n M SD Range ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Negative 49 12.84 5.33 7-27 Ambiguous 49 23.65 5.18 14-34 Positive 50 22.26 5.23 11-36 Total Scale 48 59.04 11.29 36-82 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Qualitative Results Participants in the focus group reported that the wording of the comments was appropriate, the comments were frequently used, and the comments covered a wide range of appearance-related issues. Their interpretations of th e comments coincided with how they were initially categorized. They also mentioned new appearance-related comments that primarily covered the following content area s: weight, skin, hair, eyes, butt, legs, and

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33 clothing. Many of these areas were also c overed by the comments listed in the first portion of the study, which were considered to be prevalent. Based on consensus of the focus group, each of the new comments were categorized as a negative, ambiguous, or positive comment. In addition, a majority of pa rticipants reported that the comments they received over the past two months were simila r to those received over the past two years. In general, their physical appearance had not changed much over the past two years. The few participants who received different commen ts within the past two months noted that more emphasis was placed on their body. For the additional comments listed by all pa rticipants at the end of both versions of the VCOPAS, comments with similar content and interpretation were grouped together. Those comments listed most freque ntly were identified as items to potentially include in the final VCOPAS. The VCOPAS used in Study 2 was based on the findings of Study 1. Most of the original comments were retained whereas othe r comments were changed in terms of their wording. A few comments listed by a majority of the participants were added to the scale.

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34 Chapter 3. Study 2 The purpose of Study 2 was to further de velop and validate the revised Verbal Commentary on Physical App earance Scale (VCOPAS). Method Participants Participants were 342 undergraduate fema le students drawn from the subject pool at the University of South Florida. Data fr om nine of the participants were not used because they were older than the age group of interest (18-25). Data from another nine participants were not used due to failure to complete the measure properly. For example, some of these participants answered all item s of a measure with the same number. Other participants failed to use the scale provide d in the VCOPAS and instead, wrote comments on the VCOPAS about how certain items made them feel. Data from two participants were not used because they did not complete the entire VCOPAS. Data from two participants were not used because they later indicated that they had already completed the measures during a previous administrati on. The final sample included 320 female students. This sample consisted of ages 18 to 25 (M = 20.5, SD = 1.76). These participants were approxim ately 55% Caucasian, 16% Afri can American, 15% Hispanic, and 7% Asian-American. Approximately 8% of the sample reported other for their ethnicity. All participants received extra credit for a psychology course as compensation

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35 for their participation in the study. Measures Demographic Information Participants completed a demographics information sheet where they were asked their age, hei ght, weight, race/ethnicit y, and student status (see Appendix B). Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale (VCOPAS) Based on the results of Study 1, several changes were made to the VCOPAS. This revised version of the VCOPAS was a 37-item measure that asse ssed the frequency and effect of physical appearance-related commentary over the past two years. The participants were asked to indicate how often they were the recipient of each listed comment using a 5-point scale ranging from never to always Unless the participants responded never to a particular comment, they were also asked to indicate how positively or negatively they experienced each listed comment using a 5-point scale ranging from very positive to very negative (Appendix F). Procedures Undergraduate female students were recruited from psychology courses to participate in a study on physical appearance-r elated commentary. The questionnaire was administered to participants in a group setting or during scheduled appointments. Informed consent was obtained before the questionnaire was administered. A debriefing form was distributed to the participants after they completed the questionnaire (Appendix G).

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36 Data Analyses The distribution of the frequency ratings of the VCOPAS was initially analyzed for normality. Initial factor analyses we re conducted on the frequency ratings of the VCOPAS only because effect ratings were not completed for all items (e.g., only for those items wherein a frequency rating other than never was reported). Using SPSS, principal axis exploratory factor analyses with a Promax oblique rotation method were conducted. In addition, current principles of performing exploratory factor analysis were used. Specifically, a comput er program called Comprehensive Exploratory Factor Analysis (CEFA) was used as a cross validation method. CEFA allows for initial estimation of the VCOPAS factor structure, th e assessment of fit, a nd the rotation of the factors. For all explorator y factor analyses in CEFA a Maximum Wishart Likelihood (MWL) estimation procedure and an orthogona l followed by an oblique rotation method was used. The Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) value and the RMSEA confidence interval were used as fit indices. RMSEA was recently recognized by experts in the area of factor analysis as one of the best fit indices (Coovert & Craiger, 2000). This index represents the difference between the model and the data for each degree of freedom for the mode l (Fabrigar et al., 1999). The following guidelines were used to examine the RMSEA fit index: RM SEA estimates less than 0.05 indicate good fit, estimates in the 0.05 to 0.08 range indicate acceptable fit, estimates in the 0.08 to 0.10 range indicate marginal fit, and estimates greater than 0.10 indicate poor fit (Browne & Cudeck, 1992; Steiger, 1989).

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37 Factor analyses were run for two, three, four, and five factor solutions in both SPSS and CEFA. The factor solution used was determined by examining the scree plot, eigenvalues, factor loadings (from the rotated pattern matrix), and cumulative variance accounted for by the model using SPSS. The eigenvalues, factor loadings (from the rotated matrix), and fit indices using CEFA were also evaluated. In addition, theory and ease of interpretation were used to identify th e number of factors. The item means and standard deviations of the 37-item VCOPAS were computed in SPSS and examined as well. Two a priori criteria for item retention ba sed on factor loadings were used. First, items must have a minimum loading of + .40 on the primary factor. Second, items must not load more than + .20 on alternative fact ors. In addition, the item frequency of occurrence (e.g., how frequently the comment was experienced) was taken into account when determining which items should be eliminated. Items with a mean of one or less and a standard deviation of one or less were classified as having a low frequency of occurrence. These items were considered to be potential items to eliminate in subsequent factor analyses. Only the SPSS results for the final model were examined using the above item criteria. Two principal axis factor analyses were conducted in SPSS using a four factor solution and a Promax oblique rotation me thod. The second factor analysis was conducted after items were deleted because of low factor loadings or cross loadings on more than one factor. Another factor analysis was then performed in CEFA using a four factor solution, Conditional Maximum Likelihood as the estimation method, and an

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38 orthogonal followed by an oblique rotation method. Since the number of factors was identified already, Conditional Maximu m Likelihood was preferred over Maximum Wishart Likelihood. The item means and standard deviations were computed for the frequency and effect ratings of the VCOPAS. The followi ng analyses were conducted only using the frequency ratings of the modified VCOPAS. Internal consistencies (Cronbachs alpha) were computed for each subscale and the total scale. The inter-factor correlations and factor-total correlations were computed. Item-total correlations of each item for each subscale and the total scale were calculated. The mean, standard deviation, and range for each of the subscales of the VCOPAS and the total scale were computed as well. Results The factor analyses conducted using both SPSS and CEFA indicated that four factors should be reta ined. Examination of the scree pl ot, eigenvalues, and fit indices as well as theory and ease of interpretation sugge sted that the four f actor solution was the best fit. The eigenvalues for the four factor model were 5.75, 5.33, 1.55, and 1.42, and the cumulative variance accounted for was 37.94%. In regards to the assessment of fit, the fit indices suggested that the four factor model is a good fit for the data. The RMSEA estimate was .054 which indicates acceptable fit according to the guidelines noted above. The lower bound of the RMSEA confidence interval was .049 and the upper bound was .059, suggesting a narrow range in wh ich the true RMSEA value lies. The frequency data of the VCOPAS was found to be fairly normally distributed for the Positive Body subscale, Positive General Appearance subscale, and Total VCOPAS. The frequency data of the VCOPAS was found to be positively skewed for the Negative Ap pearance subscale. Given that the results with and without the identified outliers were very similar, the outliers were not removed for the final analyses. The results presented include the outliers.

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39 Although the original items of the VOCPAS were de veloped to reflect only three types of physical appearance-related comment ary (negative, ambiguous, and positive), it became evident that a four factor structur e was more suitable for the VCOPAS. An interesting finding was that the items initially categorized as ambiguous in terms of their content did not constitute a distin ct factor. Instead, the four f actors seemed to reflect: (a) negative comments regarding ones phys ical appearance, (b ) positive comments related to ones body shape, (c) positive comm ents related to overall physical appearance or non-body related parts, and (d ) comments related to exercise and weight loss. Most of the ambiguous items loaded strongly on factor s other than the one related to negative appearance-related comments. Thus, the four factor solution was chosen. The criteria for item retention were changed in order to retain items that loaded strongly on their primary factor and seemed to be strong in terms of content. The criterion of loading at least .40 on th e primary factor was modified to .35. The criterion of not loading more than .20 on another factor was changed to not lo ading more than .30 on another factor. The results of the factor analysis conducted using a f our factor solution in SPSS were used to determine which items should be eliminated. These results indicated that a few items should be deleted for failure to meet a priori criteria for item retention. Table 4 contains the factor loadings of the 37-item VCOPAS. Tabl e 5 contains the item means and standard deviations of the 37-item VCOP AS. A few items had relatively low means ( M < 2) and standard deviations ( SD < 1).

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40 Table 4 Study 2 Factor Loadings of the Four Fact or Solution for the 37-item VCOPAS ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Item Factor 1 Fact or 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Have you thought about skipping dessert? .1550 -.0300 -.0070 .3970 2. You look so different since I last saw you. .1100 -.2070 .2640 -.3150 3. You have nice legs. -.0060 -.3120 -.2400 -.1470 4. Your outfit looks great on you. -.0430 -.1420 .6000 -.0610 5. Do you like to exercise? -.0030 -.4310 -.1210 .4960 6. You look better with make-up on. .2070 .2160 -.1000 .1980 7. You need to start watching what you eat. .7190 -.1330 .0180 -.1140 8. Have you lost weight? -.1260 -.1360 .0540 .6240 9. You are pretty. -.1200 -.0200 .6960 .0210 10. I wish I had a body like yours. .0320 .7190 .1490 -.1720 11. Thats an interesting outfit. .3480 .4410 .0080 .0110 12. Youve gained weight. .8110 -.0930 .0560 -.2430 13. Would you ever consider cosmetic surgery? .0440 .2030 -.0560 .2390 14. You are in great shape. -.0330 .7770 .0540 .0740 15. You look good since youve lost wei ght. .0550 -.2240 .1240 -.6390 16. Do you dye your hair? .1490 .0530 .0180 .1650 17. Dont you think youve eaten enough already? .5690 .1360 -.1300 .0400 18. Do you want to go to the gym with me? .1190 .1310 .0930 .3220 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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41 Table 4 (continued). ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Item Factor 1 Fact or 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 19. You have a great butt. -.0250 .3070 .2550 .1060 20. Have you thought about becoming a model? .0430 .3360 .3620 -.1040 21. Have you been working out lately? -.0370 .3330 -.0020 .5570 22. You need to do something with your hair. -.4670 .2480 -.2160 .0390 23. Youre looking kind of skinny. .0005 .5560 -.1530 -.0160 24. Your facial skin looks good. .0870 -.0050 .4460 .1240 25. You shouldnt eat so late at night. .5490 .0080 .0880 .0410 26. You have pretty eyes. -.0610 -.0240 .4120 .1300 27. You need to start exerci sing to lose weight. .7360 -.1940 .0150 .1190 28. Thats an interesting hairstyle. -.3200 .3040 .0300 .0220 29. You have nice abs (abdominals). -.0780 .7150 -.0710 .0630 30. Have you considered going on a diet? .6330 -.1210 .0640 .1870 31. You have beautiful smile. -.0340 -.1240 .6200 .1060 32. Your outfit makes you look fat. .6810 .0980 -.0560 .0680 33. I really like how those jean s fit you. .0880 .2380 .4990 -.0400 34. Are you sure you want to eat such fattening foods? .6340 .1420 -.0590 .0540 35. Have you gained weight? .8180 -.0710 .0700 -.2290 36. Your hair looks really good. .0240 -.0710 .5630 -.0310 37. You have a nice body. -.0490 .6280 .3090 -.1280 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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42 Table 5 Study 2 Item Means and Standard Devi ations for the 37-item VCOPAS ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Item Item Item No. M SD ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 2.42 1.35 2 2.99 1.06 3 2.93 1.20 4 3.74 .77 5 2.93 1.14 6 1.71 1.01 7 2.09 1.20 8 2.96 1.06 9 3.81 .83 10 2.68 1.20 11 2.26 1.16 12 2.10 1.07 13 1.52 .85 14 2.64 1.13 15 2.19 1.26 16 2.33 1.32 17 1.79 1.08 18 3.01 1.07 19 3.04 1.34 20 2.32 1.26 21 2.58 1.09 22 1.97 1.06 23 2.09 1.19 24 2.88 1.20 25 2.51 1.29 26 3.59 1.16 27 1.87 1.13 28 1.77 1.09 29 2.01 1.25 30 1.71 1.04 31 3.99 1.01 32 1.56 .83 33 3.16 1.07 34 1.92 1.04 35 2.04 1.03 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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43 Table 5 (continued). ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Item Item Item No. M SD ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 36 3.58 .92 37 3.23 1.07 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Of the original 37 items, seven were deleted. The item that reads You look so different since I last saw you was deleted because it had low factor loadings (ranging from -.207 to .315). It also loaded on more than one factor. The item that reads You have nice legs was deleted due to its low factor loadings (ranging from -.006 to .312). The item that reads You look better with make-up on was deleted because it did not load strongly on any particular factor. It had factor loadings ra nging from -.100 to .216. It also had a low frequency of occurrence ( M = 1.71, SD = 1.01). The item that reads Thats an interesting outfit was deleted because it cross-loaded moderately on two particular factors (.348 and .441). A reexamination of the content of this item also indicated that it does not coincide with the content of the other items. Specifically, it seems to focus more on ones sense of fashi on style than ones physical appearance. The item that reads Would you ever have cosmetic surgery? was deleted due to its low factor loadings (ranging from -.056 to -.239) and low frequency of occurrence ( M = 1.52, SD = .845). The item that reads Do you dye your hair? was deleted because it did not load strongly on a particular f actor. It had factor loadings ranging from .018 to .165. The item that reads Thats an interesting hairstyl e was deleted because it loaded moderately on two particular factors ( .320 and .304). As with the it em that reads Thats an

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44 interesting outfit, this item focuses more on ones sense of fashion style, not ones physical appearance. It also ha d a low frequency of occurrence ( M = 1.77, SD = 1.09). The remaining 30 items included three items that did not meet the criteria for item retention, but were still retain ed because they were frequently reported. The following items loaded on two factors: Do you like to exercise?, You have a great butt, and Have you thought about becoming a model? The item that reads Do you like to exercise? was retained because it appeared to be frequently experienced by participants in this study ( M = 2.93, SD = 1.14). It also assesses the dimension of exercise, which is of particular interest in the context of a ppearance-related feedback. Similarly, the item that reads You have a great butt was retained due to it s frequency of occurrence among the participants ( M = 3.04, SD = 1.34). This item also refers to a particular body part that was not assessed by other items of the VCOP AS. The item that reads Have you thought about becoming a model? was also retained because of its frequency of occurrence among the participants ( M = 2.32, SD = 1.26). Using a four factor solution and a Promax oblique rotation method in SPSS, the subsequent factor analysis on the 30-item scal e led to the deletion of one more item. The item that reads You have a great butt had factor loadings (ranging from -.015 to .269) that were even lower than those on th e first factor analysis (-.025 to .307). This item also continued to load moderately on two particular factors rather than only one. After the item that reads You have a great butt wa s deleted, another factor analysis was conducted on the remaining 29 items. The item that reads Do you want to go to the gym with me? was deleted due to its low factor loading (.33) in comparison to the other

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45 items. It also became apparent that this it em did not primarily focus on the recipient of the comment. Unlike other items in the VC OPAS, it referred to the individual making the comment as well. The factor loadings of the other items ranged from .35 to .82, with 22 of the 28 items having factor loadings over .50. The subsequent factor analysis that was conducted in CEFA using the Conditional Maximum Likelihood estimation method and an orthogonal followed by an oblique rotation indicated that the f our factor model is a good f it. The RMSEA estimate was .060, which indicates acceptable fit. The lo wer bound of the RMSEA confidence interval was .054 and the upper bound was .067, suggesting a narrow range in which the true RMSEA value lies. Given these findings a four factor model was retained. Examination of the item content indicates th at the four factors derived from this 28-item scale reflect the dimensions of: (a ) Negative Appearance, (b) Positive Body, (c) Positive General Appearance, and (d) Exercise and Weight Loss Comme ntary. It became evident that of the items or iginally categorized as ambi guous items, the ones that were retained for the 28-item VCOPAS loaded on th e Exercise and Weight Loss factor. The 28-item scale contains 10 Negative Appear ance items, 5 Positive Body items, 7 Positive General Appearance items, and 3 Exercise a nd Weight Loss items. Three items were not categorized under any of the dimensions because they loaded moderately on two factors. The item that reads Do you like to exercise ? loaded on the Positive Body factor and Exercise and Weight Loss factor (.426 and -.486, respectively). The item that reads Have you thought about becoming a model? loaded similarly on the Positive Body factor and Positive General Appearance fact or (.336 and .362, respectively). Also, the

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46 item that reads Have you been working out la tely? loaded on the Positive Body factor and Exercise Weight Loss factor (.347 and .526, respectively). The scores for these items are only included as part of the total VCOPAS score. Ta ble 6 contains the factor loadings of the 28-item VCOPAS. Table 7 contains the inter-factor correlations and factor-total correlations for this version of the VCOPAS. All factors had significant positive correlations with the total scale. The VCOPAS had an internal consistency of .82. The internal consistencies for each factor of the VCOPAS are as follows: Negative Appearance = .89, Positive Body = .84, Positive General Appearance = .75, and Exercise and Weight Loss = .61. Table 6 Study 2 Factor Loadings of the Four Fact or Solution for the 28-item VCOPAS ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Item Factor 1 Fact or 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Have you thought about skipping dessert? .1680 -.0394 .0235 .3780 2. Your outfit looks great on you. -.0481 .1130 .6220 -.0463 3. Do you like to exercise? -.0433 .4260 -.0859 .4860 4. You need to start watching what you eat? .7180 -.1380 .0384 .0984 5. Have you lost weight? -.0802 -.0903 .0565 .5840 6. You are pretty. -.1250 -.0394 .7070 .0327 7. I wish I had a body like yours. .0651 .7120 .1430 -.1850 8. Youve gained weight. .8130 -.0698 .0359 -.2580 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note Factor 1 = Negative Appearance, Factor 2 = Positive Body, Factor 3 = Positive General Appearance, Factor 4 = Exercise and Weight Loss.

