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A model for strategic bidding in combined transmission and wholesale energy markets

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Material Information

Title:
A model for strategic bidding in combined transmission and wholesale energy markets
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Gupte, Sanket
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
restructuring
market power
reinforcement learning
FTR
stochastic games
Dissertations, Academic -- Industrial Engineering -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: Motivated by deregulation in major service sectors like airlines, banking and telecommunication, the electric industry is undergoing a major transformation. However due to design inefficiencies, restructuring of the power sector, so far, has not been a major success. A lack of comprehensive quantitative models has resulted in the inability of the market designers to evaluate market performance and develop successful market designs. A comprehensive model should include market features like two-settlement system, transmission congestion, financial transmission rights (FTRs), demand elasticity, demand-side bidding and other market rules. The contribution of this thesis includes development of an exhaustive modeling framework that includes the above mentioned market features and also development of a computationally effective solution methodology. The market designers would use this methodology in the development of alternative conceptual market design frameworks, and also for assessing the impact of various market rules on market performance. The noncooperative bidding behavior of the generators in both FTR and energy markets are modeled as nonzero-sum stochastic games. Since the bidding strategies in the FTR and energy games are dependent on each other and jointly impact the market performance, a two-tier learning approach is developed. Players (e.g. generators) first bid in the FTR market. FTR bids are then taken into account in the process of selecting bids in the energy market. The FTR bids and the energy bids together decide the market equilibrium and the resulting performance. This performance measure is then used to evaluate success of FTR bidding strategy. Several example power networks are studied to expose the modeling and learning based solution approach.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.I.E.)--University of South Florida, 2004.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Sanket Gupte.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 67 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001478749
oclc - 56389696
notis - AJS2439
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0000391
usfldc handle - e14.391
System ID:
SFS0025083:00001


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6Pghn *&/*0 %nU "( # r # EF n6 4, % n 6n (a E K n6n!6 # % D *&/ ^ 56 # !6& K # nVn>6 # # *1 K # Ar&6& K # 5 % 9 C(9 *&/*0 6Pghn gA % (?&] % r88] % 8 ^ ( # &*$( # &] % n6 # % 5 # % 5>>n* d*eee f U r "(? O& #=K ?*I( #% ( % #% #% V K n6. >6&n( % #=K ?>0(*, rA % # ^ # >60 # #=K n ## F,# *&/*0 %nU .*&/*0Cr]5& %8% 5 (c % Fgh ^F% 0&n> % % n W MN"8i *5 # %nW n Vn % ## F, W Vn ^F% # h # # W g8( # (>*&h/*0,Vnn> % % 5 n %&%_^ r5N *&/*0? % # *& % # n&n U 6 n # 52 # *L( #% & % ]* ( gh5 [ 5 # !r*>0gh&/ W g8( # ( 5 ?5 % n. 1, *&/*0C % # n % K *59?*=n #=K 4 ^ /*0` % # % .* % V> %&% %&% ( # >69 K # 5 % *&/*0C&5 % *&/*0C6n:r& U "(V6&6 % n >n #% % % n g # !N # n r # #=K # 59*$ n % 62 # #"! A( # # %nU Pgh K n W (` n % gh5#* % B C[5 % C(`>n9[]* ^ /*0? n(9 K # 4 # >6& K [( # ` # # % n # %nU M9` *>6 W ( #% >n$gh5 %&% #% # 2 # # V(Bn@5 # # # 5 # # % n # % # (!MN"8i *5 # 5 % # >(Bn@5 # # # 5 6&*< % 2 # n # (4 n&*,# *&/*08 % (46n:r& `>] % 5& U "( #% >n 5* % %&% #% 4( n % # # # #(Vn@5 # # # 5 # # *h # n*N 9], ^ *(]* # # c@59 # # %nU J % # c( #% >n W (# n %! 5 % *=, K # 5 % *&/*0 %& # % g8( # 46&n69* # V( # # %nU r "(`6 # *:,!&] % % rL& % &5 5 # B # 5& % *&*RAb *# *n@59 >6&n( % #=K >n %# &6 # r]5& %L% 5 (# % &]* # >A6 ## W Fgh ^F% 0&n> % % n W % # *n> &5 %nW n cn % ## F, W n % # # # ( W W W % W b e WGd 5 % % # >6 # <9n # >n %nWD% 5 ( %> 5 Wh n: W /*n n& >n % ( bb W b d W b W f K K # 5&V*L( *&/*0 # % n= U ` *L( K V % & % 5=n # ( # # # F, *?(c *&/*0% # n % K *59c *&/*0-6n:r& %

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K n6 % 5 n %&% r5h *&/*0B % # %nU Y % /*Pg f % (9:& % 6 % #=K n %B nn # C6 % # # ` K *59A*=n #=K % # r*>0gh&/ % V*66& K h( % h(9D*&h # /*n=, V6n:r& ghn U 4(n& #% # # nnK n6 %&# # < 9 % #% r # # # ( # ]* *&/*0C % # 9 % n. (n&0 # *I 6n # > % 5 # %nU r r "(B6&6 % n>0(*,>>n % ( >60 # #=K # # V n(9 K # 8*$(? n ^ % -(4&0 # n % # *(-(BMN"8i n&*,*&/*0 % % ^ n& % 5 % (9 % # 1*> U # [( % (9 % # 6& %&% 5 n&=, # (V # # 6& %&%4 % (Pg # V .*&/* K (9 # W c(!6 ],n % *& >60 # #=K W (! # # #6& n # ( MN"8i *&/*0 #% >nn % >60 # #=K .*&/* K H #% # QD& %&% (a H Q U "( n&*, 1*># % %&% # n 5 # > # > ( J 62 # *86Pghn 9Pg ( 4QLM 6& n b f Cr %& (n5 # 6 ## *L6Pghn # (! n&*,. *&/*0 #%`% K nc5 % # ->Fgh ^F% H Q # ]*!6&*> # ( ZIQ >n U % # !5 # 9 % n % (9 % # 62 # #"! ^ # *66&1 ( W / Pg % i8 # r n> ZG]* # ( iCZ *( b& W b' W #% 5 % n % ( % 52 # >0(*, U # iCZ 5 % %4% # !5 # %# % >n # > W ( #% >n # &6 > % *;( >6 r]5& % *G& % &5 5&n#6Pghnh *&/*0 %nU ` % [ iCZ. 9 % n % # !5 # *66&1 (g # B* > n >>94 K K # >*=n #=K 4 *&/*0C % # %nU i8 =, b& (9 % K n6n 1K n& c *=, % #% r> iCZ7* # ( r K n*&0gA*& # &&n5 # % (9 % # 1*> %nU r r "( &1 #"! # ( #% ( % #% #% % rPg % R (9*62n d & K # 0g % (V6 # gh&/ # (B*&] & % &5 5&n.6PghnC *&/*0 %nW; (9*62n 6 #% (B 9 % #4 n62 % *L.*&/* K H #% # QD& %&%nW i8 # r n> `ZG]* # 0 *U=W (9*62n f %& # % *&/*0Cr]5& %C% 5 ( % Fgh ^F% 0&n> ? # n*G % # %nUB (9*62n # 5 % % (!> (9 #% *L(

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r "([n # 6Pghn # 5 % :,(9 % 5 n& !Vr5 9*> *G % r& # # #% # ^ 52 # % &5 5& r& &n5 n 6 #=K >> 6=,.c 6 n %&%! >60 # #=K 1K # ^ & > U "(&#*` #% # ^ */ # .(9 % n % ( # n r& K n: # *=, # nn 52 # # ^ # % 6&*<` # #"!# !( #"! *=, # n6 6Pghn6&5 n % U ,6& # #% %nW 6n # & % ]* (n %nW # nn % (9 K > n #% &5> # ( K n6 ^ > `*D*=n #=K n6259*Ir*>0gh&/ % r8n # 6Pghn`& % &5 5 # U n & # Q$Pghn`, % n % + n&*,-+ # nn # Vi8 % ]* ( n ( Q 2+Li W% >*G( # >6: h& ^ % ]* (>*&] %# 6Pghn *&/*0D& % &5 5 # ?*&h *&/*0D % # W *5 # %nW *&/*0D6Pghn U "(6 # *:,Vr 5 % *G( #% ( % #% # % # ( *&/*0A % # *&] W g8( # (&n>62 % K n6 %&# # < 9 % #% r8 K n6 # # # ]*I *&/*0` % # U "([ %&% # *Ir]5& % *L # ]* *&/*0N % # *& #%& 5 %&% nV(n& rPghn[ 1,[C& K # 0g *9 #% # `>n % r$6PghnN *&/*0 %nU r EF # # c % (: ^ n& % 6*[ *&/*0[g # ( # ^ 9 % n % 5 # F, % # n #%_^ 69 ( g # ( 9*?6 # %nW 1 % & %&% % (9Fgh ^F% 0&n> % % n 7MN"8i % # &6n % /*0, nn> % >60 # #=K n ## F, *&/*0 %nU i8n # *L"$ % #%&% # &1 #"! # -, %( iN" # # 5 &n % c& >> % (* K %&% *:, nn> % rL& % &5 5&n#6Pghnh *&/*0 %nUDEF # # ?( % Cr]5& %nW ,V& % ]* (n % ( b'. W b'% W d*e W d b W dd W d W df W d (9 K % & %&% n.( # >6: 4*Nn ^F% # ? # # U "( #% # ]* *&/*0 % &5 5&4 >69 %&% # V*9(`r]5& % #% &n #=K n=, 0g #2, #*W ( (n& #% >6&n( % #=K B>nG*& %&% # *( #%&% 5 %nU %

