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Seasonality in western equatorial Pangaea during the Early Permian (Upper Sakmarian)

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Material Information

Title:
Seasonality in western equatorial Pangaea during the Early Permian (Upper Sakmarian) delta¹⁸O, delta¹³C, and elemental analysis of brachiopod shellsfrom the Robledo Mountains, New Mexico, USA
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Guggino, Steve N
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Permian climate
sclerochronology
oxygen isotopes
paleoclimate
climate models
Dissertations, Academic -- Geology -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: Sclerochronology was conducted on the pedicle valves of four Sakmarian-age brachiopods (Squamaria moorei) to constrain climate model predictions of temperature seasonality along western equatorial Pangaea (WEP). The brachiopods are from a Lower Permian section within the Robledo Mountains, NM, and they reveal seasonal trends of &#948¹⁸O and temperature for that interval that suggest global warming and moderation of seasonality. Elemental and SEM analyses verified the specimens were well preserved. &#948¹⁸O profiles show a relatively rapid and consistent two-year growth rate corresponding to the organism's juvenile stage, followed by a slower, seasonal growth rate corresponding to the organism's sexually mature stage typical of most organismal growth. Their initial two-year cycles show consistent, high-amplitude profiles that captured virtually complete records of annual &#948¹⁸O values, and these profiles were used for seasonality interpretations. The specimen from the stratigraphically lowest layer shows &#948¹⁸O values varying from -4.26 to -2.17 minimum winter temperatures (MWT) and maximum summer temperatures (MST) of 25.2C and 35.7C, respectively; and a seasonal temperature variation &#916Ts of 10.0C. The overlying horizon yielded two specimens showing &#948¹⁸O values ranging from a minimum of -4.54 to a maximum of -2.79; MWT ranging from 28.2 to 29.6C; MST ranging from 34.9 to 37.2C; and &#916Ts ranging from 6.7 to 7.6C. The uppermost layer yielded a specimen that shows &#948¹⁸O values ranging from -4.49 to -3.03; MWT of 31.3C; MST of 37.0C; and &#916Ts of 5.7C. The specimens show overall high seasonality for an equatorial regime, but the general trend shows increasing winter temperatures and a moderation of seasonality. The data supports climate-model predictions for the Permian of more equable temperatures, higher winter temperatures, and decreased seasonality. Three numerical climate models of Permian temperatures were evaluated against the brachiopod data, and their model predictions for &#916s along WEP range from as high as 10C to as low as C. The models were supported somewhat by the independently derived temperature proxy data measured in this study.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of South Florida, 2004.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Steve N. Guggino.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 145 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001479814
oclc - 56888234
notis - AJS3945
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0000443
usfldc handle - e14.443
System ID:
SFS0025135:00001


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6 rffnrttn ?1tb0tn&b$(tf-tn)bf/tn. ;n&$(tbn$n-nbtfA(&ftn +ntn&b$(F59t+n G5!<' G8. ntrrnn #(!E$0-bnbt&b+$D.? (&bn$nbtffbbnAf bb$ntn$nbt+n (nbntbnb.?0-bnb(f(n&b+&b (.#nntt$fnn&ftn$tftn&b( !E)nbb&&nnn&nnb$0-bnb t+bbft-bnb&nbbb'(t)bnb.?b&$ &-btftt(bnnt ,&$nt&(+nnb b(t+ntt9t+n G5!<' G8 D&t. GGE. ffffrntr !n"nttrf &nbbtfnb$n-nt(t& )nnnnb( &b$(tf-tn0-bnb& bntn&bn(85.? "(tt1nbbD=ttf1nbD+)nnnnbnb bbtf)nnnnb&bnb'(t)bnb. "bbtf )nnnnbD+bbft-bnb&bb ftnn&nttbnb(-.?"(tt1nbn&$nbA ( tnAftn(+b $ntn$ ntftnbb ntb.?D=ttf1nbn&$nftt+f &f $ntn$tnbnb((f&t&tbntb.%

