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Gender differences in alcohol expectancies

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Material Information

Title:
Gender differences in alcohol expectancies influence of context and specificity of items
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Weinberger, Andrea Hope
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
bars
drinking
college
cognitions
evaluation
Dissertations, Academic -- Psychology -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: Studies of alcohol expectancies have been equivocal regarding the existence of gender differences. A review of past studies suggested variables that could be useful for future studies such as investigating context-specific expectancies. The current study was designed to investigate the influence of context and item content on gender differences in expectancies. Undergraduate students who reported going to bars once a month or more (N = 321) completed an expectancy measure either while imagining themselves in a bar situation (Context condition) or with no contextual instructions (No Context condition). The expectancy measure consisted of expectancies that were "general" (Social and Tension Reduction expectancies) and those developed to be more "specific" to a bar context (Sexual Activity and Attention expectancies). It was expected that context and gender would interact so that gender differences would occur only for the endorsement of "specific" expectancies when context was specified; however, the gender x condition interaction was not significant for any type of expectancy and there were few main effects for condition. Main effects for gender were found partially following the hypothesized pattern. Men were more likely to endorse Sexual Activity expectancies, as expected, but women were not more likely to endorse Attention expectancies. Also as expected, men and women equally endorsed Social expectancies; however, women endorsed Tension Reduction expectancies more strongly than, not equally to, men. Additional gender differences were found for the evaluation of expectancies and when defining ambiguous expectancy terms ("hook up" and "sexual attention"). The findings of this study offer some evidence that the relationship between expectancies and context of drinking and the interpretation of items may be useful areas for continued research. There was also some suggestion that men and women endorse, evaluate, and interpret sexually related expectancies differently. It may be useful to further examine whether these different responses relate to differences in sexual behavior, sexual vocabulary, or the ways that men and women respond to sexually related items on questionnaires. Information on the ways that men and women endorse and evaluate expectancy items could be incorporated into prevention or intervention efforts to make them more successful.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2004.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Andrea Hope Weinberger.
General Note:
Includes vita.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 141 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001478757
oclc - 56393350
notis - AJS2447
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0000399
usfldc handle - e14.399
System ID:
SFS0025091:00001


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Full Text

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>! rt+brnr*nr2rr r +.nrbnb #rrbbnrb2t r fntb?2 b !!%#?236nrb8AAA(tbnt trbb?2 b!!%(nbtnb nttrbtr?2b6nrb8AAA(nbtnbntt rbttrrntnrfrnrb rrnrt.rb bnbrr(b brrbbbb ntrtb*b+btbnt frtbnr6t-!%&(r bn rbbntbr bntrtrrn rtrtbtbtr tb?2 b !!%#?236nrb8AAA#6t!%&(nt rtrbrnn (brrbb n2t(0rtbbbn nbnnnrntrn

PAGE 48

:A frtbbtbrnr*nn+ nnntbbbrtbfrrtn bntrbbnnrtr tbbnbbrrbn(nb2 r $Kbnnrrnb nbbtnr(rtbtnnt nb@*+nnt6nnnbf btnnn(b*nn+nnt6t n nnb nn(
PAGE 49

: nt.ntbntbbrbb ntbbnr 'bfbtbtbf .btnrb bnbrrtbnbnbnr bnntnbrbbntb rn2brnb 2bbnnrnnrn 0fr23 ,rnnbn2b rt(bnbb nrbrb*nn+nnnb rtbb6t nnnrtb rtbb nnr 0fr43 ,rnnbnbbn nbbr*nn+nnt 0fr53 Lbbnnbrb 6nnnfbtnnnnbrb tb7tbrnrnb
PAGE 50

:8 t$ trrnbb nrt5tn.ntr nbbbbbrnrnn rrbrttr #(bbt$bt,f 6rb nnbbrttnrnnr nbbrtnnr2bt nrnn=n?nrnbn rbnn2bntrnr nbrtt?nrbbnrb nnbtnbnnrntfr trb#rr nrrnrnnrrfrrrn bbtnnbtnnrr r 'tbtt frb2*r2b nbbnbr2 rnnbn2r2tnrn+Itn2 !!:8&(62rtbnrntb btnItn2!!:#Itn231tr8AAA( ?nrrrrbr 2bnnbtn6t nb

PAGE 51

:> nn(frn 2bbt nnbrtrbb "tbt$btf rrbrb tbrbnn*rt+b*+ rrnrnn.btb6t!%&(r tbrtbnrttnt nbbrtb2ntbnr rbnntnt(#rr nbb