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47 Table 6 (continued). ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Item Factor 1 Fact or 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. You are in great shape. .0185 .8050 .0501 .0927 10. You look good since youve lost weight .0790 -.2100 .1520 .6300 11. Dont you think youve eaten enough already? .6050 .1880 -.1420 .0358 12. Have you thought about becoming a model? .0614 .3360 .3620 -.0969 13. Have you been working out lately? .0224 .3470 .0284 .5260 14. You need to do something with your hair. .4660 .2540 -.2160 .0605 15. Youre looking kind of skinny. .0454 .6030 -.1660 -.0328 16. Your facial skin looks good. .1140 .0182 .4510 .1340 17. You shouldnt eat so late at night. .5490 .0128 .0979 .0358 18. You have pretty eyes. -.0753 -.0955 .4360 .1460 19. You need to start exercisi ng to lose weight. .7300 -.1950 .0325 .1160 20. You have nice abs (abdominals). -.0387 .7150 -.0552 .0677 21. Have you considered going on a diet? .6310 -.1240 .0836 .1860 22. You have a beautiful smile. -.0375 -.1270 .6260 .1280 23. Your outfit makes you look fat. .6740 .0879 -.0523 .0733 24. I really like how those jeans fit you. .0898 .2150 .4780 .0145 25. Are you sure you want to eat such fattening foods? .6500 .1570 -.0593 .0630 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note Factor 1 = Negative Appearance, Fact or 2 = Positive Body, Factor 3 = Positive General Appearance, Factor 4 = Exercise and Weight Loss.

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48 Table 6 (continued). ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Item Factor 1 Fact or 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 26. Have you gained weight? .8160 -.0532 .0578 -.2370 27. Your hair looks really good. .0213 -.0811 .5660 -.0346 28. You have a nice body. -.0135 .6380 .2990 -.1000 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note Factor 1 = Negative Appearance, Factor 2 = Positive Body, Factor 3 = Positive General Appearance, Factor 4 = Exercise and Weight Loss. Table 7 Study 2 Inter-factor Correlations and Factor -total Correlations for the 28-item VCOPAS ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Negative Positive Positive Exercise Total Appearance Body General and Scale Appearance Weight Loss ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Negative Appearance 1.0 Positive Body -.18** 1.0 Positive General Appearance .07 .39** 1.0 Exercise and Weight Loss .38** -.09 .17** 1.0 Total Scale .65** .46** .64** .51** 1.0 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note **p< .01 Table 8 contains the item means and standard deviations and item-total correlations of each item for each subscale a nd the total 28-item VCOPAS based on the frequency ratings. Table 8 also contains th e item means and standard deviations based on the effect ratings. These latter item means and standard deviations suggested that the participants interpretations of the comments were generally consistent with how they

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49 were initially categorized (negative or posit ive). Table 9 contains the mean, standard deviation, and range for each subscale of th e 28-item VCOPAS and the total scale based on the frequency ratings. Table 8 Study 2 Item Means and Standard Deviations Item-Total Correlations (Factors and Total Measure), and Cronbachs Alphas for the 28-item VCOPAS ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Item Frequency Frequenc y Effect Effect Frequency Frequency No. Item Item Item Item Item-Total Item-Total M SD M SD Correlation Correlation (Factor) (Total N = 320) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Negative 4 2.09 1.20 3.97 .93 .81 .49 8 2.10 1.07 4.07 1.05 .74 .38 11 1.70 1.08 3.74 1.03 .63 .44 14 1.97 1.06 3.66 .77 .52 .36 17 2.51 1.29 3.47 .76 .66 .49 19 1.87 1.13 3.79 .85 .82 .47 21 1.71 1.04 3.76 .85 .75 .52 23 1.56 .83 4.18 .86 .71 .49 25 1.92 1.04 3.78 .84 .68 .51 26 2.04 1.03 4.06 1.02 .74 .42 Frequency Cronbachs Alpha = .89 (N=319) Positive Body *3 2.93 1.14 2.50 .93 .31 .46 7 2.68 1.20 1.78 .88 .82 .36 9 2.64 1.13 1.85 .87 .83 .45 *12 2.32 1.26 1.78 .83 .46 .41 *13 2.58 1.09 1.99 .87 .29 .49 15 2.09 1.19 2.77 1.23 .66 .25 20 2.01 1.25 1.75 .86 .78 .32 28 3.23 1.07 1.55 .76 .80 .41 Frequency Cronbachs Alpha = .84 (N=320) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note Astericks indicate the items that loaded on two factors and were only included in the total score (not a subscale score).

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50 Table 8 (continued). ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Item Frequency Frequenc y Effect Effect Frequency Frequency No. Item Item Item Item Item-Total Item-Total M SD M SD Correlation Correlation (Factor) (Total N = 320) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Positive General Appearance 2 3.74 .77 1.42 .70 .66 .39 6 3.81 .83 1.41 .68 .67 .38 *12 2.32 1.26 1.78 .83 .43 .41 16 2.88 1.20 1.69 .82 .63 .49 18 3.59 1.16 1.45 .67 .61 .36 22 3.99 1.01 1.30 .58 .67 .42 24 3.16 1.07 1.70 .77 .65 .47 27 3.58 .92 1.54 .73 .61 .35 Frequency Cronbachs Alpha = .75 (N=319) Exercise and Weight Loss 1 2.42 1.35 3.30 .98 .72 .38 *3 2.93 1.14 2.50 .93 .28 .46 5 2.96 1.06 2.04 1.04 .72 .32 10 2.19 1.26 2.05 .97 .82 .43 *13 2.58 1.09 1.99 .87 .34 .49 Frequency Cronbachs Alpha = .61 (N=320) Frequency Total Scale Cronbachs Alpha = .82 (N=318) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note Astericks indicate the items that loaded on two factors and were only included in the total score (not a subscale score). Table 9 Study 2 Summary Statistics for 28-item VCOPAS ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Variable N M SD Range ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Negative Appearance 319 19.55 7.59 10-46 Positive Body 320 12.66 4.55 5-24 Positive General Appearance 319 24.76 4.47 12-35 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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51 Table 9 (continued). ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Variable N M SD Range ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Exercise and Weight Loss 320 7.57 2.76 3-15 Total Scale 318 72.39 12.86 42-122 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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52 Chapter 4. Study 3 Study 3 was conducted in order to: 1) cros s-validate the final version of the VCOPAS, 2) establish the reliability of the final version of the VCOPAS by administering the scale to a second sample of pa rticipants at a two week interval, and 3) to assess the relationships among the final version of the VCOPAS and other relevant measures (e.g., physical a ppearance-related feedback, body image, self-esteem). Method Participants Participants were 263 undergraduate fema le students drawn from the subject pool at the University of South Florida. Data from five participants were not used because they were older or younger than the age group of interest (18-25). Data from eight participants were not used due to the interruptions that oc curred during the administration of the measures. Data from three participants were not used due to failure to complete all of the measures. Data from another participant were not used because she later indicated that she had already complete d the measures during a previo us administration. The final sample included 246 female students. This sample consisted of ages 18 to 25 (M = 19.56, SD = 1.78). Fifty-five percent of the participants were Caucasian, 26% were African American, 9% were Hispanic, 5% were Asian-American, and 6% identified themselves as other Seventy-seven additional undergradu ate female students were tested

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53 twice over a two-week interval to establish test-retest reliability. Data from seven participants were not used because they ne ver completed the measures during the first administration. Data from nine participants for Time 1 and five participants for Time 2 also were not used because of the interrupti ons that occurred during the administration of the measures. The final second sample incl uded 56 undergraduate female students. This sample also consisted of ages 18 to 25 (M = 19.57, SD = 2.87). Approximately 68% of the participants were Caucasian, 14% were African American, 11% were Hispanic, 5% were Asian-American, and 2% identified themselves as other All participants received extra credit for a psychology course as compensa tion for their participation in the study. Measures Demographic Information Participants completed a demographics sheet where they were asked their age, height, weight, race/ethnicity, and student status (Appendix B). The Final Version of the Verbal Comme ntary on Physical Appearance Scale (VCOPAS) This is a 28-item measure that assess es the frequency and effect of physical appearance-related commentary over the past 2 years. The items for the VCOPAS were based on examinations of previous scales. The participants were as ked to indicate how often they were the recipient of each listed comment using a 5-point scale never to always. Unless the participants responded never to a particular comment, they were also asked to indicate how positively or negatively they experienced each listed comment using a 5-point scale very positive to very negative (see Appendix H). Commentary Interpretation Scale (CIS; Wood, Altabe, & Thompson, 1998) The CIS is a 16-item scale that measures the negativity of the interpretation of ambiguous

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54 statements. It consists of the Appearan ce Comment and General Comment subscales. The Appearance Comment subscale contains ap pearance-related comments. The General Comment subscale consists of non-appearance-r elated comments. Both subscales use a 5-point scale (ranging from very positive to very negative ). The total CIS has a test-retest reliability of .72 for a sample of female college students (see Appendix I). Feedback on Physical Appearance (F OPAS; Tantleff-Dunn, Thompson, & Dunn, 1995) The FOPAS is an 8-item scale that m easures subtle and indirect appearancerelated feedback, includi ng both verbal and nonverbal feedback (Tantleff-Dunn, Thompson, & Dunn, 1995). This scale us es a 5-point scal e (ranging from never to always). It has an alpha of .84 and a two-week te st-retest reliability of .82 for a sample of undergraduate females and males (see Appendix J). Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Evaluation subscale (MBSRQ-AE) and Appearance Orie ntation subscale (MBSRQ-AO; Brown, Cash, & Mikulka, 1990) The MBSRQ-AE is a 7-item questionnaire that assesses the respondents satisfaction with her physical appearance (s ee Appendix K). The MBSRQAO is a 12-item questionnaire that measures the importance the respondent places on appearance and the respondents investment in appearance (see Appendix L). Both subscales use a 5-point scale (ranging from definitely disagree to definitely agree ). They have shown good internal consistencies (alpha = .88 and .85 for the Appearance Evaluation subscale and Orientation subscale, respectively) in a sample of 1,070 women (Brown et al., 1990).

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55 Fear of Negative Appearance Evalua tion (FNAE; Thomas & Thompson, 1998) The FNAE is an 8-item measure that asse sses apprehension about negative appearance evaluation. This measure uses a 5-point scale (ranging from almost true and almost always true ). It has demonstrated high internal consistency (.94) and good convergence with measures of body image, eating disturba nce, and anxiety in a sample of female college students (Thomas & Thompson, 1998) (see Appendix M). Eating Disorders Inventory Body Dissa tisfaction Subscale (EDI-BD; Garner, 1991). The EDI-BD is a 9-item scale that measur es satisfaction with specific body sites, such as waist, hips, thighs, and buttocks. It uses a 6-point scale (ranging from always to never ). This scale has demons trated good internal consiste ncy (alphas above .80) for eating-disordered and non-eating disordered groups (Garner, 1991; Thompson, 1992) (see Appendix N). Self-Objectification Questionnaire (SOQ; Noll & Fredrickson, 1998) The SOQ is a 10-item questionnaire that measures th e extent to which respondents view their bodies in objectified (appearance-based) terms in contrast to non-objectified (competency-based) terms. It consists of the Appearance subscale and Competence subscale. Respondents are asked to rank ten body attributes in order of how important each one is to their physical self-concept. Five of the body attr ibutes are based on physical appearance (physical attractivene ss, weight, sex-appeal, measurements, and firm/sculpted muscles), and the other five are based on physical competence (physical coordination, health, strength, energy leve l, and physical fitn ess level). The body attributes are placed in ascending order from the attri bute having the most impact

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56 (rank = 1) to the attribute having the least impact (rank=12). Th e scores can range from -25 to 25, with positive scores i ndicating a greater emphasis on physical appearance, which is interpre ted as greater self-objectif ication (Noll & Fredrickson, 1998). This questionnaire has demonstrated satisfactory construct validity (Noll, 1996) (see Appendix O). Objectified Body Consciousness Scale Surveillance subscale (OBCS-S) and Body Shame subscale (OBCS-BS; McKinley & Hyde, 1996) The Body Surveillance subscale assesses habitual body monitoring. Th is 8-item scale measures the frequency with which individuals watch their body and th ink of their body in terms of how it looks as opposed to how it feels. It has shown ad equate internal consistency (alpha = .76 to .79) for both young and middle-aged women (see Appendix P). The Body Shame subscale consists of 8 items that measure the extent to which an individual feels shame if she does not meet cultural body st andards. This scale has al so demonstrated adequate internal consistency (alpha = .70 to 84) for both young and middle-aged women (see Appendix Q). Both subscales use a 7-point scale that ranges from strongly agree to strong disagree with a middle point of neither agree or disagree Respondents could also circle NA for an item that does not apply to them. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) The RSES is a 10item measure of global self-esteem that uses a 4-point scale ( ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree ). This scale has adequate test-ret est reliability (.85) and it correlates with peer ratings of self-esteem (Demo, 1985) (see Appendix R).

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57 The Marlow-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS; Crowne & Marlow, 1964) The MCSDS is a 33-item measure of indi viduals approach to selfand socially evaluative situations and the meaning of such situations for them. It uses a true-false response format. This scale that has an alpha of .88 and a one-month test-retest reliability of .88 for a sample of undergradu ate students (see Appendix S). Body Mass Index (BMI) This index is a measure of weight for height. BMI can be calculated using feet, inches, and pounds, or meters, centimeters, and kilograms. For the current study, the body mass index used was the English formula: ratio of weight (in pounds) to squared height (in inches) mu ltiplied by 703. Height and weight were obtained through self-report. Pr evious research suggests that the correlations between actual and reported height and weight is ad equate (.98 and .75, respectively) (BrooksGunn et al., 1987). BMI is often used as a variable in body image and eating disturbance research to account for the effects of body mass. Higher BMI values represent higher levels of body mass (Garrow & Webster, 1985). Procedures Undergraduate female students were recruited from psychology courses to participate in a study on physical appearance-related commentary. The questionnaire packets were administered to participan ts in a group setting or during scheduled appointments. Participants in a second sample completed the VCOP AS again after a two week interval. Informed consent was obtai ned before the questionnaire packets were administered. A debriefing form was distribut ed to the students after they completed the questionnaire packets (see Appendix E).

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58 Data Analyses The following analyses were only conducte d on the frequency ratings of the VCOPAS. The distribution of the data was analyzed for normality. SAS was first used to perform a confirmatory factor analysis on the 28-item VCOPAS for a four factor solution. This confirmatory factor analysis utilized the Maximum Likelihood estimation procedure. The chi-square value, Root M ean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA), and Bentlers Comparative Fit index (CFI) were examined to assess the fit of the four factor model. SPSS was then used to conduct an exploratory factor analysis to crossvalidate the 28-item VCOPAS with a new samp le. Specifically, a principal axis factor analysis, using a Promax oblique rotation me thod, was again performed for a four factor solution. As in Study 2, the scree plot, eigenv alues, factor loadi ngs (from the rotated pattern matrix), and cumulative varian ce accounted for by the model using SPSS were evaluated. Theory and ease of in terpretation were also used to examine the fit of the four factor model. The criteria for item retention were the same as the modified item criteria noted earlier in Study 2 which were as follows : 1) items must have a minimum loading of + .35 on the primary factor and 2) it ems must not load more than + .30 on alternative factors. The inter-factor correlations and factor-tot al correlations were computed for the final VCOPAS using the freque ncy and effect ratings. Item -total correlations of each item for each subscale of the final VCOPAS and the total scale were calculated using the frequency ratings. The item means and standa rd deviations of the final VCOPAS were computed for the frequency and effect ratings The mean, standard deviation, and range

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59 for each VCOPAS subscale and the total scale were calculated for the frequency ratings. The mean, standard deviation, and range for the appearance-related feedback measures, body image disturbance measures, self-objectification measures, self -esteem measure and social desirability measure were computed as well. The frequencies for the OBCS-S and OBCS-BS were also calculated to determ ine the percentage of participants who responded not applicable to at least one item on these scales. In order to provide an estimate of the stability of the final VCOPAS, test-retest reliability was computed for the second sample of females who completed the measure over a two-week interval. Th e frequency ratings were used to examine the test-retest reliability of the final VCOPAS. The followi ng analyses were first conducted using the frequency ratings and then the mean effect ratings. For the VCOPAS subscales and the total scale, the mean effect ratings were co mputed by dividing the total effect ratings by the corresponding number of frequency rati ngs completed. Pearson Product Moment Correlations were computed to examine th e relationship between the final VCOPAS (frequency and effect ratings) and measures of body mass index, physical appearancerelated feedback, body image disturbance, self-objectification, self-e steem, and social desirability. Multiple simultaneous regression analyses were conducted to determine the utility of the final VCOPAS in predic ting current body image disturbance.