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6G $nb&bnb(bb&t &nbn (fHb b(&n 9t+n G5!<' G8. nrrfrr#t!r$nftrnfr$fftr$r"%r ?tn&b$bbft-bnbnbbb'(t)bnb n(687.?#b((8.En& b(t.?f &$ ntftnb.?$tnbnA&btt0nbnb( (F6n&b&$n&ftnbnb(+n bt tftnb.)nnb(,ntf55n&b nbtfbt tA$nbtnbnb(+n&t&t.? =nntnb((5En&b&n$nbb&f tnbbbt nbA(tnb. t&nnr'fttrrnttrttr ?btfnb&nb'(t)bnb$D+nb D+)ntrt$&nbQ#tnbnb.?(tnb& &tn$n(tbnb%1nb+f&b$(tf-tn =nntnb.?%1nbnf&nbnb&)bnb +ntntfnbnb(b&$nbtnbb( 9t+n G5!<3b GFE<"t. GG.;b'(t)bnb %1nbn(En&b&bn$nb(&f tnb n-tnb ntt&bttnb t b &btnn&tb' G8<"t. GG.?&b($b nbbbb&bt$'(t)bnbbfb bnnb$nbtfnb$&n$bbft-bnbnbb

PAGE 41

!7 &f&tn&tnbnbnnbQ&bnbbtQnb&&nH D+nbnbb*+),n&4+tft. GFE
PAGE 42

! 1 n 6 n n $ n & n n ( ) n ? $ $ n $ 4 & / 1 < n n 1 < ( ) n 1 < # & 0 1 1 n ( n ( ) n ) n $ n $ D & G G

PAGE 43

!6 &t.#nnbttf 4&&nbnb'(t)bnb&t+tt+n 4&/nb1btnb)bnbbnf&nbnb4& )bnb +?,D&t. GG(.D&t.GG(n-n4& /nb$$nb+n&;+ntt&n(nbnttt"tbf 1nb&n((6"bnfn1nb !'(t)bnb 1nb b8#&01nb1n.6.?nb$$nb &nnb+ntt&bnb$nnbnntbb&t$tt+(fbb&t $D&t.GG(. -n&fnbnfnb'(t)bnb &tn$n4&&nb4&1nb.?bG86nbnnttf b4&Dnbnb'(t)bnb(f&tnb$tnbn$b $t+t$$bn+n$bnb4&1nbf&nb nb4&)bnb$+?,.9t+nG57 (
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!! t&n(ntnn)nttrttr ?t"tbf1nb+&n(nb-n&nb. n(ntnn)trttr ?"bnfn1nb&b$(tf-tnt"tbf 1nb bn&,bn-tfnbb'(t)bnb.;n ,ntfEn&bnb$"bnfn t(ntnbA bf2$$nbPf&nb.?$nb&b( &n((+bnAffnAbb&$nb(t &b bn&n.#,ntft$$$nbn&n$tA $nbtbntb.?tA$nbbntf&bb n&n./nbbb&t&bnbb$$nb ( b(bb&bbn&n.?&b( $ntn$b&bnb(bb(fHb (&n b&D& t. GGE.#t&nb nbtnHt$fb-(b &-$f&t&t(!(t+$$nb.? (t&b&+nbtfnbt"tbf1nbn$n &t&nn$t"tbf bn&b&n($t+ (ntn&n&tn&$-tfnb'(t)bnb1nb1n.63b GFE<' G8
PAGE 45

!8 bn$$nbn&$nbtbbttnb b bnn&$bbnb(bb.t tfnb tnb bnbb$(ntbbb nb$$nb1n.6' G8<)&b3 G5<)& t. GG
PAGE 46

!E &bb(nb.?nbnn&&nH(f,bn-ttAttnb bfttntt(b.&b&bnbnb+ttntn&n$nnbnb-( $b&b bnbAnb ntn&n$n$nt+nbtn$b tnb&Dbt. GFE D&t. GGE
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!5 60b,ttbn ?&b$tfnbt&tnttb+b ntbrnnbb&$bbbt&n&tnb b nb&nbntb(n&tnnf bbbtnf nbtfnb&nb&bnbbtnfb&nnb.? (nbbnb$nnbnnbt&nnb+nnbb/b+bnbnb -b$bb++f$bt.?n tnbbtt(t+nbb&bnbbtnf bbt &n&tnb b,bnb$nnf (t$$&$t(t (&nb(t+ntbb&btnfbn +nb"+tf GG<9H(&b/ttn GG
PAGE 48