PAGE 52

:: /rb n bbt ?n%:"tbbttbntbtbbt ntr96tr4b6tb5bb ntb(nrtb6tbntb nrntb8nbnnbrn(r tbntbtbrnrbbr tnrtrn?n nbrtbtbn 6bbbt6b !t$brtt bntbttb nr
PAGE 53

:' tn trtbr2nbrrrt fnrnbntr $nnAntbtb?n2b rnrrbnbtn= bb/bnrtbbrbn2 rnttbnr*n+nb2b trnrrtbfrt bnbntrnrnbnr ntbfntrnrbr trrbbrb2rrtb2r Grtrtntbbrbb rnbbtn6 b rr n 6b,b7b$bt nnbbn8A= t=nnnrnn b.(tn nrtbbrbbrrnnb tnbn?nr*n+nb2b rtrbrnrnnt b<(?nr*n+nbnbtn bn bG(fr"=J2n 6GA(6 '(

PAGE 54

:" fr= nnnnnbbbbr tbrtbrn nbtnbnttr:&tbbtbfr trtrtnrnt t4nttbbnbntbb== bnbt?n2bbntrnbr nnntnrfrntbnn b2bttt*t+( Ctnbbrbr4 2bnt*r=t+rtn rr2bntn rrfrrnttbnrr bbbrbtn(tbb= nnnn frnbtnbnbtbrnb rntt)rtbbbrtbbttbnb 7trntbbnb>:=nnnn ft'(bbrtrtb bnbbntbr brbrbrbtbr frrtrtrtrrbr b=tCbtbtbbt2brrr bbbrr4*nr2

PAGE 55

:& nr2 +rtb bbfrrrA bb frnnbrtbnb t@(6t nnnb8( nnfr6t nnn'(bnnbtn nbrb*0b2nr22r rntnrrr+(b nn'(bnbrrb*,r bnrbtrrn+(4r= nrnnr6t nnn %&brnnr nn%fr btAr8Anntbrtb fbb2r nr$nnKt $K#. b !%A(nbrbbrnb btnnnrnt* bnr t+(4tb6nnnbtb fbtnnnfrbrA6t nb 4r=nrnn r6nnn%'brnnrf btnnn%86 b.brt tb bn
PAGE 56

:% #(bbt$bt ? n2bnr8A= tnnnbfrnb8Abnr #rrnrbrrtb n2brrnrfrnb n2btnrbrr rtnrrnntnrfr"= n*
PAGE 57

:! 8bt79 rbtntbfttb:'tbt't,b )t$0* n2bnr=662 tnrItn2=1tr?KtItn21tr ;f31!!>(brrrnrnn n2bbnntrt bnrnrttn?n2b brrnrbnrbbr*t+ *+nbrrrr 2bAr2 frtbn*f662+n frnnrtnrbb&&b%8( brtnnnbrrttb 2Itn2 b+ !!>(rnt= nrnnr"%rnrrr rbtb &brtbt)t$"* n2bb brnntbbrnbt bbn2bbnrntrt( brnttn(6nnn2b rtrrrrbtnt rrbrrtnrb b

PAGE 58

'A nbtbr)t$"* ? n2br 7tnb7trnnrtr7tnrn btnrfrnrtbnrn ;tfbrtt,fbt)t$<* fr tbn2brrb nfrnntbbrntt nt(frA=J2n?nb r*A+rbbbnrb*+rntbnrt rnbfrb*brnn +8(*brn'"&b2+!( nnbrbbr:&nt tnbnb(?nntbbbn rbrn*rn+(bbbnr rnrtbbr7tn rnbt?nrbrrb nrntbbr=btbr5 ;tfbrttt,b,)t$9* ?n 2brrrntnrrr ntb*AHr t( b nrrnt(+*AAHrntnr (f nt(+?n2br7t nrrrntrrDntbntnr

PAGE 59

' &tt$btf)t $=* n2b b7t2rbrnn frrn2bb*+b*rt+ frnrr*nn+nnt nnb6t nnn(?nb r*2+*tnt+*rn+(b 2b*+B*+nrrnrrntbbr brbrnbbrnn( bb,rt$)t$6* ?nrnbr*n+ nb2br7ttrnrtbn ?n2brbbrtnrrr bnrbrrbnbr %brt$)t$* ?nrnbr*n+ nb2br7ttrbttrn ?n2brrt>=J2n *n+A(*n+8(Lr2b rrrrt>=J2 n*Lfrbr+(*M rr+>(?nrbr rr*b+A(4r2brtnr rtbrtrbrnn:=n t> trt bb rr+A(* tbrt (fr rr+>(

