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Efforts to promote tourism as a catalyst for urban redevelopment in Florida

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Title:
Efforts to promote tourism as a catalyst for urban redevelopment in Florida insights from the anthropology of tourism and an annotated bibliography.
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English
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Collins, John F., 1976-
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University of South Florida
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Tampa, Fla.
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Subjects / Keywords:
economy
political
development
waterfront
Tampa
Dissertations, Academic -- Applied Anthropology -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
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government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Tourism is a major contributor to the global economy and is an agent of cultural change. Tourism has been utilized throughout the United States as an engine of economic renewal in the promotion of redevelopment within many of our most celebrated urban centers. Urban tourism as it is found within Florida is explored. A chapter is dedicated to Tampa, Florida. Anthropology has spent little time or effort in attempting to understand the complexities of urban tourism and what it means for the cities of 21st century. The anthropology of tourism is utilized in exploring the political economy of tourism within urban spaces as they occur in Florida. Employment statistics, development trends and policy matters are presented to aid the reader in understanding the dynamics of urban tourism within Florida. Accompanying this effort on urban tourism is an annotated bibliography of Florida tourism.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2004.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by John F. Collins.
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Title from PDF of title page.
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Document formatted into pages; contains 262 pages.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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aleph - 001498137
oclc - 57717626
notis - AJU6732
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0000543
usfldc handle - e14.543
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Efforts To Promote Tourism As A Cataly st For Urban Redevelopment In Florida: Insights From The Anthropology Of To urism And An Annotated Bibliography. by John F. Collins A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Anthropology College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: Kevin Yelvington, Ph.D. Mark Amen, Ph.D. Susan Greenbaum, Ph.D. Trevor Purcell, Ph.D. Date of Approval: November 19, 2004 Keywords: tampa, waterfront, development, political, economy Copyright 2004, John F. Collins

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DEDICATION It is with heartfelt thanks that I dedicate this work to my parents.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank the Globalization Research Center on the Tampa campus of the University of South Fl orida. Dr. Mark Amen and Dr. Rebecca Harris aided immensely in the initial undertaking of this work and I urge them to continue focusing on the globalizing forces of tourism within the state of Florida. To Dr. Kevin Yelvington and my thesis committee, thank you for your insight and wisdom. To Tracy Stone th ank you for your unmatched support and commitment in the completion of thesis. To all of you who know who you are, I thank you.

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i TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES iii ABSTRACT viii CHAPTER ONE – WHY STUDY URBAN TOURISM 1 Internship and Research Methodology 9 CHAPTER TWO – WHY STUDY TOURISM 13 Tourism and the Social Sciences 13 Introducing the Anthropology of Tourism 16 The Anthropology of Tourism 17 Hosts and Guests within Urban Space 26 CHAPTER THREE – WHY STUDY URBAN TOURISM 30 A Post Modern City 33 What Pushes This Development? 37 CHAPTER FOUR – A QUANTITATIVE LOOK AT FLORIDA TOURISM 41 CHAPTER FIVE – EMPLOYMENT WI THIN THE TOURISM INDUSTRY 50 Employment Trends: Miami & Miami PMSA 55 Employment Trends: Tampa & Tampa’s MSA 62 CHAPTER SIX – GOVERNMENTS PL ACE IN URBAN REDEVELOPMENT 66 State Programs 68 CHAPTER SEVEN – WHAT DO CITIES BUILD & WHY? 74 Sports Facility Development 78 Urban Waterfront Redevelopment & The Cruise Industry 84

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ii CHAPTER EIGHT – TAMPA, FLORIDA 90 A Laundry List of Development 90 Downtown “The Central Business District” 92 The Use of Public / Private Partnerships 97 Sports Facilities in Tampa 99 Building Tampa: Hardin Industries 101 The Channel District 102 Ybor City: Tampa’s National Historic District 103 Recreating Historic Connectors 105 A Quantitative Look at Tampa’s Tourism Market 108 Future Employment Growth 109 Conclusions 111 CHAPTER NINE CONCLUSIONS 114 REFERENCES 119 ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 137 Introduction 138 By Authors Last Name 139 By Classification 176 APPENDICES 213 Appendix A: Employment Trends: Miami & Miami’s PMSA 214 Appendix B: Employment Tr ends: Tampa & Tampa’s MSA 232

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iii LIST OF TABLES Table 4.1 Hotel / Motel Rooms & Seating Capacity 44 Table 4.2 Primary Activities of all Travelers 45 Table 4.3 Tourism Taxable Sales by MSA 47 Table 4.4 Tourism Bed Tax by County 48 Table 5.1 Travel-Related Empl oyment Within Florida 51 Table 5.2 Population: Tampa, Florida and Tampa’s MSA 56 Table 5.3 Employment By Industry: Tampa, Florida 58 Table 5.4 Employment By Industry: Tampa’s MSA 60 Table 5.5 Business Establishments by Industry: Tampa, Florida 61 Table 5.6 Employment by Industry: Miami, Florida 63 Table 5.7 Employment by Industry: Miami PMSA 64 Table 5.8 Population: Miami, Florida & Miami PMSA 65 Table 7.1 Central Cities Reporting Fac ilitates Existing or Being Developed 75 Table 7.2 Total Cruise Passengers by Port 88 Table 7.3 Ship Count as of 2002 88 Table 7.4 Passenger Origin by State 89 Table 8.1 Total Cruise Passengers Port of Tampa 103

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iv Table 8.2 Cruise Lines Operating at The Port of Tampa 103 Table 8.3 Selected Trip Characteri stics of the Tampa Traveler 108 Table 8.4 Average Expenditures per Day 108 Table 8.5 Visitor Origins 109 Table 8.6 Employment Projections: G arrison Channel and Channel District 110 Table 8.7 Employment Projections: Ybor City 111 Table A.1 Hotels and Other Lodging Places: Employed 217 Table A.2 Hotels and Other Lodging Places: Wages 217 Table A.3 Hotels and Other Lodging Places: Establishments 217 Table A.4 Amusement and Recreation: Employed 218 Table A.5 Amusement and Recreation: Wages 218 Table A.6 Amusement and Recreation: Establishments 219 Table A.7 Museums, Botanical, and Zoological Gardens: Employed 219 Table A.8 Museums, Botanical, and Zoological Gardens: Wages 220 Table A.9 Museums, Botanical, and Zo ological Gardens: Establishments 220 Table A.10 Eating and Drinking Places: Employed 220 Table A.11 Eating and Drinking Places: Wages 221 Table A.12 Eating and Drinki ng Places: Establishments 221 Table A.13 Air Transportation: Employed 222

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v Table A.14 Air Transportation: Wages 222 Table A.15 Air Transportation: Establishments 223 Table A.16 Performing Arts, Spectator Sports, and Related Industries: Employed 223 Table A.17 Performing Arts, Spectator Sp orts, and Related Industries: Wages 224 Table A.18 Performing Arts, Spectator Sports, and Related Industries: Establishments 224 Table A.19 Museums, Historical Sites, and Like Institutions: Employed 224 Table A.20 Museums, Historical Site s, and Like Institutions: Wages 225 Table A.21 Museums, Historical Sites, and Like Institutions: Establishments 225 Table A.23 Amusement, Gambling, and Recreation Industries: Employed 226 Table A.24 Amusement, Gambling, an d Recreation Industries: Wages 226 Table A.25 Amusement, Gambling, and Recreation Industries: Establishments 226 Table A.26 Accommodations: Employed 227 Table A.27 Accommodations: Wages 227 Table A.28 Accommodations: Establishments 228 Table A.29 Food Services & Drinking Places: Employed 228 Table A.30 Food Services & Drinking Places: Wages 228 Table A.31 Food Services & Drinking Places: Establishments 229

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vi Table A.32 Air Transportation: Employed 229 Table A.33 Air Transportation: Wages 230 Table A.34 Air Transportation: Establishments 230 Table B.1 Hotels and Other Lodging Places: Employed 235 Table B.2 Hotels and Other Lodging Places: Wages 235 Table B.3 Hotels and Other Lodg ing Places: Establishments 236 Table B.4 Amusement & Recreation: Employed 236 Table B.5 Amusement & Recreation: Wages 237 Table B.6 Amusement & Recreation: Establishments 237 Table B.7 Eating and Drinking Places: Employed 238 Table B.8 Eating and Drinking Places: Wages 238 Table B.9 Eating and Drinking Places: Establishments 239 Table B.10 Air Transportation: Employed 239 Table B.11 Air Transportation: Wages 240 Table B.12 Air Transportation: Establishments 240 Table B.13 Amusement, Gambling, and Recreation Industries: Establishments 241 Table B.14 Performing Arts, Spectator Sports & Related Industries: Wages 241 Table B.15 Performing Arts, Specta tor Sports & Related Industries: Establishments 242

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vii Table B.16 Museums, Historical Site s & Like Institutions: Employed 242 Table B.17 Museums, Historical Si tes & Like Institutions: Wages 243 Table B.18 Museums, Historical Sites & Like Institutions: Establishments 243 Table B.19 Amusement, Gambling, and Recreation Industries: Employed 244 Table B.20 Amusement, Gambling, an d Recreation Industries: Wages 244 Table B.21 Amusement, Gambling, and Recreation Industries: Establishments 244 Table B.22 Accommodations: Employed 245 Table B.23 Accommodations: Wages 245 Table B.24 Accommodations: Establishments 246 Table B.25 Food Services & Drinking Places: Employed 246 Table B.26 Food Services & Drinking Places: Wages 247 Table B.27 Food Services & Drinking Places: Establishments 247 Table B.28 Air Transportation: Employed 248 Table B.29 Air Transportation: Wages 248

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viii Efforts To Promote Tourism As A Cataly st For Urban Redevelopment In Florida: Insights From The Anthropology Of To urism And An Annotated Bibliography. John F. Collins ABSTRACT Tourism is a major contributor to the global economy and is an agent of cultural change. Tourism has been utilized throughout the United States as an engine of economic renewal in the prom otion of redevelopment within many of our most celebrated urban centers. Urban tourism as it is found within Florida is explored. A chapter is dedicated to Ta mpa, Florida. Anthropology has spent little time or effort in attempting to understand the complexities of urban tourism and what it means for the cities of 21st century. The anthropology of tourism is utilized in exploring the polit ical economy of tourism within urban spaces as they occur in Florida. Employ ment statistics, development trends and policy matters are presented to aid the reader in understanding the dynamics of urban tourism within Florida. Accompanying this effort on urban tourism is an annotated bibliography of Florida tourism.

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1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION The promotion of tourism and le isure are central elements of downtown revitalization. In a 2000 National League of Cities survey, 54% of central cities “said that arts/entertainment/recreati on/tourism was the most important economic sector in their cities, ahead of manufacturing, retail and wholesale trade and government and public admi nistration” (HUD, 2001, p. 27). This report produced by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) finds tourist related activities support the quality of life for everyone in the region, making “better places to live and work” (p. 27). Why do citizens, governments, employees and businesses de velop tourism and leisure sites within urban centers and further more why do these citizens, governments, employees and businesses state that tourism and leis ure development lead to “better places to live and work?” This thesis looks at efforts to promote tourism as a catalyst for urban redevelopment in Florida. It does so by exploring theory and practice within the anthropology of tourism, urban studies, economic development and urban planning. The work uncovers employme nt and development trends as they relate to tourism and the service economy within urban areas of Florida. A specific case study is presented for Ta mpa, Florida. Florida’s general urban tourism sector will be discussed and ex amples of urban tourism outside of

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2 Florida will be discussed in support of the central thesis. Building upon the theories of Dennison Nash’s political economy of tourism, Tim Sieber’s “host/guest” semblance within western urban sites and the construction of “tourism bubbles” as theorized by Denni s Judd; I will argue that Tampa and other Florida cities are utilizing tourism and leisure as a development strategy to redevelop inner city areas. This approach may be seen as being both direct and indirect. In aiding this approach I bo rrow heavily from the discipline of urban studies, particularly Judd, to help place Na sh’s theories within an urban context. This approach is unique to anthropology in that the models anthropologists have utilized in explaining tourism developmen t have few examples in urban settings and even fewer in western settings. It is important to remember that tourism was an important economic sector and social activity in Florida before the arrival of Walt Disney. Visit any Florida history museum, of which Tampa has one located within its convention center and you will learn of Henry Flagler, Henr y B. Plant and Addison Mizner. These powerful men helped shape the early development of Florida. They were pioneer developers and they develope d the earliest of Florida’s tourism infrastructure. By building Florida’s firs t railroads and first luxury hotels, they brought thousands of New England’s ch illed masses to enjoy the comfortable Florida winters while shipping citrus, ti mber and cattle throughout the eastern seaboard. The transformation of leisure into consumption signaled the rise of modern Florida tourism. During the decade following World Wa r II millions of Americans gained middle-class status and with it two weeks paid vacation. By 1950 nearly two million people were visiting Miami annually. Even more

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3 impressive in urban tourism terms is that only 4.5 million people visited the whole of Florida that same year. Since 1950 more then one billion tourists have vacationed in Florida. Buoyed by the affluence of the 1950’s and the popularity of travel, Florida’s tourist trade doubled du ring the decade, rising to nine million in 1959, and doubling again by 1967. By deca de’s end, tourists were spending a billion dollars a year in the Sunshine State. Almost one-quarter of visitors to the state steered toward Miami and Miami Beach, followed by St. Petersburg, Daytona, Fort Lauderdale and Key West. Twenty-three million tourists visited Florida in 1971 on the eve of Disney World’s opening. While the decades following Wo rld War II would grant millions middle-class status this same period of time would s ee many of this nations greatest cities falter economically and socially. Touris m and leisure was envisioned as a way to lure investment back into inner cities in the minds of some politicians and business leaders. Perhaps the most we ll documented case study involves the decades of reinvestment into Baltim ore’s Inner Harbour. After much deliberation the first phase of Baltimor e’s redevelopment was adopted by City Council in 1959 and included 2 million square feet of office space, 700 apartments, 700 hotel rooms, several retail establishments and underground parking. The Baltimore Inner Harbour area has continuously added tourism, office and residential developments during the past five decades even at times when the City of Baltimore could barely su stain its normal services to the people of Baltimore (Norris 2003). A Florida vacation is an internatio nally known event. Disney and it’s ever powerful mouse are known throughout the world. Miami has been an international destination since the 1950’ s. Modern Tampa was born of an

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4 international industry when its leaders lo bbied heavily for cigar factories to be located within Ybor City, West Tampa and Palmetto. Urban areas that have global stature are not incidentally major to urist destinations. They are visited by more people than live in them. The global city is a place of work and residence, and also it is a destination of tourism an d leisure. The following chapters discuss Florida’s tourism and leisure industry wi thin an urban context. Chapter two introduces the reader to a variety of questions that the social science literature has asked of tourism. The chapter introduces the reader to the anthropology of tourism. The chapter pr esents the works of Dennison Nash and others exploring the interrelationships between the various schools of thought within the anthropology of tourism. A literature review is offered giving the reader a look at the evolution of theory and practice within the anthropology of tourism. Chapter three discusses urban touris m. Here the history and ideas of social scientists from a variety of disciplines are presented giving the reader a multidisciplinary look into the theory an d practice brought to tourism and urban studies by various social scientists. It is important to mention that this chapter has few anthropologists, but that the th eory and practice laid out do lend themselves well to words of Dennison Na sh and his theory of political economy within tourism development. Chapter four introduces the reader to Florida’s modern tourism industry by presenting a large amount of quantitative data that breaks down regions, counties and cities while discussing vari ous sub-sectors of the industry. This section enlightens the reader to the st rengths and dynamics of the industry in Florida.

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5 Chapter five explores the implicat ions of the service industry within the service economy and the types of jobs produced. It must be instilled in the reader that the service industry and the service economy are different. The service industry is one component of the service economy. This will be further explained in chapter six. The chapter looks at employment within the tourism industry and beyond. Employment number s for the state of Florida along with overall employment numbers are offered. Tourism employment growth has outperformed overall employment growth within the state of Florida in recent years. New York and Los Angeles, both global cities but with very different tourism developments, are discussed to sh ow ways in which workers rights are being protected and consideration is given to ways in which Florida can emulate the success of these two cities. Specific ally this is explained through the living wage campaigns of Los Angeles and the st rength of unions in New York’s white table cloth restaurants. An in depth anal ysis of employment trends for the City of Miami is given discussing the concentration of tourism and leisure in relation to population. Chapter six discusses ways in whic h federal, state and local policy makers are aiding in redevelopment efforts. The various programs that have been developed over the years primarily within Florida are discussed. These programs such as Community Redevelopment Areas, Urban Enterprise Zones, Brownfields, Front Porch Communities an d Urban Infill Areas are but a few of the many programs that spur redeve lopment. These programs are not developed with tourism in mind; in stead they focus on economic and community development. However, th ese development schemes do often comprise a tourism and leisure component or are geographically positioned with

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6 tourism in mind. Governments have or ganized tourism specific entities and Florida does have a number of them. These groups are discussed throughout the thesis. This chapter focuses on urba n redevelopment policy and not tourism development policy. Chapter seven looks at how wide spread patterned tourism development of urban areas has become in the United Stat es. Data is presented from a survey undertaken by the University of Missour i for the National League of Cities (NLC). The results of this survey commi ssioned by the NLC are used to provide a background on how dependent cities have become on developing tourism and leisure sites. The results are discussed agai nst Florida cities to convey that cities in Florida are developing an infrastr ucture around tourism and leisure as heavily, if not more so then, indicated by the survey results. Tourism and leisure sites such as: retail-entertainment comple xes, sports-entertainment complexes, convention centers, cruise terminals, museums, theatres, historic sites and performing arts centers have become a main stay in today’s redevelopment circles within urban areas. The chapter takes a broad look at sports-facility development within Florida, and the nation as a whole. Sixty-seven percent of those cities that responded to the NLC survey have developed a sports stadium. How do cities fund these projects that can cost hundreds of millions of dollars? How do they do it without alienating the local population when that same money could be argued, and often is, for the redevelopment of agin g neighborhood infrastructure? Also discussed are questions such as what does a professional sports team bring to a city both socially and economically? The chapter examines the role of the cruise industry in Florida. The

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7 concentration of the industry here in Florida exits like no other place in the world. The three busiest ports of embarkation in the world are found here in Florida serving Florida’s six million annual cruise passengers. Questions to be considered include: how has the cruise industry effected urban waterfront redevelopment in Florida and in what ways does the cruise industry act within globalization? Chapter eight presents a case study entitled “tourism and leisure as a catalyst for urban redevelopment in Tampa, Florida.” The chapter argues that tourism development is being used as a way to br ing not only tourists and suburbanites to sites associated with tourism and leisur e, but also spark residential and office development into certain areas of Tamp a. Nash’s political economy argument coupled with urban tourism theory prov ides a framing for understanding more then forty years of tourism developm ent in downtown Tampa. The chapter looks at the ways in which Tampa finances these projects through public/private enterprises and discusses the changing dynamics within urban space in Tampa exploring concepts such as new urbanism and landscapes of consumption. The chapter explores employment and deve lopment trends within Tampa. The discussion of development has a particul ar geographic focus within the central business district (CBD) and it’s involvemen t with Tampa’s first ring of inner city neighborhoods and districts which includ e: Davis Islands, Harbour Island, The Channel District, Ybor City, Tampa Heights, West Tampa and Hyde Park. It should be noted that the discussion to fo llow has little to say about Davis Islands, Hyde Park, Tampa Heights and West Tamp a. The focus on development centers primarily upon the CBD, The Channel Di strict and Ybor City and looks at the big-ticket items (stadiums, convention centers, hotels) associated with these

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8 areas. Employment issues to be discusse d will include the growth of the service economy, and the place of tourism within the service industry. The statistics utilized can easily be accessed as they are part of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development’s State of the Cities Data System and are available online at http://socds.huduser.org/SOCDS_Home.htm Employment trends to be discusse d are for the entire city of Tampa and are presented alongside the Tampa-St. Pet ersburg-Clearwater Metropolitan Statistical Area to show the stre ngths and weaknesses within certain employment sectors in Tampa. Tampa’ s population in 2000 comprised of 12.7 percent of the MSA population. Since 1970 the population of Tampa has grown by 9.3 percent while the MSA has grown by 116.7 percent. It will be shown that tourism related jobs are concentrated in greater amounts within the city of Tampa and that these jobs increase at a fa ster pace than tourism related jobs in the MSA. The Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater MSA is comprised of Hillsborough, Pinellas, Pasco and Hernando Counties. It is argued that within urban tourism development other urban de velopment schemes are said have the opportunity to flourish including re sidential, office and other service development. It is consid ered that this development is of direct or indirect consequence to the expanding touris m industry within Florida. These statements will be explored and questioned to ask who develops tourism and leisure sites and whose interests are best served. Chapter nine concludes part one. The conclusion revi ews the body of the thesis. The chapter asks for further research and understanding into urban tourism, urban redevelopment and discu sses ways in which social scientists mainly anthropologists must become mo re engaged in the urban affairs of

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9 tourism. Internship and Research Methodology During the summer of 2003 I interned with the Globalization Research Center (GRC) on the Tampa campus of the Univer sity of South Florida. This internship is a requirement at the University of South Florida for students pursuing a Master’s of Arts in Applied Anthropology. The objective of this internship at the GRC was to obtain and summarize all studies (both those commissioned by the public sector, as well as those contracted by individual companies in the private sector) that have been prepared on Flor ida tourism, beginning with the most recent study and ending with those studies completed in 1990. From these works I was to record the author(s), parameters of the study: geographic area analyzed, categories of analysis, time period when the study was conducted, methods used, funding source and amou nt, findings and dissemination and policy impact findings. Provide an analys is of trends in the studies. This analysis was to contain a sub-section for the Tampa Bay Area. From the materials gathered an i mmediate pattern surfac ed. While much has been written about tourism in Florida, very little seems to be available by social scientist and, in particular anthropologists. A use arose to gather these materials written by social scientists and presen t them in a practical manner. Urban tourism within Florida is a tremendous component to the overall industry and for its size was by far the most underre presented sector within the internship findings. A decision was made to explor e urban tourism as a catalyst for urban redevelopment and present an annotated bibliography of scholarly study of the whole of the industry. The annotate d bibliography follows the thesis.

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10 This work is to provide sources of information to those who wish to better understand the tourism industry in Florida. It will be of use to students, faculty and researchers within the anthropology of tourism, tourism studies, urban studies and urban planning. It is of hope that policy makers and those who wish to effect policy (i.e. anthropologists and ot her social scientists) will find this work practical and fill a needed void. The annotated bibliography original ly consisted of only articles taken from peer reviewed journals. It was quickly discovered that this would leave some sub-sectors within the industry with littl e material. The scope of the search was then expanded to include research unde rtaken by Florida universities and colleges as well as private consulting firm s. The annotated bibliography is laid out with the same material presented twic e, once by the author’s last name and then grouped into tourism sectors. The sectors are of my own devise and include: economics, gay and lesbian/minori ty impacts, social impacts, marketing, recreation and leisure, nature based/envi ronmental concerns, theme parks, travel safety, development/history, education, urban issues, and transportation. Some of the materials provided can be found in more then one category due to the content within the work cited. The methodology behind the first part of this two part thesis was rather uncomplicated and built itself out of th e internship. Having already amassed a healthy amount of materials during th e internship, I first reviewed these and pulled all materials that I felt might aid in understanding the use of “tourism as a catalyst for urban redevelopment.” Ne xt I devised a geographic scope for the study. I made the decision of studyi ng Tampa due in part to the ongoing redevelopment in the city and for the sake of my university (The University of

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11 South Florida) being located in Tampa. I then choose three other cities within Florida: Jacksonville, Ft. Lauderdale and Miami. I had envisioned a study that would look at each separately and then pull certain aspects out to compare and contrast. I realized sometime into the study that this would be a rather lengthy affair both in time to complete and the le ngth of the thesis. I then decided that the chapter dedicated to Tampa would remain, while the chapters on Jacksonville, Ft. Lauderdale, and Miami would be omitted. Certain parts of these three omitted chapters would be incorporated into the body of the thesis; this is evident within the chapters on employ ment and patterned redevelopment. To obtain city specific information I contacted via email, phone or in person specific political and business organi zations. The main line of questioning revolved around urban redevelopment an d what specific planning, programs, and projects are in place towards a competitive scheme of urban redevelopment in Tampa, Jacksonville, Miami and Ft. Lauderdale. At this time I did not specifically refer to the study as “tourism as a catalyst for urban redevelopment.” I decided it best to approach these dive rse institutions with a rather vague or broadly defined question of urban re development as an intended way of avoiding a party line response. I also hoped to avoid my questions being directed towards a marketing representative who may not be well versed on how the city is redeveloped only what to do wi th it once it has been redeveloped. Some examples of those contacted in ob taining information for Tampa included: The Port Authority, Channel District, Ybor City Chamber of Commerce, Ybor City Development Corporation, The Downtown Partnership, HARTline, Hillsborough County City-County Planning Commission, Tampa Bay Convention & Visitors Bureau, The City of Tampa’s Creative Industries, Public

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12 Art, Economic Development, Mayor’s Office and Neighborhood Affairs. This is just a sample of the dozens of political and business organizations contacted. Once these materials had been gathered and given some consideration I returned to many of the aforementioned institutio ns and asked specific questions on the use of tourism as a catalyst for urban rede velopment. The thesis does not have a qualitative component as my conversations were to simply illicit more documentation on urban redevelopment. In short, I collected a great deal of documentation from both political and bu siness institutions that discuss urban redevelopment issues here in Florida. From this documentation within a framing of anthropology and urban studie s I am able to provide the following thesis.

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13 CHAPTER TWO WHY STUDY TOURISM? Tourism and the Social Sciences Tourism, the “largest peacet ime movement of people” (Greenwood 1972), presents itself as a challenging socioc ultural phenomenon. The growth of the tourism industry during the last half of the twentieth century is staggering. How do we as social scientists treat this vast ly growing field of study? Is tourism “blessing or blight”, “trick or treat”, “boom or doom”, “panacea or a new slave trade”, “mirage or strategy for the fut ure” (Lanfant and Graburn 1992)? Is tourism a passport to the socioeconomic development of emerging nations (de Kadt 1979)? Is tourism the means for resolving all the developmental problems of an ill-planned economy or is it a well-planned and organized economy that makes tourism a profitable ente rprise (Apostolopoulos 1996)? Do the development and implementa tion of, and investment in, tourism have trickle-down effects for the lower strata and the disadvantaged parts of host societies? Is tourism another form of imperialism or neocolonialism, perpetuating inequalities in the capi talist world system, accelerating the ecological degradation of the planet, and destroying the most fragile and marginal of cultures (van den Berghe 1992)? Does dependence on tourism lead to a social, economic, political, and cultural dependency (Apostolopoulos 1995; Britton 1982)?

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14 Can tourist sites be thought of as “tourist cultures” due to the overwhelming cultural influence of the tourist (Kemper 1978)? Can Cities be seen only as tourist zones or “bubbles” (Judd 1995, 1999)? Are tourists “barbarians” and “sustained destroyers of culture” who seek only “sun, sea, sand, and sex” (Crick 1989; Turner and Ash 1976)? Who is the touris t; are there different types of tourist who adopt different roles, seeking diffe rent optimal experiences (Cohen 1979; Leivadi and Apostolopoulos 1996; Nash 1995; Smith 1989)? Can tourism be understood with out viewing it as a “mega system” that generates and receives simultaneously in the context of interdependent structures and forces (Jafari 1989; Walle 1998)? Is tourism a multicompartmentalized modern industry (Bramwell and Lane 2000)? Is the emergence and implementation of “alte rnative” or “appropriate” forms of tourism (Cohen 1989; Harrison 1996; Smith and Eadington 1992) the only savior of host societies from the adverse co nsequences of mass tourism influx? The above is a brief listing of the questions Social Scientists have asked when dealing within tourism studies. Anth ropologists, Sociologists, Geographers, Economists, even Psychologists have all contributed greatly to ideas invested within tourism studies. The study of Tourism has been built upon a multidisciplinary foundation. “As a subject of scholarly study, touris m may be new, but it may be treated within traditional methods and theories of anthropological research of the present and will benefit from the applicat ion of more recent, more sophisticated models of data and understanding accumulate” (Nunez 1989: 274). Research has indeed benefited from continued advancements in the way

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15 anthropologists and other so cial scientists view tourism. The social sciences are no longer producing works consumed by sweeping generalizations and stereotypes when dealing with tourism as a viable field of inquiry. Lawson (1983: 16), commenting on the interminable controversy over the value of tourism to third world development, writes that the debate has been “intellectually insulting.” Titles of we ll-known books on tourism research in it’s early days are very revealing. In, The Golden Hordes Turner and Ash (1975) write that tourists are “barbarians,” the sustaine d destroyers of culture. Britton and Clarke (1987), looking at the record of tour ism in small developing countries edit a volume called Ambiguous Alternative Rosenbrow and Pulsipher contribute Tourism: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly which deals with the Americas as a host society. Tourism of today acts as a powerful agent of social change for both local cultures and the visitors who seek leisure, entertainment and/or knowledge of the “exotic other” (Chambers 1997; Graburn 1977; Nash 1995; Smith 1977). Negative effects of opportunisti c mass tourism such as overcrowding, labor shortages, prostitution, crime, en vironmental degradation and loss or replacement of authentic cultural trad itions are evident and worldwide. Appropriate tourism has the potential to create new jobs, encourage economic growth in other sectors, raise tax revenues and promote and foster better understanding between contrasting peoples of varying cultures. In some cases culturally informed tourism development has led to increased ethnic pride, along with cultural revitalization, among indigenous peoples (Esman 1984; van den Berghe 1994; Graburn 1997; Nash 1995; Smith 1989, Swain 1989).