!F 60&7b89,t btnn"bbtn# ?12nAInttH+ft. GGnb&-t -n(tnbt&tnn&&bnnb$n&&n&tnbb &nnnbb.;nnAbnn-&ntnH tn&-t$&nnnb&t(. H+ft.GGntnHn,nbtfnb nb.?ntf&bn$n-&bn$&nnnb n&$$&<6tbM(H
PAGE 49

! bnbbbt.;bn t+A f$-ntnb$&bnbbb,b$ !7Lbb$1n..?t+AHb (n&tn$nbbt $&nbb+ bb+nbn&nbtbbbn$r b ++nbtbbn$r1n.H+f GG
PAGE 50

!G 1n!.t$bnb9Hbnb.?+b nbbt&n&tnbt/")(f"+tfGG.33#<(031
PAGE 51

87 $9Hbnb6EE)nb/").nt+ btnb&&+nnbnbn$ /b+b$,ntf57Lt+1n.!&.?nnbbbtnf +tb&nn$&tnbnb+nbb n &t,nnfbtnt-nb.rnnbDbn $btnf+bbb&nb/b+b tntfn nb&$bbtbnttt,b$,tb ttnnt&nnbn&&tb,bbnb$Dn "b"+tf GE.#tbntnb /")+t+ btnf&nAbtn.4+tn& bt-nnb$tEL"tb bnbn&nb$n btnf+b&\!L"bbtn$$b&$b bt$n&tn&bnbbt3-b%b"+tft. GG< n&bf GG7<"+tfb* GG<"+tf GG8<)nnb /b GG8<9nt(bb@nbb 6778. 60*-"b,t 5,# 9H(&b/ttnGGntnHbn&t&tnt&n bb&tn$Dnb?nb<&.6E7A677).?nn$ n+&b(&nb,nnbbbt&n&tnb( bt,b$&bnbb.-tbnn-nf,nb+ &n&nb$n(t&tn,nnbb.? nb-nntnHt$bbtfbt&tn &n&t-nb nb&&nn&$tb b&b b+&b" 6 t-t.b+$nbnbttb &nb$FEL*FELtn fn&( bn+n

PAGE 52

8 ,b$nb&$7LntnbG7Lnttn. ?nntnHb&-!5J$P$&.?&tnA$&nb tbnb&tn,Atf&b+n$E7 b-t(t &nnnb$777f bb+A$-$&t(.? t+ttn+nnb-b(--n f$tb$&&tb &b n& bb+<6fn&t& nb&tnbnnb&btt(f&t&-btnb$t, b tb bn(t b&b-&nb
PAGE 53

8 6 1 n E # $ & n 9 n $ $ & n n n n n $ 9 H ( & / n G G 8 1 n 8 $ & $ $ 0 3 1 ) # ) 3 3 # ? [ 7 n ? Y n A & & & A & ? 7 & + n n $ n & $ 9 H ( & / n G G 0 3 1 ) # ) 3 3 #

PAGE 54

8! b&b+&-.?tnb&tb-ttnb&nbtb$& (f-t.4+nbn$n&b$nbnb++nb nb&(ft8L" b+nb7L"n t+(f&5L$tn. 6065-1t #&bfbn&tt+(f/n((t.6776 (t-&b&nb$tfnbt&tn &b&bnbbnbbrnb.?bn&ttf +/t(tb-nbbtb&tn&tntnb$;b&n-f /*;t -nb6.?/*;t&nbn&bt &n&tnbt$n,tbA$&t An&t bn,Atf &bt.?$b&nb$/*;nb-t-n&nbntb$&tn P$&bt-tnb.nb&bttnb fn&tn&& &&b-nb$ b n bnn-b&b-&n-&t-bn-ft$ .?tnb$tnb&t(nbtbbt&f&t.? ntnb-t$!$&nb&bn&bnb+tfQ nbbntn&+nb<6&bnbt(t" 6 t-t
PAGE 55