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60 Results The confirmatory factor analysis of the 28-item VCOPAS moderately support the four dimensions found in Study 2. Two of the three goodness of fit indices suggested that a four factor model is not a good fit for the data. The was large and significant ( =551.64, p<.0001), indicating the f our-factor model is no t a good fit. The RMSEA value was .0703 which suggests acceptable fit. In addition, Bentlers CFI had a value of .8330. A CFI value that is grea ter than or equal to .95 indicates a good fit between the model and the data (Hu & Bentler, 1999). The exploratory factor analysis that involved cross-validating the 28-item VCOPAS with a new sample replicated the four dimensions found in Study 2. The scree plot and eigenvalues as well as ease of interpretation and th eory suggested a four-factor solution for the final VCOPAS. The eigenva lues for the four factor model were 5.30, 4.00, 1.47, and 1.06, and the cumulative variance accounted for was 44.2%. Examination of the factor loadings indicated that the items continued to meet criteria for item retention, with the excepti on of two items. Table 10 contains the factor loadings for the 28-item VCOPAS. The item that reads Have you lost weight? still loaded primarily on the Exerci se and Weight Loss factor. However, it was deleted because it did not load strongly on that particul ar factor (factor loading = .225). It had factor loadings ranging from -.118 to .225. The el imination of this item led the Exercise The frequency data was found to be fairly normally distributed for the Positive Body subscale, Exercise and Weight Loss subscale, and the Total VCOPAS. The frequency data for the Positive General Appearance subscale was slightly negatively skewed. The frequency data was found to be slightly positively skewed for the Negative Appearance subscale. Given that the results with and without the identified outliers were very similar, the outliers were not removed for the final analyses. The following results presented include the outliers identified by SPSS.

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61 and Weight Loss factor to consist of only two items. The two items are as follows: Do you like to exercise? and Have you been working out lately? Given that both items focus on exercise, the Exercise and Weight Loss factor was renamed Exercise factor. The item that reads You look good since you lost weight was also deleted. Unlike other items of the VCOPAS, it loaded moderately on two factors, the Negative factor and Exercise and Weight Loss factor (.283 and .334, resp ectively). All of the other items loaded strongly on only one factor. In addition, the pattern of factor loadings found in Study 2 was very similar to those found in Study 3. Items had moderate to strong loadings on the same factors and several items had stronger factor loadings. Also, the item that reads Have you thought about skippi ng dessert? loaded on the Exercise and Weight Loss factor in Study 2 (factor loading = .378). However, in Study 3, this item loaded on the Negative Appearan ce factor (factor loading = 465). Since the content of this item is not related to exercising, it was reassigned to the Negative Appearance factor. In addition, the three items that cross-load ed on two factors in Study 2 and were not assigned to a particular factor load ed strongly on one factor in Study 3.

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62 Table 10 Study 3 Factor Loadings of the Four Fact or Solution for the 28-item VCOPAS ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Item Factor 1 Fact or 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Have you thought about skippi ng dessert? .4650 -.0870 .0490 .1810 2. Your outfit looks great on you. -.0820 .5150 .1940 .0250 3. Do you like to exercise? .0070 -.0370 .1280 .5740 4. You need to start watching what you eat? .7140 .0630 -.1520 .0880 5. Have you lost weight? .0930 .0990 -.1180 .2250 6. You are pretty? -.1420 .6910 .0740 -.0007 7. I wish I had a body like yours. .1660 .0130 .4800 -.0120 8. Youve gained weight. .7920 .1050 .0390 -.2630 9. You are in great shape. -.0300 -.0040 .5530 .3570 10. You look good since youve lost weight. .2830 .1480 -.1580 .3340 11. Dont you think youve eaten enough already? .5910 -.0340 .1560 -.0350 12. Have you thought about becoming a model? .0380 .0770 .6180 -.0970 13. Have you been working out lately? .0060 .0460 .0030 .7730 14. You need to do something with your hair. .5340 -.2190 .2690 .0590 15. Youre looking kind of skinny. .0100 -.2140 .6100 -.0870 16. Your facial skin looks good. -.0170 .4250 .0240 .2410 17. You shouldnt eat so late at night. .5010 .0010 .0370 .0350 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note Factor 1 = Negative Appearance, Factor 2 = Positive Body, Factor 3 = Positive General Appearance, Factor 4 = Exercise and Weight Loss.

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63 Table 10 (continued). ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Item Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 18. You have pretty eyes. -.0070 .5160 -.1560 -.0580 19. You need to start exerci sing to lose weight. .7730 .0000 -.2010 .0430 20. You have nice abs (abdominals). .0270 -.0390 .6380 .2500 21. Have you considered going on a diet? .7090 .0006 -.2190 .1470 22. You have a beautiful smile. .0640 .6460 .0190 .0180 23. Your outfit makes you look fat. .7220 -.0250 .0100 .0770 24. I really like how those j eans fit you. .1370 .5090 .1640 .0960 25. Are you sure you want to eat such fattening foods? .5970 -.0880 .1650 .0640 26. Have you gained weight? .7740 .0620 .1520 -.2540 27. Your hair looks really good. -.0570 .6860 -.1580 .0100 28. You have a nice body. .0310 .3670 .5700 -.1150 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note Factor 1 = Negative Appearance, Fact or 2 = Positive Body, Factor 3 = Positive General Appearance, Factor 4 = Exercise and Weight Loss. After the two items noted above were de leted, a four factor solution was run on the remaining 26 items using SPSS and all items replicated. All items in the final VCOPAS were categorized unde r one of the four identif ied dimensions. Table 11 contains the factor loadings for the 26-ite m VCOPAS. The factor loadings ranged from .43 to .85. The eigenvalues for the four factor model were 5.03, 3.98, 1.47, and 1.02 and the cumulative variance accounted for was 44.26%.

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64 Table 11 Study 3 Factor Loadings of the Four Fact or Solution for the 26-item VCOPAS ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Item Factor 1 F actor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Have you thought about skippi ng dessert? .4680 -.0720 .0190 .2000 2. Your outfit looks great on you. -.0710 .5100 .2180 -.0170 3. Do you like to exercise? .0390 -.0100 .1070 .5450 4. You need to start watching what you eat? .7240 .0740 -.1460 .0570 6. You are pretty. -.1320 .6900 .0830 -.0270 7. I wish I had a body like yours. .1420 .0150 .4370 .0450 8. Youve gained weight. .7690 .1050 .0270 -.2400 9. You are in great shape. -.0270 .0080 .5160 .3830 11. Dont you think youve eaten enough already? .5770 -.0280 .1350 -.0140 12. Have you thought about becoming a model? .0150 .0670 .6130 -.0810 13. Have you been working out lately? .0320 .0740 -.0750 .8450 14. You need to do something with your hair. .5370 -.2190 .2900 .0220 15. Youre looking kind of skinny. -.0060 -.2320 .6340 -.0980 16. Your facial skin looks good. .0010 .4310 .0160 .2260 17. You shouldnt eat so late at night. .4950 .0080 .0130 .0570 18. You have pretty eyes. .0001 .5130 -.1450 -.0750 19. You need to start exercisi ng to lose weight. .7790 -.0150 -.2140 .0400 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note Factor 1 = Negative Appearance, Factor 2 = Positive Body, Factor 3 = Positive General Appearance, Factor 4 = Exercise.

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65 Table 11 (continued). ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Item Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 20. You have nice abs (abdominals). .0320 -.0370 .6470 .2180 21. Have you considered going on a diet? .7230 .0240 -.2280 .1290 22. You have a beautiful smile. .0690 .6530 .0030 .0250 23. Your outfit makes you look fat. .7270 -.0170 .0180 .0440 24. I really like how those j eans fit you. .1420 .5170 .1450 .1020 25. Are you sure you want to eat such fattening foods? .5900 -.0780 .1370 .0890 26. Have you gained weight? .7520 .0590 .1490 -.2420 27. Your hair looks really good. -.0570 .6980 -.1910 .0370 28. You have a nice body. .0140 .3570 .5720 -.1110 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note Factor 1 = Negative Appearance, Fact or 2 = Positive Body, Factor 3 = Positive General Appearance, Factor 4 = Exercise. In order to determine whether the four fact or model is a better fit for the 26-item VCOPAS, a second confirmatory factor analys is was conducted. However, as for the 28item VCOPAS, two of the three fit indices sugg ested that a four factor model is not a good fit for the data. The was large and significant ( =474.16, p<.0001), indicating poor fit. The RMSEA was .0712, which suggests an acceptable fit. In contrast, Bentlers CFI value was .8496, which does not indicate a good fit. Nevertheless, based on the findings of the second explorat ory factor analysis, ease of interpretation, and theory, the four factor model was still retained.

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66 The final VCOPAS consists of 26 items. This scale contains 11 Negative Appearance items, 6 Positive Body items, 7 Positive General Appearance items, and 2 Exercise items. Table 12 contains the inte r-factor and factor-total correlations for the final VCOPAS using the frequency and effect ratings of this scale. The Exercise frequency subscale was correlated with the Positive Body (r= .30) and Positive General Appearance (r=.31) frequency subscales. Si milarly, the Exercise effect subscale was correlated with the Positive Body (r= .36) and Positive General Appearance (r=.25) effect subscales. The Positive Body and Positive General Appearance frequency subscales and the Positive Body and Positive General Appear ance effect subscales were correlated (r= .36 and .64 respectively). The Total frequency scale was significantly correlated with all of the VCOPAS frequency subscales (r= .47 to .75). The Total effect scale was also significantly correlated with all of the VCOPAS effect subscales (r= .50 to .68). The Negative Appearance frequency subscale was co rrelated with the Negative Appearance, Positive Body, and Positive General effect subscales as well as the Total effect scale (r=.20 to .54). There were also correlat ions between the Positive Body frequency subscale and the Negative Appearance, Positiv e Body, and Exercise effect subscales in addition to the Total effect scale (r= .24 to -.29). The Positive General frequency subscale was correlated with the Positive General effect subscale (r=-.30) and the Total effect scale (r= -.27). The Exercise frequenc y subscale was correlated with the Exercise effect subscale (r=-.46).

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67 Table 12 Study 3 Inter-factor and Factor-total Correlations for the Fina l VCOPAS (Using the Frequency Ratings and Effect Ratin gs of the Final VCOPAS) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ NAF PBF PGAF EXF TOTF NAE PBE PGAE EXE TOTE ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ NAF 1.00 PBF -.09 1.00 PGAF .09 .36** 1.00 EXF .17** .30** .31** 1.00 TOTF .75** .47** .60** .49** 1.00 NAE .20** -.24** -.18** -.15* -.04 1.00 PBE .34** -.26** -.10 -.04 .13 -.05 1.00 PGAE .24** -.10 -.30** .04 .04 -.04 .64** 1.00 EXE .14* -.26** -.17** -.46** -.12 .27** .36** .25** 1.00 TOTE .54** -.29** -.27** -.05 .18* .54** .68** .66** .50** 1.00 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note Ns range from 220-241. NAF = VCOP AS Negative Appearance Frequency Subscale, PBF = VCOPAS Positive Body Frequency Subscale; PGAF = VCOPAS Positive General Appearance Frequency Subscale; EXF = VCOPAS Exercise Frequency Subscale; TOTF = VCOPAS Total Frequency Scale; NAE = VCOPAS Negative Appearance Effect Subscale, PBE = VCOPAS Positive Body Effect Subscale; PGAE = VCOPAS Positive General Appearance Effect Subscale; EXE = VCOPAS Exercise Effect Subscale; TOTE = VCOPAS Total Effect Scale *p<.05. **p<.01.

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68 Table 13 contains the item means and standard deviations and item-total correlations of each item for each subscale as well as the total scale based on the frequency ratings. These item means and standa rd deviations indicat ed that the Positive General Appearance subscale comments were the comments most experienced by the current sample of females. Table 13 al so contains the item means and standard deviations based on the effect ratings. These latter item means and standard deviations indicate that participants interpretations of the comments were generally consistent with how they were categorized (negative and positive). Table 13 Study 3 Item Means and Standard Deviations Item-Total Correlations (Factors and Total Measure), and Cronbachs Alphas for the Final VCOPAS ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Item Frequency Frequenc y Effect Effect Frequency Frequency No. Item Item Item Item Item-Total Item-Total M SD M SD Correlation Correlation (Factor) (N=241) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Negative 1 2.64 1.36 3.07 .82 .58 .48 4 2.74 1.39 3.58 1.12 .79 .58 8 2.51 1.15 3.89 1.12 .74 .53 11 2.22 1.23 3.71 .88 .63 .51 14 2.56 1.19 3.48 .86 .53 .42 17 2.85 1.25 3.31 .75 .58 .46 19 2.72 1.35 3.52 1.01 .82 .53 21 2.28 1.47 3.60 1.03 .80 .55 23 1.88 1.00 3.91 .96 .74 .56 25 2.28 1.15 3.56 .83 .63 .52 26 2.34 1.15 3.76 1.08 .71 .54 Frequency Cronbachs Alpha = .89 (N = 244) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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69 Table 13 (continued). ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Item Frequency Frequenc y Effect Effect Frequency Frequency No. Item Item Item Item Item-Total Item-Total M SD M SD Correlation Correlation (Factor) (N=241) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Positive Body 7 2.83 1.22 2.28 1.25 .62 .36 9 2.80 1.05 2.18 1.04 .71 .40 12 2.33 1.20 2.00 .93 .69 .28 15 2.11 1.19 2.96 1.14 .63 .11 20 1.95 1.16 2.11 1.05 .73 .39 28 3.00 1.06 1.77 .97 .69 .39 Frequency Cronbachs Alpha = .76 (N = 243) Positive General Appearance 2 3.50 .85 1.87 1.02 .63 .34 6 3.69 .92 1.76 1.02 .72 .35 16 3.02 1.20 1.93 .97 .66 .44 18 3.61 1.15 1.67 .84 .58 .27 22 3.80 1.12 1.56 .88 .73 .49 24 3.32 .98 1.82 .83 .68 .54 27 3.46 .87 1.69 .86 .66 .35 Frequency Cronbachs Alpha = .78 (N = 245) Exercise 3 3.23 .98 2.56 .90 .85 .37 13 2.84 1.10 2.30 .94 .88 .47 Frequency Cronbachs Alpha = .66 (N = 245) Frequency Total Scale Cronbachs Alpha = .82 (N=241) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table 14 contains the means, standard deviations, and ranges for the final VCOPAS subscales and total final VCOPAS based on the frequency ratings. The means for the frequency ratings of the final VC OPAS factors are as follows: Negative Appearance = 26.55 (9.44), Positive Body = 15.07 (4.66), Positive General Appearance =

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70 24.42 (4.71), and Exercise = 6.07 (1.81). Table 14 also contains the means, standard deviations, and ranges for the body mass inde x, physical appearan ce-related feedback measures, body image disturbance measures, self-objectification me asures, self-esteem measure, and social desirability measure. The mean for the EDI-BD (30.88) is within the nonclinical range for females ag ed 18-25 (Garner, 1991). It should also be noted that means for the SOQ, OBCS-S, and OBCS-BS sugg est that this sample of females was not high in terms of self-objectification. The SOQ mean (-1.49) was low and negative, indicating a relatively greater emphasis on body competence among the females. As previously mentioned, the SOQ scores can range from -25 to 25, with positive scores reflecting a greater emphasis on physical appearance (Noll & Fredrickson, 1998). Data from nine of the participan ts on the SOQ were not used because this measure was not completed properly. The means for OBCS-S (35.85) and OBCS-BS (29.19) indicate that these females had moderate levels of body surveillance and body shame. For the OBCS-S and OBCS-BS, scores can range from 8 to 56, with higher scores reflecting less endorsement of body surveillance behavior s and feeling of body shame (McKinley & Hyde, 1996). Also, less than approximately two percent of the pa rticipants responded not applicable to at least one item on the OBCS-S. Nineteen percent of the participants responded not applicable to at least one item on the OBCS-BS.

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71 Table 14 Study 3 Summary Statistics ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Variable N M SD Range ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ NEF 244 26.55 9.44 11-50 PBF 243 15.07 4.66 6-27 PGAF 245 24.42 4.71 7-35 EXF 245 6.07 1.81 2-10 TOT 241 72.10 12.94 28-105 BMI 246 23.03 4.37 16.22-44.30 CISA 244 25.02 3.63 11-36 CISG 243 25.63 3.72 13-39 CISTO 242 50.62 6.54 25-75 FOPAS 244 16.39 6.26 8-40 MBSRAE 244 24.45 6.03 8-35 MBSRAO 243 43.18 7.66 16-60 FNAE 245 24.90 6.43 9-40 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note NAF = VCOPAS Negative Appearance Frequency Subscale, PBF = VCOPAS Positive Body Frequency Subscale; PGAF = VCOPAS Positive General Appearance Frequency Subscale; EXF = VCOPAS Exerci se Frequency Subscale; TOTF = VCOPAS Frequency Total; BMI = Body Mass Index; CISA = Commentary Interpretation ScaleAppearance Comment Subscale; CISG = Co mmentary Interpretation Scale-General Comment Subscale; CISTO = Commentary In terpretation Scale; FOPAS = Feedback on Physical Appearance Scale; MBSRAE = Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Evaluation Subs cale; MBSQAO = Multidimensional Body Self-Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Or ientation Subscale; FNAE = Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluation.

