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Job satisfaction of community college academic deans

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Title:
Job satisfaction of community college academic deans
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English
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Goff, Donald Gary
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University of South Florida
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Tampa, Fla.
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Subjects / Keywords:
leadership crisis
presidential aspirations
pathway
Dissertations, Academic -- Higher Education -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
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government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Summary:
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to conduct a national survey to examine job satisfaction of community college academic deans as measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and an Individual Data Sheet (IDS) and to determine if academic deans will pursue the community college presidency in meeting the current leadership crisis. This study assessed the relationship of selected personal characteristics, unit-related characteristics, facets of job satisfaction, and career aspirations of academic deans. Six research questions directed this study. Four hundred community college academic deans were randomly assigned as participants and represented all 50 states. The usable response rate from the 400 participants was 50.5% (n=202) representing all 50 states.Demographic data pertaining to gender, age, ethnicity, degree status, tenure in position, gross annual salary, number of hours worked per week, major responsibilities, size of college, location of college, number of full-time and part-time faculty supervised, number of full-time and part-time staff supervised, and career aspirations were collected through use of the IDS. The 1977 Long-Form MSQ was used to measure general, intrinsic, and extrinsic job satisfaction. Appropriate summary statistics, correlations, and regressions were computed to answer all six-research questions. Community college academic deans were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied with an MSQ sample mean score of 3.828. The findings indicated that 55.5% (n=112) were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. Only 76 academic deans or 37.5% stated that they were satisfied and three deans or 1.5% were very satisfied.Ten deans or 5% reported being dissatisfied and one or 0.5% dean reported being very dissatisfied. Only 15% or 30 deans reported that they had career aspirations to pursue the community college presidency within the next one to ten years. The results also indicated that those academic deans that do not desire to be a community college president are slightly more satisfied than those deans who want to be a president. The results of the survey indicate that academic deans with the lowest job satisfaction score desired to move along the academic leadership pathway, and the deans that were more satisfied wanted to move in another direction or stay a dean.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ed.D.)--University of South Florida, 2004.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Donald Gary Goff.
General Note:
Includes vita.
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Title from PDF of title page.
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Document formatted into pages; contains 177 pages.

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aleph - 001498247
oclc - 57708333
notis - AJU6852
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0000470
usfldc handle - e14.470
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to conduct a national survey to examine job satisfaction of community college academic deans as measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and an Individual Data Sheet (IDS) and to determine if academic deans will pursue the community college presidency in meeting the current leadership crisis. This study assessed the relationship of selected personal characteristics, unit-related characteristics, facets of job satisfaction, and career aspirations of academic deans. Six research questions directed this study. Four hundred community college academic deans were randomly assigned as participants and represented all 50 states. The usable response rate from the 400 participants was 50.5% (n=202) representing all 50 states.Demographic data pertaining to gender, age, ethnicity, degree status, tenure in position, gross annual salary, number of hours worked per week, major responsibilities, size of college, location of college, number of full-time and part-time faculty supervised, number of full-time and part-time staff supervised, and career aspirations were collected through use of the IDS. The 1977 Long-Form MSQ was used to measure general, intrinsic, and extrinsic job satisfaction. Appropriate summary statistics, correlations, and regressions were computed to answer all six-research questions. Community college academic deans were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied with an MSQ sample mean score of 3.828. The findings indicated that 55.5% (n=112) were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. Only 76 academic deans or 37.5% stated that they were satisfied and three deans or 1.5% were very satisfied.Ten deans or 5% reported being dissatisfied and one or 0.5% dean reported being very dissatisfied. Only 15% or 30 deans reported that they had career aspirations to pursue the community college presidency within the next one to ten years. The results also indicated that those academic deans that do not desire to be a community college president are slightly more satisfied than those deans who want to be a president. The results of the survey indicate that academic deans with the lowest job satisfaction score desired to move along the academic leadership pathway, and the deans that were more satisfied wanted to move in another direction or stay a dean.
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Job Satisfaction of Community College Academic Deans by Donald Gary Goff A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education Department of Adult, Career, and Higher Education College of Education University of South Florida Major Professor: Jan M. Ignash, Ph.D. William H. Young, Ed. D. Michael R. Mills, Ph. D. Jeffrey D. Kromrey, Ph. D. Date of Approval: October 19, 2004 Keywords: leadership crisis, pres idential aspirations, pathway Copyright 2004, Donald Gary Goff

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Dedication This dissertation is dedicated to my wife Heidi. You have a loving heart and an understanding spirit that s upported my pursuit of this doctoral degree. You provided encouragement and support during the completion of academic coursework and preparation of this dissertat ion. You would not let me walk away when writers block took hold and determination faded. You su rrendered our weekends and evenings together. I applaud your willingness to assu me additional chores and responsibilities inside and outside the house as I was locked away in the office. I thank you for the many meals and snacks delivered as I was diligently researching and typing. You constantly provided praise, editorial support, and a co mmon sense viewpoint that challenged my writing style. The Austrians have a great tradition and understand that the wife has earned an equal share of the hus bands doctoral degree. Someday when we visit Austria, I will be proud to introduce you as Frau Doctor Heidi Goff.

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Acknowledgements A special thanks goes to my committee ch air, Dr. Jan M. Ignash who mentored me and opened my mind to many higher educatio n principles and practices. Her advice helped me find pertinent materials and arti cles that aided in my research on job satisfaction. Her editorial comments a nd suggested changes strengthened this dissertation. She encouraged me to get an endorsement from the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) for this disser tation. She set the ch allenges and helped me to meet them. I am indebted to her fo r her total support of my pursuit of a doctoral degree. Dr. Ignash is a r eal superstar at the Universi ty of South Florida. I would like to thank each of my comm ittee members for their guidance, support, and expertise as I pursued completion of this dissertation. Dr. William H. Young, Dr Michael R. Mills, and Dr. Jeffrey D. Kr omrey provided direction and challenged my thinking on job satisfaction. Each committee member has my sincere thanks for their direction and support. Dr. Carlos Soto, my Campus Presiden t and Dr. Gwen Stephenson, my College President deserve a special thanks for thei r encouragement, support, and willingness to allowed me to balance the job responsibiliti es of being an academic dean with my doctoral studies. I am indebted to Dr. George Boggs, President and CEO of the American Association of Community Colleges, fo r his endorsement of this study. Last, but not least, special recognition and my grateful thanks go to the members of our Dissertation Support Group. Mary Be ndickson, Karen Griffin, Gary Brannan, and Linda Herlocker all provided a shoulder to cry on and the applause to press on.

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i Table of Contents List of Tables................................................................................................................. ....iv Abstract....................................................................................................................... ......vii Chapter 1 Introduction........................................................................................................ 1 Significance of the Study...................................................................................3 Statement of the Problem...................................................................................5 Purpose of the Study..........................................................................................5 Research Questions............................................................................................6 Assumptions.......................................................................................................7 Delimitations......................................................................................................7 Limitations.........................................................................................................8 Definitions..........................................................................................................8 Organization of the Study................................................................................11 Chapter 2 Review of Literature.........................................................................................12 Theoretical Frameworks of Job Satisfaction....................................................12 Framework One: Content Theories..................................................................12 Maslows's Need Hierarchy Theory........................................................13 Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene Theory..................................................13 Framework Two: Process Theories.................................................................14 Vroom's Expectancy Theory..................................................................14 Adams' Equity Theory...........................................................................15 Framework Three: Si tuational Model..............................................................15 Situational Occurrences Theory.............................................................16 Predictor Model Theory.........................................................................16 Framework Four: Role Theory........................................................................17 Role Conflict Theory.............................................................................17 Role Ambiguity Theory.........................................................................18 Importance of Job Satisfaction.........................................................................20 Meaning of Job Satisfaction.............................................................................21 Role of the Academic Dean.............................................................................22 Job Satisfaction Research in Community Colleges.........................................27 Community College Job Satis faction Research Findings................................28 Measurement Instruments of Job Satisfaction.................................................32 Job Satisfaction as a Criterion Variable...........................................................36

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ii Personal Characteristics.........................................................................36 Work-Related Characteristics................................................................37 Job Satisfaction as a Predictor Variable...........................................................37 Summary..........................................................................................................38 Chapter 3 Methodology....................................................................................................41 Participants.......................................................................................................42 Instrumentation................................................................................................44 Data Collection Process...................................................................................51 Pilot Study..............................................................................................53 Initial Mailing........................................................................................53 Follow-up Letter and Second Mailing of Survey Instrument................53 Data Organization............................................................................................54 Data Analysis...................................................................................................54 Data Analysis Plan...........................................................................................57 Research Question One..........................................................................57 Research Question Two.........................................................................58 Research Question Three.......................................................................59 Research Question Four.........................................................................59 Research Question Five.........................................................................60 Research Question Six...........................................................................60 Summary..........................................................................................................61 Chapter 4 Results............................................................................................................. .63 Pilot Study........................................................................................................63 Survey Distributions and Responses................................................................64 Treatment of Data............................................................................................66 Survey Participants Personal Demographic Information.................................67 Survey Participants Unit Demographic Information.......................................71 Discussion of Research Questions...................................................................74 Research Question One..........................................................................77 Research Question Two.........................................................................81 Research Question Three.......................................................................84 Research Question Four.........................................................................91 Research Question Five.........................................................................95 Research Question Six.........................................................................101 Summary of Findings.....................................................................................105 Research Question One........................................................................105 Research Question Two.......................................................................105 Research Question Three.....................................................................106 Research Question Four.......................................................................106 Research Question Five.......................................................................107 Research Question Six.........................................................................107

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iii Chapter 5 Summary of Findings, Conclusions, Implications for Theory, Practice, and Research.............................................................................................109 Purpose...........................................................................................................109 Method Summary...........................................................................................110 Summary of Findings.....................................................................................111 Research Question One........................................................................111 Research Question Two.......................................................................113 Research Question Three.....................................................................114 Research Question Four.......................................................................120 Research Question Five.......................................................................123 Research Question Six.........................................................................126 Conclusions....................................................................................................127 Limitations.....................................................................................................134 Implications for Theory.................................................................................134 Implications for Practice................................................................................137 Implications for Research..............................................................................138 References........................................................................................................................142 Appendices.......................................................................................................................150 Appendix A: Demographic Variable Codes..................................................151 Appendix B: Job Satisfaction Variable Codes...............................................155 Appendix C: Individual Data Sheet...............................................................159 Appendix D: AACC Endorsement Letter......................................................163 Appendix E: Letter Of Instruction.................................................................164 Appendix F: Follow-Up Letter For Second Mailing.....................................165 Appendix G: Approval Letter To Use The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire............................................................................................166 About The Author..................................................................................................End Page

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iv List of Tables Table 1 Academic Pathway Position He ld Prior to First Presidency: 2001....................2 Table 2 Motivator-Hygiene Factors (Herzberg, 1966)....................................................14 Table 3 Comparison of Job Satisfaction Theoretical Frameworks.................................19 Table 4 Electronic Database Inquiry Findings................................................................29 Table 5 Comparison of Job Satisfaction Facets Measurement Instruments....................35 Table 6 MSQ Likert Scale...............................................................................................48 Table 7 Measurement of General Job Satisfaction..........................................................55 Table 8 Cronbachs Alpha Reliability Coefficients........................................................56 Table 9 Job Facets as Related to Intr insic and Extrinsic Job Satisfaction......................56 Table 10 Relationship between General J ob Satisfaction and Career Aspirations..........57 Table 11 Survey Participants Personal Demographics Information (Gender, Ethnicity, and Age).......................................................................................................67 Table 12 Survey Participants Personal Demographics Information (Degree Status, Tenure in Position, and Salary).....................................................................................69 Table 13 Survey Participants Personal Demographics Information (Hours Worked and Major Responsibility)...................................................................71 Table 14 Survey Participants Unit Demographics Information (Size of Institution, Location, and Number of Full-Time Faculty Supervised).....................72 Table 15 Survey Participants Unit Demographics Information (Number of Part-Time Faculty Supervised and Number of Full-time/Part-time Staff Supervised)...................................................................................................................74 Table 16 MSQ Likert Scores...........................................................................................75

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v Table 17 MSQ Job Satisfaction Facets and General Job Satisfaction Pearson Correlation Coefficients Intercorrelations....................................................................76 Table 18 Frequencies and Percentage s of Dissatisfacti on and Satisfaction Rating of General Job Satisfaction...............................................................................78 Table 19 Rank Order of Frequencies and Per centages of Satisfacti on Ratings of 20 Job Facets as Measured by the MSQ...................................................................................79 Table 20 Cronbachs Alpha Reliability Coeffi cients for MSQ Job Satisfaction Facets............................................................................................................................81 Table 21 Rank Order of Intrinsic and Extrinsic MSQ Job Satisfaction Facets..............83 Table 22 Graph of Rank Order of Intrin sic and Extrinsic MSQ Job Satisfaction Facets............................................................................................................................84 Table 23 Personal Demographic Scores for General Job Satisfaction............................87 Table 24 Unit Characteristic Scor es for General Job Satisfaction..................................93 Table 25 Job Satisfaction Scores by Presid ential Career Aspirations for Academic Deans.............................................................................................................................96 Table 26 General Job Satisfaction Career Aspiration Scores for Academic Deans........98 Table 27 Movement Along the Academic Leadership Pathway for Academic Deans...........................................................................................................................100 Table 28 Regression of Career Aspi rations on General Job Satisfaction......................102 Table 29 General Job Satisfaction Related to 1 to 4 Year Professional Plans..............103 Table 30 General Job Satisfaction Related to 5 to 10 Year Professional Plans............104 Table 31 Findings for Research Question One..............................................................112 Table 32 Findings for Research Question Two.............................................................114 Table 33 Findings for Research Question Three...........................................................116 Table 34 Findings for Research Question Four.............................................................121 Table 35 Findings for Research Question Five.............................................................124

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vi Table 36 Findings for Research Question Six...............................................................127

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vii Job Satisfaction of Community College Academic Deans Donald Gary Goff ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to conduct a national survey to examine job satisfaction of community college academ ic deans as measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and an Individual Data Sheet (IDS) and to determine if academic deans will pursue the community college presidency in meeting the current leadership crisis. This study assessed the rela tionship of selected personal characteristics, unit-related characteristics, f acets of job satisfaction, and ca reer aspirations of academic deans. Six research questions directed this study. Four hundred community college academic deans were randomly assigned as pa rticipants and represented all 50 states. The usable response rate from the 400 partic ipants was 50.5% (n=202) representing all 50 states. Demographic data pertaining to gende r, age, ethnicity, de gree status, tenure in position, gross annual salary, number of hours wo rked per week, major responsibilities, size of college, location of college, number of full-time and part-time faculty supervised, number of full-time and part-time staff superv ised, and career aspirations were collected through use of the IDS. The 1977 Long-Fo rm MSQ was used to measure general, intrinsic, and extrinsi c job satisfaction. Appropriate su mmary statistics, correlations, and regressions were computed to answ er all six-resear ch questions. Community college academic deans were neit her dissatisfied nor satisfied with an MSQ sample mean score of 3.828. The findings indicated that 55.5% (n=112) were

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viii neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. Only 76 acad emic deans or 37.5% stated that they were satisfied and three deans or 1.5% were very satisfied. Ten deans or 5% reported being dissatisfied and one or 0.5% d ean reported being very dissatisfied. Only 15% or 30 deans reported that they had career aspirations to pursue the community college presidency within the next one to ten year s. The results also indicated that those academic deans that do not desire to be a community college presid ent are slightly more satisfied than those deans who want to be a president. The result s of the survey indicat e that academic deans with the lowest job satisfaction score desi red to move along the academic leadership pathway, and the deans that were more satisfie d wanted to move in another direction or stay a dean.

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1 Chapter 1 Introduction Community colleges are facing a leadership crisis in this decade due to the graying of academic leaders. Shults (2001) reported that community college presidents, senior administrators, and faculty leaders have been re tiring at an alarming rate. This trend is expected to continue, as baby boomers grow older. The average age of the baby boomers in these positions continue s to increase, and upcoming retirements are projected to be higher than normal. Shults indicated th at in 2000, the average age for senior community college administrators was 52 years old and that 52% of the faculty aged 55 to 64 years old and were planning on retiring by 2004. Shults also reported that 25% of the community college administra tors were planning to retire by 2006. Therefore, there is a growing need to devel op senior community college administrators to fill these needed community college executive leadership roles. Higher numbers of midlevel community college administrators must be available to fill the vacant senior leadership positions. Evelyn (2001) reported that there is a critical need to develop potential community college leaders for the approximately 1,171 community colleges throughout the United States. Kelly (2002) es timates that over 45% (526 presidents) of the current 1,171 community college presiden ts will retire by 2007 and that nearly 80% (934 presidents) will retire within 10 y ears. The domino effect of losing over 900 community college presidents and thousands of vice-presidents due to the baby boomer retirement requires academic deans to be prepared to step-up and assume new

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2 responsibilities as vice pres idents and presidents. Weisman and Vaughan (2002), in AACC Leadership Series #3, page 7, report an overwhelming percentage of presidents came through the academic administrative pathway as provided in Table 1. Table 1 Academic Pathway Position Held Prior to First Presidency: 2001 POSITION PERCENTAGE Chief Academic Officer 38% Vice President with Academic Overview 7% Chief Academic Officer & Chief Stude nt Services Officer Combined 6% Other, with Academic Overview 3% Campus CEO 6% Other Education (Outside Community College) 5% Chief Business Officer 4% Chief Student Services Officer 8% Vice President without Academic Overview 3% Community College State System 2% Business or Industry 1% Government 1% Other 16% The current academic leadership pathway as described by McClenney (2001) to grow and nurture future community college leaders normally starts with faculty becoming department chairs, venturing into the role of academic dean, then accepting

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3 additional challenges as vice president or pr ovost, and finally clim bing the last rung on the leadership ladder to the community coll ege presidency. This pathway can become clogged with dissatisfied, unhappy community colle ge administrators who have little to no motivation to assume new challenges, or re sponsibilities required of higher leadership positions. Amey and VanDerLinden (2002) examined community college career paths that lead to the presidency. The results of their study indicate that 58% of todays community college presidents were academic deans and/or chief academic officers before assuming duties as a president. Amey and VanDerLinden also reported that other pathways to the presidency accounted for 42% of the curren tly serving community college presidents. Barwick (2002) indicates that student se rvices deans do not produce many community college presidents even though student services skills are needed by the president. The academic pathway of faculty, department ch air, academic dean, and chief academic officer continues to be the major pathwa y to the community college presidency. Measuring current job satisfaction can be an indicator of whether the community college administrator may seek higher leadership positions. Significance of the Study There is a hole in the literature in exam ining job satisfaction of academic deans. There are no studies to determine if job sa tisfaction can be used to predict career aspirations of academic deans to pursu e the community college presidency. A review of the community college job satisfaction literatur e reflects an interesting mosaic of people in academic positions who have been surveyed. The mosaic, however, does have missing tiles in the middle of the comm unity college job satisfaction picture, which can affect the

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4 community college leadership crisis. The missi ng tiles in the mosaic are an analysis of community college academic dean job satisfaction. There are extensive studies on community college full-time and adjunct faculty, librarians, counselors, department ch airs, administrators, and presidents. The Educational Resources Information Clearing House (ERI C) has over 15 research publications on community college faculty job satisfaction. Tack and Patitu (1992) have measured job satisfaction of faculty women and minorities. In fact, McBride, Mundy, and Tunnel (1992) indicate that the extensive studies on facu lty is due to the belief that the faculty are the community college and that department chairs, administrators, and staff are in a support role. Horenstein (1993) examined the community college librarians on job satisfaction. Coll and Rice (1990) researched the j ob satisfaction of community college counselors. Murray and Murray (1998) and Coates (2000) have examined the job satisfaction of community college department chairs. Glick (1992) examined all community college administrators as a group to measure job satisfaction. McKee (1991), Evans and Honeyman (1998), and Vaughan (1989) have measured the job satisfaction of community college presidents. Understanding the level of job satisfaction of academic deans may help to identify factors affecting potential candidates for the community college presidency that can fill the leadership gap. Job satisfaction and its linkage to academic deans career aspirations is an important element to growing potent ial community college leaders and is an important aspect to investigate in light of the current leadership crisis. Job satisfaction and career aspirations may be part of the motivation to pursue additional administrative responsibilities on the path to a community college pr esidency. Roznowski and Hulin

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5 (1992) indicate that after an individual is hired for a position, knowledge of the employees job satisfaction can help a supervisor nurture professional growth of the employee and offer advancement into more challenging positions. Robbins (1998) provides evidence that employee satisfaction leads to higher productivity, willingness to assume additional job responsibilities, and desire to take on new challenges. Wood (1976) states, The health of an educationa l institution depends on the job satisfaction of its employees (p. 58). Job satisfaction of a community college academic dean may be an important indicator of a healthy educatio nal institution and a potential candidate for the community college presidency. After the identification of a potential candidate, community colleges may implement mentor ing programs, professional development opportunities, and provide additiona l leadership experiences needed to be a president. Statement of the Problem There is a growing leadership gap with in community colleges and academic deans are potential replacements to meet the leader ship crisis. This research study examined job satisfaction of community college academic deans in order to determine if academic deans are satisfied with their jobs and aspi re to pursue higher se nior level academic leadership positions to meet the leadership crisis. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this quantitative correlat ional research study is to assess the general job satisfaction level as measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) based on a sample of community college academic deans throughout the United States. The career aspirations of commun ity college academic deans were measured using a researcher-developed questionnaire. The problem this study examined is to

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6 assess the relationship of selected personal ch aracteristics, unit-related characteristics, and specific job elements or facets to gene ral job satisfaction and to predict career aspirations of academic deans to pursue th e presidency of a community college. Research Questions Six research questions directed this study of job satisfaction of community college academic deans. They are: 1. What is the level of general job satisfaction among community college academic deans as measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)? 2. What is the level of job satisfac tion among community college academic deans on the intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction facets (Intrinsic: ability utilization, achievement, activity, adva ncement, compensation, co-workers, creativity, independence, moral values, social service, social status, and working conditions; and Extrinsic: aut hority, company policies and practices, recognition, responsibility, s ecurity, and variety) as measured by the MSQ? 3. What is the relationship between the personal characteristics of academic deans (gender, age, ethnicity, degree stat us, tenure in position, gross annual salary, number of hours worked per w eek, and major responsibilities) and general job satisfaction as indicated by the Individual Data Sheet and the MSQ? 4. What is the relationship between the unit characteristics (size of college, location of college, number of full-time and part-time faculty supervised, and number of full-time and part-time staff supervised) of the academic deans

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7 unit/organization and general job satisf action as indicated by the Individual Data Sheet and the MSQ? 5. What are the career aspirations of community college academic deans? 6. To what extent do community college academic deans career aspirations relate to general job satis faction, as indicated by the Individual Data Sheet and the MSQ? Assumptions There are three assumptions underlying th is research on job satisfaction of community college academic deans. The assumptions were: 1. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questio nnaire will reflect participants perceptions regardi ng job satisfaction. 2. The Individual Data Sheet (Appendix C) would reflect the participants personal and unit-related characteristics. 3. The selected participants represented the community college academic dean population. Delimitations The first delimitation is based on the sc ope of the population for this research study. The participants were randomly selected from the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) database of colle ge administrators. This database is developed and maintained by AACC in orde r to provide professional development materials to community college administrative and academic officers. This database is updated annually by individual community coll eges and available for sale through the AACC on-line bookstore. Only academic dean s were randomly selected from the AACC

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8 database. Those randomly selected academic deans were provided with the MSQ and Personal Data Sheet for data collection. Th e second delimitation was the confinement of the studys findings to the individuals w ho held the position of community college academic deans during the fall semester of 2003. Limitations The data for this study was collected using a questionnaire. This research project is based on the voluntary cooperation of the samp le participants. Samp le participants can select to participate, or not participate in the questionnaire. Non-participants MSQ results were not included in the results of this study, but the percentage of nonresponding participants was collected and reported. The measure of job satisfaction of comm unity college academic deans was based on and limited to the Minnesota Satisfaction Qu estionnaire. The reporting of individual characteristics, unit related characteristics, and career aspirations were based on participant responses to researcher developed questionnaire (Individual Data Sheet). Definitions This research study used several terms that need to be defined to support research concepts found within this study. 1. Community College. any institution accredited to award the Associate in Arts or the Associate in Science as its highest degree. That definition includes the public comprehensive two-year colle ges as well as many of the technical institutes (Cohen & Brawer, 1996, p. 5). The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher (2000) defines Associate Colleges as institutions of higher education that can award associate degrees and in some instances,

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9 bachelor's degrees as long as bachelor degrees represent less than 10% of all undergraduate degrees awarded. 2. Academic Dean. Academic deans as defined for this study are community college administrators who are assign ed the mission of supervising credit academic/transfer programs, credit occupational/technical education programs, developmental programs, con tinuing education, or any combination of programs (Robillard, 2000). 3. Job Satisfaction. how people feel about their jobs and di fferent aspects of their jobs (Spector, 1997, p.2). Job satis faction is an overa ll indicator and is measured by job satisfaction variables or facets. 4. Intrinsic Job Satisfaction F acets. Intrinsic job satisf action facets pertains to job content or the work itself and invol ves ability utilization, achievement, activity, advancement, compensation, co-workers, creativity, independence, moral values, social service, social status, and working conditions job satisfaction facets (Weiss et al., 1967). Intrinsic facets are related to job satisfaction when present but not to di ssatisfaction when absent (Herzberg, 1966). 5. Extrinsic Job Satisfaction Facets. The extr insic job satisfaction facets relate to job context or the work environment and involve authority, company policies and practices, recognition, responsibility, security, and variety (Weiss et al., 1967). Extrinsic facets are associated w ith job dissatisfaction when absent but not with satisfaction when present (Herzberg, 1966). 6. Personal Characteristics. Personal charac teristics as defined for this study are

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10 age, gender, ethnicity, degree status, and tenure in current academic dean position, gross annual salary, number of hours worked per week, professional plans in the next one to four years (1 to 4 years), professiona l plans in the next five-ten years (5 to 10 years) and major responsibilities. 7. Unit-Related Characteristics. Unit-related characteristics defined for this study are size of college, location of college, number of full-time and parttime faculty supervised, number of fu ll-time and part-time staff supervised, and the unduplicated headcount for the fall 2003 academic semester. 8. Size of the Public Community Colleges The National Center for Education Statistics (Phipps et al., 2001) defines institutional size as: a. Community Development and Career Institution Less than 2,000 unduplicated student headcount per academic semester. b. Community Connector Institution 2,000 to 9,999 unduplicated student headcount per academic semester. c. Community Mega-Connector Institution Greater than 10,000 unduplicated student headcount per academic semester. 9. Location of Community College. Th e National Center for Education Statistics, (Phipps et al., 2001) defines institutional location as: a. Urban A central city with a population greater than 250,000. b. Suburban A city on the urban frin ge of a central city with a population greater than 25,000. c. Rural A town with a population of equal to or less than 25,000 and not connected to a central city.

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11 10. Career Aspirations. For this study, ca reer aspirations are defined as the professional plans for one to fours years and five to ten years for the academic dean. Organization of the Study This research study is structured into five chapters. Chapter 1 presents the introduction, study significance, problem statement, purpose, research questions, assumptions, delimitations, limitations, defini tions, and organization of the study. The literature review in Chapte r Two presents the (a) theo retical frameworks of job satisfaction, (b) importance of j ob satisfaction, (c) meaning of job satisfaction, (d) role of the academic dean, (e) job satisfaction research in the community college, (f) community college job satisfaction research findings, (g ) measurement of job satisfaction, (h) job satisfaction as a criterion variable, (i) job satisfaction as a predictor variable, and (j) summary of the literature Chapter 3 explains the research methods applied. It includes a description of the participan ts, instrumentation used, data collection procedures, data analysis, and summary. Chapter 4 contains the results of the pilot study, survey distribution and responses, treatment of data, findings of survey responses, description of respondents, personal and unit-rela ted characteristics, reliabilit y and validity of the MSQ, statistical methods for analysis, and a summ ary of findings. Chapter 5 presents the summary, discussion, implications, conclusi ons, and recommendations of the research findings.