88 &bf ;+ntt&b&bbntnb$bt -nnb. 1n5+/*;n&bt-nnb$ (nbbrnb$(ntb&bn& -t.?ntnb+b+nn$$bnt$n& 6 X<8X
PAGE 56

8 E 1 n 5 I $ & L $ 0 & ( A 3 A 1 ( 0 3 1 3 A 3 A # 3 3 # $ & $ n 6 n r n ) n $ n $ / n ( ( 6 7 7 6

PAGE 57

85 :0,t"tt)(nbtn)n;bbt ttn ?nfbttt$&n(&n ttn )nArb" G57.?tf$ ttn tt +tt&bnb(n -t&(n(n( tnbnf tb& bbf+ btn$(n. :0&.tntt ttn #(n$,bf$ ttn ft%&n "t#n&t bn (&nnb $ntf&& 1ntf0n&f&tn ($ntf0n&f&tnb /bn &nn :02,t"tttbt"t :020&5n.btt"tt %&n-(ntttffn&t-t-(tbnnbtnt tb btt&bn$n&tb(&nt-t-nb&&nb +bnnnb$$1n.F.?n&t n$b

PAGE 58

8 F $ P n + n & n n + + ( ( n n & ? P n n n n 0 n ( & n P n $ ( n + n n n $ n & n $ n n + n n + ( n + + $ & + n & ) 3 . G E G < r n n + G E ( ? 2 & $ + n n $ + n & n ( + + n & n 1 n F 1 n F / n $ n & ( & n ) n $ n $ + / G F

PAGE 59

8 :02025ntbb nrnt% ?tt$n&t(&nnbnP,tb bn $(fnb&tf&b$&$(f(f nbttf$nt&ttbbb(f&nnnb$nntf &t&n&(b"" +ntb$nbbn&&b.? (bb&$"" b$G8.5G.5J b)" nbnb ttb bnb$(.877.8EJ3 GE %bt. 677!. ?nbtf$b&nb(&nttntntf&(t$b (&n=nHt. GGG. nf0tr #ttbn&t(&ntt&$n&tf n& 6&t&nftf b!nbb &t&&bftf1n.rnttnb'+tt GE<#Hf GG5. ?n&nbbn& nb&(b&&tt.;b$nt(&n n&nt+f(b(&n n&tf&f.%bn& nftfn& &bnb(f&tb&tt$(bf$t($ (&nbt1n..?tfn&$$nbbt &t&t&nb$nbtf$n(, +ntb,$bt $n(bttt$&.?n&b$nftfnb b7J$tttn&b$+n&b%bnbb"tb GG6 bn&bntn-b($&ttnb-t-nbn&nb.%& nftfntn-tfnbb, n&btf$nb$& (+b&nbbb&tnbn&nn,b$nt(&n bn

PAGE 60

8 G n n n & & n H ; n ( n n n n & & ( n & & & ? & & n $ n & & + A $ n $ n ( n $ & & n n + n 1 n . & $ n ( n & ( n & n & n n & & n & n & ( n & n n ; $ n ( & n ( n $ & D ) n 1 n ? n & $ n & ( & n + n n & n & ( n n & & & n $ n ( $ & + n & $ + n ) n $ n $ r n n + G E

PAGE 61

E7 nb$b&tnbn,(f&n-&-nb$nftf b&bftf(-tfn(t$tbtb nn&,fnrnttnb'+tt GE<"bbDbb GGE< #Hf GG5. :0*,t"tttb"tbtn ttn ?n&t-t-$&nttn&b-,bn-bt-t+nt(&nt-t-t-t-n$t&b&-b(&btf bn&t)nArb" G57
PAGE 62

E &nb$b$bbM&b(.1 f$nb&bnHnnbtb b&tAtnnb 87+$&b(fbbtb<6tnnb &&nbb&b&b&nb-fb(tb& bntb$t
PAGE 63