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r r Q Y b'. n>6(9 % #"! % (9B(>65&6 % *hFgh ^F% 0&n> % % n ( (9 #% r:gA*& % 6*A *&/*0 % 0&n> %+* #% [ (9 `(& 5 % >60 # #=K Cn ## F, *&/*0 U E % 6& K # % # &] % n 6 # n: # F, ( *&/*0-69*: ## 69 % 1, *Pg # (n > # C#r:gA*& n&*,c6 # % % 5 # 6 # ^F% % # #=K !n # %# (V9], ^ *(]*# *&/*0 U Y % /*Pg f ;6 # % 52 (9[ *&8r # % 5>nhn K n&n 1, !n& # n* %8 6&* % 5>n % r& ( K # # F, *$( % 6*86 # %nU "( % % % &n5 ( # #=K %>% 566 # n % (9 K n #% ( *&/*0>6Pghn g8( % 566 # % 04 # (1 U D6 # % 524(9[#Fgh ^F% 0&n> % % n 6& % n K % ( &]*I # > # #=K % r8(! *&/*069*: ## 69 %nU % % (9`g8( (ViN" ( &]*I # > *&/*0 #%`% 0&nc 1,c6 ## K # # % r& r:gA*& % `(ViN"6 # W;% 566 # n % 5 % >n % ] (V(9 K h( % *> 6n:r& # #=K %# &]* # > %# 2(0,[(9*[*n *;( # 86Pghn # ([iN"7 *&/*0 U >0* U d $>n (? # # > #% # 6& n # ( 9], ^ *(]* ( % 6*B *&/*0B % .*&/* K H #% # QD& %&% ( H Q UGT 40[* U d *=, V(Vghn= *& 6&6n: # % Fgh ^F% 0&n> % % n % # (>6& % 0Fgh&/ 5 n: # F, *&/*0!6Pghn U EF 69*: # 5 W (0, # >(# V.g8( # ( Fgh ^ % 0&n> % % ng # ( **&n1 # # (Lr:gA*&[ *&/*0$ # # % r:gA*&B* # W % ghnN % (Bghn= *&[ c #% # 52 # # >6 # # % *D(9 K # % 5 ( *$*&n1 # # (?6& % [*N *&/*085 n: # F, U r r r r "(A> K hPgA*& % >60 # #=K hn # 6Pghn # 5 % :,[(9 % 6 # n!52N( # # % # 59 # *$ % #%&% # % # ( 0Fgh&/ U Z # # # % # (4 % #%&% # # # ( % (:!&5 ], % # ^ #% > K n> V*6Pghn! (n&n 1, # >6 % > ( # (n? *& # % # n: # # % U "(5 % % #%&% # % # #=K % #% V % 69 # # ;n& % # n&*, 6 # % % K n % # #=K -( % % n 6n % (-& K 5 % n r& ( 5 % >n % g # % 5 % # *=, 2 nn (-69],> % b e

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n %( W b'. U # r # EF n6 % n 6n (a E *V% & %&% % (9> # # >6 ?*h *&/*0? 9 % n % # *n> % % n #% (V0< # # *$ % #%&% # # (1 % (9 #% >6 # n1, 0Fgh&/ n # # % 5? 6 9Pg % 1 % 5 % % (9# 1K # % 52 # (.* K .> # n 6& n % gh5 !#& ^ #% # 52[( % # & K 5 % (&5( % % n *L ^ &5 < # % #%&% # # (1 % ( MN"8i %+* U 1 0!* U d 6 # B52B(9B( MN"8i % gh5 r5 ^ # *=,V < # *=,Vn@5 #=K hB(M9nn*;+ n&*,#i8n5 :, > #%&% # ( M +Li 6&6 % n 6 # ^ ^ 6 # V % #%&% # *69 # F, & % n K # %nU 52 & d % 4*&5 % (9 #"! n # >6n> # *A69 %&% #=K MN"8i % g # *B6& K # >*n@59 >6 % # r % #%&% # # (1 % (n % g # A& % 5= # # # > #% 69 ( *&/*0>6PghnVr ( n %nU e h6& K # % 5 n ^ *&5> & -, %! 5 % # 6& K % (9A5 n n: # : 2 %&%8 *69 # F, # # %nW < # *S % #%&% # # (1 %h 5& *&/*0 6Pghn U Y % /*Pg 0B* U( b W 1d *C% 52,c( # >69 *h* # *L< # 6(1, % # % #%&% # # (1 % *&/*0`6Pghn U b W 1d W 5?(9C(B ; # (1 % ^ 6 56 5>n&5 % %# 5 # >( <95 # *D(!5 n&=, # # *&/*046Pghn 6& n % ( # *G 52,nA % nn >(` # & % &5 5&C*;(` *&/*0 rD % #%_^ % # # (1 %nUD (9*40 U *f 6&6 % 9Pg 9 % n % % n % % 6* # *=,B # L>0(!* # ` # (1 % !(9 % &n@5 # & #"! nV62 # #"! # U "(0,!6 # 52N(9 9Pg 9 % n? % #%&% # # (1 % g # # # N # $ *&/*0$ % # (9 #% % #% $g # (4( 0g 6& n5& % 52 # nV 1, :(V`>n # +D # i8n # # # F, 5 # ( +Li U "(5( M +Li (9 % & =,c % n (!>n # *L(9 K # 9Pg81! % #%&% # # (1 %( M$3?i %+* W# 2 5 % #=K n=, W ( #> O&5 # g # (>6 # ^ ^ 6 # LMN"8i %nW (n& #% ?*L* n 9 % 5 ^ &5 # ?( % 5 O& U &0g % 5 % % (9hM$3?i % % n % g8( # >6n> n # *& # % ], *625&B*( % # % % # ( % % n UA E 6 #% ( % K n* % n # 5 %[ n % # (n& # .M$3?i 9 % n % % n U ]* & h6& % % 0g >0( *N* # >6 # ^ ^ 6 # A % #%&% # # (1 % 9 % n. (B6 ## 6 % 5 n@59*$ 2 (9 % 0Fghn # ;n& B6 # ^ ^ 6 # ` % #%&% # # (1 %nU iC # /*40[* U L6&6 % > bb

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*=n #=K % # *n> C> (9 #% 9 % nc ( K n EF n&&562 # [QD(1, % # "$ % #%&% # % g8( # (-59* n`6(1, % # n %&% rL(` *&/*0A69*: ## 69 % [( % #%&% # [ 0Fgh&/[ V* % `6& K # < # # #=K % rI(h # n* (n % r:r # A(B6(1, % # *$ n %&% V(? % #%&% # 0Fgh&/ U (1, # .>n;(9 # % (BZ$.Q (5&=,# n&*,*&/*0g # (!r:gA*& % #%&% # # (1 % *&/*08 9 % n M$3?i #% 6&6 % n # W % U 1 f1e 86&6 % % *5 # > (9 #% r # MN"8i %nU 6 # % 52 (9# % # (1&r:gA*& *9*62 # *4 62 # *h6Pghn 9Pg #% 69 ( >n6& K # % r&!5 # *L 5&& ?*5 # >nIr % n # # ^ n& *69 # F,.]gA*& % 9 % n (?g # # %&% 69], U "(B6Pghn 9Pg r&!5 # -% n % ( # # r] % # % (9 gh5!6& K # h(A( # ( % K *5n!5 % *9( 0Fgh&/ U M # # % #%&% # # (1 %8 B0< nc % # 1 # % 862 # %nUA E % & %&% % (98( E 0< % > # (1 % % 62 # %nW % % # >6& K # % >] % % > # (1 % % 62 # %nU E #6 # % 52 (9 # # ]* %& # >( E % (5 ;n8 *(. # 1 # % .62 # % c*Pg ( *&/*0> 0n& # -(. # (9 % #>n0 % # %> >>n # nn %nU Q Y #% 5&& =, #1K % # 1 # ( # >6n> # *4MN"8i *5 # r 62 # % b'. U MN"8i *5 # r *( 6 # ^ ^ 6 # B # 1 # % 62 # % #%[% # # *4 # #% 69 ( 6& n f b U? 52 # MN"8i *5 # r`62 # %nW K *59 # # # % # # # &n@5 # & % % K # 5 % # n 62 # *A6Pghn 9Pg r (gh % % # >69 U "( #% # &] % % ( >6 # F,-*N(B>nI ( % 5 n %&% g # (( #% *5 # >nG(9 %C ,0 n n> % n U (-*(n!(9 W MN"8i *5 # r 9Pg81# 1 # % 62 # % #% >& >6 # n # #% *# # /*c # #% 69 ( 6& n U EF ( #% >n W (n& 5> `? *& 5! n 9Pg81 % # (C&]*S # V(9h&]=, >6 # % % &5 # *N(n %nU ` % V(?&n@5 # &n 9Pg81B*>5 % (nB ,% # (9 cr&n@5 =, g # ( (9 # #% 69 ()& % # # %nU (1, # )>n8g # ( 6 # ^ ^ 6 # C 9Pg81? # 1 # % 62 # % 6&5 [ >652 # (9* B # #% ]*`g8(0(n4( #% *5 # >n 5 % K n r4#&]* #% # # U % 0B* U b d

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fd $6&6 % [ *5 # ^ 9 % n6& %&% (9*Pg % (B *&/*0`69*: ## 69 % # @5 # &[ & <95&!([< # *$ % #%&% # # (1 %nU "(V69*6n % (Pg % (9 1, *Pg # 9Pg81 6 # ^ ^ 6 # # 1 # % 62 # % > ?& <95&n 2 (9 n W (B *&/*0 # Ag8(9 # # *S< # # (1 % *&> % D5 % 0r54( *&/*0L69*: ## 69 %nU "( # >* #=K # # n&n5 # -( 6Pghn # 5 % :, gA % # >6& K # % 6n ^ r& 1, 6 % # 5 % >n % % ^ 9 % n 6 # % # % ( M +Li (9 % % & >> n *& ^F%& *[n % # # # -6&* %nU?EF ( % n ^F% # # # W (&0 # 5 % >n % *& % ( # nn r& 6 % 5& (&] K # # # F, *C( n&*, 6 # %nU Q Y b'. A52 # % # >6: ? !(9!6 # ^F% % # #=K #n # % # (`9], ^ *(]*# *&/*0A6& K # # &] % n-6 # n: # F,>B(Cg8( % *` 52,n %nU b'% W d*e W d b$n>6(9 % #"! ?(9`n ^F% # ? # # g # G&n5 B([ K nN K # # F, *Dn ## F, 6 # %nU *& % dd % % (9 % # n *&/*0 % gh&/Vghn *&/*0h6Pghn #% ^ n& 9n# 1,> / n % # C& % 6 % U Y ( % 0* U d ;* % # 5 % A(C (9 *&/*0h6Pghn #% # # 1n 1, #=K Cn % # UL PgA*: df % % (9An % # # # # #=K % g # 6& K # [ % 52 # >6 # % 6 # /* %[W *&/*0C6Pghn` &n # # # F, U 2*=, d <9& % ( # >6: n % # 8 # # # */ # 4(8 *&/*0 % >& >60 # #=K U 4gh & K # 0g ( K # 5 % *66&1 ( % r>n # >(V& % &5 5&n 6Pghn4 ^ /*0 %nU r r r "([ #% # >n % # ([ # n5&rC % # # >60 # #=K ?n ## F,*&/*0 % B &1*=, %&% # <9n. % >n % (9 % 52, *&/*0`6PghnC 1, K # 5 % *66&1 ( %nWS% 5 ( % n>6 # # W (n # W r& % # W % # !5 # W % % 52, W g8( # ( *& & K # 0ghn (n& U b