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12 Chapter 2 Review of the Literature The overall purpose of this study was to document job satisfaction of community college academic deans. The main objective of the literature re view was to review pertinent and relevant information about the construct of job satisfaction and the individuals who serve as academic deans in co mmunity colleges. Th e literature review addressed (1) the theoretical frameworks of job satisfacti on, (2) the importance of job satisfaction, (3) the meaning of job satisf action, (4) the role of community college academic deans, (5) job satisfaction research at the community college, (6) measurement instruments of job satisfaction, (7) job satisfa ction as a criterion a nd predictor variable, (8) summary of the literature. Theoretical Frameworks of Job Satisfaction A literature review of the concepts a nd theories involved in examining job satisfaction revealed four major theoreti cal frameworks: content theories, process theories, situational models, and role theori es. These frameworks help describe the psychological importance of job satisfaction to the employee, the pr ocess of interaction of values and needs, and the relationsh ips between organizat ional and individual characteristics in job satisfaction. Framework One: Content Theories The major content theories that have been developed by Maslow (1954) and Herzberg (1966) indicate that th e fulfillment of needs and the attainment of values have a

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13 major impact on job satisfaction. Maslows Need Hierarchy Theory. Maslows (1954) Need Hierarchy Theory focuses on five categories of individual need s arranged in ascending order of importance: physiological, safety, belongingness and love, esteem, and self-act ualization. When a lower level need is satisfied, another higherlevel need emerges and motivates the person to do something to satisfy it. A satisfied n eed is no longer a motivator. Accordingly, job satisfaction is said to exist when the job and its environment meet an individuals needs. The individual seeks job satisfa ction when the lower levels of needs are met. In this hierarchy of needs, Maslow indicates that job satisfaction exists when the job and the environment surrounding the job meet an individuals hierarchical needs. Herzbergs Motivator-Hygiene Theory. The study of job satisfaction became more advanced and sophisticated with the in troduction of Herzberg s (1966) MotivatorHygiene Theory. This theory examines th e work itself as a principal source of job satisfaction as contrasted to Maslows hierar chy of needs. The motivator-hygiene theory describes the concept of job satisfaction w ith two dimensions (intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors). Intrinsic factors are also known as motivat ors. Extrinsic factors are known as hygienes. The motivators pertain to job content or the work itself and include achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, and advancement. The hygienes relate to job context or the work e nvironment and involve company policy and administration, supervision, salary, interper sonal relations, and working conditions. According to the author, motivators are related to job satisfaction when present but not to dissatisfaction when absent. Hygienes are associated with job dissatisfaction when absent but not with satisfaction when present. The Motivator-Hygiene Theory is a major

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14 foundational theory on the st udy of job satisfaction. Th e intrinsic and extrinsic dimensions of job satisfaction based on motiv ators and hygienes allow for the conceptual understanding of work and how it motivates and provide satisfaction for employees. Shown in Table 2 are Herzbergs motivators and hygienes. Table 2 Motivator-Hygiene Factors (Herzberg, 1966) MOTIVATORS HYGIENES Achievement Company Policy & Administration Advancement Interpersonal Re lations with Supervisors, Peers, and Subordinates Possibility of Growth Job Security Recognition Personal Life Responsibility Salary Work Itself Status Supervision Working Conditions Framework Two: Process Theories Vroom (1964) and Adams (1963) are leading process theorists who state that job satisfaction can be described by examining th e interaction of variables like values, expectancies, and needs. Vrooms Expectancy Theory. Vroom's (1964) Expectancy Theory suggests that individuals make work-related decisions base d on their perceived abilities to perform tasks and receive rewards. The theory also suggests that people not only are driven by needs but also by the choices about what they will or will not do. Vroom designed an equation with three variables to explain the work-related decision process: expectancy,

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15 instrumentality, and valence. Expectancy is the degrees of confidence individuals have in their ability to successfully pe rform a task. Instrumentality is the degrees of confidence individuals have that, if the task is pe rformed successfully, they will be rewarded appropriately. Valence is the value a person places on expected rewards. Adams Equity Theory. Adams (1963) Equity Theory proposes that workers compare their own outcomes, received from th eir jobs and the organizations, measured against the inputs they cont ribute (outcome-input ratio). Outcomes include pay, fringe benefits, status, opportunities for advancemen t, job security, and anything else that workers desire and can receive from the organization. Adams describes inputs as employee special skills, training, education, wo rk experience, effort on the job, time, and anything else that workers perceive that they contri bute to an organization. The author further states that the employee compares hi s or her outcome-input ratio to the outcomeinput ratio of another employee they percei ved to be similar to them. When the individual employee determines an unequal outcome-input ratio, th is can create job dissatisfaction and may motivate the worker to restore equity. When the outcome-input ratios are equal, workers experience job satis faction and are motivated to maintain their current ratio of outcomes and i nputs. Workers can also rais e their inputs if they want their outcomes to increase. Framework Three: Situational Models Hoy and Miskel (1996) state that situati onal theorists assume that job satisfaction is influenced by the interacti on of variables such as task characteristics, organizational characteristics, and individual characteristics. The two major works on situational models of job satisfaction have been deve loped by Quarstein, McAfee, and Glassman

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16 (1992) and Glisson and Durick (1988) who examined predictor models. Situational Occurrences Theory. Quarstein, McAfee, and Glassman (1992) developed the Situational Occurrence Theory that has two main components: situational characteristics and situational occurrences. Examples of situational characteristics can be working conditions, pay, company policies, pr omotional opportunities, and supervision. Potential employees evaluate s ituational characteristics before they accept a job. After the employee accepted the job, the employee starts to evaluate the situational occurrences. Situational occurr ences are the activities and ac tions that occur within the workplace that can have a positive or negative influence on the employee. An example of positive situational occurrence can be rewarding an employee by giving a free trip for outstanding work performance and a negative situational occurrence can be offensive language use by the supervisor. The authors theorize that overall job satisfaction is a function of the employee making continuous eval uations about situati onal characteristics and situational occurrences. The employee assessment of bot h situational characteristics and occurrences can be a predictor of job satisfaction. Predictor Model Theory. Glisson and Durick (1988) examined the worker, job and organizational characteristic s as three variables in which to predict job satisfaction and the employees commitment to the organization. The authors proposed that job characteristics would be an excellent predictor of j ob satisfaction, and that the demographic characteristics of workers would be a poor job satisfaction predictor, and that the characteristics of the organization could be a moderate predictor. The results of Glisson and Duricks predictor model supporte d job characteristics as the major factor influencing employee job satisfaction. Organiza tional characteristics should have a slight

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17 influence. Demographic characteristics of the individual employee had little to no effect on job satisfaction. Framework Four: Role Theory Biddle (1979) established that the fundame ntal proposition of role theory is that behaviors within contexts (roles) are a ssociated with persons who share a common identity (in positions) and who are aware of th eir roles (by expectations). Biddle states that roles persist because of their consequen ces within a larger social system, and that persons must be taught (sociali zed into) these roles. The in tegration of roles, positions, and expectations form the basis of Biddles ro le theory. Biddle id entified role conflict and role ambiguity as part of the role theory that affect s job satisfaction. The academic dean must manage and control role stresses of conflict and ambiguity in order to maintain job satisfaction. Failure to control the tensi ons of role conflict and role ambiguity may result in the community college academic d ean being dissatisfied and not aspiring to become president. Role Conflict Theory. Biddle (1979) indicates that role conflict occurs when people are confronted with incompatible e xpectations. Biddle indicates that the pressures of the position, whether internal or external, redirect the behavior of a leader, result in stress and disequilibrium, and a ffect motivation and satisfaction. Montez, Wolverton, and Gmelch (2003) state that the academic dean is caught between the faculty and higher administration, betw een students and faculty, and between administration and the public. The authors indicate that a dean is expected to advocate for opposing sides of issues. The authors also point out that a dean is often in a difficult situation and must choose to perform one task at the expense of a nother. This adds to the stress of not being

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18 able to fully meet the expectations of his or her superiors or constituents and affects academic dean job satisfaction, accordi ng to Montez, Wolverton, and Gmelch. Role Ambiguity Theory. Biddle (1979) states that ro le ambiguity results when information about the scope a nd responsibilities of ones j ob is inadequate, unavailable, or contradictory. The employee struggles to understand the scope a nd responsibilities of his or her job in a constantly changing envir onment. A lack of information can cause role ambiguity and may increase tension, anxiet y, and hostility that, in turn, decrease productivity. Montez, Wolverton, and Gmelch (2003) indicate that role ambiguity that academic deans experience can lead to dissatisfaction, anxiety, and ineffectual performance. The level of dissatisfacti on created by role ambiguity may negatively influence the desire of an academic dean to pursue the community college presidency. The four theoretical frameworks of c ontent, process, situational, and role described above provided the conceptual unde rstanding and basis for the measurement of job satisfaction of community college academic deans. The major content theories by Maslow (1954) and Herzberg (1966) indicat e that the fulfillment of needs and the attainment of values have a major impact on job satisfaction. Vroom (1964) and Adams (1963) are the leading process theorists who st ate that job satisfacti on can be described by examining the interaction of variables like values, expectancies, and needs. Hoy and Miskel (1996) state that situ ational theorists assume that deans job satisfaction is influenced by the interaction of variables su ch as task characteri stics, organizational characteristics, and individual characteristics. The integration of academic deans roles, positions, and expectations and their impact on job satisfaction form the basis of Biddles role theory. The measurement of academi c job satisfaction is based upon the four

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19 theoretical frameworks desc ribed by the many authors as shown in Table 3. Table 3 Comparison of Job Satisfaction Theoretical Frameworks CONTENT THEORIES PROCESS THEORIES SITUATIONAL MODELS ROLE THEORIES Examine fulfillment of needs and attainment of intrinsic and extrinsic factors to describe job satisfaction Examine interaction of values, expectancies, and needs to describe job satisfaction Examine interaction of individual, task, and organizational characteristics to describe job satisfaction Examine interaction of roles, positions, and individual characteristics to describe job satisfaction Maslows (1954): Need Hierarchy Theory Vrooms (1964) Expectancy Theory Quarstein, McAfee and Glassmans (1992) Situational Occurrences Theory Biddles (1979) Role Conflict Five Individual Needs Physiological, Safety, Belongingness and Love, Esteem, and SelfActualization Three variables Expectancy, valence, and instrumentality to describe degree of confidence and expected rewards for job satisfaction Examines Situational Characteristics (pay, working conditions, company policies, promotions, and supervision) and Situational Occurrences (activities in the workplace) for job satisfaction Examines internal and external pressures on the person in the position to determine stress and disequilibrium as it affects motivation and job satisfaction Herzbergs (1966) Motivator-Hygiene Theory Adams (1963) Equity Theory Glisson and Duricks (1988) Predictor Model Theory Biddles (1979) Role Ambiguity Measures Motivators and Hygiene Factors of job satisfaction Mtors (Intrinsi Achievement Advancement, Possibility of G Recognition, Responsibility Work Itself Hygienes (Ext otivac) rowth, and rinsic) ompa & al ersonal tus, Cny Policies Administration, Interperson Relationships, Job Security, P Life, Salary, Sta Supervision, and Working Conditions Based on the worker measuring outcomeinput ratio to determine job satisfaction for self and in comparison with fellow workers (Do I get rewarded sufficiently for the work I do and are my rewards equal to my peers?) Examines worker, job, and organizational characteristics to predict job satisfaction Lack of information and knowledge about the scope and responsibilities of employees role is inadequate, unavailable, or contradictory leads to anxiety, ineffectual performance, and job dissatisfaction

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20 mportance of Job Satisfaction study of job satisfaction/dissatisfaction and the motiva faction y Specto t its he els of ganization I Wood (1973) stated, the tion-to-work is especially relevant to ed ucation (p. 56). Th e study of satis can provide educational administrators with the information to make informed judgments that can improve job satisfaction and reduce dissatisfaction which can thereby establish a better educational envi ronment for student learning. The author specifically designed a job satisfaction survey instrument to be used within an educational environment. The importance of job satisfaction within organizations has been examined b r (1997) in his research study entitled Job Satisfaction: Application, Assessment, Causes, and Consequences Spector stated that there are three major reasons why job satisfaction is important in todays workplace. The first reason is that humanitarian values should direct todays organizations a nd the organization should attempt to trea employees honorably and with respect. Result s of a job satisfaction assessment can serve as an indicator of how employees are honored and respected within the organization. High levels of job satisfaction can also signal emotional wellness or mental fitness of t individual employee and willingness to support organizational goals. Spectors second reason for understanding job satisfaction is that organi zational operations can be influenced by the employees' levels of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. High lev job satisfaction can result in positive work behaviors and j ob dissatisfaction can generate negative work behaviors. The authors third reason is that job satisfaction or dissatisfaction can be an indicator of productivity within departments of the or and can influence the total organizational productivity. Assessment of job satisfaction might identify various levels of dissatisfaction among organizational departments and,

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21 ring job satisfaction of the commun ity college academic dean may provide importa ic mic e le agreement on a standard definition of job satisfaction een ) defined y job (p. of therefore, be helpful in pinning down areas in need of improvement to enhance overall productivity. Spector indicated that these three reas ons are justificati on to measure the level of job satisfaction and provide an understanding of the importance of job satisfaction. Measu nt insight to the car eer aspirations of deans to become community college presidents. The results of the research ma y indicate that there are sufficient academ deans who desire to assume higher admini strative positions to help alleviate the leadership crisis. If it is found, however, th at the level of dissatisfaction of acade deans is high, then job dissatisfaction may aff ect deans career aspirations to pursue th presidency and may in turn make the leadership crisis even greater than stated by Shults (2001), Eveleyn (2001), and Kelly (2002). Meaning of Job Satisfaction There seems to be litt within the research literature. However, ther e also seems to be a common thread betw all definitions that job satisfaction is an emotional reaction caused by the activities and interactions of ones job. There have been many research studies to define job satisfaction during the past 75 years. One of the early works by Hoppock (1935 job satisfaction as any combinati on of psychological, physiological, and environmental circumstances that cause a person to say, I am satisfied with m 47). Another major work on job satisfac tion completed by Locke (1976) provides a definition of a pleasurable or positive emo tional state resulting from the appraisal ones job or job experiences (p. 1300). Vroom (1964) provided another definition of job

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22 b bs. Job hat the academic dean creates the stage for future operations while m is the the ry The dean satisfaction as affective orientations on th e part of individuals toward work roles which they are presently occ upying (p. 99). Smith and C ourtenay (1995) note that jo satisfaction is a major contributor to life satisfaction. Spector (1997) defines job satisfaction as how people feel about their jobs and the different aspects of their jo satisfaction is an overall indicator and is measured by the job satisfaction variables or facets. For the purpose of this study, Spectors definition of job satisfaction was used. Role of the Academic Dean Bragg (2000) states t anaging day-to-day activities ( p. 75). Austin, Ahearn and English (1997) indicate that the academic dean is an entrylevel higher education administrator and linchpin that holds the community college together. The academic dean is placed between the higher-level community college leaders and the faculty on whose work community college relies. Wa lker (2002) indicates that the role of academic deans is multifaceted and is filled with ambiguity and poses obstacles in defining the deans purpose and tasks. Robillard (2000) indicates that the duties of the academic dean va due to the wide scope of activ ities and resource constraints within community colleges. Walker indicates that there are three main ro les of the academic dean: dealing with daily decisions and conflicts, managing resources, and professional development. Findlen (2000) describes the academic deans job as a lonely activity. is positioned between the president and the faculty and must be able to balance the needs of students, faculty, and the pres ident. The ability to commun icate and resolve conflict is needed to maintain a working relationship with all parties and meet the variety of challenges. Findlen provides three basic me thods to deal with conflict: traditional,

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23 ed ndicates that the integration of roles, positions, and expectations placed dean y e Gmelch (2003) i ndicate that role ambiguity that the academ ulty and to behavioral, and principled. The traditional method is used to eliminate conflict, the behavioral method is to accept and deal with the conflict, and principled method is us to initiate conflict to build communications within the different groups with which the academic dean deals. Biddle (1979) i on the academic dean may result in stress and affects motivation and satisfaction. The level of dissatisfaction/sa tisfaction created by role c onflict may negatively influence the desire of an academic dean to pursue th e community college presidency. The author also states that role ambiguity results when information about the scope and responsibilities of ones job is inadequate, unavailable, or contradictory. The struggles to understand the scope and responsibilities of his or her job in a constantl changing environment. The lack of inform ation on scope and res ponsibilities can caus role ambiguity and may increase tension, anxiet y, and hostility that, in turn, decrease productivity and satisfaction. Montez, Wolverton, and ic deans experience can lead to dissatisfaction, anxiety, and ineffectual performance. The authors state that the academ ic dean is caught between the fac higher administration, between students and faculty, and between administration and the public. The authors indicate th at a dean is expected to advocate for opposing sides of issues. The authors also point out that a dean is in a difficu lt situation and must choose perform one task at the expense of another. This adds to the stress of not being able to fully meet the expectations of his or her s uperiors or constituents and affects academic dean job satisfaction, according to Montez, Wolverton, and Gmelch.

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24 ide and manage llege lict, and the req ; uired by ults (2001) identified important additio nal skills required of future community college d Walker (2000) stresses that academic d eans are required to prov resources to provide a qualit y education for students. Knowledge of academic budgets, budget development, budget management, proc uring resources, and fundraising are needed skills of the academic dean. The aut hor also indicates that the community co academic dean is responsible for the manage ment and use of informational data. The academic dean must be able to transform data into useful information for improving decision-making and management of resources. To gain this needed knowledge, the academic dean must strive to continue in his or her professional development. Bragg (2000) states that th e challenges of decision-making, resolving conf uirement to manage resources demands that the academic dean pursue professional development training. Bragg lists six core knowledge areas that the dean must have: mission, philosophy, and history; learner-centere d orientation; instru ctional leadership information and educational technolog ies; accountability and assessment; and administrative preparation. Fi ndlen (2000) states that the professional skills req the academic dean includes conducting faculty evaluations, overseeing the discipline and termination of students and faculty, sexual ha rassment, legal issues, and ensuring student privacy. Sh leaders. Shults indicates the ability to bring a co llege together in the governing process, the ability to medi ate, a good command of technolog y, and the ability to build coalitions are required executive level ski lls. Weisman and Vaughan (2002) state that community college administrators are required to also be leaders in their community an that this requires working w ith leaders of business and indus try, leaders in other sectors

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25 logies ty academic deans, identifi al and hallenging roles expecte internal 2. legislat ive accountability, working with top 3. and program developmen t: development of curricula and d of education, and representatives from vari ous private and governmental organizations. Weisman and Vaughan also state that the ch anging student dem ographics, lack of academic preparedness, globalization of the economy, and rapidly changing techno place great demands on community college academic administrators. Montez, Wolverton, and Gmelch (2003), in a study of universi ed six major roles of deans. The da ta the authors presented included responses from 1,370 deans with a response rate of 60%. The deans identified external and intern relations, personal scholarship, leadership, resource management, internal productivity, and academic personnel management as the six major roles. The average age of the university academic dean was 54 years old wi th fewer than 10% under the age of 40, 5% over the age of 65. The deans ranked internal productivity and managing academic personnel as the most important roles of th e six. Ranked third was the external and internal relations requir ed of a successful university academic dean. Montez, Wolverton, and Gmelch (2003) id entified seven new c d of an academic dean in the 21 st century. The seven challenges are: 1. Fiscal: budget and finance, allocation and use of re sources, and and external fund raising. Administration: public and administrators, long-range planning, reorganization, and community outreach. Curriculum programs, recruiting high quality st udents, and dealing with unprepare students.

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26 4. cruiting and reta ining faculty, dealing w ith difficult personnel, 5. pgrading technology. and attaining 7. ng diversity of faculty and student population (Montez, The six major s place a great deal of stress and tension emic dean is multifacet ed and is filled with ambiguity and poses o Faculty: re and moving faculty toward change. Technology: distance learni ng and u 6. Personal balance: balancing personal and professional lives personal goals. Diversity: ensuri Wolverton, and Gmelch, 2003). tasks and the seven new challe nge on the academic dean. The ability of the acad emic dean to manage and operate within the academic environment identified by Montez, Wolverton, and Gmelch may affect the deans aspirations to climb the academic ladde r to the presidency. The academic dean may not want to move higher in the academ ic ranks knowing that additional pressures and challenges lie ahead. The role of the acad bstacles in defining the deans purpose and tasks. In most community colleges, the academic dean is a higher education admini strator and is the linchpin that holds the community college together. The academic dean is placed between the higher-level community college leaders and the faculty on whose work the community college relies. The duties of the academic dean vary due to the wide scope of activities and resource constraints within community colleges. Th e multifaceted role of the academic dean requires dealing with daily decisions a nd conflicts, solving problems, managing resources, and providing academic leadership.

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27 ob Satisfaction Research in the Community College e community colleges. A search of elec in ned rs, ity n of community college academic deans i J There are many studies on job satisfaction in th tronic databases such as the Educa tional Resources Information Clearing House (ERIC) and Dissertations Abstracts Online ( DAO) produced some impressive numbers the study of job satisfaction. The ERIC ( 1966 to current) database yielded 6,118 entries on a search of the key word job satisfaction; 355 respons es on a combination of job satisfaction and community college; and only one return for the combination of job satisfaction, community college, academic d ean(s). The one return was Ryder and Perabos (1985) study of 401 faculty and 17 academic deans in New Jerseys 19 community colleges in a study entitled The Complex Challenge of Professional Development: Current Trends and Future Opportunities. Glick (1992) was retur when searching for deans. The Glick study examined community college administrato which included some deans. The Ryder and Perabo study has no relevance or impact on this research project. The DAO database (1966 to 2003) provided information on 6,526 dissertations focused on job satisfaction. There were 142 dissertations focused on job satisfaction in community colleges, and no di ssertations on job satis faction of commun college academic dean(s). Many other studies focused on job satisfaction of faculty, librarians, counselors, vice pr esidents and presidents. An examination for articles about job satisfactio n several pertinent publications indica tes that there were no studies conducted and published in the Community College Journal of Research and Practice and its forerunner the Community/Junior College Quarterly of Research and Practice There were no articles found in the Community College Review The journal entitled Research in

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28 ilson r job have ies n job f e Job Satis faction Research Findin gs atisfaction of community ans as on of 2). Higher Education produced no studies. Over 45 elec tronic databases (i.e., ECO, W Select Plus, ArticleFirst, EducationAbs, EducationIndex, HumanitiesAbs, HumanitiesIndex, and GPO) were queried and no listings were provided fo satisfaction for community college academic de ans. Additional Internet searches been made and the searches provided no listing for job satisfaction for community college academic deans. The total literature searches indicated that no research stud are available or have been conducted to ex amine community college academic dean job satisfaction. This review of the community co llege job satisfaction literature reflects an interesting collage of people in academic positions that have been surveyed. The community college job satisfaction literature does not concentrate on academic dea satisfaction. This research study is designed to add to the body of research on job satisfaction on community college academic dean s. Shown in Table 4 are the results o the electronic database liter ature search on job satisfac tion of community college academic deans. Community Colleg The ERIC database contained two studi es of job s college deans as shown in Table 4. The G lick (1992) study was found to include de part of a larger study of job satisfaction of community college administrators. The Ryder and Perabo (1985) study of 401 faculty and 17 academic deans in New Jerseys 19 community colleges only examined professional development challenges and opportunities. The DAO database provided th ree dissertations on job satisfacti community college deans. They are: Te mple (2001), Bishop (1996) and Griffin (198 Glicks (1992) study entitled Job Satisfaction among Co llege Administrators

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29 examin ob c Database Inquiry Findings KEY WORDS INQUIRY C DATABASE (1966 to Current) DAO DATABASE (1966 to 2003) ed 253 community college senior administrators of all types to measure relationships of institutional type, position level, and demographic variables to j satisfaction. Results indicated that community college senior administrators were Table 4 Electroni DATABASE ERI CATEGORY Findings Findings Job Satisfaction 6,118 6,526 Job Sa eges tisfaction, Community Coll 355 142 Job Satisfaction, Community Colleges, Academic Deans 1 (Ryder & Perabo, 1985) 0 Job Satisfaction, Community Colleg es, (Glick, 1992) (Temple, 2001) (Bishop, 1996) (Griffin, 1982) Deans 1 3 Job Satisfaction, Commu nity Colleges, Tack and Patitu (1992) Tunnel (1992) Faculty 137 47 McBride, Mundy, and Job Satisfaction, Commun ity Colleges, Horenstein (1993) Librarians 1 0 Job Satisfaction, Community Colleges, Coll and Rice (1990) Counselors 5 2 Job Satisfaction, Community Colleges, s (1998) Coates (2000) Department Chair 8 Murray and Murray 4 Job Satisfaction, Community College s, Vice-Presidents 1 0 Job Satisfaction, Community Coll eges, 13 McKee (1991), Evans and Vaughan (1989) Honeym (1998) Presidents 6 an Job Satisfaction, Community Colleges, Staff 20 6

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30 elatively dissatisfied with their work. The au thor recommended additional research into bers and 17 academic deans of the 1 ities, onal of 132 community college campuses and me s nnel professionals in the 14 (b) r the job satisfaction of commun ity college administrators. Ryder and Perabo (1985) surveyed 401 faculty mem 9 community colleges in New Jersey. The study gathered information about professional development policies in the 19 community colleges. They examined professional development activities and opportunities, the effectivenes s of the activ the variations among the 19 campuses and discip lines, and incentives for participation. Study findings included the following: (a) 86% of the respondents planned to attend professional development conferences and 52% planned to publish, (b) professional development activities must include mini-grant s for research, membership in professi associations, participation in workshops and conferences, travel, and publication, and (c) three factors (recognition, more pay, and bett er prepared students in class) were consistently linked to in creased job satisfaction. Temple (2001) conducted a national study asured the community college vocationa l-technical deans leadership styles and faculty outcomes. The study investigated the faculty and dean's self-reported perception of transformational leadership and trans actional leadership practiced by community college technical-vocational deans. The fi ndings from this study determined that a combination of both leadership styles from technical-vocational deans had a greater positive impact on the technical-voc ational faculty job satisfaction. Bishop (1996) examined the job satisfacti on of student perso community colleges that make up the University of Kentucky's Community College System. This study sought to (a) determine the overall job sa tisfaction level

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31 onse r er nt to be fins (1982) research analyzed Minnesotas community college administrator percept identify sources of job satisf action and dissatisfaction, (c) de termine satisfaction with the intrinsic and extrinsic factors of work, and (d) determine whether selected demographic variables contribute to th e level of job satisfaction. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire and a personal data sheet we re mailed to 146 individuals. The resp rate was 72% (105 respondents). The results of this study revealed that 55.2% of the respondents reported questionable job satis faction; however, a large number (41.0%) were very satisfied to extremely satisfied with their jobs. Very few were not satisfied o only marginally satisfied (3.8%). Student personnel professionals were the most satisfied with the job facet identified as Social Service and least satisfied with the facet labeled Compensation. They were significantly more satisfied with the intrinsic facets of their jobs than they were with the extrinsic f actors. Deans of Student Affairs reported a significantly higher level of ge neral job satisfaction than did respondents in four oth categories of student services personnel. Three demographic variables emerged as predictors of job satisfaction. The study results indicated that the more money stude personnel professionals earned, the more satisf ied they were with their jobs. Male student personnel professionals tended to have greater job satisfaction. The longer student personnel professionals occupied their present positio n, the less they tended satisfied. Grif ions of collective barg aining, their management style, and job satisfaction. The study also looked at selected biographical variables, one institutional variable, and administrator relationships and perceptions with collective bargai ning. A total of 83 deans, associate deans, directors, provosts and assistant provosts comprised the