E6 $nbn&--t-)nArb" G57
PAGE 64

E! :06(nbtnntrbt"tbtt"t %&ntt+(fnb&bt&&nb$&t&nt &nrnttnb'+tt GE (.&+nb&btnb b+ntntbtf-t-.?nb&btnnb nbbbtfnb$bnnb+bf+nnbttfn -nbtntf$-t-nb'+n& GEG
PAGE 65

E8 n&ttf+tnb b$+&b(&ntf(. ;bn-nt+tnb&-ntnb&nb$tttnb,b tttfb+nnb(f&-$-n+ nb -b$&b+nbf(n&(f b++-&./+-&&-ntnbtnbnnb( bn+bntfnb&&nnbt.?+ -&(n&(&n$nbnttb tb$ff 1n.F'+n& GEG
PAGE 66

EE &nb+b$'&bn&t(&n.?fn&t +$'&bn&t(&nn&&nH(fnb&bnbt +nb$n$+f$tn$t$b $tt+(f& nb++2nf$+nn&+nbb.? nnbnnt+f(,tnb(fnb2-bnt&t bnH&n-tb(ntnfnb bnbf& ,tnf.b&,tnfn& +& nbn$n&btf n&nb&$tt+bnb &nb%bnbb"tb GG6. :0:;bbttnnnnbt"t ?,ntf657,b&n$'&b(&n bn btbJ$ttbHn&(&n&n%bt. 677!. ?,b&nn-nnbn&t(tbnb(ft b$ +n&&nbn&ttt$&t&n b+n&& nbn&ttt$&t&n&(b bb+n&&n&ttt$ &t&n&(b%bt. 677!. ;bbt tt'&b(&nn&tfnb (bn& n$bt bttfntbnb$.?f$btnbtnbnnT!7 ttnbtn&bt(n$n$nnbnb(&n$+ (f&tnbnttntfbnt&bnnbbbt.?f$&t +ttA,fb+ (&b+nb(nnf.?(nnfbnb btnbn&(n$(&n (&f+tt ,tbftnb$t,$nbbn&b.4+(&b (&nt&(ntnfbbbtf&(-n n&t f&bbtn(nnfn&&bn(f(bnt

PAGE 67

E5 nbnb%bt. 677!.?n&nn(nb$b (&nn+n.?f$bnbtttb&bnb n& nAtn bnb+b#b&n&.?b$t(t -n(f&n$btnb[E777.)b &nF7J$bY677%bt. 677!. ;nbttf&&b&nb(&n,n+nnbnnt b-nbbb(&n tf+btnnbttf &tnb bfn-nbtf+nnbtt+$b+ btnbnfb.?f+nb-n(tfnb bntnbnftb&+ nntbT!7.)b&nb(&n$b+nnb$&n btt+t$b-nbb bf&btf&n+n btnbbbtnbbn.?f+(bn& n(nt bnb$ b+nn&t&t-( +nt+nnn&t.. &n+nnbbn t-b$t-n+ttAnb)nArb G57.nntb(&n b&nb(&n((tf&t b+nbb-nbb$n(nnf+nnnbnb.#nnbttf -nb&b&nb(&n((tf+ttA&bn$ ,ttnb$nbAnbbnb (&b&nb(&n$b $b+nnbnn&bn&$fntfnbb$nbA nbtnb. ttn $bf+&tt&+nnbbn$ n&nn&&b&&bn(ftt+A+ n&tb(n&t,& &nb tt& &nbn &t b(fHb9 GGE bnbn&t(An&ttt+t$$&n.