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EF (`&]* ^ # >8 *&/*0A(5&=, ]* # [6 # % *&0n& # n# 1,>(4 59* % % n 6n # %nW % 0n& # n1,#(?Q Y % 4 % # U ZG1*n K # >+ # # % ( Z$2+ %+* 69], &]* ^ # > Z$.QrV n (9V 2 nn % ( # !9], ^ *(]* %& (n5n @59 # # % ( & #=K &n # rn K # # % nPg ( # 9], ^ *(]* %& (n5nc@59 # # %+* U 34 n ^ % & #=K V6 # % r4 ,c n # (94 2 nn % ( # 9], ^ *(]* %& (n5n @59 # # % ( .69],rC n # K # # % nPg7( # C9], ^ *(]* %& (n5n @59 # # %+* U ` % 6* 65 (9 % % % % # (?&]* ^ # >` *&/*0C*& % 0&n.(?&]* ^ # >`6 # %nU r r "(465&6 % 4*GFgh ^F% 0&n> #% (9 (4& 5 % 8 >60 # #=K ` *&/*0 # ( Q Y & `&] U!E B* % -6& K # % # &] % n 6 # n: # F,. *&/*0?69*: ## 69 % 1,*Pg # !(n 6n:r& (4rPg # #=K # # % R > # hVr:gA*& n&*,6 # % 5 # 6 # ^F% % # #=K ?n # % # (?9], ^ *(]* *&/*0 6 # ,# !5 % # (9*&? # % # (?9], ^ *(]* *&/*0 5 # # &n> C ;n % &n> ` # % # 9], ^ *(]* *&/*0 r Q Y (9 %8% n(4rPg # [ 5 % # %&% &5 % r # % *&/*0C69*: ## 69 %nU .*&/*0 % nn % (9 Pg *69 # F, & % 5 % !5 % % 5 # ;n % # c(#9], ^ *(]* *&/*0 W 5 %&% (?& % 5 #% 5 K # `5?> 52 U E *69 # F,& % 5 #%C %& (n5n # ([9], ^ *(]*c *&/*0 W ( # ` ],& K #% # % ;n8 % 5 # # # V(? 9* # V *&/*0CA(?5 # 8 ],# % n= ^F%& (n5n U d

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*69 # F,>& % 5 % % h ;nh&n #% # ; A5 # # #%h% 6 # < *=, % 56n nn 1, *(n8 ;n U 34 n # ;n % !5 % *C 2 nnb eee ')( U ;n % r # n `5 # % !5 % A */*` K # # (nL( %& (n5`rL( % A( %& (n5?rA( # n B5 # U 34 n # ;n % n # % % 5 # &n56 % K 9], % # r525& U .*&/*0V 52,n % (9 K .6&*<9 W # # n 1, Q Y W (9 % 6 # <9 % ( % #%&% # % 5 % % rAg8( # ( # #% n # # 8 % 5 # n # %nU *&/*0D 52,nD ], % 5 # n V # % r % 5>62 # # ( L6n # `9], U E D([ *&/*0 52,n %` % 5 # ` ,.9], ^ *(]*c # %nW ( e @59 # F, #% %&% 5>n U QD # ^F% % # #=K > # %nW# &n> ;n %nW &n> V # % !5 % % #% [g # ( ( b eee ')(6 # *6 U EF n *G # n*S % # % ],# 4 % # n. % 9], ^ *(]*A 9* # V *&/*0 # Q Y # n # n* % # %nU r r E #%# >6: $ *h( #% # # 0Fghn n *9 # n *2 # n*1 %_^ # %nUNEF Q Y W n % # # % %& (n5 % *& # 5n % # 652 %# (5 # > # > A 62 # #% 69 (6&* %nU (4*(n(9 W # n *; # n*S %_^ # % *&?5 % n =,# 5 `< # % 0&n> % # (BQ Y *&/*0 %nU d

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r r .*&/*069*: ## 69 % (9`5 n: */*! n *$ % # % (9 K [ */*[ % n # % #% # % r& ( # >A(9D(0, */*( # D % #%&% # V *69 # F, & % n K # ?( # > (9#(0, % 5 # ( # % # %& (n5 U "( # # #% # % & 9 # >6: ( # % &n1*& # R ( # O& # [g # (]gA*A # % r[( # [ % # %nW (#F,6-* % #%&% # % n K # #(9!(0, n g8(0(n *!(0, gA V #n n # ( Fgh ^F% 0&n> % % n U `8 n *` % # % *&.&n@5 # &n & % n K 65 (9 % % #%&% # % n K # K nV(Q Y 84 E U "$ % #%&% # 5 % >n % ], ( % -<9& ^ <9& 6 # ^ ^ 6 # ? % #%&% # % n K # U +D # *<9& % #%&% # % n K # # # ^ % (9A( % #%&% # 5 % >n #% g # # BV69], % # (9*& %nU "$ (n4( % (9*& %nW2 5 % >n % ], n B& #=K 4MN"8i % (9 && % 6 ?( # % n K # U 5 % >n % */ # ^ <9& % n K # n -g8(0(n *-(0,)*&cg # # 69], % # U "( 9], ^ *(]* *&/*0 # Q Y #% 5 % n =, %& (n5# % # % (9V*& g # # -c69], % # c % %nU "$ % # % (94*& *`g # # V#69], % # ], n # 9], ^ *(]*V< # % 0&n> % V(0,V*& % # n&n # (&]* ^ # > 9* # *&/*0 U r r EF Q Y *&/*0 W # n *N # n*G % # % *&!5 % n =,r 5 # Z$.Q % 0&n> % rL( n n69*: # % B(C % # -*& *h5 % n#g8( # %& (n5 # (C % #%&% # % % n U "( % % n 6n (9 %h # r& # &n1*& # B(0 # % ( U ')( ( % C % # % *& # >6n> n (&5( nrr !"## (a M H %+* W *&/*0V69*: ## 69 % *& >60n=, #% 5 n r& ( K # # F, *8(*&/*0 6 # r[(-@59 # F, 5 n U "(#gh&/ # M H # 6 # n g # ( ( rPg # *>6 U` % # n4> # n* *% e b e ')(c 0Fghn > ^ n 1*`U ` % V %&% 5>(9A(4 nA(9 % e MN"8i)r& `U ZG0(4&]*; # >Z$.Q % b& ')( d*e ')(& % 6 #=K n=, U d %

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%&% 5>`(9h( n % 566 # % b d !' [( 0Fgh&/(1* ]g % [* *S* b ee U "( % 0C*$< # *; % # % (9 */*4rA( #% *&? % rPg %nU "( % % n 6n ( 69], % -(> n4r(>6Pghn[ ( % # & W g8( # (.*>5 % b d 8b& (ad*eA b& e dd "(! & #=K % 69],> 8r& (?1*-rA(B*>5 8*hb ee d*e d*eee "( M H % 0&n> 4r(V # n* # ( #% % &n@5 # & % (V n-69], (?1* *>5 8n@59* (ad*e ^ b e % e % ee "(5 % # % n (9h( n #% (nn*1 #% % # (9*& % (&5(-MN"8i c(V1* #% (nn *1 #% `( % 6*4 *&/*046 # % (&5(c(! # n* UBEF ( #% ( % #%nW =, # n *G # n* % # % *& % # n&nr>n # !65&6 % %nU e

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r r) EF n # 6Pghn 0Fgh&/ W (> n # 6 % 5 % >n % *& n (&5(-Br&n ^ 9Pg # # *G % #%&% # #% # 52 # # %nU "$ % #%&% # # % (9 K (n& # # %nW &] #=K 6Pghn W % # # F, # # % g8( # ( !5 % # # n # &n >6& K `(? K n&(] # *$(?g # & % # # (? K n*G&n # # # F,>*$( % % n U "( % 86(1, % # # # %$ % # (A ^ #% h> K n> L*6PghnL ( W # 6n # % ( # (n WS% >?*N(BPghn % C n % ],% # n :52 ^ ^ >n # 6 % g # ( ( # (n % % *& &5 U "( #% 6( > #% n&>n) % % #%&% # % # W g8( # ( #=K % #% % 69 # # ;n& % # n&*,6 # %nU "( % C* % # (D % #%&% # 4 (9*& rG> K # n&*,4r& #%G% # >6=,C(D # ;n& ( 6 % # #=K h n1 #=K # n&*,!6 # % 0Fghn (hFgh %nU "(n& #%N 4*(n % # % # ( # nn # *h n&*, *&/*0 U +D ## F, *&/*0 % 5 % .cghn80< n % #%&% # # (1 % *5 # (n( *&/*0 69*: ## 69 % r& ( K # # F, *( % #%&% # (9*& %nU r rr r r r n & # B E W ? % #%&% # # (1 #% B6&6n:F,> # (1 (9A*Pg % # % (n n %&% 6: # *N(? % #%&% # *69 # F, U 34 n*=, W V % #%&% # 6&6n:F, # (1 % #% % *A(&n >6 % R-b (> # (1B.& #=K >< # *L 0< % n #=K n r& ( 5 % #*( *69 # F, WLd ( # (1[c5 % ( *69 # F, W (# # (1Bc 2 5#*(n % r& n %&% # V( *69 # F, U "$ % #%&% # # (1 %h 0< n. % # # *I( % b