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32 all nd and adj tisfaction l and ents that can be used to measure facets of population for the study. Results were base d on an 81% return rate representing positions. Results indicated that participative style administrators had both positive a negative attitudes about collective bargaini ng depending on the specific issue addressed but their attitudes were more often positive th an negative. Administrators who indicated high job satisfaction had both pos itive and negative attitudes about collective bargaining. As shown in Table 4, there are extensive studies on community college full-time unct faculty. The ERIC database has 137 resear ch studies and the DAO database has 47 dissertations on community college faculty job satisfaction. Among the researchers represented in Table 4, Tack and Patitu (1992) have measured job sa of faculty women and minoritie s. In fact, McBride, M undy, and Tunnel (1992) indicate that the extensive studies on faculty is due to the belief that the faculty are the community college and that department chairs, administrators, and staff are in a support role. Horenstein (1993) examined community college librarians on job sa tisfaction. Col Rice (1990) researched the job satisfaction of community co llege counselors. Murray and Murray (1998) and Coates (2000) examined the job satisfaction of the community college department chair. McKee (19 91), Evans and Honeyman (1998), and Vaughan (1989) have measured the job satisfaction of community college presidents. The hole in the literature on community college job satisfact ion indicates that academic deans need to be studied to determine their job satisfac tion and their interest in pursuing higher academic leadership positions to meet the leadership crisis. Measurement Instruments of Job Satisfaction There are several measurement instrum job satisfaction or dissatisfaction Mobley (1982) and Vroom (1964) both recommended

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33 n, ents to on tion Scale (JS/DS) instrum ollege d ulin (1969) create d the Job Descriptive Index (JDI) specifi els of not using a job facet-specific instrument to meas ure job satisfaction. The authors indicated that the facet-specific survey instrument allows for th e identification of dissatisfaction toward facet-specific items/questions. This researcher measured academic dean job satisfaction facets as it relates to the intrinsic job satisfacti on, extrinsic job satisfactio and the general level of job satisfaction. Th e intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction was related to the academic deans level of ge neral job satisfaction. The academic dean general level of job satisfaction was used to predict career aspirations. Four job satisfaction facet-specific measurement instru ments stood out as potential instrum be used for this study. The four widely respected measurement instruments are: Job Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction Scal e (JS/DS), Job Descriptive In dex (JDI), Job Satisfacti Survey (JSS), and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). Table 5 provides a comparison of the job facets studied by the four instruments. Wood (1973) produced the Job Satisfac tion/Dissatisfac ent designed specifically for use in education and focused on community c faculty. The JS/DS was designed to examin e 10 facets through 76 questions related to job satisfaction/dissatisfaction in an educational environment. The 76 questions are grouped to obtain participant responses to the motivators and hygienes developed by Herzberg (1966). The JS/DS uses a Likert scale of 1 to 5 with 1 being very dissatisfie and 5 being very satisfied. Smith, Kendall, and H cally tailored for non-education workers. The JDI meas ures satisfaction lev work, pay, promotion, supervision, and cowo rkers. Study participants that are responding to the JDI are asked to indicat e whether each question does or does

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34 cored (1997) developed the Job Satisfac tion Survey (JSS). The JSS provides an overall innesota Satisfaction y, and ale form describe their jobs. The "YES" responses are sc ored + 1. The "NO" responses are s as a -1. The "UNSURE" responses are scored as a 0, which indicate s that the participant cannot decide. Spector satisfaction score and nine facet-specific scores using a Likert scale of 1 to 5 with 1 being very dissatisfied and 5 being very satisfied. The nine job specific facets are pay, promotion, supervision, fringe benefits, contingent rewards, operating conditions, coworkers, nature of work, and communication. The JSS can be used in the examination of job satisfaction in education and non-educational environments. Weiss, Dawis, England, and Lofquist ( 1967) designed the M Questionnaire (MSQ) for use in all types of workplace environments. The MSQ examines 20 job specific f acets which are: ability util ization, achievement, activit advancement, authority, company policies and practices, compensation, co-workers, creativity, independence, moral values, r ecognition, responsibility, security, social service, social status, superv ision human relations, supervis ion technical, variety working conditions. The MSQ is modeled on Herzbergs (1966) Motivator-Hygiene theory with intrinsic and extrinsic facets of job satisfaction. The MSQ uses a Likert sc of 1 to 5 with 1 being very dissatisfied and 5 being very satisfied to measure responses. The MSQ also allows for the measurement of intrinsic, extrinsic, and general job satisfaction levels. The MSQ is available in a long a nd a short version. The longMSQ asks participants to respond to l00 questions, which represent the 20 job specific facets, the intrinsic, extrinsic, and general job satisfaction levels. The short-form MSQ asks participants to respond to only 20 items that represent the 20 job specific facets.

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35 job son of Job Satisfaction Fa cets Measurement Instruments Job Descriptive Index (JDI) By Smith, Kendall, and Hulin (1969) Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) Job Satisfaction/ Dissatisfaction By Wood (1973) Minnesota Satisfaction Q B End Shown in Table 5 is the comparison of job sa tisfaction measurement instruments with facets. Table 5 Compari By Spector (1997) (JS/DS) uestionnaire (MSQ) y Weiss, Dawis, gland, an Lofquist (1967) P Pro Growth Ad romotion motion vancement I ay ay & Fringe ompensation Supervision n Supervision Human Relations ork Itself ature of Work ork Itself ewards y Operation onditions Policy & ies ations onditions orking Conditions bility Utilization ce es l Co-Workers Co-Workers nterpersonal Relations Co-Workers P P Benefits Salary C Supervisio Supervision W N W Achievement Achievement Contingent R Recognition Recognition Responsibilit Responsibility C Administration Company Polic Communic Working C W A Activity Authority Creativity Independen Moral Valu Security Status Social Services Variety Supervision Technica An evaluation of the four measurement inst ruments led this r select esearcher to

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36 e MSQ. The MSQ provided an extensive list of 20 job specific facets or variables to be measured as recommend by Mobley (1982) a nd Vroom (1964). The MSQ allows for the measurement of intrinsic and extrinsic job sa tisfaction levels. The other three survey instruments (JS/DS, JDI, and JSS) do not allo w for the measurement of both intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. All four-survey instruments allow for the measurement of general job satisfaction, but the MSQ had 20 va riables as compared to the JS/DS with only 10 variables. Job Satisfaction as a Criterion Variable Personal characteristics and work-related characteristics allow job satisfaction to be studied as a criterion variable. Spector (1997) determ ined that personal and workrelated characteristics can infl uence job satisfaction and that job satisfaction should be measured as a criterion variable. Personal characteristics. Personal characteristics such as age, gender, ethnicity, education (degree status), tenure, professional plans, and major responsibilities are often included in job satisfaction studies to desc ribe the participants and to determine relationships among the variables. Resear ch evidence often shows the presence of relationships between personal characteristics and job satisfaction. The results tend to be mixed, reflecting both positive and negative results for the same variables and can change over time. After an extensive review of job sa tisfaction literature, He rzberg et al. (1957) concluded that job satisfacti on is best described by a U-shaped curve. Initially satisfaction is high, then decreases, and af ter hitting a low point, eventually increases again with age. DeSantis and Durst (1996) re ported that tenure can cause job satisfaction to decline. In contrast, Thompson and McNamara (1997) conducted a meta-analysis of th

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37 nging adequate rewards for work performance, a safe and clean work environ allenging at job iable when examining job performance, ding igh job satisfaction and reported that age, ge nder, and ethnicity had no effect on job satisfaction. Another meta-analysis study by Quinn and Baldi de Mandilovitch (1980) indicated that there was a positive rela tionship between education level and job satisfaction. Work-related characteristics. Work-related characteristics such as challe work, fair and ment with supportive superiors, peers and subordinates can also have an impact on job satisfaction of academic deans. Schneid er et al. (1992) indica ted that ch work does correlate with positive job satisfa ction. Bruce and Blackburn (1992) report that fair and equitable pay, promotions, and financial rewards for superior performance also are linked to positive j ob satisfaction. Bruce and Black burn also report that a clean and safe work place with supportive colleague s can influence job satisfaction. Job Satisfaction as a Predictor Variable Mobley (1982), Locke (1976), and Spectors (1997) studies all indicated th satisfaction can be used as a predictor var absenteeism, and turnover. Sp ector (1997) indicated that better performers have a higher level of job satisfaction because they are r ecognized and rewarded for their outstan work. Locke (1976) reported that employees who had positive job satisfaction were less likely to be absent from the work place th an those who may be di ssatisfied. However, Locke also provides a warning that an extr emely liberal sick leave policy or other company policies can encourage even the most satisfied worker to be absent from the work place. Mobley (1982) indicates that there is a positive relationship between h job satisfaction and low turnover of employees If employees are satisfied with their

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38 t ge ars college ide a st arting point to understand individual and how it affects j ob satisfaction. The content theories presented by Maslow (1954) f h s is current job then they are less likely to leav e the organization. Robbi ns (1998) states tha a satisfied employee leads to higher productiv ity and willingness to assume additional responsibilities and take on new challenges. This study attempted to determine if the general level of job satisfaction can be used as a predictor variable for community colle academic deans career aspirations and prof essional plans to pursue the community college presidency. This researcher de veloped a questionnaire that asks about professional plans for one to four years and pr ofessional plans in the next five-ten ye to help make a prediction about academic deans desire to climb the community leadership ladder to the presidency. Summary The theoretical frameworks prov motivation and Herzberg (1966) indicate that the fulfillment of needs and the attainment o values have a major impact on job satisfaction. Vroom (1964) and Adams (1963), as process theorists, examined the interaction of expectations, values and needs to obtain satisfaction. The situational th eory stipulates that job sati sfaction is influenced throug the interaction of individual, job, and organizational variables. The role theory describe the role conflict model and role ambiguity and the impacts on job satisfaction. The job satisfaction literature has many operational definition of job satisfaction. Hoppock (1935), Locke (1976), and Vroom (1964) all offer de finitions that were considered by th researcher. However, Spector (1997) provided the definition used in this study. The study of job satisfaction can provide educational administrators with the information to make informed judgment s to improve job satisfaction and reduce

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39 dissatis todays s and tivity rk of 6). Herzberg originated the th eory of motivators a nd hygienes that have led to t 4) faction, which can provide a desi re by academic deans to pursue higher educational leadership positions. Based on Spectors (1997) research, the author indicated that there are three major reasons why job satisfaction is important in workplace. The first reason is that humanitarian values direct todays organization organizations attempt to treat their employees honorably and with re spect. The second reason for understanding job satisfaction is that organi zational operations can be influenced by the employees' levels of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The authors third reason is that job satisfaction or dissatisfaction can be an indicator of produc within departments of the organization a nd can influence the total organizational productivity. Spector indicated that the three reas ons are justification to measure the level of job satisfaction and provide an understanding of the importance of job satisfaction. The selection of the surv ey instrument was based on the foundational wo Herzberg (196 he development of j ob facets or variables to study job satisfaction. Vroom (196 and Mobley (1982) both recommended using a job facet-specific instrument to measure job satisfaction. This researcher examined four job satisfaction questionnaires, Job Satisfaction/Job Dissatisfaction, Job Descript ive Index, Job Satisfaction Survey, and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. This researcher selected the Weiss, Dawis, England, and Lofquist (1967) designed Minne sota Satisfaction Questionnaire for use in studying community college acad emic dean job satisfaction. The MSQ long-form measures 20 job specific facet s and to measure intrinsic, extrinsic, and general job satisfaction.

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40 le, 996); and Griffin, 1982) listed in Table 4 for community college deans and aca e ge job s is After examining the five studies (G lick, 1992; Ryder & Perabo, 1985; Temp 2001; Bishop, 1 demic deans, none were solely focuse d on academic deans job satisfaction in th community college. Glick (1992) looked at a broad category of administrators, Ryder and Perabo (1985) examined professional development opportunities; Griffin (1982) studied influences of collective bargaini ng, management style and job satisfaction on several types of community college administrators; and Temple (2001) considered leadership styles of technical-vocational deans. Bishop (1996) analyzed the job satisfaction in a limited number of student se rvices deans as part of a larger study on student personnel professionals in Kentucky. The review of the community colle satisfaction studies on faculty, librarians, counsel ors, department chairs, and president related, but cannot substitute for a study of academic deans. Therefore, this researcher believes that the appropriatene ss of this quantitative descrip tive research study in the job satisfaction of community college academic deans is needed to expand the greater body of knowledge on job satisfaction within Americas community colleges.

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41 Chapter 3 Methodology This quantitative correla tional study has three major obj ectives. The first is to measure the general, intrinsic, and extrinsi c levels of job satisfaction of community college academic deans. The second is to document the personal and unit-related characteristics that may be related to community college academic deans job satisfaction. The third is to examine the re lation between job satisfaction and community college academic deans aspirations to climb the community college leadership ladder to the presidency. This chapter describe s the research questions and hypothesis, participants, instrumentati on, data collection, and data analysis procedures. The use of a survey assisted in the attain ment of the three major objectives of this study. The following six research questions ar e used to investigate community college academic deans job satisfaction: 1. What is the level of general job satisfaction among community college academic deans as measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)? 2. What is the level of job satisfac tion among community college academic deans on the intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction facets (Intrinsic: ability utilization, achievement, activity, adva ncement, compensation, co-workers, creativity, independence, moral values, social service, social status, and working conditions; and Extrinsic: aut hority, company policies and practices,

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recognition, responsibility, security, and variety) as measured by the MSQ? 3. What is the relationship between the personal characteristics of academic deans (gender, age, ethnicity, degree status, tenure in position, gross annual salary, number of hours worked per week, and major responsibilities) and general job satisfaction as indicated by the Individual Data Sheet and the MSQ? 4. What is the relationship between the unit characteristics (size of college, location of college, number of full-time and part-time faculty supervised, and number of full-time and part-time staff supervised) of the academic deans unit/organization and general job satisfaction as indicated by the Individual Data Sheet and the MSQ? 5. What are the career aspirations of community college academic deans? 6. To what extent do community college academic deans career aspirations relate to general job satisfaction, as indicated by the Individual Data Sheet and the MSQ? The first null hypothesis of this research study for question three and four is that there is no connection between community college academic deans personal/unit related characteristics and general job satisfaction (Ho 1 : pers/unitchar = genjobsat ). The second null hypothesis of this research study for question six is that there is no connection between community college academic deans general job satisfaction and career aspirations (Ho 2 : genjobsat = proplans ). Participants The participants for this study were randomly selected from the population of 42

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43 academic deans as provided from a list of community college administrators by the American Association of Community Colle ges (AACC). There are approximately 3,000 specifically titled academic deans empl oyed in the 1,100 community colleges nationwide. For example, Dean of Business and Technologies, Dean of Academic Affairs, Dean of Math and Science, Dean of Transf er Programs, and Dean of A. S. Degree Programs all meet the definition of academic dean and were included within the sample. Barwick (2002) indicates that stude nt services deans do not produce many community college presidents even though student services skills are needed by the president. Based on the results of Amey and VanDerLindens (2002) research, Weisman and Vaughns (2002) study, and Ba rwicks (2002) findings as described in chapter one, student services deans, deans of student affairs, and deans of student activities were excluded and were not included as participants in this study. Isaac and Michael (1990) provide advice on job satisfaction studies within an educational environment concerning how ma ny individuals should be included in the sample. The authors advise that a sample size of at least 370 participants from a population of 10,000, or 3.7% should be randomly selected from the population to be studied. Therefore, since there are a pproximately 3,000 community college academic deans in the 1,100 community colleges, th e 3.7% recommended by Isaac and Michael equates to 111 participants. The response rate on the survey was a critical factor for external validity. This researcher did not e xpect a 100% response ra te to the survey. A literature review of other job satisfaction research at community colleges indicates that those researchers obtained a 45 to 75% res ponse rate to their survey instruments. Therefore, this researcher used the pr oportional to size (PPS) sampling procedure

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44 to select 400 or 13.3% of the approxim ately 3,000 academic deans, which exceeds the Isaac and Michael recommended 3.7% sample size. To increase participant responses, the American Association of Community Colleges provided an endorsement letter for this research study that accompanied the su rvey instrument (Appendix D). A follow-up letter and a second mailing of the survey inst rument to the participants were used to obtain a greater return of the completed su rveys. The 400 proportional to size randomly sampled academic deans represented all 50 states due to a commitment made to the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) while obtaining an endorsement letter. This researcher expected to obta in at least a 50% response rate, which was approximately 200 individuals or 6.7% for the sample. The 200 individual sample exceeds the 111 participants or 3.7% as indicated by Isaac and Michael and meets external validity requirements; however, non-respondents can intr oduce bias and lower external validity. Using the Stevens (1999) Power Tables, a power analysis (ES = 0.20, power = .97, = .05, u = 2) estimated a need for 140 respondents to participate in this research study. This requirement was met because 202 participants (50.5%) responded to the survey. Instrumentation Spector (1997) indicated that job satis faction research is mostly done with questionnaires, and Isaac and Michael (1990) stated, Surveys are the most widely used technique in education and beha vioral sciences for the collection of data (p. 128). The participants of this study received the Minnesota Satisf action Questionnaire (MSQ), Long Form (Weiss et al., 1967). The MSQ, as de veloped by Weiss et al. (1967), is based on the Theory of Work Adjustment that uses the relationship between the work requirements

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45 and the work environment as the principal reason or explanation for observed work outcomes of job satisfaction. Work adjust ment or job satisfaction is predicted by matching work requirements with the work environment. The MSQ allowed the investigation of the general level of job satisfaction for community college academic deans using job facet-specific variables. Vroom (1964) recommended using a job facetspecific instrument to measure job satisfac tion. The facet-specific survey measures specific job satisfaction variables. Vroom indicated that a job facet-specific survey instrument allows for the identification of dissatisfaction toward facet-specific items/questions. Herzberg (1966) advanced the study of j ob satisfaction with the introduction of the motivator-hygiene theory. Motivators pe rtain to work and include job facets or variables such as achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, and advancement. Hygienes relate to the work environment a nd involve job facets or variables such as company policy and administration, supervis ion, salary, interpersonal relations, and working conditions. This researcher measured facets of job satisfaction as it related to the general level of job sa tisfaction and use academic deans general level of job satisfaction to predict car eer aspirations. Cook, Hepworth, Wall and Warr (1981) reviewed job satisfaction questi onnaires and determined that j ob facets or variables such as co-workers, responsibilit y, compensation, and advancement all played a major role in employee satisfaction. The MSQ allowed for the computation of more facet-specific levels of job satisfaction than any other e xpert-recognized job satisfa ction instruments. Measurement of the job facet-s pecific levels of job satisfaction can potentially provide knowledge on what aspects of the work enviro nment of the academic deans needs to be

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46 changed in order to increase job satisfacti on. The MSQ allowed for the measurement of the intrinsic, extrinsic, and general levels of job satisfaction by participants in the sample. The instrumentation also included a researcher developed supplemental questionnaire called the Individu al Data Sheet (IDS) to assess how satisfaction relates to the pursuit of community college presidential leadership positions by measuring academic deans career aspirations. The IDS identified and documented the personal characteristic variables for deans (age, gende r, ethnicity, degree status, tenure in position, annual salary, number of hours worked pe r week, professional plans, and major responsibilities). Robbins ( 1998) reports the job satisfac tion literature provides some evidence that there is a positive relations hip between job satisfaction and personal demographics such as age, gender, educati on, and tenure. The IDS also examined the relationship of unit-related characteristic variables (size of college, location of college, and number of full-time and part-time staff supe rvised) to the general job satisfaction of community college academic deans. Since the MSQ is copyright protected, permission to use the MSQ for this study was obtained from the Vocational Psychology Res earch Department at the University of Minnesota (Appendix G). This researcher purchased 500 copies of the MSQ Long Form at a cost of $.64 per copy and a $4.95 Proce dure Manual. This allowed for sufficient copies of the MSQ to conduct a pilot test a nd the actual survey. The basic elements of the MSQ are 100 items known as reinforcers that are designed to meas ure job satisfaction with 20 facets of the work environment that correspond to 20 di fferent psychological needs. The 20 facets of MSQ are: 1. Ability Utilization. The chance to do something that makes use of my

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47 abilities. 2. Achievement. The feeling of accomplishment I get from the job. 3. Activity. Being able to keep busy all the time. 4. Advancement. The chance for advancement on this job. 5. Authority. The chance to te ll other people what to do. 6. Company Policies and Practices. The way company policies are put into practice. 7. Compensation. My pay and the amount of work I do. 8. Co-workers. The way my co-workers get along with each other. 9. Creativity. The chance to try my own methods of doing the job. 10. Independence. The chance to work alone on the job. 11. Moral Values. Being able to do things that do not go against my conscience. 12. Recognition. The praise I get for doing a good job. 13. Responsibility. The freedom to use my own judgment. 14. Security. The way my job provides for steady employment. 15. Social Service. The chance to do things for other people. 16. Social Status. The chance to be somebody in the community. 17. Supervision Human Relations. The way my boss handles his/her workers. 18. Supervision Technical. The competence of my supervisor in making decisions. 19. Variety. The chance to do differe nt things from time to time. 20. Working Conditions. The working c onditions. (Weiss et al., 1967, p. 1)

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48 Each of the 20 facets have five items called reinforcers associated with each facet. For example, as published by the Vocational Psychology Research Department at the University of Minnesota (1977), the job securi ty facet is measured by five reinforcer items as extracted from the MSQ. The five j ob security reinforcer items are: (1) my job security, (2) the way my job provides for a s ecure future, (3) the way my job provides for steady employment, (4) how steady my job is, and (5) the way layoffs and transfers are avoided in my job. The intrinsic job satisfac tion facet is developed through the analysis on the following facets: abil ity utilization, achievement, activity, advancement, compensation, co-workers, creativity, independen ce, moral values, social service, social status, and working conditions. The extrinsi c job satisfaction facet is produced through the analysis of the following facets: au thority, company policies and practices, recognition, responsibility, s ecurity, and variety. The 100 reinforcer items are rated on a 5-poi nt Likert scale (ver y dissatisfied, 1; dissatisfied, 2; neither dissatisfie d nor satisfied, 3; satisfied, 4; very satisfied, 5) as shown in Table 6. The survey instrument used the ra nge of scores to report findings for each of the 20 job satisfaction facets (Weiss et al., 1997). Table 6 MSQ Likert Scale SCORE VERBAL MEANING OF SCORE RANGE OF SCORE 1 Very Dissatisfied 1.00 1.99 2 Dissatisfied 2.00 2.99 3 Neither Dissatisfied nor Satisfied 3.00 3.99 4 Satisfied 4.00 4.99 5 Very Satisfied 5.00

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49 The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire was selected for many reasons. The first reason is that while conducting the li terature review on jo b satisfaction, this researcher noticed that appr oximately 55-60% of the resear ch studies used the MSQ as the survey instrument. Second, the MSQ a llowed for the computation of more facetspecific levels of job satisfaction than any of the other expert recognized job satisfaction instruments. Measurement of the facet-speci fic levels of job satisfaction can potentially provide knowledge on the aspects of the work environment of the academic deans needed to be changed in order to increase job satis faction and enhance unit effectiveness. Third, the MSQ allowed for the measurement of the intr insic, extrinsic, and general level of job satisfaction by participants in the sample. The general job satisfacti on scale, as indicated by Weiss et al. (1997), has 20 of the 100 MSQ rein forcer items that dire ctly relate to the general job satisfaction of participants. Th e fourth reason is that job satisfaction is treated as a predictor variable for this research study a nd allowed for predictions within the population. The fifth and final reason for using the MSQ is that it has a high reliability coefficient when used in many settings. Cook et al. (1981) report th at the MSQ has been used in a variety of settings to measure j ob satisfaction, and is nationally recognized and reported to be reliable and valid. Weiss et al. (1967) report that for 27 normative groups, the highest Hoyt reliability coefficient was .93 for the Advancement and Recognition facet and the lowest Hoyt reliability coeffi cient was .78 for the Responsibility facet. Test-retest correlation of general satisfaction scores indicate a coefficient of .89 for a time interval of one week for 75 employees and .70 for 115 employees over a time interval of one year (Weiss et al., 1967). Analysis of the MSQ data for 25 occupational groups

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50 (n=2,955) indicates that group differences were statistically significant at .001 level for both means and variances on all 20-job f acets of the MSQ (Weiss et al., 1966). The MSQ manual, according to Weiss et al. (1967), provides documentation about the survey instruments reliability and validity. The reliability of the MSQ is based on the high internal consistency reliabili ties measured by the 567 Hoyt reliability coefficients that range from .70 or higher as reported by Weiss et al. The stability of the MSQ is based on test-retest methodology of one week and one year. The correlation coefficients for the 20 job facets and general job satisfaction for a total of 21 measures yielded coefficients of .97 over the one week interval and .89 over the one year interval. The validity of the MSQ, as provided by Weiss et al., is based on construct, concurrent, and content validities. Construct validity is present because the MSQ appears to meet conceptual expectations when measuring level of general and facet-specific job satisfaction. Concurrent validity indicates that the MSQ can measure differences in satisfaction levels in a variety of dissi milar measured groups. The results of 25 occupational groups indicate that the MSQ can test differences and distinguish among groups from different occupations. The group differences among the 25 occupational groups were statistically signi ficant at the .001 level for bot h means and variances on all 21 MSQ facets. Content validity is obtained by the MSQs ability to identify and differentiate between intrinsic satisfaction and extrinsic satisf action. The factor analysis on the 25 occupational groups conducted by Wei ss et al. indicates th at the correlation coefficients for all 20 of the job satisfaction facets were clearly a ligned with either the intrinsic or extrinsic job satisfacti on factors. The MSQ Long Form consists of eight pages and takes approximately 15-20

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51 minutes to complete. Page two seeks limited demographic information from the respondents. The information from the demogr aphic page is not suffi cient to gather the type of information required by this research er. A supplemental I ndividual Data Sheet (Appendix C) was developed to obtain the pe rsonal and unit-relate d characteristics and accompanied the MSQ. The personal character istics as defined for this study are age, gender, ethnicity, degree stat us, and tenure in current academic dean position, gross annual salary, number of hours worked pe r week, professional plans, and major responsibilities. Career aspi rations developed by participan t responses to questions on professional plans is required for answer ing research question six. Unit-related characteristics defined for this study are the main unit focus of the academic deans mission such as academic/transfer or occupatio nal/technical educati on. Also related as unit characteristics are size, location, and activity, number of full-time and part-time faculty supervised, number of full-time a nd part-time staff supervised, and the unduplicated student headcount for fall 2003 academic semester. Data Collection Process Before the start of data collection, this researcher submitted appropriate materials (Individual Data Sheet, Minnesota Satisfa ction Questionnaire survey instrument, participant coding scheme to ensure anonymit y, procedures used in data collection, and reporting procedures) to the Univ ersity of South Florida Ins titution Research Board (IRB) and approval was granted to conduct the survey. The data collection process consisted of (1) receiving IRB approval, (2) conducting the pilot test, (3) conducti ng an initial mailing of the survey instrument, (4) collecting a nd organizing survey responses, (5) sending a follow-up letter and a second mailing of the su rvey instrument as required, and (6)

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52 reviewing the MSQ questionnaire for completeness. This researcher developed the following data collection process to manage and control the quality of the data collected: 1. Secure listing and mailing labels of community college deans from the American Association of Community Colleges. 2. Review listing and mailing labels for identifying academic deans. 3. Randomly select academic deans as sample participants. 4. Assign a code number to each academic dean and place on packet (MSQ and Individual Data Sheet) sent to randomly selected participants. 5. Mail packets to participants with stam ped return envelopes to researchers home address. Account for all mailed packets using the code number and if required send a follow-up letter a nd a second mailing of the survey instrument. Maintain return frequency count by date. Identify non-responders to develop requirements for followup and second mailing letters. 6. Review returned MSQ and Individual Data Sheet for completeness. Enter complete and incomplete responses to the MSQ and Individual Data Sheet into a SAS program database. 7. As required, contact participants and discuss resolution for completeness of MSQ and/or Individual Data Sheet. If researcher cannot resolve completeness with participants, then researcher ma kes the decision to include or reject information into the database. 8. Maintain SAS program database to ensure quality.