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72 Table 14 (continued). ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Variable N M SD Range ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ EDIBD 243 30.88 9.80 9-54 SOAP 236 21.75 6.95 10-35 SOCO 236 23.25 6.94 10-35 SOTOT 237 -1.49 13.86 -25-25 OBCS 242 35.85 8.53 12-56 OBCBS 197 29.19 10.30 8-55 RSES 241 17.01 5.33 10-35 MCSDS 205 49.60 4.95 38-61 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note EDIBD= Eating Disorders Invent ory-Body Dissatisfaction Subscale; SOAP = Self-Objectification Questionnair e-Appearance Subscal e; SOCO = SelfObjectification Questionnaire-Competence Subscale; SOTOT = Se lf-Objectification Questionnaire; OBCS = Objectified Body C onsciousness Scale-Surveillance Subscale; OBCBS = Objectified Body Consciousness Scale-Body Shame Subscale; RSES = Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; MCSDS = Marl ow-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. The following results are based on the frequency ratings of the final VCOPAS. The final VCOPAS scale had an internal cons istency of .82. The in ternal consistencies for each subscale are as follows: Nega tive Appearance = .89, Positive Body = .76, Positive General Appearance = .78, and Exercise = .66. Of the entire sample used to examine test-retest reliability of the VCOPAS 56 participants completed the full battery of measures. Four participants complete d the VCOPAS but not the full battery of measures. The total VCOPAS had a test-retest reliability of .76 (N= 53). The test-retest reliability for each subscale was as follows: Negative Appearance = .81 (N=56), Positive

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73 Body = .91 (N=56), Positive General Appear ance = .87 (N=55), and Exercise = .81 (N=56). The first set of co rrelational analyses was conducte d using the frequency ratings of the final VCOPAS. Table 15 contains the correlations among the VCOPAS frequency subscales, VCOPAS frequency total, body mass index, feedback measures, body image disturbance measures, self-objectification m easures, self-esteem measure, and social desirability measure. Since social desirabil ity was not significantly correlated with the final VCOPAS, the influence of social de sirability was not part ialled out of the correlation between the final VCOPAS and ot her measures. There was a significant degree of association betw een a number of the VCOPAS frequency subscales and measures of body mass index, physical a ppearance-related feedback, body image disturbance, self-objectification, self-e steem, and social desirability. The correlation between the Negative A ppearance frequency subscale and Body Mass Index was .39. The Positive Body frequency subscale and Body Mass Index had a correlation of -.49. The correlations betw een the Negative Appearance frequency subscale and the Feedback on Physical Appear ance Scale, Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Eval uation subscale, and Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluation Scale ranged from -.32 to .53. The correlations ranged from .21 to .42 for the Negative frequency Appearance subscale and the Eating Disorder Inventory Body Dissatisfaction subscale, Objectified Body Consciousness Scale Surveillance subscale, Objectified Body Consciousne ss Scale Body Shame subscale, and Rosenbergs Self-Esteem Scale. The correl ations between the Positive Body frequency

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74 subscale and the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Evaluation subscale and Eating Disorder Inventory Body Di ssatisfaction subscale were .53 and -.45, respectively. The correlations between the Positive General Appearance frequency subscale and the Commentary In terpretation Scale Appearance Comment subscale, Commentary Interpretation Scale General Comment subscale, Commentary Interpretation Scale ranged from -.20 to -.24. The correlations ranged from -.27 to .39 for the Positive General Appearance frequenc y subscale and the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Eval uation subscale, Multid imensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Orienta tion subscale, Eating Disorder Inventory Body Dissatisfaction subscale, and Rosenbergs Self-Esteem Scale. The correlations between the Exercise frequency subscale a nd the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Evaluation subscale and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Orientation subscale were .19 and .21, respectively. The VCOPAS frequency to tal and the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Orient ation subscale had a correlation of .26 The correlation between the VCOPAS frequency total and the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale-Body Shame Subscale was .19.

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75 Table 15 Study 3 Correlations Among Final VCOPAS an d Other Measures (Using the Frequency Ratings of the Final VCOPAS) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ NAF PBF PGAF EXF TOTF BMI CISA CISC CISTO FOPAS ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ NAF 1.00 PBF -.09 1.00 PGAF .09 .36** 1.00 EXF .17** .30** .31** 1.00 TOTF .75** .47** .60** .49** 1.00 BMI .39** -.49** .01 -.03 .10 1.00 CISA .08 -.10 -.20** -.12 -.08 .08 1.00 CISG .00 -.02 -.22** -.15* -.11 -.04 .58** 1.00 CISTO .04 -.06 -.24** -.15* -.11 .02 .89** .89** 1.00 FOPAS .53** -.15* -.03 -.02 .32 .41** .14* -.02 .06 1.00 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note Ns range from 237-245. NAF = VC OPAS Negative Appearance Frequency Subscale, PBF = VCOPAS Positive Body Frequency Subscale; PGAF = VCOPAS Positive General Appearance Frequency Subscale; EXF = VCOPAS Frequency Exercise Subscale; TOTF = VCOPAS Frequency To tal; BMI = Body Mass Index; CISA = Commentary Interpretation Scale-Appearance Comment Subscale; CISG = Commentary Interpretation Scale-General Comment Subscale; CISTO = Commentary Interpretation Scale; FOPAS = Feedback on Physical Appearance Scale. *p<.05. **p<.01.

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76 Table 15 (continued). ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ NAF PBF PGAF EXF TOTF MBSAE MBSAO FNAE ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ NAF 1.00 PBF -.09 1.00 PGAF .09 .36** 1.00 EXF .17** .30** .31** 1.00 TOTF .75** .47** .60** .49** 1.00 MBSRAE -.32** .53** .39** .19** .13* 1.00 MBSRAO .10 .15* .27** .21** .26** .03 1.00 FNAE .20** -.08 -.12 .04 .08 -.45** .47** 1.00 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note Ns range from 238-245. NAF = VC OPAS Negative Appearance Frequency Subscale, PBF = VCOPAS Positive Body Frequency Subscale; PGAF = VCOPAS Positive General Appearance Frequency Subscale; EXF = VCOPAS Frequency Exercise Subscale; TOTF = VCOPAS Frequency To tal; MSAE = Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Evaluation Subscale; MBSAO = Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Orientation Subscale; FNAE = Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluation. *p<.05. **p<.01.

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77 Table 15 (continued). ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ NAF PBF PGAF EXF TOTF EDIBD SO AP SOCO SOQTO ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ NAF 1.00 PBF -.09 1.00 PGAF .09 .36** 1.00 EXF .17** .30** .31** 1.00 TOTF .75** .47** .60** .49** 1.00 EDIBD .42** -.45** -.25** -.11 .04 1.00 SOAP .12 .00 -.01 -.02 .06 .24** 1.00 SOCO -.12 .00 .01 .02 -.06 -.24** -1.00** 1.00 SOTO .12 .00 -.01 -.02 .06 .24** 1.00** -1.00 1.00 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note Ns range from 234-242. NAF = VC OPAS Negative Appearance Frequency Subscale, PBF = VCOPAS Positive Body Frequency Subscale; PGAF = VCOPAS Positive General Appearance Frequency Subscale; EXF = VCOPAS Frequency Exercise Subscale; TOTF = VCOPAS Frequency To tal; Eating Disorders Inventory-Body Dissatisfaction Subscale; SOAP = Self-O bjectification Questionnaire-Appearance Subscale; SOCO = Self-Objectification Qu estionnaire-Competence Subscale; SOTO = Self-Objectification Questionnaire. *p<.05. **p<.01.

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78 Table 15 (continued). ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ NAF PBF PGAF EXF TOTF OBCS OBCBS RSES MCSDS ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ NAF 1.00 PBF -.09 1.00 PGAF .09 .36** 1.00 EXF .17** .30** .31** 1.00 TOTF .75** .47** .60** .49** 1.00 OBCS .21** -.08 -.07 .02 .10 1.00 OBCBS .34** -.12 -.08 -.13 .19** .47 1.00 RSES .22** -.18** -.27** -.13* -.03 .25** .41** 1.00 MCSDS -.11 .11 .07 .07 .00 -.21** -.14 -.31** 1.00 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note Ns range from 201-240. NAF = VC OPAS Negative Appearance Frequency Subscale, PBF = VCOPAS Positive Body Frequency Subscale; PGAF = VCOPAS Positive General Appearance Frequency Subscale; EXF = VCOPAS Frequency Exercise Subscale; TOTF = VCOPAS Frequency Total; OBCS = Objectified Body Consciousness Scale-Surveillance Subscale; OBCBS = Objectified Body Consciousness Scale-Body Shame Subscale; RSES = Rosenberg Self -Esteem Scale; MCSDS = Marlow-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. *p<.05. **p<.01. The second set of correlati onal analyses was conducted us ing the effect ratings of the VCOPAS. Table 16 contains the correla tions among the VCOPAS effect subscales, VCOPAS effect total, body mass index, f eedback measures, body image disturbance measures, self-objectification measures, self -esteem measure, and social desirability measure. Given that social desirability was not strongly correl ated with the final VCOPAS, the influence of social desirability was not partialled out of the correlation

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79 between the final VCOPAS and other measures. A significant degree of association was found between a number of VCOPAS effect subscales and measures of body mass index, physical appearance-related feedback, body imag e disturbance, selfobjectification, selfesteem, and social desirability. The Positive effect subscale and Body Mass Index had a correlation of .21. The correlation between the VCOPAS effect total and Body Mass Index was .31. The correlations between the Negative Appearance effect subscale and the Commentary Interpretation Scale Appearance Comment subscale, Commentary Interpretation Scale General Comment subscale, Commentary Interpretation Total, and the Feedback on Physical Appearance Scale ranged from .25 to .34. The correlations ranged from -.37 to .48 for the Negative Appearance effect subscale and Multidim ensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Evaluatio n subscale, Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluation Scale, and the Eating Disorder Inventory Body Dissatisfaction subscale. The correlations between the Negative A ppearance effect subscale and the SelfObjectification Questionnaire-Appearance subscale, Self-Objectification QuestionnaireCompetence subscale, Self-Objectifica tion Questionnaire, Objectified Body Consciousness Scale Surveillance subscale, Objectified Body Consciousness Scale Body Shame subscale, and Rosenbergs Self-E steem Scale ranged from -.28 to .39. The correlations between the Positive Body effect subscale and the Multidimensional BodySelf Relations Questionnaire Appearance Evaluation subscale and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Or ientation subscale were -.28 and -.21, respectively. The correlations ranged fr om -.30 to .22 for the Positive Body effect

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80 subscale and the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Evaluation subscale, Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Orientation subscale, Eating Disorder Inventory Body Dissatisfa ction subscale, and Rosenbergs Self-Esteem Scale. The correla tions between the Exercise effect subscale and the Multidimensional Body-Self Relatio ns Questionnaire Appearance Evaluation subscale and Eating Disorder Inventory Body Dissatisfaction subscale were -.27 and .23, respectively. The correlations ranged from .46 to .23 for the VCOPAS effect total and the Commentary Interpretati on Scale Appearance Comment Scale, Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Evaluation subscale, and Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluati on Scale. The correlations between the VCOPAS effect total and the Eating Disorder Inventory Body Dissa tisfaction subscale, Objectified Body Consciousness Scale-Body Shame Subscale, and Rosenbergs SelfEsteem Scale ranged from .33 to .46.

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81 Table 16 Study 3 Correlations Among Final VCOPAS and Other Measures (Using the Effect Ratings of the Final VCOPAS) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ NAE PBE PGAE EXE TOTE BMI CISA CISC CISTO FOPAS ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ NAE 1.00 PBE -.05 1.00 PGAE -.04 .64** 1.00 EXE .27** .36** .25** 1.00 TOTE .54** .68** .66** .50** 1.00 BMI .17** .21** .12 .14* .31** 1.00 CISA .33** .05 .09 .13 .23** .08 1.00 CISG .25** -.07 -.03 .02 .08 -.04 .58** 1.00 CISTO .32** -.02 .03 .08 .17** .02 .89** .89** 1.00 FOPAS .34** .17** .16* .17** .43 .41** .14* -.02 .06 1.00 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note Ns range from 220-244. NAE = VCOPAS Negative Appearance Effect Subscale, PBE = VCOPAS Positive Body Effect Subsca le; PGAE = VCOPAS Positive General Appearance Effect Subscale; EXE = VCOP AS Effect Exercise Subscale; TOTE = VCOPAS Effect Total; BMI = Body Mass Inde x; CISA = Commentary Interpretation Scale-Appearance Comment Subscale; CISG = Commentary Interpretation Scale-General Comment Subscale; CISTO = Commentary In terpretation Scale; FOPAS = Feedback on Physical Appearance Scale. *p<.05. **p<.01.

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82 Table 16 (continued). ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ NAE PBE PGAE EXE TOTE MBSAE MBSAO FNAE ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ NAE 1.00 PBE -.05 1.00 PGAE -.04 .64** 1.00 EXE .27** .36** .25** 1.00 TOTE .54** .68** .66** .50** 1.00 MBSRAE -.37** -.28** -.30** -.27** -.46** 1.00 MBSRAO .16* -.21** -.27** -.14* -.09 .03 1.00 FNAE .35** -.01 -.04 .06 .21** -.45** .47** 1.00 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note Ns range from 220-243. NAE = VCOPAS Negative Appearance Effect Subscale, PBE = VCOPAS Positive Body Effect Subsca le; PGAE = VCOPAS Positive General Appearance Effect Subscale; EXE = VCOP AS Effect Exercise Subscale; TOTE = VCOPAS Effect Total; MBSAE = Multidimensi onal Body-Self Relations QuestionnaireAppearance Evaluation Subscale; MBSAO = Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Orientation Subscale; FNAE = Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluation Scale. *p<.05. **p<.01.

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83 Table 16 (continued). ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ NAE PBE PGAE EXE TOTE EDIBD SO AP SOCO SOQTO ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ NAE 1.00 PBE -.05 1.00 PGAE -.04 .64** 1.00 EXE .27** .36** .25** 1.00 TOTE .54** .68** .66** .50** 1.00 EDIBD .48** .17** .22** .23** .46** 1.00 SOAP .28** -.06 -.09 .01 .08 .24** 1.00 SOCO -.28** .06 .09 -.01 -.08 -.24** -1.00** 1.00 SOTO .28** -.06 -.09 .01 .08 .24** 1.00** -1.00 1.00 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note Ns range from 220-239. NAE = VCOPAS Negative Appearance Effect Subscale, PBE = VCOPAS Positive Body Effect Subsca le; PGAE = VCOPAS Positive General Appearance Effect Subscale; EXE = VCOP AS Effect Exercise Subscale; TOTE = VCOPAS Effect Total; Eating Disorders InventoryBody Dissatisfaction Subscale; SOAP = Self-Objectification Questionnaire-Appearan ce Subscale; SOCO = Self-Objectification Questionnaire-Competence Subscale; SOTO = Self-Objectification Questionnaire. *p<.05. **p<.01.

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84 Table 16 (continued). ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ NAE PBE PGAE EXE TOTE OBCS OBCBS RSES MCSDS ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ NAE 1.00 PBE -.05 1.00 PGAE -.04 .64** 1.00 EXE .27** .36** .25** 1.00 TOTE .54** .68** .66** .50** 1.00 OBCS .39** -.10 -.06 .02 .16* 1.00 OBCBS .35** -.13 .14 -.14 .34** .47** 1.00 RSES .28** -.14* .20** -.19* .33** .26** .43** 1.00 MCSDS -.16* -.02 .01 -.04 -.10 -.22** -.14 -.27** 1.00 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note Ns range from 181-237. NAE = VCOPAS Negative Appearance Effect Subscale, PBE = VCOPAS Positive Body Effect Subsca le; PGAE = VCOPAS Positive General Appearance Effect Subscale; EXE = VCOP AS Effect Exercise Subscale; TOTE = VCOPAS Effect Total; OBCSS = Objectif ied Body Consciousness Scale-Surveillance Subscale; OBCSBS = Objectified Body C onsciousness Scale-Body Shame Subscale; RSES = Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; MCSDS = Marlow-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. *p<.05. **p<.01.

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85 Simultaneous regression analyses were performed to determine unique ability of the 26-item VCOPAS subscales to predict variance associated with the body image disturbance measures. Given that there is no strong evidence on th e role of physical appearance-related commentary, particularly positive feedback, in predicting body image disturbance, the VCOPAS subscales were not entered in any part icular order. The fist set of regression analyses was conducted using the frequency ratings of the final VCOPAS (see Table 17). The overall effect for the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Evaluation Subs cale was significant, F (4,234) = 40.12, p=.000). The obtained R2 was .41 and the adjusted R2 value was .40. The VCOPAS Negative Appearance, Positive Body, and Positive General Appearance frequency subscales contributed signifi cantly to the variance associated with the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Evaluation Subscale Squared semipartial correlations indicated that the Negativ e Appearance frequency subscale explained 8.5% unique variance ( = -.30, t = -5.79, p=.000), the Positive Body subscale explained 13% unique variance ( = .41, t = 7.18, p=.000), and the Positive General Appearance frequency subscale explai ned 4.9% unique variance ( = .25, t = 4.38, p=.000). For the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionn aire Appearance Or ientation subscale, the overall effect was si gnificant, F (4,233) = 6.37, p=.000. The obtained R2 was .10 and the adjusted R2 was .08. The VCOPAS Positive Genera l Appearance frequency subscale was the only frequency subscale to explain significant variance associated with the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionn aire Appearance Orie ntation subscale.

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86 A squared semi-partial correlation indicated that the Positive General Appearance frequency subscale explaine d 4% unique variance ( = .22, t = 3.25, p<.01). The overall effect for the Fear of Nega tive Appearance Evaluation Scale was also significant, F (4, 235) = 3.62, p<.01. The obtained R2 was .06 and the adjusted R2 was .04. Only the VCOPAS Negative Appearan ce frequency subscale accounted for significant variance associated with the Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluation Scale. A squared semi-partial correlation indicated that the Negative Appearance frequency subscale explained 3.5% unique variance ( = .19, t = 2.96, p<.01). The overall effect for the Eating Disorder Inventory Body Dissati sfaction subscale was also significant, F (4,233) = 33.01, p=.000. The obtained R2 was .36 and the adjusted R2 was .35. The VCOPAS Negative Appearance, Positive B ody, and Positive General Appearance frequency subscales contribute d significantly to the variance associated with the Eating Disorder Inventory Body Dissatisfaction s ubscale. Squared semi -partial correlations indicated that the Negative Appearance frequency subscale e xplained 14.8% unique variance ( = .40, t = 7.36, p=.000), the Positive Body freque ncy subscale explained 10% unique variance ( = -.36, t = -6.13, p=.000), and the Positive General Appearance frequency subscale explai ned 1.5% unique variance ( = -.13, t = -2.31, p<.05). The Exercise frequency subscale was not a signi ficant predictor for any of the body image disturbance measures.