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(&n >6 %nU 8*66&1 (!4 2 # # ` % #%&% # # (1 %#% 65&n=,[< # #V ^ 5& U 5 ( < # *S # (1 %nW % B/ Pg % 69 %&% #=K # (1 %nW 6& K # C *&/*0h*n % #*(n *&/*0 69*: ## 69 % #% &5> Lr % &5 # ?< # *(n %nU "( % #*66&1 ( # % < # *I 0< % g # ( *69 # F,& % n K # % %& (n5 # 6 # # F, #%C *n ( *69 # F, ^ & % n K # *66&1 ( U "(( # &*66&1 ( # 5 % *S(&n >6 % #% / Pg % (?6(1, % # *G # (1 % *66&1 ( U "(!0< # # *D % #%&% # # (1 % r5:(n`n6 % (Pg(B % #%&% # ^ 69 # F, #% % 6 # <9n #>] % 5&n U "(n&4*&CFgh >> gA], % % 6 # (C % #%&% # *69 # F,c*L( 0Fgh&/ U !gA], #% >652[( 6 # ^ ^ 6 # 8 % rn *69* # # # %nW (?*(n #% % 6 # ,#(?6Pghn 9Pg *&:, # *69 # F, r] (. # />*$( 0Fgh&/ U "( 6 # ^ ^ 6 # C0< # # #% &*n # g8(9?(9 % n >> =,/ Pg % ( >69( *66&1 ( U Pgh K n W (% rn *69* # # F, 0Fghn Fgh 6 # % # 0Fgh&/ (9 % # 55 % =, % (#69&n 9Pg (9 %nU EF % W ( *69 # F, *`] ( # / #% 0n& # n 1, 6(1, % # *A % %&% # n g # ( ( # / #% n*=, #% % # #=K [#(V6Pghn 9Pg 69&n U M9& (V62 # % #%& 5 %&% n K W gh %&% # % #%&% # # (1 % #.% # 6 %&% # ?gA], % R?b 6 # ^ ^ 6 # ( QD"8Q < # *I # (1 %nW d 9Pg 9 % n < # % #%&% # # (1 % ( MN"8i %+* W QD"8Q *69 # F, & % n K # %nW$f 9PgX 9 % n *69 # F, & % n K # %nW QD"8Q76(1, % # # (1 %nW 9PgX 9 % n 6(1, % # *L # (1 %nU "$ %_^ #%&% # 5 % >n % g8( @5 # & 0Fgh&/ % #%&% # % n K # .*&* n MN"8i % 59*$ 9 % #% 56.>( # ` 59*$6]*/1* U "( % MN"8i % *&[ % # n >69( % r& % 6 # < n % ( # C*&n1n.1* %nU "( <95 # *DMN"8i %8 [* O&5 % n 59*=,Cg8( *69 # F,.& % 5 % *&!*n `& % # n U "( #% & % ]* ( #% r 5 % n QD"8Q < # *; % #%&% # # (1 %nW g8( # ( #% r5:(n8 #%& 5 %&% n U r r r r `g n % ( # 6 *`QD"8Q MN"8i % g # # >(-(n[ -69 # (# ;n& # ( % # >6 % *4( # *86 # % 0Fghn ( % 6 # < 6 # ##6 # % 1d

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& # 624 .( % 6 # <9n 6 # `C6 # % # O& # U "( % !69],> % ], % 5 O& 6& # 5 n % > # # %nU QD"8Q MN"8i % *&` # & # ],> `0< n# (nA % # 1 # % G62 # %nU QD"8Qc # 1 # (n % *&L # n4C69],> % g8( (L # ;n& 0Fghn (! # *I6 # % #% 6 % # #=K W *&V* % # 1n*/*V69],> % g8( ( # *6 # # ;n& #% n1 #=K U QD"8Q 62 # (n % g # # n!?69],> % g8( ([ # ;n& # (B # 6 # % #% 6 % # #=K W 52`g # *` [ # 1n*/* 69],> % g8( (# *D # ;n& #%[ n1 #=K U E ` MN"8i (n[ % # % n&*, 0Fghn Fgh!6 # %nW ( % # # (9*& % 69 # #*&` (n 1,>( % # & # ( *>5 [ % # &n #% %&% (9 [n@59* .(#(nn @59 # F, UcEF ( #% gA], W MN"8i (n (9 K B6 # n: # F,(4n #=K n:,-*N n&*, %& (n5n W (BMN"8i (n % *&69 # V(8*66 # A& % %&% # nVg # (V(8 # (1 W &n1*& %&% *g8(0(nD(0, %& (n5 % #%&% # -% n K # B U r r ` MN"8i % 52 % # c! #=K # > !5 % [ % # !5= n5 % =,cr] % # U-EF *(n gh& %nW ( % #%&% # % % n 5 n % 5 # F, ^F % # n # # % !5 % n >>9 *D(#6* # *L n&*, 9Pg % &n6& % n 1, 52 % # % 0V*CMN"8i % "( % % n % # % 5 % n # >n # ?(MN"8i)* # 6& %&% rLr] % # # # F,[g # S % #% g # (#(4>n5 % n # 0n& # # B(49], ^ *(]* #( % 6* n&*,# *&/*0 Z$.Q %nU MN"8i % *&->nn % n # !( % 5 ( 6 # V* # O& # 1* ( % # / ( 6 # ?* g # (]gA* U # !5= n5 % M9] % # # # F,"$ % % ( 2MN" *& &5 r,]*&=, W > (=, W #ghnn/=, *=, % #% 6n # %nW g8( 0Fgh&/#& % 5 (9 % *& % 5 # &n W 5 # ([0n& # # (?g # # @5* % r(!MN"8i*5 # U 2MN" #%8 *& # n.52 5 % # [ H 6Pghn 9Pg)* # (g8( # ( #% >60n=,! # ]*D ^ # n #=K 8* # ( U "( H 6Pghn 9Pg 5 % 9Pg % % #%&% # # % g8( # ( *& 5 % n ( / ( K # # *`( % 5 # F, % # %nU "(.*66 # # *C(c2MN" (* # [*5 # *8MN"8i #% # n % 5& (9B( % # & %! n 1, ( E

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g # % 5 # ( 69],> # 1 # % MN"8i (n %nU "( % # & # % ], K n:(n %&% #% 5 # 8 r5 r5 69],> % MN"8i7(n % # $(n& *&[ % #%&% # 52 % (94&n5 V % rn *69* # # F,g8( # ( gA % %&% 5>n # (>2MN" U EF% 5 ( # 5 % %nW ( E g # ;6&4(4 % #%&% # # (1869],> %nU r r r r EF ( #% & % ]* ( gh&/ W MN"8i *5 # =,r # 1 # %nW % 6 # n # ( Q Y *&/*0 W #%> % # n&n U MN"8i *5 # r 6 # ^ ^ 6 # > # 1 # % #% % # # *! # #% 69 (-6& n U Q Y #% 5&& =, # (6& %&% #1K % # 1 # !MN"8i *5 # r62 # %nU "( K *59 # r % # !5= n5 % r] % # # # F,r62 # % 6& % % % # # < # &] % # >6 # F, f b W % (n& gh5 > *& 5! nB*A62 # F,6#MN"8i % K n:, *& 5! nB* % # %nU "( 62 # #"! # K nB( % # ?r5 # % gh5 &n@5 # & K *59 # % ( # #n% *& 6 n .9*5 # U 5 n %&% g # ( ( #% *5 # >n(9 % n n> % n U QD&n # # *:, % 5 # % % 5 % (9 (?*5 # rA62 # % # (1hgh&/>rh( H L^ ZG1* # >6n> # # Q Y W 52A(4 # >6n> # # 0g &/gh5 V>&!*A (9* U[EF ( #% ( % #%nW MN"8i *5 # r # 1 # % #% % # n&nr>n # !65&6 % %nU MN"8iX*5 # *Pg % (>Q Y *&/*0?69*: ## 69 % % 5 # ? # % 52, & % # 59* MN"8i %)( &n # # n # # # * # 9 % n. 59*I6]*/-1* % 5 # C ;n % % n #% # MN"8i %nU +L ( # c 52, MN"8i %!% % (# # !5 6 # # % 6n (9C([ 52,n #% g # # !#69],r8(9MN"8i USE `g # G69], #>&?(9 # % # W 52 ],.69],. %&%nU?EF ( % *>! n W ] ( # c % n MN"8i % 0< !(V # # !5 6 # # % 6n' (9 ( % nn #% g # # 4! n n62Ar (9AMN"8i UE hg # % n # % MN"8i r %&% (9 # % # W 52 # 8 ],#& #=K B>& U "(865&6 % 8*(8MN"8i *5 # #% 4 # # h4>&A& 5 % h # @5 # *&/*0Dr MN"8i %nU "(`MN"8i)*5 # # #"! % (` # ,>*IMN"8i # B 1,>6& K # # [*52 # & <95 # *MN"8i %nW g8( # # # # ( % # !5= n5 % r] % # # # F,4*9( % % n U "( *f