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16 Introducing the Anthropology of Tourism Anthropology lends itself well to the study of tourism. Anthropology provides three prime tools or ways of l ooking at tourism. First, anthropology brings with it a comparative framework th at studies a variety of experiences in different locations in order to identify common trends. Secondly, anthropology brings a holistic approach that takes into account cultural, economic, environmental and social factors and the relations between all four. Thirdly, anthropology provides deeper level analysis, asking questions not being studied within tourism by other researchers, such as what is appropriate development? The biggest obstacle facing anthropologist when studying tourism just might be themselves. Anthropologists have presented two broad themes; first they have attempted to understand the origins of touris m as a modern phenomenon; secondly anthropologists have studied tourism’s impact. Most studies seem to only partially understand tourism as a system as those who look at the origins of tourism study tourists and those who stud y it’s impacts study tourist sites and local populations within these sites. On e problem that arises in the literature is that anthropologists “refer primarily to tourism that involves people from Western developed parts of the world visiting either non-Western or economically underdeveloped parts of the world” (Stronza 2001 263). Stronza acknowledges that tourism involves othe r types of experiences and localities only that she makes “special reference to international tourism that brings people together from often highly disparate socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds” (Stronza 2001 263). Westerners touring westerners seems to have been ignored and with it so to has urban and even rural tourism here within the United States.

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17 The need exists for more studies focused on tourism here in the United States and in our urban centers. This thesis has been partly written due to the underrepresented work within the anthro pology of tourism in urban contexts. The Anthropology of Tourism Much of the early theoretical base s within the anthropology of tourism follow two distinct paths. One path blazed by Nelson Graburn has viewed tourism as a ritual. The other has seen tourism as a form of imperialism and was championed by Dennison Nash. Graburn and his follower s have built much of this theoretical framework upon classic readings of Durkheim, specifically The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1915). Durkheim explores societies willingness to create sacred things out of ordinary things and it’s ability to substitute the real world for something different. Malinowski’s study of the Kula Ring in the Trobriand Islanders saw the ritualistic social stru cture within travel. The Kula Ring represents a social cohesion and this cohe sion is set forth on a patterned travel basis. Van Gennep studied and codified rituals and rites of passage. His 1908 work theorized transitions from one social category to another. These rites of passage and rituals included puberty, marriage and parenthood. Van Gennep explained these ideas through three main elements separation, liminality and incorporation. Separation is described as extraction from normal or ordinary society, followed by liminality as a time of exclusion and ending with incorporation, being reintroduced into society with new status (P. Burns 1999). Graburn built upon these theories to de scribe the motivation and need that the tourist felt to travel. Graburn defended the anthropology of tourism albeit not as prolific in these writings as Nash; of studying tourism Graburn mentions it as

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18 “an entirely suitable albeit neglected topic for anthropologists” (1980, 64). Graburn and those after him have looked at the works of Durkheim, Malinowski and Van Gennep as ways of explaining th e motivation and need of travel and tourism in the modern world. Grabur n’s piece in the classic 1977 volume Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tour ism, “Tourism: The Sacred Journey” further discusses his theoretical stance. Dennison Nash made a serious effort in not only theorizing tourism, but he also discussed why anthropologists seemed hesitant or disinterested in studying tourism. Nash’s 1981 essay Tourism as an Anthropological Subject claims that anthropologists have showed little interest in the socio-cultural significance and scale of tourism, that tourism is seen as a frivolous area of culture to be avoided by serious scholars, tourism represents a post-modern phenomenon not worthy of study, and those anthropologists st udying tourism will themselves become tourists. Old habits seem to die hard as twenty years later Stronza writes “Anthropologists and tourists seem to have a lot in common” (2001, 261). Stronza is not stating as Na sh did that an anthropologist can become or be seen as a particular type of tourist only that she (Stronza and others) is aware of the similarities and consequences that accomp any these similarities. Perhaps this is best expressed as guilt by association. As a topic of scholarly study within anthropology Nash explains that tourism ma y be seen as part of a general social process in an intricate, interconnected world illustrating the nature of underlying systems in a modern age. Tourism involves contact between cultures, is identifiable and contributes to the transf ormation of the pre and post-industrial worlds (Nash 1981). His theoretical position views tourism as a form of imperialism. Nash viewed the modern tour ist, “like the trader, the employer, the

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19 conqueror, the governor, the educator, or the missionary, is seen as the agent of contact between cultures and, directly or indirectly, the cause of change particularly in the less developed regi ons of the world” (1989: 37). Nash acknowledges that a tourism based economy may subjugate the general economy into a service economy (service meant as tourism based). A great disparity in personal income will exist be tween “host” and “guest” causing strife in meeting local market need s. The tourist need will become of greater concern than meeting local need as tourists will provide a greater opportunity within the market. This market and the vari ous social, cultural, economic and environmental issues associated within will develop a certain degree of control over the area. Nash placed this context within a regional frame by exploring issues within tourist generating and receiving areas (Nash 1981; 1989). These issues may be summarized as dependency and acculturation which later theorist within the anthropology of tourism build upon out of Nash’s early works. Apparently time has softened Nash as he has become less critical of tourism. His 1996 book simply entitled The Anthropology of Tourism does not refer to tourism as a form of imperialism. Nash does continue to discuss the disproportionate distribution of resources extracted from to urism. What Nash and his supporters failed to realize, or at least never put forward, are that other forms of development are exploitive as well. His early work mentions nothing of alternative tourism and its effort at su stainable development. Much of the writing within the anthropology of tour ism seems to present problems without solutions. The writing comes across as being more academic then applied. Selwyn in Seaton’s 1994 Tourism: The State of the Art discusses the generalizations of commoditization and authenticity and asks for a more

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20 descriptive ethnographic understanding of tourism. Selwyn, while never using the phrase “systems theory”, acknowledges the various relationships on a global scale that encompass the cultural, econ omic, political and social makeup of tourism. His theoretical argument allows for a broadening of a political economy of culture argument within tourism. “The advantage of a systems approach is that tourism is not automatically seen in isolation from its political, natural, economic or social environments….. It emphasis the interconnectedness between on e part of a system and another. This encourages multidisciplinary thinking wh ich, given tourism’s complexities, is essential to deepen our understand ing of it (P. Burns 1999, 29).” Eric Cohen (1988) has made great strides in identifying and categorizing tourists. He saw the need to differentiat e and build a typology of tourist types. John Urry (1990) has sought to link touris m as a cultural practice within postmodernism and the relationship between those that supply tourism goods and those that consume tourism goods. Tour ists themselves can be both suppliers and consumers as they search out authenti c experiences. Urry does nothing to answer the question of why some tourists seek out the same experience year after year. Urban tourism can produce the same experience repeatedly. Dean MacCannell (1976, 1992), building upon ideas laid out by Graburn, has attempted to explain tourism as a way in which western post industrialist societies search for authentic experiences not available to them at home, and like Urry he does not address repetition Graham Dann’s (1997) now classic The Language of Tourism discusses the need for academic researchers and tourism professionals to work together towards sustainability. Dann never does use the phrase “applied research” when discussing how he foresees social science intervention. He does however mentio n social scientist as being active

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21 participants in policy discussion and development matters. The rise of the anthropological st udy of tourism can also be traced through key journals in the fields of both touris m and anthropology. In the former field, the Annals of Tourism Research provides one example. Established in 1973, it is the official journal of the Society for the Advancement of the Tourism Industry and remains one of the most important tourism journals today. The first article on tourism and the social sciences appeared in 1974 and, although the first article with “anthropology” in the title was not published until three years later (Aspelin 1977), the work of anthropologist had already appeared in the journal. For example, Valene Smith wrote on to urism and cultural change in 1976 and 1977. Greenwood’s work on tourism as an agent of change also appeared in 1976. By 1979 Jafari, the journal’s editor, wa s able to put together a forty-five page bibliography on tourism and the social sciences. In 1983 the journal produced it’s first edition devoted solely to the anthropology of tourism. Tourism as a subject of scholarly study within anthropological journals where first recognized in the 1980’s. On e of the earliest was found in Current Anthropology by Dennison Nash in 1981. Nash argues for tourism as a topic worthy of an anthropological view. He argues that tourism involves contact between cultures and subcultures, that tourism is widespread in human society and that it contributes to the transforma tion of the pre-industrial world. A special tourism edition of the Kroeber Anthropological Society Papers was published in 1988. Cultural Survival Quarterly which publishes a variety of social scientists produced special tourism editions in 1990 and 1999. Valene Smith organized the firs t American Anthropological Association symposium on tourism in 1974. The papers presented became the still influential

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22 book Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism. In 1989 the book was republished with the original authors gi ving further discussion to their earlier work and discussing the progress anthropology had made. In 2001 it was again updated. Pierre van den Berghe is credited with the first book length study on ethnic tourism, The Quest For the Other (1994), which traces the development of tourism in the lively Mexican town of San Cr istobel. The 1995 volume entitled The Future of Anthropology edited by Ahmed and Shore notes that tourism is worthy of an anthropological study and two of t welve chapters focus on tourism. The early to mid nineties sees an id entifiable shift away from negative tourist writings or those purely theoretical to wards more writings on sustainability, globalization and a proliferation of case s as more students of tourism research become practitioners of tourism research. Tourism is an applied topic, it involves real people in real situatio ns. Mansperger (1995) demonstrates the applied relationship that exists between tourism studies and anthropologists. The example from Yap Island is one of land management, how much land to dedicate towards tourism development now and in the future as opposed to indigenous use of land for predevelopment means. Mansperger recommends that the two may coexist and that anthropologists are equipped to find this level of codependence. Chambers (1997) calls upon the study of tourism to become more applied both in its theoretical orient ation and it’s practical reality. Gardner and Lewis(1996) discuss the meaning of an thropological methodology, skills and expertise in the development context, arguing a place for anthropologists to work within the large industries that impact on the lives of indigenous people. “Anthropologists, and other social scien tists, argue that people, rather than

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23 business, lie at the heart of the need to analyze tourism” (Burns 1999: 88). This is evident by the truth that tourism is widesp read in human society. Where in this world have tourists not yet ventured? Tourism appears to have the ability to affect all of humankind. Tourism induce s contact between cultures and in doing so contributes to the transformation of culture and society. The study of globalization with in the anthropology of tourism has grown steadily in the 1990’s as the study of glob alization and the study of tourism have found some common ground. The term glob alization is rooted in the study of international relations and modernization. Interestingly enough each generation modernizes across space and time more so then the last. Anthorny Giddens describes globalization as “the intensif ication of world wide social relations which link distant localities in such a wa y that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away an d vice versa” (1990: 64). Tourism is a globalizing force. The anthropology of to urism is readily aware of this issue, further anthropology is aware of the fo rces of globalization. Anthropology departments when asked by the America n Anthropological Association what issues are most pressing within the fiel d over the next 25 years responded that “There will be a greater emphasis on the contemporary world and processes of global change; anthropology will be come more interdisciplinary and socioculturial anthropology will find it increasingly advantageous to involve its faculty [in programs].. such as sustai nable development, world ecology, environmental studies, comparative global perspectives, global interdependence and internationalization” (Kearney 1995: 547) Globalization has been thought of as a way of increasing the mobility of capital, people and information across space on a universal scale (Harvey 1989; Ohmae 1990). Tourism is most

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24 definitely intertwined in the process of globalization. From it’s beginnings as a subject suitable for academic study, tourism has been strongly associated with notions of development. The tourism industry has been seen as vital for development of small-scale, underdeveloped or less developed societies, and anthropologi sts have contributed greatly to the literature on such discussions. (de Kadt 1979 Harrison 1992 Crick 1994). Many fine examples of developm ent case studies exist that are usually reactionary towards an outside globalizing force and tend to be applied. Britton, (1980; 1982) an early writer on dependency and underdevelopment on the pacific island nation of Fiji, discusses how mult inational corporations, not governments, are impacting the island by buying up agricultural lands for development and a rampant inflation rate. Oslen (1996) looks at the participation of nongovernmental organizations (NGO) within community involvement to help bring about an end to what a community considered unsustainable development along the shores of Negril. In Freitag’ s (1996) study of the Caribbean coast of Luperon in the Dominican Republic, a loss of local hegemony is revealed. This has been brought about, says Freitag, by development in which those who were well off before development are doing even better while those without means before tourism development continue to experience economic hardships. Besculides et. all (2002) provides an insight ful account of a community perception of how two different ethnic groups foresee the development of culturally constructed tourism. “Cultural tourism includes visiting hi storic or archaeological sites, being involved in community festivals, watching traditional dances or ceremonies, or merely shopping for handcrafted art…..this form of tourism can provide benefits to community residents who share their cult ure as well as to those visiting the communities” (Besculides et all: 303).

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25 Besculides et all intent of the study was to establish community response via ethnic boundaries in questioning ideas of cultural tourism. How does a community differ in their perceptions of the Los Caminos Antiguos Scenic and Historic Byway? The findings supported that Hispanic peoples along the LCA byway supported the notion that cultural tourism was appropriate and that it would encourage Hispanic culture and not detract or make light of traditional ways and means. Non-Hispanic people saw appropriate cultural tourism as first being a good development for the commu nity and secondly for the Hispanic population. David Griffith (2000) gives a stark look at develo pment as it pushes people from coastal areas inland. Griffith explores notions of social capital within coastal communities in the United States Latin America and the Caribbean. The research asks what happens as people are pushed inland from the coast as development builds, the gentrification it may develop and the economic hardships this development may bring. The issue of organized resistance is raised and looked at how various commun ities accomplish or fail to overcome unwanted development. Tom Selwyn’s (1996) edited volume The Tourist Image: Myths and Myth Making in Tourism gives a fine perspective on th e study of tourist mythologies and looks at the relation between tourism, society and culture with an emphasis on it’s global relations. John Corner and Sylvia Harvey’s (1991) edited book Enterprise and Heritage: Crossc urrents of National Culture draws on aspects of culture such as film, television, urban planning, architecture, advertising and tourism to develop a critical evaluation of enterprise and heritage in British social and cultural life. Priscilla Boniface and Peter Fowler’s (1993) Heritage and Tourism

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26 in the Global Village discusses the ways in which tourism feeds off heritage, demanding for a better understanding of th e global condition by those who have some sort of management responsibility for leisure, heritage and conservation. The concept of sustainability in tourism as an alternative to mainstream or mass tourism, and as part of a search for development that is “ecologically sound and respectful of the needs of all involved” (Nash 1995, 119) is nearly two decades old (Eber 1992). G. L. Burns states, “The search for sustainability is especially important for countries that are economically dependent on tourism, and therefore need it to continue” (2004 13). Ecotourism seems to have been adopted by many anthropologists as a means to sustainable tourism development although it is but one form of sustainable or alternative tourism development. It must be reminded that at the root of ecotourism is the environment and that some sites are not re ceptive to ecotourism ideals or it’s lesser sibling nature tourism. Anthro pologists have become increasingly interested in ecotourism and other altern ative forms of tourism primarily out of the prevalence of studying foreign, third world and small scale societies. Hosts and Guests Within Urban Space In Valene Smith’s, Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism the reader is introduced to many case studies in hopes of setting clear boundaries and understandings of the relationship bet ween “Hosts” and “Guests”. Yet the book lacks one important view, that of the ur ban scale, too often anthropologists view the study of tourism within traditional modes of thought. These modes almost always begin by placing the anthropolo gist in a remote area and addressing issues of acculturation of a host society. What then of those who travel through

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27 familiar surroundings? This idea especially “within an urban setting has been lacking in the anthropological study of tourism” (Cha mbers 1997: 8). Sieber’s account of tourism in Boston, as given at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Society for Applied Anthropology within the panel presentation “Tourism and Cultural Conversation”, views just how problemati c the “host-guest” relationship can become. The problem mainly arrives at determining just who is the guest and who is the host. Mass tourism in a fami liar setting blurs, if not blinds, the distinction between host and guest. “Tourism in this city setting, I (Sieber) will argue, has special qualities, boundaries, and significances, and it poses special problems of analysis that most conventional cultural models of touris m do not handle well.” (Sieber p.61) Traditional models most often look at citi es as staging grounds. Here the tourist or guest is simply in route to a more idyllic or pastoral setting. (Nash 1989, Smith 1989; Graburn 1989). Sieber, like Judd (1999; 2003) argues that the tourist, like the suburbanite, venture to the city for mu ch of the same purpose. They both wish to become an active participant in al l that the city has to offer them. Sieber is interested in where these people are from and why they have come to the specific site. Sieber’s theories are gr ounded by his field experience working within Boston while studying its ur ban waterfront revitalization. “Though my data concern Boston in part icular, I believe the generalizations to follow are applicable to other post-industr ial cities at least in North America, and have implications for the understandin g of urban tourism cross-culturally” (Sieber p.62). Sieber discusses a variety of touris m ventures associated with cities that are

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28 not traditional modes of tourism behavio r. These activities greatly alter the make-up of the urban landscape. Cities in Europe and the United States have high concentrations of performing arts, museums, architectural attractions and both native and non-native goods. Trad itional roles of leisure tourism are often not the dominant factor as to why one travels to an urban area. Business and pleasure are often mixed as convention centers readily invite whole families and develop itineraries for those not involv ed with business meetings as well as family oriented tourism ventures. It is increasingly difficult to di stinguish “guest” from “host” space within urban contexts because leisure, entertai nment and cultural sectors are sustained as crucially by local residents as by tour ists. When not trave ling elsewhere, local residents frequently engage in activities that are indistinguishable from what tourists do. The rise of a new urban cu lture devoted to aesthetic pursuits has remade cities into places that provide the consumption opportunities of travel right at home: “Consumers no longer t ravel vast distances to experience a magnificent diversity of consumption op portunities. For their convenience, flourishing districts of urban entertainmen t concentrate objects, or at least their facsimiles, [gathered] from the world over…. Residents increasingly act like tourists in their own cities” (Lloyd 2000: 7). Hannigan (1998: 61) comments that the resulting “localization of leisure” has stimulated, as much as has tourism, the conversion of cities or parts of cities into specialized venues for entertainment Today the anthropology of tourism has grown greatly from it’s first few publications in the 1970’s or Valene Sm ith’s first American Anthropological Association conference panel. Perhaps the most startling absence is how few texts exist dedicated fully to the anthropology of tourism. The notable

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29 exceptions of the past five years include Burn’s 1999 Introduction to Tourism and Anthropology Chambers’ 1999 Native tours: The Anthropology of Tourism and Travel Smith and Brent 2001 Hosts and Guests Revisited: Tourism Issues of the 21st Century. The Smith and Brent volume is simply the third edition of the classic text with expanded chapters. The anthropology of tourism has matured during the last three decades. It will need to continue to mature if anthropologists hope to remain relevant within the broader discipline of tourism studies.

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30 CHAPTER THREE WHY STUDY URBAN TOURISM? During the last half of the twenti eth century the physical, cultural, social, ethnic and economic look of cities changed a great deal in the United States. The Federal Housing Act of 1949, the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, the advent of more affordable automobiles and un controlled suburban sprawl aided in beginning a downward spiral of many of this country’s great urban centers. As this country experienced unprec edented wealth after WWII and the establishment of an affluent middle cla ss, little reinvestment was seen in urban centers. By the 1960’s older industrial cities were faced with the physical dilapidation of downtowns and the spread of blight through miles of neighborhoods surrounding the core. Th e massive clearance projects financed by urban renewal failed to bring a renaissance; and any improvements from the federal grant programs of the 1960’s an d 1970’s were overshadowed by crime, riots and social unrest. Republican cand idates and the media portrayed cities as outposts of violence and racial problems so that terms like “ghetto”, “welfare”, “the underclass” and “the inner city” be came radically interchangeable images (Edsall and Edsall 1991). As increasing nu mbers of US cities were experiencing decline of their central cores, sapping the strength of their economic base, political and business interests combined to shape a new set of policies aimed at office development, tourism and gentrifi cation within inner cities (Fainstein

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31 1983). The strategy of tourism was the idea that visitors will be attracted to the city, thus generating income and creati ng jobs and that the redevelopment around tourism will fashion a better environment to be passed upon city residents. This general improvement in the built and natural environment would entice investors back into the inner city (Law 1993). These early political and business le aders often created public urban space where none existed before as in the case of redeveloping outdated and underutilized industrial spaces along ur ban waterfront landscapes. An over arching question to ask is once you have swept away the barriers of a decaying industrial complex what sort of comple x will you restore to those grounds? Will it impede the ability of residents and tour ists alike to experience the environment around them by packaging a totality of experience for them? One such representation of well-defined and spatia lly separate space as explained by Judd (1999) is that of a “tourist bubble.” “Where crime, poverty and urban decay make parts of a city inhospitable to visitors, specialized areas are established as virtual tourist reservations. These become the public parts of town, leaving visitors shielded from and unaware of the private spaces where people live and work” (Judd 1999: 36). Judd continues by discussing the conf ormity of practice within tourist bubbles and the pattern that surfaces, “globali zation of mass tourism leads to an odd paradox: whereas the appeal of tourism is the opportunity to see something different cities that are remade to att ract tourists seem more and more alike” (Judd 1999: 12-13). Judd does not see the conformity within tourism as making the discipline any less meaningful and call s for more individual case studies to understand the intricacies of tourist bu bbles and other types of urban tourism

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32 development. The “Imagineering” of citi es implies both a sh aping of images, as well as “real” built forms. Urban anthro pologist Charles Rutheiser uses this term, a term he borrows from Walt Disn ey to describe the influence of the programmed, totalizing environments of Di sney theme parks on urban space, as well as to elucidate “the activities of a ll of those cultural producers who create the discursive fields in which the p ractice of urban redevelopment and revitalization are conceptualized, discu ssed, and turned into facts on the ground” (1996:322). Rutheiser applies th e Imagineering concept to Atlanta’s quest for a new identity surroun ding the 1996 Olympics. What dictates the behavior of host s and guests within public space? Pierre Bourdieu contends people are not struct urally constrained by predetermined life scripts, but are individuals who make de cisions driven by rules as well as creative improvisation. This transcending of structuralism has led Bourdieu to focus on games and strategy through his conc ept of practice. Bourdieu’s practice is a social order of rules mediated by “feeling” where individuals respond to social imperatives, not mechanistically, bu t rather on the order of an experienced musician or athlete. These artists have a feel for their craft such that in the moment of action, they will improvise. This conceptualization of practice avoids a dichotomous standpoint of necessity vers us choice, and instead, blends rules and improvisation realistically (Fowler 1997). The rebuttal to such a line of thought is that people must live via the ma ss rules associated within institutions, namely that, institutions uphold themselv es through repetition. To this end the individual produces for the sake of the institution any creativity is a reaction from those who demand it from within th e institution. The creativity of public space is driven by the inst itution that produced the space; this entity could be a

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33 corporation, a government or a combinatio n of the two. Public spaces are now part of the market place and so actions taken by the individual must fit in line with the institution upholding the pub lic space. Tourist Bubbles are often experienced in this manner, while public space exists that space is highly contested with a multitude of images pr ojecting how one is to act within the space. All spaces devoted to tourism and leisure are not to be thought of as tourist bubbles. Many examples to follow will in fact show how developments have created fewer barriers within urban cores and have, in essence, aided in opening the city up to not only tourists but to suburbanites and in doing so have produced the creativity that Bourdieu mentions when discussing individuals within groups, institutions and society. Getz building upon the notion of a Central Business District (CBD) has developed a schematic model of a Tourism Business District (TBD). …a synergistic relationship between CBD (Central Business Di strict) functions, tourist attractions, and essential services Access into and within the CBD is critical… The synergy must not only crea te a critical mass of attractions and services to encourage tourists to stay longer but must reinforce the image of a people-oriented place” (Getz 1993: 597) A Postmodern City In economic and social terms, the postmodern city can be described as one where a traditional manufacturing base has either disappeared or never existed to begin with and a service economy has matured replacing manufacturing. A service economy is one built on business services, professional services, health services, educational services, the FIRE industries (finance, insurance, and real estate), wholesale/retail trade and tourism. Many researchers have taken the position that tourist sites have become as described in post-structuralist urban

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34 literature, enclaves (Harvey, 1989). Theses enclaves, as representative of the city itself, translate into sanitized, mono tonous copies of one another, “almost identical from city to city” (Harvey 1989: 295). The “new city replaces the anomaly and delight of [local] places with a universal particular, a generic urbanism inflected only by appliqu (Sorkin 1992: xiii). Likewise, Rojek describes a “universal cultural space” that “provides the same aesthetic and spatial references wherever one is in the world” (Rojek 1995: 146). The consensus of these authors is that touris t sites while public places are different then those of the past. Today urban tourism figures prominently within postmodern urbanization (Castells, 1989; Sack, 1992; Soja, 1989). One needs to look no further than the spectacle of Las Vegas, the specialized enclaves of Orlando, the waterfront of Baltimore, or the over 65 crowd of Branson, Missouri to see postmodern urbanization in ac tion. Internationally this type of urbanization can be seen in Cancun and the areas of Australia called the Gold Coast and Sunshine Coast. These are the extreme cases that post-modernist have explored and they use these cases to info rm how all cities have undergone this change. Some argue that the cities above will dictate the development of tomorrow’s cities. Asking when and where will the next Las Vegas develop. It is harmful to treat these and cities like them as harbingers of what all cities are destined to become. The examples above may be exceptional rather than archetypical. Cities such as Boston, New York, San Francisco, Toronto and Vancouver do not appear to create barricade s that, in affect, limit the mobility of tourists even in the presence of very we ll defined tourist bubbles in each of these cities. These cities are in fact walking cities and do encourage a great deal of mix-use development within inner city ne ighborhoods that encourage tourists

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35 and residents to interact. Enclaves are generally incorporated into an urban texture which itself became an object of fascination and consumptio n. As Sassen and Roost have observed, “the large city has assumed the status of exotica. Modern tourism is no longer centered on the historic monument, conc ert hall, or museum but on the urban scene or more precisely, on some vers ion of the urban scene fit for tourism” (Sassen and Roost 1999: 143). The “scene” th at visitors consume is composed of a multitude of experiences and spaces devo ted to work, consumption, leisure and entertainment (Featherstone 1994: 394-397). The areas in cities inviting tourists to wonder about may not be places normally inhabited by tourists at all; they may be transitional neighborhoods or zones where people on the margins of urban society – ethnic minorities, non-whites, immigrants, poor people – may live and work (Judd 2003). Outside of the usual comf ort zone, the tourist can stroll into an interesting and unpredictable intellectual and physical space. In European cities that do not have the extremes of segregation, crime, racial tensions, and social problems of some ol der cities in the United States and of cities in developing countries, visitors te nd to be absorbed into the urban fabric. Leo van den Berg and his collaborators have proposed that there is a “European Model” that emphasis the “harmonious de velopment of the city” rather than the construction of segregated tourist spaces (van den Berg 2002). Their studies of Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Lisbon and Birm ingham show that planners and policymakers in those cities weigh the co sts of tourism by taking into account “displacement of resident-oriented activiti es, gentrification, and cultural friction” (van den Berg 2003). The managing of local needs and economic development projects requires an over-arching politica l vision that is rarely possible in cities

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36 where leaders feel desperate for developm ent at nearly any cost. In European cities, the unique architectural and cult ural heritage of urban cores has been understood to be the main attraction for visitors; as a result, tourism development has been aimed at enhancing the character of each city. Similarly, planners in Vancouver, Canada, have reg arded tourism as a natural by-product of policies that emphasize neighborhoods, urban amenities and the environment (Artise, 2003). Even in Montreal, a city that has emphasized mega-projects such as Expo 67 (the 1967 World’s Fair) and the 1976 Summer Olympics, as well as home to numerous professional sports te ams, no tourist bubble or enclave has developed; visitors to the city often wander through the downtown and its neighborhoods (Levine 2003). The movement towards creating tourist bubbles and enclaves has not come without a certain degree of resistance. To urists and residents can not always be predicted by the market and corralled by the establishment. The resurgence of Harlem, in New York City, has fought valiantly and with much success to limit the amount of global images [franchises] within it’s central business district. Tourists and residents from other areas of the city seek out Harlem’s distinctive central business district and it’s religious services (Hoffman 2000). Both tourists and residents do at times disobey the written and unwritten rules of tourist bubbles or enclaves. This can be seen in a group of teenagers loitering in a local festival market or an organized demo nstration against a certain policy or corporate entity within the tourist bubble or enclave. A third form of resistance is set up by policy and business interest s to be ratified by both the tourist and resident. Chicago’s Magnificent Mile is neither a tourist bubble nor an enclave, but contains many of the prescribed co rporate signs and sign als that one would