PAGE 68

EF =03btn '&b&nb$tHn&nn&nbbb-ntnH nbnbbn&b(nbn&&(b&bnb$ttnb n, b&b.t. G5<#Hf GG5<#Hf.t. GG.rb &n&ttfbtfHnb&(b&bnb nn$nbt(n nbn&tnb$nnbtnt.)(nbn&nb &(b &nbtt&,&fb&nbn& $b(tnfbn#'/(tnA)&t&n4)".0nbn $$&&n&tb&ttnb$#'/b4)"bntfb$nb (t nbn&t+A)&t&nD)" bA(tf$ bnM&t&nbnnb=nH GFF %bb=nH G7 =nH G! %b GG<%b GG8.%&n&tt$nfD)"D)" b (tnn-$&bbtfHnbbb$nt(&n (&$nb&((ntnf$nnb-nbt. G5 (< =nHt.
PAGE 69

E ;bbf (&n&b$tnbbntf+tt -+nnnbt&t&nttnt btnnbA(&n +?, *+),n& b#nHb9t. GGE.nb (&n+b..b+bttf$ bbtb,n-f$+?,nb(&n(f" b/bGF6AGF5.?nf+nbA(&n$ nbntn&n$n f-nbnt,btbnbbt-ttf.;bnnb (t&f tA$nbtnbbnnn&ttf -tfnbbfP&nb$"bnfn#f &nb "#&nb-tb(bb&$&t&nAt&$bt (t nb&tnb(&n.?nnbtb-nbb$+n& &nb+,&-nn&ttf&b&n--nb$D)".?f +(n+nnb+&b&$$nbAnb n&nn&n,b -tnb(ftb$nbAnbbnbntb $$&n-tfn&nb ,nbn&n&+. 0nnn-nbbnt (&nfb -fnb$nbn&tnb.0bnbbnnbnntnnbt b-nbbb(b,-nbb&tfn&(ntnn$ n&+ (&nttf,nb&&fttnHnbbt&b $nttnb$nfb&bf-n&+nnbn&&t&n +ttnn&btbt,&b+nbnb+t. G5 (<=nHt. G5
PAGE 70

EG ttn&&(f&bbnbt&bn&&f)<6nbb& tbbtfn$nbn&bn&b$)b 6Z b1 6Z btnb$ 6Z
PAGE 71

57 n(nt &fttnHnb+nnbnb+nbnb&nb bb&(b&bnb bn&&+n (nt.;b&b ntnbA&nnnb$&(b(t+nnb n&+ +n&&&ttf(t+bb+(tn& Hb nb-t-b&$&n&tnb(+btn&bnb bnbn&+.?n&n&tnb $nnb &$$n&nb$nbn-nttbnb-ttnbbb$$& tb nbtb b(tnnb$tnnbtn nb&nnnb$D)"=nH GFF
PAGE 72

5 ;b&b &(b&bnbnnb+$t,$n&+ nttbnbnbn&bn-t++M&nbn&t nbn&f.?fb,nb&btf$+ntnbA &nnnb-bnbbfb-b$n&$t,b(ntnHD)" nbnb&n&tntn(n+nbnbnbn&$tn.?nt nbbt&nf$n&+nb&b&+n&(b &bnb bn&nf$t&&bnb$$&$bfntnbA A&nnnb-b=nH GFF<%bb=nH G7<%bb=nH G<#tA#b=nH G6<%bbb4bb GG7
PAGE 73

56 =020*,ntnbnb ?&bn(f+n&nbb&tb&nbnb& nb&(btn&n(bnb&nt$nnbnb&nbtb (n$" 6Z .1&bnnb+btbt&n t&" 6Z &nbnb&(btn&nbnbnn& n&n&(nnb 6nbnnt(nnb(+btn&tb (nbb&ft$&bbnbn&& b8$nttnb$ -&btn&nnb&ft$&%bb=nH G7<=nH G!( %b GG8.%b(-&nn tbt&ntntf (n$" 6Z nb&(btn&)b 6Z 1 6Z Ib 6Z ( 6Z ) 6Z 6Z 6Z b" 6Z nbn GF<%bb=nH G7<%b GG8.? ntn$nntnbA&nnnb&nbnb$&(b&bnbn 1 2( 3 2 3 32 23( 3 bn&bn+ntnbA&nnnb&nb.?nn(nb$ n&ttbt&n(+btnnbtnn, tnbtnbn$tnMtnnn+n&bb$nbtnf bnbnnb&$$n&nb 4 .?nbbAfbn&tnbnn 567 567 4 = 6 + N&Mnbtb,nbt N&ntb" 6Z ,nbt b b Ntntnn.f&nb