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MN"8i % @5 # &n # MN"8i *5 # (9 K ?Bn& *$ `> ( U "(0,-*&4 K # 8 0Fghn % # 5 % > # # 5 % % rVg8( # ( Z$.Q #% 5 n U MN"8i % ], % # n r& # O& # g # (]gA* # % 52 % # *8Q Y U "( % -MN"8i % (n (V(n?*1 #% % # 69],> % Q Y g8( ( # 4 n&*,cn #=K n:, #% % #% g # (-(BMN"8i % 0< # # U r r r r "(?rPg # # r& # #% 5> #"! % Q Y MN"8i7*5 # 5 % # %&% &5 %nU .*&/*069*: ## 69 %* % 5 # ;n % % n4MN"8i % (9-(0, *Pg % 5 # & # > U MN"8i &n@5 % (9 #% *66& K n 1,cQ Y 52 <9&>nc 1,cMN"8i 5 % >n` 1, % !* @5* # -6n # #% nn>n g # (]g U Q Y */* % % ? ;: % >60 (A6& %&% # 4** % #%&% # [% n K # &n@5 % % #1K K # MN"8i % (9L*& % 5 # &n 6 # h % 4* *5 # @5* # 6n # U ,BMN"8i % *66& K n[5 nI<9&7 % #%&% # ?% n K # hI( % L*2(h*5 # 6n # (9!*& 0< n rB(#*5 # > ( *! ;n&n r % # (#*5 # *& >nn % < n # O& # % # *5 # *=, % #%nU `5 # @5* % *&< # *=, # # U MN"8iX*5 # & K 5 % *&> #% # 52n ( i8n # *D"$ % #%&% # &1 #"! # % ( iN" %+* U r r "(4MN"8i *5 # ]* % 9 % n# #"!# 4( 0 # ^ 9 % n K *5`*$MN"8i) # % ;n %>% 5 # &n # (.*5 # U EF (. 59*CQ Y MN"8i `5 # W ( #% ]* # 6& %&% #% 6n:r&>n-5 % # V! # ]*h6&*X(9>n % % 5 # F, % # % # 5 #

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M # 5& U b U 2*>6 5 % 0Fgh&/ ( `62nr& Q Y n % # *( & *1 # % % # # ,B K %nU % # >6 # <9n? # C*66&1 ( #% #%& 5 %&% n (n&(9 gh&/ % ghng8( (n& #% =, % # # # % #%&% # # # # U "( % n # 6& %&% #% 9 % n. 5 # !( % ` ; #=K %&% # Vr8] (. # ;n % 5 # &n # #(>*5 # U "( % B ; #=K %&% # 5 n 1, #=K # # ( 6 # # % n ;n? 1, ( 9Pg % % # #=K # F, (>MN"8i ( % # n % #%&% # # U "( 9Pg % % # #=K # F, #% (`6: # (4MN"8i @59 # F,>(9 9Pg % ( % # n # U "(?rPg # % n6 % *&45 % nr8]gA*& # V(? # %nU CgA*& # % r& ( # ( % Pgh % % ; #=K %&% 5 # ?*?MN"8i *69* # # F, #% 52 # #"! n U >69*& % n` ;n % ; #=K %&% ( % -*? % *& # *8 # U7E % -0 ^ r #=K %&% % n8 ;n #% K *& # *h # % ; #=K %&%nW8% n ;n #% ]gA*&n U ` # # *G # % *&[]gA*&n. % 5>B(!MN"8i *69* # # F,# *[ K # 45 # n6 d i8n6]n6 % b Wd 5 # G*GMN"8i *69* # # F, #% 52 # #"! n U C n`( ]* # @59 # # % *&[ 2 # nc5 % # (V* K !6& n5& W ( ]* # 6 # % *& 5 n 9 % n ( *& # MN"8i ( 9Pg % % # #=K # # % *h] ( MN"8i 69(&n #=K CV( *& # *;MN"8i 69( 9Pg % % # #=K # F, U "(rPg # [ *>6 W K # Q Y ghn % # W # 5 % % (?MN"8i # % n # 6& %&%nU EF ( #% *>6 W % *>6`< K

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"N* U b U 5 # % h+ ; #=K %&% + ; ( *69* # # F,B* % # n>Z # + ^ H QN( 5* 5*BQD # % # #=K # F, % + ; C + ^ H + ; #=K %&% *69* # # F, 52, 5* % + ^_ b e fU ee e d d % #b' d b d ^ H f1e U ee e #b b f + ^: b e fU ee e 1d*e % #b d f d ^ H b e fU ee e #b e n 5* % + ^: b e dU ee ^_e 1d*e % ^ #b d f ^ d ^ H b e U ee ^_e ^ #b' d ^ 5 %` 0Fgh&/ %C% (Pg # M # 5& bb #%8 % # n&n U8EF ( #%C % W MN"8i % *&[* n->( *&/*0!69*: ## 69 % 9 % n ( # [ 59* 6]*/ 1* U MN"8i *5 # #%B 5 n r>b e &n # # *69 # F,# 4+ ^ H n # # # *;* # U "([MN"8i 52,# % *&? % rPg % R # -r f1e ^ ^ H MN"8i f # -r4b e + ^ ^_ MN"8i f # -r4b e ^ ^ H MN"8i f # -r4b e + ^ ^: MN"8i "([MN"8i % n ;n % *&B % rPg % R d n ;nAr4b e + ^ ^: MN"8i n ;nAr4b e ^ ^ H MN"8i 3 #=K ( % B # %nW ( % C ; #=K %&% # -(? ; C Z # ?+ ^ H *69* # # F, *& 5 n % 6 # n ]*& # n? % (Pg # "N* b U "( @5* % *& ( #% n # %& # #&nC* % ; #=K %&%nU M98 *>6 W ( % ` ; #=K %&% r8(>b e + ^_ @5* #%` 5 nc %f ee*e d d % b' d b U "(V ; 4*D( #% # c + ^ H *69* # # F, #% 5 n %Ce d d % 8b e d

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"N* U dU 5 # VM9] % # 59 # # % rA(4' # # 5* % 5* + ; C i8n # # *69* # # F, Q$: # 5* Z # ?+ ^ H Z # ?+ ^ H CgA*&n 52, b e r& d f b e 52, ( b e 52, Z # ?+ ^_ @5* 52, f1e r& f e f *e d*e 52, Z # 4 ^ H (rf1e 52,@5* n b e r& ^ d d b e % n ( b e % n Z # ?+ ^: @5* 52, f1e r& d e d *e . 52, Z # 4 ^ H (ad*e .>' d*e d i8n # # 52, (rf1e 52,@5* "N* U 2US ]* # QD # 5 # 5 # / Q$: # MN"8i (9 ]* # QD # 5 # 9Pg % Z # ?+ ^ H H e ee ( ^ H #% ([.*& # *GMN"8i7QN( + e d d % ee e2U d d % e2U + e 1d*e % ee e2U 1d*e % e2U f "(Vr] % # V@59 # # % r(!g # # @5* % *& 5 n 1, 6n:r& # % n6 % b W$d % %& # n ]*& # n U %4% (Pg # "N* dW (b e + ^_ @5* (9 K # -( ( # ( % % > ; #=K %&% #% <9 % % # n&n r # U "( # & b e @5* #% ]gA*&n% (`&n # # *69* # # F,! Z # C+ ^ H ( b e^:d f *#% &]nD(9 n& U "( f1e ^ H @5* #%[ % # n&n > =, f *e (r% % # #=K # F, *C # ^ H d*e #% ]gA*&n % # 8(C&n # # *69* # # F,! Z # C+ ^ H #%! n& U W ( % nS@5*C* b e r& + ^: #%C % # n&n % # `(9 % >>&? K % ; #=K %&% %` >69*&n ^ H U "(!* # # *69* # # F,*[ K # 1,( % nI ;n #% 52 # #"! n 1,.]gA*& # ..' *h( f1e 52, ;n?r& ^ H UGE % (5 *n (9[ ^ H #% (> *& # MN"8i 69( U 8( ]* # 6 # 4*N69( ) #%8 5 n % R ( .*& # MN"8i769( ( .*& # *GQN( % % # #=K # F, % # #=K # F,#*N69( ) M9 *>6 W ( ]* # V6 # 4*D+ ^_ #% 5 n % ee e2U d d % e2U 2U "( ]* # 6 # 5 # % *& # 5 % n # "N* 2U "(-< **5 # & % 5= % *& 5 n # "N* %8f U

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"N* U fU `5 # i8 % 5= % r 52, # % MN"8i 52, # % 5* % ]*&n # -r f1e ^ ^ H MN"8i d .>' ee f # -r4b e + ^ ^_ MN"8i b e ' f # -r4b e ^ ^ H MN"8i e f # -r4b e + ^ ^: MN"8i e "N* U U `5 # i8 % 5= % rCn 5* % MN"8in ;n % 5* %` ]*&n d n ;nr4b e + ^ ^: MN"8i b e f ' n ;nAr4b e ^ ^ H MN"8i e "( (9*62n 6& % % ?0 # n>6& n 0< # # #?>n # `r*>0gh&/!rD( MN"8i7*5 # %& # n # ( #%8 (9*62n U %

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r r) "( #%G (9*62n$6& % % 0 # n?MN"8i *5 # 6& n %& # 62 # Ag # (4(L %_^ % 5>62 # % */* # % # n # U "( >60 # #=K L.*&/* K #% # 6& n (a H Q >n;rA(? # # V n(9 K # 8*$( % 566 # n % # (BMN"8i7*5 # #% 6& % n U r r r "(V6& n % # n&n (n& #% -0n& # [( >60 # #=K [n@5 # # # 5 # # % n # %# #MN"8i *5 # 1, % # n # (!n@5 # # # 5 6&*< % &]* #"! n # (! n&*, *&/*0$ % (L6n:r& D>] % 5& UNEF ( #% ( % #%nW # #% %&% 5>n?(9$MN"8i %I @5 # &n =,! 1,V( % 566 # n % 1,V(81* % n K # B # # % ( Z$2+ %+* W g8( # ( #% % B %&% 5>n (?rI(h n&*,B1*> U "( #% %&% 5>62 # #% % n=,4`& % # $( % #"! h*( 6& n r >652 # 65&6 % % g # (52 % # < # (> n* # F, *h(>>n # *66&1 ( U % 5 # # % n*, #%A nnnrA65 (9 % # MN"8i %nW rh(rPg # B&] % %nULE $( # -6 # #% !Pg W% 5 # CMN"8i % ], 4* n#& % 5= # # ( % 566 # nh69], # M # 5& U b U "Agh ^ # n`n # M9*>0gh&/ f1e