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37 experience in a tourist bubble or enclave. These corporate entities are distributed throughout the urban environment, so these tourists and residents may seek them out and still feel the comfort of the familiar in an otherwise unknown corporate space. The proliferation of the arts has also taken on this spatial distribution. Public art, outdoor th eatre performance, outdoor musical performance, fountains and seasonal gard ens have all been carefully distributed as to attract the resident and the tourist. What pushes this development? During the 1980’s and 1990’s urban regimes (Stone 1989) and policy communities (Jones and Batcher 1993; Laslo 2003) have systematically reconstructed urban environments. Stone’s book Regime Politics traces the 42year evolution of a coalition in Atlanta centered on city hall and business leaders. He labels this coalition a “regime” because it was stable and cohesive over time, was able to pursue a consistent vision to guide the city’s development, and was capable of strategically dealing with o pposition when it arose. Stone suggests that the regime virtually made downtown Atlanta, providing support for the construction of an airport and a modern rapid transit system, engineering an ambitious urban renewal and housing prog ram that relocated large numbers of residents and desegregating the city’s po lice departments and schools. Stone, with his study, suggests that when any ci ty is able to accomplish an ambitious agenda over time, a regime is likely to exist. These regimes are centered on a strong mayor’s office. Even minority ma yors elected on a platform of racial justice and education became heavily in volved within these regimes (Reed, 1988; Stone, 1989). In response Laslo (2003) looks at the past 35 years of tourism

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38 development in urban St. Louis and finds a differing engine of redevelopment. Laslo’s thoughts of policy communities revolve around the premise that groups from outside the local government and business elite bring about change and that these groups are not constant and change often. These groups are most commonly public/private partnerships with a heavy emphasis on specific industry professionals. In 1988 the city of St. Louis lost it’s professional football team. Sports, tourism and meeting indust ry interests within the city and state lobbied heavily for the building of domed stadium and where supported by various national associations. These in dustries partnered with various upstart community organizations and successfully pa ssed a restaurant/hotel tax to offset public debt. The stadium was built an d in 1995 St. Louis lured the Rams from Los Angeles. In the past 35 years St. Louis has constructed three professional sports stadiums, two convention centers and two festival malls. Laslo’s example of St. Louis fits soundly within an argum ent of globalization. Stone’s look at Atlanta while crediting development to local stakeholders does nothing to discredit the fact that Atlanta is a global city, perhaps the local global positioning that took place in Atlanta during th e 1970’s and 1980’s saw civic leaders embrace the corporate attitudes of globalization. With a consistency of policy ru nning though many of this nations largest urban areas, extensive competition became the norm and mayors began building an extensive array of tourism components such as the following: sports arenas, convention centers, art districts, wate rfront developments and the supporting infrastructure to support these develo pments such as airport redevelopment expansion and improved public transp ortation. The physical and social reconstruction of cities in the last 25 years was made possible by a widespread

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39 restructuring of the local state. Ci ty governments during the 1980’s brought about new ways for mobilizing political power, raising capital, incurring debt and administrating new actions. The solu tions that arose out of these mayors was to relieve many of the responsi bilities of city government onto new institutions that could tap into or gene rate public resources, but be ran like private businesses (Judd 2003). Strategies for developing urba n areas have frequently involved two approaches. The first emphasizes “big-t icket” items, those associated with polices that emphasize tourism and entert ainment, and includes such things as sports facilities, convention centers, th eaters, retail complexes, and entertainment and restaurant centers. These large sca le developments have been built to redefine or redevelop downtown and waterfront areas and enhance a city’s image as a regional, if not a national, tourist and recreation center. Rosentraub (2003) mentions that, “a goal for these projects has been to fill large office buildings with workers while attracting homeowners and apartment dwellers to inner city and downtown areas” (p.1). The second approach emphasizes the redevelopment of neighborhoods by underscoring a commitment to affordable and market rate housing, art studios and new business start-ups. The goal of this approach is the attraction of younger entrepreneurs and the worker s described by Richard Florida as members of an economy’s creative class (2002). This approach, which has it’s roots in the work of Jane Ja cobs (1961), also places a hi gh value on walking trails, distinctive neighborhoods, parks, bi cycle paths and smaller entertainment venues. In neighborhoods with historic buildings the emphasis has been on converting these facilities to new uses that also appeal to the creative workers

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40 who dominate today’s emerging industri es (Clark et. al., 2002). Policies for neighborhood-based amenities have been used to redefine a city’s image while attracting new residents and the business es that seek the creative workers who demand these assets (Lloyd 2002).

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41 CHAPTER FOUR A QUANTITATIVE LOOK AT FLORIDA TOURISM This chapter is laid out to introd uce the reader to Florida’s tourism industry and highlight urban activities. Visit Fl orida is the states official marketing agency responsible for collecting and disse minating Florida tourism data. Visit Florida does not produce much data on city statistics but it is relevant to display county statistics when those counties are urban conceived. It will be discussed later in the thesis that the concentr ation of tourist establishments and employment opportunities within ur ban centers is greater then the corresponding population of these center s. Hence counties with urban centers should then reflect a high tourist concentrat ion. The chapter does in fact lead to this end. In 2001 69.5 million people visited Flor ida. This is a decrease of more than three million from the year before, due in part to the terror events of September 11th and a weaker then expected national ec onomy. That is roughly 4.25 tourists for every resident of the state of Florid a based on a 2001 population estimate of 15,982,378. It is estimated that more than 100 million visitors will see Florida in 2014 following a 2.5 percent annual growth given 2002 visitation of 75,627,000. The following statistics are provided via the VISIT FLORIDA: 2001 Florida Visitor Study

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42 In 2001, domestic visitors acco unt for 89.7 percent, followed by 7.6 percent from overseas countries, and 2.7 percent from Canada. The average length of stay for domestic visitors to Florida wa s 5.3 nights. The average length of stay for Canadian visitors was 19.8 nights, bu t the median length of stay was 7.0 nights. Taxable spending in the touris m/recreation category totaled 50.8 billion in 2001, a decrease of 0.3 percent over th e previous year. The third quarter of 2001 saw a dramatic decrease in tourism ov er the first two quarters as the events of September 11th greatly affected tourism within Florida. Florida suffered greatly, but endured better then the rest of the nation. A total of 870,100 persons were directly employed in travel-related jobs in 2001, reflecting a 2.1 percent increase over the previous year. Tota l Non-Agricultural employment rose 1.7 percent during this same period of time. The methodology used in estimating visitation has been adopted by Visit Florida based on recommendations from the University of North Florida in Jacksonville along with George Washin gton University in Washington D.C. “VISIT FLORIDA collects primary data at Florida’s 14 largest airports, which results in an estimate of domestic visitors to Florida by air. In order to estimate non-air visitation, VISIT FLORIDA su bscribes to the Travel Industry Association’s TravelScope data, which pr ovides the ratio of domestic air and non-air visitors to Florida. Collectively, this ratio and data obtained at the airports are utilized to calculate the number of domestic non-air visitors to Florida. It is impractical to collect pr imary data on the non-air segment” (Nonair is dominated by private automobile, but not restricted to it, in the new system.) (VISIT FLORIDA, 2001 Florida Visitor Survey: 4). “VISIT FLORIDA’s estimates and profiles of overseas visitors to Florida are derived from custom re-tabulations of da ta collected by the Tourism Industries Office of the United States Departme nt of Commerce. Similarly, VISIT

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43 FLORIDA’s analysis of Canadian visitors are derived from custom re-tabulations of data collected by the Canadian govern ment through Statistics Canada.” (Ibid.) Visitation in Florid a peaked in the year 2000 at 72.8 million visitors an increase of 28 million over four years as the state recorded 44.8 million visitors in 1996. The high season for travel to Florida is between January and June as 55 percent of visitation occurred during these months during 2001. States representing the largest visitation to Florida are as fo llows: Georgia, New York, Illinois, Ohio, Alabama, New Jersey, North Carolina, Michig an and Texas. The top five states represent 37.1 percent of domestic traveler s from outside of Florida. New York represents 13.1 percent of the air travel while Georgia recorded 17.5 percent of the automobile arrivals. Orange County, the location of Di sney World, dominates visitor destination with 26.1 percent or 18,139,500 visitors in 2001. Orange is followed by Hillsborough (Tampa) with 9 percen t or 6,255,000, Broward (Ft. Lauderdale) with 7 percent or 4,865,000, and MiamiDade (Miami) with 5.1 percent or 3,544,500. Duval County, the home of Jacksonville, ranks 12th with 2.9 percent or 2,015,500 visitors for 2001. Both Hillsboroug h and Broward rank in the top ten for Air and Automobile arrivals.

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44 Table 4.1 Hotel / Motel Rooms & Restaurant Seating by County County Hotel / Motel Rooms By County Restaurant Seating Capacity By County Broward 30,955 311,533 Duval 14,830 155,034 Hillsborough 19,265 193,571 Miami-Dade 48,675 353,651 Orange 75,076 397,216 State of Florida 391,019 3,340,102 S ource: 2001 Florida Visitor Study These five counties represent 48 perc ent of the total room stock in Florida and 42 percent of the total seating capacity. These five counties do not represent the largest five counties in the state for th e two mentioned categories these counties would include Orange, Miami-Dade, Broward, Osceola and Pinellas and represent 52 percent of the total room st ock and 40.5 percent of the total seating capacity. Osceola County has 28,157 hote l rooms and a seating capacity of 83,593. Pinellas County has 20,030 hotel rooms and a seating capacity of 208,859. Pinellas County then has more hotel rooms and seating capacity then Hillsborough County.

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45 Table 4.2 Primary Activities of All Travelers Shopping 37.1% Theme / Amusement Parks 36.0% Beaches 35.9% Outdoor (hunt, fish, hike) 11.2% Historical Places / Museums8.8% Golf / Tennis 6.6% National / State Park 6.3% Sports Event 5.1% Cultural Events / Festival 5.0% Gambling 2.0% Other 2.7% Source: 2001 Florida Visitor Study *(Multiple responses are allowed) The average expenditure for a visitor to Florida in 2001 was $128.00 per day. Air visitation is found to be higher at $159.30 per day, while automobile travel per day averages out to $95.60. These nu mbers are generated by combining the average spent per day on transportation room, food, entertainment, shopping and miscellaneous. The average household income of Florida visitors for 2001 was $82,000 while the median income wa s $69,600. A difference of more then $20,000 exists between air and automobile arrivals.

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46 VISIT FLORIDA has created eigh t regions within Florida to describe regionally various tourism impacts. Th e southeast region is home to Martin, Palm Beach, Broward, Miami-Dade and Monr oe counties. This region includes the cities of Miami, Ft. Lauderdale, West Palm Beach and Key West. This region has an average daily expenditure of $140. The central west region is home to Citrus, Hernando, Pasco, Pinellas and Hillsborough counties. This region includes the cities of Tampa, St. Petersbur g and Clearwater. This region has an average daily expenditure of $102. The northeast region is home to Nassau, Baker, Duval, Clay, St. Johns, Putnam and Fl agler. This region includes the cities of Jacksonville and St. Augustine. The northeast region has a daily expenditure of $124. The Central Region containing Orange Coun ty, has the highest daily expenditure at $157 while the North Cent ral Region has the lowest at $93 per day. “VISIT FLORIDA tracks four economic indi cators to gauge the health of Florida’s tourism: 1) tourism / recreation taxable sales, 2) local tourist development taxes, i.e., bed taxes, 3) the car rental surcharge, and 4) direct travel-related employment.” (VISIT FLORIDA, 2001 Florida Visitor Study: 56). *Car rental surcharge and employment data is not broken down into county or city statistics

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47 Table 4.3 Tourism Taxable Sales by MSA MSA Percent of 2001 Total Daytona Beach 2.6% Ft. Lauderdale 8.2% Fort Myers 3.3% Fort Pierce 1.3% Fort Walton 1.2% Gainsville 1.0% Jacksonville 5.7% Lakeland/Winter Haven 1.6% Melbourne/Cocoa 2.0% Miami 11.2% Naples 2.6% Ocala 0.8% Orlando 20.5% Panama City 1.9% Pensacola 1.5% Punta Gorda 0.6% Sarasota 3.1% Tallahassee 1.4% Tampa/St. Petersburg 11.2% West Palm Beach 7.2% Non-MSA Areas 11.0% Source: 2001 Florida Visitor Study

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48 The Orlando, Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, Miami, Jacksonville, and Ft Lauderdale metro areas accounted for 56.9 percent of the state’s total tourism / recreation taxable sales. Orlando accounted for 20.5 percent or just over 10 billion dollars, while Miami and Tamp a-St. Petersburg-Clearwater each accounted for 11.2 percent of the state’s tota l sales. Ft. Lauderdale accounted for 8.2 percent, while Jacksonville accounted for 5.7 percent. Non-metro areas accounted for 11 percent. “Counties may levy a tourist development tax or “bed tax” at the rate of one percent to five percent of the total ch arge for the lease or rental of living accommodations in any (of the following ): hotel, apartment hotel, motel, apartment, apartment motel, roominghou se, mobile home park, recreational vehicle park, or condominium for a term of six months or less. As of December 2001 48 counties (out of 67 counties) in Fl orida had instituted a bed tax” (Ibid: 68). Table 4.4 Tourism Bed Tax Collections by County County Tax Rate 2001 Totals % of Florida County Ranking Duval 4% $7,617,595 2.3% 11th Broward 5% $26,844,937 8.0% 2nd Hillsborough 5% $20,167,983 6.0% 5th Miami-Dade 4% 26,676,165 8.0% 3rd Orange 5% 97,431,549 29.1% 1st Source: 2001 Florida Visitor Study

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49 Four counties in Florida have bed ta xes at five percent they represent the four largest county collections. Osceola Coun ty which borders Orange County to the south ranks 4th and reported 21.3 million in collected taxes in 2001. Ten counties exercise a four percent bed tax. Twenty counties exercise a 3 percent bed tax. Fifteen counties exercise a 2 percent bed ta x. The trend within these counties is seen as an urban to rural rubric. Higher bed taxes within urban counties. This trend is not always the case as Nassa u County bordering Duval to the north exercises a 2 percent bed tax. Nassa u County collected $1,369,804 in bed taxes in 2001. Urban tourism across the state as seen through the five largest metro areas account for more then 50 percent of the tourism product in the state of Florida. This may be impressive but it is not statis tically significant due the fact that over 50 percent of the States population also lives in these five metro areas. What will be shown as significant in the coming ch apters are the cases of Miami and Tampa along with their respective metro areas. It will be shown that Tampa and Miami both economic powerhouses within their metro areas have a higher percentage of tourism product then they do percen tage of total metro population. Miami will be discussed in the next chapter on employment while Tampa will be discussed in chapter eight. Each ci ty also has a corresponding appendix.

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50 CHAPTER FIVE EMPLOYMENT WITHIN THE TOURISM INDUSTRY Florida’s total economy benefits both directly and indirectly from tourism. The indirect/induced benefits are substantial, albeit not as self-evident nor as widely understood as the direct benefi ts. While not officially designated an industry, the tourism sector of Flor ida’s economy contributes significant employment opportunities to Floridians. Increased employment has always been regarded as one of the primary be nefits of tourism (Mathieson & Wall, 1996). The table below shows that total tr avel-related employment has increased by 8.7 percent between 1998 and 2001. Alth ough a lesser increase of only 4.4 percent was experienced as the events of September 11th and the weak national economy took their toll on tourism be tween fiscal year 2000 and 2001. It should be noted that as tourism related employ ment growth slowed to 4.4 percent all other employment growth slowed to 1.7 percent.

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51 Table 5.1 Travel-Related Employment Within Florida Employment Category 1998 2000 2001 % Change From 98-01 % Change From 00-01 Air Transportation 72,900 77,600 76,600 +5.1% -1.3% Eating and Drinking Establishments 452,300 459,700 476,900 +5.4% +3.7 Hotels and Lodging 150,300 158,200 156,700 +4.3% -0.9% Amusement and Recreation 143,200 156,800 159,900 +11.7% +2.0% Total Travel Related Employment 818,700 852,300 889,600 +8.7% +4.4% Total NonAgricultural Employment 6,677,3007,080,6007,197,800+7.8% +1.7% Source: VISIT FLORIDA, 1998-2001 Visit Florida Study Tourism as a form of economic de velopment creates jobs. The issue at hand has always been what kind of jobs and for whom. Critics of economic development strategies that subsidized o ffice construction have contended that, even where successful in promoting business investment, they have not generated employment for those who n eed it most (Squires 1989). Thus, unskilled workers displaced from manufact uring, inner-city residents with weak educational achievements and immigran ts could find few job opportunities

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52 within office towers. They could, howeve r, find work in the hotels, restaurants, and various sites associated with touris m. The question of whether or not tourism can support a decent standard of living for unskilled workers cannot be answered unconditionally. Tourism employment can vary from comfortable to exploitive; wages, benefits and job securi ty reflect the formal and informal rules that govern the industry. In contras t to major industries like steel and automobile manufacturing, tourism includ es both very large, multi-national corporations and numerous mom-andpop operations. Even within subindustries, ranging from travel agenci es to restaurants to hotels, business organization differs considerably from pl ace to place and displays considerable variety (Gladstone and Fainstein 2001). New York and Los Angeles are two of this country’s largest and most diverse economies. New York can be considered a more mature tourist market. As a financial center it has been involved wi th business travel for decades. The New York market has experienced modest employment growth at 11 percent between 1977 and 1995. During the early nineti es recession 5.5 percent tourism employment was lost compared to 7 percent general employment within New York City. Los Angeles has experience d a boom in tourism generated growth during this same span of time, 19771995, a nearly 50 percent increase. During the early nineties recession Los Angeles was able to retain a higher percentage of these jobs as the tourism industry lost only 3.6 percent compared to a general loss of 9.2 percent. In New York, the aver age annual wage is only 58 percent of the city average while in Los Angeles this number is higher but still lags well behind the average at 66% (Gladstone and Fainstein, 2001). To protect worker issues two totally different methods have succeeded. California a state with

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53 weak organized unions has developed a deeply entrenched group of organizations that fight for living wages an d health benefits. While in New York workers have continued to rely on unions to help protect them. Eighty-five percent of Manhattans white table clot h restaurant workers are members of a union. Tourism, like all industries, is comprised of a broad range of pay scales and a clearer way of looking at the indust ry would be to comp are experience and education attainment across various indu stries. Unreported income may also skew findings as tips may be underreported or not reported at all. In 1970, 32 percent of jobs were in goods-producing industries, such as farming, construction and manufacturing. By 1996 this number had shrunk to just 15 percent (Dortch, 1996). By the year 2000 the national average had dropped to 14 percent and between 1990 and 2000 cities like Los Angeles, Chicago, Boston, Detroit, Dallas, Seattle and Cleveland were loosing jobs at a faster pace then the national average. It is impossible to ignore the shif t in United States employment from goodsproducing jobs to those that generate se rvices. Today eight out of ten United States workers produce services within the economy (Dortch 1996). These men and women are employed in an indust ry were they do not produce a good, instead they produce a service. Flor ida’s involvement within the service economy is readily apparent when one disco vers the number of retirees that live in the state and number of tourists that visit the state. Dortch’s 1996 article presents an interesting report issued by Woods & Poole Economics, Inc. projecting 2010 employment numbers. W oods & Poole found two of the twenty fastest growing service industry metro areas within Florida. The Orlando metro area was projected 1st with 59.4 percent growth with in service employment and

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54 the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater metro area was projected 10th with 41.2 percent growth within service employme nt. If one considers only service employment in relation to services n eeded of an elderly population, Florida contains eight of the twenty fastest growing areas including: Orlando(1), Sarasota-Bradenton(3), Naples(4), Punta Gorda(9), Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater(10), and West Palm Beach-Bo ca Raton(19). If one compares just MSA’s of one million or more resident s Tampa positions itself as the 2nd fastest growing service employment market while Orlando remains 1st in the nation. It is important to keep these numbers in pe rspective and remember that the service industry is much more then tourism/ leisure employment and that business services followed by health services make up the largest percentage of employment (Dortch 1996). The study does not project other sector gains and losses and so the total amount of new em ployment opportunities is unknown. Florida is also home to six of the twenty fastest growing areas in service earnings. A service industry job in th e Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater area is projected in 2010 to pay an average of $24,229 dollars still short of the national average of $26,662 (Dortch, 1996). Gladstone’s (1998) look at tourist me tropolises (Atlantic City, Las Vegas, Reno and Orlando) as areas with thre e times the national average in tourism/entertainment employment and le isure cities (Daytona Beach, Fort Myers, Fort Pierce, Lakeland, Naples, Panama City, Sarasota and West Palm Beach all of which are located in Florid a) areas with 30 percent to 150 percent higher employment within tourism/ente rtainment, discuss further the service industry and its effects on varying types of employment. Gladstone found that tourist metropolises with their large mult inational corporations such as Disney

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55 and MGM have a larger percentage of un ionized workers and higher per capita income within the tourism/entertainment se ctor of the service industry then the leisure cities but that these numbers fall short of national averages. Gladstone also discusses the rapid growth that all areas within his study have experienced in the last decade with emphasis on La s Vegas the fastest growing metro area in the United States Less than 18 percent of the American workforce is covered by collective bargaining agreements, a percentage th at has been falling since the 1950’s. Within the United States rates of unioni zation vary by region and by state. Florida is on the low end of this sca le as 11 percent of its workforce, 45th in the nation is covered by union contracts (G ladstone, 1998). Many of Disney’s fulltime workers are unionized even though only 9.6 percent of Orlando’s total employment population is covered by some form of a collective bargaining agreement. Disney, like Wal-Mart the nati on’s largest retailer has a large number of part-time and seasonal workers who are not unionized. Nevada and New Jersey both with large tourism sectors are also highly unionized and above the national average 21 percent and 25 percent re spectively. In the place of unions in Florida many groups such as the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN) lobby for a living wage and worker rights. Employment Trends: Tampa & Tampa’s MSA The following statistics are taken from the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development’s State of the Cities Data System. Industry classifications utilized by the United Stat es Census Bureau have changed; the SIC classification system is no longer utiliz ed; the NAICS classifi cation system was

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56 adopted in 1998. The State of the Cities Data System has developed a formula to adjust NAICS data to SIC. The tables that contain SIC data are estimates based upon these adjustments. The NAICS data is a more accurate count, but is rather limited in its time span and so both data sets are given when presenting specifics within the service industry. The specif ic data look at tourism related or generated employment, establishments and salaries. These tables represent the city of Tampa along with the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater Metropolitan Statistical Area. This exercise is loos ely based upon Gladstone’s (1998) article reviewed in chapter four. Table 5.2 Population: Tampa, Florida and Tampa’s MSA Area 1990 2000 Percent Increase Tampa 280,015 303,447 8.4% Tampa’s MSA 2,067,959 2,395,997 15.9% Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census The City of Tampa in the year 1990 consisted of 13.5 percent of the total MSA population by 2000 this number had decr eased to 12.7 percent. The following pages contain employment data specific to tourism and leisure. The data given is for the City of Tampa and the Tampa MSA. The data provided includes number of jobs, average annual salary and numb er of establishments. The data shows that significant numbers of jobs and esta blishments can be found within the City of Tampa when compared to the Tampa MSA based on population. The data also reflects that on average those em ployees working within the City of Tampa make a higher salary then those in the MSA when in fact the average MSA worker makes more then the average city worker when all employment is

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57 considered. It should be noted that the majority of these jobs fall below the average salary for either the city or MSA. What makes the following statistics even more significant is the fact that Tampa’s MSA consists of St. Petersburg a long established retirement and tourist destination of over 250,000 residents, Clearwater a long established retirement and tourist destination of over 100,000 re sidents and miles of small tourist dependent gulf coast beach towns. The MSA also consists of the remainder of Hillsborough and Pinellas counties as well as Pasco and Hernando counties to the north.

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58 Table 5.3 Employment By Industry: Tampa, Florida Industry 1991 2001 Percent Change Agricultural Services, Forestry and Fishing 664 3,248 389.2 Mining 328 235 -28.4 Construction 12,330 11,136 -9.7 Manufacturing 22,631 17,843 -21.2 Transportation and Public Utilities 17,119 26,981 57.6 Wholesale Trade 21,101 19,797 -6.2 Retail Trade 38,694 44,653 15.4 Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate 29,466 30,087 2.1 Services 86,354 130,536 51.2 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census Between the years 1991 and 2001 the city of Tampa gained 55,829 jobs of these 44,182 or 79.1 percent were found within the services industry. Tourism is not the largest single gaining service sector. The largest business services represented 53% or 23,426 new jobs within the service industry. Jobs within the service industry geared specifically to wards tourism and leisure include “SIC 7000: Hotels and Other Lodging Places SIC 7900: Amusement and Recreation

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59 Services, and SIC 8400: Museums, Botanical, and Zoological Gardens” represented only 10.5 percent or 4,214 new jobs within the services industry. The services industry represented 37.8 percent of all jobs within Tampa in 1991 by 2001 this number had increased to 45.9 percent. It should also be noted that as construction, wholesale trade and manufact uring while decreasing in the city of Tampa are increasing in th e Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clea rwater MSA. The TampaSt. Petersburg-Clearwater MSA increased its service industry employment by 57.2 percent between 1991 and 2000. The city of Tampa increased by 52.1 percent during this same time. 2001 data was unav ailable at the time of preparation. The only employment sector that the city outp erformed the MSA in was retail trade.

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60 Table 5.4 Employment By Industry: Tampa’s MSA Industry 1991 2000 Percent Change Agricultural Services, Forestry and Fishing 5,645 N/A N/A Mining 1,009 N/A N/A Construction 43,197 51,719 19.7 Manufacturing 84,128 93,165 10.7 Transportation and Public Utilities 37,634 N/A N/A Wholesale Trade 50,974 68,279 33.9 Retail Trade 186,939 201,388 7.7 Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate 67,588 83,636 23.7 Services 290,590 457,714 57.5 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census Tampa’s MSA is a strong regional perhaps national economy as those industries with complete data reflect considerable job growth over the given period of time. If one removes the City of Tampa’s job losses in manufacturing, construction and wholesale the MSA gains are even more impressive. Much data was missing from the 2001 data set an d industry measures could not be generated by SOCDS hence the 2000 data set.

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61 Table 5.5 Business Establishments by Industry: Tampa, Florida Industry 1991 2001 Percent Change Agricultural Services, Forestry and Fishing 136 246 80.9% Mining 7 5 -28.6% Construction 782 663 -15.2% Manufacturing 590 503 -14.7% Transportation and Public Utilities 478 635 32.8% Wholesale Trade 1,298 1,074 -17.3% Retail Trade 2,601 2,673 2.8% Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate 1,372 1,717 25.1% Services 4,860 5,532 13.8% Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census While the city of Tampa experience d a decrease in the number of mining, construction, manufacturing and wholesal e trade establishments, the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater MSA experienced growth within construction, manufacturing and wholesale trade establis hments corresponding to the increase in employment numbers within thes e areas. The Tampa-St. Petersburg-

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62 Clearweater MSA also experienced a 4.1 percent decrease in its retail trade establishments, although it did gain em ployment within this area. It also increased its service establishments by 24.3 percent compared to the Tampa’s 13.8 percent yet the concentration of tour ism establishments and corresponding employment will be shown to favor th e city of Tampa over the Tampa-St. Petersburg-MSA. Employment Trends: Miami & Miami PMSA It has been stated elsewhere in this thesis that Miami is a major tourist destination and major economic force in Florida the following pages and the corresponding appendix will discuss these statements. The city of Miami is part of the Miami PMSA it is possible to simply subtract the city from the PMSA and gain statistics that do not reflect the ci ty of Miami within the PMSA, but the goal of this exercise is to show that Miami is significant with respect to its percentage of population within the PMSA.

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63 Table 5.6 Employment by Industry: Miami, Florida Industry 1991 2001 Percent Change Agricultural Services, Forestry and Fishing 440 1,508 242.7% Mining 52 N/A N/A Construction 7,098 5,343 -24.7% Manufacturing 14,687 13,444 -8.5% Transportation and Public Utilities 18,940 20,866 10.2% Wholesale Trade 17,672 16,051 -9.2% Retail Trade 33,134 40,641 22.7% Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate 34,613 22,106 -36.1% Services 83,162 103,070 23.9% Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census The data above is typical of many cities in the United States. During the years between 1991 and 2001 the City of Miami lost employment in manufacturing, construction and wholesale trade while gaining retail and service employment. The loss of over 12,000 Finance, Insurance an d Real Estate jobs is significant to Miami and it’s causes and implicat ions are not explored here.