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53 Pilot Study. A pilot study/pretest was conduc ted with a convenience sample of five academic deans from Hillsborough Community College, Manatee Community College, and Polk Community College located in Florida. The purpos e of the pilot study was to test and evaluate the data collec tion methods and procedures. Since this researcher used the nationally recognized MSQ, the pilot test was not used to validate the actual MSQ survey instrument. However, the Individual Data Sheet (Appendix C), developed by this researcher was a supplemental form to collect additional demographic data on each participan ts personal and unit-related characte ristics to assist in answering the six research questions. The pilot study allowed for the validation of the Individual Data Sheet. The pilot study also allowed for a test of the statisti cal analysis programs that were written to support statistical measurement in answering the six research questions. The pilot study assisted in identifying problems with the Individual Data Sheet, data collection process, SAS programmi ng, and data analysis methods before the start of the actual research pr oject enabling this researcher to resolve the issues before the start of the actual data collection process. Initial Mailing. The initial mailing of 400 survey instruments (MSQ and Individual Data Sheet), with an endorsemen t cover letter from the American Association of Community Colleges (Appendix D), and a le tter from this researcher (Appendix E), and a stamped return envelope was mailed to the participants on January 28, 2004. To be able to identify non-respondents of the ini tial mailing, a code number was placed on the return envelope. Follow-up Letter and Second Mailing of Survey Instrument. A follow-up letter (Appendix F) to the non-respondents of the initial mailing was mailed on March 1, 2004

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54 to thank them for their participation if they had completed the survey instrument and had already returned the survey inst rument. If the participant di d not complete the survey, the follow-up letter was designed to encourage th eir completion of the survey. If the nonrespondent did not receive the survey then the non-respondent was provided with a second mailing of the survey instrument. Data Organization A codebook was built by this researcher de scribing each variable in this study. The codes are designed to organize the demographic characteristics and the job satisfaction variables listed in Appendices A and B, respectiv ely. The responses for all variables were entered into a statistical applic ation software package for analysis. The SAS Learning Addition Software (2002), Release 8.2, Windows Workstation was used to conduct the statisti cal analysis of th e data gathered from the MSQ and the Individual Data Sheet. The student vers ion of SAS had no limita tions in managing the variables or cases to meet analysis requireme nts. Demographic categorical variables such as age, gender, and ethnicity that were obt ained from the MSQ and Individual Data Sheet are coded and presented in Appendix A. Job satisfaction facet-specific continuous variables such as achievement, creativity, and independence that were obtained from the MSQ are coded as presented in Appendix B. Data Analysis Summary descriptive statistics were com puted to include appropriate descriptive measures of central tenden cy, variability, shape of distribution, frequency, and percentages for all research questions. As required by the individual research question, inferential statistics were also developed using an F-test for a single mean, Pearson

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product matrix, Cronbachs Alpha reliability coefficients, and regression. This researcher answered question one by providing summary descriptive statistics, frequencies, and percentages for dissatisfaction/satisfaction ratings for general job satisfaction. An F-test for a single mean was conducted to determine whether the sample mean score on general job satisfaction was statistically significant. The statistical results for question 1 described the general job satisfaction level as obtained from the 20 job facet scores for community college academic deans as shown in Table 7. Table 7 Measurement of General Job Satisfaction 20 Job Satisfaction Facets Ability Utilization Achievement Activity Advancement Authority Company Policies and Practices Compensation Co-Workers Creativity Independence Moral Values Recognition Responsibility Security Social Service Social Status Variety Supervision HR Supervision Tech Working Conditions General Job Satisf action Pearson Product Matrix and Cronbachs Alpha reliability coefficients to answer question one were designed for the 20 MSQ job satisfaction facets as related to intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction as shown in Table 8. 55

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Table 8 Cronbachs Alpha Reliability Coefficients Extrinsic Job Satisfaction General Job Satisfactio n Intrinsic Job Satisfaction Question two was answered by using summary descriptive statistics for intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction as obtained from the job-facet scores for community college academic deans as shown in Table 9. Table 9 Job Facets as Related to Intrinsic and Extrinsic Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction Facets Ability Utilization Achievement Activity Advancement Compensation Co-Workers Creativity Independence Moral Values Social Service Social Status Working Conditions Authority Company Policies and Practices Recognition Responsibility Security Variety Extrinsic Job Satisf action Intrinsic Job Satisf action 56

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Even though the MSQ is based on the work by Herzberg (1966), it does not exactly follow Herzbergs placement of intrinsic or extrinsic factors Question three presented the summary statistics, frequencies, percentages, and correlation coefficients for participants gender, age, educational degrees, job tenure, annual salary, hours worked per week, major responsibilities, and professional plans. Question four required summary statistics, frequencies, percentages, and correlation coefficients for participants unit size, location, activity, full-time and part-time faculty supervised, and full-time and part-time staff supervised. The summary descriptive statistics for participants professional plans (career aspirations) in the next one to four years and professional plans (career aspirations) in the next five to ten years were provided for research question five. The career aspirations of community college academic deans with appropriate descriptive tables and figures are provided to answer research question number 6. Inferential statistics using multiple regression were provided to answer research question 6. The relationship between general job satisfaction and career aspirations is provided to answer research question 6 as shown in Table 10. Table 10 Relationship between General Job Satisfaction and Career Aspirations Career Aspirations ( Professional Plans ) General Job Satisfaction Data Analysis Plan Research Question 1. What is the level of general job satisfaction among community college academic deans as measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction 57

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58 Questionnaire (MSQ)? The following statistical measurement procedures were used to answer question one: a. summary statistics for general job sa tisfaction that included appropriate descriptive measures of central te ndency (mean, median, and mode), variability (standard deviation, vari ance, and range), frequencies, and percentages for general job satisfaction; b. rank order of the 20 MSQ j ob satisfaction facets; c. F-test for a single mean to determine whether the sample mean score on general job satisfaction was statistically significant; d. Cronbachs Alpha Reliability Coeffici ents for the 20 MSQ job satisfaction facets; and e. Pearson Correlation Coefficients among 20 MSQ job satisfaction facets and general job satisfaction. Research Question 2. What is the level of job satisfaction among community college academic deans on the intrinsic and ex trinsic job satisfacti on facets (Intrinsic: ability utilization, achievem ent, activity, advancement, compensation, co-workers, creativity, independence, mora l values, social service, social status, and working conditions; and Extrinsic: authority, co mpany policies and practices, recognition, responsibility, security, and vari ety) as measured by the MSQ? The following statistical measurement procedures were used to answer question two: a. Summary statistics for each of the intrinsic and extrinsic facets included

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59 an appropriate descriptiv e measure of central tendency (mean), variability (standard deviation), and shape of distribution (skewness and kurtosis). b. Additional inferential summary statis tics were computed. Rank order of intrinsic and extrinsic MSQ job satis faction facets and an F-test for a single mean was conducted to determine whether the sample mean score on intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfa ction was statistically significant. Research Question 3. What is the relationship between the personal characteristics of academic deans (gender, ag e, ethnicity, degree stat us, tenure in position, gross annual salary, number of hours worked per week, and major responsibilities) and general job satisfaction as indicated by the Individual Data Sheet and the MSQ? The statistical measurement procedures fo r personal characteristics related to general job satisfaction used to answer question three were: a. summary statistics of appropriate desc riptive measure of central tendency (mean), variability (standard deviati on), frequencies, percentages, and summary statistics for participant gender, age, educational degrees, job tenure, annual salary, hours worked per week, and major responsibilities; b. dummy variables for gender and ethnicity; and c. F-test for a single mean to determine whether the sample mean score on each of the personal characteristics was statistically significant. Research Question 4. What is the relationship between the unit characteristics (size of college, location of college, number of full-time and part-time faculty supervised, and number of full-time and part-time sta ff supervised) of the academic deans unit/organization and general job satisfaction as indicated by the Individual Data Sheet

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60 and the MSQ? The statistical measurement procedures fo r unit characteristics related to general job satisfaction used to answer question four were: a. summary statistics of appropriate desc riptive measure of central tendency (mean), variability (standard deviati on), frequencies, percentages, and summary statistics for participant un it size, location, full-time and part-time faculty supervised, and full-time and part-time staff supervised; b. dummy variables for location; and c. F-test for a single mean to determine whether the sample mean score on each of the unit characteristics was statistically significant. Research Question 5. The fifth research question of this study asks what are the career aspirations of commun ity college academic deans. The statistical measurement procedures used to answer question five were: a. Summary statistics were computed to include frequencies, percentages, descriptive measures of central tenden cy (mean), and variability (standard deviation). b. Two F-tests were conducted to determine the sample mean score, f-value, and p-value for participants one to four y ear professional plans and five to ten year professional plans. Research Question 6. To what extent do community college academic deans career aspirations relate to general job satisfaction, as indicated by the Individual Data Sheet and the MSQ? The statistical measurement procedures used to answer question six were:

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61 a. Summary statistics were computed to include frequencies, percentages, descriptive measures of central tend ency (mean), variability (standard deviation), f-value, and p-value for the relationship of general job satisfaction to the participant professional plans. b. Inferential statistics were also develo ped using linear regression to describe the magnitude of the relationship between career aspirations as the criterion variable and general job satisfac tion as the predictor variable. Summary This quantitative correlati onal study has three major object ives. The first is to measure the general levels and facet-speci fic job satisfaction of community college academic deans. The second is to document the personal and unit-re lated characteristics that may be related to community college academic deans job satisfaction. The third is to examine the relationship between job sa tisfaction and community college academic deans aspirations to climb the community college leadership ladder to the presidency. The research questions, hypothesis, particip ants, instrumentation, data collection, and data analysis procedures have b een provided in this chapter. The participants have been identified, and the rationale for their selection was described. The protocol for the distribution of the survey was presented. The Individual Data Sheet was developed and sufficient copies of the MSQ were purchased. Submission of appropriate materials to the Instituti onal Review Board (IRB) was completed on December 2, 2003. IRB approval was received on January 15, 2004. The data collection plan was developed and presented. The statis tical analysis techniques for each of the six research questions were described.

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62 Chapter IV Results The purpose of this research study was to assess the general job satisfaction of community college academic deans throughout the United States as measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) in order to predict presidential career aspirations. This study also examined sele cted personal characteristics, unit-related characteristics, and intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction facets. This chapter provides the quantitative analysis developed to respond to the six research questions. In this chapter, a summary of the da ta collection process and the analysis of the data are provided. Pilot Study In January 2004, a pilot study was c onducted using five community college academic deans located in Florida to test a nd evaluate the data collection methods and statistical analysis procedures for this study. The survey packets were mailed to the pilot study participants on January 16, 2004 and we re completed by the participants and mailed back to this researcher by Janu ary 21, 2004. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), a nationally recognized survey instrument, has been validated for content and reliability as described in Chap ter 3. The MSQ is copyright protected and permission was granted to use the MSQ (Appe ndix G). This resear cher developed the Individual Data Sheet (IDS ) located in Appendix C the content of which was then validated by the five participants of the pilo t study. Only two of the 14 questions in the

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63 IDS were slightly modified due to input received from the pilot study participants. Questions eight and nine were modified to clearly identify professional plan/career aspiration for one to four years and five to te n years. The revised questions became part of the final IDS mailed to the study participan ts. The pilot study data collection process proved to support the collection requirements The statistical analysis procedures, however, required some programming refi nement. Only 23 specific lines of programming code in the researcher deve loped 40-page SAS program were modified based on the responses from the pilot study participants. Survey Distribution and Responses On January 28, 2004, survey packages c ontaining the Individual Data Sheet (IDS), Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) that has copy-right protection and is not included in this research report, Am erican Association of Community Colleges (AACC) endorsement letter (Appendix D), letter of instruction (Appendix E), and a stamped return envelope were mailed to 400 community college acad emic deans in all 50 states. To obtain the AACC endorsement lette r, this researcher committed to Dr. George Boggs to conduct a national survey, which incl uded academic deans in all 50 states. By February 23, 2004, only 185 survey responses were received from academic deans in 48 states. During the week of February 2327, 2004, this researcher contacted 193 of the 215 non-responding participants by email or telep hone in order to gain a commitment to complete the survey instrument. Only 50 of the 193 non-responding participants contacted by this researcher indicated they w ould complete the second survey instrument On March 1, 2004 a second mailing of 50 survey packages consisting of the Individual Data Sheet (Appendix C), Minnesota Satisf action Questionnaire, Follow-up Letter for

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64 Second Mailing (Appendix F), and a stampe d return envelope were mailed to 50 community college academic deans targeting the two un-represented states of Rhode Island and Vermont and 15 other states. By April 1, 2004, 224 survey instruments were returned for a response rate of 55.5%. Only 202 survey instruments were usable and represented all 50 states for a response rate of 50.5%. Th ere were 22 unusable survey instruments, which comprised 5.5% of the responses. Five survey instruments were unusable because somebody other than the part icipant returned th e completed survey instrument. Nine survey instruments were re turned because the participant declined to participate, and eight particip ants had retired. The 50.5% usable response rate is within the 45-75% response rate that Isaac and Mich ael (1990) indicated could be expected in higher education job satisfaction studies. Of the 400 participants, there were 198 non-respondents. The gender of the nonrespondents consisted of 52% males (n= 103) and 48% females (N=93). The nonrespondents gender percentage matches the respondents gender make-up as shown in Table 11. The size of institutions represented by the non-respondents indicated that 16% (n=32) were working in an institution with < 2,000 unduplicated head count, 58% (n=115) were working in an institution with 2,000 9,999 unduplicated head count, and 26% (n=51) were working in an instituti on with > 10,000 unduplicated head count for the fall semester 2003 as shown in Table 14. The location of the institutions represented by the non-respondents indicated that 41% (n=81) were located in a rural area, 38% (n=75) were located in a suburban area, and 21% (n= 42) were located in an urban area as shown in Table 14. The data indicates that the 198 non-respondents were a homogeneous group and there was no bias introduced by the non-respondents in this survey.

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65 Of the 50 non-responding participants that agreed to respond to the second mailing of the survey instrument, only 35 academic deans returned the completed the survey. The job satisfaction mean score for the 35 academic deans was 3.814. The gender of the 35 deans consisted of 51% males (n=18) and 49% females (N=17). The gender percentage for the 35 respondents mi rrors the respondents gender make-up as shown in Table 11. The data for the 35 deans indicates that 15% (n=5) were working in an institution with < 2,000 undup licated head count, 60% (n= 21) were working in an institution with 2,000 9,999 unduplicated head count, and 25% (n=9) were working in an institution with > 10,000 undupl icated head count for the fall semester 2003 as shown in Table 14. The location of the institutions represented by the 35 deans indicates that 40% (n=14) were located in a rural area, 42% (n=15) were located in a suburban area, and 18% (n=6) were located in an urban area as shown in Table 14. The data for the 35 academic deans indicates that the 35 res pondents that were provided a second mailing were a homogeneous group and there was no bias introduced by the 35 academic deans in this survey. Treatment of Data Upon receipt of the MSQ and IDS from the survey respondents, the individual responses to the 14 questions in the IDS and 108 questions in the MSQ were entered into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Incomplete or missing answers to the MSQ or IDS were treated as missing data and not recorded on the spreadsheet. All responses were anonymous and were not attached to an indivi dual by name or to a community college. Release 8.2, Windows Workstation of SAS L earning Addition Software (2002) was used to analyze the data entered on th e Excel spreadsheet.

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66 Survey Participants Personal Demographic Information A study of Table 11, indicates that the ma ke-up of the 201 survey participants consisted of 105 males (52%) and 96 females (48%). One particip ant did not record gender. The ethnicity of the participan ts was 89.2% Caucasian/White, 7% African Table 11 Survey Participants Personal Demographic Info rmation (Gender, Ethnicity, and Age) Personal Demographic Variable N Percent Gender 201 Male 105 52% Female 96 48% Ethnicity 202 Caucasian/White 180 89.2% African American 14 7.0% Hispanic 4 1.9% Other (Native American and Asian) 4 1.9% Age 193 31 -35 4 2.1% 36 40 9 4.7% 41 45 12 6.2% 46 50 41 21.2% 51 55 55 28.5% 56 60 54 28.0% 61 65 16 8.2% Over 66 2 1.1% American, 1.9% Hispanic, and 1.9% in the Other category which, consisted of Native American and Asian. The data indicate that only 10.8% of the participants accounted for ethnic minorities. This 10.8% is less than the Weisman and Vaughan (2002) finding that 14.2% of the community college presidents in 2001 were members of ethnic minorities. Also, the 10.8% is lower than the national statistics provided by the U.S. Census Bureau (2000) that indicates the gene ral population of ethnic minor ities in the United States

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67 totaled 29.3%. As shown in Table 11, the age of the part icipants ranged from 32 to 66 years old. Only four (2.1%) of the partic ipants were in the range of 31 to 35 years old. There were nine (4.7%) in the age range of 36 to 40 years old. The age group of 41 to 45 only recorded 12 (6.2%) of the pa rticipants. The age group of 46-50 had 41 (21.2%) of the survey participants. The largest age group was the 51-55 year group with 55 respondents (28.5%). The next largest group was the 5660 year age group (n=55 or 28.0%). The participants aged 61 to 65 accounted for 8.2% (n=16) and the over 66-age group reflected 1.1% (n=2). The age data reflect the fact that the community college academic deans who were 50 or older made up over 65% of th e survey participants. As indicated by Shults (2001), the community college leadersh ip crisis is based on the graying of the current senior academic leaders and faculty. Th e age data of the participants indicate that even the community college academic dean s are a graying body of mid-level academic leaders who may not be available to assume senior academic leadership positions. Regarding educational levels, Table 12 shows that 49.2% of the academic deans hold doctoral degrees, 35% have Masters de grees with additional academic hours, and 12.4% of the survey participants have Mast ers degrees. The one academic dean with a bachelors degree is a Dean of Continuing E ducation. Over 80% of the academic deans have a Masters degree with additional credit hours or doctoral degrees. This indicates additional academic work beyond the Masters de gree is necessary for the academic dean. There is a fairly stable distribution of results across all categories for tenure in position as an academic dean as indicated in Table 12. The data indicate that 10.4% of the survey participants have been in thei r current academic positions for less than one

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68 year, 33.7% of the survey participants were in their position for one to three years, and 20.8% held their position for four to six years. Over 15% of the pa rticipants have been academic deans for over 10 to 20 years and almost 5% have been in their current academic dean position for over 21 years. Thus, over 53% of the survey respondents have been in their dean positions from one to six years. Table 12 Survey Participants Personal Demographic Info rmation (Degree, Tenure, and Salary) Personal Demographic Variable N Percent Degree Status 201 Bachelors Degree 1 0.4% Masters Degree 25 12.4% Masters Degree + Hours 70 35.0% Education Specialist Degree 4 2.0% Doctoral Degree 99 49.2% Other 2 1.0% Tenure in Position 202 < 1 Year 21 10.4% 1 3 Years 68 33.7% 4 6 Years 42 20.8% 7 10 Years 30 14.8% 11 15 Years 22 10.8% 16 20 Years 10 5.0% Over 21 Years 9 4.5% Gross Annual Salary 202 $40,000 $49,999 2 1.0% $50,000 $59,999 15 7.5% $60,000 $69,999 47 23.2% $70,000 $79,999 51 25.3% $80,000 $89,999 42 20.8% $90,000 $99,999 32 15.8% $100,000 $109,999 7 3.4% $110,000 $119,999 3 1.5% $120,000 $129,999 1 0.5% > $130,000 2 1.0% In Table 12, showing the gross annual salary data of academic deans, the largest

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69 percentage of the participants was in the $70,000 to $79,900 range (n=51, or 25.3%). The next largest category was in the $60,000 to $69,900 range (n=47, or 23.2%). Only 42 deans (20.8%) earned $80,000 to $89,900 per year category. Thirty-two deans (15.8%) earned in the $90,000 to $99,900 range and 13 (6.4%) academic deans earned over $100,000 per year. The two academic deans who reported earning less than $50,000 are in rural environments with less than 2000 unduplicated headcount. The two academic deans (1.0%) who reported earning over $130,000 liv e in California. It appears that 98 (50%) of the deans earned between $60,000 and $79,999. This range may establish a national average for academic deans and coul d be considered when hiring a dean. The number of hours worked by academic deans is shown in Table 13. Only one dean worked less than 35 hours a week. Eight deans (4.0% of the survey participants) worked 36 to 40 hours a week. The largest group at 35% reported working 46 to 50 hours a week and 24% reported working 51 to 55 hours a week. Only 27 (13.5%) of the survey participants reported working 56 to 60 hours a week and 15 (7.5%) of the deans reported working over 60 to 70 hours a week. One dean at a large urban institution reported working over 70 hours a week. With over 95% (n=191) of the deans working beyond 40 hours a week, the general job satisfac tion of academic deans may be affected due to a long workweek. Academic deans were asked to report thei r major area of respons ibility as part of the survey. The results are shown in Ta ble 13. There were 49 (33.8%) deans who reported that they were only responsible fo r college transfer programs and 32.5% (n=47) reported being responsible for only vocational an d/or technical programs. Only 2% (n=3) of the deans reported being in charge of developmental programs and 4.8% (n=7) in

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70 charge of continuing education. Only 39 (26.9% ) of the survey res pondents reported that they were responsible for college transfer and one or more of the following program areas: vocational/technical, developmental, and or continuing education. The college transfer and other categories added up to over 60% of the commun ity college academic deans supervising college transfer programs. Table 13 Survey Participants Personal Demographic Information (Hours Worked and Major Responsibility) Personal Demographic Variable N Percent Number of Hours Worked Per Week 200 30 35 Hours 1 0.5% 36 40 Hours 8 4.0% 41 45 Hours 30 15.0% 46 50 Hours 70 35.0% 51 55 Hours 48 24.0% 56 60 Hours 27 13.5% 61 65 Hours 11 5.5% 66 70 Hours 4 2.0% Over 70 Hours 1 0.5% Major Area of Responsibility 145 College Transfer Programs 49 33.8% Vocational/Technical Programs 47 32.5% Developmental Programs 3 2.0% Continuing Education Programs 7 4.8% Other (College Transfer + One or More of the Other Programs 39 26.9% Survey Participants Unit Demographic Information The data on the size of the community co llege, as shown in Table 14, indicates that 13% (n=26) of the survey respondents wo rked at a small institution with less than 2,000 unduplicated headcount for fall semester 2003. Only 60% (n=120) worked at medium size institutions with 2,000 to 9,999 and 27% (n=54) worked at large institutions

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71 with over 10,000 for fall semester 2003 unduplic ated headcount. According to the findings in Table 14, the data on the location of the community college indicated that over 41% (n=82) of the deans worked in a suburban area and 39.8% (n=79 of the deans worked in a rural area. Only 19% (n=38) of the survey participants worked in an urban area. Table 14 Survey Participants Unit Demographic Information (Size of Institution, Location, and Number of Full-Time Faculty Supervised) Unit Demographic Variable N Percent Size of Institution (Fall Semester 2003) 200 < 2,000 Unduplicated Headcount 26 13.0% 2,000 9,999 Unduplicated Headcount 120 60.0% > 10,000 Unduplicated Headcount 54 27.0% Location 199 Rural Area 79 39.8% Suburban Area 82 41.2% Urban Area 38 19.0% Number of Full-Time Faculty Supervised 200 None 15 7.5% < 10 Faculty 10 5.0% 11 20 Faculty 35 17.5% 21 30 Faculty 36 18.0% 31 40 Faculty 23 11.5% 41 50 Faculty 14 7.0% 51 60 Faculty 12 6.0% 61 70 Faculty 10 5.0% 71 80 Faculty 6 3.0% Over 80 Faculty 39 19.5% The data in Table 14 indicate that 15 (7.5%) deans do not supervise any fulltime faculty. Only ten (5%) of the academic d eans supervised less than 10 full-time faculty members and 35 (17.5%) of the academic deans indicated that they supervised 11 to 20 full-time faculty members. There were 36 (18.0%) deans who supervised 21 to 30 full-

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72 time faculty members and 23 (11.5%) of the d eans supervised betw een 31 to 40 fulltime faculty members. There were 14 (7.0%) dean s who indicated they supervised 41 to 50 full-time faculty members and 12 academic dean s (6.0%) indicated they supervised 51 to 60 full-time faculty members. The categor y, to 70 full-time faculty supervised reflected ten (5.0%) of the deans and the 71 to 80 category recorded six (3.0%) deans. There were 39 (20%) academic deans who supervised over 80 full-time faculty members. In addition to supervising full-time facu lty, deans were also asked how many parttime faculty they supervised. As shown in Table 15, eight deans (4%) did not supervise any part-time faculty members and seven ( 3.4%) deans only supervised 10 part-time faculty members or less. Of the academic deans, 23 (11.4%) indicated that they supervised 11 to 20 part-time faculty member s and 21 (4%) supervised 31 to 40 part-time faculty members. The 41 to 50 part-time faculty category reflected 14 deans (7.0%) and the 51 to 60 part-time faculty category indicated 13 (7.0%). There were 73 (36%) of the survey participants who reported supervisi ng over 80 part-time faculty members. The remaining three categories onl y accounted for 14.0% of the deans responses on how many part-time faculty members were supervised. The data for full-time and part-time staff supervised by the survey participants is shown in Table 15. Only three deans (1.5%) do not supervise any staff members. There were 53 (26.3%) of the academic deans who s upervised ten or fewer staff members. In the category of 11 to 20 full-time and part -time staff supervise d, 61 (30.4%) deans are shown. Only 32 (16.0%) of the deans reporte d supervising 21 to 30 staff members. Eight deans (4.0%) supervised 31 to 40 full-ti me or part-time staff members. Only 8 (4%) of the deans supervised 41 to 50 staff members. The 51 to 60 staff supervised

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73 category reflected five (2.4%) deans and the 61 to 70 staff supervised category indicated four (2.0%) of the academic deans supervised full-time and part-time staff members. Only ten (5.0%) deans supervised over 70 staff members. By combining the first three categories, over 58% of the community college academic deans supervised 10 or fewer staff members. Table 15 Survey Participants Unit Demographic Inform ation (Number of Part-Time Faculty Supervised and Number of Fu ll-Time/Part-Time Staff Supervised) Unit Demographic Variable N Percent Number of Part-Time Faculty Supervised 201 None 8 4.0% < 10 Faculty 7 3.4% 11 20 Faculty 23 11.4% 21 30 Faculty 18 9.0% 31 40 Faculty 21 10.4% 41 50 Faculty 14 7.0% 51 60 Faculty 14 7.0% 61 70 Faculty 13 6.4% 71 80 Faculty 10 5.0% Over 80 Faculty 73 36.4% Number of Full-Time and Part-time Staff Supervised 201 None 3 1.5% < 5 Staff 53 26.3% 6 10 Staff 61 30.4% 11 20 Staff 32 16.0% 21 30 Staff 8 4.0% 31 40 Staff 8 4.0% 41 50 Staff 5 2.4% 51 60 Staff 4 2.0% 61 70 Staff 10 5.0% Over 70 Faculty 17 8.4% Discussion of Research Questions Using quantitative analysis te chniques, this research study examined six research

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74 questions. The questions are presented w ith the summary of findings and supporting tables for each question. The job satisfaction scores from the MSQ equates to general job satisfaction levels. Table 16 pr esents the Likert scale verb al meaning of the score and range of scores. The range of scores and verb al meanings of the Like rt score is used to answer all research questions. Table 16 MSQ Likert Scores VERBAL SATISFACTION LEVELS RANGE OF SCORE Very Dissatisfied 1.00 1.99 Dissatisfied 2.00 2.99 Neither Dissatisfied nor Satisfied 3.00 3.99 Satisfied 4.00 4.99 Very Satisfied 5.00 The content validity of the MSQ was m easured using the Pearson correlation coefficients intercorrelations between a ll 20 job satisfaction facets and general job satisfaction as shown in Table 17. The corr elation coefficients were all positive and statistically significant at the .01 level. The correlation coefficients ranged from a low of 0.518 to a high of 0.774 of the 20-job satisfactio n facets to general job satisfaction, which indicates a strong correlation be tween the 20 facets to general job satisfaction. The range of the 20 facets interc orrelations to general job satisfac tion is .256. The lowest Pearson correlation coefficient is compensation at 0.518 to general job satisfa ction. The highest Pearson correlation coefficient is for rec ognition at 0.774 to genera l job satisfaction. Using the standards set by Weiss et. al. (1967) the correlation coefficients obtained for the 20 job facets and general j ob satisfaction yielded were st atistically significant.