PAGE 60

'8 n ? nntbtbbtntr96tr 4bfrbrrtrtbr tnrntntb?nb rr7tbbnrtbfrbb rnrn@rnbnr ?nrbrbrtb nbrbrtbbrtbnQAnrr .rb2rtbn2b ntbbrrb< b)(frb
PAGE 61

'> rnnnnrn(fr ntbt rbtrn rb r rrt( b? tnbnnn(frnrnbbnr tnnr2rrtbbrnb nrrrn nnnbr2r2bnn rbnfrrbrnr=bnr t b ( nrbnrnrt r2brbtrrn2?n 2brrtrrbbrt 8Annfrr2bbrn@ tr=nbrrnr nrrrrbbr?nr nbrr7tn2 ?nr*n+nbnb7trr nr@*? ttrt$b ttr2brnr+,rnb rtbrtnbtrrn2J2n r*n+nbr2bb8Annr @(bnn=bn8(tr nn=nb>(rnrn rrrrbbrfrbnr 2bbr*n+nbrrntbbbn

PAGE 62

': brnrnrtbtbrtn rrb2brr*n+nbrn nn?nrntbnrr 7t nnbr7tn2nnr ntnrtnbrrbb ?nrnr(nt2br rbbr,rnrbrtb nbbrnbQAnrr4 nbb bK(brbrnfrtb >A=:'tnn

PAGE 63

'' t n bbt!rbb %:"tbbttbr96tr4b nbrtb)nrbrr7tb* bDnt+nrntbbr#rb nnbnrb7tbtn =nrrrtbb*=+fr=r nrtrnt*=+>8 nGnnbrbb'8'tbrr nrtb &br,b7tbbt frbrnr= rr6f(fr5r= n":&H(>H(trrb rtt,b7tbbt 6fb r=nbrt.=n bb7tnbnr8>rr"&>H ntnr8b%rJrnr=

PAGE 64

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PAGE 65

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PAGE 66

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PAGE 67

'! rrr662nr rbbbnbbb r7tnnrnt 8N":A N A"(r7tn bt 8N!' N "(#rrbbbnr7t nrnt 8N>">> P AA(rnt7t nrnnrbrnrnb(/b b7t"=%bnnrbb7t' bnnG2ntbbnr bnbrntbbbnrb bn 6btbt!r !t$tt trn-brnr bnbrtnr!H( rtrntbrtnr= trrrtbrttnb

PAGE 68

"A rbrnt7tt r tb&"'H%'!Hnnnbbnrr frtnnnt7trtb n-ntrrbr7tb t7trbb7tr2rtrt brn(bbnbbbn2rr rbbntrbr8A=>Atbrn br7ttrn ?nr>!H( n nbr6n>&"HB'>>H(b6t n>'%HB :"&H(brrnbrt r 'A>HB":%H(frttr nrbrtnrr nnrr$rrbrtrtnr fbrrnrb7tnnbbnnrtnr tntbr8&nrbr7tnn# rrtbnnbbnr.ntr 7trtbbrtbbnrntbr nnr
PAGE 69

" 7tnrnbnr rrbr2bbnn2n tbrnbrbtb rr7t#rtnbr rbbtrtbrnnbbrr nbtrrrbbt !t$tt brntbtt btbrnnrbn bbnfrtnrL< nb2brbnrrtr nrr8Annfr7t2bbr nbrnnrt rtrrn nrnbnrrnrrr A%H=:H(rtrtr6nnn rnrrbnnb*+nnn t(fr6t nb nnrbnb nnnb=rb=rnrtr tr@>A%H:8>Hr6t nb :%:H'8>Hr rt