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64 Table 5.7 Employment by Industry: Miami PMSA Industry 1991 2001 Percent Change Agricultural Services, Forestry and Fishing 3,633 6,148 69.2% Mining 985 1,081 9.7% Construction 31,840 34,097 7.1% Manufacturing 80,971 67,491 -16.6% Transportation and Public Utilities 78,367 78,753 0.5% Wholesale Trade 66,498 81,959 23.3% Retail Trade 155,450 178,221 14.6% Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate 73,803 65,957 -10.6% Services 254,533 331,014 30.0% Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census Miami’s PMSA lost a significant amount of it’s manufacturing employment during the time between 1991 and 2001. It is also interesting to note that if one takes Miami out of the PMSA as was me ntioned earlier the remainder of the PMSA in fact gained employment within Finance, Insurance and Real Estate. The PMSA also gained a larger percenta ge of service employment then did the city. If one considers percentage of the whole population as an indicator of job

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65 growth then the PMSA numbers are not nearly as impressive yet they do reflect an increase in “services” and a decrease in “manufacturing”. Table 5.8 Population: Miami, Florida & Miami PMSA Area 1990 2000 Percent Increase Miami 358,548 362,470 1.1% Miami’s PMSA 1,937,094 2,253,362 16.3% Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census The City of Miami in the year of 1990 consisted of 18.5 percent of the total PMSA population by 2000 this number ha d decreased to 16.4 percent. The City of Miami in the year of 1991 consiste d of 32.8 percent of the total PMSA employment within “services” by 2001 this number had decreased to 31.1 percent. The appendix that follows the th esis contains employment data specific to tourism and leisure. The data given is for the City of Miami and the Miami PMSA. The data provided includes numb er of jobs, average wages and number of establishments. The data shows th at significant numbers of jobs and establishments can be found within th e City of Miami when compared to the Miami PMSA based on population. The data also reflects that on average those employees working within the City of Miam i make a higher salary then those in the PMSA when in fact the average PMSA worker makes more then the average city worker when all employment is cons idered. It should be noted that the majority of these jobs fall below the average salary for either the city or MSA.

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66 CHAPTER SIX GOVERNMENTS PLACE IN URBAN REDEVELOPMENT Governments be them federal, state or local have in the past and will in the future pass legislation that is directly ai med at the redevelopment of urban areas. This legislation usually has an economic development component. While none of the following programs are explicitly designed to develop an urban tourism infrastructure they have been utilized by political and business leaders in promoting tourism and leisure development. Community Redevelopment Act of 1969 “Blighted” and “slum” areas within Florida’s urban centers have become a focus within the Florida legislature as a number of important laws have been created to spur inner-city development. The Community Redevelopment Act of 1969, Chapter 163 F.S. provides local gove rnments with an effective tool to address the needs of urban areas by allowing for the transformation of underperforming and underutilized land, in to areas of job growth, increased tax value and positive community impact. Redevelopment projec ts pursued under Chapter 163, require the guidance and funding of local agencies because of the high cost of clean-up, rehabilitation, pe rception problems and consolidation of dissimilar parcels in order to encou rage private investment. Community Redevelopment Agencies (CRAs) utiliz e the powers of Chapter 163, including

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67 tax increment financing, eminent doma in and flexible rules of property disposition to effectively implement on an agreed redevelopment plan. The strategies dealing with issues such as sm art growth, use of incentives to alter business relocation decisions and govern ment actions to offer quality living and working environments to all Florida citize ns converge in the arena of community development. The ability of Florida to effectively compete and win in the national and global markets is tied to the strength and well being of its cities. As urban sprawl continues to move further fr om central cities, these key urban areas are experiencing population decline an d underutilization of already developed land. Successfully revitalizing urban centers often requires addressing multiple and interrelated problems. While some urban communities appear to benefit with minimum assistance from redevelopment programs, other communities continue to languish seemingly impervious to rede velopment efforts. It is important to understand how tourism and leisure op erates within these redevelopment efforts. The Florida Legislative Committee on Intergovernmental Relations has identified six areas that are common ac ross Florida when discussing distressed urban areas. 1. Vacant and abandoned buildings 2. Loss of jobs and corresponding high unemployment rates 3. High dropout rates 4. Inferior public infrastructure: str eets in need of repair, crumbling sidewalks, lack of adequate street lighting, antiquated sewer/water systems, among others

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68 5. Low income households 6. Concerns for public safety and high crime (LCIR Urban Revitalization in Florida Preliminary Summary) The LCIR found that partnerships are important to revitalization efforts and redevelopment should emphasize a holis tic approach that includes various components of development. These are 1) involving all stakeholders in the revitalization process including residents, local governments, private entities, and educational organizations; 2) visionin g or start up assessment of area; 3) creating a revitalization plan; 4) implementa tion of the plan; and 5) evaluation of its progress. Florida’s urban communities also utilize various federal programs including: Community Development Bl ock Grant, Community Service Block Grant, Empowerment Zones, Enterprise Communities and Federal Brownfields. State Programs Community Redevelopment Agencies (CRAs) were authorized in 1969 to revitalize slum and blighted areas which constitute a serious and growing menace, injurious to the public health, sa fety, morals and welfare of the residents of the state. Local governments are authorized to designate a community redevelopment area, develop a redevelo pment plan and establish a CRA to implement the plan. CRAs are prim arily funded through Tax Increment Financing (TIF) whereby Ad Valorem tax revenues in excess of those collected in the base year are remitted by taxing auth orities such as municipal and county governments to the CRA for it’s activi ties. CRAs have become somewhat controversial due in large part to the TI F method of financing. As of January

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69 2003, there were 134 CRAs located within 119 local governments. Enterprise Zones Enterprise Zones program was cr eated in 1982 and reauthorized in 1994 in acknowledgement that local governments ha ve insufficient resources to address chronic problems of economically depr essed areas that exhibit a variety of problems including high rates of unem ployment, crime, and eroding public infrastructure, among others. Seven distin ct tax incentive programs are provided to induce private sector assistance in re vitalization of designated zones. As of May 2003, the Legislature had designated 51 Enterprise Zones 25 of which are in urban areas. Front Porch Front Porch program was es tablished in 1999 to promote community revitalization by empowering local community members through technical assistance, training and developing sk ills necessary to identify and acquire existing resources for revitalization purp oses. As of May 2003, the governor of Florida had designated 20 Front Porch Communities. Brownfields Brownsfields are abandoned, idled or underutilized industrial and commercial properties where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived contamination. In May 1997, Vice President Gore announced a Brownfields National Partnership to bring together the resources of more than 15 federal agencies to address local cleanup and reuse issues in a more coordinated

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70 manner. As of May 2003, Department of Environmental Protection staff reported 65 designated areas, of which 38 have site agreements on clean-up or are determined to need no further treatment. Local incentives under Florida’s Brownfields Program include: fee waivers, property tax abatements or exemptions, local matches for federal and state programs and fee moratoriums are available to further brownfields redevelopment and cleanup. State incentives include: a loan trust fund, a loan guarantee program, a job bonus refund program ($2500 per job created), a 35 perc ent tax credit, a sales tax refund and liability protection. These programs and in centives are all administered by the Office of Tourism, Trade and Economic Development (Broward Environmental Remediation Times, January/February 2001) Urban Infill Urban Infill and redevelopment proj ects are intended to improve existing neighborhoods and encourage investment in those communities. The complicatedness to these types of projects include: land assembly, abandoned properties, inadequate infrastructure, environmental contam ination and zoning regulations. In 1999 Florida passed legislation that authorized a local government to designate an urban infill redevelopment area and provide various incentives for designating such an area. Land assemblage is difficult with urban infill and redevelopment projects, due to the lack of availability of properties and the high costs. Some of the properties that could be used for infill and redeve lopment are abandoned properties as the result of a tax lien. In Florida, a tax ce rtificate holder may apply for a tax deed between two and seven years after issuance of the certificate. A tax certificate

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71 becomes null and void if there is not an application for a tax deed within seven years from the issuance of a tax certificat e. However, some states have shortened this time period to expedite the return of a tax delinquent property to a tax revenue status (The Florida Senate 2003). Other Practices and Issues The Legislative Committee on In tergovernmental Relations produced an interim project report in 1997 on developi ng a state urban policy. The committee reached a consensus on the following stra tegies that should be part of the framework for the state’s urban policy: Supporting and promoting fiscally stro ng, sustainable and livable urban centers; Recognizing infill and development and redevelopment is necessary to promote and support fiscally strong, sustainable, and livable centers; Supporting compact, multi-functional urban centers through the adoption and support of policies that reduce urban sprawl; Encouraging communities to include a redesign step, involving citizens in the redesign initiative prior to redevelopment; Adopting macro-level urban policie s and providing local governments with the flexibility to determine and address their urban priorities; Enhancing the linkages between land and water use planning and transportation planning for current and future designated urban areas; Amending existing concurrency requirem ents for urban areas in order to promote redevelopment efforts wher e such changes do not jeopardize public health and safety;

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72 Requiring that all proposed developm ents receive a full-cost accounting review in order to provide a more accurate estimate of the true development costs incurred by the local government; Requiring general-purpose local governments, school boards, and local community colleges to coordinate on educational issues, including planning functions and the development of joint facilities; Promoting mass transit systems for ur ban centers, including multi-modal transportation feeder systems; Integrating state programs that ha ve been developed to promote economic development and neighborhood revitalization through incentives in order to promote the de velopment of designated urban infill areas; and Encouraging the location of appropri ate public facilities within urban centers. (The Florida Senate 2003: 2) Eighteen different state incentive programs have been created by law for businesses. These programs are comprised of: grants, refunds, credits and loans. In general, state incentive programs serv e to induce businesses to locate or expand in certain designated areas of th e state, to hire residents of certain designated areas, or to contribute to a project that promotes community economic development or revitalization. Examples of state incentive programs include: the Community Contribution Ta x Credit program, the Qualified Target Industry Tax Refund, Enterprise Zone incentives, the Economic Development Transportation Trust Fund and Defense Industry Grants, among others. The Office of Tourism and Trade and Econ omic Development has calculated the

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73 incentive value awarded from these programs at approximately $746.2 million for the time period of January 1, 1999 – August 31, 2002. While none of the aforementioned programs are specifically designed for the development of a tourism infrastructu re examples of extensive tourism development within these programs due exist. Tampa’s Central Business District and Ybor City are both CRA’s, Ta mpa’s street car system is being utilized as a tool of urban infill and Tampa’s urban waterfront contains various brownfields all of which will be discuss ed in the coming chapters. Urban redevelopment legislation does appear to lend itself and aid in the promotion of urban tourism development within Florida.

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74 CHAPTER SEVEN WHAT DO CITIES BUILD & WHY? This chapter discusses what cities have been and are becoming and looks at places as, “…more than simply geographic sites-they are also fluid, changeable, dynamic contexts of social interaction and memory, and they contain overt and covert social practices that embedded in place-making behaviors notions of ideology, power, control, conflict, domina nce, and distribution of social and physical resources” (Stokowski 2002: 368). Stokowski is stating that one must look past the physical manifestation of space to fully appreciate and comprehend the sense of place as expressed by an individual or group. Soja (1989) states how we must be aware of how space can be made to hide consequences from us, how human geographies become filled with politics and ideology. Do all cities develop tourism sites? What kinds of tourism sites do they build? How do they build these tourism sites? For whom does the city build these tourism sites? These are but a few of the issues to be raised in this chapter and while I will not claim that any answers are provided, I do believe that the materials presented will allow the reader to reach some type of conclusion. A survey conducted in 1998 by th e University of MissouriSt. Louis, in collaboration with the National League of Cities (NLC), looked at its member cities and asked how they attracted to urists and developed local economies around tourism. Surveys were sent to the mayor’s office of 1,110 cities within the

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75 United States. Four hundred sixty three cities responded for a response rate of 41.7 percent. This was deemed a high enou gh response rate to conclude that the findings of the survey to be a good cross section of America’s cities. The findings of the survey leads to the conclusion that cities are (1) developing and marketing local culture through even ts and cultural activities and (2) constructing a tourism/entertainment in frastructure composed of a complex mixture of facilities such as: convention centers, sports stadiums, renovated waterfronts, festival malls, farmers’ mark ets, historic districts, entertainment districts, museums and performing arts center s. Of those cities that responded to the survey 208 are to be considered central cities. Table 7.1 Central Cities Reporting Fac ilities Existing or Being Developed NumberPercent Event 203 99% Museum 186 90% Historical District / Site 180 87% Performing Arts Center 171 83% Farmers Market 165 80% Entertainment / Restaurant District156 76% Cultural District / Site 143 69% Sports Stadium 137 67% Festival / Retail Mall 133 65% Convention Hotel 133 65% Outdoor Concert Venue 132 64% Convention Center 129 63% Nature Preserve 124 60% Waterfront Development 119 58% Recreation Facility 73 35% Other Facility 49 24% Theme Park 28 14% Gaming Casino 24 12% Source: Judd et all 2003. N=208

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76 The five central cities within the fi ve largest metro areas in Florida have each developed most every item on this list. Only theme parks representing 14 percent and gaming casinos representing 12 percent does one find variation in the kind of development found. Jacksonville, Ft. Lauderdale and Miami currently do not have, nor are they planning major theme pa rks. All three cities have numerous smaller attractions. They have developed attractions in clusters creating themed areas. These areas can include arcades, miniature golf and go-carts but, these establishments are not considered theme parks. Tampa is home to Busch Gardens, the 11th most popular theme park in th e United States. Orlando is home to multitude of theme parks. Gaming of which casino’s are, but one type has proliferated in Florida. Miami and Ft. Lauderdale each have operating Casino boats. St. Petersburg has the largest casino boat in Florida. All five ci ties have either a greyhound track, horse or harness track. Miami, Ft. Lauderdale and Tampa also have Native American operated casinos within or near city limits. Gaming has taken off in many states, thanks in part to the 1988 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, which gave federally recognized tribes the ability to develop ga ming industries. This was followed by the 1990’s proliferation of riverboat and co astal gaming boats, as well as the full development of Biloxi, Mississippi as a sm aller version of Las Vegas or Atlantic City. By the end of the 1990’s, only Ha waii and Utah had not legalized some form of gaming. The Seminole Indian Trib e of Florida operates casinos in Florida and possesses about one third of the item s on the aforementioned table. Two large properties have been developed by Hard Rock International: one in Tampa and one in Ft. Lauderdale on Seminole controlled lands. These properties contain: hundreds of hotel rooms, conv ention/meeting space, restaurant/retail,

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77 casinos, and the Ft. Lauderdale proper ty even contains a 3,500 person capacity theatre. The Tampa property is located across from Clear Channel Communications 25,000 person amphitheatre. Central cities also responded to arts/entertainment/recreation/tourism as the most important economic sector for a ci ty followed by manufacturing, retail and wholesale trade and government and pub lic administration. When asked to justify tourism-related projects the most frequently given answer was that tourism is a “benefit to community residents” followed by “new/more tax revenue, local image, support other business activities, and local employment.” Tourism is a rapidly expanding in dustry; thus, encouraging growth in this sector may not involve the kinds of bidding wars involved in vying for other kinds of industries. Moreover, facilities and events are replicable. Whereas in the quest for manufacturing plants th ere are clear winners and losers, the construction of a Hilton hotel in Atlant a does not preclude the construction of another in Miami. Even when a city lose s in direct competit ion over conventions or sporting events, it may win them next year. Conventions and the centers that ho use the events have become big business. The allure that attracts some community le aders to the idea of building a new or enhanced convention center lies in the gr owth and size of the tourism industry and the importance of meetings and t rade shows within this sector of the economy. “By the 1990s tourism had beco me one of the most dynamic economic sectors of the world economy, growing faster than any other sector; by 1990 it ranked third in value-added trade related sectors” (Judd, et. al., 2003: 50). The outcomes desired from an expa nded or new convention center are clear; more hospitality jobs and increased private development. Some cities have

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78 experienced a reasonable level of success from new convention centers. For example, in 1976 Atlanta had 9,902 hote l workers and then built a new convention center. The 1980 US Censu s reported that Atlanta had 12,792 individuals working at hotels; this increased to 16,425 by 1997. Indianapolis had 4,228 hotel jobs in 1977; with a new and up dated convention center the city has been able to maintain more than 6,300 hotel jobs in the downtown area. Philadelphia, with as few as 3,071 hote l jobs in 1980, had 7,447 by 2000 after a new convention center opened in 1993 (Rosenstraub, 2003). There are also examples where there has been less succes s. Baltimore opened a new convention center in 1998, but less than 200 new jobs have been added to a base of 3,286 hotel positions that existed there as earl y as 1977. Denver and Houston have also been unable to meet the forecasts made in terms of success thought possible for a new convention center for their regions (Sanders, 2002). Sports Facility Development Since the 1892 Columbian Expositi on in Chicago cities across the United States as well as the rest of the worl d, have planned for mega-events. The Columbian Exposition at the Chicago Wo rld’s Fair set the precedent for urban areas to be seen as a collection of stylized urban images. “The Fair is a world…in which ugliness and uselessness have be en extirpated, and the beautiful and useful alone admitted” (Cocks, 2001: 164) The City Beautiful movement took much of it’s inspiration from the Chic ago World’s Fair, with it’s focus on monumental architecture, parks and public spaces. Cities send official lobbying groups to various associations such as National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), National Football Association (NFL),

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79 National Baseball Association (NBA), Na tional Hockey League (NHL), and the granddaddy of them all, the Olympics. The Olympics have become a multibillion dollar generator, as well as quick way to gain global importance. The 1992 summer Olympics held in Barcel ona, Spain spurred more then eight billion dollars worth of investment. The 1996 Summer Olympics held in Atlanta, Georgia had been celebrated as a means of furthering that cities redeve lopment. The Atlanta games drew more than 10,000 athletes from 197 countries. More than 2 million visitors attended the Games and another 2.5 billion watched them on television. The Atlanta Olympics created 77,026 jobs and produced just over four billion dollars worth of investment, although this number is ne arly one billion short of projections. Today, redevelopment of Mid-town Atlant a and East Atlanta is possible due inpart to the continued taxes collected on Olympic developments (French and Disher 1997; Stone 1989). Tampa and Miam i both presented presentations in attempting to bring the 2012 Olympics to Fl orida both plans were rejected. The Olympics have never been held in Florida. Both New York and Los Angeles, cities that will be discussed later in this work, ha ve been placed on the final list. Cities and metro areas subsidize professional sports most visibly through funding facilities, though less visibly by means of police and security provision, and enduring crowding, congestion, tras h and rowdy behavior. Proponents of subsidies for sports infrastructure argue that such subsidies are a fiscally responsible strategy, because they prop erly should be viewed as public investments rather then expenses. Thus, it has been argued that the expenses incurred in developing professional sports should be considered along the same lines as those funds dedicated to developi ng ports, schools, airports and public

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80 transportation. Such items, it is argued generate benefits in excess of their costs and hence represent good in vestments of public funds. This provokes a perplexing question If stadiums are such good investments, then why do private entrepreneurs not pu t up the necessary funds in the same fashion they do for residential and retail development? The reason, say supporters, is private investors cannot capture all of the benefits generated by large ticket items such as stadiums. While the party who pays for the stadium receives some of the benefits, numerous other individuals (hotel, car rental, air lines, restaurants, retail, etc.) will receive benefits while not having paid for the stadium. It is then argued that the benefi t of a professional team is a public, and not private, benefit. The positive investment returns within a professional sports team are seen across a wide enough spectr um that it is thought of as being a public, and not a private, investment. Culturally and socially there is much to be said fo r being a fan of the hometown team. In the early 1970’s, th e New York Yankees threatened to leave New York if they did not receive public funds to expand and rehabilitate Yankee Stadium. Public outcry of civic pride, associating oneself as a Yankee fan, and weary politicians having lost both the Dodgers and the Giants two decades before, gave in to George Steinbreiner demands (Feinstein 1983). The base of this line of argument is that professional team s are to be thought of as public, rather than private, goods. In a May, 1997 report, the Econom ic Analysis Corporation of San Diego, provided a perspective on the 1996 Congressional Research Service study on facility development. It concluded the following:

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81 “Sports teams provide valuable consumption benefits to a local community. These benefits include the ability of lo cal residents to follow and enjoy a home team, an increase in community spirit, an d a potential means to draw people to downtown areas. In many respects, lo cal government subsidization of other valuable local consumption activities, such as concert halls, zoos, parks, and golf courses… Sports teams are a unique typ e of consumption good in that they provide substantial benefits to many loca l citizens who do not attend the team’s games. Those citizens in the local community receive valuable benefits merely from the presence of a professional spor ts team. Since these citizens cannot be charged directly by the team for the bene fits they receive, there is a stronger economic rationale for local government subsidization of professional sports teams than for most other publicly subsidized consumption activity.” Source: http://www.horrowsports.com/press/clippings_002.shtml The Florida Supreme Court described the public benefits of stadium facility construction in Poe v. Hillsboroug h County, 695 So.2d 672. This 1997 case validated the use of bonds to construc t Raymond James Stadium in Tampa. The Court explained: “The Court finds that the Buccaneers inst ill civic pride and camaraderie into the community and that the Buccaneer games and other stadium events also serve a commendable public purpose by e nhancing the community image on a nationwide basis and providing recreation, entertainment and cultural activities to its citizens.” The thirty largest metro areas in th e United States each contain at least one professional sports team of these twen ty four metro areas contain two or more

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82 professional sports teams. Thirty-seven metro areas within the largest fifty have professional sports teams including four of five in Florida. The West Palm Beach-Boca Raton metro area does not have any professional sports teams, but the area is located less then sixty miles from four professional teams. Neither Palm Beach County nor its municipalities directly support any of these teams with public subsides. The private/public partnerships, esta blished in Jacksonville as a way to sell the city to the National Football League (N FL) for a 1996 expansion team, paid out some 200 million dollars for the rites to have a NFL team. Two hundred million dollars seems like a great contract when compared to the near 700 million dollars it took Bob McNair and the city of Houston to land a 2002 NFL expansion team. These amounts do not include the building of a stadium. In the years of 2002 and 2003 five NFL teams opened new stadiums. They are: The $312 million Ford Field for the Detroit Lions The $299 million Field for the Seattle Seahawks The $310 million Reliant Stadium for the Houston Texans The $336 million Gillette Field for the New England Patriots The $295 million Lambeau Field restoration for the Green Bay Packers Since 1995, 21 facilities within the NFL have been developed or substantially modernized for NFL teams, at a cost of over 7 billion dollars (Harrow Sports Ventures, 2002). Since 1990, 17 professional baseball stadiums have been built within the

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83 United States. Of these, 14 have been fi nanced publicly with funds totaling more then 60 percent of the total building cost The Tampa Bay Devil Rays, located in St. Petersburg, Florida were publicly financed at 100 percent in 1990 to construct an $85 million domed stadium in a rede velopment zone. The city of St. Petersburg issued general obligation bonds to fund construction. The bond debt is being partially paid through a 1 percen t increase in bed tax (5% county tax). Other revenues include taxes on various stadium items such as parking, food, and tickets. A $65 million dollar renovation occurred in 1998, $14 million of which was funded by the Devil Rays (Natio nal Sports Law Institute of Marquette University Law School, 2002). Historically, a smaller percentage of public funds are going towards facility development. Yet, in today’s cash co nscious city governments, this number gives unassuming relief when adjusted for inflation as cities continue to pour millions of dollars into facility infrastructure. It was earlier stated that each of the thirty largest metro areas in the United States posses a professional sports team and that seven of the next twenty also have a professional sports team. Sm aller metro areas and correspondingly smaller markets have been increasingly ac tive in securing a professional sports team as Jacksonville, Florida, New Orle ans, Louisiana, Raleigh and Charlotte North Carolina and Columbus, Ohio have all secured professional teams within the last decade. With public/private facility partnerships coming under increasing public scrutiny, with local electorates constant ly reassessing priorities, communities must be creative, flexible and consistent in their facility goals and objectives. Cooperation between and among business, political, and civic leadership is an

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84 absolute necessity. Further, a “master facility development plan” that is all inclusive of tourism and community cons tituencies should be undertaken. Facilities should be multipurpose and designed as diverse entertainment and activity centers. As such these facilities should be viewed as critical components of long-term regional development, inde pendent of any desire to satisfy the needs of respective major league franchis es. These facilities provide substantial economic, tangible and psychological bene fits for the region in which they are located. Urban Waterfront Redevelopment & The Cruise Industry Urban waterfront redevelopmen t and renewal schemes take on many different forms. Tourism has been consid ered a ‘catalyst’ for urban waterfront redevelopment for quite some time (Law 1993; Craig-Smith Fragrance 1995). The cruise industry has been one of the fastest growing segments of the tourism industry during the last two decade s (Peisley 1995; CLIA 2001). The cruise industry has grown annually in North America at 8.4 percent since 1980 (CLIA 2001). The total economic benefit of the cr uise industry in the United States in 2002 was valued at 20.4 billion dollars (BREA 2003). The cruise industry directly spent 4.5 billion dollars within Florida, created 126,559 jobs and generated 4.29 billion dollars with those jobs in 2002 (BRE A 2003) Florida’s total industry share of direct spending and wages earned account for 39 percent of the North American total. In 2002 a total of 7,325,000 passengers departed on ships out of North American ports, of these 6,500,000 le ft from United States Ports and 4,413,000 left from a Florida port. Florida’s share of the North American embarkation is approximately 60.2 percent (Ibid). On average, a 2,000 passenger

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85 ship with a crew of 950 produces appr oximately $180,000 in on-shore spending per United States port. The average port -of-call passenger spent just short of $82 per visit (Ibid). Carnival, the industry leader, is headquartered in Miami, Florida, is a Panamanian held company, none of whos e ships fly an American flag. Carnival and it’s holdings, including seven other cr uise lines, employ from more then fifty countries, none of whom are protected by United States labor laws. They are placed under the direction of the flag flown from the ship they serve, most commonly Panama, Liberia or the Bahamas. Tourists from every corner of the world board ships in Miami, Tampa, Houston and New Orleans these tourists are greeted by faces from dozens of countries, employees and fellow tourists, a like. Cruise ships then plow through the waters of the Caribbean and Latin Ame rica visiting a handful of countries where again tourists have the opportunity to go ashore and interact with people from every corner of the globe. The lite rature on cruise tourism is considerably under represented (see: Lett Jr. 1983; Foster 1986; Hall and Braithwaite 1990; Dwyer and Forsyth 1998; Orams 1999; Wood 2000) Most of these authors have looked at the following: migration, expectation, labor conditions, labor development, environmental concerns and relations between tourist and employee, employee and cruise line an d cruise line and port-of-call. Orams argues, with proper de velopment and management, the cruise industry can be utilized in a variety of sustainable tourism development schemes (1999). Sustainable tourism is defined as tourism together with it’s associated infrastructures; that both now and in th e future operate within natural capacities for the regeneration and future productivity of natural resources; that recognize

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86 the contribution that people and commun ities, customs and lifestyles, make to the tourism experience; that accept that these people must have an equitable share in the economic benefits of touris m and are guided by the wishes of local people and communities in host areas (Eber 1992: 3). The cruise industry operates primarily out of seven seaports in Florida. They are: Canaveral Everglades Key West Manatee Miami Palm Beach Tampa Redevelopment at the Port of Ta mpa and adjoining areas has been ongoing since the early 1990’s. This was when public/private funds established a new convention center-hotel, as well as a sp orts entertainment arena. This growth accompanied by later developments such as the Florida Aquarium (city-owned), the Shops at Channelside, a retail-entert ainment complex, and a trolley system has given new life to an area that was a ll but abandoned by locals and tourists. (English 1998; Barancik 2001; Haber 2001). Duri ng this same time the Port of Tampa redeveloped one of its two existing cruise terminals, built a third, started a fourth and has planned two additional te rminals for a total of six. Ten cruise ships from five cruise lines sailed fr om Tampa in 2002, carrying nearly 633,000 tourists, an increase of nearly 90, 000 from the year before. It is estimated that the Port of Tampa will host some 991,000 tourists during the fiscal year 2004 (TBCVB 2003 *TBVCB counts both embark ation and debarkation). Beginning in

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87 the fall of 2003, Tampa will host the Carnival’s Miracle, a 2,000 passenger “Spirit” class ship that will make its debut in Tampa, the port cities first newly commissioned ship. The urban-waterfront landscape has changed greatly in recent years as recreation and tourism have increasingly shown its economic, social, political and environmental benefits towards port cities within Florida (BREA 2002). No longer is shipping, and its various support industries, seen as the only economic generator for developing a successful port in Florida. Ports that at one time where dominated by warehouses, heavy machinery, refineries and trains are now increasingly a scene comprised of spor ts arenas, convention centers, hotels, cruise terminals, retail-office-residen tial complexes and urban parks. Since 1995 the big four (Carnival, Celebrity, Holland America, and Royal Caribbean) have built 42 new ships a comb ined fleet of 60 ships worldwide. Future contracts through 2006 incr ease this number by 11 while decommissioning only 2 bringing the to tal to 69. The two decommissioned ships have been sold to smaller cruise lines (ICCL 2002). Port Everglade, less then a mile from Los Olas Blvd and downtown Ft. Lauderdale, is arguably the busiest cruise port in the world. During one day in December of 2003 thirty ships carrying over 50,000 tourists left Port Everglade heading towards various port’s-of-calls in the Caribbean and South America. This surpassed Miami which in 2002 saw a one day departure of twenty-seven ships. During that day at Port Ever glade two freighters were redirected to Miami and one freighter anchored off Ft. Lauderdale, awaiting the opening of one of three cargo births that the Port Authority had promised to Carnival for that busiest of days. Port Everglade, as well as, Tampa, Miami and Jacksonville,

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88 are refurbishing more dockage for cruise ships then for any other single aspect of port business. Although, if you look at cruise dockage against all other kinds of dockage such as chemical, raw materials, refrigeration, cargo containers, etc. Cruise dockage makes up a small percentage of the overall refurbished dockage. Table 7.2 Total Cruise Passengers by Port Port 1990 1995 2000 Miami 1,148,4751,500,0001,682,321 Port Canaveral 395,000 468,776 1,013,189 Port Everglade 403,000 440,000 797,582 Tampa 32,767 137,790 229,901 (FCCA 2001) (two days or longer) The FCCA counts embarkation only All four of the above mentioned port s have experienced an increase in cruise tourists. Tampa has seen a 700 percent increase in just ten years. Table 7.3 Ship Count as of 2002 CarnivalHolland America Celebrity Royal Caribbean Number of Ships as of 2002 18 12 9 16 Ships Built Since 1995 12 7 7 11 Ships contracted through 2004 3 2 0 4 Source: CLIA 2001 (numbers represent fleet total)

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89 Table 7.4 Passenger origin by State 2001 % of U.S. Total2000 1999 1998 Florida 1,256,745 18.94% 1,223,9271,093,374 909,697 California 860,187 12.96% 813,076 729,326 725,581 New York 416,073 6.27% 433,489 472,460 404,023 Texas 294,196 4.43% 276,688 237,776 199,068 Massachusetts 279,463 4.21% 200,219 171,572 172,542 Source: CLIA 2001 (CLIA member only representing 97.5% of North American market) The most interesting of these findin gs was 1: the people of Florida are active cruisers nearly 19 percent of all North American cruises in 2001 were taken by Floridians, 2: three of the four cruise lines operating out of Tampa are building new ships and not planning to decommi ssion any within their fleet, 3: ports within Florida are building or planning new cruise terminals 4: Florida’s cruise passenger numbers have grown significantl y in recent years. These findings do indeed help explain the flurry of redevelopment within Florida’s urban waterfront. Reasoning that Florida is th e home of the cruise industry and it’s greatest source of passengers is only the beginning. Researchers must now look at city and port involvement towards de velopment, while beginning to focus attention on what relationships these de velopments bring to the people who live in these areas and the tourists who visit. Measurements of usage and satisfaction for both tourists and locals alike sh ould be sought, analyzed and future recommendations made. It is apparent th at as the cruise industry continues to grow in Florida, so will urban waterfront redevelopment.