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MSQ Facets 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 19. Variety 0.680 0.629 0.754 0.385 0.579 0.406 0.273 0.578 0.640 0.506 0.487 0.402 0.656 0.447 0.590 0.490 0.369 0.385 1 0.363 0.698 3. Activity1 0.574 0.632 1 0.385 0.509 0.302 0.301 0.536 0.570 0.456 0.541 0.405 0.614 0.455 0.653 0.485 0.293 0.321 0.754 0.372 0.640 6. Company Policies and Practices 0.439 0.465 0.302 0.623 0.355 1 0.331 0.474 0.471 0.367 0.428 0.603 0.557 0.494 0.268 0.343 0.684 0.707 0.406 0.375 0.752 1. Ability Utilization 1 0.796 0.574 0.354 0.465 0.439 0.222 0.542 0.714 0.537 0.528 0.530 0.732 0.459 0.603 0.446 0.419 0.441 0.680 0.344 0.723 17. Supervision Human Relations 0.419 0.412 0.293 0.566 0.309 0.684 0.255 0.370 0.517 0.364 0.409 0.674 0.602 0.477 0.286 0.287 1 0.924 0.369 0.368 0.768 14. Security 0.459 0.476 0.455 0.497 0.321 0.494 0.444 0.619 0.404 0.368 0.492 0.451 0.530 1 0.376 0.437 0.477 0.462 0.447 0.505 0.657 12. Recognition 0.530 0.571 0.405 0.608 0.356 0.603 0.408 0.485 0.557 0.388 0.460 1 0.607 0.451 0.352 0.463 0.674 0.675 0.402 0.323 0.774 13. Responsibility 0.732 0.768 0.614 0.501 0.502 0.557 0.325 0.629 0.779 0.531 0.567 0.607 1 0.530 0.563 0.446 0.602 0.573 0.656 0.467 0.835 15. Social Service 0.603 0.694 0.653 0.285 0.414 0.286 0.197 0.575 0.568 0.392 0.624 0.352 0.563 0.376 1 0.396 0.286 0.290 0.590 0.303 0.580 16. Social Status 0.446 0.450 0.485 0.403 0.644 0.343 0.421 0.434 0.352 0.376 0.419 0.463 0.446 0.437 0.396 1 0.287 0.315 0.490 0.312 0.587 4. Advancement 0.354 0.396 0.389 1 0.373 0.623 0.531 0.465 0.388 0.326 0.360 0.608 0.501 0.497 0.285 0.403 0.566 0.631 0.385 0.432 0.715 5. Authority 0.465 0.412 0.509 0.373 1 0.355 0.253 0.444 0.445 0.370 0.370 0.356 0.502 0.321 0.414 0.644 0.309 0.350 0.579 0.207 0.561 7. Compensation 0.220 0.241 0.301 0.531 0.253 0.331 1 0.335 0.203 0.232 0.294 0.408 0.325 0.444 0.197 0.421 0.255 0.291 0.273 0.403 0.518 9. Creativity 0.714 0.781 0.570 0.388 0.445 0.471 0.203 0.475 1 0.536 0.513 0.557 0.779 0.404 0.568 0.352 0.517 0.493 0.640 0.275 0.726 10. Independence 0.537 0.474 0.456 0.325 0.370 0.367 0.232 0.478 0.536 1 0.484 0.388 0.531 0.386 0.392 0.376 0.364 0.342 0.506 0.253 0.599 11. Moral Values 0.528 0.581 0.541 0.360 0.370 0.428 0.294 0.569 0.513 0.484 1 0.460 0.567 0.492 0.624 0.419 0.409 0.391 0.487 0.333 0.651 2. Achievement 0.793 1 0.632 0.396 0.412 0.465 0.241 0.558 0.781 0.474 0.581 0.571 0.768 0.476 0.694 0.450 0.412 0.396 0.629 0.387 0.720 8. Co-workers 0.542 0.558 0.536 0.465 0.444 0.474 0.335 1 0.475 0.478 0.569 0.485 0.629 0.619 0.575 0.434 0.370 0.393 0.578 0.475 0.698 20. Working Conditions 0.344 0.387 0.372 0.432 0.207 0.375 0.403 0.475 0.275 0.253 0.333 0.323 0.467 0.505 0.303 0.312 0.368 0.370 0.363 1 0.570 18. Supervision Technical 0.441 0.396 0.321 0.631 0.360 0.707 0.291 0.393 0.493 0.342 0.391 0.675 0.573 0.462 0.290 0.315 0.924 1 0.385 0.370 0.773 21. General Job Satisfaction 0.723 0.720 0.640 0.715 0.561 0.752 0.518 0.698 0.726 0.599 0.651 0.774 0.835 0.657 0.580 0.587 0.768 0.773 0.698 0.570 1 75 Table 17 MSQ Job Satisfaction Facets and General Job Satisfaction Pearson Correlation Coefficients Intercorrelations MSQ Job Satisfaction Scales

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Research question one. The first research question was: What is the level of general job satisfaction among community college academic deans as measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)? The most important finding for research question one is that the community college academic deans surveyed were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied and reported a mean general job satisfaction score of 3.828. This indicates that the deans are lukewarm in their job satisfaction levels. The 95% conference interval at the .05 level for the general job satisfaction sample mean score was 3.752 3.905. The second important finding is that slightly over one third of the survey participants are satisfied with being an academic dean. The third major finding is that eight of the job facets (advancement, authority, company policies and practices, compensation, social status, independence, recognition, and supervision technical) were not rated as satisfactory or very satisfactory. To investigate this question, this researcher used frequencies, percentages, and summary statistics for participant general job satisfaction. A Cronbachs Alpha Reliability coefficient was conducted on all 20 job satisfaction facets and general job satisfaction. The range to total correlation is 0.042 to 0.189. Given these results, one can infer that the lowest reliable variance of the total score was at least 81%. A Pearson Correlation Coefficient among the 20 job satisfaction facets and general job satisfaction was conducted. The correlation coefficients were all positive and statistically significant at the .01 level. An F-test was conducted ( p = <.001) and indicated that the 20 job satisfaction facets did relate to general job satisfaction and was significant. Table 18 presents the responses to the question one. 76

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Table 18 Frequencies and Percentages of Dissatisfaction and Satisfaction Ratings General Job Satisfaction Frequency Cumulative Average General Job Satisfaction (n=202) (n) Percent Percent Score Very Dissatisfied 1 0.5 0.5 1.940 Dissatisfied 10 5.0 5.5 2.590 Neither Dissatisfied nor Satisfied 112 55.5 61.0 3.590 Satisfied 76 37.5 98.5 4.320 Very Satisfied 3 1.5 100.0 5.000 Summary Statistics Mean = 3.828 Median = 3.833 Mode = 3.833 Standard Deviation = 0.551 p = < .001 Range = 3.056 Minimum = 1.944 Maximum = 5.000 Only one academic dean reported being very dissatisfied. A very low percentage (5.0%) of academic deans (n=10) reported being dissatisfied. The majority of the deans (n=112) or 55.5% indicated that they were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. A total of 76 academic deans or 37.5% stated that they were satisfied and three deans (1.5%) were very satisfied. The minimum score was 1.994 and the maximum score was 5.00 with a range of 3.056. The median and mode score was identical at 3.833. The standard deviation was 0.551. The p-value was < .001 at the .05 level, which indicates that the sample mean score was statistically significant. The general job satisfaction mean score for the 202 academic deans was 3.828. This indicates that as a group, the survey participants were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. 77

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The general job satisfaction score is obtained from the measurement of 20 job satisfaction facets. Table 19 reflects the frequencies and percentages of dissatisfaction and satisfaction ratings of the 20 job facets as measured by the MSQ. Of note, a majority Table 19 Rank Order of Frequencies and Percentages of Satisfaction Ratings of 20 Job Facets as Measured by the MSQ (N = 202) MSQ Job Facets Very Dissatisfied N % Dissatisfied N % Total Dissatisfied N % Neither Dissatisfied nor Satisfied N % Satisfied N % Very Satisfied N % Total Satisfied N % Social Service 0 0.0 2 1.0 2 1.0 13 6.4 126 62.4 61 30.2 187 92.6 Moral Values 1 0.5 5 2.5 6 3.0 31 15.3 117 58.0 48 23.7 165 81.7 Achievement 0 0.0 5 2.5 5 2.5 42 20.7 123 60.9 32 15.8 155 76.7 Ability Utilization 0 0.0 16 8.0 16 8.0 34 16.8 115 57.0 37 18.2 152 75.2 Activity 0 0.0 7 3.5 7 3.5 46 22.7 124 61.3 25 12.2 149 73.5 Creativity 0 0.0 8 4.0 8 4.0 47 23.2 115 57.0 32 15.8 147 72.8 Responsibility 1 0.5 8 4.0 9 4.5 50 24.7 127 62.8 16 8.0 143 70.8 Working Conditions 3 1.5 24 11.8 27 13.3 33 16.3 110 54.5 32 15.9 142 70.4 Variety 0 0.0 6 2.9 6 2.9 61 30.1 118 58.5 17 8.5 135 67.0 Co-workers 2 1.0 10 5.0 12 6.0 69 35.0 106 52.5 15 7.5 121 60.0 Security 2 1.0 8 4.0 10 5.0 73 36.1 94 46.5 25 12.4 119 58.9 Supervision Human Relations 17 8.5 29 14.3 46 22.8 48 23.7 82 40.5 26 13.0 108 53.5 Supervision Technical 15 7.5 37 18.3 52 25.8 50 24.7 84 41.5 16 8.0 100 49.5 Independence 1 0.5 17 8.5 18 9.0 91 45.0 82 40.5 11 5.5 93 46.0 Recognition 8 4.0 38 11.8 46 15.8 65 32.1 75 37.1 16 8.0 91 45.1 Authority 1 0.5 5 2.5 6 3.0 107 53.0 82 40.5 7 3.5 89 43.8 Social Status 1 0.5 9 4.5 10 5.0 104 51.5 75 37.1 13 6.4 88 43.5 Company Policies and Practices 18 8.9 37 18.3 55 26.9 64 31.7 73 36.1 10 5.0 83 41.1 Compensation 12 6.1 52 25.7 64 31.8 62 30.6 68 33.6 8 4.0 76 37.6 Advancement 8 4.0 38 18.8 46 22.8 83 41.0 67 33.2 6 3.0 73 36.2 of the academic deans reported being satisfied or very satisfied with the following 13 facets: ability utilization, achievement, activity, co-workers, creativity, moral values, responsibilities, security, social service, supervision human relations, variety, and working conditions. Approximately 25% of the academic deans reported that they were 78

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dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with five of the job satisfaction facets (advancement, company policies and practices, compensation, and supervision human relations, and supervision technical). For two of the facets, authority and social status, the majority of the survey participants were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. Cronbachs Alpha Reliability Coefficients were computed to measure the internal consistency and reliability of the 20 job satisfaction facets and general job satisfaction. The data from the 202 survey participants suggest a very strong reliability of the MSQ in measuring community college academic job satisfaction. The Cronbachs Alpha Reliability Coefficients for the 20 job satisfaction facets and general job satisfaction are shown in Table 20. SupervisionHuman Relations received the highest reliability score of 0.958 of the 20 job satisfaction facets. Responsibility had the lowest reliability score at 0.811. General job satisfaction had a Cronbachs Alpha reliability coefficient score of 0.908. Gable and Wolf (1993) indicate that a reliability coefficients above 0.80 reflects a very strong internal reliability. For all 20 job satisfaction facets and general job satisfaction, the range to total correlation is 0.189 to 0.042. Given these results, one can infer that the lowest reliable variance (responsibility) of the total score was at least 81%. The findings indicate that the 20 facets and general job satisfaction had adequate internal consistency reliability. The obtained Cronbachs Alpha Reliability coefficients are in line with the findings of Weiss et. al. (1967) based on the 567 research studies with Hoyt reliability coefficients that range from .70 or higher. 79

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Table 20 Cronbachs Alpha Reliability Coefficients for MSQ Job Satisfaction Facets Standardized Range of Cronbachs Alpha Item to Job Satisfaction Facet Reliability Coefficients Total Correlation Ability Utilization 0.913 0.087 Achievement 0.859 0.141 Activity 0.853 0.147 Advancement 0.938 0.062 Authority 0.830 0.170 Company Policies 0.941 0.063 Compensation 0.937 0.930 Co-Workers 0.855 0.145 Creativity 0.878 0.122 Independence 0.914 0.086 Moral Values 0.871 0.129 Recognition 0.942 0.058 Responsibility 0.811 0.189 Security 0.876 0.124 Social Service 0.918 0.082 Social Status 0.907 0.093 SupervisionHuman Relations 0.958 0.042 SupervisionTechnical 0.935 0.065 Variety 0.838 0.162 Working Conditions 0.953 0.047 General Job Satisfaction 0.908 0.092 Research question two. What is the level of job satisfaction among community college academic deans on the intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction facets (Intrinsic: ability utilization, achievement, activity, advancement, compensation, co-workers, creativity, independence, moral values, social service, social status, and working conditions; and Extrinsic: authority, company policies and practices, recognition, responsibility, security, and variety) as measured by the MSQ? The key finding to this question is that academic deans reported being more satisfied with intrinsic job satisfaction facets (mean score 4.037) than extrinsic facets (mean score 3.895). The 80

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academic deans were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied with extrinsic job satisfaction facets. The results of the paired F-test of extrinsic verses intrinsic job satisfaction facets was conducted (F-test 4.76, p = <.001) and indicated that the extrinsic and intrinsic job satisfaction facets did relate to each other and were statistically significant. To investigate this question, this researcher used frequency, percentages, and summary statistics for participants intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. Table 21 presents the responses and rankings for intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction facets. The intrinsic job satisfaction score for the 202 survey participants was 4.037. This indicates that the academic deans were satisfied with the intrinsic (ability utilization, achievement, activity, advancement, compensation, co-workers, creativity, independence, moral values, social service, social status, and working conditions) job satisfaction facets. The 202 academic deans were satisfied with half of the intrinsic facets of social service, moral values, achievement, creativity, activity, and ability utilization. The deans reported neither dissatisfaction nor satisfaction with the remaining half of the intrinsic facets of co-workers, working conditions, independence, social status, advancement, and compensation. The data cited in Table 21 reveal that the extrinsic job satisfaction score for the 202 academic deans was 3.895. This reflects the deans being neither dissatisfied nor satisfied with the extrinsic (authority, company policies and practices, recognition, responsibility, security, and variety) job satisfaction facets. Only variety and responsibility received a score over 4.00, which indicated satisfaction. The remaining four extrinsic facets of authority, company policies and practices, recognition, and security were rated as neither dissatisfied nor satisfied by the academic deans. 81

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Table 21 Rank Order of Intrinsic and Extrinsic MSQ Job Satisfaction Facets Ranking Job Satisfaction Facet N M sk ku SD Intrinsic Job Satisfaction Facets 202 4.037 -0.974 1,884 0.556 Social Service 202 4.406 -0.993 2.514 0.540 Moral Values 202 4.321 -1.341 3.397 0.638 Achievement 202 4.209 -0.698 0.792 0.595 Creativity 202 4.134 -0.684 0.643 0.637 Activity 202 4.125 -0.519 0.573 0.581 Ability Utilization 202 4.119 -0.853 0.817 0.683 Co-Workers 202 3.956 -0.836 1.978 0.648 Working Conditions 202 3.946 -1.067 1.029 0.859 Independence 202 3.730 -0.442 0.405 0.681 Social Status 202 3.727 -0.048 0.572 0.634 Advancement 202 3.433 -0.526 0.006 0.873 Compensation 202 3.357 -0.412 -0.705 1.001 Extrinsic Job Satisfaction Facets 202 3.895 -0.621 0.817 0.570 Variety 202 4.110 -0.450 -0.705 0.488 Responsibility 202 4.062 -0.747 1.532 0.570 Security 202 3.999 -0.805 1.674 0.706 Authority 202 3.785 -0.250 1.437 0.518 Recognition 202 3.541 -0.519 -0.300 0.570 Company Policies 202 3.384 -0.517 -0.501 0.979 General Job Satisfaction 202 3.828 -0.404 0.639 0.551 Table 22 indicates that the deans were satisfied (4.0 or better) with only eight of the extrinsic and intrinsic job satisfaction facets (social services, moral values, achievement, creativity, activity, ability utilization, variety, and responsibility). For the remaining ten extrinsic and intrinsic job satisfaction facets, the deans were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. 82

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Table 22 Graph of Rank Order of Intrinsic and Extrinsic MSQ Job Satisfaction Facets 33.23.43.63.844.24.44.6 Social Services 4.406 Moral Values 4.321 Achievement 4.209 Creativity 4.134 Activity 4.125 Ability Utilization 4.119 Co-Workers 3.956 Working Conditions 3.946 Independence 3.730 Social Status 3.727 Advancement 3.433 Compensation 3.357 Variety 4.110 Responsibility 4.062 Security 3.999 Authority 3.785 Recognition 3.541 Company Policies 3.384 Intrinsic Facets Extrinsic Facets Intrinsic Facets Extrinsic Facets Research question three. What is the relationship between the personal characteristics of academic deans (gender, age, ethnicity, degree status, tenure in position, gross annual salary, number of hours worked per week, and major responsibilities) and general job satisfaction as indicated by the Individual Data Sheet and the MSQ? There are four major findings for this question. The first finding was that gender did have a relationship to the academic deans general job satisfaction with a p-value of .026 at a .05 level and that female deans (3.915) had a higher general job satisfaction score than males (3.743). The second finding is that over 65% (n=129) of the academic deans who were 51 years old or older reported a general job satisfaction mean score of 3.810. There were 53 (27.4%) academic deans that reported their age between 40 and 50 years old with a general job satisfaction mean score of 3.892. Only 6.8% 83

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(n=11) of the deans were younger than 40 years old and had a general job satisfaction mean score of 3.867. The data indicated that two thirds of the academic deans are as grey as the current senior community college leadership, and that only one third of the deans were under 50 years old. The third finding is that 10% of the academic deans were from ethnic minority groups. Minority academic deans also reported a lower general job satisfaction mean score (3.703) than their Caucasian/White counterparts (3.852). The fourth finding is that 95% of the academic deans work more than 40 hours a week. The first null hypothesis of this research study is that there is no connection between community college academic dean personal related characteristics and general job satisfaction (Ho 1 : perschar = genjobsat ). To investigate the null hypothesis, this researcher used frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviations, and summary statistics for eight personal characteristics of academic deans. An F-test rejected the null hypothesis for gender ( p = .026). Gender was statistically significant at the .05 level indicating a relationship between gender and general job satisfaction. An F-test failed to reject the null hypothesis for seven of the personal related characteristics (age, p = .952; ethnicity, p = .257; degree status, p = .947; tenure in position, p = .396; gross annual salary, p = .919; number of hours worked per week, p = .934; and major area of responsibility, p = .386). The failure to reject the null hypothesis determined that seven of the eight personal characteristics involved in general job satisfaction were not statistically significant. Therefore, the answer to research question three is that the survey data did not support the relationship between the seven personal characteristics (age, ethnicity, degree status, tenure in position, gross annual salary, number of hours worked per week, and major area of responsibility), but did support a relationship 84

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between gender and general job satisfaction of the academic deans. Table 23 provides the detailed statistical data to answer question three. The 96 female academic deans reported a general job satisfaction score of 3.915, indicating neither dissatisfaction nor satisfaction, but with a tendency to satisfaction. The 105 males had a score of 3.743, indicating neither dissatisfaction nor satisfaction. The p-value of the gender variable was 0.026, which was statistically significant at the .05 level. The p-value of 0.026 indicates that there is a relationship between gender and general job satisfaction of the 201 academic deans. Only two age groups on Table 23 reflected that the survey participants were satisfied. The 31 to 35 age group had a general job satisfaction score of 4.00 and the over 66 year age category had a general job satisfaction score of 4.277. However, these two groups only combined for 3.2% of the survey participants. The data indicated that deans tended to be satisfied at the beginning and end of their career as an academic dean. Six age groups, or 92.1% of the participants were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied but had a slight tendency toward being satisfied. The category of 41 to 45 years old had a mean score of 3.995, which is very near the 4.0 threshold for being satisfied. The p-value of 0.776 indicates that age is not statistically significant at the .05 level and does not impact the general job satisfaction scores of the 193 academic deans. The reporting 14 African American deans reported a general job satisfaction score of 3.555 indicating that the African American deans were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied as shown on Table 23. Of the four ethnic categories, this was the lowest score. The four Hispanic deans reported a general job satisfaction score of 3.666, which also indicates Hispanic deans were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. The four Other (Native American 85

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Table 23 Personal Demographic Scores for General Job Satisfaction Variable N % M SD F p Gender 201 4.99 0.0266 Male 105 52 3.743 0.549 Female 96 48 3.915 0.540 Age 193 0.57 0.7761 31 35 4 2.1 4.000 0.374 36 40 9 4.7 3.734 0.435 4145 12 6.2 3.995 0.451 46 50 41 21.2 3.862 0.588 51 55 55 28.5 3.781 0.580 56 60 54 28.0 3.793 0.592 61 65 16 8.2 3.911 0.484 Over 66 2 1.1 4.277 0.471 Ethnicity 202 1.40 0.2454 Caucasian/White 180 89.2 3.852 0.541 African American 14 7.0 3.555 0.523 Hispanic 4 1.9 3.666 0.920 Other 4 1.9 3.888 0.621 Degree Status 201 0.32 0.8992 Bachelors Degree 1 0.4 4.111 0.000 Masters Degree 25 12.4 3.866 0.443 Masters Degree + Hours 70 35.0 3.852 0.559 Education Specialist Degree 4 2.0 3.666 0.720 Doctoral Degree 99 49.2 3.813 0.575 Other 2 1.0 3.500 0.392 Tenure in Position 202 1.43 0.2066 < 1 Year 21 10.4 3.867 0.427 1 3 Years 68 33.7 3.805 0.588 4 6 Years 42 20.8 3.753 0.527 7 10 Years 30 14.8 4.024 0.441 11 15 22 10.8 3.747 0.601 16 20 10 5.0 4.033 0.247 Over 21 Years 9 4.5 3.583 0.894 86

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Table 23 (Continued) Personal Demographic Scores for General Job Satisfaction Variable N % M SD F p Gross Annual Salary 202 0.180 0.9955 $40,000 $49,999 2 1.0 3.944 0.549 $50,000 $59,999 15 7.5 3.818 0.432 $60,000 $69,999 47 23.2 3.803 0.480 $70,000 $79,999 51 25.3 3.869 0.592 $80,000 $89,999 42 20.8 3.779 0.576 $90,000 $99,999 32 15.8 3.822 0.620 $100,000 $109,999 7 3.4 3.876 0.615 $110,000 $119,999 3 1.5 4.000 0.673 $120,000 $129,999 1 0.5 3.722 0.000 > $130,000 2 1.0 4.111 0.864 Number of Hours Worked Per Week 200 0.400 0.9210 30 35 hours 1 0.5 3.277 0.000 36 40 hours 8 4.0 3.881 0.277 41 45 hours 30 15.0 3.908 0.583 46 50 hours 70 35.0 3.779 0.608 51 55 hours 48 24.0 3.885 0.553 56 60 hours 27 13.5 3.842 0.435 61 65 hours 11 5.5 3.717 0.622 66 70 hours 4 2.0 3.819 0.480 Over 70 hours 1 0.5 3.722 0.000 Major Area of Responsibility 145 0.650 0.6290 College Transfer 49 33.8 3.740 0.506 Vocational/Tech Programs 47 32.5 3.866 0.571 Developmental Programs 3 2.0 4.055 0.822 Continuing Education 7 4.8 3.880 0.654 Other 39 26.9 3.898 0.562 Dummy Variables: Gender: 1 = Male, 0 = Female Ethnicity: 1 = Caucasian/white, 2 = African American, 3 = Hispanic, 0 = Other Major Responsibilities: 0 = Other, 1 = College Transfer, 2 = Vocational Programs, 3 = Technical Programs, 4 = Developmental Programs, 5 = Continuing Education 87

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or Asian) academic deans had the highest general job satisfaction score of 3.888. The 180 Caucasian/White survey respondents had a general job satisfaction score of 3.852 indicating they were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied but had a tendency to be satisfied. The p-value of 0.245 for ethnicity indicates that ethnicity related to general job satisfaction is not statistically significant at the .05 level for the 202 academic deans. As shown on Table 23, only one academic dean with a Bachelors degree reported a general job satisfaction score of 4.111, which indicates that the dean was satisfied. The dean with only a bachelors degree was a Dean of Continuing Education. The groups of Masters, Masters plus hours, and Doctorate or 96.4% (n=194) of the deans had a slight tendency to be satisfied. The two remaining degree groups (Education Specialist and Other) or 3.0% (n=6) were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. The p-value of 0.899 indicates that degree status is not statistically significant at the .05 level and does not impact the general job satisfaction scores of the 201 academic deans. Of the seven groups for tenure in position on Table 23, only two groups reported being satisfied. The 16 to 20 year tenure category had the highest general satisfaction score of 4.033, indicating 5% (n=10) of the deans were satisfied. The 7 to 10 year group 30 deans (14.8%) had a score of 4.024. Almost 60% of the survey participants in the less than 1 year, 1 to 3 years, and 4 to 6 years in position all reported a general job satisfaction score above 3.750, but less than 4.00 indicating a slight tendency to be satisfied. For the remaining two categories, 11 to 15 years and over 21 years in their current position, only 15.3% of the academic deans were not satisfied. The p-value of 0.206 indicates that tenure in position is not statistically significant at the .05 level and does not impact the general job satisfaction scores of the 202 academic deans. 88

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In the gross annual salary area as indicated on Table 23, only two salary groups reflected a satisfaction score at or above 4.000. Two deans (1.0%) that made over $130,000 reported a general job satisfaction score of 4.111. The three deans (1.5%) who reported making $110,000 to $119,999 had a job satisfaction score of 4.000. One academic dean earning $120,000 to $129,999 was neither dissatisfied nor satisfied, with a general job satisfaction score of 3.722. The remaining seven salary groups, or 97%, were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied but had a slight tendency toward satisfaction. The p-value of 0.995 indicates that gross annual salary is not statistically significant at the .05 level and does not impact the general job satisfaction scores of the 202 academic deans. None of the 200 survey participants reported a general job satisfaction score at or above 4.000 for number of hours worked per week as shown on Table 23. Thirteen (6.5%) academic deans reported general job satisfaction scores below 3.75 for hours worked per week, which indicated they were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. The remaining 93.5% deans had a slight tendency to be satisfied with scores between 3.75 and 4.00 for the number of hours they worked per week. The p-value of 0.921 indicates that number of hours worked per week is not statistically significant at the .05 level and does not impact the general job satisfaction scores of the 200 academic deans. As indicated on Table 23, only 145 academic deans provided responses on what their major responsibilities were at their community college. Only 2% (n=4) of the deans, those with responsibility for developmental programs, reported a general job satisfaction score of 4.055 and were satisfied. Over 33% (n=49) of the deans who supervised college transfer programs reported a general job satisfaction score of 3.74, which indicates neither dissatisfaction nor satisfaction. The 32.5% (n=47) of the survey 89