PAGE 70

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PAGE 71

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PAGE 72

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PAGE 74

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PAGE 75

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PAGE 77

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PAGE 78

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PAGE 80

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PAGE 81

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PAGE 83

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PAGE 84

&" b,B?nbrbbrntbbr bnnr .r .= ,r 6LN>8( 6LN%:"( /, =t /, =t + J&:%A ">&& PAA 8On&!%& ""%8 PAA >.tb""%' PAA ':&" PAA :ftnr"&'& '"'% nr%!A PA' &:%' PAA "f2!A%& &%%' PA' & 2rV&"%: "!% PAA %1&>'& PA ""'& PA' *0t+ f2>'8% >>>8 8 2rV:%>& :':' > 2b'::> '''> :4:&>" :8>! '&8! >%>' "1&8&> "&"& &6tn%A& &A"" %)&!"& PA' &8" PA !6tnt&%"& PA' &8"> PA' *2+=@">H@"H(rtbbrr 7tbbrntbbrr 4r*rt+rr2ntbbr b*tn+=@&:H@"&H(b*2+ =@&>H@"&H(frr2ntbbr b*2+=@>AH@>8H(b*nttnr+ =@>8H@>"H(?nr7tbb

PAGE 85

&& rrntb= rbrbb r7trntbbr*rt+tnr 2ntbbrb*+ r%*+ rb8r!*rt+r4rtb bb&r*+rb8r*rt+rb *+2rntbr5rr n*2+(rbr4r*rt+ 2rntb*+b*tnt+r b rtrrbnnrtbbrr nbrrrbf&( /bbrtbbbrn rtbbbrbrnn rnrbn r2ntbrnnr btb4rbrnn rtbrr*rt+r trrbtnt(6r bt*+*t+r

PAGE 86

&% rtrnnn2(rCbbn tnbrr*+rrntbbr rr5tr=nbbrbbn tbrrr*rt+ bt,,rb(tttt Cbbnr trntbbnrnnb= brrbbbrtrrr ntbbnr,r=nntbbr bbbbnrtrrrbb r*+r*rt+ SA'(4r*+ ntbb"rrntbb"> r4r*rt+ntbb'>rr ntbb:'r 0rrtbnbnb rtrntbbrr*+br*r t+frtrntbbbbbbrr4 r*+ntbbrrbb N"N'># PAA(4r*rt+ntbbr trrbbN:!N:"# PAA( bbntnbrrr= nfrntnr rtbtbnrfr tbrnrrtrrbnbr

PAGE 87

&! r*+r= b&rt(r bn*r2t+nnbbnr bn%r=b>rt(

PAGE 88

%A Gnt rnr!t'f frnttbbrtnbbbnr bnrnn?tnrbbnr nnttrrbnbrnrnnb bfrnttbbbtbr nrbbnntbnbb nn !t$bt#tt#$bt ?nrbbnbb2nb nnt0rtbrntbbn J!!(tbrbnnbbbb trtbrrbrbbn n(tbtbbnrbnnnn rtnbn(trrrbr bbntbnntrtrnbbnntr tbnrnnrntbbr brnnnbbtn n(tbbbrrnbb
PAGE 89

% tbb2rnbGnrt r btnbbttbnrnbr< nb7trnbrrtbrnt *+rbrbtnnb rrbtrr?nrrtrr ntrnbrtbn nr rtbrnnnt rtr n2brt2nr rrbrb2btbn )rrrbnrL
PAGE 90

%8 nnnnnrrrtrnrLn7tnbrn4n brrnbbtnnrr tnbrtGrtbrbbr rnbnr
PAGE 91

%> nrbnrtrrbbD n 7tnbnbrrrnbn ttnbrnrnt( tbtr#tt#$btf" 'b$bt frnnnrnbbr 2nntbrrnn nbb bbbrttnrn t bnbnnrbbbrtb ,G2G.n3Cb+ 8AA>(tbr*br b+b*n+r>nbb brbnrnt )rtbrb?2 b !!%#?23 6nrb8AAA#6t!%&(tbrn bbfrnnrrb *+brtrtbbtrrrb bb ttt$bt frbtnnnr nbbr2nntbrb rtr nbrbtbbtnrbr rn2nntrbb0rt bA"'=n(rbnr nnnntbb=t brnbnrrr

PAGE 92

%: *,rtbnrr +(4=t2ntb btnnnbrrb bbrr*nrr+nnb bbbntb(rbtnnb bbn tt$bt rrbrbtbb nnrrbt6nnrb nbbnttbnr?2 b !!%(r tbbnnbntr# rrtbfrnbtrtb ntrttbrrrbtbbr tbbnrr *t+bb(frbnr 2tntbrbt nt/t8AAA#6b!&%#623n2!%8# 6t!%&(rtbrb6t!%&( br*tbnbtr+>&!(r bnrrrrnrb rtbrb 30r!!'# /nGt3/n t!!"(frnrnb nt /n t3!!%# /nGt3/n t!!"(rrrb tn