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90 CHAPTER EIGHT TAMPA, FLORIDA A Laundry List of Development In 1883 Henry B. Plant brought his railroad to Tampa, thirty-four years after the downtown area was first platted. In 1887 the Mass Brothers opened their first department store in downtown. 1887 also saw the first electric lights on Franklin Street. 1891 Plan t’s Tampa Bay Hotel opens on the western banks of the Hillsborough River opposite downtown 1904 Tampa celebrates its first Gasparilla day. 1926 the Tampa theatre opens. 1933 The University of Tampa becomes a four year university. 1959 Busch Gardens opens it’s gates welcoming three million visitors in it’s first three years. The 1960’s saw the end of initial co nstruction on the Tampa’s highway system Interstate 4 (1963) and Inte rstate 275 (1968) have continuously expanded and been tweaked to accommodate an ever incr easing population and it’s vehicles. This system of roads has allowed the subu rbs of Tampa to grow and prosper, but these same roads disrupted a half-centu ry worth of community investment by creating man-made barriers between neighborhoods. This is a common occurrence in many urban environments when attempting to revitalize. How does one reconnect historic neighborhood s when the historic roads have all but been removed? The 1960’s also brought Tampa’s first big downtown redevelopment push by building a new library (1967), city parking garage and the Curtis Hixon Convention Hall (1965) along the Hillsborough River on what

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91 had been land owned by the Atlantic Co ast Line railroad. The 1960’s also saw Tampa’s first of many attempts at redevelopment in Ybor City. In the 1970’s, the Lykes family built the city’s first office sky scraper, affectionately referred to as “the beer can building” by locals, and the Franklin Street Mall (1973) was designated. The Franklin Street Mall, which to this day is still underutilized, was developed as a retail/restaurant zone for downtown workers and future residents. The 1970’s al so brought increased interest in one of Tampa’s oldest and grandest neighborhoods Hyde Park. The Old Hyde Park Village brought a large mix-use development into a historic neighborhood. It would be nearly 15 years before the proj ect would be seen as a success. The 1970’s saw the building of the cross-town expressway (1976), which connected South Tampa neighborhoods to downtown, I-4 and I-75. The 1980’s brought the following developments: The Tampa Bay Performing Arts Center (1987), the largest in the sout heast, a new convention center sitting prominently at the mouth of the H illsborough River and the Tampa City Centre/Hyatt Regency (1980-1982). The la rge mixed-use planned community of Harbour Island was established (1982-1985). Early phases included the Harbor Island Marketplace (1985) which has se nse been demolished and the Wyndham hotel and marina. The Harbour Island pl anned community does not fit into most ideas for modern downtown redevelopment as it is an isolated man made island with only two access points and many find it’s real estate value too high. Harbor Island’s first residential developments began in 1991. Harbor Island while being connected to the Central Business District is not a part of its urban design as it is a private master planned community. The 1990’s brought a tremendous amou nt of investment as two stadiums were

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92 built (one for an existing NFL team, on e for an expansion NHL team), cruise operations at the seaport increased incl uding a new parking garage, the Florida Aquarium was built and the Tampa M arriott Waterside Convention Hotel & Marina was built. Since the year 2000, two large reta il/restaurant complexes have been built, a Hilton and Hampton Inn have opened in Ybor City, an Embassy Suites has broken ground across from the conventi on center, a new Tampa History Center will be built to accommodate the expansion of the convention center, monies have been put aside to develop a Cultural Arts District including a new museum and a trolley car system connecting three prominent areas of tourism and leisure have all found their way into Tampa. Ov er two billion dollars worth of public and private money has been invested with in the downtown core of 740 acres and those areas that directly effect downtown since 1990. Downtown “The Central Business District” Tampa’s attitude towards its Central Business District (CBD) is physically no different then any other comparably sized city that is in fact the epicenter of economic activity within its metropolit an statistical area. Tampa’s CBD and surrounding areas are home to health institutions, educational institutions, financial intuitions, telecommunications, various degrees of residential density and economic mobility and a well entrenched tourism and leisure component. In 1983, the Tampa City Council design ated a portion of the Central Business District a Community Redevelopment Area under Chapter 163, F.S. This area covered approximately 60 percent of th e Central Business District and was created to address blighting conditions in two different areas of downtown. The

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93 Community Redevelopment area provided gap financing mechanisms to fund the Tampa Convention Center, which was en visioned as a catalyst for visitor oriented development in the southern po rtion of downtown. The redevelopment area was also used to support the constr uction of new and enhanced streetscape in the North Franklin Street District. In 1990, the Tampa City Council designated the remaining portion of the Central Business District a Community Redevelopment Area under chapter 163, F.S. With this action the entire Central Business District of 484.27 acres was within two redevelopment areas. The CBD Element is an optional element of the growth management act pursuant Section 163.3177 (7) (a)-(k), Florida Statutes, and is related to and consistent with all other elements of the Comprehensive Plan, and further, meets the requirements specified within Rule 9j-5.005, Florida Administrative Code. The document lays out recommendations for “Land Use, Urban Design, Public Space and Public Art” for the CBD. The CBD element of the Comprehensive Plan portrays the CBD with the following twelve districts. 1. Franklin Street District: The focus of the highest activity and development intensity in the CBD. This dist rict will contain compact mixed-use development. 2. Retail District: A concentration of the highest activity and development intensities, with retail uses/activities required on the ground floor facing Franklin Street. The intent is to crea te a highly active pedestrian shopping mall.

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94 3. North Franklin Street District: The purp ose of this district is to encourage the development of small of fices and evening-oriented entertainment/restaurant uses. 4. Gateway District: As a major entrance into Downtown, special attention is directed to the treatment of the Ga teway District to protect important views, establishment of new views, and creating a quality downtown image. 5. Cultural Arts District: The purpose of the Cultural arts District is to unify the cultural arts uses/activities that are presently in the area and provide for future support uses that will attract people from throughout the region. 6. Riverfront District: The Riverfront Di strict provides the opportunity to create a public space that can be used as a people oriented place for movement and enjoyment of the wate rfront. Open space, pedestrian activities and access to and along th e waterfront are characteristics of development in this district. 7. Garrison Channel District: The G arrison Channel District should successfully develop as a strong vi sitor-oriented activity center in response to the development of the Convention Center, the Garrison Seaport Center, the Ice Palace (now the St. Pete Times Forum) and Harbour Island. 8. Waterfront Overlay District: This district establishes guidelines for areas that are common to all waterfront distri cts, such as public access to and along the river, the preservation of view corridors, the prohibition of free

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95 standing garages and required pu blic open space as pat of all development. 9. East Office District: A District expected to attract office, mixed-use, service and support uses with development in tensities lower than those found in the Franklin Street District 10. Government Center District : The intent of the Government Center District is to establish a unique identity for this area as the region’s center of government through the treatment of sidewalk paving, landscaping, lighting fixtures and signs. 11. Development district North: A Di strict generally characterized by its underutilization. As a result, a great deal of flexibility can be exercised as to the character of future develo pment. Future development could include office development, transpor tation-related activities, service, housing and businesses uses. 12. Redevelopment District South: This area contains a variety of industrial and manufacturing uses. Although no distinct development character is designated for this area, its future could be substantially influenced by development initiatives in the Garrison Channel and the Channel District. In describing these districts, th e Tampa Comprehensive Plan reveals some recurring themes. Nine of twelve dist ricts encourage tourist and leisure based developments. While none recommend prohibiting tourist and leisure developments the Governme nt Center District, East Office District and Redevelopment District North do not call for such development. Eleven of twelve districts encourage prohibitin g industry towards manufacturing,

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96 warehousing and adult business. The redevelopment district south has substantial manufacturing and warehousin g compared to the rest of the CBD but is quickly being phased out as residences along with expanded tourist and leisure opportunities are being sought in the area. Corresponding to the aforementioned di stricts in the CBD a number of goals have been laid out. 1. Promote design excellence in the CBD. 2. To provide the highest quality amen ities to create an exceptionally appealing pedestrian environment. 3. To create active and attractive pe destrian connections along Franklin street, the waterfront and throughout the Central Business District giving high priority to the movement and comfort of the pedestrian. 4. To promote the Central Business District as the entertainment and cultural center of Florida’s West Coast recogn ized by its fine museums, galleries, theaters, restaurants, performing halls night clubs, public art and other amenities. 5. To provide land for public use to he lp integrate the various areas of the Central Business District and to provide a variety of active and passive opportunities for workers, resident s and visitors to the Downtown. 6. To preserve, and where possible, enha nce the water-oriented character of the waterfront so as to create a fe stive and lively working, living and entertainment environment.

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97 7. To promote the development of reside ntial projects in the downtown area to achieve an integrated land use fa bric which will offer housing, along with a full range of employment, sh opping and leisure opportunities. 8. To guide and create the development of mass transit opportunities in the downtown area to maximize the social and economic benefit to all citizens of Tampa and the region. “The opening of the Performing Arts Cen ter signaled the CBD’s emergence as a regional cultural center. The Florida Aquarium and Garrison Seaport Center have established downtown as a touris t destination. Th e Tampa Convention Center, and the Ice Palace (now the St. Pete Times Forum) has thrust the CBD into national prominence as a majo r convention and entertainment city. The impact of these developments will be significant; however the potential spinoff development of these activities ma y be even more substantial.” (Tampa Comprehensive Plan, CBD Element 1998: 3). The Use of Public/Private Partnerships The growth of tourism is fragment ing urban politics into a constellation of public/private institutions that op erate largely independently from the democratic institutions of local go vernment (Judd and Simpson 2003). The reconstruction of urban spaces around tourism and leisure has not only changed the dynamic of physical spac e but has changed the politics of cities as well. Since the early 1980’s, cities have lead the way in the creation of public/private institutions that finance and manage the facilities of tourism and leisure. These institutions operate under rules that allo w them to escape public scrutiny.

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98 Between 1990 and 2000, 256 sports, arts, conv ention and entertainment facilities were constructed in the United States at a cost of 19.3 billion dollars. Between the years of 1993 and 2000 only 25 refere nda votes were entered into public record on facility development. Twentyone of these votes passed including the largest a nine facility, five year sales tax in Oklahoma City. ( http://www.horrowsports.com/press/clippings_002.shtml ) Referenda on major capital projects were once the norm, but they have become increasingly rare because public officials have become adept at inventing institutional and financial mechanisms that sidestep the el ectorate. According to Eisenger (2000), local priorities have shifted to policies favoring tourists and middle-class user’s leisure spaces because public official s have become adept at bypassing the public. The deals that public officials must strike with private developers to assemble land, provide public amenities, and guarantee sufficient profits are so complicated that it would often be imprac tical to consult the public (Frieden and Sagalyn 1989). As large-scale public pla nning has given way to deal making, the most important development decisions are made in behind-the-scenes, day-today negotiations (Fainstein 2001). Public/Private inst itutions are used in the creation and support of convention/visitor bureaus, sports facilities and entertainment complexes. Public/Private institutions are also seen in air authorities, port authorities, rail author ities and other transportation authorities as the administrators controlling thes e lands in conjunction with local government and business elite look for development and often turn to tourism and leisure. Tampa’s public/private institutio ns that administer many of the tourism developments act independently of mu ch of the cities government. The

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99 Downtown Partnership, a public/private institution, was created to steer downtown redevelopment in Tampa and is funded by a special add-on to property taxes (within the 740 acre downtown zone). The Downtown Partnership is given complete control in how they spend these tax monies in promoting downtown Tampa. The ci ty controlled, 600,000 square foot convention center which will soon underg o its second expansion since it opened in 1992. The convention center, while loca ted within city government pays most attention to an advisory committee consis ting of local business leaders. The convention center and its expansions have been paid for through municipal bonds, and the bonds are being paid back with the use of tax increment financing. The waterfront convention ce nter sits upon land that at one time headquarter Tampa’s Salvation Army. The Salvation Army is now located a mile or so north of its former location in th e neighborhood of Tampa Heights. When reading of Tampa’s waterfront redeve lopment one never finds the Salvation Army move mentioned. The city owns the nearly one hundred million dollar Florida Aquarium, but does not administer it, the city built and leases the St. Pete Times Forum, but does not administer it, built the TECO trolley line, and again, does not administer it. The city is also paying out just over 16 million dollars this year to the developers of Centro Ybor as the tenants in the development have not been able to pay their leases. These de velopments are allowed a certain amount of autonomy and are ran more like private businesses. Sports Facilities in Tampa In 1965, the Tampa Sports Authority was created by the Florida Legislature to oversee the development and planning of sporting facilities in Tampa. The

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100 Sports Authority is a public/private part nership governed by an eleven person board with representation through appointment by the governor, mayor, city council and county commission. The Tamp a Sports Authority oversees Legends Field, home to the AAA affiliate of th e New York Yankees, as well as, home to the New York Yankees spring training camp, Raymond James Stadium, home to the 2003 NFL champion Tampa Bay Buccaneer s, the St. Pete Times Forum, home to the 2003-2004 NHL champion Tampa Bay Li ghtening and three golf courses. Legends Field opened in 1996, as did th e St. Pete Times Forum, while Raymond James Stadium was built in 1998. The Un iversity of South Florida, one of the largest colleges in the Southeast and on e of the newest member s of The Big East Conference, has contracted for use of Raymond James Stadium until 2007. Both Legends Field and Raymond James Stadium have deals that allow them not to pay property taxes in Hillsborough County. The owners of the Tampa Bay Lightening are lobbying for the same su ch agreement. The city of Tampa has endorsed the agreement while the county commission has said, “no” in it’s present form, wanting a commitment from th e Lightening that they will stay in Tampa for a given period of time. Tamp a mayor, Pam Iorio, said she agreed to sign the tax deal because of the Lightnin g’s economic impact to the area. Mayor Iorio contends that the loss of proper ty tax, when compared to the revenue generated by the team, makes good sense. “It helps our restaurants, it helps our convention center, it helps our hotels,” she said. It’s an investment in our community” (Reid and Humphrey, 2004). Hillsborough County Property Appraiser Rob Turner and Lightening owner Bill Davidson, who also owns the 2004 NBA Champion Detroit Pistons, has been at odds over the value of the arena for years now. Since 1999 Davidson has

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101 refuted Turners appraisal every year an d has won on every contest saving himself nearly two million dollars per year. When asked about taking the arena off the counties property tax pay roll Turner states, “It’s bad public policy,” he said, “It shifts that (taxes) burden onto the shoulders of homeowners and small business owners. Somebody is going to have to pay” (Reid and Humphrey, 2004). Hillsborough County does not pres ently receive a share of the collected property taxes from the St. Pete Times Foru m, as it has been built in an area designated as a tax finance district. The county is not eligible to receive property taxes from the St. Pete Times Forum unt il 2016. The Lightening has also asked for increases in local tourist taxes, as we ll as a share of ticket surcharges. The issues discussed above are not unique to Tampa, or even to Florida, they are part of today’s professional sports industry th at accounts for billions of dollars within the United States. Rebuilding Tampa: Hardin Industries Hardin Industries, headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, has taken advantage of much of Tampa’s redevelopment as they ha ve built many of the retail, residence and hotel properties within the downtown core and its immediate areas. Within the downtown core they have built th e Marriott Waterside (1998) and the Hyatt Downtown (1982). They also built the Sun Trust building in downtown planned in the late eighties and completed in 199 2. This was the last high rise office building completed by Hard in in the Tampa market. Hardin Industries built the firs t phases of Harbour Island between 1983 and 1985. Harbour Island, which is man made, is nearly complete and contains some

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102 of the most expensive residential and office real-estate in the city, as well as a Wyndham Hotel and Marina also built by Hardin Industries. To the west of downtown one finds another area of expe nsive real-estate, Bayshore Boulevard “The Boulevard of Dreams” and the neig hborhood of Hyde Park. Bayshore Boulevard is dominated by million dollar homes and high rise condos. Hardin has redeveloped 345 Bayshore (1998) and is currently building One Bayshore, both high rise condos. One Bayshore is less than of a mile from the convention center and will contain at least one level of retail-restaurant space. The historic neighborhood of Hyde Park has also been affected by Hardin as they completed the Madison, a mixture of town homes and apartments, in 2001. The Channel District Port and city officials knew that they had to diversify the area to attract longterm contracts with cruise lines. The Sh oppes at Channelside (forty retail stores, six restaurants, IMAX theatre), opened in January 2001, is owned by Orix Real Estate Equities of Chicago. After ten mont hs of struggling to find itself, the Orix development sought new representation and hired CB Richard Ellis to handle marketing and sales, bringing with it th e combined effort of some 400 retail brokers around the world. One initial goal set out by the city, port and developers was to arrange that 80 perc ent of those businesses that came to Channelside were new to the area. This patte rn of new business has held true to form as even the theater frequently plays movies outside the norm of Hollywood. The only major tenant that can be found elsewhere in the Tampa market would be the Hooters restaurant. Hooters, a Florida restaurant chain, which began in Clearwater, Florida is on ly a few miles from Tampa. The Orix

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103 Group expects 40 percent of business from tourists. The Centro Ybor complex in Ybor City, receives more tourists per ye ar then the Channelside district yet, is expected to collect only 25 to 30 percent of revenue from tourists (Parks 2000). Table 8.1 Total Cruise Passengers Port of Tampa Passengers* Year 463,853 2000 544,881 2001 632,929 2002 850,115 2003 991,000 2004** Source: TBCVB 2003 The TBCVB counts embarkations and debarkations ** Projected This is a near 100 percent increase in just four years. Table 8.2 Cruise Lines Operatin g at the Port of Tampa CarnivalHolland America Celebrity Royal Caribbean Number of Ships as of 2002 18 12 9 16 Ships Built Since 1995 12 7 7 11 Ships contracted through 2004 3 2 0 4 Source CLIA 2001 (numbers represent fleet total) Ybor CityTampa’s National Historic District Ybor City, Florida’s historic Lati n Quarter has been a focus of urban tourism development in Tampa since the 1960’s. At one time the cigar industry epicenter for much of the world Ybor City has falle n on tough, neglected times. Tampa’s

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104 Urban Renewal Agency (URA) began rede velopment of the area with an urban renewal scheme in the early 1960’s, expect ing to build a restaurant/entertainment zone themed on Tampa’s Latin heritage. Ybor City is a Regional Attractor, CRA, designated an Urban Village and one of th ree National Historic Districts within Florida. The city of Tampa has four designated Urban Villages that complement the Central Business District: Hyde P ark, West Tampa, Seminole Heights and Ybor City. An Urban Village is a redeve lopment district with a heavy emphasis on historic character and mix-use development. Ybor City’s 539 acres, or .85 squ are miles, is home to 2,032 residents as reported in the 2000 census. This numb er is projected to more then double within the next two decades and by 2025 will have expanded to nearly 4,300 residents. Currently Ybor is home to 8,780 jobs this number is projected to increase by 83 percent to approximatel y 16,000 jobs by 2025. Ybor City is very much a tourist destination. In a 2004 marketing study conducted by The Hillsborough County City-County Planning Commission, found that 42 percent of customers frequenting Ybor City busi nesses are from outside of Hillsborough County. The report named ten recommendations for the continuing redevelopment of Ybor City. Recognize and support existing efforts. Preserve Heritage-based industries and the historical environment while allowing for innovation. Monitor all governmental assistance and actions affecting Ybor City. Encourage the development or preservation of all Ybor City economic niches or ways of creating wealth.

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105 Encourage a matter of fact enforcement of existing laws and regulations, laws which seem sufficient to address the image issues. Actively campaign to show the genuine, positive image of Ybor City to the local market. Redevelop links with North Ybor and East Tampa. Improve the consumer based marketing campaign. Recruit new businesses such as unique national level retail or entertainment business and businesses that could benefit from the close location to the Port of Tampa. Establish joint and creative events with Channelside. Within a fifteen mile radius of 22nd Street and 7th Avenue, the identified center of the study, there are almost 887,000 reside nts. Within 25 miles there are 1,275,000 residents. This is still a smaller local market when compared to such cities as Baltimore, Boston, Miami, or San Diego but the close proximity to the Port of Tampa makes the area a tremendous positive feature in the eyes of developers. Recreating Historic Connecters At one time Tampa’s streetcars carried passengers to and from Tampa’s diverse neighborhoods: Ybor City, Ballast Point, Port City, West Tampa, Hyde Park and Sulphur Springs were all serviced by an electric street car system. First built in 1892 these Birney cars became a mainstay in everyday life during Tampa’s cigar heyday, reaching an a nnual rider-ship of nearly 24 million passengers in 1926. Twenty years later in 1946 the streetcars and the 57 miles of track where gone.

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106 The 1994 Downtown Tampa Transportation Master Plan discusses much of today’s transportation development in downtown Tampa. The overall goal of the master plan is to meet 2010 demand of: 57,000 employees 1 million annual conventioneers 2.5 million annual tourists Develop a coordinated Multi-Modal System that will: Support development and re-development goals for downtown Tampa; Address quality of life issues, create a Downtown where people want to come and stay, (convenient, pedestrian friendly, attractive); Be affordable, build on existing investments, be cost effective; Be flexible (able to respond to changing conditions over time). (Executive Summary 1994: 3) In 1995, HARTline began a rubber-tire trolle y service linking the urban core, the Tampa Convention Center, The Florida Aquarium and Ybor City. A study was initiated to determine feasibility of inst ituting electric streetcar, buses and rail systems between Ybor City and Downtown. On October 19, 2002, the first phase of the Tampa Electric Company (TECO) Line Streetcar System came online. The 2.3 mile section connects CBD at the convention center with the Channel Distri ct and Ybor City. Phase 2 will be a 5/8 mile extension that will run north on Franklin Street to Whiting Street and the Fort Brooke parking garage. This will ef fectively connect many of the larger CBD parking structures with the conven tion center, St. Pete Times Forum, the Channel District and Ybor City. The project will then continue north along Franklin Street into and through the Fran klin Street Mall and will then turn to

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107 the right at Polk Street and make its way towards Ybor City. The project will encircle the CBD and Channel District (MPO 2003a). Another version of the future plan continues on Franklin into Tampa Heights turning east on Palm Avenue and heading back into Ybor City. The 32 million dollar streetcar system has been built primarily with state and federal funds prioritized by the Metr opolitan Planning Organization for Transportation (MPO). Annual operatin g costs are said to be estimated at 1.3 million annually. The City of Tampa thro ugh private donations has established a 4 million dollar endowment for operating costs not covered by naming rites, advertising and revenue generated through fares. This project also utilizes a public/private partnership as Tampa Hi storic Streetcar Inc., a non-profit corporation manages the streetcar system While The Hillsborough Are Regional Transit Authority (HART) operates and maintains it. This is only the third project of it s type in the United St ates and the first in Florida, utilizing streetcars as an orga nizing principle for urban infill and redevelopment. Perhaps most impressive of the streetcar is that since its announcement over 800 million dollars worth of public and private investment has been made along the route. For the city of Tampa one of the more important incentives from the continuous redevelopment of underutiliz ed areas within and around downtown is that of real taxable Ad Valorem average change per year in property tax revenues. Between the years 1990 and 2000 the downtown core or CBD lost 3.1 percent per year, non-core downtown including garrison channel and the channel district increased 1.7 percent per year, while Ybor City increased at 5.1 percent per year. Between the years 2000 and 2003 the CBD has decreased at .1

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108 percent per year, the non-core downtown ha s increased at 9.6 percent, and Ybor City has increased at an unprecedented 35 percent. The city is especially interested in watching this tax reve nue as these three mentioned areas are designated CRA’s. Overall the City of Tampa has increased from 1.0 percent per year to 7.6 percent per year during this period of time. A Quantitative look at Tampa’s tourism market The following statistics are for Hillsboroug h County. It has been discussed that the majority of these “visitors” are fo und within the city of Tampa. The Tampa Bay Convention and Visitors Bureau will consider you a visitor if your trip originated from outside of Hillsborough County and that the basis for your trip is that of tourism and leisure or business travel. Table 8.3 Selected Trip Characteristics of the Tampa Traveler 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Total Visitors (In Millions) 11.39 12.28 13.4715.39 15.6715.52 Total Expenditures (In Billions) 1.82 1.93 2.23 2.48 2.41 2.50 Average Party Size 3.00 3.09 2.95 2.99 2.92 2.91 Source: TBCVB 2003 Table 8.4 Average Expenditure per Day 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Average Expenditures (per party per day) $186.75$184.32 $194.12 $190.43 $189.44 $219.57 Source: TBCVB 2003

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109 Table 8.5 Visitor Origins 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 In-state 38.0% 39.7% 37.1% 33.6% 37.4% 37.2% Domestic 51.8% 28.8% 50.5% 49.3% 51.5% 51.0% International 10.2% 11.5% 12.4% 17.1% 11.1% 11.8% Source: TBCVB 2003 Future Employment Growth The Metropolitan Planning Orga nization for Transportation (MPO) makes various projections as they relate to travel needs one such projection is employment growth. In 2000 they released data projecting 2015 and 2025 employment throughout the city of Ta mpa and Hillsborough County. The MPO makes projections based on traffic anal ysis zones (TAZ). The MPO defines Regional Service Employment within SIC categories 41, 45-49, 62-67, 70, 73, 75, 76, 78, 79, 80, 81, 83-89 and 90-99. Regional Service employment then includes transportation, communication and utilities; hotels; repair services; health, legal and social services; insurance and real es tate services; tourism and recreational services and government services. The MPO defines Regional Commercial Employment within SIC catego ries 52, 53, 551, 552, 555-559, 56, 57, 593-598. Regional Commercial Employment then includes retail trade and other such establishments that typica lly attract trips from a regional market. Local Commercial Employment includes SIC categories 54, 553, 554, 58, 591, 592, 599. Local Commercial Employment then includes eating and drinking establishments.

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110 Table 8.6 Employment Projections: Garrison Channel and Channel District Employment Category 2000 2015 2025 Regional Service Employment 771 4,418 5,618 Regional Commercial Employment 109 263 338 Local Commercial Employment 14 254 370 Percentage of Total Employment 67.8% 91.7% 93.3% Source: 2000 Metropolitan Planning Organization for Transportation The Garrison Channel and Channel Distri ct according to the 2000 census was home to 1,318 jobs. This number is proj ected to increase by more than 500 percent to approximately 6,780 jobs by 2025. Since 1999, the Marriott Conference Hotel and Marina and The Shoppes of Channelside have opened to reflect some of this expected employment growth. The area was without a hotel before the Marriott and it’s 717 rooms opened. The MPO forecasts 850 hotel rooms by 2015 an d an additional 550 hotel rooms between 2015 and 2025 to be added to th e area. An Embassy Suites has broken ground perpendicular to the convention ce nter inline with the streetcar system. The area is also experiencing a new demand as a residential area as discussed earlier.