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87 Table 17 Study 3 Simultaneous Regression Analysis for VCOPAS Subscales Predicting Body Image Disturbance (Using the Frequen cy Ratings of the VCOPAS) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Variable t p sr2 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ MBSRAE NAF -5.79 .000 -.301*** .085 PBF 7.18 .000 .405*** .130 PGAF 4.38 .000 .245*** .049 EXF .52 .601 .029 .001 MBSRAO NAF 1.14 .256 .073 .005 PBF .59 .557 .041 .001 PGAF 3.25 .001 .223** .041 EXF 1.64 .102 .111 .010 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note MBSAE = Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Evaluation Subscale; MBSAO = Multidimensi onal Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Orientation Subscale; NAF = VCOPAS Negative Appearance Frequency Subscale, PBF = VCOPAS Positive Body Frequency Subscale; PGAF = VCOPAS Positive General Appearance Frequency Subscale; EXF = VCOPAS Exercise Frequency Subscale. Overall Fs: MBSRAE F(4, 234) = 40.12, p=.000; MBSRAO F(4,233) = 6.37, p=.000. s for final model: p<.05; ** p<.01; *** p =.000.

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88 Table 17 (continued). ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Variable t p sr2 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ FNAE NEF 2.96 .003 .194** .035 PBF -.49 .626 -.034 .001 PGAF -1.94 .054 -.136 .015 EXF .82 .414 .057 .003 EDIBD NAF 7.36 .000 .398*** .148 PBF -6.13 .000 -.359*** .103 PGAF -2.31 .022 -.134* .015 EXF -.480 .635 -.027 .001 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note FNAE = Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluation Scale; EDIBD=Eating Disorders Inventory-Body Dissatisfaction Subscale; NAF = VCOPAS Negative Appearance Frequency Subscale, PBF = VCOPAS Positive Body Frequency Subscale; PGAF = VCOPAS Positive General Appearance Freque ncy Subscale; EXF = VCOPAS Exercise Frequency Subscale. Overall Fs: FNAE F(4, 235) = 3.62, p<.01; EDIBD F (4,233) = 33.01, p=.000. s for final model: p<.05; **p<.01; ***p =.000.

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89 The second set of regression analyses were conducted using the mean effect ratings of the final VCOPAS (see Table 18). The overall effect for the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Evaluation Subscal e was significant, F (4, 209) = 17.51, p= 000. The obtained R2 was .25 and the adjusted R2 was .24. The VCOPAS Negative Appearance and Positiv e General Appearance effect subscales contributed significantly to the variance asso ciated with the Multid imensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Evaluation Subscale Squared semi-partial correlations indicated that the Negative Appearance eff ect subscale explained 13.3% unique variance ( = -.38, t = -6.10, p=.000) and the Positive Ge neral Appearance effect subscale explained 2.2% unique variance ( = -.20, t = -2.50, p<.05). For the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionn aire Appearance Or ientation subscale, the overall effect was si gnificant, F (4,233) = 6.37, p=.000. The obtained R2 was .11 and the adjusted R2 was .10. The VCOPAS Negative Appearance and Positive General Appearance effect subscales ex plained significant amounts of variance associated with the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Orientation subscale. Squared semi-partial correlations indicated that the Negative Appearance effect subscale explained 2.4% unique variance ( = .16, t = 2.36, p<.05) and the Positive General Appearance effect subscale explained 4% uni que variance ( = -.26, t = -3.07, p<.05). The overall effect for the Fear of Nega tive Appearance Evaluation Scale was also significant, F (4, 209) = 8.10, p=.000. The obtained R2 was .13 and the adjusted R2 was .12. Only the VCOPAS Negative Appearance e ffect subscale accounted for a significant

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90 amount of variance associated with the Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluation Scale. A squared semi-partial correlation indicated that the Negative Appearance effect subscale explained 12.7% unique variance ( = .38, t = 5.54, p=.000). The overall effect for the Eating Disorder Inventory Body Dissatisfactio n subscale was also significant, F (4,208) = 21.08, p=.000. The obtained R2 was .29 and the adjusted R2 was .28. The VCOPAS Negative Appearance and Positive General Appearance effect subscales contributed significant variance to the Ea ting Disorder Inventory B ody Dissatisfaction subscale. Squared semi-partial correlations indicated th at the Negative Appearance effect subscale explained 21.9% unique variance ( = .49, t = 8.00, p=.000) and the Positive General Appearance effect subscale ex plained 1.6% unique variance ( = .17, t = 2.19, p<.05). The Exercise effect subscale was not a signi ficant predictor for any of the body image disturbance measures. The third set of regression analyses were conducted using the frequency and effect mean ratings of the final VCOPAS (see Table 19). These regressions only included the VCOPAS subscales th at were significant predicto rs in previous regressions conducted using the frequency ratings only and the effect ratings only of the VCOPAS. The overall effect for the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Evaluation Subscale wa s significant, F (4, 225) = 34.48, p= 000. The obtained R2 was .38 and the adjusted R2 was .37. The VCOPAS Negative Appearance frequency and effect subscales as well as the Positive General Appearance frequency and effect subscales explained significant am ounts of variance associated with the

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91 Table 18 Study 3 Simultaneous Regression Analysis for VCOPAS Subscales Predicting Body Image Disturbance (Using the Effect Ratings of the VCOPAS) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Variable t p sr2 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ MBSRAE NAE -6.10 .000 -.384*** .133 PBE -1.94 .054 -.157 .013 PGAE -2.50 .013 -.195* .022 EXE -.64 .523 .029* .001 MBSRAO NAE 2.36 .019 .161* .024 PBE .14 .892 .012 .000 PGAE -3.07 .002 -.260* .040 EXE -1.65 .100 -.121 .011 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note MBSAE = Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Evaluation Subscale; MBSAO = Multidimensi onal Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Orientation Subscale; NAE = VCOPAS Negative Appearance Effect Subscale, PBE = VCOPAS Positive Body Eff ect Subscale; PGAE = VCOPAS Positive General Appearance Effect Subscale; EXE = VCOPAS Effect Exercise Subscale. Overall Fs: MBSRAE (4, 209) = 17.51, p= 000; MBSRAO (4, 209) = 6.68, p=.000. s for final model: p<.05; **p<.01; *** p =.000.

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92 Table 18 (continued). ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Variable t p sr2 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ FNAE NAE 5.54 .000 .375*** .127 PBE .69 .492 .060 .002 PGAE -.61 .541 -.051 .002 EXE -.69 .489 -.050 .002 EDIBD NAE 8.00 .000 .492*** .219 PBE -.90 .370 .071 .003 PGAE 2.19 .030 .166* .016 EXE .35 .724 .023 .000 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note FNAE = Fear of Negative Appearan ce Evaluation Scale; EDIBD = Eating Disorders Inventory-Body Dissatisfac tion Subscale; NAE = VCOPAS Negative Appearance Effect Subscale, PBE = VCOPAS Positive Body Effect Subscale; PGAE = VCOPAS Positive General Appearance Effect Subscale; EXE = VCOPAS Effect Exercise Subscale. Overall Fs: FNAE F(4,209) = 8.10, p=.000; EDIBD F (4,208) = 21.08, p =.000. s for final model: p<.05; **p<.01; ***p =.000. Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questio nnaire Appearance Evaluation Subscale Squared semipartial correlations indicated that the Negative Appearance frequency subscale explained 4.4% unique variance ( = -.23, t = -4.04, p=.000), the Negative Appearance effect subscale ex plained 7.6% unique variance ( = -.29, t = -5.26, p=.000), the Positive General Appearance frequency s ubscale explained 11.4% unique variance ( = .37, t = 6.44, p=.000), and the Positive General Appearance frequency subscale

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93 explained 1.3% unique variance ( = -.13, t = -2.16, p<.05). For the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Orientation subscale, the overall effect was significant, F (2,236) = 14.82, p =.000. The obtained R2 was .11 and the adjusted R2 was .10. The VCOPAS Positive General Appe arance frequency and effect subscales explained significant amounts of variance a ssociated with the Multidimensional BodySelf Relations Questionnaire Appearance Or ientation subscale. Squared semi-partial correlations indicated that the Positive Gene ral Appearance frequency subscale explained 4% unique variance ( = .21 t = 3.26, p<.01) and the Positive General Appearance effect subscale explained 3.9% unique variance ( = -.21, t = -3.22., p<.01). The overall effect for the Fear of Nega tive Appearance Evaluation Scale was also significant, F (2, 231) = 18.68, p=.000. The obtained R2 was .14 and the adjusted R2 was .13. Only the VCOPAS Negative Appearance effect subscale accounted for significant variance associated with the Fear of Negativ e Appearance Evaluation Scale. A squared semi-partial correlation indicated that the Nega tive Appearance effect subscale explained 10.4% unique variance ( = .33, t = 5.27, p=.000). The overall effect for the Eating Disorder Inventory Body Dissatisfaction subscale was also significant, F (4,224) = 38.82, p=.000. The obtained R2 was .41 and the adjusted R2 was .40. The VCOPAS Negative Appearance frequency and effect s ubscales as well as the Positive General Appearance frequency subscale contributed sign ificant amounts of variance associated to the Eating Disorder Inventory Body Dissa tisfaction subscale. Squared semi-partial correlations indicated that th e Negative Appearance freque ncy subscale explained 8.4% unique variance ( = .31, t = 5.63, p=.000), the Negative Appearance effect subscale

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94 explained 14.7% unique variance ( = .40, t = 7.45, p=.000), and the Positive General Appearance frequency subscale e xplained 4.1% unique variance ( = -.22, t = -3.93, p=.000). Table 19 Study 3 Simultaneous Regression Analysis for VCOPAS Subscales Predicting Body Image Disturbance (Using the Frequency and Effect Ratings of the VCOPAS) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Variable t p sr2 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ MBSRAE NAF -4.04 .000 -.230*** .044 NAE -5.26 .000 -.294*** .076 PGF 6.44 .000 .369*** .114 PGE -2.16 .032 -.125* .013 MBSRAO PGAF 3.26 .001 .209** .040 PGAE -3.22 .001 -.207** .039 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note MBSAE = Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Evaluation Subscale; MBSAO = Multidimensi onal Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Orientation Subscale; NAF = VCOPAS Negative Appearance Frequency Subscale; NAE = VCOPAS Negative Appearan ce Effect Subscale, PGAF = VCOPAS Positive General Appearance Frequency Subscale; PGAE = VCOPAS Positive General Appearance Effect Subscale. Ov erall Fs: MBSRAE F(4,225) = 34.48, p=.000; MBSRAO F(2,236) = 14.82, p = .000. s for final model: p<.05; **p<.01; ***p =.000.

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95 Table 19 (continued.) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Variable t p sr2 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ FNAE NAF 1.99 .048 .124 .015 NAE 5.27 .000 .328*** .104 EDIBD NAF 5.63 .000 .311*** .084 NAE 7.45 .000 .404*** .147 PGAF -3.93 .000 -.202*** .041 PGAE 1.54 .124 .087 .006 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note FNAE = Fear of Negative Appearan ce Evaluation Scale; Eating Disorders Inventory-Body Dissatisfaction Subscale; NAF = VCOPAS Negative Appearance Frequency Subscale; NAE = VCOPAS Negativ e Appearance Effect Subscale, PGAF = VCOPAS Positive General Appearance Frequency Subscale; PGAE = VCOPAS Positive General Appearance Effect Subscale Overall Fs: FNAE F(2,231) = 18.68, p=.000; EDIBD F (4,224) = 38.82, p= .000. s for final model: p<.05; **p<.01; ***p =.000.

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96 General Discussion A series of studies aimed to develop a reliable and valid measure of different types of physical appearance-related comment ary to examine the influence of such commentary on body image and eating disturbances in young adult females. A review of the literature indi cated that most research in the area of physical appearance-related feedback focuses on physical appearance-relate d teasing (e.g., weight-r elated teasing) and negative appearance-related comments. Given the limited research on positive physical appearance-related comments, an effort was ma de to develop a scale that includes a range of physical appearance-related comments. Results of the first study i ndicated that for a young fema le population, some of the items included in the original VCOPAS were appropriate in terms of item content and frequency of occurrence. It was evident that a few items needed be eliminated due to low frequency of occurrence. The findings of th e focus group, in particul ar, suggested that a number of items should be eliminated or re worded. The focus group also indicated that several aspects relate d to ones physical appearance were not assessed by the original VCOPAS. Of the comments listed most fr equently by the females in the focus group, comments with similar content and interpre tations were grouped together and then developed into individual comments. Thes e comments were included in the modified version of the VCOPAS. The first study also suggested that the VCOPAS should assess exposure to physical appearance-related commen ts over the past 2 years (rather than the past 2 months) due to the greater frequency of occurrence during this time period.

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97 Results of the second study which in volved conducting exploratory factor analyses indicated that four factors should be retained for the VCOPAS. The VCOPAS factors seemed to reflect negative comments regarding ones physical appearance (Negative Appearance factor), positive comments related to ones body shape (Positive Body factor), positive comments related to overall physical appearance or non-body related parts (Positive General Appearance fact or), and comments related to exercise and weight loss (Exercise and Weight Loss facto r). None of the factors were primarily composed of the items that were originally categorized as ambiguous in terms of item content. In addition, the s ubsequent factor analyses c onducted using a four factor solution suggested that a few items should be deleted due to failure to meet a priori criteria for item retention, resulting in a 28item VCOPAS. It also became apparent that the remaining ambiguous items in the scale lo aded on the factor re flecting exercise and weight loss (Exercise and Weight Loss factor). Of the 28 items, three other items loaded moderately on more than one f actor but were still retained due to their item content. Since these items were not categorized under an y of the dimensions, they were only used for computing the total VCOPAS score. Th e 28-item VCOPAS had adequate internal consistency. The Negative Appearance, Po sitive Body, and Positive General Appearance subscales also had adequate inte rnal consistencies. In comparison to the other subscales, the internal consistency for the Exerci se and Weight Loss subscale was low. Results of the confirmatory factor anal ysis of the 28-item VCOPAS moderately supported the four dimensions found in the s econd study. Two of the three fit indices suggested that a four factor model was not a good fit for the data. Th e failure of the four

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98 factor model to strongly repli cate is likely due to the rela tively small sample size (N = 240) used. Researchers have recommended including 10 individuals per variable under investigation (Nunnally, 1978). This recommendation suggests that a sample of at least 280 females should have been used to conduct th e confirmatory factor analysis. Also, the first exploratory factor analys is study was based on a sample size of 320 which is greater than the sample size included in the confirmatory factor analys is study. It is possible that the different sample sizes influenced the result s of each study. Thus, a larger sample size may have allowed for a better re-examination of the factor structure of the 28-item VCOPAS using a confirmatory factor analysis. The second exploratory factor analysis, which was conducted to cross validate the 28-item VCOPAS using a new sample, replicated the four dimensions identified in the second study. After two items were deleted for failure to meet criteria for item retention, the final VCOPAS consisted of 26 items. An exploratory factor an alysis on the 26-item VCOPAS indicated that all items loaded on the appropriate subscale and demonstrated that the VCOPAS consists of four distinct dimensions. A second confirmatory analysis was also performed on 26-item VCOPAS but the results did not strongly support a four factor model. Nevertheless, a four-factor model was retained for the final VCOPAS due to the strong factor loadings and interpretability of this model. The descriptive statistics for the freque ncy ratings of the final VCOPAS suggest that the negative and positiv e physical appearance-related comments were similar in terms of frequency of occurrence. Given the current emphasis on negative appearancerelated feedback and body image, this fi nding highlights the need to examine positive

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99 physical appearance-related comments and the effect of such comments on females. The descriptive statistics for the effect ratings of the final VCOPAS indicate that the comments categorized as being negative or positive were interpreted accordingly by the females in the last study. Interestingly, the exercise-related comments were rated as being more positive than negative. It is possible that the females view these comments as indicators that the commentator thinks they are exercising and believes they are in good shape. The final VCOPAS demonstrated good inte rnal consistency and acceptable testretest reliability. The Negative Appearance subscale had good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The Positive Body and Positive General Appearance subscales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and strong test-retest reliability. The Exercise subscale, which consists of two items, exhibited weak internal consistency but good test-retest reliability. The results of the final study also indicated that the VCOPAS subscales and the total VCOPAS were highly correlated in terms of how often the comments were experienced and how negatively or positively the comments were experienced. The Positive Body and Positive General Appearance subscales were also related in terms of the frequency and effect of the comments. A positive relationship between these two subscales was expected given that they both contain positiv e appearance-related commentary. Individuals who receive posit ive comments regarding their body shape and size may be more likely to also receive positive comments rega rding their general appearance. Those individuals who interpre t one type of positive appearance-related

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100 commentary in a positive manner may interpre t other types of sim ilar commentary in a positive way as well. The Exercise subscale was associated with both VCOPAS positive subscales based on the frequency and effect of the comments. These correlations suggest that individuals who receive ambiguous, ex ercise-related comments tend to receive positive-appearance-related comments as well. It is likely that these exercise-related comments are being used in a positive manner. It is also possible that how individuals interpret ambiguous, exercise-r elated comments depends on how they interpret comments categorized as positive app earance-related comments. In addition, the final study indicated th at two of the VCPOPAS subscales were moderately correlated with B ody Mass Index in terms of frequency of occcurence. The Negative Appearance subscale was positively correlated with Body Mass Index, suggesting that females with higher body ma ss maybe more likely to receive negative appearance-related commentary. In contrast, the Positive Body subscale was negatively associated with Body Mass Index, which indi cates that females having lower body mass maybe more likely to receive positive appearance-related commentary. These findings are consistent with the current societal standards of female attractiveness that emphasize a slender body shape for females. It is lik ely that the females in the last study have received physical appearance-related co mmentary reflecting such standards. A number of the VCOPAS subscales were also found to have good convergent validity with other measures of physical appearance-relate d feedback. The frequency component of the Positive General Appearan ce subscale was negatively correlated with the Commentary Interpretation subscales as well as the Commentary Interpretation Scale.