PAGE 74

5! bbbAntn(n&bnnb &nb&tnttf&tf -b(f$tt+nbnn(nb$tnb 56t%7 56t%7 4 0 0 = + b 0 nbnntb$nbt&b&bnb$&tbb" 6Z nb tnb=nH G! (<%b GG8.#tfnbnb6bbf b-t$ 4 Ynbn&&tb bnfnnbnbntnn.Dn+n n$ 4 [ b &tb$-nnbnbnbnnbtn.;$ 4 N bt(bbb$$&nb(+btnnbtn %bb=nH G7<=nH G! (<%b GG8.0nb ntnbA&nnnb+nnbnbn&$tn 6Z )b 6Z 1 6Z Ib 6Z b( 6Z -b$$nbnf+tn +) 6Z b&D)" 6Z 6Z b 6Z -b$$nbnf+tnnnbn GF<%bb=nH G7<%b GG8. ?nnbn&Annbnbn(b&t&nA+nnb &$$n&nb$nbn-nttbt&nbtn$$b&nb )bM" 1M" bM"n(+b+bnbn&$tn=nH G! (
PAGE 75

58 tb)b 6Z N.G]Mt<1 6Z N!.8]Mt< 6Z N77]Mt
PAGE 76

5E 81 89 2 3 2( 3 8: 2 83 3 83 8: 2 3 2( 3 89 2 81 3 8 ?$nn&,&bbbnb$n+nnb n$$b&(bb+nnbn&+%bb=nH G7.? nb$tb&$n&+n.. bf&t nn&-t$D)"+ntt($$tn.;bbt n& nbn$&(b&bnbn$t&nbbn-n$nb b "-t=nH GFF<%bb=nH G<#tA#b=nH G6< #bbb# G!<=nH G! (<.t. G5 (<%bbb 4bb GG7
PAGE 77

55 >0bnn% &' (t ttn $tbtn"b %fn&tb&n&t&&bt$&nbnb$tn(t n.fn&t&nb&t -nb &bbnb b &fttnHnb1 G5 tt$+n&b(&bn+bnbnb n(bb&.Dn(tntftnbn b $n b$$&(b -b-n(nbt$b&n bntbf b(b b$nnb-t-.#bt-t $btb nbn-n(nbt$b&f.=n(nbt$b&fnnbt $ +ntn,n(nn -n(nbt$b&f1 G5.;bnnb tn&b t+bntbfb&bbtf+t&t(bb ntfnb tn+ntt&ntfb-nb(&tbfn nn&nn$t&t.?$ tnn-n( n$b&f$ -t+bntbf nbnb+(b b b&ntfb-nn1 G5.)t&t +ntt&,n(ntnf(fnbnbHAnb t+n(t&tn--n(nbt$b&f.rbtnnn&&n n&n$t&t -nnn(t(n (f t+nbt&tPHAnbbf.0-n$ (nnbn -n(nbt$b&f$t&tt+."bbtf &b+ntnnbn-n(nbt$b&n &4 6 5 +ntt$bnttf(n-nn& bn0 nb

PAGE 78

5F &n-0 b&ttf&nHAnb#bbb# G!. ,fb (bbtbP$&?nb GF6 nbnb(tn 5 F b +n(bb&$GG.F5!J 7.7!J b7.GJ &n-tf#bbb# G!.tf ntnH,fbn(& M 5 nnb$nt&(bnbb b$&nbnb$ b 5 (+b+b&nn&t&n +n&n$b&nb$(b,fbn&nnb$ +%bb=nH G7<=nH G!<#bbb# G!< #Hf GG5.)&ntnH&,fbn(t &n$$b&(+bn$$bn(bb& b$ n&tn$,fbnbtnn(+b &n-nbt&n-n 5 b &n-tf & b$b+bnn#bbb# G!.?n$ n(bb&nbnbnb * ; # 1618 1618 1618 18 M M M = E + M 5 t n,fbnn$tb M 5 ?0 n,fbnn$b.?t-tbnttf -nn$$b&(+bnn&&nnb$tb btfnbnn&-t$-nb.%&&t&t -tntt nnb&tntfn(f7 (nb bnt.rb,nb bn--t+ntt&b