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111 Table 8.7 Employment Projections: Ybor City Employment Category 2000 2025 Regional Service Employment 4,928 8,929 Regional Commercial Employment 250 559 Local Commercial Employment 1,831 3,033 Percentage of Total Employment 79.8% 78% Source: 2004 Hillsborough County City-County Planning Commission The Hillsborough County City-Coun ty Planning Commission is consistent with the MPO in that they also utiliz ed TAZ’s in projecting employment projections. Ybor City according to the 2000 census was home to 8,780 jobs. This number is projected to increase by 83 percent to approximately 16,000 jobs by 2025. 16.3 percent of these jobs will be classi fied as industrial an increase from 14.5 percent as reported by the 2000 census. This is a surprising projection as few areas within the city limits are projected to add industrial jobs during this time. It is evident Ybor City has a more dive rse mixture of employment opportunities then those found within the Garrison Channel and Channe l district and that this should be protected and nurtured. Si nce the 2000 census data was compiled the Centro Ybor Retail/Entertainment Complex, as well as a Hampton Inn & Suites, has opened in line with the streetcar system. Conclusions Like Sieber’s study of Boston, this study of Tampa is indicative of other cities in their quest for big-ticket items. Bo th Sieber and Judd have commented that

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112 tourism sites are built upon the idea of blinding both the “host” and the “guest” and transporting them into a land of consumption unaware of the surroundings outside of the tourism site. Cities, su ch as Tampa, are developing a tourism infrastructure as a strategy towards a competitive urban redevelopment scheme. Successfully revitalizing and sustaining an urban center is dependent on addressing a wide range of cultural, educational, recreational, economic, transportation and social service co mponents through an integrated and coordinated effort of global and local stakeholders. Is tourism accomplishing these things here in Tampa? People do seem to want, or at least tolerate, these developments as Tampa’s politicians and business leaders have be en providing them for nearly half a century. The transformation of inner cities around the development of tourism and leisure facilities raises questions over the insight of such projects. In effect, we can recognize two central issues. One concerns sustainability, and addresses the economic question of whether urban tourism projects can lead to sustained economic growth. The second is primarily social, and concerns the distribution of who benefits from these developments. Both of these issues are linked by socio-economic questions of the distribu tion of all benefits discussed within tourism development. Nash presented these same questions twenty-five years ago and anthropology is still working towards answers today. Anthropologists should become more engaged within th eir environments. Many of the most celebrated anthropology departments are lo cated in this nation largest cities, including Tampa. Why then are anthropo logists disinterested in studying the post-modern phenomenon of urban tourism here in the United States? Tampa’s 51 million dollar trolley system operates in three different census tracts. These

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113 three areas have nearly 6,000 residents and reported a 1999 Median Household Income of $11,217, $12,772 and $23,889 respectively Harbour Island sitting just to the south and west of these three tracts posted a 1999 median household income of $92,140. Many residents in the City of Tampa do indeed sit outside only to look in upon tourism and leisure sites. The city of Tampa is benefiting from tourism by creating jobs, increasing its tax revenue and rebuilding it’s downtown and surrounding areas while gaining national and global recognition. What of the people of Tampa, do they share in these same benefits, visions or goals laid out by business and political interests here in Tampa? I believe this is a questi on that can be asked of any city and its residents. A question that anthropologi st should embrace and work diligently towards solving so as to further the an thropology of tourism and understanding of postmodern urban society here in the United States.

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114 CHAPTER NINE CONCLUSIONS This thesis has presented a series of arguments revolving around the central concept that, Tampa and other cities wi thin Florida, are promoting tourism and leisure as tools towards urban redevelopment. The thesis has explored theory and practice within the anthropology of tourism, urban studies, economic development and urban planning. The thesis has uncovered employment and development trends as they relate to tourism and the service economy within urban areas of Florida. The theories of Dennison Nash’s political economy of tourism have been utilized to clarify th e involvement of business and political leaders in Florida and beyond. Tim Sieber’s “host/guest” semblance within western urban sites and the construction of “tourism bubbles”, as theorized by Dennis Judd, have been utilized to discuss the numerous patterned developments that encompass urban sp aces. The causal effect of this development has been seen as being bo th direct and indirect within urban environments. While physically tourism an d leisure have rebuilt urban spaces it has also aided in other forms of developm ent most notably residential, office and retail. Tourism does seem to subjugate the local economy, as presented by Nash (1981, 1989). Opposition to this type of development does not appear to be overly vocal. Further this development has been shown to be a collaborative

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115 effort between political leaders and busi ness leaders and at times even publicly justified by the court system. Tourism has been shown to be a significant, if not the most significant, component to Flor ida’s economy. The majority of tourist activities in Florida are found in urban areas and it has been shown that central cities do indeed have larger concentrations of tourism and leisure related employment and establishments. “The urbanism of Disneyland is precisel y the urbanism of universal equivalence. In this new city, the idea of distinct pl aces is dispersed into a sea of universal placelessness as everyplace becomes de stination and any de stination can be anyplace. The world of traditional urban arrangements is colonized by the penetration of a new multinational corri dor, leading always to a single human subject, the monadic consumer” (Sorkin 1992: 217). Sieber’s study of host / guest dist inctions and Judd’s usage of tourist bubbles have been particularly useful in discussing patterned redevelopment efforts. The homogenizing of urban space is evident in redevelopment practice in Florida. Even in developments that in theory shou ld bread creativity such as cultural arts’ districts in practice uphold the homogeni zing of urban space in the name of the arts. The proposed cultural arts’ distri cts for Tampa, Jacksonville, Ft. Lauderdale and Miami are interchangeable. The district s are even stifling in practice, as each puts forth an effort to attract cultural attractions downtown, in turn other areas of the region could be subject to cult ural neglect. Hanni gan asks (1998: 200), “Are we prepared to overlook the cultural diversity in the community in favor of pre-packaged corporate entertainment deci sions? Will there be room for leisure activities other that those which can be branded, licensed, franchised, and rolled out on a global scale?” Writing about postmodern society an d contemporary tourism, Urry states that

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116 “tourism is no longer a differentiated set of social activities with its own set of rules, times, and spaces… It has become part of a broader culture… with no clearcut distinctions” (1996: 84-85). Howev er in spite of an apparently sweeping trend towards homogenization, Urry conclu des that there is still a tendency for places all over the globe to “compete fo r visitors by auditing and developing local resources and the local sense of place” (1996: 88). The transformation of inner cities around the development of new tourism and leisure facilities raises questions over the insight of such projects. In effect, we can recognize two central issues. One concerns sustainability, and addresses the economic question of whether urban tourism projects can lead to sustained economic growth. The second is primarily social, and concerns the distribution of who benefits from these developments. Both of these issues are linked by socio-economic questions of the distribu tion of all benefits discussed within tourism development. Dennison Nash (1981) asked these same questions of anthropologists studying tourism nearly twenty-five years ago. The politics of place in tourism tend to be hidden behind a pervasive discourse about the assumed economic be nefits of destination development. Some governments are enlightened and admit that the expansion of tourism cannot exclusively follow an economic rationale. To what degree, and under what circumstances, do place ideologies within tourism become institutionalized and begin to carry the force of compul sion in shaping people’s conduct? Successfully revitalizing and sustaining an urban center is dependent on addressing a wide range of cultural, educational, recreational, economic, transportation and social services co mponents through an integrated and coordinated effort of global and local stakeholders. Are the political and

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117 business leaders of Florida taking this into account? This thesis has presented evidence th at significant direct and indirect benefits for all Floridians exist when developi ng a tourism infrastructure. Tourism creates employment, raises tax revenue an d rebuilds the physical environment in a way that supports “quality of life issues .” Numerous negative effects such as the creation of low skill, low wage employment, economic dependency towards tourism and the consumption of public spac e have also been discussed. Tourism is a form of development and development is exploitive at its deepest root. One must judge the exploitive qualities and attempt to rationalize the pros and cons within the type of development. Florida policy-makers and citizens alike should not take the positive contributions that tourism makes to Florida’s economy for granted. Nor should they be oblivious to the costs associated with this major economic and social force. It is critic ally important that a concerted effort be made to assure that both the public an d Florida’s lawmakers be fully, not just partially, informed as to the contributions that tourism makes to Florida’s economy and the quality of life of all Flor idians. This requires that a sizeable effort be made to assure that the best possible data be secured and continuously updated for analysis and policy-making purp oses. It will take a dedicated effort on the part of the state and its citizens to assure that this happens and that the results are published and widely disseminated in a timely manner. This generation must teach the next. Evidence presented has shown that in comparison with areas such as anth ropology, sociology, geography and marketing where tourism literature is evid ent and growing, tourism planning is among the most underrepresented fields. Jafari (1990) provides incite into the debate. When researching the subject of doctoral dissertations in tourism found

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118 only two references to urban and regi onal planning between 1951 and 1987. This is unsatisfactory in a field in which ev ery major United States city has been engaged in one way or another. Anthro pologists should become more engaged within their urban environments. Many of the most celebrated anthropology departments are located in this nation’s largest cities, including Tampa. Why then are anthropologists disinterested in studying the post-modern phenomenon of urban tourism here in the United States? One obsession that is constant wi thin development practices is that every community, city, state, region, or nation will ask itself, why anyone wants to live, relocate, visit, invest, or start or expand a business there. What does this place have that people need or should want? Florida has asked this question of itself for the last hundred plus years and it is far overdue for anthropologists to begin asking questions of Florida!

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135 Turner, R., and Rosentraub, M., S. 2002 Tourism, Sports, and the Centrality of Cities. Journal of Urban affairs 24: 5 487-492. Urry, J. 1996 Post Modern Society and Contemporary Tourism. in Tourism and Culture: Global Civilization in Change?. W. Nuryanti ed. Gadjah Mada University Press: Yogyakarta pp. 83-90. van den Berghe, P. 1992 Tourism and the Ethnic Division of Labor. Annals of Tourism Research 19: 234-249. van den Berghe, P. 1994 The Quest for the Other: Ethnic Tourism in San Cristobal, Mexico. Seattle. University of Washington Press. van den Berg, L., and J,. van den Borg, A., P., Russo. 2003 The Infrastructure of Urban To urism: A European Model? In The Infrastructure of Play: Building the Tourist City. D. Judd ed. New York: M. E. Sharpe. van Kemper, R. 1978 Tourism and Regional Developmen t in Taos, New Mexico in Tourism and Economic Change. V. Smith ed. Studies in Third World Societies No. 6. Williamsburg: William and Mary Press. Visit Florida www.visitflorida.org Visit Florida www.visitflorida.org/grant_app_package.cfm Walle, H., A. 1998 Cultural Tourism A Strategic Focus. Boulder, Co: Westview Press

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136 WEFA, and BREA 2001a The Contribution of the North Ame rican Cruise Industry to the U.S. Economy in 2000. Prepared for the Cruise Lines International Association. August 2001. WEFA, and BREA 2001b The Contribution of the North Ameri can Cruise Industry to the Florida Economy in 2000. Prepared for Florida-Caribbean Cruise Association. January 2001. Wilson, D. 1995 Glimpses of Caribbean Tourism an d the Question of Sustainability in Barbados and St. Lucia. In Sustainable Tourism in Small Island States. L. Briguglio, R. Butler, D. Harrison, W.L Filho eds. New York: Pinter. Pp. 75-102. Wood, R., E. 2000 Caribbean Cruise Tourism Globalization at Sea. Annals of Tourism Research 27 2: 345-370. World Tourism Organization 2001 Taken from WTO, op. cit. note 7, and from WTO, op. cit. note 20. World Tourism Organization http://www.world-tourism.org/f rameset/frame_statistics.html Young, G 1973 Tourism: Blessing or Blight. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Zukin, S. 1991 Landscapes of Power. Berkeley: University of California Press

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137 ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

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138 Each entry contains the following: The author’s name is given. The title contains the full reference, th is includes the tile of the work, were or in what it was published, and at times by whom and for whom the information was published. The classification is the type of to urism or issue within tourism being presented. The annotation presents a short overview of the work. Nearly all of the annotations presented are taken from a database such as Proquest or JStor they are not of my own invention. Unfortunately not all references have annotations but my feelin g is that a reference alone is worthy of inclusion in this work.

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139 BY AUTHORS LAST NAME Author: Ashley, Robert A; Bach, Susa n A; Chesser, Jerald W; Ellis, E Taylor Title: A customer-based approach to ho spitality education. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly Vol. 36 iss 4 p74 Aug. 1995. Classification: Higher Education Annotation: The 1991 merger of the ho spitality program wi th the College of Business Administration at the University of Central Florida gave the hospitality faculty the opportunity to re-examine an d reconstruct its curriculum. The merger meant that just 27 credit hours would be available for hospitality courses. The faculty recruited 25 hospitality and tourism executives to help identify critical skills and knowledge. The result was a cu rriculum of 6 core hospitality courses and 3 electives, primarily intended for juniors and seniors. The rest of the curriculum involves 2 years of broad course work and one year of business courses. Courses focus on managerial skills instead of technical skills. Accounting, marketing, quantitative anal ysis, and economics are covered as part of the general-business curriculum. The faculty also determined that communication and interpersonal skills would not be taught as specific courses but through assignments in other content areas. Author: Bell, Frederick W. Leeworthy, Vernon R. Title: Recreational Demand by To urists for Saltwater Beach Days. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management Vol. 18 iss. 3 p. 189-206. May 1990. Classification: Recreation and Leisure Annotation: In the US, beaches are used by nearly 76 million people annually. An analysis is presented that deals with tourists that come from significant distances to use primarily beach resources. As Smith and Kopp (1980) have argued, those that use the conventional travel cost method (TCM) do not recognize its potential spatial limitations One-day trips as used by the TCM are

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140 certainly inapplicable to those coming from significant distances, such as tourists to Florida. The empirical data are consistent with the thesis that annual consumer demand by individual tourists for Florida beach days is positively related to travel cost per trip and inversely rela ted to on-site cost per day. There are compelling reasons for treating recreati onal decision making for tourists differently than for residents or those traveling relatively short distances. Employing the on-site cost demand curve for tourists using Florida s beaches, it is found that the daily consumer surplu s is nearly $3! 4. Using this value, the annual value of the flow of beach services for tourists alone is $2.374 billion. Author: Bhat, Mahadev G. Title: Application of non-market valuation to the Florida Keys marine reserve management. Journal of Environmental Management, Apr2003, Vol. 67 Issue 4, p315, 11p. Classification: Economics Annotation: The quality of the coral reef s in the Florida Keys is essential to sustain nature-based tourism in the Ke ys. The recently established marine reserves (MR) are expected to improve th e reef environment, particularly coral and fish abundance and diversity. In this paper, a combined model of travel cost and contingent behavior was estimated in order to measure the non-market recreational benefits of reef quality im provements. The results indicated that an average visitor would undertake 43-80% mo re number of trips to the Florida Keys and experience a 69% increase in the use values per trip, as a result of the MR-induced reef quality improvements. The above non-market value estimates were further applied to evaluating al ternative management proposals for funding the MR program. It was found that the annual management costs of the MR program would constitute an insignif icant portion-only around one to 2%-of the annual recreational benefits that th e MR would generate. The results provide a strong economic justification for desi gning user-based funding mechanisms in order to make the MR program self-sustaining in the future. Author: Blais, Peter Title: All Work and No Play? Planni ng, Apr2002, Vol. 68 Issue 4, p4, 6p, 5c.

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141 Classification: Recreation and Leisure Annotation: Discusses the impact of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the U.S. on the tourist trade in the coun try. Plans for economic diversification and business expansion in Orlando, Florid a; decision of the tourism bureau in Scottsdale, Arizona to continue its wint er marketing program; Transition from a tourist to a lifestyle economy in Vail, Colorado. Author: Borrie, William T Title: Disneyland and Disney World: De signing and Prescribing the Recreational Experience. Loisir et Societe/Soci ety and Leisure, 1999, 22, 1, spring, 71-82. Classification: Theme Park Annotation: Disneyland (CA) & Walt Disney World (FL) are two of the best known & most highly visited tourism de stinations in the world. With this visibility & audience reach, the action of the Disney Co exte nds well beyond the boundaries of their theme parks, ie, th e standards that Di sney sets in the management of its park environments have the potential to become the standards against which all environments are judged. Similarly, the visitor expectations & experiences that Disney constructs can become models to which visitors would have all recreation managers aspire. Disney is often acknowledged as the premier visitor servic es organization, & it is partly this excellence that gives it stature & impact. As recreational visitors are increasingly being treated as customers, natural resource managers should consider the appropriateness of Disney s approach to designing & prescribing the visitor experience. Author: Braun B.M.; Milman A Title: Localization economies in the th eme park industry. Review of Regional Studies 20, no.3 (1990) p. 33-37. Classification: Theme Park Annotation:

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142 Author: Braun, Bradley M.; Milman, Ady Title: Demand Relations in the Cultural Florida Theme Park Industry. Annals of tourism research. 21, no. 1, (1994) 150. Classification: Theme Park Annotation: Author: Braun M. Bradley; Rungeling, Brian Title: The relative economic impact of convention and tourist visitors on a regional economy: a case study, In ternational Journal of Hospitality Management, Volume 11, Issue 1, February 1992, Pages 65-7. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Braun, Bradley M.; Xander, James A.; White, Kenneth R Title: The Impact of the Cruise Industry on a Region s Economy: A Case Study of Port Canaveral, Florida. Tourism Economics, September 2002, v. 8, iss. 3, pp. 281-88. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Bush, Gregory W. Title: Playground of the USA : Miami and the promotion of spectacle Pacific Historical Review Vol. 68 iss. 2 p. 153-172. Classification: Development/History Annotation: Bush examines the roots of promotion in the late 19th century and compares Miami to Southern California. Qu estions are raised about the ways in

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143 which a community s well-being can be narrowly defined by the promotion and pleasure industries. Author: Bushnell, Jay R Title: Florida Community Colleges Role with Heritage Resource Preservation and Promotion in the Context of the ECHO Tourism Movement. Visions: The Journal of Applied Research for the Flor ida Association of Community Colleges; v2 n2 p51-54 Sum 1999. Classification: Development/History Annotation: Discusses the role that commu nity colleges can play in maintaining local heritage resources to support envi ronmental, cultural arts, heritage, and outdoor recreation (ECHO) tourism. States that tourism provides an opportunity for community colleges to spread the word about why the study of culture and history is important. Author: Business Research and Econ omic Advisors of Exton, PA Title: Contribution of the North Ame rican Cruise Industry to the Florida Economy. Prepared for: Florida-Caribbean Cruise Association. Prepared by: Business Research and Economic Advisors of Exton, PA. January 2001. BREA P.O. Box 955 Exton, PA 19341. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Caproni, Joanna S. Title: Travel as Theater: A New Challe nge to the Credibility of Tourism Journal of Travel Research Vol. 30 iss. 3 p.54. Classification: Theme Parks Annotation: Let s Pretend is one of the strongest and fastest growing segments of the travel industry. In early 1991, th e New York Times reported that France

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144 was the number one tourist destination, with 50 million visitors a year. The US was 2nd, with 39.8 million, and Spain wa s 3rd, with 34.3 million. The 4th most popular destination was Disney World, with 28.5 million annual visitors. When the 12.9 million who visit Disneyland in Anaheim, California, and the estimated 12 million of Tokyo s Disneyland are added in, the total reaches 53.4 million visitors a year to these let s pretend worlds. Going to let s pretend theme parks is something that more people are do ing for many good reasons it is easy, it is relatively inexpensive, there are no unpleasant surprises, and it is guaranteed fun for the whole family. One of the new challenges to tourism is this magical sleight-of-hand substitution of th e perfectly fabulous fake for the often flawed original. Author: Caro de, Frank Title: Strategies of presen tation and control at Disney s EPCOT: field notes on tourism, folk ideas, and manipulating culture. Southern Folklore Spring 1997 v54 n1 p26(14). Classification: Theme Parks Annotation: Folklorists should study EPCOT s World Showcase at Walt Disney World to achieve a better understanding of how tourists understand and perceive the various cultures they encounter on trips and how cultural stereotypes are created. EPCOT s presentation of cultures is similar to how cultures are presented at folk festivals and in museums. The World Showcase provides a stereotypical view of each nation represented. Author: Conaway, James Title: A Jewel in the Dry Tortugas. Smithsonian, Nov99, Vol. 30 Issue 8, p124, 9p, 13c. Classification: Environmental Concerns Annotation: Reports on Fort Jefferson Na tional Park in the Dry Tortuga region of the Florida Keys. How remoteness impa cts tourism and the ability to deliver supplies; Effects of severe weather; Hist ory of the fort and why it was built;

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145 Abundance of poaching; Efforts to preserve the aging fort; Architectural features; Details of research on turtles; Outlook. Author: Confer, J., L., Pennington-Gray, B., Thapa, S., Holland. Title: Heritage tourism Study for St. Jo hns County. For the St. Augustine, Punte Verde and the Beaches Tourist Developm ent Council. July 1, 2001July 1 2002. Classification: Development/History Annotation: Author: Crotts C., John Title: Theoretical perspectives on tour ist criminal victimization. Journal of Tourism Studies May 2003 v14 i1 p92(7). Classification: Social Impacts Annotation: Crime on tourists is a topic that few tourism professionals like to discuss and even fewer would wish to endure. However, there are few tourist destinations in the world today that are immune to the problem. This paper attempted to place the location and incide nce of crimes against tourists into two theoretical contexts. Hot Spot Theory and Routine Activity Theory provide a useful framework in which to explore ho w communities expose tourists to the risk of being criminally victimized and wh at feasibly can be done about it. Data from Florida on the frequency and location of crimes on tourists were used to illustrate these theoretical propositions. The intent of this paper was to provide insights to other communities as to ho w they can understand and manage their particular problems effectively. Author: Crotts, J and Holland, S. Title: Objective indicators of the impa cts of rural tourism development in the state of Florida. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 1(2) pp. 112-120. 1993. Classification: Social Impacts

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146 Annotation: Authors: Davis, Duane; Allen, Jeff; Cosenza, Robert M. Title: Segmenting Loca l Residents by Their Attitudes, Interests, and Opinions Toward Tourism Journal of Travel Research Vol. 27 iss. 2 p. 2-9. Classification: Social Impacts Annotation: A study was conducted to assess and segment local residents with respect to their attitudes, interests, and opinions toward tourism. The data were collected via a mail survey of Florida residents, with 397 usable responses obtained. The analysis revealed 5 readily identifiable segments, indicating the diversity of opinions of local residents toward tourism. The segments were labeled as haters, cautious romantics, in-betweeners, love em for a reason, and lovers. The experience also indicated a strong positive relationship between knowledge of tourism s impact on the economy and appreciation of the industry. Specifically, the more reside nts knew about the tourism industry, the less negative they seemed toward it. While distinct psychographic segments existed, demographics were found to be of little value in describing segment membership. The only such variable fo und to be significant in delineating segment membership was whether the re spondent was born in Florida. The results indicate that more emphasis shou ld be placed on educating the residents on the positive aspects of tourism in general. Author: DeSalvo, Joseph S. Title: Direct Impact of an Airport on Travelers Expenditures: Methodology and Application. Growth and Change, Fall 2002, v. 33, iss. 4, pp. 485-96. Classification: Economics Annotation: Discusses Ta mpa International Aiport Author: English, Donald B. K.

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147 Title: A Simple Procedure for Generat ing Confidence Intervals in Tourist Spending Profiles and Resulting Econom ic Impacts. Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, 2000, v. 30, iss. 1, pp. 61-76. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: “Environmental Economics Symposium Committee” Greater Miami Chamber of Commerce, “Environment al Affairs Group & Environmental Economics Council” National Audubon Society, “Everglades Conservation Office” South Florida Water Management District Title: In South Florida, Th e Environment Is The Economy Prepared for: Greater Miami Chamber of Commerce. June 1999. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Fann, D. Title: Using GIS to Create Educational Products that Encourage Nature-Based Tourism by Florida s Recreational Boaters. Coastal GeoTools 01. Proceedings of the 2nd Biennial Coastal GeoTools Conf erence. Charleston, SC, January 8-11, 2001. [np]. 2001. Classification: Nature-Based Annotation: Author: Fik, Timothy J; Malecki, Edward J; Amey, Robert G Title: Trouble in Paradise? Employment Trends and Forecasts for a ServiceOriented Economy Economic Development Quarterly, 1993, 7, 4, Nov, 358-372. Classification: Economics

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148 Annotation: The service sector in FL has grown tremendously over the past thirty years, primarily due to the impact s of elderly immigration & flourishing recreational & tourist industries. Official data show that 40+% of the state s personal income is now derived from inte rstate income transfers. Although these income flows have brought modest gains in many sectors, their ability to provide adequate stimulus for further growth re mains questionable. As income transfers level off, the growth of FL s retail & service sectors is likely to slow. Projected structural deficits are likely to offset past benefits. State economic development planners must promote initia tives aimed at reducing FL s reliance on transfer income & consumer services. Author: Finkl C.W.; Charlier R.H. Title: Sustainability of Subtropical Co astal Zones in Southeastern Florida: Challenges for Urbanized Coastal Enviro nments Threatened by Development, Pollution, Water Supply, and Storm Hazards. Journal of Coastal Research 19, no.4 (2003) p. 934-943. Classification: Development/History Annotation: Author: Fodness, Dale Title: Consumer Perceptions of Tourist Attractions Journal of Travel Research Vol. 28 iss. 4 p. 3-10. 1990. Classification: Marketing Annotation: Perceptual mapping techniques and survey data are used to investigate the implications of consumer perceptions that may then be applied to marketing tourist attractions. Data colle cted by the Florida Domestic Tourism Exit Survey Program throughout 1987 wer e analyzed via customer interchange analysis, multidimensional scaling, and cl uster analysis. A customer interchange matrix was created from the raw data by tabulating the number of respondents who reported a visit to both attractions in all pairs of the top 10 attractions. All 3 techniques revealed basically the same patterns. Clearly, Walt Disney World dominates the market for both air and automobile visitors, followed by Sea

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149 World. These 2 attractions exhibit the hi ghest rates of customer interchange and are closely grouped on the perceptual ma ps. The 2nd tier of attractions in the Florida market differs significantly by mo de of travel. Attractions in and around Miami compose this market segment. Cust omer inte! rchange patterns show only light interchange between the Miami-ba sed attractions and the top 5 Orlandobased attractions. Author: Fodness, Dale Title: The impact of family life cycle on the vacation decision-making process Journal of Travel Research Vol. 31 iss. 2 p. 8-14. Classification: Marketing Annotation: A study explores the idea that a family s leisure travel decisionmaking process may be influenced by the family s position in its life cycle. Data were collected via the Florida Domestic Tourism Exit Survey Program in 1987. The study focused on the 2 stages of th e vacation decision-m aking process which were available from the secondary data information search and final decision. The findings suggest that as the fam ily moves through the life cycle and the family structure changes, predictable or observable changes also occur in terms of family decision-making processes. Th e finding that wives were more likely than husbands to conduct the pre-vacation information search, contrary to earlier studies, implies that roles related to family decision making may change over time, both in general and within the spec ific stages of the family life cycle. Author: Freeman Jr J.R. Title: Orlando International Airport planning for tomorrow. ITE Journal 60, no.7 (1990) p. 15-17. Classification: Development/History Annotation: Author: Gapinski, James H; Tuckman, Howard P. Title: Amtrak, Auto-Train, and Vacation Travel to Florida: Little Trains That Could Management Science Vol. 24 iss. 11, July 1978.

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150 Classification: Transportation Annotation: An examination is carried out to ascertain whether Amtrak and Auto-Train altered the demand for vacation travel to Florida by train. A profile of tourist arrivals is prepared which reveals a downward trend until the inception of effective Amtrak and Auto-Train service. At that point, the trend is promptly reversed. A travel demand functio n is postulated to include: 1. income, 2. price, and 3. interaction dummies which allow for consequences of the trains. Due to multicollinearity, the equation is estimated by ridge regression. The results suggest that the trains modified both income and price effects in the function. A discussion is incl uded of the likely implicat ions of Amtrak and AutoTrain for the leisure industries of Flor ida. New business may open up near train depots for tourists, and there may be a gr owth in number of destinations visited by tourists. Author: Gibson, Heather J.; Willm ing, Cynthia; and Holdnak, Andrew Title: Small-scale event sport tourism: fans as tourists, Tourism Management, Volume 24, Issue 2, April 2003, Pages 181-190. Classification: Recreation and Leisure Annotation: Author: Gibson, H. Title: Sport Tourism: A critical analysis of research. Sport Management Review, 1, 45-46. 1998. Classification: Recreation and Leisure Annotation: Author: Gill, D., R. Ditton and S Holland. Title: Charter and party boat operators in the U.S. Gilf of Mexico: a social structure perspective. Marine Fisheries Review 55(3), pp. 16-20. 1993.