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101 This finding suggests that less exposure to positive comments rega rding ones general appearance is associated with an increased tendency to interpret ambiguous comments, both appearanceand nonappearan ce-based, in a negative manner. Also, the effect component of the Negative Appearance subs cale was positively associated with the Commentary Interpretation subscales as well as the Commentary Interpretation Scale. It appears that individuals who interpret negative appearance-related comments as being negative also interpret ambiguous, appearan ceand nonappearance-based comments as being negative. In addition, the frequenc y component of the Negative Appearance subscale had a strong positive relationship with the measure of appearance-related feedback. This finding is not surprising given that the items of this measure seem to assess exposure to experiences concerning nega tive appearance-related feedback. It is likely that individuals who r eceive negative appearance-related commentary also receive more subtle, indirect negative appearance-related feedback. In regards to body image disturbance, several strong relati onships were found between the VCOPAS subscales (for the frequency and effect components) and measures of appearance evaluation, appearance orientat ion, fear of negative appearance evaluation, and body dissatisfaction. The frequency and effect components of the Negative Appearance subscale were nega tively correlated with appear ance evaluation as indicated by satisfaction with ones body. This finding suggests that female s who receive fewer negative appearance-related comments are more satisfied with their body. Of the females who receive negative appearance-related co mments, those females who interpret these comments as being less negative also seem to experience more body satisfaction. In

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102 addition, there were positive correlations be tween the frequency and effect components of the Positive Body subscale and the measure of appearance evalua tion. Similarly, the frequency and effect components of the Po sitive General Appearance subscale were positively correlated with the measure of appearance evaluation. These findings indicate that females who receive more positive appearance-related comments, especially regarding their body shape and size, tend to ha ve higher levels of body satisfaction. Of the females who receive positive appearance-related comments, those females who interpret these comments as being more positive tend to experience more body satisfaction. Furthermore, the negative corr elation between the Exer cise subscale and the measure of appearance evaluations sugge sts that females who receive ambiguous, exercise-related comments and interpret them in a positive manner are likely to have more body satisfaction as well. As with the measure of appearance ev aluation, the frequency component of the Positive General Appearance subscale was pos itively correlated with the measure of appearance orientation. Alt hough the relationship was not ve ry strong, it is seems that females who receive more positive comments regarding their overall physical appearance are likely to place more importance on and invest more in their physical appearance. The negative relationships between the e ffect components of both VCOPAS positive subscales and the measure of appearance orientation indicate that females who receive positive appearance-related comments and interpret them in a positive manner may focus more on their physical appearance to a greater extent. These finding supports the proposed notion that positive appearance-relate d feedback, specifically in the form of

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103 verbal commentary, can lead to an increa sed emphasis on ones physical appearance. Positive appearance-related commentary may serve as reminder of societys current emphasis on physical appearance and indicate which physical attributes meet societal standards of female attractiveness. If this is the case, females who receive positive comments on a regular basis may become mo re preoccupied with maintaining their physical appearance and possibly engage in mo re extreme forms of dieting and exercising behaviors, potentially placing themselves at an increased risk for body image and eating disturbance. In addition, the frequency co mponent of the Exercise subscale had a positive correlation with the measure of appearance orientation. It is possible that females receiving more exercise-related co mments tend to focus more on their physical appearance and use exercise as a means to enhance their physical attractiveness. The frequency component of the total VCOPAS was also positively correlated with the measure of appearance orientation, sugge sting that receiving appearance-related comments, regardless of the content, is associated with more emphasis on and investment in ones physical appearance. The results also indicated that ther e was a positive correlation between the frequency and effect components of the Nega tive Appearance subscale and the measure of fear of negative appearan ce evaluation. It seems that females who receive more negative appearance-related comments expe rience greater apprehension about having their physical appearance evaluated in a nega tive manner. Of the females who receive negative appearance-related comments, those females who interpret them as being more negative also experience greater anxiety re garding negative appearance evaluation. The

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104 frequency and effect components of the Negative Appearance subscale also had positive correlations with the measure of body dissa tisfaction. Greater exposure to negative appearance-related commentary was associated with higher levels of body dissatisfaction. The females who receive negative appearance-r elated comments and interpret them as being more negative seem to experience more body dissatisfaction. This finding supports previous research on negative appearance-rela ted feedback. In contrast, the frequency components of both VCOPAS positive subscales were negatively correlated with the measure of body dissatisfaction, which coincide s with the correlati onal findings for the measure of appearance evaluation. Female s who receive more positive appearancerelated comments experience less body dissa tisfaction. Furthermore, the effect component of the Positive General Appearan ce subscale was positively associated with the measure of body dissatisfaction. Of the females who receive positive comments regarding their general app earance, those females who interpret these comments in a more negative manner tend to have more body dissatisfaction. These results suggest that positive appearance-related comments can have a positive effect on females body satisfaction. Positive appearance-related commentary may be highly valued by some females and in turn, influence how satisfied they are with thei r body. Additionally, the effect component of the Exercise subscale had a positive relationship with the measure of body dissatisfaction. It appear s that females who receive ambiguous, exercise-related comments and interpret these comments in a more negative manner tend to experience more body dissatisfaction.

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105 Fewer significant relationships were found among the frequency and effect components of the VCOPAS subscales and meas ures of self-objectification. The effect component of the Negative Appearance subs cale had positive correlations with the measure of appearance-based self-objectif ication and the measure of overall selfobjectification. These finding suggest that females who receive negative appearancerelated comments and interpret these comments in a more negative manner may experience more appearance-base d self-objectification and over all self-objectification. None of the frequency components of th e VCOPAS subscales were significantly correlated with the measures of appearance-based selfobjectification, nonappearancebased self-objectifica tion, and overall self-obj ectification. However, the frequency and effect components of the Negative Appearan ce subscale were positively correlated with the measures of body surveillance and body sham e. Females who receive more negative appearance-related commentary seem to enga ge in more body monitoring and experience higher levels of body shame. Of the fema les who receive negativ e appearance-related comments, the females who interpret them as being more negative also engage in more body surveillance and experience more body shame. Contrary to expectation, the frequency and effect components of the VCOPAS positive appearance-related subscales were not correlated with the measures of appearance-based self-object ification, nonappearance-based self-objectification, and overall self-objectification. One possible explanation for th is finding may be that the sample used in the final study did not include an adequate number of self-objectifying females to allow for a proper examina tion of the relationship between positive

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106 appearance-related commentary and self-objec tification. This sample had moderate levels of self-objectific ation, body surveillance, and body shame. Using a sample of females scoring high on self-objectification m easures, it may become evident that the proposed negative consequences of positive appearance-related commentary are common among self-objectifying females. As noted earlier, self-objectifying females believe that the female body is an object to be looked at and evaluated by others. They tend to view their bodies from an observers perspectiv e and habitually monitor their bodies. Compared to non-self-objectifying females, self-objectifying females may also place greater importance on positive appearance-related comments from others. If this is the case, this particular type of feedback is likely to influence thei r current levels of body satisfaction and body shame. For those selfobjectifying females who are satisfied with their bodies, maintaining ones body shape and size is a primary concern according to self-objectification theory. As a way to cont inue to receive social approval (in the form of positive commentary) from others and to avoid experiencing feelings of body shame, self-objectifying females may resort to more extreme forms of weight loss behaviors, increasing their risk for developi ng body image and eating disturbances. Furthermore, the frequency and effect components of the Negative Appearance subscale had a positive correlation with th e measure of self-esteem. This finding indicates that receiving more negative appear ance-related commentary is associated with higher levels of low self-esteem. Of the fe males who receive negative appearance-related comments, the females who interpret these comments more negatively seem to have poorer self-esteem. Also, the frequency component of the Positive General Appearance

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107 subscale was negatively correlated with th e measure of self-esteem. This negative correlation suggests that females who rece ive more positive comments about their general appearance may have better self-esteem. With the exception of the Exercise su bscale, the VCOPAS subscales accounted for significant amounts of variance asso ciate with the measures of body image disturbance. The frequency and effect of negative appearance-related commentary were significant predictors of body image disturbance, specifically body dissatisfaction and appearance evaluation. The eff ect of negative appearance-related commentary was also a strong predictor of fear regarding negativ e appearance evaluati on. In addition, the frequency and effect of positive general appearance-related commentary were significant predictors of appearance evalua tion and appearance orientation. The frequency of positive general appearance-related comment ary was a significant predictor of body dissatisfaction as well. The results regard ing appearance orientation suggest that exposure to positive general appearance-rela ted comments and the effect of such comments may influence the extent to whic h females place emphasis on and invest in their physical appearance. Thus, alt hough positive general appearance-related commentary seems to enhance females le vel of body satisfaction, it may also lead females to focus more on their physical appearance. The results for the Negative Appearance s ubscale support previous research that suggests negative appearance-related feedback is a contributor to body image and eating disturbance (Thompson, 1999). The Negative Appearance subscale emerged as an important correlate of body dissatisfaction and as an independent predictor of body

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108 dissatisfaction and appearance evaluation. Th e frequency with which females receive negative appearance-related commentary a nd how they interpret these comments seems to affect their body satisfaction, a factor that plays a critical role in the development of body image and eating disturbance (Thomp son, 1999). Through its influence on body satisfaction, negative appearance-r elated commentary may indire ctly lead to higher levels of body image and eating disturbance. The results regarding positive bodyand general appearance-related commentary are similar to those found in a recent study (R iccardelli et al., 2000). Riccardelli et al. (2000) reported that positive physical app earance-related commentar y from mothers and female friends had a positive effect on boys body image, particularly satisfaction with their body shape. Although the final study examining the VCOPAS did not include males, it is provides additional evidence for the potential influence of positive appearance-related comments on ones body satisfaction. This study makes the distinction between the eff ects of positive body-related commentary versus positive general appearance-related commentary and indi cates that both types of commentary are strongly associated with female body satisfa ction. Positive genera l appearance-related commentary, in particular, was found to be an important correlate and predictor of appearance evaluation and appearance orientation. The positive relationship between positive appearance-related commentary and body satisfaction suggests that females w ho receive these types of comments and interpret them in a positive manner are likely to feel more satisfied with their body. Similarly, females receiving very few positive appearance-related comments may be

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109 affected by these comments in a less positive way and they may feel less satisfied with their body. Such comments may play an important role in validating females beliefs that they are meeting current standards of fema le physical attractiveness and are viewed by others as physically a ttractive. It is possible that so me females use positive appearancerelated commentary to determine which of th eir physical attributes are acceptable to society and should continue to be main tained through dieting and exercising. Furthermore, given the low internal consis tency of the Exercise subscale and the low correlations between the Exercise subs cale and other measures, it is recommended that the Exercise subscale not be used at th is time. The weak relationship between the Exercise subscale and the measures of physi cal appearance-related feedback, body image disturbance, and self-objectif ication may be due to the ite m content of the Exercise subscale. Unlike the other subscales of th e VCOPAS, the Exercise subscale does not include any comments th at are less ambiguous. Instead, the Exercise subscale consists of exercise-related questions and can be interpre ted in a negative or positive manner. The items of the Exercise subscale pertain to whether one enjoys exercising and whether one has engaged in exercising recently. Another possible explanation for the weak relationship between the Exercise subscale a nd other measures is the number of items included in the Exercise subscal e and the poor internal consiste ncy of this subscale. The Exercise subscale only contains two items whereas the other VCOPAS subscales consist of six to eleven items. The relationships am ong the Exercise subscale and other measures may be strengthened by improving the reliability and validity of the Exercise subscale through the addition of items.

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110 Several shortcomings of the current studies should be noted. First, the sample consisted primarily of Caucasian and to a lesser extent, African-American females of ages 18 to 25. The results of these studies are not generalizable to females of other ethnicities who fall outside of the include d age range. Additi onal research on the VCOPAS with diverse samples is indicated. Second, as previously noted, the Exercise subscale had weak internal consistency a nd its validity also appears to be weak. Future research should focus on expanding the Exer cise subscale in order to improve its reliability and validity. Given that some fema les engage in exercising to enhance and/or maintain their physical appearance and are li kely to receive comments about exercising, exercise-related commentary is an area worth examining. Alternatively, the Exercise subscale could be eliminated from the VCOP AS, resulting in scale that only includes negative and positive appearance-related comm entary. Third, another positive physical appearance-related measure was not available to test the convergent validity of the Positive Body and Positive General Appearan ce subscales. However, the items of the VCOPAS subscales were extens ively examined through a seri es of studies, including a focus group consisting of college-aged females. Based on the findings of these studies, the validity of the positive a ppearance-related subscales seem s to be good. It is also important to reiterate that the limited cont ent assessed by current measures of physical appearance-related feedback led to the de velopment of the VCOP AS. Fourth, eating disturbance measures were not included in the final study. Future studies should investigate the relationship between the VCOPAS subscales and eating disturbance

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111 measures to determine the potential contribu tion of certain types of appearance-related commentary to the development of eating disorders. The final study demonstrates the utility of the VCOPAS in future research on physical appearance-related feedback a nd body image and eating disturbance. The VCOPAS was shown to have the followi ng four dimensions: negative appearance, positive body shape, positive general appearance, and exercise. The results of this study also indicated that college-aged females ar e receiving a variety of appearance-related comments, not only negative appearance-re lated comments, which affect their body image. Specifically, positive appearance-related commentary seems to be experienced by some college-aged females and influences th eir body image in both negative and positive ways. The inclusion of positive appearance-related commentary in a physical appearance-related feedback measure will allo w researchers to examine an area that has received little attention in previous research. The VCOPAS scale may help researchers identify specific types of appearance-related co mmentary and the different effects of such commentary that can be addr essed in treatment and prevention programs for body image and eating disturbance. It is possible that positive app earance-related commentary, in particular, reinforces societys emphasis on physical appearance and offers powerful messages regarding the acceptability of certain physical attributes. Future research should use this scale with other relevant measures to examine the role of various types of physical appearance-related commentary, self -objectification, and c ognitive processing mechanisms in the development of body image and eating disturbance.

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112 References Brown, T. A., Cash, T. F., & Lewis, R. J. ( 1989). Body-image disturbanc es in adolescent female binge-purgers: A brief report of th e results of a national survey in the U.S.A. Journal of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, 30, 605-613. Brown, T. A., Cash, T. F., & Mikulka, P. J. (1990). Attitudinal body-image assessment: Factor analysis of the Body Self-Relations Questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 55, 135-144. Browne, M.W., & Cudeck, R. (1992). Altern ative ways of assessing model fit. Sociological Methods and Research 21, 230-258. Cash, T. F. (1990). The psychology of physical appearance: Aesthetics, attributes, and images. In T. F. Cash & T. Pruzinsky (Eds.), Body images: Development, deviance, and change (pp. 51-79). New York: Guilford Press. Cash, T. F. (1995). Developmental teasing about physical appearance: Retrospective descriptions and relationships with body image. Social Behavior and Personality, 23, 123-130. Cash, T. F., Winstead, B. A., & Janda, L. H. (1986). Body Image Survey report: The great American shape-up. Psychology Today, 24 30-37. Cattarin, J. and Thompson, J. K. (1994). A th ree-year longitudinal study of body image, eating disturbance, and general psychologi cal functioning in adolescent females. Eating Disorders: Treatment and Prevention, 2, 114-125. Coovert, M.D., & Craiger, J. P. (2000). An expert system for integrating multiple fit indices for structural equation models. New Review of Applied Expert Systems

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113 and Emerging Technologies, 6, 39.56. Crown, D. P., & Marlow, D. (1964). The approval motive: Studies in evaluative dependence. New York: Wiley. Cusumano, D. L., & Thompson, J. K. (1997). Body image and body shape ideals in magazines: Exposure, awaren ess, and internalization. Sex Roles, 37, 701-721. Dion, K. K., Berscheid, E., & Walster, E. (1972). What is beautiful is good. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 24 285-290. Edelman, B. (1982). Developmental difference in the conceptualizaion of obesity. Journal of the American Diet Association 80, 428-234. Fabian, L. J., & Thompson, J. K. (1989). Body image and eating disturbance in young females. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 8, 63-74. Fabrigar, L. R., Wegener, D. T., MacCallum, R. C., & Strahan, E. J. (1999). Evaluating the Use of Exploratory Factor Anal ysis in Psychological Research, Psychological Methods, 4, 272-299. Feldman, W., Feldman, E., & Goodman, J. T. (1988). Culture versus biology: Childrens attitudes toward th inness and fatness. Pediatrics 81, 190-193. Fredrickson, B. L., & Roberts, T. A. (1997). Objectification theory: An explanation for womens lived experience a nd mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21 173-206. Fredrickson, B. L., Roberts, T. A., Noll, S. N., Quinn, D. M., & Twenge, J. M. (1998). That swimsuit becomes you: Sex differences in self-objectification, restrained eating, and math performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75

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114 269-284. Garner (1991). Eating Disorder Inventor y 2: Professional manual Odessa, Fl: Psychological Assessment Resources. Garner, D. M. (1997, January/February). The Body Image Survey. Psychology Today 32-84. Garner, D. M., Garfinkel, P. E., Schwartz, D., & Thompson, M. (1980). Cultural expectations of thinness in women. Psychological Reports, 47 483-491. Garrow, J. S., & Webster J. (1985). Quetelet's index (W/H2) as a measure of fatness. International Journal of Obesity 9, 147-153. Gilbert, Keith. (1998). The body, young childre n and popular culture. In N. Yelland (Ed.), Gender in Early Childhood (pp. 55-71). New York, NY: Routledge. Grillo, C. M., Wilfley, D. E., Brownwell, K. D., & Rodin, J. (1994). Teasing, body image, and self-esteem in a clinical sample of obese women. Addictive Behavior, 19, 443-450. Grogan, S. (1999). Body image: Understanding body dissatisfaction in men, women and children New York, NY: Routledge. Gross, J., & Rosen, J. C. (1988). Bulimia in adolescents: Prevalen ce and psychosocial correlates. International Journal of Eating Disorders 7, 51-61. Heinberg, L. J. (1996). Theories of body imag e disturbance: Perceptu al, developmental, and sociocultural factors. In J. K. Thompson (Ed.), Body image, eating disorders, and obesity: An Integration guide for assessment and treatment (pp. 27-47). Washington: American Psychological Association.