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participants responsible for vocational/technical programs reflected a general job satisfaction score of 3.866 and had a slight tendency to be satisfied. Continuing Education deans (n=7 or 4.8%) recorded a general job satisfaction score of 3.880 and had a tendency to be satisfied. In the Other category, 26.9% (n=39) of the deans had responsibility for college transfer and at least one or more of the program areas. The general job satisfaction score of this category is 3.898, showing a slight tendency to be satisfied. The p-value of 0.629 indicates that the major area of responsibility of the academic deans is not statistically significant at the .05 level and does not impact the general job satisfaction scores of the 145 academic deans. Research question four. What is the relationship between the unit characteristics (size of college, location of college, number of full-time and part-time faculty supervised, and number of full-time and part-time staff supervised) of the academic deans unit/organization and general job satisfaction as indicated by the Individual Data Sheet and the MSQ? The first major finding for question four is that the size or location of the institution had no relationship on the academic deans general job satisfaction. All general job satisfaction scores were in the range of 3.7 to 3.8 for size and location and the p-values were >.05 at the .05 level. The second major finding was that the number of full-time faculty, part-time faculty, and staff supervised had no relationship on the academic deans general job satisfaction. All p-values were >.05 at the .05 level. The first null hypothesis of this research study is that there is no connection between community college academic deans unit-related characteristics and general job satisfaction (Ho 1 : unitchar = genjobsat ). To investigate the null hypothesis, this researcher used frequencies, percentages, and summary statistics for unit size, location, full-time and 90

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part-time faculty supervised, and full-time and part-time staff supervised by using an F-test procedure. The F-test failed to reject the null hypothesis at a .05 level for all unit related characteristics (size of college, p = .557; location of college, p = .831; number of full-time faculty supervised, p = .104; number of part-time faculty supervised, p = .406; and number of full-time and part-time staff supervised, p = .618). The failure to reject the null hypothesis indicated that the five unit demographic characteristics were not statistically significant in their relationship to general job satisfaction. Therefore, the answer to research question four is that the survey data did not find a relationship between the five unit demographic characteristics of academic deans to general job satisfaction. Table 24 provides the detailed statistical data to answer question four. None of the survey participants reported a general job satisfaction score at or above 4.0 for the size of institution at which they worked. The 120 deans (60.0%) who worked at institutions with between 2,000 to 9,999 unduplicated head count reported the highest general job satisfaction score of 3.843, which indicates a slight tendency to be satisfied. Only 26 (13.0%) of the academic deans at institutions below 2,000 unduplicated headcount per academic semester reported a general job satisfaction score of 3.72, which indicated they were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. The remaining 54 deans (27.0%) at institutions above 10,000 unduplicated headcount had a slight tendency to be satisfied reporting a general job satisfied score of 3.851. The p-value of 0.557 indicates that size of the institution was not statistically significant at the .05 level and does not impact the general job satisfaction scores of the 200 academic deans. The 199 survey participants who responded to the survey question did not report a general job satisfaction score at or above 4.000 for the location of their community 91

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Table 24 Unit Characteristic Scores for General Job Satisfaction Variable N % M SD F p Size of Institution 200 0.590 0.5575 (Unduplicated Headcount Per Academic Semester) < 2,000 26 13.0 3.720 0.414 2,000 9,999 120 60.0 3.843 0.573 > 10,000 54 27.0 3.851 0.568 Location 199 0.180 0.8318 Dummy Variables: 0 = Rural, 1 = Suburban, 2 = Urban Rural Area 79 39.8 3.857 0.567 Suburban Area 82 41.2 3.807 0.538 Urban Area 38 19.0 3.812 0.572 Number of Full-Time 200 1.65 0.1044 Faculty Supervised None 15 7.5 3.970 0.535 < 10 Faculty 10 5.0 3.927 0.404 11 20 Faculty 35 17.5 3.771 0.630 21 30 Faculty 36 18.0 3.725 0.464 31 40 Faculty 23 11.5 3.990 0.411 41 50 Faculty 14 7.0 3.908 0.655 51 60 Faculty 12 6.0 3.437 0.476 61 70 Faculty 10 5.0 3.707 0.422 71 80 Faculty 6 3.0 3.620 0.254 Over 80 Faculty 39 19.5 3.946 .0644 Number of Part-Time 201 1.04 0.4060 Faculty Supervised None 8 4.0 3.847 0.518 < 10 Faculty 7 3.4 4.051 0.564 11 20 Faculty 23 11.4 3.987 0.444 21 30 Faculty 18 9.0 3.936 0.702 31 40 Faculty 21 10.4 3.775 0.506 41 50 Faculty 14 7.0 3.545 0.453 51 60 Faculty 14 7.0 3.924 0.685 61 70 Faculty 13 6.4 3.760 0.619 71 80 Faculty 10 5.0 3.933 0.571 Over 80 Faculty 73 36.4 3.771 0.526 92

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Table 24 (Continued) Unit Characteristic Scores for General Job Satisfaction Variable N % M SD F p Number of Full-Time 201 0.80 0.618 & Part-Time Staff Supervised None 3 1.5 4.018 0.394 < 5 Staff 53 26.3 3.889 0.459 6 10 Staff 61 30.4 3.810 0.536 11 20 Staff 32 16.0 3.761 0.680 21 30 Staff 8 4.0 3.729 0.750 31 40 Staff 8 4.0 4.104 0.304 41 50 Staff 5 2.4 3.388 0.879 51 60 Staff 4 2.0 3.958 0.572 61 70 Staff 10 5.0 3.796 0.735 Over 70 Staff 17 8.4 3.807 0.365 college as shown in Table 24. The 79 (39.8%) academic deans at institutions located in a rural area reported the highest general job satisfaction score of 3.857, which indicated they were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied, but had a slight tendency to be satisfied. The 82 (41.2%) deans that worked at an institution in a suburban environment reflected a general job satisfaction score of 3.807, which indicates a slight tendency to be satisfied. The remaining 38 (19.0%) deans at urban institutions had a slight tendency to be satisfied with a general job satisfied score of 3.812. The p-value of 0.831 indicates that the location of the institution is not statistically significant at the .05 level and does not impact the general job satisfaction scores of the 199 academic deans. A study of Table 24 indicates that none of the 200 survey participants indicated a general job satisfaction score at or above 4.0 for the number of full-time faculty that they supervised. All 200 (100%) of the academic deans reported general job satisfaction scores between 3.437 and 3.990 for the full-time faculty they supervised. The p-value of 0.104 indicates that number of full-time faculty supervised is not statistically significant 93

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at the .05 level and did not impact the general job satisfaction scores of the 200 academic deans. The data cited in Table 24 reveal that there were only 7 (3.4%) deans who reported a general job satisfaction score of 4.051, indicating that they were satisfied in supervising less than 10 part-time faculty. The remaining 96.6% of the deans reported a score between 3.545 and 3.987 for the full-time faculty they supervised. The p-value of 0.406 indicates that number of part-time faculty supervised is not statistically significant at the .05 level and does not impact the general job satisfaction scores of the 201 academic deans. There were only 11 (5.5%) academic deans reporting a general job satisfaction score above 4.0 for the number of full-time and part-time staff supervised, as found in Table 24. The remaining 95.5% of the deans reported a score between 3.388 and 3.958 for the full-time and part-time staff they supervised. The p-value of 0.618 indicates that number of staff supervised is not statistically significant at the .05 level and does not impact general job satisfaction. Research question five. What are the career aspirations of community college academic deans? There are four key findings to this question. The first finding is that roughly only a third (n=72 or 36.1%) of the community college academic deans reported that they have an interest to pursue the community college presidency. The second finding is that the 72 deans who have an interest to be a president reported a lower general job satisfaction score (3.692) when compared to the general job satisfaction score (3.900) of the deans (n=127) who are not interested in becoming a community college president. The 72 respondents who want to be presidents had a general job satisfaction 94

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score of 3.692, which was also lower that the general job satisfaction mean score of 3.828, but the difference was not statistically significant. The third finding is that the deans who reported within the next one to ten years they would retire, leave the profession, or indicated unknown are more satisfied (3.899) than those deans who desire to move along the pathway to the presidency (3.617), but the difference was not statistically significant. The fourth finding is that the deans (n=3 or 1.5%) who reported the highest general job satisfaction score (4.074) planned on leaving the profession within one to four years. The data suggest that the more satisfied academic deans (3.900) do not desire to be community college presidents. In fact, the data indicate that the least satisfied academic deans (3.692) are interested in pursuing the community college presidency. To investigate this question, this researcher used frequencies, percentages, and summary statistics for participant general job satisfaction by using an F-test procedure. The data in Table 25 indicate that only 72 (36.1%) of the 199 community college academic deans had an interest to pursue the community college presidency. The 72 deans who were interested in being a community college president had a general job satisfaction score of 3.692, as compared to the mean score of 3.828. Of the over 64.0% (n=127) of the survey participants who indicated that they were not interested in pursuing Table 25 Job Satisfaction Scores by Presidential Career Aspirations for Academic Deans Variable N % M SD F p Pursue Presidency 199 6.66 0.010 Yes 72 36.1 3.692 0.568 No 127 63.9 3.900 0.534 95

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the presidency, the general job satisfaction score was 3.900. The p-value of 0.01 ( p = 0.010 < .05) indicates that 36.1% of the academic deans are not likely to have the same population means or job satisfaction level, which is statistically significant at the .05 level. The career aspirations of academic deans for the next one to four years is shown on Table 26. Only ten (5.0%) deans with a general job satisfaction score of 3.894 would seek the position of community college president. There were 15 (7.7%) academic deans reporting a general job satisfaction score of 3.649 who will pursue the position of campus president or provost. There were 62 (31.0%) survey participants reporting a general job satisfaction score of 3.850 who indicated that they would actively apply for the position of academic vice president. Only one dean (0.5%) with a general job satisfaction score of 3.777 will pursue the business vice president position. On the basis of the data in Table 26, there are 66 (33.0%) deans reporting a general job satisfaction score of 3.884 who will remain academic deans for the next one to four years. Only one dean (0.5%) with a general job satisfaction score of 3.777 desired to return to a department chair. Eight (4.0%) deans with a general job satisfaction score of 3.520 desired to join the faculty. There are 30 (15.0%) survey respondents with a general job satisfaction score of 3.816 that will retire within the next one to four years. Three deans (1.5%) with a general job satisfaction score of 4.074 indicated that they will leave the profession in the next one to four years. The academic deans with the highest general job satisfaction score will leave the profession. Three deans with professional plans for one to four years will leave the profession are satisfied and have a general job satisfaction score of 4.074. Only 2.0% or seven academic deans with a general job 96

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satisfaction score of 3.986 reported unknown career aspiration for the next one to four years. The p-value of 0.4114 ( p = 0.4114 < .05) indicates that professional plans for the one to four years variable is not statistically significant at the .05 level, and general job satisfaction scores of the 200 academic deans pursuing the presidency is not statistically significant. Also shown on Table 26 are the career aspirations for the next five to ten years for academic deans. Twenty (10%) academic deans who reported a general job satisfaction Table 26 General Job Satisfaction Career Aspiration Scores for Academic Deans Variable N % M SD F p Professional Plans for 1 to 4 Years 200 0.68 0.4114 Seek College/District Pres. 10 5.0 3.894 0.540 Seek Campus Pres./Provost 15 7.5 3.649 0.777 Seek Academic Vice Pres. 62 31.0 3.850 0.540 Seek Business Vice Pres. 1 0.5 3.777 0.000 Stay as Dean 66 33.0 3.884 0.471 Be a Dept. Chair 1 0.5 3.388 0.000 Join the Faculty 8 4.0 3.520 0.375 Retire 30 15.0 3.816 0.629 Leave the Profession 3 1.5 4.074 0.556 Unknown 4 2.0 3.986 0.796 Professional Plans for 5 to 10 Years 198 1.37 0.2430 Seek College/District Pres. 20 10.0 3.811 0.614 Seek Campus Pres./Provost 26 13.0 3.695 0.516 Seek Academic Vice Pres. 37 18.5 3.990 0.532 Seek Business Vice Pres. 1 0.5 2.277 0.000 Stay as Dean 15 7.5 3.790 0.522 Be a Dept. Chair 1 0.5 3.388 0.000 Join the Faculty 10 5.0 3.594 0.602 Retire 72 36.0 3.894 0.525 Leave the Profession 9 4.5 3.907 0.535 Unknown 7 3.5 3.722 0.432 97

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score of 3.811 would seek the position of community college president. Only 26 (13%) of the academic deans reflecting a general job satisfaction score of 3.695 will pursue the position of campus president or provost. There are 37 (18.5%) survey participants reporting a general job satisfaction score of 3.990 who will actively seek the position of academic vice president. Only one dean with a general job satisfaction score of 2.277 is dissatisfied and will pursue the business vice president position. There are 15 (7.5%) deans with a general job satisfaction score of 3.790 that will remain academic deans for the next five to ten years. Only one dean with a general job satisfaction score of 3.388 desired to return to a department chair position. Ten deans (5.0%) with a general job satisfaction score of 3.594 desired to join the faculty. Seventy-two (36.0%) survey respondents with a general job satisfaction score of 3.894 indicated that they will retire within the next five to ten years. Nine deans (4.5%) reporting a general job satisfaction of 3.907 would leave the profession in the next five to ten years. Seven (3.5%) academic deans reflecting a general job satisfaction score of 3.722 reported unknown career aspirations for the next five to ten years. The p-value of 0.2430 ( p = 0.2430 < .05) indicates that professional plans for 5 to 10 years variable is not statistically significant at the .05 level, and general job satisfaction scores of the 200 academic deans pursuing the presidency is not statistically significant. The current academic leadership pathway to grow and nurture future community college leaders as described by McClenney (2001) normally includes venturing into the role of academic dean, then accepting additional challenges as vice president, or campus president or provost, and finally climbing the last rung on the leadership ladder to the community college presidency. In Table 27, the variable move along the academic 98

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leadership pathway includes those deans who desired to seek the academic vice presidency, seek the business vice presidency, seek campus presidency or provost, and Table 27 Movement along the Academic Leadership Pathway for Academic Deans Variable N % M SD F p Professional Plans for 1 to 4 Years 200 0.50 0.6835 Move along the Academic Leadership Pathway 88 44.0 3.820 0.582 Stay as Dean 66 33.0 3.845 0.471 Move in Another Direction 46 23.0 3.826 0.586 Professional Plans for 5 to 10 Years 198 0.18 0.9102 Move along the Academic Leadership Pathway 84 42.0 3.836 0.579 Stay as Dean 15 12.5 3.790 0.522 Move in Another Direction 99 50.0 3.889 0.536 seek college/district presidency. The variable move in another direction includes the categories of being a department chair, joining the faculty, retiring, leaving the profession, or unknown. The results of the survey indicate that for both the one to four and five to ten year time frames, the academic deans with the lowest job satisfaction scores desired to move along the academic leadership pathway, and the deans who were more satisfied wanted to move in another direction or stay a dean. For the one to four year timeframe shown in Table 27, only 88 or 44% of the academic deans desired to move along the community college academic leadership pathway and had a job satisfaction score of 3.820. Those deans (n=66, 33%) who desired to stay a dean had a job satisfaction score of 3.845. The deans (n=46, 23%) who wanted to move in another direction had a job satisfaction score of 3.826. This indicates that the deans who wanted to move in another direction were more satisfied (3.826) as academic 99

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deans than those deans (3.820) who wanted to move along the academic leadership pathway, but the difference in general job satisfaction scores was not statistically significant. Even the deans who wanted to stay a dean were more satisfied (3.845) than those deans (3.820) who wanted to move along the academic leadership pathway, but the difference in general job satisfaction scores was not statistically significant. In Table 27, for the five to ten year timeframe, only 84 (42%) of the academic deans desired to move along the community college academic leadership pathway and had a job satisfaction score of 3.836. Those deans (n=15, 12.5%) who desired to stay a dean had a job satisfaction score of 3.790. The deans (n=99, 50.0%) who wanted to move in another direction had a job satisfaction score of 3.889. This indicates that the deans who wanted to move in another direction were more satisfied (3.889) as academic deans than those deans (3.836) who wanted to move along the academic leadership pathway. Research question six. To what extent do community college academic deans career aspirations relate to general job satisfaction, as indicated by the Individual Data Sheet and the MSQ? There are two major findings for this research question. The first finding is that the survey data supported no relationship between the general job satisfaction of community college academic deans and career aspirations or professional plans. The second finding is that for this research study, general job satisfaction could not be used as a predictor variable. The second null hypothesis of this research study is that there is no connection between community college academic deans general job satisfaction and career aspirations (Ho 2 : genjobsat = proplans ). To investigate the second null hypothesis, this 100

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researcher used frequencies, percentages, and summary statistics for participant career aspirations by using a linear regression analysis. Table 28 provides the statistical data to support the analysis of question six. The results of the analysis p greater than .05) failed to reject the hypothesis that general job satisfaction has no relationship with professional plans or career aspirations. There was nothing in the design of the study that would lead this researcher to question the independence of the residual. Examination of the raw regression coefficients, standardized coefficients, and squared semipartial correlations, all suggest that general job satisfaction adds very little to the ability to predict career aspirations. Therefore, the answer to research question six is that the survey data supported no relationship between the general job satisfaction of community college academic deans and career aspirations or professional plans. General job satisfaction could not be used as a predictor variable for career aspirations of community college academic deans. Table 28 Regression of Career Aspirations on General Job Satisfaction Variables Intercept Professional Plans Point t -ratio p 1 to 4 Years 2.1687 0.0036 0.05 0.9589 5 to 10 Years 1.9105 -0.0030 -0.04 0.9659 Note: = Standardized Coefficient. = Significant at .05 level of confidence. Two additional linear regression analyses were conducted on the one to four year professional plans as shown on Table 29 and the five to ten year professional plans as shown on Table 30. The results for the one to four year professional plans and 5-10 years 101

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professional plans p greater than .05) also did not support a relationship between general job satisfaction. Both failed to reject the null hypothesis. The failure to reject the null hypothesis determined that general job satisfaction could not be used to predict the one to four or the five to ten year career aspirations of academic deans. An examination of the scatterplots for one to four year professional plans in Table 29 revealed a slight negative linear relationship between general job satisfaction and professional plans. Table 29 General Job Satisfaction Related to 1 to 4 Year Professional Plans Move Along the Leadership Pathway Stay as an Academic Dean Move in Another Direction General Job Satisfaction Score Notes: 1 to 4 Year Individual data points represented by an asterisk Regression represented by a line General Job Satisfaction Relationship to Professional Plans For 1 to 4 Years (General Job Satisfaction Related to Professional Plans) Professional Plans In fact, the higher the level of job satisfaction, the more likely the community college 102

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academic dean would not move along the academic leadership pathway. As shown on Table 30, the scatterplots for five to ten year professional plans also recorded a slight negative linear relationship between general job satisfaction and professional plans. Again, the higher the level of job satisfaction, the more likely the community college academic dean would not move along the academic leadership pathway. Table 30 General Job Satisfaction Related to 5 to 10 Year Professional Plans Move in Another Direction Stay as an Academic Dean General Job Satisfaction Relationship to Professional Plans For 5 to 10 Years (General Job Satisfaction Related to Professional Plans) Move Along the Leadership Pathway Professional Plans Notes: 5 to 10 Year Individual data points represented by an asterisk Regression represented by a line General Job Satisfaction Score 103

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Summary of Findings Research question one. What is the level of general job satisfaction among community college academic deans as measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)? Community college academic deans reported a general job satisfaction mean score of 3.828, which indicated that the deans were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. Research question two. What is the level of job satisfaction among community college academic deans on the intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction facets (Intrinsic: ability utilization, achievement, activity, advancement, compensation, co-workers, creativity, independence, moral values, social service, social status, and working conditions; and Extrinsic: authority, company policies and practices, recognition, responsibility, security, and variety) as measured by the MSQ? Intrinsic facets recorded a job satisfaction mean score of 4.037 and indicated that academic deans were satisfied. Extrinsic facets reported a job satisfaction mean score of 3.895 and indicated that academic deans were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. Research question three. What is the relationship between the personal characteristics of academic deans (gender, age, ethnicity, degree status, tenure in position, gross annual salary, number of hours worked per week, and major responsibilities) and general job satisfaction as indicated by the Individual Data Sheet and the MSQ? Gender was the only personal characteristic that reported a relationship to general job satisfaction. The remaining seven personal characteristics had no relationship to general job satisfaction. The typical participant of this research study was a Caucasian/White male, age 51 to 55 years old, who had a doctoral degree and had been an academic dean 104

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for college transfer programs from one to three years. He worked an average of 46 to 50 hours a week at a suburban institution with 2,000 to 9,999 unduplicated headcount and earned $70,000 to $79,999. He had a large span of control and supervised over 80 full-time faculty members and over 80 part-time faculty members. He also supervised six to ten full-time and part-time staff personnel. The female academic dean was more satisfied than her male counterpart. African American deans were the least satisfied. Hispanic deans were more satisfied than African American deans. Native American and Asian academic deans were slightly more satisfied than Caucasian/White deans. Deans over age 66 were the most satisfied, but deans 31 to 35 years old were also satisfied. The dean with a bachelor degree was more satisfied than her peers who had more advanced degrees. Academic deans who had served in their current position for 16 to 20 years were more satisfied than other deans. The deans who made over $130,000 were more satisfied than their peers. Those that made $110,00 to $110,999 were also satisfied. The academic deans who supervised developmental programs were more satisfied than the deans who supervised other types of academic programs. Only the gender was statistically significant, the other personal characteristics were not statistically significant. Research question four. What is the relationship between the unit characteristics (size of college, location of college, number of full-time and part-time faculty supervised, and number of full-time and part-time staff supervised) of the academic deans unit/organization and general job satisfaction as indicated by the Individual Data Sheet and the MSQ? The data did not support a relationship between the five unit characteristics and general job satisfaction. Deans who worked in institutions above 105

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10,000 unduplicated headcount were slightly more satisfied than those at medium and small institutions. The academic deans who served in rural areas were also slightly more satisfied than those in a suburban or urban environment. Those deans who supervised 31 to 40 full-time faculty members were more satisfied than their counterparts. The deans who supervised less than 10 part-time faculty members and no staff members were satisfied. Unit characteristics were not statistically significant. Research question five. What are the career aspirations of community college academic deans? Only 36% of the academic deans desired to move through the academic leadership pathway to become community college presidents. However, those academic deans who did not desire to be presidents were slightly more satisfied than those deans who wanted to be presidents. The results of the survey indicate that for both the one-to-four and five-to-ten year timeframes, the academic deans with the lowest job satisfaction scores desired to move along the academic leadership pathway, and the deans who were more satisfied wanted to move in another direction or stay a dean. But the results of career aspirations were not statistically significant. Research question six. To what extent do community college academic deans career aspirations relate to general job satisfaction, as indicated by the Individual Data Sheet and the MSQ? The survey data supported no relationship between the general job satisfaction of community college academic deans and career aspirations or professional plans. General job satisfaction could not be used as a predictor variable for career aspirations of community college academic deans. There was a slight negative linear relationship between general job satisfaction and professional plans. In fact, the higher the level of job satisfaction, the more likely the community college academic dean would 106

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not move along the academic leadership pathway. However, this relationship was not statistically significant 107

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Chapter 5 Summary of Findings, Conclusions, and Implications for Theory, Practice, and Research Purpose This studys purpose was to document the general job satisfaction levels of community college academic deans and to determine if general job satisfaction could be used to predict career aspirations to be a community college president. Furthermore, this study examined the MSQ intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction facets and identified the relationship of the facets to academic deans general job satisfaction. Also investigated was the relationship between eight personal demographic characteristics and five unit characteristics and general job satisfaction. Finally, the academic deans were queried as to their professional plans for the next one to ten year period to identify career aspirations and their desire to move through the academic leadership pathway to the community college presidency as identified by McClenney (2001). For the purposes of this study, academic deans were defined by Robillard (2000) as community college administrators who are assigned the mission of supervising academic credit and transfer programs, credit occupational/technical education programs, continuing education, or any combination of the listed programs. Job satisfaction is how people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs as described by Spector (1997). Job satisfaction is an overall indicator and is measured by job satisfaction variables that include both intrinsic and extrinsic facets. According to Weiss et. al. (1967) and Herzberg (1966), intrinsic job satisfaction facets pertain to job content or the 108

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work itself and are related to job satisfaction when present but not to dissatisfaction when absent. The extrinsic job satisfaction facets relate to job context or the work environment and are associated with job dissatisfaction when absent but not with satisfaction when present. This researcher defined personal characteristics for this study as age, gender, ethnicity, degree status, and tenure in current academic dean position, gross annual salary, number of hours worked per week, professional plans in the next one to four years, professional plans in the next five-ten years, and major responsibilities. Unit-related characteristics were defined as size of college, location of college, number of full-time and part-time faculty supervised, number of full-time and part-time staff supervised, and the unduplicated headcount for the fall 2003 academic semester. For this study, career aspirations were specified as the deans professional plans for one to four years and five to ten years. Method Summary This researcher developed a 14 question Individual Data Sheet (IDS) and distributed it along with the 108 question Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) to 400 randomly assigned community college academic deans in all 50 states. The survey included an introduction letter, endorsement letter from the American Association of Community Colleges detailing the purpose of the study, personal and unit characteristics demographic questions, and questions related to job satisfaction. A pilot study of five community college academic deans was conducted to validate the survey instruments (MSQ and IDS), data collection methodology, and data analysis processes. Minor adjustments in wording of two unit demographic questions (questions 12 and 13) of the IDS were required based on the results of the pilot study. The first mailing of the survey 109

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instrument obtained satisfactory results, but this researcher wanted to improve the response rate and mailed a follow-up survey package. The final response rate was 55% with a usable response rate of 50.5% (n=202) representing all 50 states and exceeding the required power analysis (ES = 0.20, power = .97, = .05, u = 2) of 140 total respondents. Individual academic deans responses to the survey instrument were entered into an Excel spreadsheet and various statistical processes were conducted to analyze the data obtained from the survey using the SAS Learning Addition Software (2002). To investigate the research questions, this researcher used frequency, percentages, summary statistics, Cronbachs Alpha Reliability Coefficients, Pearson Correlation Coefficients, and linear regression analysis to study the six research questions. Summary of Findings Using quantitative analysis techniques, this research study examined six questions. Each of the questions is presented below with a summary of the findings. Research question one. What is the level of general job satisfaction among community college academic deans as measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)? The most important finding for research question one is that 202 academic deans general job satisfaction mean score was 3.828, indicating as a group they were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. The p-value of <.001 supports this finding, so we can believe that academic deans are neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. The second major finding is that slightly over one third (39%) of the survey participants were satisfied or very satisfied with being an academic dean and had general job satisfaction mean scores of 4.320 and above. The third important finding is that over 55% of the academic deans 110

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were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied, with a general job satisfaction score of 3.590. The fourth major finding is that 12 of the 20 job facets measured by the MSQ were rated satisfactory or very satisfactory by the majority of survey participants. Eight job facets (advancement, authority, company policies and practices, compensation, independence, recognition, social status, and supervision technical) were not rated satisfactory or above by the majority of survey participants using the MSQ. Table 31 summarizes the four major findings for research question one. Table 31 Findings for Research Question One Findings Description of Major Findings 1 202 Academic deans general job satisfaction mean score was 3.828, indicating they were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. 2 Slightly over one third (39%) of the academic deans were satisfied, with a general job satisfaction score of 4.00 or above. 3 Over 55% of the academic deans were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied with a general job satisfaction score of 3.590, which was below the mean score of 3.828. 4 Only 12 of the 20 job facets measured by the MSQ were rated satisfactory or very satisfactory by the majority of 202 survey participants. Only one academic dean reported being very dissatisfied, with a general job satisfaction score of 1.940. A low percentage (5.0%) of academic deans (n=10) reported being dissatisfied, with a general job satisfaction score of 2.590. The majority of the deans (n=112 or 55.5%) indicated that they were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied, with a general mean score of 3.590. Only 76 academic deans or 37.5% stated that they were satisfied and had a general job satisfaction score of 4.320. Three deans (1.5%) were very 111