PAGE 79

5 t+nt+nn&nbbbnn--t+ntt &bt+nnnn&nbb. ?+b+$nbnbnbnnt-tb$(tn &nf.b)b&br)r+$nb(f"nG5nb $b&+(nb$*nbt%$b.)r+ fnH&bnb,fbnnnnt--t$ bAf&b+.?nnbt)r+b(f"n& tb$++nnn&&nnb.?n+b ;bbnbt#n&bf#b&fnb=nbbb((=A)r1 G5. #bb (b,fbnn$"& %tbn$"tnb0% nbntnHnbnbnnt n-nb$tnbnbtf bnn b+bnbnb,fbn&nnb$&t&n.? nnbttf$nbnb&(b,+nt &b&nb,nb. ?tnbn(+bb nb&t&nn,nb $tt+nbnb1 G5 *<=8:>?@3>7; A; & 52B817; A; & 5 3 5 + & n $&t&n0% + n $+)r b ?n(nb+bn+(nb$&nbnb (&ntt.?&bb+nnbnb5f&b+n& nbtf$&t&n+tt&n$n&,b,nb1 G5. ?&&tf&b&$nt$ ,fb nn$+ + nb+n&(&ntn-b(b+b.

PAGE 80

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QE26.2 (ONLINE)
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Guggino, Steve N.
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Seasonality in western equatorial Pangaea during the Early Permian (Upper Sakmarian)
h [electronic resource] :
[delta]O, [delta]C, and elemental analysis of brachiopod shellsfrom the Robledo Mountains, New Mexico, USA /
by Steve N. Guggino.
260
[Tampa, Fla.] :
University of South Florida,
2004.
502
Thesis (M.S.)--University of South Florida, 2004.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
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System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
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ABSTRACT: Sclerochronology was conducted on the pedicle valves of four Sakmarian-age brachiopods (Squamaria moorei) to constrain climate model predictions of temperature seasonality along western equatorial Pangaea (WEP). The brachiopods are from a Lower Permian section within the Robledo Mountains, NM, and they reveal seasonal trends of δO and temperature for that interval that suggest global warming and moderation of seasonality. Elemental and SEM analyses verified the specimens were well preserved. δO profiles show a relatively rapid and consistent two-year growth rate corresponding to the organism's juvenile stage, followed by a slower, seasonal growth rate corresponding to the organism's sexually mature stage typical of most organismal growth. Their initial two-year cycles show consistent, high-amplitude profiles that captured virtually complete records of annual δO values, and these profiles were used for seasonality interpretations. The specimen from the stratigraphically lowest layer shows δO values varying from -4.26 to -2.17 minimum winter temperatures (MWT) and maximum summer temperatures (MST) of 25.2C and 35.7C, respectively; and a seasonal temperature variation ΔTs of 10.0C. The overlying horizon yielded two specimens showing δO values ranging from a minimum of -4.54 to a maximum of -2.79; MWT ranging from 28.2 to 29.6C; MST ranging from 34.9 to 37.2C; and ΔTs ranging from 6.7 to 7.6C. The uppermost layer yielded a specimen that shows δO values ranging from -4.49 to -3.03; MWT of 31.3C; MST of 37.0C; and ΔTs of 5.7C. The specimens show overall high seasonality for an equatorial regime, but the general trend shows increasing winter temperatures and a moderation of seasonality. The data supports climate-model predictions for the Permian of more equable temperatures, higher winter temperatures, and decreased seasonality. Three numerical climate models of Permian temperatures were evaluated against the brachiopod data, and their model predictions for Δs along WEP range from as high as 10C to as low as C. The models were supported somewhat by the independently derived temperature proxy data measured in this study.
590
Adviser: Peter J. Harries.
653
Permian climate.
sclerochronology.
oxygen isotopes.
paleoclimate.
climate models.
690
Dissertations, Academic
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x Geology
Masters.
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