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115 Heinberg, L. J., & Thompson, J. K. (1992). The e ffects of figure size feedback (positive vs. negative) and target comparison group (p articularistic vs. universalistic) on body image disturbance. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 12 (4), 441448. Henriques, G. R., Calhoun, L. G., & Cann, A. (1996). Ethnic differe nces in womens body satisfaction: An experimental investigation. The Journal of Social Psychology, 136, 689-697. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteri a for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1-55. Killen, J. D., Taylor, C. B., Hayward, C., Wils on, D. M., Haydel, K. F., Hammer, L. D., Simmonds, B., Robinson, T. N., Litt, I ., Varady, A., & Kraemer, H. (1994). Pursuit of thinness and onset of eating disorder symptoms in a community sample of adolescent girls: A threeyear prospective analysis. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 16 227-238. Kirkpatrick, S. W., & Sanders, D. M. (1978). Body image stereotypes: A developmental comparison. Journal of Genetic Psychology 132 87-95. Lerner, R. M., & Jovanovic, J. (1990). The role of body image in psychosocial development across the life span: A developmen tal contextual perspective. In T. F. Cash & T. Pruzinsky (Eds.), Body images: Development, deviance, and change (pp. 110-127). New York: Guilford Press.

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116 Lundgren, J., Thompson, J.K., & Anderson, D. (2000). Fear of negative evaluation, Association for the Advancement of Behavioral Therapy, Philadelphia. Lunner, K., Werthem, E., Thomspon, J. K., Paxton, S. J., McDonald, F., & Halvaarson, K. S (2000). A cross-cultural examination of weight-related teasing, body image, and eating disturbance in Swed ish and Australian samples. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 28 430-435. Maloney, M. J., McGuire, J. B., Daniels, S. R. & Specker, B. (1989). Dieting behavior and eating attitudes in children. Pediatrics, 84, 482-489. McKinley, N. M., & Hyde, J. S. (1996). The Objectified Body Consciousness Scale: Development and validation. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 181-216. Noll, S. M. (1996). The relationship between sexual objectification and disordered eating: Correlational and experimental tests of body shame as a mediator Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Duke University, Durham, N.C. Noll, S. M., & Fredrickson, B. L. ( 1998). A mediational model linking selfobjectification, body shame, and disordered eating. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 22 623-636. Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Posavac ,H., Posavac S., & Posavac, E. (1998) Exposure to media images of female attractiveness and concern w ith body weight among young women. Sex Roles, 38, 187-201. Ricciardelli, L. A., & McCabe, M. P. (2001). Childrens body image concerns and eating disturbance: A review of the literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 21(3) 325

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117 341. Ricciardelli, L. A., McCabe, M. P, & Banf ield, S. (2000). Body image and body change methods in adolescent boys: Role of parents, friends, and the media. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 49(3), 189-197. Rieves, L., & Cash, T. F. (1996). Social developmental factors and womens body-image attitudes. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 11 63-78. Rodin, J., Silberstein, L. R., & Striegel-Moo re, R. H. (1985?). Women and weight: A normative discontent. In T.B. Sondere gger (Ed.), Psychology and Gender: Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 1984 (pp. 267-307). Rolland, K., Farnill, D., & Griffiths, R. A. (1997). Body figure perceptions and eating attitudes among Australian schoolchil dren aged 8 to 12 years. International Journal of Eating Disorders 21, 273-278. Rosen, James C. (1992). Body-image diso rder: Definition, development, and contribution to eating disorders. In J. H. Crowther, D.L., Tennenbaum, S.E. Hobfoll & M. A. P Stephens (Eds.), The etiology of bulimia: The individual and familial context pp. 155-177. Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation. Schwartz, D. J., Phares, V., Tantleff-Dunn, S., & Thompson, J. K. (1999). Body image, psychological functioning, and parental f eedback regarding physical appearance. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 25 339-343. Serdula, M. K., Collins, M. E., Williamson, D.F., Anda, R. F., Pamuk, E., & Byers, T.E. (1993). Weight control practices of U.S. adolescents and adults. Annals of

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118 Internal Medicine 199, 667-671. Shapiro, S., Newcomb, M., & Loeb, T. B. (1997) Fear of fat, disregulated-restrained eating, and body-esteem: Prevalence and gender differences among eightto tenyear old children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 26 358-365. Steiger, J. H. (1989). EzPATH: A supplementary modul e for SYSTAT and SYGRAPH Evanston, IL: SYSTAT. Stice, E., Killen, J. D., Hayward, C., & Tayl or, C. B. (1998). Age of onset for binge eating and purging during adolescence: A four-year surv ival analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107 671-675. Streigel-Moore, R., McAvay, G., & Rodin, J. (1986). Psychologica l and behavioral correlates of feeling fat in women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 5 935-947. Tantleff-Dunn, S., Thompson, J. K., & Dunn, M. F. (1995). Development and validation of the Feedback on Physical Appearance Scale (FOPAS). Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 3, 341-350. Thelen, M. H., Powell, A. L., Lawrence, C ., & Kuhnert, M. E. ( 1992). Eating and body image concerns among children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 21 41-46. Thomas, C. M., & Thompson, J. K. (Nove rmber, 1998). The Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluation Scale. Poster pres ented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Philadelphia. Thompson, J. K. (1990). Body image disturbance: Assessment and treatment Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press.

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119 Thompson, J. K. (1991). Body shape preferences: Effects of instructional protocol and level of eating disturbance. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 10, 193198. Thompson, J.K. (1992). Body image: Extent of disturbance, associated features, theoretical models, assessment methodol ogies, intervention strategies, and a proposal for a new DSM-IV diagnostic category Body Image Disorder. In M. Hersen, R. M. Eisler, and P. M. Miller (Eds.), Progress in Behavior Modification (Vol. 28, pp. 3-54). Sycamore, IL: Sycamore Press. Thompson, J. K., Cattarin, J., Fowler, B., & Fi sher, E. (1995). The Perception of Teasing Scale (POTS): A revision and extension of the Physical Appearance Related Teasing Scale (PARTS). Journal of Personality Assessment, 65 (1), 146-157. Thompson, J. K., Coovert, M. D., Richards, K. J., Johnson, S., and Cattarin, J. (1995). Development of body image, eating dist urbance, and general psychological functioning in female adolescents: Covariance structure modeling and longitudinal investigations. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 18 (3), 221236. Thompson, J. K., Fabian, L. J., Moulton, D. O., Dunn, M. E., & Altabe, M. N. (1991). Development and Validation of the Physical Appearance Related Teasing Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 56 (3), 513-521. Thompson, J. K., Heinberg, L., Altabe, M. N., & Tantleff-Dunn, S. (1999). Exacting Beauty: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment of Body Image Disturbance Washington: American Psychological Association.

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120 Thompson, J. K. & Psaltis, K. (1988). Multiple aspects and correlates of body figure ratings: A replication and extens ion of Fallon and Rozin (1985). International Journal of Eating Disorders, 7, 813-818. Tiggemann, M., & Lynch, J. E. (2001). Body imag e across the life span in adult women: The role of self-objectification. Developmental Psychology, 37 243-253. Tiggemann, M., & Pickering, A.S. (1996). Role of television in adolescent womens body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 20 199-203. Tiggemann, M., & Wilson-Barrett, E. (1998). Chil drens figure ratings: Relationship to self-esteem and nega tive stereotyping. International Journal of Eating Disorders 23, 83-88. van den Berg, P., Wertheim, E. H., Thom pson, J. K., & Paxton, S. J. (2002). Development of body image, eating dist urbance, and general psychological functioning in adolescent females: A re plication using covariance structure modeling in an Australian sample. International Journal of Eating Disorders 32, 46-51.

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121 Appendices

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122 Appendix A. Original Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale (VCOPAS) Sometimes, people say things that aff ect how we feel and think about our appearance. The following is a list of statem ents that may have been made about you. Please read each item and rate how often you think this has happened to you. Use the response scale below to circle the number that comes closest to how often this has happened to you. Thank you for your cooperation. Never 1 Seldom 2 Sometimes 3 Often 4 Always 5 1. Considering your size, it may be wise for you to skip dessert. Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5 2. Did you hear that the prices for co smetic surgery have decreased? Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5 3. You are definitely getting plumper. Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5 4. You have a great butt. Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5 5. You have a fantastic smile. Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5 6. Someone commented on your body. Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5

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123 Appendix A. (continued). 7. Maybe you should consider going on a diet. Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5 8. You look so different since I last saw you. Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5 9. Have you ever thought about becoming a model? Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5 10. That shirt makes you look fat. Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5 11. Someone asked if you like to exercise. Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5 12. Have you been watching what you eat? Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5 13. That outfit looks incredible on you. Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5 14. Your stomach looks big in that outfit. Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5

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124 Appendix A. (continued). 15. Did you do something different with your hair? Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5 16. You're too fat. Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5 17. Ive heard that eating late at night leads to gaining weight. Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5 18. Your skin looks fabulous. Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5 19. You look great. Have you lost weight? Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5 20. Have you been to the gym lately? Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5 21. Why are you eating that fattening food when you know that you need to lose weight? Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5 22. I really like how those jeans fit you. Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5

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125 Appendix A. (continued). 23. If you had plastic surgery on your nose, I think you would be more attractive. Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5 24. Your body is really toned. Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5

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126 Appendix B. Demographic Information Sheet Thank you for participating in this study. Please read the directi ons for each group of questions and answer each one to the best of your ability. DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION 1. Age: ____________ 2. Height: __________ 3. Weight: __________ 4. Race/Ethnicity: (p lease circle one): Asian-American African-American Caucasian Hispanic Other: Please specify _______________________ 5. Year in School: (p lease circle one) Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Other: Please specify _______________________

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127 Appendix C. Two-month Version of the 24-item VCOPAS Sometimes, people say things that affect how we feel and think about our appearance. The following is a list of comments that ma y have been made about you. Please read each item and rate how often you think you have been the recipient of such a comment or similar comment (using the scale provided, never to always). If you rate an item as 1, then go directly to the next item. However, if you rate an item as 2, 3, 4, or 5, please also rate how that comme nt made you feel (usi ng the scale provided, very positive to very negative ). Rate each item based on your exposure to the following comments within the past 2 MONTHS 1. You need to skip dessert. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 1a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 2. Do you want to go to the gym with me? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 2a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 3. You are getting heavier. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 3a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 4. You have a great butt. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 4a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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128 Appendix C. (continued). 5. You have nice abs (abdominals). 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 5a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 6. Has your body weight changed? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 6a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 7. You should go on a diet. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 7a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 8. You look so different since I last saw you. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 8a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 9. Have you thought about becoming a model? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 9a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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129 Appendix C. (continued). 10. Your top/blouse doesnt look good on you. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 10a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 11. Do you like to exercise? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 11a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 12. Have you been watching what you eat? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 12a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 13. You look heavier in that outfit. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 13a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 14. Did you change your hairstyle? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 14a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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130 Appendix C. (continued). 15. You look bad without make-up. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 15a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 16. Your outfit l ooks incredible on you. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 16a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 17. You shouldnt eat so late at night. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 17a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 18. Your facial skin looks really good. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 18a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 19. I wish I had a body like yours. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 19a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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131 Appendix C. (continued). 20. Have you been to the gym lately? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 20a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 21. You cant afford to eat such fattening foods. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 21a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 22. I really like how those jeans fit you. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 22a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 23. Have you ever considered cosmetic surgery? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 23a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 24. Your body is really toned. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 24a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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132 Appendix C. (continued). Please list at least 5 additi onal physical appearance-related comments that someone has said to you or any comments you have heard ot hers make. If you were the recipient of the comment, please also rate how often you think you have been the recipient of the comment (using the scale provided, never to always ) within the past 2 MONTHS and how that comment made you f eel (using the scale provided, very positive to very negative). 1. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 1a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 2. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 2a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 3. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 3a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 4. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 4a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 5. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 5a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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133 Appendix D. Two-year Versi on of the 24-item VCOPAS Sometimes, people say things that affect how we feel and think about our appearance. The following is a list of comments that ma y have been made about you. Please read each item and rate how often you think you have been the recipient of such a comment or similar comment (using the scale provided, never to always). If you rate an item as 1, then go directly to the next item. However, if you rate an item as 2, 3, 4, or 5, please also rate how that comme nt made you feel (usi ng the scale provided, very positive to very negative ). Rate each item based on your exposure to the following comments within the past 2 YEARS 1. You need to skip dessert. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 1a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 2. Do you want to go to the gym with me? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 2a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 3. You are getting heavier. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 3a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 4. You have a great butt. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 4a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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134 Appendix D. (continued). 5. You have nice abs (abdominals). 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 5a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 6. Has your body weight changed? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 6a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 7. You should go on a diet. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 7a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 8. You look so different since I last saw you. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 8a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 9. Have you thought about becoming a model? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 9a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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135 Appendix D. (continued). 10. Your top/blouse doesnt look good on you. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 10a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 11. Do you like to exercise? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 11a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 12. Have you been watching what you eat? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 12a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 13. You look heavier in that outfit. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 13a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 14. Did you change your hairstyle? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 14a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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136 Appendix D. (continued). 15. You look bad without make-up. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 15a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 16. Your outfit l ooks incredible on you. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 16a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 17. You shouldnt eat so late at night. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 17a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 18. Your facial skin looks really good. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 18a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 19. I wish I had a body like yours. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 19a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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137 Appendix D. (continued). 20. Have you been to the gym lately? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 20a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 21. You cant afford to eat such fattening foods. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 21a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 22. I really like how those jeans fit you. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 22a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 23. Have you ever considered cosmetic surgery? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 23a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 24. Your body is really toned. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 24a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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138 Appendix D. (continued). Please list at least 5 additi onal physical appearance-related comments that someone has said to you or any comments you have heard ot hers make. If you were the recipient of the comment, please also rate how often you think you have been the recipient of the comment (using the scale provided, never to always ) within the past 2 YEARS and how that comment made you feel (using the scale provided, very positive to very negative). 1. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 1a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 2. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 2a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 3. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 3a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 4. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 4a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 5. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 5a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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139 Appendix E. Debriefing Form for Study 1 Previous research has shown that th e development of body image and eating disturbance is greatly influenced by phys ical appearance-related feedback (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999). It ha s become evident that such feedback is often associated with body dissatisfac tion, maladaptive eating behaviors, and psychological distress (Joine r, 1999; Thompson, Coovert, Ri chards, Johnson, & Cattarin, 1995). Most studies in this area have primarily focused on teasing and negative appearance-related feedback, in cluding both verbal and nonverb al feedback. Very little is known about positive app earance-related feed back and its impact on others. Consequently, the Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale (VCOPAS) was developed to assess the frequency and effect of positive comments regarding ones physical appearance as well as other types of appearance-related comments. The purpose of the present study is to examine the quality of the VCOPAS and identify current appearance-related commentary. The VCOPAS is likely to be useful in terms of understanding how others are in fluenced by appearance-related commentary, specifically positive commentary. Your participation in this study on phys ical appearance-related commentary is greatly appreciated. If you have any questions regarding the study, plea se feel free to ask the researchers. Suggested Reading: Thompson, J.K., Heinberg, L.J., Altable, M., & Tantleff-Dunn, S. (1999). Exacting Beauty: Theory, Assessment, and Tr eatment of Body Image Disturbance. American Psychological Association: Washington, DC.