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satisfied, with a general job satisfactions score of 5.00. The minimum score was 1.994 and the maximum score was 5.00 with a range of 3.056. The median and mode score was identical at 3.833. The standard deviation was 0.551. Research question two. What is the level of job satisfaction among community college academic deans on the intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction facets (Intrinsic: ability utilization, achievement, activity, advancement, compensation, co-workers, creativity, independence, moral values, social service, social status, and working conditions; and Extrinsic: authority, company policies and practices, recognition, responsibility, security, and variety) as measured by the MSQ? The first major finding to this question is that academic deans reported being more satisfied with intrinsic job satisfaction facets (mean score 4.037) than extrinsic facets (mean score 3.895). The intrinsic job satisfaction score for the 202 survey participants was 4.037. This indicates that the academic deans were satisfied with the intrinsic (ability utilization, achievement, activity, advancement, compensation, co-workers, creativity, independence, moral values, social service, social status, and working conditions) job satisfaction facets. The second finding is that the 202 academic deans were satisfied with half of the intrinsic facets of social service, moral values, achievement, creativity, activity, and ability utilization. The deans reported neither dissatisfaction nor satisfaction with the remaining half of the intrinsic facets of co-workers, working conditions, independence, social status, advancement, and compensation. Table 32 summarizes the three major findings for research question two. The data revealed that the extrinsic job satisfaction score for the 202 academic deans was 3.895. This reflects the deans being neither dissatisfied nor satisfied, but 112

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Table 32 Findings for Research Question Two Findings Description of Major Findings 1 Academic deans reported greater satisfaction with intrinsic job satisfaction facets (4.037) than with extrinsic job satisfaction facets (3.895). 2 Academic deans were satisfied in six (social service, moral values, achievement, creativity, activity, and ability utilization) of the 12 intrinsic job satisfaction facets. 2 Academic deans were satisfied in two of the six (variety and responsibility) of the extrinsic job satisfaction facets. showing a slight tendency toward satisfaction with the extrinsic (authority, company policies and practices, recognition, responsibility, security, and variety) job satisfaction facets. Only variety and responsibility received a score over 4.00, which indicated satisfaction. Of the remaining four extrinsic facets of authority, company policies and practices, recognition, and security, the deans were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied with theses facets. Research question three. What is the relationship between the personal characteristics of academic deans (gender, age, ethnicity, degree status, tenure in position, gross annual salary, number of hours worked per week, and major responsibilities) and general job satisfaction as indicated by the Individual Data Sheet and the MSQ? There are four major findings for this question. The first finding was that only gender had a relationship with the academic deans general job satisfaction with a p-value of .026 at a .05 level. The 96 female deans had a higher general job satisfaction score (3.915) than the 105 male academic deans (3.743). The p-value of the gender variable was 0.026, which was statistically significant at the .05 level. The p-value of 0.026 113

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indicates that there is a relationship between gender and general job satisfaction for the 201 academic deans. The second finding is that over 65% of the academic deans who were 50 years old or older reported a general job satisfaction mean score of 3.940. The 10% of the deans who were younger than 40 years old reported a lower general job satisfaction mean score (3.867) than the 50 and older category but not statistically significant. This indicates that the deans currently on the academic leadership pathway to the presidency are as grey as the current retiring senior leadership, and that there is a shortage of satisfied young academic deans moving along the pathway to the community college presidency. The impact of only 10% of the deans being under 40 years old will compound the community college leadership crisis well into this decade. There will be continued stress on producing community college presidents and other senior administrative leaders for the next decade. The third finding indicates that 10% of the academic deans were from ethnic minority groups and reported a lower general job satisfaction mean score (3.703) than their Caucasian/White counterparts (3.852), however, it was not statistically significant. The impact of this finding is that the academic deans did not reflect the Weisman and Vaughan (2002) findings that indicated over 14% of the current community college presidents were from ethnic minority groups. The efforts to increase the numbers of minority community college presidents may not be succeeding if there is only 10% minority academic deans moving through the academic leadership pathway. Minority academic deans are less satisfied than their counterparts and may become disenchanted with pursuing the community college presidency. This may impact on the recruitment and retention of ethnic minority academic deans and their desire to be community college presidents. The fourth finding is that 95% of the 114

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academic deans worked more than 40 hours a week. The result of a long workweek may impact academic deans general job satisfaction and the recruitment and retention of academic deans. Table 33 summarizes the four major findings for research question three. Table 33 Findings for Research Question Three Findings Description of Major Findings 1 Only gender was statically significant ( p = .026 at the .05 level) and was related to academic deans general job satisfaction. Female academic deans had a higher job satisfaction score (3.915) than male deans (3.743). 2 Over 65% (n=127) of the academic deans were 50 years old or older, with a general job satisfaction mean score of 3.940. Less than 10% (n=13) of the academic deans were younger than 40 years old, with a general job satisfaction mean score (3.867). 3 10% of the academic deans were members of an ethnic minority group. Ethnic minority groups had a lower job satisfaction mean score of 3.703 as compared to Caucasian/White deans score of 3.852, but were not statistically significant. 4 95% of the academic deans worked more than 40 hours per week. 5 Six age groups, or 92.1% of the participants were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied but had a slight tendency toward being satisfied. Only two age groups reflected that the survey participants were satisfied. The 31 to 35 age group had a general job satisfaction score of 4.00 and the over 66 year age category had a general job satisfaction score of 4.277. However, these two age groups only combined for 3.2% of the survey participants. The last major finding was that six age groups, or 92.1% of the participants were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied but had a slight tendency toward being satisfied. The p-value of 0.776 indicates that age is not 115

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statistically significant at the .05 level and does not impact the general job satisfaction scores of the 193 academic deans. The reporting 14 African American deans reported a general job satisfaction score of 3.555, indicating that African American deans are neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. Of the four ethnic categories, this was the lowest score. The four Hispanic deans reported a general job satisfaction score of 3.666, which also indicates Hispanic deans were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. The four Other (Native American or Asian) academic deans had the highest general job satisfaction score of 3.888. The small number of ethnic minority survey respondents (n=20) requires caution to be taken in attributing to much weight to the minority results of this study. The finding that 10.8% of community college academic deans were from ethnic minorities is a smaller percentage than found in the Weisman and Vaughan (2002) study, which reported that 14.2% of the community college presidents in 2001 were members of ethnic minorities. Also, the 10.8% is out of balance with the national statistics provided by the U.S. Census Bureau (2000) that indicates the general population of ethnic minorities in the United States totaled 29.3%, in comparison to the 10.8% reported in this survey of community college academic deans. This may be comparing apples to oranges, however the percentage of ethnic minority deans is less than found in the Weisman and Vaughan study and in the national percentage of the 2000 census. The 180 Caucasian/White survey respondents had a general job satisfaction score of 3.852, indicating they were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied but had a tendency to be satisfied. The p-value of 0.245 for ethnicity indicates that ethnicity related to general job satisfaction is not statistically significant at the .05 level for the 202 academic deans. 116

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Only one academic dean with a Bachelors degree reported a general job satisfaction score of 4.111, which indicates that the dean was satisfied. The dean with only a bachelors degree was a Dean of Continuing Education. The groups of Masters, Masters plus hours, and Doctorate, or 96.4% (n=194) of the deans, were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied but had a slight tendency to be satisfied. The two remaining degree groups (Education Specialist and Other) or 3.0% (n=6) were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. The p-value of 0.899 indicates that degree status is not statistically significant at the .05 level and does not impact the general job satisfaction scores of the 201 academic deans. Of the seven groups for tenure in position, only two groups reported being satisfied. The 16 to 20 year tenure category had the highest general satisfaction score of 4.033, indicating 5% (n=10) of the deans were satisfied. The seven to ten year group, which numbered 30 deans (14.8%), had a score of 4.024. Almost 60% of the survey participants in the less than one year, one to three years, and four to six years in position categories all reported a general job satisfaction score of less than 4.00, indicating they were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. Of the remaining two categories, 11 to 15 years and over 21 years in their current position, only 15.3% of the academic deans were not satisfied. The p-value of 0.206 indicates that tenure in position is not statistically significant at the .05 level and does not impact the general job satisfaction scores of the 202 academic deans. In the gross annual salary category, only two salary groups reflected a satisfaction score at or above 4.000. Two deans (1.0%) that made over $130,000 reported a general job satisfaction score of 4.111. Three deans (1.5%) reported making $110,000 to 117

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$119,999 and had a job satisfaction score of 4.000. One academic dean earning $120,000 to $129,999 was neither dissatisfied nor satisfied with a general job satisfaction score of 3.722. The remaining seven salary groups, or 97% of the respondents, were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied but had a slight tendency toward satisfaction. The p-value of 0.995 indicates that gross annual salary is not statistically significant at the .05 level and does not impact the general job satisfaction scores of the 202 academic deans. None of the survey participants reported a general job satisfaction score at or above 4.000 for number of hours worked per week. Thirteen (6.5%) academic deans reported general job satisfaction scores below 3.75 for hours worked per week, which indicated they were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. The remaining 93.5% deans had a slight tendency to be satisfied with scores between 3.75 and 4.00 for the number of hours they worked per week. The p-value of 0.921 indicates that number of hours worked per week is not statistically significant at the .05 level and does not impact the general job satisfaction scores of the 200 academic deans. Only 145 academic deans provided responses on what their major responsibilities were at their community college. Only 2% (n=4) of the deans, those with responsibility for development programs, reported a general job satisfaction score of 4.055 and were satisfied. Over 33% (n=49) of the deans who supervised college transfer programs reported a general job satisfaction score of 3.74, which indicates neither dissatisfaction nor satisfaction. The 32.5% (n=47) of the survey participants responsible for vocational/technical programs reflected a general job satisfaction score of 3.866 and had a slight tendency to be satisfied. Continuing Education deans (n=7 or 4.8%) recorded a general job satisfaction score of 3.880 and had a slight tendency to be satisfied. In the 118

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Other category, 26.9% (n=39) of the deans had responsibility for college transfer and at least one or more of the other program areas. The general job satisfaction score of the Other category is 3.898, showing a slight tendency to be satisfied. The p-value of 0.629 indicates that the major area of responsibility of the academic deans is not statistically significant at the .05 level and does not impact the general job satisfaction scores of the 145 academic deans. The typical participant of this research study was a Caucasian 51 to 55 year-old male, who had a doctorate degree and had been an academic dean for college transfer programs from one to three years. He worked an average of 46 to 50 hours a week at a suburban institution with 2,000 to 9,999 unduplicated headcount and earned $70,000 to $79,999. He supervised over 80 fulltime faculty members and over 80 part-time faculty members. He also supervised six to ten full-time and part-time staff personnel. Research question four. What is the relationship between the unit characteristics (size of college, location of college, number of full-time and part-time faculty supervised, and number of full-time and part-time staff supervised) of the academic deans unit/organization and general job satisfaction as indicated by the Individual Data Sheet and the MSQ? The major answer to research question four is that the survey data did not find a relationship between the five unit demographic characteristics of academic deans to general job satisfaction. The first major finding for question four is that the size or location of the institution had no relationship on the academic deans general job satisfaction. All general job satisfaction scores were in the range of 3.7 to 3.8 for size and location and the p-values were >.05 at the .05 level. The second major finding was 119

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that the number of full-time faculty, part-time faculty, and staff supervised had no influence on academic dean general job satisfaction. All p-values were >.05 at the .05 level. Table 34 summarizes the major finding for research question three. Table 34 Findings for Research Question Four Findings Description of Major Findings 1 None of the five unit demographic characteristics (size of college, location of college, number of full-time faculty, number of part-time faculty, and full-time/part-time staff) had a relationship to academic deans job satisfaction (p-values were >.05 at the .05 level) None of the survey participants reported a general job satisfaction score at or above 4.0 for the size of institution at which they worked. The 120 deans (60.0%) who worked at institutions with between 2,000 to 9,999 unduplicated head count reported the highest general job satisfaction score of 3.843, which indicates a slight tendency to be satisfied. Only 26 (13.0%) of the academic deans at institutions below 2,000 unduplicated headcount per academic semester reported a general job satisfaction score of 3.72, which indicated they were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. The remaining 54 deans (27.0%) at institutions above 10,000 unduplicated headcount had a slight tendency to be satisfied, reporting a general job satisfied score of 3.851. The p-value of 0.557 indicates that size of the institution is not statistically significant at the .05 level and does not impact the general job satisfaction scores of the 200 academic deans. The academic deans did not report a general job satisfaction score at or above 4.000 for the location of their community college. The 79 (39.8%) academic deans at institutions located in rural areas reported the highest general job satisfaction score of 120

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3.857, which indicated they were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied, but had a slight tendency to be satisfied. The 82 (41.2%) deans that worked at an institution in a suburban environment reflected a general job satisfaction score of 3.807, which indicates a slight tendency to be satisfied. The remaining 38 (19.0%) deans at urban institutions had a slight tendency to be satisfied, with a general job satisfaction score of 3.812. The p-value of 0.831 indicates that location of the institution is not statistically significant at the .05 level and does not impact the general job satisfaction scores of the 199 academic deans. The survey participants did not indicate a general job satisfaction score at or above 4.0 for the number of full-time faculty that they supervised. All 200 (100%) academic deans reported general job satisfaction scores between 3.437 and 3.990 for the full-time faculty they supervised. The p-value of 0.104 indicates that number of full-time faculty supervised is not statistically significant at the .05 level and did not impact on general job satisfaction scores of the 200 academic deans. There were only 7 (3.4%) deans who supervised less than 10 part-time faculty and their general job satisfaction score was 4.051, indicating they were satisfied. The remaining 96.6% of the deans that supervised more than 10 part-time faculty reported general job satisfaction scores between 3.545 and 3.987. The p-value of 0.406 indicates that number of part-time faculty supervised is not statistically significant at the .05 level and does not impact the general job satisfaction scores of the 201 academic deans. Of the 201 academic deans who reported supervising full-time and part-time staff, there were only 11 (5.5%) academic deans, indicating a general job satisfaction score above 4.0. The remaining 95.5% (n=180) of the deans reported a general job satisfaction 121

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score between 3.388 and 3.958 for the full-time and part-time staff they supervised, indicating neither dissatisfaction nor satisfaction. The p-value of 0.618 indicated that number of staff supervised is not statistically significant at the .05 level and does not impact on general job satisfaction. Research question five. What are the career aspirations of community college academic deans? The first finding is that roughly only a third (n=72 or 36.1%) of the community college academic deans reported that they were interested in pursuing the community college presidency. The p-value of 0.01 ( p = 0.01 < .05) indicates that the general job satisfaction score of the 36.1% is statistically significant at the .05 level. The second finding is that the 72 deans who were interested in being a president reported a lower general job satisfaction score (3.692) when compared to the general job satisfaction score (3.900) of the deans (n=127) who did not desire to be a community college president, however this was not statistically significant. The 72 academic deans who wanted to be presidents had a general job satisfaction score of 3.692, which was also lower than the general job satisfaction mean score of 3.828. This indicated that the least satisfied academic deans wanted to be community college presidents. The third finding is that the deans who reported they would move in another direction within the next one to four years were more satisfied (3.826) than those deans who desire to move along the academic leadership pathway to the presidency (3.820) but was not statistically significant. The deans who reported they would move in another direction within the next five to ten years were more satisfied (3.889) than those deans who desired to move along the academic leadership pathway to the presidency (3.836). The fourth finding is 122

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that the three deans (1.5%) who reported the highest general job satisfaction score (4.074) planned on leaving the profession within one to four years. The fifth finding is that only 30 academic deans (15%) of the 202 survey participants indicated that they had career aspirations to move along the academic pathway to pursue the community college presidency within one to ten years. Table 35 summarizes the five major findings for research question five. Table 35 Findings for Research Question Five Findings Description of Major Findings 1 Only 36.1% (n=72) of the academic deans reported that they were interested in pursuing the community college presidency 2 The 72 deans who were interested in being a community college president had a lower job satisfaction score (3.692) than the 127 deans who did not want to be president (3.900) but this difference was not statistically significant. 3 Deans that indicated they would move in another direction within the next one to four years are more satisfied (3.826) than those deans who desire to move along the academic leadership pathway to the presidency (3.820) but the difference between scores is not statistically significant. Deans who reported they would move in another direction within the next five to ten years are more satisfied (3.889) than those deans who desire to move along the academic leadership pathway to the presidency (3.836) but the difference between scores is not statistically significant. 4 The deans that reported the highest job satisfaction level (4.074) plan on leaving the profession within one to four years. 5 Only 30 academic deans (15%) of 202 indicated a career aspiration to move along the academic pathway to pursue the community college presidency. (10 deans within one to four years, 20 deans within five to ten years). 123

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The data suggest that the academic deans with the highest general job satisfaction scores do not desire to be community college presidents. In fact, the data indicate that the least satisfied academic deans would pursue the community college presidency. Only 88 (44%) of the academic deans desired to move along the academic leadership pathway within the next one to four years, they had a general job satisfaction score of 3.820. Only ten (5.0%) deans with a general job satisfaction score of 3.894 would seek the position of community college president. There were 15 (7.7%) academic deans reporting a general job satisfaction score of 3.649 who will pursue the position of campus president or provost. There were 62 (31.0%) survey participants reporting a general job satisfaction score of 3.850 who would actively apply for the position of academic vice president. Only one dean (0.5%), with a general job satisfaction score of 3.777, would pursue the business vice president position. There are 66 (33.0%) deans reporting a general job satisfaction score of 3.884 who will remain academic deans for the next one to four years. There are 46 (23%) who reported a desire to move in another direction and had a general job satisfaction score of 3.826. Only one dean (0.5%) with a general job satisfaction score of 3.777 desired to return to a department chair. Eight (4.0%) deans with a general job satisfaction score of 3.520 desired to join the faculty. There are 30 (15.0%) survey respondents with a general job satisfaction score of 3.816 who will retire within the next one to four years. There were three deans (1.5%) with a general job satisfaction score of 4.074 who will leave the profession in the next one to four years, and the plans of four (2%) deans are unknown, their general job satisfaction score was 3.986. The three academic deans with the highest general job satisfaction score indicated they would leave the profession. 124

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Eighty-four (42%) academic deans desired to move along the academic leadership pathway within the five to ten years, with a general job satisfaction score of 3.826 which indicated they are neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. There are 20 (10%) deans who reported a general job satisfaction score of 3.811 who would seek the position of community college president. Only 26 (13%) of the academic deans indicated a general job satisfaction score of 3.695, would pursue the position of campus president or provost. There are 37 (18.5%) survey participants reporting a general job satisfaction score of 3.990, who would actively seek the position of academic vice president. Only one dean, with a general job satisfaction score of 2.277, is dissatisfied and would pursue the business vice president position. There are 15 (7.5%) deans with a general job satisfaction score of 3.790, who would remain academic deans for the next five to ten years. There are 99 (50%) academic deans with career aspirations to move in another direction in the next five to ten years with a general job satisfaction score of 3.889. Only one dean with a general job satisfaction score of 3.388 desired to return to a department chair position. Ten (5.0%) deans or 5.0% with a general job satisfaction score of 3.594 desired to join the faculty. There are 72 (36.0%) survey respondents with a general job satisfaction score of 3.894 would retire within the next five to ten years. Nine deans (4.5%) reported a general job satisfaction score of 3.907 and indicated they would leave the profession in the next five to ten years. Seven (3.5%) academic deans reflecting a general job satisfaction score of 3.722 reported unknown career aspirations for the next five to ten years. Research question 6. To what extent does community college academic deans career aspirations relate to general job satisfaction as indicated by the Individual Data 125

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Sheet and the MSQ? The answer to research question six is that the survey data did not support a relationship between the general job satisfaction of community college academic deans and career aspirations or professional plans. The results of the analysis (p value greater than .05) failed to reject the null hypothesis that general job satisfaction has no relationship with professional plans or career aspirations. The failure to reject the null hypothesis using linear regression determined that general job satisfaction could not be used to predict the one to four or five to ten year career aspirations of academic deans. General job satisfaction as a predictor variable could not be used to predict career aspirations of community college academic deans. There was nothing in the design of the study that would lead this researcher to question the independence of the residual. Examination of the raw regression coefficients, standardized coefficients, and squared semipartial correlations, all suggest that general job satisfaction adds very little to the ability to predict career aspirations. Table 36 summarizes the two major findings for research question six. Table 36 Findings for Research Question Six Findings Description of Major Findings 1 Data did not support a relationship between general job satisfaction and career aspirations or professional plans 2 General job satisfaction could not be used as a predictor variable for career aspirations. Conclusions The results of this research study indicate that the leadership crisis as 126

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identified by American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) may be even greater than initially thought. Kelly (2002) has identified a need for 526 (approximately 50% of the number of current community college presidents) new community college presidents by 2007 and 934 (approximately 80% of current community college presidents) new presidents by 2012. The data for research question five indicated only 72 or 36% of the community college academic deans have an interest in pursuing the presidency. Of the 72 academic deans with an interest, only 10 (5%) of the academic deans reported career aspirations to be a community college president between now and 2007 and only an additional 20 (10%) of the academic deans reported a desire to be president by 2012. These data indicates that the leadership crisis predicted by the AACC will be even greater than anticipated with only 15% (n=30) of the academic deans desiring to fill the projected 536 vacancies by 2007 and a total of 934 vacancies by 2012. The domino effect of losing over 900 community college presidents and thousands of vice-presidents due to the baby boomer retirement requires academic deans to be prepared to assume new responsibilities as vice presidents and presidents. Weisman and Vaughan (2002) report an overwhelming percentage of presidents came through the academic administrative pathway from academic dean to chief academic officer or academic vice president to the presidency. The results of this study indicated that only 62 out of the 200 deans would pursue the position of academic vice president by 2008 and only an additional 37 out of 198 deans would seek the position by 2012. There are only 15 deans out of 200 who have career aspirations to be campus presidents or provosts by 2008 and only 26 deans out of 198 who would seek the campus president/provost position by 2012. Therefore, only 43.5% (n=87) of the academic deans desire to move 127

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along the academic leadership pathway. The leadership crisis for other positions along the academic leadership pathway (academic vice president and campus president/provost) is also as pronounced as the crisis for community college presidents. The general job satisfaction level of the academic deans desiring to move along the academic leadership pathway is consistently lower than the majority of the deans who would stay a dean or move in another direction. The majority of academic deans were not satisfied and may not see the challenges and rewards of being a community college president as something to attain. The AACC leadership crisis is greater than initially identified in that the minority of academic deans desired to move along the academic leadership pathway. The age of the academic deans is also a factor impacting the leadership crisis. Over 65% or 127 academic deans in this study are over 50 years old and are also part of the baby boomer generation that will also retire at alarming rates over the next 10 years and not be available to pursue the chief academic officer/academic vice president or president positions. There are only 25 deans (13% of the deans studied) who are age 45 or younger. With only 35% (n=66) of the survey participants under 50 years old, the small available pool of future community college vice presidents and presidents creates additional stress in meeting the need for available senior administrative leadership. Due to the aging of academic deans who could be available to assume the community college presidency, the community college leadership crisis may be greater than the American Association of Community Colleges anticipates. This study also identified a serious shortfall of ethnic minorities who are currently serving as academic deans. Only 10% or 22 of the deans identified themselves as African 128

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American, Hispanic, Asian, or Native American. This indicates that the potential to reflect the current national ethnic make-up of community college presidents (14%) will need to be addressed by AACC and local community college districts. Special recruitment, retention, training, and mentoring are needed to attack this weakness to reflect our national community college ethnic make-up. The findings of this study indicate that community college academic deans are neither dissatisfied nor satisfied with their jobs. The data also reflected that over 56% of the survey participants did not desire to move through the academic pathway as identified by Weisman and Vaughan (2002) to be community college presidents over the next one to four year period. There are more academic deans (112) who desired to retire, leave the profession, stay as deans, return to department chair positions or faculty positions within the next one to four years than those deans (88) who desired to move through the academic pathway to the presidency. Biddles (1979) role conflict and role ambiguity theories may explain this finding. Biddles (1979) role conflict theory examines the internal and external pressures on the person in the position to determine stress and disequilibrium as it affects motivation and job satisfaction. The data presented for research question two reported 50% of the intrinsic job satisfaction facets and 66% of the extrinsic facets scores for academic deans were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied could be the result of stress and disequilibrium. Biddles role ambiguity theory states that when the lack of information and knowledge about the scope and responsibilities of an employees role is inadequate, unavailable, or contradictory, the employee can experience anxiety, ineffectual performance, and job dissatisfaction. Although not database driven by this research 129

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study, it does seem that the general job satisfaction mean score of 3.828 may also be the result of academic deans role ambiguity and role conflict when balancing the needs of faculty and students against the needs of senior academic administrators such as the academic vice president, campus president/provost, or community college president. Montez, Wolverton, and Gmelch (2003) state that the academic dean is caught between the faculty and higher administration, between students and faculty, and between administration and the public. The authors indicate that a dean is expected to advocate for opposing sides of issues. The authors also point out that a dean is often in a difficult situation and must choose to perform one task at the expense of another. This adds to the stress of not being able to fully meet the expectations of his or her superiors or constituents and adversely affects academic deans job satisfaction. The stress and pressures on the academic deans as specified by Biddle (1979), Montez, Wolverton, and Gmelch (2003) may be the reason for the conflict and ambiguity in the general job satisfaction scores of academic deans in that only 15 % of the respondents had career aspirations to be a community college president. The combination of the factors listed above (desire to be president, desire to move along the academic pathway, age, ethnic make-up, satisfaction levels, and role conflict and ambiguity) indicates that the community college leadership crisis is greater than identified by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC). AACC and local institutions will need to identify ways to deal with these factors to find the needed community college leadership for this decade. Failure to do so may create even greater demands for chief academic officers, campus presidents and district presidents. The results of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction scores that were examined in 130

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research question two indicated that extrinsic facets had a more negative impact on general job dissatisfaction. The Herzberg (1966) motivator-hygiene theory indicted that hygienes (extrinsic) facets relate to job content or the work environment. As stated by Herzberg, the extrinsic facets are associated with job dissatisfaction. The fact that the general job satisfaction mean score (3.828) showed neither dissatisfaction nor satisfaction may indicate that the job content or work environment was dissatisfying for academic deans, resulting in the mean score. The job content and work environment may be one of the reasons for the low level of job satisfaction and could also be contributing factors that add to the leadership crisis. The results of the personal demographic characteristics as studied in question three indicated that female deans were more satisfied than their male counterparts. This finding was statistically significant. The data did not provide an explanation as to why this is so. This researcher would encourage additional studies to explain the difference. The remaining personal demographic characteristics were not statistically significant and did not play a role in explaining differences in general job satisfaction. The results of the five unit characteristics examined in research question four also did not play a significant role in explaining differences in general job satisfaction The personal and unit demographic characteristics present in this research study provides some insight into the personal and unit make-up and the responsibilities of the academic deans. Only the gender personal demographic characteristic, intrinsic, and extrinsic job facets can explain the differences in general job satisfaction scores of the 202 academic deans. Therefore, research question two that examined the intrinsic and extrinsic job facets has far more importance in describing general job satisfaction than the remaining 131