PAGE 93

%' bb2 ttb ntr7tttr nrn-n ntb b34r8AA>(tb r-7tttrbbbnb r-bb@btrrntbnbb *n+tt(rrbt trrrbrrnrbbn, brntbtb.ntbr r $bbttrbrn bntrtnntbtt 4ttbr bntbntt6brntttbrb tnnrb7tb nnr22trn trrbrtrb b34r8AA>-bbrtr( rtr bbbbrbrrbbrb nrn/2rrn rbrr rntbbt bbrtbnbb*n +rrnntr n7tnrntbnnttrnr2 nntrrttb(

PAGE 94

%" '$bb(f$bt ? nrbbn2b bbnnbrbrrb tbbrnnfr rbtbntnrrrb ntbrrbrbtbbr btbbnb*tn+ rtb2bnnrbt nrbbrtbnbtnb t(rbr4b bbrrrrnrrbbrtt nn@*rt+b*+frtnrr btbG b+ 8AA8(rnrtbrnr nr*+rb frbrtbbnrbbrb btrtnnrbb rrr2tbtnrb nnbrnrrtrrtbrb rrnnbnrnnb rr?t8AA>(bbrt ntbn.ntbb bnbrtnnrr nnttttnr

PAGE 95

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PAGE 96

%% tntrtnrnbr n7tnrrttnbr rbbtnnrrb nrbntntfr tnnrrbbntbrtb rbbntnnn rtnr nnbtnrr bnbnbnttnbt .t!!:#nt ntb%btr+ Gn8AA(/ rtbbnttnnrtbrt rtnntr)rrrb rtbbntb7ttnnntrr tbrtbrnntnbb2 rrbnrtnbrbrnrbrtnn ntbrrnt=r/r tbnnnnttnn* nr 22rrrnrt n+($trrtbtrtbb brbbttrtb bntnn "bt"t(ttn(ttnb =5tbbr*+nnnb btn(2nntbrr*nn+nn

PAGE 97

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PAGE 98

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PAGE 101

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PAGE 107

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PAGE 108

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PAGE 109

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PAGE 110

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Weinberger, Andrea Hope.
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Gender differences in alcohol expectancies
h [electronic resource] :
influence of context and specificity of items /
by Andrea Hope Weinberger.
260
[Tampa, Fla.] :
University of South Florida,
2004.
502
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2004.
500
Includes vita.
504
Includes bibliographical references.
516
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
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System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 141 pages.
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ABSTRACT: Studies of alcohol expectancies have been equivocal regarding the existence of gender differences. A review of past studies suggested variables that could be useful for future studies such as investigating context-specific expectancies. The current study was designed to investigate the influence of context and item content on gender differences in expectancies. Undergraduate students who reported going to bars once a month or more (N = 321) completed an expectancy measure either while imagining themselves in a bar situation (Context condition) or with no contextual instructions (No Context condition). The expectancy measure consisted of expectancies that were "general" (Social and Tension Reduction expectancies) and those developed to be more "specific" to a bar context (Sexual Activity and Attention expectancies). It was expected that context and gender would interact so that gender differences would occur only for the endorsement of "specific" expectancies when context was specified; however, the gender x condition interaction was not significant for any type of expectancy and there were few main effects for condition. Main effects for gender were found partially following the hypothesized pattern. Men were more likely to endorse Sexual Activity expectancies, as expected, but women were not more likely to endorse Attention expectancies. Also as expected, men and women equally endorsed Social expectancies; however, women endorsed Tension Reduction expectancies more strongly than, not equally to, men. Additional gender differences were found for the evaluation of expectancies and when defining ambiguous expectancy terms ("hook up" and "sexual attention"). The findings of this study offer some evidence that the relationship between expectancies and context of drinking and the interpretation of items may be useful areas for continued research. There was also some suggestion that men and women endorse, evaluate, and interpret sexually related expectancies differently. It may be useful to further examine whether these different responses relate to differences in sexual behavior, sexual vocabulary, or the ways that men and women respond to sexually related items on questionnaires. Information on the ways that men and women endorse and evaluate expectancy items could be incorporated into prevention or intervention efforts to make them more successful.
590
Adviser: Goldman, Mark S.
653
bars.
drinking.
college.
cognitions.
evaluation.
690
Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x Psychology
Doctoral.
773
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.399