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140 Appendix F. 37-item Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale Sometimes, people say things that affect how we feel and think about our appearance. The following is a list of comments that ma y have been made about you. Please read each item and rate how often you think you have been the recipient of such a comment or similar comment (using the scale provided, never to always). If you rate an item as 1, then go directly to the next item. However, if you rate an item as 2, 3, 4, or 5, please also rate how that comme nt made you feel (usi ng the scale provided, very positive to very negative ). Rate each item based on your exposure to the following comments within the past 2 YEARS 1. Have you thought about skipping dessert? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 1a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 2. You look so different since I last saw you? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 2a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 3. You have nice legs. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 3a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 4. Your outfit looks great on you. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 4a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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141 Appendix F. (continued). 5. Do you like to exercise? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 5a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 6. You look better with make-up on. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 6a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 7. You need to start watching what you eat. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 7a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 8. Have you lost weight? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 8a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 9. You are pretty. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 9a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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142 Appendix F. (continued). 10. I wish I had a body like yours. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 10a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 11. Thats an interesting out fit. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 11a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 12. Youve gained weight. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 12a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 13. Would you ever have cosmetic surgery? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 13a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 14. You are in great shape. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 14a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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143 Appendix F. (continued). 15. You look good since youve lost weight. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 15a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 16. Do you dye your hair? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 16a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 17. Dont you think youve eaten enough already? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 17a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 18. Do you want to go to the gym with me? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 18a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 19. You have a great butt. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 19a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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144 Appendix F. (continued). 20. Have you thought about becoming a model? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 20a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 21. Have you been working out lately? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 21a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 22. You need to do something with your hair. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 22a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 23. Your looking kind of skinny. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 23a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 24. Your facial skin looks good. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 24a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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145 Appendix F. (continued). 25. You shouldnt eat so late at night. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 25a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 26. You have pretty eyes. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 26a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 27. You need to start exercising to lose weight. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 27a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 28. Thats an interesting hairstyle. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 28a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 29. You have nice abs (abdominals). 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 29a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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146 Appendix F. (continued). 30. Have you considered going on a diet? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 30a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 31. You have a beautiful smile. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 31a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 32. Your outfit makes you look fat. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 32a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 33. I really like how those jeans fit you. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 33a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 34. Are you sure you want to eat such fattening foods? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 34a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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147 Appendix F. (continued). 35. Have you gained weight? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 35a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 36. Your hair looks really good. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 36a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 37. You have a nice body. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 37a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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148 Appendix G. Debriefing Form for Study 2 and Study 3 Previous research has shown that th e development of body image and eating disturbance is greatly influenced by phys ical appearance-related feedback (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999). It ha s become evident that such feedback is often associated with body dissatisfac tion, maladaptive eating behaviors, and psychological distress (Joine r, 1999; Thompson, Coovert, Ri chards, Johnson, & Cattarin, 1995). Most studies in this area have primarily focused on teasing and negative appearance-related feedback, in cluding both verbal and nonverb al feedback. Very little is known about positive app earance-related feed back and its impact on others. Consequently, the Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale (VCOPAS) was developed to assess the frequency and effect of positive comments regarding ones physical appearance as well as other types of appearance-related comments. The purpose of the present study is to examine the quality of the VCOPAS. The VCOPAS is likely to be useful in terms of under standing how others are influenced by appearance-related commentary, specifically positive commentary. Your participation in this study on phys ical appearance-related commentary is greatly appreciated. If you have any questions regarding the study, plea se feel free to ask the researchers. Suggested Reading: Thompson, J.K., Heinberg, L.J., Altabl e, M., & Tantleff-Dunn, S. (1999). Exacting Beauty: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment of Body Image Disturbance. American Psychological Association: Washington, D.C. Cash, T.F., & Pruzinsky, T. (2003). Body Image: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice Guilford Press: New York.

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149 Appendix H. Two-year Versi on of the 28-item VCOPAS Sometimes, people say things that affect how we feel and think about our appearance. The following is a list of comments that ma y have been made about you. Please read each item and rate how often you think you have been the recipient of such a comment or similar comment (using the scale provided, never to always). If you rate an item as 1, then go directly to the next item. However, if you rate an item as 2, 3, 4, or 5, please also rate how that comme nt made you feel (usi ng the scale provided, very positive to very negative ). Rate each item based on your exposure to the following comments within the past 2 YEARS 1. Have you thought about skipping dessert? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 1a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 2. Your outfit looks great on you. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 2a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 3. Do you like to exercise? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 3a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 4. You need to start watching what you eat. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 4a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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150 Appendix H. (continued). 5. Have you lost weight? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 5a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 6. You are pretty. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 6a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 7. I wish I had a body like yours. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 7a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 8. Youve gained weight. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 8a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 9. You are in great shape. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 9a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 10. You look good since youve lost weight. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 10a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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151 Appendix H. (continued). 11. Dont you think youve eaten enough already? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 11a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 12. Have you thought about becoming a model? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 12a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 13. Have you been working out lately? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 13a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 14. You need to do something with your hair. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 14a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 15. Youre looking kind of skinny. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 15a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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152 Appendix H. (continued). 16. Your facial skin looks good. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 16a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 17. You shouldnt eat so late at night. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 17a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 18. You have pretty eyes. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 18a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 19. You need to start exercising to to lose weight. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 19a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 20. You have nice abs (abdominals) 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 20a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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153 Appendix H. (continued). 21. Have you considered going on a diet? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 21a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 22. You have a beautiful smile. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 22a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 23. Your outfit makes you look fat. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 23a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 24. I really like how those jeans fit you. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 24a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 25. Are you sure you want to eat such fattening foods? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 25a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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154 Appendix H. (continued). 26. Have you gained weight? 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 26a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 27. Your hair looks really good. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 27a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative 28. You have a nice body. 1 2 3 4 5 Never Sometimes Always 28a. How did this comment make you feel? 1 2 3 4 5 Very Positive Neutral Very Negative

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155 Appendix I. Commentary Interpretation Scale Please imagine that you heard each of th e following comments or questions from a friend. Rate each item according to how positiv ely or negatively you interpreted it (using the scale provided, very positive to very negative). Very Positive Somewhat Positive Neutral Somewhat Negative Very Negative 1 2 3 4 5 1. Did you study for that test? 1 2 3 4 5 2. You have an unusual look about you. 1 2 3 4 5 3. Youre so talkative. 1 2 3 4 5 4. Are you going to eat all of that? 1 2 3 4 5 5. If you put in more effort, Im sure youd be very successful. 1 2 3 4 5 6. I didnt even recognize you! 1 2 3 4 5 7. You seem unusually witty today. 1 2 3 4 5 8. Are you wearing any makeup? 1 2 3 4 5 9. You sure did ask a lot of questions in class today. 1 2 3 4 5 10. Did you hear about that new diet? 1 2 3 4 5 11. Youre so sensitive. 1 2 3 4 5 12. It would be healthy for you to work out 1 2 3 4 5 13. Are you stressed out about school? 1 2 3 4 5 14. Youre very muscular. 1 2 3 4 5 15. Youre acting like a different person these days. 1 2 3 4 5 16. Did you get some sleep last night? 1 2 3 4 5

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156 Appendix J. Feedback on Physical Appearance Scale Sometimes people say or do things that make us feel good, bad, or just more selfconscious about our appearance. Please re ad each item and rate how often you think you have been the recipient or target of such behavior between the ages of 8 and 18 Using the following scale, circle the number that is closest to the amount that the behavior occurred: Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1 2 3 4 5 The following items refer to experiences you had between the ages of 8 and 18 that made you feel bad about your body. 1. Someone suggested a gym to work out in. 1 2 3 4 5 2. Someone asked if youve gained some weight. 1 2 3 4 5 3. Someone suggested that you should dress differently. 1 2 3 4 5 4. Someone made some facial expr ession when looking at your body. 1 2 3 4 5 5. Someone watched closely what you ate. 1 2 3 4 5 6. Someone suggested a new diet thats available. 1 2 3 4 5 7. Someone called you fatso (or something similar). 1 2 3 4 5 8. Someone did not offer you dessert. 1 2 3 4 5

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157 Appendix K. Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Evaluation Subscale Using the scale below, please circle the num ber that best matches your agreement with the following statements. Definitely Disagree Mostly Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree 1 2 3 4 5 1. My body is sexually appealing. 1 2 3 4 5 2. I like my looks just the way they are. 1 2 3 4 5 3. Most people would consider me good-looking. 1 2 3 4 5 4. I like the way I look without my clothe s on. 1 2 3 4 5 5. I like the way my clothes fit me. 1 2 3 4 5 6. I dislike my physique. 1 2 3 4 5 7. I am physically unattractive. 1 2 3 4 5

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158 Appendix L. Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Orientation Subscale Using the scale below, please circle the num ber that best matches your agreement with the following statements. Definitely Disagree Mostly Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Mostly Agree Definitely Agree 1 2 3 4 5 1. Before going out in public, I always notice how I look. 1 2 3 4 5 2. I am careful to buy clothes that will ma ke me look my best. 1 2 3 4 5 3. I check my appearance in a mirror whenever I can. 1 2 3 4 5 4. Before going out, I usually spend a lot of time getting ready. 1 2 3 4 5 5. It is important that I always look good. 1 2 3 4 5 6. I use very few grooming products. 1 2 3 4 5 7. I am self-conscious if my grooming isnt right. 1 2 3 4 5 8. I usually wear whatever is handy wit hout caring how it looks. 1 2 3 4 5 9. I dont care what people think about my appearance. 1 2 3 4 5 10. I take special care with my hair grooming. 1 2 3 4 5 11. I never think about my appearance. 1 2 3 4 5 12. I am always trying to improve my physical appearance 1 2 3 4 5

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159 Appendix M. Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluation Using the scale below, please circle the num ber that best matches your agreement with the following statements. Never True Rarely True Sometimes True Frequently True Almost Always True 1 2 3 4 5 1. I am concerned about what other pe ople think of my appearance. 1 2 3 4 5 2. It bothers me if I know someone is judging my physical shape. 1 2 3 4 5 3. I dont care about other peoples opinion of my appearance. 1 2 3 4 5 4. I worry that people will find fault with the way I look. 1 2 3 4 5 5. When I meet new people, I wond er what they think about my appearance. 1 2 3 4 5 6. I am afraid other people will notice my physical flaws. 1 2 3 4 5 7. I am unconcerned even when I know that my appearance is being evaluated. 1 2 3 4 5 8. I think that other peoples op inion of my appearance is too important to me. 1 2 3 4 5

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160 Appendix N. Eating Disorders Invent ory Body Dissatisf action Subscale These questions measure a variety of attitude s, feelings, and behaviors. There are no right or wrong answers so please try to be completely honest in your answers. Read each question and circle the number of the word that best describes how YOU usually are. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Always Usually Often Sometimes Rarely Never Always...........Ne ver 1. I think that my stomach is too big. 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. I think that my thighs are too large. 1 2 3 4 5 6 3. I think that my stomach is just the right size. 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. I feel satisfied with the shape of my body. 1 2 3 4 5 6 5. I like the shape of my buttocks. 1 2 3 4 5 6 6. I think my hips are too big. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. I think that my thighs are just th e right size. 1 2 3 4 5 6 8. I think that my buttocks are t oo large. 1 2 3 4 5 6 9. I think that my hips are just the ri ght size. 1 2 3 4 5 6

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161 Appendix O. Self-Objec tification Questionnaire INSTRUCTIONS: We are interested in how people think about their bodies. The questions below identify 10 di fferent attributes. We would like you to rank order these body attributes from that which has the grea test impact on your physic al self-concept, to that which has the least impact on your physical self-concept. NOTE: It does not matter how you describe you rself in terms of each attribute. For example, fitness level can have a great imp act on your physical self -concept regardless of whether you consider yourself to be physically fit, not physically fi t, or any level in between. Please first read over all of the attributes. Th en, record your rank by writ ing the letter of the attribute. WHEN CONSIDERING YOUR PHYSICAL SELF-CONCEPT, HOW IMPORTANT IS a. physical coordination? f. physical attractiveness? b. health? g. energy level (e.g. stamina)? c. weight? h. firm/sculpted muscles? d. strength? i. physical fitness level? e. sex appeal? j. measurements (e.g. ch est, waist, hips) LETTER OF ATTRIBUTE MOST IMPORTANT..........................._____ SECOND MOST IMPORTANT.........._____ THIRD MOST IMPORTANT.............._____ FOURTH MOST IMPORTANT.........._____ FIFTH MOST IMPORTANT..............._____ SIXTH MOST IMPORTANT.............._____ SEVENTH MOST IMPORTANT......._____ EIGHTH MOST IMPORTANT..........._____ NINTH MOST IMPORTANT............._____ LEAST IMPORTANT........................._____

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162 Appendix P. Objectified Body Consci ousness Scale Surveillance Subscale Using the scale below, please circle the num ber that best matches your agreement with the following statements. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Strongly Agree Slightly Neither Agree Slightly Disa gree Strongly Not Agree Agree Nor Disagree Disagree Disagree Applicable 1. I rarely think about how I look. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NA 2. I think it is more important that my clothes are comfortable than whether they look good on me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NA 3. I think more about how my body feels than how my body looks. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NA 4. I rarely compare how I look with how other people look. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NA 5. During the day, I think about how I look many times. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NA 6. I often worry about whether the clothes I am wearing make me look good. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NA 7. I rarely worry about how I look to other people. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NA 8. I am more concerned with what my body can do than how it looks. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NA

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163 Appendix Q. Objectified Body Consci ousness Scale Body Shame Subscale Using the scale below, please circle the num ber that best matches your agreement with the following statements. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Strongly Agree Slightly Neither Agree Slightly Disa gree Strongly Not Agree Agree Nor Disagree Disagree Disagree Applicable 1. When I cant control my weight, I feel like something must be wrong with me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NA 2. I feel ashamed of myself when I havent made the effort to look my best. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NA 3. I feel like I must be a bad person when I dont look as good as I could. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NA 4. I would be ashamed for people to know what I really weigh. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NA 5. I never worry that something is wrong with me when I am not exercising as much as I should. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NA 6. When Im not exercising enough, I question whether I am a good enough person. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NA 7. Even when I cant control my weight, I think Im an okay person. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NA 8. When Im not the size I think I should be, I feel ashamed. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NA

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164 Appendix R. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Using the scale below, please circle the num ber that best matches your agreement with the following statements. Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 1. I feel that Im a person of worth, at least on an equal basis with others. 1 2 3 4 2. I feel that I have a number of good qualities. 1 2 3 4 3. All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure. 1 2 3 4 4. I am able to do things as well as most other people. 1 2 3 4 5. I feel I do not have much to be proud of. 1 2 3 4 6. I take a positive attitude toward myself. 1 2 3 4 7. On the whole, I am satisfied with myself. 1 2 3 4 8. I wish I could have more respect for myself. 1 2 3 4 9. I certainly feel useless at times. 1 2 3 4 10. At times I think I am no good at all. 1 2 3 4

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165 Appendix S. Marlow-Crowne Social Desirability Scale Listed below are a number of statements concerning personal attitudes and traits. Read each item and using the scale below, decide whether the statement is true or false as it pertains to you personally. True False 1 2 True False 1. Before voting I thoroughly investigate the qualifications of all the candidates. 1 2 2. I never hesitate to go out of my wa y to help someone in trouble. 1 2 3. It is sometimes hard for me to go on with my work if I am not encouraged. 1 2 4. I have never intensely di sliked anyone. 1 2 5. On occasion I have had doubts about my ability to succeed in life. 1 2 6. I sometimes feel resentful when I dont get my way. 1 2 7. I am always careful about my manner of dr ess. 1 2 8. My table manners at home are as good as when I eat out in a restaurant. 1 2 9. If I could get into a movie without paying and be sure I was not seen, I would probably do it. 1 2 10. On a few occasions, I have given up doing something because I thought too little of my ability. 1 2 11. I like to gossip at times. 1 2 12. There have been times when I felt like rebelling against people in authority even though I knew they were right. 1 2 13. No matter who Im talking to, Im always a good listener. 1 2 14. I can remember playing sick to get out of something. 1 2

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166 Appendix S (continued.) 15. There have been occasions when I took advantage of someone. 1 2 16. Im always willing to admit it when I make a mistake. 1 2 17. I always try to practice what I preach. 1 2 18. I dont find it particularly difficult to get along with loud mouthed, obnoxious people. 1 2 19. I sometimes try to get even, rather than forgive and forget. 1 2 20. When I dont know something I dont at all mind admitting it. 1 2 21. I am always courteous, even to people who are di sagreeable. 1 2 22. At times I have really insisted on having thi ngs my own way. 1 2 23. There have been occasions when I felt like smashing things. 1 2 24. I would never think of letting so meone else be punished for my wrongdoings. 1 2 25. I never resent being asked to return a favor. 1 2 26. I have never been irked when pe ople expressed ideas very different from my own. 1 2 27. I never make a long trip without checki ng the safety of my car. 1 2 28. There have been times when I was quite jealous of the good fortune of others. 1 2 29. I have almost never felt the urge to tell someone off. 1 2 30. I am sometimes irritated by people who ask favors of me. 1 2 31. I have never felt that I was punished without cause. 1 2 32. I sometimes think when people have a misfortune they only got what they deserved. 1 2 33. I have never deliberately said something that hurt someones feelings. 1 2


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The development and validation of the Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale
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[Tampa, Fla.] :
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2004.
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ABSTRACT: This study involves the development and validation of a measure of physical appearance-related comments, The Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale (VCOPAS). Previous research has shown that the development of body image and eating disturbances is greatly influenced by teasing and negative appearance-related feedback. The limited research on positive appearance-related feedback is likely due to the lack of an empirically validated scale of positive appearance-related commentary. Consequently, the VCOPAS was developed to assess the frequency and effect of positive appearance-related comments and other types of appearance-related comments. In Study 1, 50 undergraduate female students of ages 18 to 25 completed the revised VCOPAS and 8 of these students also attended a focus group session. The revised VCOPAS and its subscales demonstrated adequate internal consistency. This scale was subsequently modified based on the findings of Study 1. In Study 2, 320 undergraduate female students of ages 18 to 25 completed the VCOPAS. Factor analyses indicated that four factors should be retained. The VCOPAS and its subscales exhibited low to high internal consistencies. Study 3 was a confirmatory factor analysis study that used 246 undergraduate female students of ages 18 to 25. An exploratory factor analysis was also conducted to cross-validate the VCOPAS with a new sample. Given the importance of interpretability and theory in scale development, a four-factor model was retained for the final VCOPAS. The final VCOPAS consists of 26 items and contains four subscales (Negative Appearance, Positive Body, Positive General Appearance, and Exercise Commentary). The total scale and subscales demonstrated adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Significant correlations were found between a number of VCOPAS subscales and measures of physical appearance-related feedback, body image disturbance, self-objectification, and self-esteem. Regression analyses indicated the utility of the Negative Appearance, Positive Body, and Positive General Appearance subscales in predicting body image disturbance. It seems that different types of appearance-related commentary influence the body image of females in distinct ways. The VCOPAS is likely to be useful in future research examining the role of appearance-related commentary, specifically positive appearance-related commentary, in the development of body image and eating disturbances among females.
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