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personal (less gender) and unit demographic characteristics examined in question three and four. The research data from question five indicated that the higher the general job satisfaction score of the dean the more likely the dean would remain a dean or move in another direction. The deans with the lower general satisfaction score desired to move along the academic leadership pathway. If the more satisfied deans are leaving and allowing the least satisfied deans to pursue the presidency, what will be the impact on the nations community colleges in the short and long term? This may also not bode well for meeting the leadership crisis identified by the American Association of Community Colleges. One possible explanation to this is that those deans not satisfied want to change jobs and may experience job satisfaction in a new or different position. Another possible explanation is that the least satisfied deans may desire to be change agents and move along the academic leadership pathway until they are in a position to affect change. The academic deans may believe that they are not able to affect the level of change needed at their institution in their current position and desire to move along the academic leadership pathway to eventually affect change. The results of research question six indicated that general job satisfaction can not be used to predict career aspirations. However, the data appears to support the finding in question five that the higher the general job satisfaction score, the less likely the academic dean will move along the academic leadership pathway for both the one-to-four year and five-to-ten year periods, but is not statistically significant. Conversely, the lower the general job satisfaction score, the more likely the academic dean will move along the academic leadership pathway. This may indicate that if a dean is not satisfied 132

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with his or her current position, any positive change toward a higher educational administrative position may offer greater satisfaction. There are no data offered in this research study to support why less satisfied academic deans wanted to move along the academic leadership pathway. Limitations This study has two limitations. The ethnic make-up of the sample did not represent the national population. Ethnic minority academic deans (10.8%) were under-represented in the sample. The survey only had 7% of African American, 2% of Hispanic, and 2% of Native American and Asian respondents in comparison to the U. S. Census Bureau (2000) national make up of 12.3% African American, 12.5% Hispanic, and 4.5% of Native American and Asian. Caucasian academic deans made up almost 90% of the survey respondents. The age of the academic deans is also a limiting factor. The age make-up of the sample did not reflect the national population. Only 13% of the deans studied that are age 45 or younger, however, according to the U. S. Census Bureau (2000) reports 37.2% of the national population is age 24 to 44 years old. However, one explanation is that the academic dean must spend part of their academic career as a faculty member and department chair before they are selected to be an academic dean. This would explain why there were a small percentage of academic deans younger than age 40. Implications for Theory The four theoretical frameworks as discussed in chapter two of content, process, situational, and role theories provided the conceptual understanding and basis for the measurement of job satisfaction of community college academic deans. To briefly recap 133

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the frameworks, first, the major content theories by Maslow (1954) and Herzberg (1966) indicate that the fulfillment of needs and the attainment of values have a major impact on job satisfaction. Second, Vroom (1964) and Adams (1963) are the leading process theorists who state that job satisfaction can be described by examining the interaction of variables like values, expectancies, and needs. Third, Hoy and Miskel (1996) state that situational theorists assume that deans job satisfaction is influenced by the interaction of variables such as task characteristics, organizational characteristics, and individual characteristics. Finally, the integration of academic deans roles, positions, and expectations and their impact on job satisfaction form the basis of Biddles role theory. The results of this study validate the content theories provided by Maslow and Herzberg. Maslows (1954) Need Hierarchy Theory indicates that job satisfaction exists when the job and the environment surrounding the job meet an individuals needs. The general satisfaction score of 3.828 indicates that academic deans are not satisfied with their job or their environment and is not meeting their individual needs. Herzbergs (1966) Motivator-Hygiene Theory examines the work itself as a principal source of job satisfaction as contrasted to Maslows hierarchy of needs. The motivator-hygiene theory describes the concept of job satisfaction with intrinsic and extrinsic dimensions. The intrinsic facets of job satisfaction in this study received a score of 4.037. This indicated that the academic deans were satisfied with the intrinsic facets. The extrinsic facets of job satisfaction in this study received a score of 3.895. This indicated that the deans were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied with the extrinsic facets. The survey findings suggest that both Maslows and Herzbergs satisfaction content theories are accurate. The data reported in this research study did not test the process theories presented 134

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by Vroom (1964) and Adams (1963). Vroom's expectancy theory suggests that individuals make work-related decisions based on their perceived abilities to perform tasks and receive rewards. Adams equity theory proposes that workers compare their own outcomes, received from their jobs and the organizations, measured against the inputs they contribute (outcome-input ratio). The MSQ is not designed to examine the interaction of variables like values, expectancies, and needs that are fundamental in process theories. The aspects of the process theories were not examined; therefore, no findings in support of the process theories can be made. The examination of academic dean job satisfaction, as measured by the MSQ, supported the situational theories proposed by Quarstein, McAfee, and Glassman (1992) and Glisson and Durick (1988). Quarstein, McAfee, and Glassman theorize that overall job satisfaction is a function of the employee making continuous evaluations about situational characteristics and situational occurrences. Examples of situational characteristics can be working conditions, pay, company policies, promotional opportunities, and supervision. Glisson and Durick examined the worker, job and organizational characteristics as the major factor influencing employee job satisfaction. Organizational characteristics should have a slight influence. Demographic characteristics of the individual employee had little to no effect on job satisfaction. The results of the research data supported Quarstein, McAfee, and Glassmans situational characteristics and occurrences theory and Glisson and Dericks predictor model of job satisfaction. Biddle (1979) established that the fundamental proposition of role theory is that behaviors within contexts (roles) are associated with persons who share a common 135

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identity (in positions) and who are aware of their roles (by expectations). Biddle identified role conflict and role ambiguity as part of the role theory that affects job satisfaction. The academic dean must manage and control role stresses of conflict and ambiguity in order to maintain job satisfaction. Failure to control the tensions of role conflict and role ambiguity may result in the community college academic dean being dissatisfied and aspiring to become president in order to affect change and clarify role conflict and role ambiguity. The research data did not directly relate to Biddles role theory, but this theory may offer an explanation as to why the community college academic deans were not satisfied. Implications for Practice The results of this study have several implications for meeting the American Association of Community Colleges identified leadership crisis in community college senior leadership. The implications are: 1. The role conflict and ambiguity on community college academic deans that cause tensions and pressures may impact their general job satisfaction. Examination of the stresses and tensions and the development of strategies to reduce or eliminate them may cause more academic deans to be satisfied and want to pursue the community college presidency. 2. There is a need for AACC and local institutions to recruit and or promote ethnic minorities as academic deans to meet the growing demands for community college presidents. 3. There is a requirement for AACC and local institutions to recruit and or promote potential academic deans younger than 45 years of age to enter the 136

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academic leadership pathway to be a community college president. 4. The academic leadership pathway to the community college presidency needs to be examined to determine if any roadblocks or hurdles that may influence the academic deans decision to not move along the academic leadership to the presidency. 5. Recruitment, retention, training, and mentoring strategies for community academic deans should be developed to assist deans in pursuing the community college presidency. Implications for Research The results of this research study suggest several topics for future research: 1. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire measured levels of job satisfaction of community college academic deans. The MSQ did not identify the reason or reasons for the academic dean dissatisfaction or satisfaction. Therefore, it is recommended that a more qualitative study be conducted to identify why community college academic deans are either dissatisfied or satisfied. 2. As was identified in chapter two, there are virtually no research studies on examining the satisfaction levels of community college academic deans. Because there have been no previously conducted studies using the same methodology, it is recommended that this study be repeated in the future to validate the findings of this study. 3. The research data indicated that ethnic minority deans were more dissatisfied than their Caucasian/White counterparts. It is recommended that additional research be conducted to identify the reasons for the ethnic minority deans 137

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greater dissatisfaction. 4. There are only 25 deans or 13% of the deans studied who are age 45 or younger. Additional research on why there are so few academic deans younger than 45 years of age should be conducted. 5. The data indicated that only 15% of the academic deans had career aspirations to pursue the community college presidency within one to ten years. The American Association of Community Colleges and or other researchers should conduct additional studies to determine why so few academic deans desire to be community college presidents. 6. The academic leadership pathway to the community college presidency needs to be examined to determine if any roadblocks or hurdles exist that influence the academic deans decision to not pursue the presidency. 7. A study into recruitment, retention, training, and mentoring of community academic deans should be conducted to identify strategies to help deans in moving along the academic leadership pathway to the community college presidency. 8. There are several higher education organizations that sponsor leadership training institutions or academies for department chairs, academic vice presidents, and presidents. The American Association of Community Colleges or other educational organizations should conduct a study to determine the need to establish leadership institutes or academies targeting community college academic deans in order to prepare the deans to move along the academic leadership pathway. 138

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9. A study into the community college academic deans job content and work environment may offer explanations for low general job satisfaction scores. Understanding the job content and work environment may lead to developing strategies for satisfaction improvement. 10. A research study into why female deans are more satisfied than their male counterparts may help to explain the difference in their general job satisfaction scores. 11. A study on the short term and long term impacts on the nations community colleges with the least satisfied deans assuming senior leadership positions and the more satisfied deans moving in another direction. 12. A research study to measure general job satisfaction and the relationship to those academic deans who have responsibility for college transfer, vocational/technical programs, developmental programs, continuing education, or a combination. The study showed that the nations community college academic deans were not satisfied in their jobs and only 30 (15%) would actively pursue the community college presidency within the next one to ten years to fill the 934 potential vacancies by 2012. The leadership crisis identified by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) will continue to grow over this decade because little to no attention has been paid to community college academic dean job satisfaction and career aspirations to move along the academic leadership pathway. The need to further examine why academic deans are not satisfied may allow strategies to be developed to improve job satisfaction, recruit, train, and mentor academic deans to enhance performance, job satisfaction, and 139

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career aspirations to be a community college president. The bottom line of this research study is that the community college leadership crisis will continue through 2012 and is more severe than predicted by AACC due to academic deans low job satisfaction and lack of career aspirations to move along the academic leadership pathway to the community college presidency. 140

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Appendices 149

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Appendix A: Demographic Variable Codes Variable Name Variable Code (#) Source Codes = Explanation Age age (1) MSQ 1 = Thirty or less 2 = 31 35 3 = 36 40 4 = 4145 5 = 46 50 6 = 51 55 7 = 56 60 8 = 61 65 9 = Over 66 Gender gender (2) MSQ 0 = Female 1 = Male Ethnicity ethnicity (3) IDS 0 = Other 1 = Caucasian/White 2 = African-American 3 = Hispanic Degree Status degree (4) IDS 1 = Bachelors Degree 2 = Masters Degree 3 = Masters + Hours 4 = Ed. Specialist Degree 5 = Doctoral Degree 6 = Other Tenure in Position tenure (5) MSQ 1 = < 1 Year 2 = 1 3 Years 3 = 4 6 Years 4 = 7 10 Years 5 = 11 15 6 = 16 20 7 = Over 21 Years Gross Annual Salary salary (6) IDS 1 = < $39,999 2 = $40,000 $49,999 3 = $50,000 $59,999 4 = $60,000 $69,999 5 = $70,000 $79,999 6 = $80,000 $89,999 7 = $90,000 $99,999 8 = $100,000 $109,999 9 = $110,000 $119,999 150

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Appendix A (Continued): Variable Name Variable Code (#) Source Codes = Explanation 10 = $120,000 $129,999 11 = > $130,000 Average Number of hours (7) IDS 1 = 30 35 hours Hours Worked Per 2 = 36 40 hours Week 3 = 41 45 hours 4 = 46 50 hours 5 = 51 55 hours 6 = 56 60 hours 7 = 61 65 hours 8 = 66 70 hours 9 = Over 70 hours Major Area of responsib (8) IDS 0 = other Responsibility 1 = college transfer 2 = vocational/technical programs 3 = developmental programs 4 = continuing education Pursue Pres cc pres (9) IDS 1 = Yes 2 = No Logical Step career aspirs (10) IDS _______________________ Professional Plans plans 1 4 (11) IDS 0 = Unknown 1 = stay as dean 2 = join the faculty 3 = be a dept. chair 4 = seek academic vice pres. 5 = seek business vice pres. 6 = seek campus pres/provost 7 = seek college/district pres. 8 = retire 9 = seek employment elsewhere Professional Plans plans 5 10 (12) IDS 0 = Unknown 1 = stay as dean 2 = join the faculty 3 = be a dept. chair 151

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Appendix A (Continued): Variable Name Variable Code (#) Source Codes = Explanation 4 = seek academic vice pres. 5 = seek business vice pres 6 = seek campus pres/provost 7 = seek college/district pres. 8 = retire 9 = seek employment elsewhere Size of Institution size (13) IDS 1 = Less than 2,000 unduplicated student headcount per academic semester (Small). 2 = 2,000 to 9,999 unduplicated student headcount per academic semester (Medium). 3 = Greater than 10,000 unduplicated student headcount per academic semester (Large). Location location (14) IDS 0 = rural area 2 = suburban area 3 = urban area Number of faculty (15) IDS 0 = None full-time 1= less than 10 faculty faculty 2 = 11 20 faculty reporting 3 = 21 30 faculty 4 = 31 40 faculty 5 = 41 50 faculty 6 = 51 60 faculty 7 = 61 70 faculty 8 = 71 80 faculty 9 = Over 80 faculty Number of faculty (16) IDS 0 = None part-time 1= less than 10 faculty faculty 2 = 11 20 faculty reporting 3 = 21 30 faculty 152

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Appendix A (Continued): Variable Name Variable Code (#) Source Codes = Explanation 4 = 31 40 faculty 5 = 41 50 faculty 6 = 51 60 faculty 7 = 61 70 faculty 8 = 71 80 faculty 9 = Over 80 faculty Number of staff (17) IDS 0 = None full-time and 1= less than 5 staff part-time staff 2 = 6 10 staff reporting 3 = 11 20 staff 4 = 21 30 staff 5 = 31 40 staff 6 = 41 50 staff 7 = 51 60 staff 8 = 61 70 staff 9 = Over 70 staff 153

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Appendix B: Job Satisfaction Variable Codes Variable Codes MSQ Name Code (#) Source Explanation Question #s Ability ability (1) MSQ 1 = very dissatisfied 7, 27, Utilization 2 = dissatisfied 47, 67, 3 = neither dissatisfied or satisfied 87 4 = satisfied 5 = very satisfied Achievement acheiv (2) MSQ 1 = very dissatisfied 19, 39, 2 = dissatisfied 59, 79, 3 = neither dissatisfied or satisfied 99 4 = satisfied 5 = very satisfied Activity activity (3) MSQ 1 = very dissatisfied 20, 40, 2 = dissatisfied 60, 80, 3 = neither dissatisfied or satisfied 100 4 = satisfied 5 = very satisfied Advancement advance (4) MSQ 1 = very dissatisfied 14, 34, 2 = dissatisfied 54, 74, 3 = neither dissatisfied or satisfied 94 4 = satisfied 5 = very satisfied Authority authority (5) MSQ 1 = very dissatisfied 6, 26, 2 = dissatisfied 46, 66, 3 = neither dissatisfied or satisfied 86 4 = satisfied 5 = very satisfied Company policies (6) MSQ 1 = very dissatisfied 9, 29, Policies 2 = dissatisfied 49, 69, and Practices 3 = neither dissatisfied or satisfied 89 4 = satisfied 5 = very satisfied Compensation comp (7) MSQ 1 = very dissatisfied 12, 32, 2 = dissatisfied 52, 72, 3 = neither dissatisfied or satisfied 92 4 = satisfied 5 = very satisfied 154

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Appendix B (Continued): Variable Codes MSQ Name Code (#) Source Explanation Question #s Co-workers cowork (8) MSQ 1 = very dissatisfied 16, 36, 2 = dissatisfied 56, 76, 3 = neither dissatisfied or satisfied 96 4 = satisfied 5 = very satisfied Creativity create (9) MSQ 1 = very dissatisfied 2, 22, 2 = dissatisfied 42, 62, 3 = neither dissatisfied or satisfied 82 4 = satisfied 5 = very satisfied Independence indep (10) MSQ 1 = very dissatisfied 4, 24, 2 = dissatisfied 44, 64, 3 = neither dissatisfied or satisfied 84 4 = satisfied 5 = very satisfied Moral Values moral (11) MSQ 1 = very dissatisfied 3, 23, 2 = dissatisfied 43, 63, 3 = neither dissatisfied or satisfied 83 4 = satisfied 5 = very satisfied Recognition recogn (12) MSQ 1 = very dissatisfied 18, 38, 2 = dissatisfied 58, 78, 3 = neither dissatisfied or satisfied 98 4 = satisfied 5 = very satisfied Responsibility respons (13) MSQ 1 = very dissatisfied 17, 37, 2 = dissatisfied 57, 77, 3 = neither dissatisfied or satisfied 97 4 = satisfied 5 = very satisfied Security security (14) MSQ 1 = very dissatisfied 11, 31, 2 = dissatisfied 51, 71, 3 = neither dissatisfied or satisfied 91 4 = satisfied 5 = very satisfied 155

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Appendix B (Continued): Variable Codes MSQ Name Code (#) Source Explanation Question #s Social Service social (15) MSQ 1 = very dissatisfied 1, 21, 2 = dissatisfied 41, 61, 3 = neither dissatisfied or satisfied 81 4 = satisfied 5 = very satisfied Social Status status (16) MSQ 1 = very dissatisfied 8, 28, 2 = dissatisfied 48, 68, 3 = neither dissatisfied or satisfied 88 4 = satisfied 5 = very satisfied Supervision suphr (17) MSQ 1 = very dissatisfied 10, 30, Human 2 = dissatisfied 50, 70, Relations 3 = neither dissatisfied or satisfied 90 4 = satisfied 5 = very satisfied Supervision suptech (18) MSQ 1 = very dissatisfied 15, 35, Technical 2 = dissatisfied 55, 75, 3 = neither dissatisfied or satisfied 95 4 = satisfied 5 = very satisfied Variety variety (19) MSQ 1 = very dissatisfied 5, 25, 2 = dissatisfied 45, 65, 3 = neither dissatisfied or satisfied 85 4 = satisfied 5 = very satisfied Workings workcon (20) MSQ 1 = very dissatisfied 13, 33, Condition 2 = dissatisfied 53, 73, 3 = neither dissatisfied or satisfied 93 4 = satisfied 5 = very satisfied 156

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Appendix B (Continued): Variable Codes = MSQ Name Code (#) Source Explanation Question #s General genjobsat (21) MSQ 1 = very dissatisfied 24, 25, Job 2 = dissatisfied 28, 30 Satisfaction 3 = neither dissatisfied or satisfied 35, 43, 4 = satisfied 66, 67, 5 = very satisfied 69, 72 74, 77, 82, 93, 96, 98, 99,100 Variable Codes = MSQ Scores Name Code (#) Source Explanation From Code #s Intrinsic Intrinsic (22) MSQ 1 = very dissatisfied 1, 2, 3, Job 2 = dissatisfied 4, 7, 8, Satisfaction 3 = neither dissatisfied or satisfied 9, 10, 4 = satisfied1 11, 15, 5 = very satisfied 16, 20 Extrinsic Extrinsic (23) MSQ 1 = very dissatisfied 5, 6, Job 2 = dissatisfied 12, 13 Satisfaction 3 = neither dissatisfied or satisfied 14, 19, 4 = satisfied 5 = very satisfied 157

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Appendix C: Individual Data Sheet Job Satisfaction of Community College Academic Deans Survey Individual Data Sheet Thank you in advance for your participation in this study. This questionnaire will take approximately 15 20 minutes to complete. There are two parts of the survey Individual Data Sheet and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Please complete and return both parts of the survey in the enclosed self-addressed envelope to: Gary Goff 14118 Riverstone Drive Tampa, FL 33624 If you have any questions, contact Mr. Goff at (813) 253-7015 or email: ggoff@hccfl.edu. ALL RESPONSES WILL BE KEPT CONFIDENTIAL Please respond to the following questions by circling your response. Individual Data Sheet. (Please Circle Your Response) 1. Please indicate your ethnicity/race. a. Caucasian/White b. African-American c. Hispanic d. Other 2. Please indicate your highest earned level of education. a. Bachelors Degree b. Masters Degree c. Masters + Hours e. Ed. Specialist Degree f. Doctoral Degree g. Other 158

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Appendix C (Continued): 3. Please indicate your gross annual salary as a community college academic dean. a. < $39,999 b. $40,000 $49,999 c. $50,000 $59,999 d. $60,000 $69,999 e. $70,000 $79,999 f. $80,000 $89,999 g. $90,000 $99,999 h. $100,000 $109,999 i. $110,000 $119,999 j. $120,000 $129,999 k. > $130,000 4. Please indicate the average number of hours worked per week as a community college academic dean. a. 30 35 hours b. 36 40 hours c. 41 45 hours d. 46 50 hours e. 51 55 hours f. 56 60 hours g. 61 65 hours h. 66 70 hours i. Over 70 hours 5. Please indicate your major area of responsibility as a community college academic dean. a. College Transfer b. Vocational/Technical Programs c. Developmental Programs d. Continuing Education e. Other Please Specify_______________________________________ 6. Are you interested in pursuing the Community College Presidency? a. Yes b. No 7. What is the next logical step for your career aspirations?________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 159

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Appendix C (Continued): 8. Please select one professional plan/career aspiration below you will pursue during the next 1 to 4 years. a. Unknown b. Stay as Dean c. Join the Faculty d. Be a Department Chair e. Seek Academic Vice President/Chief Academic Officer Position f. Seek Business Vice President/Chief Financial Officer Position g. Seek Campus President/Provost Position h. Seek College or District President Position i. Retire j. Leave Profession/Seek Employment Elsewhere 9. Please select one professional plan/career aspiration below you will pursue during the next 5 to 10 years. a. Unknown b. Stay as Dean c. Join the Faculty d. Be a Department Chair e. Seek Academic Vice President/Chief Academic Officer Position f. Seek Business Vice President/Chief Financial Officer Position g. Seek Campus President/Provost Position h. Seek College or District President Position i. Retire j. Leave Profession/Seek Employment Elsewhere 10. Please indicate the size of your institution (Unduplicated Student Headcount for Fall 2003 Academic Semester). a. < 2,000 b. 2,000 9,999 c. >10,000 11. Please indicate the location of your institution (Urban A central city with a population greater that 250,000. Suburban A city on the urban fringe of a central city with a population greater than 25,000. Rural A town with a population of equal to or less than 25,000 and not connected to a central city). a. Rural Area b. Suburban Area c. Urban Area 160

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Appendix C (Continued): 12. Please indicate the number of full-time faculty reporting to you as a community college academic dean. a. None b. < 10 Faculty c. 11 20 Faculty d. 21 30 Faculty e. 31 40 Faculty f. 41 50 Faculty g. 51 60 Faculty h. 61 70 Faculty i. 71 80 Faculty j. Over 80 Faculty 13. Please indicate the number of part-time faculty reporting to you as a community college academic dean. a. None b. < 10 Faculty c. 11 20 Faculty d. 21 30 Faculty e. 31 40 Faculty f. 41 50 Faculty g. 51 60 Faculty h. 61 70 Faculty i. 71 80 Faculty j. Over 80 Faculty 14. Please indicate the number of full-time and part-time staff supervised by you as a community college academic dean. a. None b. < 5 Staff c. 6 10 Staff d. 11 20 Staff e. 21 30 Staff f. 31 40 Staff g. 41 50 Staff h. 51 60 Staff i. 61 70 Staff j. Over 70 Staff Please continue to the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire ALL RESPONSES WILL BE KEPT CONFIDENTIAL 161

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Appendix D: AACC Endorsement Letter One Dupont Circle, NW Suite 410 Washington, DC 20036 www.aacc.nche.edu [T] 202-728-0200 [F] 202-833-2467 January 28, 2004 Dear Community College Academic Dean, I am writing to enlist your participation in a very important national study in the field of community college academic dean leadership. AACC is pleased to endorse this research study. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has identified a growing crisis in community college leadership. College presidents and senior administrators have been retiring at an alarming rate. Correspondingly, higher numbers of qualified administrators must be available to fill the leadership gap. It is critical, therefore, that community college academic deans are prepared to assume greater roles and responsibilities in academe. This national study by Gary Goff, a doctoral student at the University of South Florida and a fellow community college academic dean, seeks to ascertain job satisfaction and future career aspirations of community college deans. I believe that the findings of Gary's study will expand our knowledge regarding the pursuit by academic deans of the community college presidency. We need your help to make this national study successful. I believe that Gary has developed a succinct survey. I strongly urge you to take 15-20 minutes to complete the enclosed survey and return it in the envelope provided by February 28, 2004. All responses will be kept confidential. I very much appreciate your participation and thank you in advance. I hope that the coming academic year is one of great success for you and your institution. Sincerely, George R. Boggs President and CEO 162

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Appendix E: Letter of Instruction Job Satisfaction of Community College Academic Deans Research Project 14118 Riverstone Drive Tampa, Fl 33624 Dear Community College Academic Dean: I am a community college academic dean who is interested in the level of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction in our profession and the factors that contribute to satisfaction. I am trying to determine if job satisfaction of community college academic deans can be used to predict career aspirations in meeting the growing executive leadership crisis as identified by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC). I am asking that you assist me in this AACC endorsed study in developing new knowledge about job satisfaction in our profession. This study (IRB# 102039) has been approved by the University of South Florida (USF) Institutional Review Board. You may contact the USF Institutional Review Board at 813-974-5638 for confirmation. You may be assured that information you provide on the survey will be handled in confidence and will never be associated to you by name or college. In addition, the data is being collected in such a way that one institution cannot be compared with another. You may elect to proceed to the two-part questionnaire or decline to participate in the study. The job satisfaction survey is for community college academic deans across the nation. This research study is part of my graduate program in the College of Education at University of South Florida. You can help me with this project by completing the questionnaires by February 17, 2004. If you are unable to participate in the study, please let me know by return email so that your name will be removed from the list for possible follow up. If you have any questions about the study, please call me at (813)-253-7015 or email me at ggoff@hccfl.edu Thank you very much for your assistance. Sincerely yours, Gary Goff Doctoral Candidate University of South Florida 163

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Appendix F: Follow up Letter for Second Mailing Job Satisfaction of Community College Academic Deans Research Project 14118 Riverstone Drive Tampa, Fl 33624 Address Block Dear Dean Last Name: Several weeks ago, I sent you an invitation to participate in a national study endorsed by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC), regarding job satisfaction of community college academic deans. As of today, I have not yet received your response. If you have completed the survey and it is in the mail, I want to sincerely thank you for your participation and you can disregard this letter. However, if you have not completed the survey, I hope that you will consider participating in this AACC nationally endorsed research study. Currently your State is not represented in this study, your participation will allow for the State of State Name to be included in the national results. I want to extend this final appeal for your participation, as I believe that the significance of your contribution is vital to the overall findings and usefulness of the study. A short time commitment of 15 20 minutes is all that is required. The University of South Florida (USF) Institutional Review Board has approved the study (IRB # 102039) for an exemption certification. You may contact the USF Institutional Review Board at 813-974-9343 for confirmation. You may be assured that information you provide on the survey will be handled in confidence and will never be associated to you by name or college. In addition, the data is being collected in such a way that one institution cannot be compared with another. You may elect to proceed to the two-part questionnaire or decline to participate in the study. In the event you have misplaced the questionnaire, another copy is enclosed along with a return envelope for your convenience. Again, your responses will be kept confidential. If you have any questions about the study, please call me at (813)-253-7015 or email me at ggoff@hccfl.edu Thank you very much for your cooperation and assistance. Sincerely, Gary Goff Doctoral Candidate University of South Florida 164

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Appendix G: Approval Letter to Use the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire 165

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About the Author Donald G. (Gary) Goff received a Bachelor of Science (BS) Degree in Political Science from Middle Tennessee State University. He received a Masters in Business Administration (MBA) from Southwest Missouri State University. During his 30-year career as an Army Ranger, he was an adjunct faculty member for the University of Maryland teaching business courses. He was also an Assistant Professor at Southwest Missouri State University teaching physical education and military science courses. He also served as a faculty member and academic dean of the Armed Forces Staff College, National Defense University located in Norfolk, Virginia. After completing his Army career as a Colonel, Gary started a second career in higher education in 2000 as an academic dean for Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida. In 2003, he was selected to be the Vice President for Business and Administration/Chief Financial Officer for Hillsborough Community College.