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( # ( % # % %nU (V*(n?(9 W # # #( # (cg # # /*n=,g # Pg n % ( # 6 (B*5 # nMN"8i W 52C ],#>] %&% *N6&*< U .*&/*0?69*: ## 69 % # ( # ` ;: % # crMN"8i %% (5c */* # n 5 4Fgh # >6: V % (9#*& #%& 5 %&% n U .*`( % % #% ( % # n 6 # # ;n& # % 0Fghn ( % 566=, C (81* %nW r g8( # (# n 5C6&n # # *Ir525&? # *S6 # % #% # >6: U *(n # >6: h #% (? ## 69n#* % 566=, @59 # F, % # # ]*=, &n6& % % (c*>5 *?6Pghn (9 nn % .(nn *1 #% ( % # % %nU % #%& 5 %&% n ]*& # n W gh % # n!(&n PO& 6n #=K >6 % *C( 6Pghn` *&/*0 WS *>n=,MN"8i*5 # W # n* %nW g8( % *? n&*, # # # ( 9],B*(]* ( H B&]*1 # > ( iN" *&/*0 %nU "( # n&n6 h*2( % >6 % *& # # *1`(A #% # */ # `6& %&% % *9(A69*: ## 69 %nU$EF 5N>n # `*66&1 ( W gh*62[( rPg # % &5 5& U "(#69*: ## 69 % */*# # # #% # % # (-MN"8i *5 # # n*9 n&*,# *&/*0 %nW % 5 % n@5 =,-5 % ?MN"8i # n** # % # r&!5 # B( # H iN") # # % n # %nU "( # #=K # 59*6&*< % &]* #"! n1,#( 69*: ## 69 % *&( # n ; 8*$(4 #% # % 1,#(469*: ## 69 % # *(&n *&/*0 %nU "( % C6&*< % % n K % (C>] % 5&8* 6n:r& ArD(869*: ## 69 % #% # %nU "(5 %nW ( H ) >iN" 1*>A(9 % n! nn # # (8MN"8i ( # n* L1*> %nU # (> #% # % r4( % >(&n>1*> % *& 5*=, % n69*n # # > W gh >n ( 6PghnA *&/*0hg # (#BFgh! # n&n % &5 5&4 %h% (Pg # M # 5& U EF (566n # nLgh`g # % # nFgh69**n$1*> %nW ( MN"8i *5 # c(V # n* U "( Pghn # n g # L n 5 Br4( H iN" 1*> # g8( # ( (>566n? # n? #% # % g # D >5 % n % # 652 %nU W gh>6& % V >60 # #=K >.*&/* K #% # 6& n (a H Q >n r4( # # V n(9 K # 8*$( >60 # % 566 # n % # (BMN"8i *5 # U f b

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r ZG0 ( 5! n % 566 # n % [(A1* % h *n 1, 5 & % 6 #=K n=, U ZG0 *C( % 0 % % 566 # n % #1* % & % 6 #=K n=,# % ( % 0*G 5 % % # ( 0Fgh&/ U ZG0( % % n % !`( V #% # n6 ( [ #=K 1, @ W ( W g8(n& ( : 0 n % ([* *$r& % n % 566=,c@59 # F,.*L( % 566 # n W U "(>r& % n % 566=, @59 # # % *& % # n&n >( % *># % ( K n*V*D(V 59*N n&*, % 566 # n # ( ( A b V #% # n6 ( U ` % W 0 # ( ( ( & W g8(n& ( & &n6& % % ([ ## 69n6 # B # ;n& ? 0Fghn 5 % % ) W g8(n& *) U "(8nn> % ( *&8 2 # nVr& (C K n*8*(C 59*96 # # ;n& % # ( ( A b 4 #% # n6 ( U C #%& &0 #"! 8(8r& % n % 566=, @59 # F, rL] ( #% # n6 (! 0Fghn # % # # !5 ( r # !5 ( r 6 %&% # K *5 % # #%& &0 % n6 %nU # # *&=, W (Ar& % n 9*26 # # ;n& % *& % # n&n K *:,! 0Fghn # # !5 ( ( # !5 ( ( *&> #%& &0 #"! n # % n6 %nU "( ( *& # # F,.*A( % % n % % 69 ( > #=K % ( 0 W g8(n& b d ( ^ &n6& % % ( 5! nh*G566nh # 5 *Dnn> % ( I #% ( *& # # F,V*G( % 0C*N 5 % %nU ZG0C([ #% # K C( !n6 (c B #=K 1, R W g8(n& #% (! #% # .K *L69*: ## 69 #=K % U "(!nn> ( *) R *) 'V % ( % ,>>0 # # ( g # (. # *Gnn> % # n& * MN"8i # ?@59 # # % *269*: ## 69 rI* % ') U # # *&=, W ( *) R *)' &n6& % % (VMN"8i # 6 # [ #;U #%& &0 #"! [(! # c@59 # F, # % n6 % 0Fghn n& #(4 K n**G(4 59*; n&*, % 566 # n % # # <9n # ( 5&& % U ` % W ( # 6 # #% #%& &0 #"! n # % n6 % 0Fghn n&. (> K n*>*h(> 59* 9* 6 # [ # ;n& % % # # n # ( 5&& % U "$ & % # `(! # .% 69 [< # 5! n W gh! #%& &0 #"! B(! # % 0Fghn (BFgh# # % % %& # n K U Pgh K n W ( #% >n #% *h& % # n # # % %& 6` n >>9 # % 52 % # 8(` %&% 5>n# # # %nU "( *& # # F,B*( >60A #% # % 69 r ( C69*: ## 69 rL ,V #=K n6 ( W fd

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#=K % ( % W g8(n& #% ( 5! nA*$566nA # 5 *hnn> % *N # % 0< `( % (9 % # 6& %&% % (9A5 n& # 8(MN"8i) *&/*0 # K n6 ( # -6&6n: # %nU H 0< R W g8(n& #% ( % 0* # nn %nW % ( % % n % 6& %&%nU %&% 5 # (9V( % % n % K # % W ( *&#%& &0 K *5n W (# #%& &0-69**>0n! 6& %&% % (Pg .*&/* K (9 # U "(` #% # 6& %&% #1K K %h% n # *G # >@59 # # % #6 # % rL] (#% # n6 ( 1, (#69*: ## 69 %nU "(#% # 6& %&%V #0< n % % BR W g8(n& R ( br d 5 #% (c #% # K #r>( n6 ( U # (4 #% # K % 1,#(469*: ## 69 % *& ( % # >60 # #=K ` n W ( # n6& %&% #=K 1, #% >60 # #=K ?.*&/* K #% # 6& %&%)(a H Q U EF ( (9*62n W gh 6& % i8 # r n> ZG]* # ( iCZ 9 % n % 52 # >0(*,#r` 2 # # (!n@5 # # # 5 % n # % rC([ *&/*069*: ## 69 % # *( (4 % #%&% # n&*, *&/*0 %nU f

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r EF ( #% (9*62n W gh6& % 8[i8 # r n> AZG]* # ( iCZ 9 % n % 52 # >0( ^ *,>rA(BMN"8i *5 # 6& n #%& 5 %&% n #. (9*62n U Fgh ^ # n&n iCZ 9 % n % 52 # r*>0gh&/rC(!6&6 % n H Q)>n #% 6& ^ % n # ( #%8% # U %& (n # # ** ( % 52 # r*>0gh&/-n6 # # ( 9Pg # r& # 0Fghn ( K # 5 % >5 % #%% (Pg # M # 5& U b U EF # !g # ( (>>n # -*66&1 ( W (>MN"8iX # n*N1*> % # # nVb g8( # ( H iN" 1*> % *& */* # n 5 # # n dU "( # n # *8( K # 5 % >5 %# *(V( # n % #% #%& 5 %&% n U "(CiCZ>5 # # nb8 n % (8 # % r (MN"8i # n*9 *&/*0 % rL(`69*: ## 69 %nUD % n(` # %nW MN"8i) # # n* @59 # # % #6 # % *&* n U "( % ?* # %D% n K B % # 652 % [(4iCZ >5 # # n dW g8( # (c # % ( H ciN"7 # % rC] (c nC5 % # >(Br& % ( ?n6 ( %( 9], %+* n 6 # %( g8( # ( */*!56 ( % % n % `( 5&& n6 ( U "( #%[% 0V*8 # % 0(nBg # ( ( % # !5 n 1* K #%[% !(4QLM >5 U "(4QLM 52652 #aU U=W ( H 7 iN")@59 # # % -6 # % rh] (-n % 566=, #%?% [( r& % # & K 5 5 # / % # # n dU "( iCZ / # # n d ( 569 % ( C^ K *5# # *C] ( % 566 # n!5 % # c( # r& # & #=K n r& (-& K 5 5 # / U E ( % 66 # # n # 1K n& C^ K *5 % #%L *L&] (n W iCZ /! # % ( % 0 *G # % rD( % 566 # n %nU "( #% 8* # !5 # 4QLM iCZ # !5 # [ # 5 % 5 # % C^ K *5 % rL*( ff

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M # 5& U b U (n # *$(BZG]* # % nc52 # M9*>0gh&/ % [ # # # % *&? 2 # n U "( % K *5 % # 4(B]* n6 # W g8( # ( #% ( % # !5 n %&% %&% (n@5 # # # 5 n&*, 6 # % @59 # # % ( && % 6 # B6&*< % *;( % 566 # n %nU "( #% # r& # #% ( % ?(r& % # [ 6&*< 5 # / % # # nhb U "(CiCZ>5 # # nAbAgh&/ % # % # # *I nN # % 5 n&69*: # # n d % 5 % n@5 =,>]* % (n@5 # # # 56 # ,! V( && % 6 # n@5 # # # 5 MN"8i7* # % 6&*< %nU ED EF g8(9 rPg %nW (. K n*&0gA*& iCZ7* # ( r % K # ( ^ n& % 5 K n*#&0gA*& MN"8i *5 # 1*> #% 6& % n U 52 W 0r&>r& *D6& % # *( # ( W % n6 ^ 1, ^F% n6) %& # 62 # *(c* # ( #% #=K U EF ( #% # ( W ( #% # */ # 6& %&%#% n! nncg # ( # % % n % # !5 # 6&* U "([6&* % # !5 % (V # % *D(!6 ],n % c(!& % 5= # % % n % # # %nW % # n ^ f