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151 Classification: Recreation and Leisure Annotation: Author: Gladstone, David L Title: Tourism Urbanization in the Unit ed States. Urban Affairs Review, 1998, 34, 1, Sept, 3-27. Classification: Urban Issues Annotation: Explores the effects of what P. Mullins (eg, 1994) calls tourism urbanization, the evolution of tourism-dependent metropolitan areas, on US metropolitan areas (eg, Las Vegas, NV, & Orlando, FL) & compares such cities to those outside the US (eg, Sunshine Coast & Gold Coast, Australia). Analysis of census data reveals two distinct types of tourism urbanization in the US: (1) sun, sand, & sea tourism & (2) highly capital-intensive tourist attractions. The two types of tourist cities exhibit different social structures, & both differ in important ways from tourist cities outside the US. Author: Glaser, Marc A.; Denhardt, Robert B. Title: Economic and Environmental Concerns and Local Development Policy: Tourism From the Perspective of the Host Population. Public Works Management & Policy 3, no. 3 (1999): 209-223. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Greene, Gretchen; Moss, Charles B.; Spreen, Thomas H. Title: Demand for Recreational Fishing in Tampa Bay, Florida: A Random Utility Approach. Marine Resource Economics, Winter 1997, v. 12, iss. 4, pp. 293-305. Classification: Recreation and Leisure

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152 Annotation: Author: Gu, Zheng; Martin, Thomas L Title: Terrorism, Seasonality, and Inte rnational Air Tourist Arrivals in Central Florida: An Empirical Analysis. Classification: Transportation Annotation: A multiple regression mo del is developed to explain the rapid growth in international passenger traffic at central Florida s Orlando International Airport (OIA), focusing on implications for regional tourism. Five variables are identified as significantl y related to the passenger arrivals. The positive relationship between the econom ic performance of other industrialized countries & OIA international arrivals is consistent with the hypothesis that income is a positive determinant in t ravel decision. The increasing hijacking incidents in Europe & the Middle East has a destination substitution effect: hijacking may have encouraged Canadian & European tourists to switch from European/Middle Eastern destinations to the US in general, & to Orlando in particular. The composite tourism supply v ariable, represented by the number of Orlando hotel/motel rooms, is positively related to OIA international arrivals. The two dummy variables of seasonality a pleasant winter & early spring sunshine – contribute significantly to international passenger arrivals. Author: Haas center-University of West Florida. Contact-Melissa Neal Title: Beaches of South Walton. Prepared for: Walton County Tourist Development Council, Economic Develo pment Council, Chamber of Commerce. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Hodges, W. Alan; Haydu, J. John Title: Golf, Tourism and Amenity-Based Development in Florida. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge Vol. 4 iss. p. 481-488.

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153 Classification: Recreation and Leisure Annotation: Author: Holdnak, A. Pennington-Gray L. Title: Evaluation of Visitors to the Gainsville Arts Festival. For the City of Gainesville Department of Cuiltural Affairs. 2000. Classification: Marketing Annotation: Author: Holdnak, A; Pennington Gray, L Title: Farm Tourism: A Case Study In Florida s Orange Groves. Parks and Recreation [Parks & R]. Vol. 35, pp. 146-150+. Sep 2000. Classification: Rural Issues Annotation: Author: Holland, S., Ditton R., and Graefe A. Title: An Ecotourism perspective on billfish fisheries. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 6(2) pp. 1-20. 1998. Classification: Nature Based Annotation: Author: Holland, S., Fedler, A., Gibson, H. Title: A social science and historical perspective of the saltwater fishing resources of Palm Beach County, Florid a: Survey Design. Department of Environmental Protection and West Palm Beach Fishing Club. 1998. Classification: Recreation and Leisure

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154 Annotation: Author: Holland, S.; Pennington-Gray, L.; Thapa, B. Title: Outdoor Recreation Needs Asse ssment for Florida. For the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. 2001. Classification: Recreation and Leisure Annotation: Author: Hollinshead K. Title: Disney and commodity aesthetics: A critique of Fjellman s analysis of Distory and the Historicide of the past. Current Issues in Tourism 1, no.1 (1998) p. 58-119. Classification: Theme Parks Annotation: Author: Houston, JR. Title: The Economic Value of Beache s, The Future of Beach Nourishment., Florida Shore & Beach Preservation Association, Tallahassee, FL (USA), May 1996, pp. 271-280. Classification: Economics Annotation Author: Johnson, Cassandra Y; Horan, Patrick M; Pepper, William Title: Race, Rural Residence, and Wild land Visitation: Examining the Influence of Sociocultural Meaning. Rural Sociology, 1997, 62, 1, spring, 88-110. Classification: Minority Impacts

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155 Annotation: Proposes that race operates on wildland recreation visitation through the different meanings rural blac ks & whites attribute to wildlands, using a structural model applied to survey data from 467 residents of the Apalachicola National Forest in FL. Sing le equation results show blacks visit wildlands less, & have less-favorable de finitions of wildlands, compared to whites. However, when wildland meaning is included in the structural model, racial differences become insignificant, suggesting that the meanings that different racial groups attach to wildland s help explain visitation. Both sex & age were also significant predictors of wildland meaning & visitation. Author: Josiam M. B., Hobson P. Title: Consumer choice in context: the de coy effect in travel and tourism. Journal of Travel Research Summer 1995 v34 n1 p45(6). Classification: Marketing Annotation: The decoy effect, a model of consumer behavior, hypothesizes that the introduction of a carefully constructed decoy into a choice set will result in a segment of consumers shifting their choice to a higher priced targeted item. The decoy is a high-price, low-value product compared to other items in the choice set. This study tested the decoy effect, using choices of tour packages to Las Vegas, Nevada, and Disney World, Florid a. The introduction of decoy packages resulted in some consumers shifting thei r preferences to higher priced packages. Implications for travel marketers are suggested. Author: Koch, Donald L., Steinhauser, Delores W. Title: Florida: Poised for a Surge Econ omic Review Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Vol. 68 iss. 2 p. 6-20. Classification: Economics Annotation: Early signs indicate a revitalization of Florida s economy in 1983. Rapid long-term population growth, attractive climate, pollution-free environment, and low cost of living contribute to Florida s business climate.

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156 These factors have carried Florida thro ugh most national recessions; 1982 may prove to have been only a lull in Florida s upward surge. Population growth is expected to increase in 1983, stimulating the residential construction industry. The outlook for the tourism industry is contingent upon national and international economic upturn However, Walt Disney World s opening of the Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow (EPCOT) at Orlando should keep tourism strong. The international trade and finance problems of 1982 are expected to moderate in 1983. New busine ss development suffered in 1982 as new incorporations dropped, business ba nkruptcies rose, and corporate profits dropped sharply in many sectors. In 1983, the foundation will be set for stron! g economic growth in 1984. Author: Koenig, John Title: The invasion continues: some 50 ye ars after the big wave of tourism began, the industry has evolved; from mom-andpop hotels to corporate conglomerates catering to a global marketplace. Florida Trend 35:74-8 March 1993. Classification: Marketing Annotation: Author: Laycock, G.; Karnow, C. Title: Good times are killing the Keys. (cover story) Audubon, Sep/Oct91, Vol. 93 Issue 5, p38, 12p, 1 graph, 17c. Classification: Environmental Concerns Annotation: Explains how mass tourism, development, destruction of wildlife habitat and poor waste disp osal are endangering the Florida Keys, or Monroe County, Fla. Town of Key West; Destruction of mangrove forests, coral reefs and sea-grass meadows; Declining fish and bird populations; Key deer; Use of Jet Skis and outboard motors which rip up sea-grass meadows; `Fecal contamination from sewage; Overcrowding; Prodevelopment attitudes; Manatees. Author: Leeworthy, Vernon R.; Wiley, Peter C.; English, Donald B. K.; and

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157 Kriesel, Warren Title: Correcting response bias in tour ist spending surveys, Annals of Tourism Research, Volume 28, Issue 1, January 2001, Pages 83-97. Classification: Marketing Annotation: Author: Livingston, Guy; Arthur, Kellie Title: The Economic Impact of Pensacol a Beach. Prepared for: Santa Rosa Island AuthorityPensacola Beach, Florida. Prepared by: Guy Livingston and Kellie ArthurHaas Center: University of West Florida. October 21, 2002. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Malecki E.J. Title: High tech, Mickey Mouse, and oranges: the development and coexistence of the military-space industry and tourism in central Florida. Florida Geographer 27 (1996) p. 37-53. Classification: Development/History Annotation: Author: Marcus R.B. Title: Change in Florida tourism: 1970-1980. Frankfurter Wirtschafts-und Sozialgeographische Schriften 41 (1982) p. 219-234. Classification: Development/History Annotation:

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158 Author: Marshall, Victor W; Tucker, Richard D. Title: Canadian seasonal migrants to the Sunbelt: boon or burden? Journal of Applied Gerontology, Vol. 9, No. 4, p. 420-432, (13p.), Dec 1990. Classification: Social Impacts Annotation: Examined whether Sunbelt communities benefit or lose from hosting seasonal migrants from Canad a. A 12-page questionnaire was completed by 2,728 Canadians aged 65 an d older who seasonally mi grate to Florida. Results show that Canadian residents contribute greatly to the host economies, spending a reported $1,200 per month, over an average 5-month stay, and creating demands for housing and consumer goods and services. These seasonal migrants make few demands on the health services and virtually no dema nds on the social services available to older people in Florida. Decreased income levels are associated with a greater reluctance to use the U.S. health care system. The strongest reason the Canadian seasonal migrants are likely to return to Canada as their health deteriorates is the feeling of comfort with the Canadian health care system, which provides full coverage. As a boon to the local economy, these migrants attract tourism visits from children and other relatives, generating direct and multiplier effects on the econom y. It is concluded that there are few real economic costs from seasonal migrat ion to the host environment, and that when their health care needs become ex tensive they are likely to return to Canada and cease their pattern of seasonal migration. Author: McKenney, Alexis; Dustin, Daniel; Wolff, Robert Title: Key West Florida: The Sweetest Do Nothing Contrived. Parks & Recreation, Sep2000, Vol. 35 Issue 9, p108, 7p. Classification: Environmental Concerns Annotation: Focuses on the tourism industry in Key West, Florida. Historical background of the island; Role of Julius Stone in turning Key West to a vacation destination; Pr oblems brought about by tourism; Developments in Key West. Author: Miller, Herbert L.

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159 Title: Marketing the real Florida: the mass-tourism age has passed; Florida needs a new strategy to save its most important industry. Florida Trend 38:42-8 March 1996. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Milman, Ady Title: Market Identification of a N ew Theme Park: An Example from Central Florida Journal of Travel Research Vol. 26 iss. 4 p. 7-12. Classification: Theme Parks Annotation: Theme parks are a relatively new concept in tourism designed to cater to the family. They attempt to crea te the atmosphere of another time and place and emphasize one dominant them e around which all other elements are coordinated. Despite Central Florida s popular attractions, no comprehensive study has been conducted to determine the economic feasibility of additional parks in that competitive environment. For this exploratory study, no formal hypotheses were developed; however, an attempt was made to reveal tourist attitudes on theme parks in general, anim al-oriented parks, and horse-oriented parks. Findings highlighted the populari ty of man-made over natural-resource parks. Tourists also appeared to be passive in preferences, electing to view real things over exhibits. Night life activities were not favored. Thus, identifying a new theme park market should consider variables pertinent to the particular park, and promotional campaigns should emphasize unique features rather than a broad image concept. Author: Milman A.; Pizam A. Title: Social impacts of tourism on Cen tral Florida. Annals of Tourism Research 15, no.2 (1988) p. 191-204. Classification: Social Impacts

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160 Annotation: Author: Mintz, Lawrence Title: Simulated tourism at Busch Gardens: The Old Country and Disney s World Showcase, Epcot Center. Journal of Popular Culture Winter 1998 p47(1). Classification: Theme Parks Annotation: All reality can be seen as socially constructed, and this view is reflected in observations of tourism as staged authenticity, a simulation or a pseduo-event Social philosophers have been es pecially irritated by commercial simulations such as theme parks, in cluding the Old Country of the Busch Gardens, and the World Showcase of the Disney Worl d-EPCOT Center. The problem may lie in the standards an d assumptions of the philosophers themselves. False assumptions about what the tourist experience should be like may be misleading. Author: Moore, Deborah Dash; Gebler, Dan Title: The ta am of tourism Pacific Historical Review vol. 68 iss. 2 p. 193-212. Classification: Minority Impacts Annotation: Very little serious attention ha s been given to Jewish versions of the tourist experience. Yet both Miami Beach and the Boyle Heights section of Los Angeles provided a physical and cultural atmosphere in which Jews could realize a sense of ta am through the purchase and consumption of food. Author: Motavalli, John Title: Manatee mania E Magazine: The Environmental Magazine, Mar/Apr97, Vol. 8 Issue 2, p46, 2p, 1c. Classification: Environmental concerns Annotation: Focuses on endangered manatee, a marine mammal in

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161 Florida. Its features and habitat; Swimming with the manatees as a big eco-tourism business; How Crystal River in Florida loves manatees; Effects of fishing lines and low water in manatees; How manatees have no natural predators; Why there have been no known injuries to manatees. Author: Nicolaides, Becky M Title: The Resort City Gets Real. Journal of Urban History, 1998, 25, 1, Nov, 110-121. Classification: Urban Issues Annotation: A review essay on books by (1) G. Wesley Johnson, Jr. (Ed), Phoenix in the Twentieth Century: Essays in Co mmunity History (Norman: U Oklahoma Press, 1993); (2) Eugene P. Moehring, Resort City in the Sun Belt: Las Vegas, 1930-1970 (Reno & Las Vegas: U Nevada Press, 1995); & (3) Alejandro Portes & Alex Stepick, City on the Edge: The Transformation of Miami (Berkeley: U California Press, 1993). These three works o ffer very different perspectives on the evolution & future of the resort cities of Miami (FL), Las Vegas (NV), & Phoenix (AZ), & explore the human foundations of the resort city phenomenon. Johnson s collection draws on 500+ oral histories to discuss the development of urban Phoenix, but is criticized for its top-down approach that ignores the role of people & lacks a broader context. Moehring is praised for his treatment of the structural, infrastructural, & inst itutional aspects of Las Vegas urban development, but criticized for a lack of attention to social history. Portes & Stepick do provide this attention, but their avoidance of Miami s existence as a city before 1960 is criticized. Author: Noll, Roger G.; Zimbalist, Andrew, eds., Title: Sports, jobs, and taxes: The econom ic impact of sports teams and stadiums. 1997, pp. xii, 525, Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press. Classification: Economics Annotation: This book discusses sports an d the effects that they have on local, state, and national issues.

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162 Author: O Brien, Tim Title: Universal Orlando president discusses industry. Amusement Business vol. 114 iss. 46 Nov 18, 2002. Classification: Theme Parks Annotation: Bob Gault was named presid ent and COO of Universal Orlando in February 2002, after having served as acti ng president and COO since Nov. 2001. He took the helm during one of the most difficult times in the history of theme park industry. Following the terrorist attacks of Sept. 2001, domestic as well as international to urism dropped dramatically, and the parks in Central Florida received the br unt of that radical change in travel patterns. With more than 36 years in the business, Gault is responsible for the oversight of the entire Universal Orlando destination resort. In an interview, Gault says that Universal has trimmed fixed costs dramatically. The management team has done a very good job of controlling the variable costs and shaved expenses to the vari able seasonal attendance. He says that his style is one of valuing em ployees and making them feel better about their personal contribution and how important they are to the success of the business. Author: Osborne J. Title: Blue ways: What it takes to create canoe and kayak trails. Planning 69, no.9 (2003) p. 20-23. Classification: Recreation and Leisure Annotation: Author: Park T.; Bowker J.M.; Leeworthy V.R. Title: Valuing snorkeling visits to the Florida Keys with stated and revealed preference models. Journal of Enviro nmental Management 65, no.3 (2002) p. 301312. Classification: Nature Based

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163 Annotation Author: Parker, Edgar Title: Common trends and cycles and the structure of Florida s economy Economic Review Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Vol. 82 iss. 3 p. 60-71. Classification: Economics Annotation: Florida has undergone many economic changes in recent decades, including the decline of th e manufacturing base and the growth of international trade and the tourism indust ry. In addition, Florida s cities have become less similar over time. A study using multiple cointegration and common cycles analysis examines the interrelationsh ips of labor markets in 6 Florida metropolitan statistical areas (MSA) ov er the past quarter-century. The study finds a long-run comovement in these labor markets; however, earlier, close relationships have changed as the econ omic structures of the MSAs have evolved. This analysis helps underline th e increasing diversity of influences on growth trends and the difference in reactions to short-run shocks in Florida MSAs, both of which are important in ga uging the differing effects of policy or economic shocks on the state in parts and as a whole. Author: Patron, Eugene Title: Will success kill South Beach? party brawn and increasing political muscle helped build a gay mecca on Miami Beach. Out 7:62-7,114-16 no 11 May 1999. Classification: Gay and Lesbian Annotation: Author: Pennington-Gray, Lori Title: Understanding the domestic VFR drive market in Florida Journal of Vacation Marketing Vol. 9 iss. 4 p. 354-367. Classification: Marketing

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164 Annotation: The visiting friends and re latives (VFR) market in Florida is a substantial portion of the tourism mark et. Research suggests that much of the VFR market travels by automobile. In th e events following 11th September, 2001, Visit Florida identified drive tourism as the primary segment to invest in. This paper uses Moscardo et al. s1 VFR model to understand better the short-haul domestic VFR drive market. Three segmen ts were identified: travellers whose main purpose was to visit and stay with friends and relatives (AFR), travellers whose main purpose was to visit friend s and relatives and stay in commercial accommodation (NAFR) and travellers wh ose main purpose was not visiting friends and relatives but who stayed with friends and relatives (OAFR). Results suggested that AFRs were the youngest segment and stayed the longest time. NAFRs were the oldest group of the thr ee segments and participated in the smallest number of activities. OAFRs ha d varying levels of income, staye! d almost one week on average, had slig htly larger travel party sizes and participated in the greatest number of activities while in the area. Recommendations for marketing to the different VFR segments were suggested and limitations were addressed. Author: Pennington-Gray L., Holdnak A. Title: An Investigation of Visitors to Alachua County. For the Alachua County Visitor and Convention Bureau. 2001. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Pennington-Gray, L., Holdnak A. Title: Study of Visitors and the Economic Impact of Tourism in the Indian River County. For the Indian River County Chamber of Commerce. 2001. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Philipp, Steven F

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165 Title: Gay and Lesbian Tourists at a So uthern U.S.A. Beach Event. Journal of Homosexuality, 1999, 37, 3, 69-86. Classification: Gay and Lesbian Impacts Annotation: Examines economic & soci al impact measures for a random sample of 1,272 gay & lesbian tourists on a 5-mile section of the Gulf Islands National Seashore near Pensacola, FL, on Memori al Day weekend, 1994. Findings reveal young, urban, highly educated gay & lesbian tourists with high household incomes, frequent travel in groups to new destinations, & large expenditures across measurement categories. Further, gay & lesbian tourists felt it was very important to be out (ie, visible) in the host co mmunity, display gay or lesbian symbols, & receive positive media coverage of their presence. Host community reaction to large numbers of gay & lesbian tourists is discussed. Author: Piper, Harry M.; Piper, Jacquelyn G. Title: Florida Heritage Driving Tours: Joint Venture Takes Heritage Tourism to the Market. The Florida Anthropolo gist. 52, no. 3, (September 01, 1999): 205. Classification: Development/History Annotation: Author: Pitegoff B.F.; Smith G. Title: Measuring the return on investme nt of destination welcome centres: The case of Florida. Tourism Economics 9, no.3 (2003) p. 307-323. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Pizam, Abraham. Title: Making tourists feel safe: whose responsibility is it?. Journal of Travel Research v. 36 (Summer 1997) p. 23-8.

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166 Classification: Travel Safety Annotation: Author: Milman A.; Pizam A. Title: Social impacts of tourism on Cen tral Florida. Annals of Tourism Research 15, no.2 (1988) p. 191-204. Classification: Social Impact Annotation: Author: Pizam A.; Milman A.; King B. Title: The perceptions of tourism employ ees and their families toward tourism: a cross-cultural comparison. Tourism Management 15, no.1 (1994) p. 53-61. Classification: Social Impacts Annotation: Author: Pricewaterhouse Coopers & Busine ss Research and Economic Advisors Title: Economic Contribution of the F CCA member lines to the Caribbean and Florida. Prepared for: Florida-Caribbe an Cruise Association. July 27, 2001. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Reiss, Alvin H. Title: Partnership boosts local cultural activities to woo theme part tourists and conventioneers. Fund Raising Management Vol. 28 iss. 7 p. 20-21. September 1997. Classification: Marketing

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167 Annotation: Convinced that local cultu ral activities are also worth seeing, a leading Orlando hotel, the Peabody, has he lped put together a unique coalition that is promoting that concept to th e travel and tourism industry. Last October, the Peabody, famed for its el egance as well as its daily March of the Peabody Ducks from a lobby foun tain to their overnight penthouse, helped organize the Orlando/Peabody Alliance for the Arts and Culture. Since its inception, the Alliance, with support from US Air, Mears Ground Transportation and LYNX Regional Grou nd transportation and LYNX Regional Transportation Authority, and many in-k ind services from the Peabody Hotel, has sponsored 2 themed press trips showing off A World of Arts and Culture Orlando s Other Attractions. Author: Richards, Greg Title: Marketing China overseas: The role of theme parks and tourist attractions Journal of Vacation Marketing Vol. 8 iss. 1 p. 28-38. Classification: Theme Parks Annotation: In a competitive global tourism market, the creation and maintenance of national and regional im ages becomes crucial to the marketing process. As attraction visiti ng becomes a central element of everyday life, the role of attractions in image formation is also growing. A study examines the role of the parks in China, Florida and the Nether lands in creating an image of China, and in particular examines the familiarity of visitors and non-visitors with the markets presented in these parks. The analysis shows that while Dutch nonvisitors have a fairly naive image of China, Dutch respondents are fairly conversant with the major cultural attractions of the country. Author: Roehl, W., R. Ditton, S. Holland, and R. Perdue Title: Developing new tourism products : sport fishing in the Southeast United States. Tourism Management 14(3) pp. 279-288. 1993. Classification: Recreation and Leisure Annotation:

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168 Author: Rose, Leslie S; Kingma, Hildy L Title: Seasonal Migration of Retired Persons: Estimating Its Extent and Its Implications for the State of Florid a. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, 1989, 15, 1, 91-104. Classification: Economics Annotation: Implications of the season al movements of retired persons from various US states to Fla are investig ated based on 1980 census data & a 1983 questionnaire survey of planning agen cies in 29 Florida counties with 500+ nonpermanent residents. Results show that seasonal retired migrants provide significant numbers of jobs for the re sident population, but also cause a problematic increase in demand for t ransportation & medical services, water supply, sewage, treatment plants, electricity, & police. Future tasks for community planners include a better unde rstanding of the age distribution, health characteristics, & hous ing choices of these migrants. Author: Schittone, Joseph Title: Tourism vs. commercial fishers :: development and changing use of Key West and Stock Island, Florida, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 44, Issues 1-2, 1 February 2001, Pages 15-37. Classification: Development/History Annotation: Author: Seal, Kathy Title: Nation s first black-owned four-star hotel set to rise. Hotel and Motel Management Vol. 212 iss. 1 p. 82. Classification: minority impacts Annotation: The US first 4-star hotel project owne d by an African-American is speeding toward groundbreaking in Miami Beach, Florida, thanks in part to the 1992-1993 tourism boycott of Dade Coun ty. The city of Miami Beach is

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169 negotiating an agreement with developer R. Donahue Peebles to develop a Royal Palm Crowne Plaza Resort and a Sh orecrest Crowne Plaza Suites in the Art Deco district, near the Miami Beach Convention Center. There are currently only 3 black-owned luxury hotels in the US. Author: Shackley, M. Title: Manatees and Tourism in Southern Florida: Opportunity or Threat? Journal of environmental management. 34, no. 4, (April 1992): 257-266. Classification: Environmental Concerns Annotation: Author: Shivlani M.P.; Letson D.; Theis M. Title: Visitor preferences for public beach amenities and beach restoration in South Florida. Coastal Management 31, no.4 (2003) p. 367-385. Classification: Recreation and Leisure Annotation: Author: Snyder, Jack Title: Orlando/central Florida: tourism-linked development continues to dominate area, industrials remain strong. National Real Estate Investor 32:88+ Jl 1990. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Southwick Associates, Inc. Title: The 2001 Economic Benefits of Watch able Wildlife Recreation in Florida. Prepared for: Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. February 10, 2003.

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170 Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Stanziola, Javier Title: Arts, government and community revitalization. 1999, pp. v, 143, Aldershot, U.K.; Brookfield, Vt. and Sydney: Ashgate. Classification: Economics Annotation: Discusses Miami Beach economic revitalization. Author: Stein T.V.; Denny C.B.; Pennisi L.A. Title: Using visitors motivations to provide learning opportunities at waterbased recreation areas. Journal of Sust ainable Tourism 11, no.5 (2003) p. 404-425. Classification: Recreation & Leisure Annotation: Author: Stevens, J Richard Title: Researching Florida’s Most Impo rtant Industry-Touri sm. Florida State University Research Reports in Social Science, 1958, 1, 1, JUN, 15-19. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Stronge, William B. Title: Beaches, tourism and economic development Shore & Beach, Apr1994, Vol. 62 Issue 2, p6.

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171 Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Stroud H.B. Title: Growth management and recreation al land development in Florida. Land Use Policy 6, no.1 (1989) p. 2-5. Classification: Development/History Annotation: Author: Sullivan, Maureen Title: Sunshine Gamblers American Demographics Vol. 11 iss. 2 p. 48. Classification: Marketing Annotation: The spectacular results of th e implementation of a lottery in Florida are discussed. Florida s status as a vacation spot is a major reason for the success of the lottery. Author: Thunberg, Eric M; Crotts, John C Title: Factors Affecting Travelers Overnight Stay Behavior. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 1994, 3, 1, 1-17. Classification: Marketing Annotation: An objective of tourism mark eting organizations is to increase the activities & commerce of tourists within an area or location. In doing so, it is useful to distinguish between excursio nist & overnight stay (OS) markets, because the latter make the highest contri butions by virtue of their need for lodging, food, & entertainment. Survey data collected from 546 Ss visiting Alachua County, FL, in 1991 were used to develop predictive models for OS behavior. Findings reveal that OS visitors spent more & engaged in more

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172 activities than those who did not stay overnight. Models predicting the probability of staying in paid vs nonp aid accommodations are also discussed. Author: Trager, K; Bales, W; Clark, M Title: Florida s Population Influx A Methodol ogy to Capture Tourism Monthly for Each of Florida s 67 Counties With Applications for the Law Enforcement Community. Classification: Marketing Annotation: This report presents a method for estimating the tourist population annually at the county level in Florida to aid the police in budget and personnel planning and in comparing crime rates across geographical boundaries. Current methods for estimating tourism -econom etric models, surveys, and tax base data -are inadequate because they do not break down the da ta by county. The proposed methodology uses sales tax data, because they are presented by county, reported on a timely basis, and are available monthly. The translation of taxable sales into tourist population data is done through the normalization of sales tax data for all elements other th an tourism. Data adjustments include changes in State statutes which affect taxable sales, changes in the resident population over the period in questi on, changes in the macro economy, and changes in the daily spending patterns of tourists. Tables and maps show the Florida population influx by county for 1980-85 based on the proposed estimation method. The report conclude s with a discussion of how the method can be used to construct a crime rate based on the tourist and resident population, so as to provide a more accurate comparison of crime rates across jurisdictions. Author: Turkel, Stanley Title: Henry Morrison Flagler: the man who invented Florida. Cornell Hotel & Restaurant Administration Quarterly. April 1998 v39 n2 p76(4). Classification: Development/History Annotation: Henry Morrison Flagler is considered Florida s earliest and most powerful developer, and one who was able to devise ways to boost the state s

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173 tourism industry. Inspired by his fondness for the Florida climate, Flagler worked for the laying of rails along the east coast in 1885, from south of the state to Key West. He also decided to build se veral hotels along the way, instituting what may well be today s booming tourist industry in Florida. Author: Vogel, Harold L. Title: Travel industry economics: A gu ide for financial analysis. 2001, pp. xv, 284, Cambridge; New York and Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Waldrop, Judith Title: Black adventures American Demographics Vol. 16 iss. 8 p.4 Classification: Minority Impacts Annotation: Most of the adventure seeker s who go on the Festival at Sea cruise are black. Robert Brown, president of Resource Marketing, which markets the cruise for Blue World Travel, says that many marketers miss an opportunity because they do not believe that the black middle class really exists. Brown s target market is blacks who have ho usehold incomes of $35,000 or more and he has no trouble reaching lots of them. The Festival at Sea cruise sells out earlier every year. Caletha Powell, president of the African American Travel & Tourism Association, says that it is not nece ssary to create an exclusively AfricanAmerican event to attract African Ameri cans. However, she says that African Americans must be prominently displayed throughout the event and the marketing message must be appropriate for them. Author: Weisskoff, Richard. Title: Missing pieces in ecosystem resto ration: The case of the Florida Everglades Economic Systems Research Vol. 12 iss. 3 p. 271-303.