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% ( && % 6 # % % n & % 6 % ( &0gA*& %+* U "(` #% # */ # >6 h* ( # (X( 5 % % ( % % n & % 6 % % ]* ( K *5 % (9 % # 52(4n@5 #=K1^ ` # 1*> %nU "( % V # 1*> % *&B( c% K n. 2 # ( % (cn@5 # # # 5 6 ## % K *5 %nU "( % n6 5! n % 5 % nnPg && % 6 # =, B( % n6 5! n % *$(B* # ( 6& % n U b U % <9 % % n6 W (?rPg # K # % *& # # # #"! n RN( C^ K *5? # % r8] ( 6 ],n[r[] ( % W (K n*-&0gA*& K *5 % rB(#6 ],n %nW ( 5 !r[( 5! n K #% # % ] ( % ^ # # # W ( # 652>69**>0n % r!Fgh # ;n& C]* # V % -(? 6 # U dU %&% 5>(9A( # n # 5 n n6 %nW ( % % n % #% U n6 % #% (4n& # # # # n # U ( +L ( 6 ],n W g # (([6& 9* # # F, K *5B*D [ # 5 % ( 5&& 6 # r ( % % % ( # r>( 5&& # 1*> & ( &* U `8*4( &n # # # % *& ( % g # (cn@59*$6&6: # % *D([ 6 # 6& 9 ^ # # F, U J # r& ( e2W b K # % *& nnVr % n # ? # V ( # % r(?6 ],n % n & # VV(B* K B6& 9* # # # %nU ( "( % % n #%[% # !5 n g # ( ( ( % # % % 5 % n@5 =, ( % % n &] ( % 0g % U "( # >>n # ?&0gA*& % r& (V # c ( # % *L( 6 ],n % *&4 nn U (r'* A[( #% # > W ( % ( n@5 # # # 5 6 # rB] ( 6 ],n ( & r?( % # 1*> & ( #% 2 # n % ( % ( n@5 # # # 5 K *5>r[] ( 6 ],n ( $ & ( & * #% >652n U ( "( 5 % r8( 5! n`* K #% # % #] ( % ^ # # # W c( ]* # V69**>0n % *&?569n U ( "( K *5 % rC( % *[ # 1*>?r8([> % & % ^ # ^ # # ( & ( $ : $ 0 * *&B569n5 % # ]* # %& (n> U ` % 569n f

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*&C(`6 ],n % K n*`&0gA*& K *5 % & U "( #% F,6`*IB59*S569 # %& (n> #%8 *n r!) r $( r 46& n5& U ( J 694( 5&& % % n % B % ( # n # # 5 % b U ( *#E I( 5&& # n # > 5 #% %&% (9 n6 %nW (4* # ( # 5 % n6 d ( W n % # > K % n6 2U 2U *:[-r& % ( % # !5 # *h( % % n g # ( ( % ( n@5 # # # 5 6 ## % r # # ^ K # 59* % *?1*> % % # (?&0gA*& % *$(?6 ],n %nU Pg7 #=K B!r& *; %& # 62 # *$(BiCZ # ( U b U ZG0 # n # #% # n6 ( 5 b U EF # # #"! crc*B6 ],n % + br d 5 W ( C^ K *5 # % % & ( &* e (. K n*c&0gA*& K *5 % % & e r`* % % U 0C( K #% # 8r&n@5 ,r(B56 ( $ : $ 0 % ( $ : $ 0 e2W g8(n& $ & & ( &* U *:8( % % n % # !5 # U dU ')( # n n6 % ( M9I] (B6 ],n W g # (?6& 9* # # F, ( b A W ( % h % (! # $ & & ( &* #.% r8( % *[ # 1*> & ( &* U # (c>6& 9* # # F,-* ( % ( 6:, # r& ( % 0 & ( &* $ & U ( # !5 h( ( % # % # ( % % nX&] ( % ( #% # n6 ( U ZG0 ( % % n % `(94n6 ( W & ( $ : $ 0 [( # >>n # &0gA*& r46 ],n ]* n % -& % 5=?*h # %( $ : $ 0 *C ( % # % U "( # >>n # >&0gA*& r[6 ],n #%[ % # n&n c #(#n@5 # # # 5 6&*< &]* #"! n # (c n&*, *&/*0% & % 5=-*4( ( % # %nU *.(9 W 6 ],n % % n?(B # % *$(?*(n6 ],n %nU f

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"N* U 2U K n* 52 > % r E ]*h.*&/*0Br % > ')(nȶ # nVb M95=<9 (B+ # & H n Z$.Q `F, MN"8i7@1F, MN"8i 6 # 56 b b'. f b e 1d*e *f f b d 56 d d d b'% d b f b d "N* U fU K n* 52 > % rDi8]* #% # .*&/*0 r % 8 ')(n&`566 # nb M95=<9 (B+ # & H n Z$.Q `F, MN"8i7@1F, MN"8i 6 # 56 b d % % bb e d e b 56 d e*f ffd b& d d e b MN"8i *&/*0 *[r& (V& % 5= % R[b * K n* MN"8i # n6 % ([n % (9 % ( # (n`MN"8i # (9 % `W d # ( # ]*I *&/*0 W ( K n*6 # ( Z$.Q # ;n& # *h 0Fghn ( 5 % %( b d #% ( # (n[(9 (&]* #% # *&/*0A& % 5= # # ( # (nhMN"8i 6 # % #aU U=W >60 # #=K C n&*,> *&/*0 % PghnAMN"8i 6 # %nW ([MN"8i 6 # % *& % # # < =,-Pghn8(9 (! 59*I6 # B # ;n& # *I & %&% ( % # n # # # # [(?6& % [*N1* # # (BMN"8i7 *&/*0 U EF ( rPg # % # W % 0[*A % # n 6n # > % #%4 5 n %&% %&% ( # >69 B* K # 5 %B 0Fgh&/ 69**>0n % (#MN"8i *5 # ( # n MN"8i n&*,[ *&/*0N6n:r& U "( # >69 #% >] % 5&n[(&5(!MN"8i 6 # %nW MN"8i @59 # # %nW n@5 # # # 5 6&*< % *$( % 566 # n %nU r r r r r "$ # # ,(! % (9? ; ?MN"8i *5 # >6&n( % #=K >n # r*> ^ gh&/ # # *( MN"8iX n&*, *&/*0 % #% &n@5 # &n U "( #% >n 6& K # %B% 5 ( r*>0gh&/.g8( # ( #% 6 # n # K *59 # #( 6Pghn 0Fgh&/ % (9B # (1 % # # ^ # =, # >69 ( 52 >V* (>MN"8i *5 # U d r # *$ # *N 6n # > U "(? % # n* !g # (( # K n % *&B % rPg %nU % # % # ( W ee ( ZGPg W e ( # ( H n +D % ## F,#MS ( b U ( ZGPg W dU ( # ( b

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ZG1*# # (a*hf ( ZGPg W ( # ( % BZG1*C 5 % ( H *hf1ee ( ZGPg W f e ( # ( % BZG1*C 5 %8f( + *Af e ( ZGPg W ee ( # ( % BZG1*C 5 % ( M e ( ZGPg W ee ( # ( H 5!-( ( # ( >652 # *$ # > #1K K n # K *59 # # n MN"8i n&*,> *&/*0 %& # W =, % # 8&n6 # # *;(Cr # *2 # *9 6n # > gA % 5 n U EF &n` %&% %&% (Vn&& % 5 *L( % @59*& W #(9*= ^F & *G6& 9* # # F,6* *I(` A ; % gA % 2 # n U "( h ; % # ? ]*h(4 # DO& # # B( # # ( e B6n # ?6 # ghn& # n 08(?n&& % # U "(&n % n69* % 0 % *A 6n # > % ghn& 5 n 5 % # (&n # ;n& [& % 6 % K # % R b n@5 # # # 5 K n*.MN"8i @59 # F, # d n@5 # # # 5 K n*.MN"8i 6 # n@5 # # # 5 6&*<>*C( % 566 # n %nU "(-<9 % Fgh & % 6 % % # # ( # & ; .*[( % ( MN"8i *5 # U "( ( # & & % 6 % K # # 5 % % ( # >69 C*D(B % ( # ncMN"8i c n&*,. *&/*06n:r& U M9`*G( (&n? 6n # > %nW n # V&n # % 5 % nghn& E + E H M U #b ED r r r "( % # n &]> # # % rL( d 6n # > (9 ghn&&5 (9* ( rPg # 4& % 6 % % R ( b ( b'. % U f W (ad*e U b W 0 ( b& W 2 ( b& U b W1 0 (add U b W (add b U f W ( b& 2U W (ad*e b U b W 2 (ad b e2U d W *0 (adfdU d W ( b'.2b U d b W ( b' U W (ad*e 2U W ( b'. % U W 2 ( b' U d .* 0 (adf 2U f U C n[6*& # -( (9*= & *L6* W # BgA % r5 (9B( # % WN`W H W + W M W ( # n # %B H +*66]*!]gA], r& ( # > *&>6n&(9*6 % % # # < # ; # (Dn@5 # # # 5 K n* MN"8i @59 # F, U "(L ; % ]* (D # *& # n!rD % # h*n&& % 5 *S( % @59*& %nU *=, % #% K # ( #N d

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gA % 5 n)g8( # ( % (Pghn)(9 =, ( # % (r % # ) % # W` ( n n % ## F, W + ( 9 % cn 5 % f W M ( 9 % .n 5 % *& % # # < U "(-* K 5 % # % *& % >0g8(9 # 5 # #=K WN% # # #% 6 n (9 % # # % # ( 9 % n %A% (5 # >69 L(4MN"8i)@59 # # %nU Pgh K n W ( % # # < #*Cn n % ## F, */* % # n& % # % n K # U E #% % # n& % # # *!(94n K # W g8( # ( gA % 6n #=K n # # W 5 n 52 # % n@5 # U d ED r r r "( % # n &]> # # % 7( && % 6 # % # &n6 # & ^ % 6 % % *&L % rPg % R ( b ( b U e W ( b U f W 0 ( b U d b W 2 ( b U WP 0 ( b U b'. W ( b U % W ( b U b W ( b U d W 2 ( b U b W *0 (adU d b W ( b U % W ( b U W1 (adU e b W ( b U % W 2 ( b U . * 0 ( b U % d U "(4(9*= & *6* # # n (9h( % (a % # % # W H ( % ZG1* 5 % W H ( # n # 0Fghn % # % # % ZG1* 5 % c (rEF n # 0Fghn % # % # 4 H n +D % ## F, # []gA], r& (? # ? *&?6n&(9*6 %8% # # < # ; # V(?n@5 # # # 5 K n*[MN"8i 6 # U M9& (. #N W gh 5.(9 =, (. # % (a % # ^ % # H ( % >ZG1* ? 5 % *& % # # < U!E #% *n (94( # ^ % # % # ( ; % (Vn@5 # # # 5 MN"8i 6 # U "( #%nW 0(ng # ( 5 ]*& # nA % n K # % # % # C ; # >MN"8i @59 # F, W9% 5 % C(9 % n69* 62 # *NMN"8i # # % n # %4% (5 V K n6n r K *:, # K n % ( % # % # U

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ED r r r "( % # n &]> # # % 7( && % 6 # % # &n6 # & ^ % 6 % % *&L % rPg % R ( b ( . U W ( % d % fU d W 0 ( %2b e b U % e W 2 ( % 2U e b WP 0 ( b e1d U b W ( % % fU .2b W ( b e b e U W ( b e1d U e b W 2 ( bb'. *fU f b W *0 ( % % % U d*e W ( % f *fU bb W ( bb'. % U W ( b e1dffU % W ( % % dU d W 2 ( b e U d b * 0 ( b U % d U "(?(9*= & *;6* % (Pghn(9( %C ( ZG1* # # W H ( % BZG1* 5 % W + ( % >ZG1* ? 5 %?f W M ( % >ZG1* ? 5 % W ( # n # 0Fghn ^ % # % # B H n +D % ## F, WG H ( # n # 0Fghn H n +D % ## F, % B1*. W M ( # n # 0Fghn % # c % # % B1* # H ( # n # 0Fghn % # % # W H n #+D % ## F, W % 1* ghn&-r5 % # # < # ; # c(-n@5 # # # 5 6&*< % 566 # n dU M9& ( #N W gh 5!(9? =,( # % H ( % >ZG1* 5 % W + ( % 4ZG1*5 %Af H ( # n # 0Fghn H n -+D % ## F,> % 1*c *& % # # < U % # # *A # *I % # nc 6n # > 4 *=, % #% gA % *& # n 52r`n@5 # # # 5 6&*<4* % 566 # n[b % (!& % 6 % K # [ # `gA % r5 524(9? =,.( # H ( % >ZG1* ? 5 % gA %?% # # < UVE #% *n (9>(.n@5 # # # 5 6&*< % *`( % 566 # n % ghn& *# ; n 1, ( K # # % # ( % # % # U "( #%!% 5 % % (9[(#]* # c* # ( gA % c ; #=K n=, O&5 % (n # % n # %( MN"8i *1 #% K *:, # % # K n % # !* ? # # (?6&*n # r*>0gh&/ r-n&n5 n n # 6Pghn *&/*0. # % iCZ 9 % n % 52 # >0(*, #% 6& % n U "(`>n # `r*>0gh&/ #%L >6&n( % #=K % # # %%& 6 # 5 %4 6n #=K # # # *( n&*, % #%&% # *&/*0 %nW Fgh % 0&n> % % n rN( n&*,V *&/*0 W # n* % # % %&% # n Dr f

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# ;n& %nW n n % ## F, W % # n # *L #% # # *&/*04&5 %nU "( iCZ 9 % n % 52 # *66&1 ( */* % # >652 # *=, K # % K n& % 5 K n* &0gA*& % (9 % # 1*> % (9 (9* n #"! B # # # *(MN"8i n&*, *&/*0 %nU "( #% & % ]* ( gh&/ 6& % % ( <9 % >&n>62[ 2 # n@5 # # # 5 % n # % # # n> % #%&% # n&*, *&/*0 %nU "(`>0(*,!]* % # # % n # % # (VMN"8i *&/*045 % # ( && % 6 # #n@5 # # # 5 6&*< % r& (! n&*,c *&/*0 % % (A6n:r& >] % 5& U % `& % 5= W (h]* # `6& %&% # n % n@5 # # # 5 % n # % r *(V *&/*0 % `&58 %&% %&% > *S( && % 6 # ? n&*,!6 # %nU "( % 86 # % 5 V5 % n % # # 8r`( >60 # #=K %&% *L(V *&/*0 ( #aU U=W (V B* *&/*0 6Pghn U %>% (Pg (&5( ( % 52, % *>6 0Fgh&/ %nW (>0(*, 6& % % 5 % 0r5Gr # # # # # % ; # *&/*0C n(9 K # U r r EF ( #% gh&/ W MN"8iX*5 # =,.r4 # 1 # % #% % # n&n U # *$ % # ( #% gh5. 4([MN"8i *5 # r8 *( # 1 # % 62 # %nU "(n& #% &n> 5 % %& 6 # # # (h* # *9MN"8i 5 % # 4QLM U *(n (9* # C*&]gh5B L 6 # (B>0(*, r8 K *59 # K # 5 % *5 # > (9 #% % # (?6Pghn` *&/*0 U "( % # n # *2n ^F% # L # # gh5B h # n& % # `*&]8*& % ]* ( U # # 5 % #% # *&/*0 <95 # % % V 4 % n.5 % # V( #% r*>0gh&/ U

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r b[i U iC*569( # U TVU H %nU % (9 % # 1*>#*66&1 ( r[>n # -g8( % n&*,# # # # n&n5 n-6Pghn *&/*0 %nU r ) r r n WSd*ee 2U d H n69*:> 8* + n&*, W + E U ggg U # U U KU [+ E U "( (9 # % &5 5&[*Dn # 6Pghn # 5 % :, d*eee Rh 569 U "$ ( # &n6: W + n&*, EF r& # ` # #% # W J H n69*:> 8* + n&*, W;d*eee2U f [QN*5 Y % /*Pg U7 # r # n ## F, #% #%nU ` +Li &/ # 69*6n g ffdW # 5&]*5* + # i8 % ]* ( W *! # W WSd*ee b U `U Y U H ], WG`U M U %nW Y ( ^ ( #aU QN U # 6 #% #4 >60 # # # 6Pghn 0 ^ gh&/ % Rh O& 5&n % 566=,-r5 # *66&1 ( U "$ ( # *$i8n6:`Q Q ^_e % e2W J + E W n&/*n0, Wd*ee1dU K U ) r #" #r # r #r r! U E +L+L+ QD& %&%nW;d*ee1dU ?' # # 1 US >60 # #=K n ## F,? *&/*0D % # R$ g8( % *h6 # >n U "$ ( # &n6: W K *&n ## F,#6 # &56 W b'% % U B U ( ; # U +D>6 # # *D K # #* % n # # # # E &]*L # > *&/*0 U E +L+L+ d*ee b % 5>>n$6PghnN>n0 # C69 n *&/*0 6Pghn # n ## F,4 *&/*0 %nWd*ee b U ggg U #% U n% d*eee*e d d*eeee d b e1dfd bb& f dU (1> U % [i U # % U H % # 6 ## 6 %nU EF 5 U 6 U ( )3 UBU 5 # W n # %nW # # rr' #r r! r W EF n # % n # % # 6n # % & % ]* ( *n> %&# WD (9*62n#bb W 69* % b& %b'. 2U$T 51ghn[ *n # QD5 #% (n %nW % W b'% % U b e ?' U& 1 U 0Fgh&/ % rIn # 6PghnI % #%&% # U $ $ r #" #r W2f R d bb dfdW b'% % dU bbB U i85/* K # ( W U H 5 /1gh:( W i U i8 % U n # 4n ## F,!6 ## # ?n&n ^ 5 n[ n # # 5 % :,R$"(A6* # *1r$ # 6=,`6 ## # C6 U "$ ( # &n6: W "$n5 % #% # 52 W bb W `& # &n0 WS % W *f bb W b'% % U b d [i U TVU H n W i U + U X. 1], W U H n U *=, % #% *D n # *&/*06Pghn # # 2gh % # n U "$ ( # &n6: W Z 3 % 5= # W;f % dW +D # #i8]* W 5 # Vbb dWS % f1e1ddW9d*eee2U

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Gupte, Sanket.
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A model for strategic bidding in combined transmission and wholesale energy markets
h [electronic resource] /
by Sanket Gupte.
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[Tampa, Fla.] :
University of South Florida,
2004.
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Thesis (M.S.I.E.)--University of South Florida, 2004.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
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System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
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ABSTRACT: Motivated by deregulation in major service sectors like airlines, banking and telecommunication, the electric industry is undergoing a major transformation. However due to design inefficiencies, restructuring of the power sector, so far, has not been a major success. A lack of comprehensive quantitative models has resulted in the inability of the market designers to evaluate market performance and develop successful market designs. A comprehensive model should include market features like two-settlement system, transmission congestion, financial transmission rights (FTRs), demand elasticity, demand-side bidding and other market rules. The contribution of this thesis includes development of an exhaustive modeling framework that includes the above mentioned market features and also development of a computationally effective solution methodology. The market designers would use this methodology in the development of alternative conceptual market design frameworks, and also for assessing the impact of various market rules on market performance. The noncooperative bidding behavior of the generators in both FTR and energy markets are modeled as nonzero-sum stochastic games. Since the bidding strategies in the FTR and energy games are dependent on each other and jointly impact the market performance, a two-tier learning approach is developed. Players (e.g. generators) first bid in the FTR market. FTR bids are then taken into account in the process of selecting bids in the energy market. The FTR bids and the energy bids together decide the market equilibrium and the resulting performance. This performance measure is then used to evaluate success of FTR bidding strategy. Several example power networks are studied to expose the modeling and learning based solution approach.
590
Adviser: Das, Tapas K.
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restructuring.
market power.
reinforcement learning.
FTR.
stochastic games.
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Dissertations, Academic
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x Industrial Engineering
Masters.
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t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
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