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174 Classification: Environmental Concerns Annotation: The largest ecosystem resto ration in the world a $7.8 billion rescue package is now beginning in the Florid a Everglades. This paper examines both the economic impact of the restoration it self and those pieces that are missing from the official project analysis; namely increased tourism, urban construction, in-migration, and changing agricultural pa tterns. These pieces comprise a variety of scenarios that are tested for a 45 ye ar planning period with an augmented input-output model derived from a regional SAM. The new output and employment generated by the missing pieces, which are small relative to the vast economic base of the region, do represent a considerable increase over the annual growth, especially by the year 2045. We co nclude with a discussion of ways in which a growing regional economy might be reconciled with ecosystem restoration. Author: White, Erin E.; Pennington-Gray, Lori Title: YBOR CITY. Parks & Recreati on, Sep2001, Vol. 36 Issue 9, p129, 9p. Classification: Historic Tourism Annotation: Presents information on Ybor City in Florida. Increase in the interest of people in the United States to visit historic sites such as Ybor City; Discussion on how historic cities and attractions can benefit from adapting the principles of sustainable tourism; History of the Don Vicente De Ybor Historic Inn. Author: Winsberg M. D. Title: Seasonality of Florida Tourism. Florida Geographer 28 (1997) p. 55-59. Classification: Marketing Annotation: Author: Winsberg M. Title: Changing areas of visitor interest in Florida 1950-1987. Florida

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175 Geographer 22 (1988) p. 14-19. Classification: Marketing Annotation: Author: Withiam, Glenn Title: Crime costs destinations bi g money Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly Vol. 34 iss. 4 p. 10. Classification: Social Impacts Annotation: Crime in Miami and riots in Los Angeles have caused tourism agencies in Florida and California to incr ease expenditures for public relations and advertising. In addition, 5 national t ravel agencies have jumped into the fray to promote a travel-safety campaign.

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176 TOURISM BY CLASSIFICATION ECONOMICS Author: Fik, Timothy J; Malecki, Edward J; Amey, Robert G Title: Trouble in Paradise? Employment Trends and Forecasts for a ServiceOriented Economy Economic Development Quarterly, 1993, 7, 4, Nov, 358-372. Classification: Economics Annotation: The service sector in FL has grown tremendously over the past thirty years, primarily due to the impact s of elderly immigration & flourishing recreational & tourist industries. Official data show that 40+% of the state s personal income is now derived from inte rstate income transfers. Although these income flows have brought modest gains in many sectors, their ability to provide adequate stimulus for further growth re mains questionable. As income transfers level off, the growth of FL s retail & service sectors is likely to slow. Projected structural deficits are likely to offset past benefits. State economic development planners must promote initiatives aimed at reducing FL s reliance on transfer income & consumer services. 8 Tables, 5 Figures. Author: Miller, Herbert L. Title: Marketing the real Florida: the mass-tourism age has passed; Florida needs a new strategy to save its most important industry. Florida Trend 38:42-8 Mr 1996. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Koenig, John Title: The invasion continues: some 50 years after the big wave of tourism began, the industry has evolved; fr om mom-and-pop hotels to corporate conglomerates catering to a global marketplace. Florida Trend 35:74-8 Mr

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177 1993. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Snyder, Jack Title: Orlando/central Florida: tourism-linked development continues to dominate area, industrials remain strong. National Real Estate Investor 32:88+ Jl 1990. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Bhat, Mahadev G. Title: Application of non-market valuation to the Florida Keys marine reserve management. Journal of Environmental Management, Apr2003, Vol. 67 issue 4, p315, 11p. Classification: Economics Annotation: The quality of the coral reef s in the Florida Keys is essential to sustain nature-based tourism in the Ke ys. The recently established marine reserves (MR) are expected to improve th e reef environment, particularly coral and fish abundance and diversity. In this paper, a combined model of travel cost and contingent behavior was estimated in order to measure the non-market recreational benefits of reef quality im provements. The results indicated that an average visitor would undertake 43-80% mo re numbers of trips to the Florida Keys and experience a 69% increase in the use values per trip, as a result of the MR-induced reef quality improvements. The above non-market value estimates were further applied to evaluating al ternative management proposals for funding the MR program. It was found that the annual management costs of the MR program would constitute an insignif icant portion-only around one to 2%-of the annual recreational benefits that th e MR would generate. The results provide

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178 a strong economic justification for desi gning user-based funding mechanisms in order to make the MR program self-sustaining in the future. Author: Stronge, William B. Title: Beaches, tourism and economic development Shore & Beach, Apr1994, Vol. 62 Issue 2, p6. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Pitegoff B.F.; Smith G. Title: Measuring the return on invest ment of destination welcome centres: The case of Florida. Tourism Economics 9, no.3 (2003) p. 307-323. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Parker, Edgar Title: Common trends and cycles and the structure of Florida s economy Economic Review Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Vol. 82 iss. 3 p. 60-71. Classification: Economics Annotation: Florida has undergone many economic changes in recent decades, including the decline of th e manufacturing base and the growth of international trade and the tourism indust ry. In addition, Florida s cities have become less similar over time. A study using multiple co-integration and common cycles analysis examines the interrelationsh ips of labor markets in 6 Florida metropolitan statistical areas (MSA) ov er the past quarter-century. The study finds a long-run co-movement in these labor markets; however, earlier, close relationships have changed as the econ omic structures of the MSAs have evolved. This analysis helps underline th e increasing diversity of influences on

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179 growth trends and the difference in reactions to short-run shocks in Florida MSAs, both of which are important in ga uging the differing effects of policy or economic shocks on the state in parts and as a whole. Author: Koch, Donald L., Steinhauser, Delores W. Title: Florida: Poised for a Surge Economic Review – Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Vol. 68 iss. 2 p. 6-20. Classification: Economics Annotation: Early signs indicate a revitalization of Florida s economy in 1983. Rapid long-term population growth, attractive climate, pollution-free environment, and low cost of living contribute to Florida s business climate. These factors have carried Florida thro ugh most national recessions; 1982 may prove to have been only a lull in Florida s upward surge. Population growth is expected to increase in 1983, stimulating the residential construction industry. The outlook for the tourism industry is contingent upon national and international economic upturn However, Walt Disney World s opening of the Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow (EPCOT) at Orlando should keep tourism strong. The international trade and finance problems of 1982 are expected to moderate in 1983. New busine ss development suffered in 1982 as new incorporations dropped, business ba nkruptcies rose, and corporate profits dropped sharply in many sectors. In 1983, the foundation will be set for stron! g economic growth in 1984. Author: Braun M. Bradley; Rungeling, Brian Title: The relative economic impact of convention and tourist visitors on a regional economy: a case study, In ternational Journal of Hospitality Management, Volume 11, Issue 1, February 1992, Pages 65-7. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Southwick Associates, Inc.

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180 Title: The 2001 Economic Benefits of Watch able Wildlife Recreation in Florida. Prepared for: Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. February 10, 2003. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Braun, Bradley M.; Xander, James A.; White, Kenneth R Title: The Impact of the Cruise Industry on a Region s Economy: A Case Study of Port Canaveral, Florida. Tourism Economics, September 2002, v. 8, iss. 3, pp. 281-88. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: English, Donald B. K. Title: A Simple Procedure for Generat ing Confidence Intervals in Tourist Spending Profiles and Resulting Econom ic Impacts. Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, 2000, v. 30, iss. 1, pp. 61-76. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: DeSalvo, Joseph S. Title: Direct Impact of an Airport on Travelers Expenditures: Methodology and Application. Growth and Change, Fall 2002, v. 33, iss. 4, pp. 485-96. Classification: Economics Annotation: Discusses Ta mpa International Aiport

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181 Author: Livingston, Guy; Arthur, Kellie Title: The Economic Impact of Pensacol a Beach. Prepared for: Santa Rosa Island AuthorityPensacola Beach, Florida. Prepared by: Guy Livingston and Kellie ArthurHaas Center: University of West Florida. October 21, 2002. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: “Environmental Economics Symposium Committee” Greater Miami Chamber of Commerce, “Environment al Affairs Group & Environmental Economics Council” National Audubon Society, “Everglades Conservation Office” South Florida Water Management District. Title: In South Florida, Th e Environment Is The Economy Prepared for: Greater Miami Chamber of Commerce. June 1999. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Haas center-University of West Florida. Contact-Melissa Neal Title: Beaches of South Walton. Prepared for: Walton County Tourist Development Council, Economic Develo pment Council, Chamber of Commerce. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Vogel, Harold L. Title: Travel industry economics: A gu ide for financial analysis. 2001, pp. xv, 284, Cambridge; New York and Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. Classification: Economics

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182 Annotation: Author: Stanziola, Javier Title: Arts, government and community revitalization. 1999, pp. v, 143, Aldershot, U.K.; Brookfield, Vt. and Sydney: Ashgate. Classification: Economics Annotation: Discusses Miami Beach economic revitalization. Author: Houston, JR. Title: The Economic Value of Beache s, The Future of Beach Nourishment., Florida Shore & Beach Preservation Association, Tallahassee, FL (USA), May 1996, pp. 271-280. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Pennington-Gray, L., Holdnak A. Title: Study of Visitors and the Economic Impact of Tourism in the Indian River County. For the Indian River County Chamber of Commerce. 2001. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Pitegoff B.F.; Smith G. Title: Measuring the return on investme nt of destination welcome centres: The case of Florida. Tourism Economics 9, no.3 (2003) p. 307-323. Classification: Economics

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183 Annotation: Author: Braun B.M.; Milman A Title: Localization economies in the th eme park industry. Review of Regional Studies 20, no.3 (1990) p. 33-37. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Glaser, Marc A.; Denhardt, Robert B. Title: Economic and Environmental Concerns and Local Development Policy: Tourism From the Perspective of the Host Population. Public Works Management & Policy 3, no. 3 (1999): 209-223. Classification: Economics Annotation: Author: Rose, Leslie S; Kingma, Hildy L Title: Seasonal Migration of Retired Persons: Estimating Its Extent and Its Implications for the State of Florid a. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, 1989, 15, 1, 91-104. Classification: Economics Annotation: Implications of the season al movements of retired persons from various US states to Florida are invest igated based on 1980 census data & a 1983 questionnaire survey of planning agen cies in 29 Florida counties with 500+ nonpermanent residents. Results show that seasonal retired migrants provide significant numbers of jobs for the re sident population, but also cause a problematic increase in demand for t ransportation & medical services, water supply, sewage treatment plants, electricity, & police. Future tasks for community planners include a better unde rstanding of the age distribution,

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184 health characteristics, & hous ing choices of these migrants. Author: Stevens, J Richard Title: Researching Florida’s Mo st Important Industry-Tourism Florida State University Research Reports in Social Science, 1958, 1, 1, JUN, 15-19. Classification: Economics Annotation: GAY AND LESBIAN IMPACTS/ MINORITY IMPACTS Author: Philipp, Steven F Title: Gay and Lesbian Tourists at a So uthern U.S.A. Beach Event. Journal of Homosexuality, 1999, 37, 3, 69-86. Classification: Gay and Lesbian Annotation: Examines economic & soci al impact measures for a random sample of 1,272 gay & lesbian tourists on a 5-mile section of the Gulf Islands National Seashore near Pensacola, FL, on Memori al Day weekend, 1994. Findings reveal young, urban, highly educated gay & lesbian tourists with high household incomes, frequent travel in groups to new destinations, & large expenditures across measurement categories. Further, gay & lesbian tourists felt it was very important to be out (ie, visible) in the host co mmunity, display gay or lesbian symbols, & receive positive media coverage of their presence. Host community reaction to large numbers of gay & lesbian tourists is discussed. Author: Patron, Eugene Title: Will success kill South Beach? p arty brawn and increasing political muscle helped build a gay mecca on Miami Beach. Out 7:62-7,114-16 no 11 May 1999.

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185 Classification: Gay and Lesbian Annotation: Author:N/A Title: First black-owned major hotel opens in Miami Beach. Jet v. 101 no24 (June 3 2002) p. 22. Classification: Minority Impacts Annotation: Author: Waldrop, Judith Title: Black Adventures. American Demographics Vol. 16 iss. 8 p.4. Classification: Minority Impacts Annotation: Most of the adventure seeker s who go on the Festival at Sea cruise are black. Robert Brown, president of Resource Marketing, which markets the cruise for Blue World Travel, says that many marketers miss an opportunity because they do not believe that the black middle class really exists. Brown s target market is blacks who have ho usehold incomes of $35,000 or more and he has no trouble reaching lots of them. The Festival at Sea cruise sells out earlier every year. Caletha Powell, president of the African American Travel & Tourism Association, says that it is not nece ssary to create an exclusively AfricanAmerican event to attract African Ameri cans. However, she says that African Americans must be prominently displayed throughout the event and the marketing message must be appropriate for them. Author: Moore, Deborah Dash; Gebler, Dan Title: The ta am of tourism Pacific Historical Review vol. 68 iss. 2 p. 193-212. Classification: Minority Impact Annotation: Very little serious attention ha s been given to Jewish versions of the

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186 tourist experience. Yet both Miami Beach and the Boyle Heights section of Los Angeles provided a physical and cultural atmosphere in which Jews could realize a sense of ta am through the purchase and consumption of food. Author: Seal, Kathy Title: Nation s first black-owned four-star hotel set to rise. Hotel and Motel Management Vol. 212 iss. 1 p. 82. Classification: Minority Impact Annotation: The US first 4-star hotel project owne d by an African-American is speeding toward groundbreaking in Miami Beach, Florida, thanks in part to the 1992-1993 tourism boycott of Dade Coun ty. The city of Miami Beach is negotiating an agreement with developer R. Donahue Peebles to develop a Royal Palm Crowne Plaza Resort and a Sh orecrest Crowne Plaza Suites in the Art Deco district, near the Miami Beach Convention Center. There are currently only 3 black-owned luxury hotels in the US. Author: Johnson, Cassandra Y; Horan, Patrick M; Pepper, William Title: Race, Rural Residence, and Wild land Visitation: Examining the Influence of Sociocultural Meaning. Rural Sociology, 1997, 62, 1, spring, 88-110. Classification: Minority Impact Annotation: Proposes that race operates on wildland recreation visitation through the different meanings rural blac ks & whites attribute to wildlands, using a structural model applied to survey data from 467 residents of the Apalachicola National Forest in FL. Sing le equation results show blacks visit wildlands less, & have less-favorable de finitions of wildlands, compared to whites. However, when wildland meaning is included in the structural model, racial differences become insignificant, suggesting that the meanings that different racial groups attach to wildland s help explain visitation. Both sex & age were also significant predictors of wildland meaning & visitation. SOCIAL IMPACTS Author: Pizam A.; Milman A.; King B.

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187 Title: The perceptions of tourism employ ees and their families toward tourism: a cross-cultural comparison. Tourism Management 15, no.1 (1994) p. 53-61. Classification: Social Impact Annotation: Authors: Davis, Duane; Allen, Jeff; Cosenza, Robert M. Title: Segmenting Loca l Residents by Their Attitudes, Interests, and Opinions Toward Tourism. Journal of Travel Research Vol. 27 iss. 2 p. 2-9. Classification: Social Impact Annotation: A study was conducted to assess and segment local residents with respect to their attitudes, interests, and opinions toward tourism. The data were collected via a mail survey of Florida residents, with 397 usable responses obtained. The analysis revealed 5 readily identifiable segments, indicating the diversity of opinions of local residents toward tourism. The segments were labeled as haters, cautious romantics, in-betweeners, love em for a reason, and lovers. The experience also indicated a strong positive relationship between knowledge of tourism s impact on the economy and appreciation of the industry. Specifically, the more reside nts knew about the tourism industry, the less negative they seemed toward it. While distinct psychographic segments existed, demographics were found to be of little value in describing segment membership. The only such variable fo und to be significant in delineating segment membership was whether the re spondent was born in Florida. The results indicate that more emphasis shou ld be placed on educating the residents on the positive aspects of tourism in general. Author: Withiam, Glenn Title: Crime costs destinations bi g money Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly Vol. 34 iss. 4 p. 10. Classification: Social Impact

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188 Annotation: Crime in Miami and riots in Los Angeles have caused tourism agencies in Florida and California to incr ease expenditures for public relations and advertising. In addition, 5 national t ravel agencies have jumped into the fray to promote a travel-safety campaign. Author: Milman A.; Pizam A. Title: Social impacts of tourism on Cen tral Florida. Annals of Tourism Research 15, no.2 (1988) p. 191-204. Classification: Social Impact Annotation: Author: Crotts C., John Title: Theoretical perspectives on tourist criminal victimisation. Journal of Tourism Studies May 2003 v14 i1 p92(7). Classification: Social Impact Annotation: Crime on tourists is a topic that few tourism professionals like to discuss and even fewer would wish to endure. However, there are few tourist destinations in the world today that are immune to the problem. This paper attempted to place the location and in cidence of crimes against tourists into two theoretical contexts. Hot Spot Theory and Routine Activity Theory provide a useful framework in which to explore how communities expose tourists to the risk of being criminally victimized and what feasibly can be done about it. Data from Florida on the frequency and location of crimes on tourists were used to illustrate these theoretical propositions. The intent of this paper was to provide insights to other communities as to how they can understand and manage their particular problems effectively. Author: Marshall, Victor W; Tucker, Richard D. Title: Canadian seasonal migrants to the Sunbelt: boon or burden? Journal of Applied Gerontology, Vol. 9, No 4, p. 420-432, (13p.), Dec 1990

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189 Classification: Social Impact Annotation: Examined whether Sunbelt communities benefit or lose from hosting seasonal migrants from Canad a. A 12-page questionnaire was completed by 2,728 Canadians aged 65 an d older who seasonally mi grate to Florida. Results show that Canadian residents contribute greatly to the host economies, spending a reported $1,200 per month, over an average 5-month stay, and creating demands for housing and consumer goods and services. These seasonal migrants make few demands on the health services and virtually no dema nds on the social services available to older people in Florida. Decreased income levels are associated with a greater reluctance to use the U.S. health care system. The strongest reason the Canadian seasonal migrants are likely to return to Canada as their health deteriorates is the feeling of comfort with the Canadian health care system, which provides full coverage. As a boon to the local economy, these migrants attract tourism visits from children and other relatives, generating direct and multiplier effects on the econom y. It is concluded that there are few real economic costs from seasonal migrat ion to the host environment, and that when their health care needs become ex tensive they are likely to return to Canada and cease their pattern of seasonal migration. Author: Rose, Leslie S; Kingma, Hildy L Title: Seasonal Migration of Retired Persons: Estimating Its Extent and Its Implications for the State of Florid a. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, 1989, 15, 1, 91-104. Classification: Social Impact Annotation: Implications of the season al movements of retired persons from various US states to Florida are invest igated based on 1980 census data & a 1983 questionnaire survey of planning agen cies in 29 Florida counties with 500+ nonpermanent residents. Results show that seasonal retired migrants provide significant numbers of jobs for the re sident population, but also cause a problematic increase in demand for t ransportation & medical services, water supply, sewage treatment plants, electricity, & police. Future tasks for community planners include a better unde rstanding of the age distribution, health characteristics, & hous ing choices of these migrants.

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190 Annotation: MARKETING Author: Miller, Herbert L. Title: Marketing the real Florida: the mass-tourism age has passed; Florida needs a new strategy to save its most important industry. Florida Trend 38:42-8 March 1996. Classification: Marketing Annotation: Author: Koenig, John Title: The invasion continues: some 50 ye ars after the big wave of tourism began, the industry has evolved; from mom-andpop hotels to corporate conglomerates catering to a global marketplace. Florida Trend 35:74-8 March 1993. Classification: Marketing Annotation: Author: Reece W.S. Title: Comparing Orlando leisure travellers to travellers to other Florida Destinations. Tourism Economics 8, no.2(2002) p. 151-164. Classification: Marketing Annotation: Author: Winsberg M. D. Title: Seasonality of Florida Tourism. Florida Geographer 28 (1997) p. 55-59. Classification: Marketing

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191 Annotation: Author: Fodness, Dale Title: Consumer Perceptions of Tourist Attractions Journal of Travel Research Vol. 28 iss. 4 p. 3-10. Classification: Marketing Annotation: Perceptual mapping techniques and survey data are used to investigate the implications of consumer perceptions that may then be applied to marketing tourist attractions. Data colle cted by the Florida Domestic Tourism Exit Survey Program throughout 1987 wer e analyzed via customer interchange analysis, multidimensional scaling, and cl uster analysis. A customer interchange matrix was created from the raw data by tabulating the number of respondents who reported a visit to both attractions in all pairs of the top 10 attractions. All 3 techniques revealed basically the same patterns. Clearly, Walt Disney World dominates the market for both air and automobile visitors, followed by Sea World. These 2 attractions exhibit the hi ghest rates of customer interchange and are closely grouped on the perceptual ma ps. The 2nd tier of attractions in the Florida market differs significantly by mo de of travel. Attractions in and around Miami compose this market segment. Cust omer inte! rchange patterns show only light interchange between the Miami-ba sed attractions and the top 5 Orlandobased attractions. Author: Fodness, Dale Title: The impact of family life cycle on the vacation decision-making process Journal of Travel Research Vol. 31 iss. 2 p. 8-14. Classification: Marketing Annotation: A study explores the idea that a family s leisure travel decisionmaking process may be influenced by the family s position in its life cycle. Data were collected via the Florida Domestic Tourism Exit Survey Program in 1987. The study focused on the 2 stages of th e vacation decision-m aking process which were available from the secondary data information search and final decision. The findings suggest that as the fam ily moves through the life cycle and the

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192 family structure changes, predictable or observable changes also occur in terms of family decision-making processes. Th e finding that wives were more likely than husbands to conduct the pre-vacation information search, contrary to earlier studies, implies that roles related to family decision making may change over time, both in general and within the spec ific stages of the family life cycle. Author: Pennington-Gray, Lori Title: Understanding the domestic VFR drive market in Florida Journal of Vacation Marketing Vol. 9 iss. 4 p. 354-367. Classification: Marketing Annotation: The visiting friends and re latives (VFR) market in Florida is a substantial portion of the tourism mark et. Research suggests that much of the VFR market travels by automobile. In th e events following 11th September, 2001, Visit Florida identified drive tourism as the primary segment to invest in. This paper uses Moscardo et al. s1 VFR model to understand better the short-haul domestic VFR drive market. Three segmen ts were identified: travellers whose main purpose was to visit and stay with friends and relatives (AFR), travellers whose main purpose was to visit friend s and relatives and stay in commercial accommodation (NAFR) and travellers wh ose main purpose was not visiting friends and relatives but who stayed with friends and relatives (OAFR). Results suggested that AFRs were the youngest segment and stayed the longest time. NAFRs were the oldest group of the thr ee segments and participated in the smallest number of activities. OAFRs ha d varying levels of income, staye! d almost one week on average, had slig htly larger travel party sizes and participated in the greatest number of activities while in the area. Recommendations for marketing to the different VFR segments were suggested and limitations were addressed. Author: Sullivan, Maureen Title: Sunshine Gamblers American Demographics Vol. 11 iss. 2 p. 48. Classification: Marketing

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193 Annotation: The spectacular results of th e implementation of a lottery in Florida are discussed. Florida s status as a vacation spot is a major reason for the success of the lottery. Author: Leeworthy, Vernon R.; Wiley, Peter C.; English, Donald B. K.; and Kriesel, Warren Title: Correcting response bias in tour ist spending surveys, Annals of Tourism Research, Volume 28, Issue 1, January 2001, Pages 83-97. Classification: Marketing Annotation: Author: Holdnak, A. Pennington-Gray L. Title: Evaluation of Visitors to the Gainsville Arts Festival. For the City of Gainsville Department of Cuiltural Affairs. 2000. Classification: Marketing Annotation: Author: Pennington-Gray L., Holdnak A. Title: An Investigation of Visitors to Alachua County. For the Alachua County Visitor and Convention Bureau. 2001. Classification: Marketing Annotation: Author: Josiam M. B., Hobson P. Title: Consumer choice in context: the de coy effect in travel and tourism. Journal of Travel Research Summer 1995 v34 n1 p45(6). Classification: Marketing

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194 Annotation: : The decoy effect, a model of consumer behavior, hypothesizes that the introduction of a carefully constructed decoy into a choice set will result in a segment of consumers shifting their choice to a higher priced targeted item. The decoy is a high-price, low-value product compared to other items in the choice set. This study tested the decoy effect, using choices of tour packages to Las Vegas, Nevada, and Disney World, Florida. The introduction of decoy packages resulted in some consumers shifting thei r preferences to higher priced packages. Implications for travel marketers are suggested. Author: Thunberg, Eric M; Crotts, John C Title: Factors Affecting Travelers Overnight Stay Behavior. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 1994, 3, 1, 1-17. Classification: Marketing Annotation: An objective of tourism mark eting organizations is to increase the activities & commerce of tourists within an area or location. In doing so, it is useful to distinguish between excursio nist & overnight stay (OS) markets, because the latter make the highest contri butions by virtue of their need for lodging, food, & entertainment. Survey data collected from 546 Ss visiting Alachua County, FL, in 1991 were used to develop predictive models for OS behavior. Findings reveal that OS visitors spent more & engaged in more activities than those who did not stay overnight. Models predicting the probability of staying in paid vs nonp aid accommodations are also discussed. RECREATION AND LEISURE Author: Gibson H.; Willming C.; Holdnak A Title: We re Gators... not just Gator fans : Serious leisure and University of Florida Football. Journal of Leisure Research 34, no.4 (2002) p. 397-425. Classification: Recreation and Leisure Annotation:

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195 Author: Bell, Frederick W. Leeworthy, Vernon R. Title: Recreational Demand by Tourists for Saltwater Beach Days Journal of Environmental Economics and Management Vol. 18 iss. 3 p. 189-206. May 1990. Classification: Recreation and Leisure Annotation: In the US, beaches are used by nearly 76 million people annually. An analysis is presented that deals with tourists that come from significant distances to use primarily beach resources. As Smith and Kopp (1980) have argued, those that use the conventional travel cost method (TCM) do not recognize its potential spatial limitations One-day trips as used by the TCM are certainly inapplicable to those coming from significant distances, such as tourists to Florida. The empirical data are consistent with the thesis that annual consumer demand by individual tourists for Florida beach days is positively related to travel cost per trip and inversely rela ted to on-site cost per day. There are compelling reasons for treating recreati onal decision making for tourists differently than for residents or those traveling relatively short distances. Employing the on-site cost demand curve for tourists using Florida s beaches, it is found that the daily consumer surplu s is nearly $3! 4. Using this value, the annual value of the flow of beach services for tourists alone is $2.374 billion. Author: Greene, Gretchen; Moss, Charles B.; Spreen, Thomas H. Title: Demand for Recreational Fishing in Tampa Bay, Florida: A Random Utility Approach. Marine Resource Economics, Winter 1997, v. 12, iss. 4, pp. 293-305. Classification: Recreation and Leisure Annotation: Author: Gibson, Heather J.; Willm ing, Cynthia; and Holdnak, Andrew Title: Small-scale event sport tourism: fans as tourists, Tourism Management, Volume 24, Issue 2, April 2003, Pages 181-190.

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196 Classification: Recreation and Leisure Annotation: Author: Roehl, W., R. Ditton, S. Holland, and R. Perdue Title: Developing new tourism products: sport fishing in the Southeast United States. Tourism Management 14(3) pp. 279-288. 1993. Classification: Recreation and Leisure Annotation: Author: Gill, D., R. Ditton and S Holland. Title: Charter and party boat operators in the U.S. Gilf of Mexico: a social structure perspective. Marine Fisheries Review 55(3), pp. 16-20. 1993. Classification: Recreation and Leisure Annotation: Author: Gibson, H. Title: Sport Tourism: A critical analysis of research. Sport Management Review, 1, 45-46. 1998. Classification: Recreation and Leisure Annotation: Author: Holland, S.; Pennington-Gray, L.; Thapa, B. Title: Outdoor Recreation Needs Asse ssment for Florida. For the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. 2001. Classification: Recreation and Leisure

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197 Annotation: Author: Holland, S., Fedler, A., Gibson, H. Title: A social science and historical perspective of the saltwater fishing resources of Palm Beach County, Florid a: Survey Design. Department of Environmental Protection and West Palm Beach Fishing Club. 1998. Classification: Recreation and Leisure Annotation: Author: Stein T.V.; Denny C.B.; Pennisi L.A. Title: Using visitors motivations to provide learning opportunities at waterbased recreation areas. Journal of Sust ainable Tourism 11, no.5 (2003) p. 404-425. Classification: Recreation and Leisure Annotation: Author: Osborne J. Title: Blue ways: What it takes to create canoe and kayak trails. Planning 69, no.9 (2003) p. 20-23. Classification: Recreation and Leisure Annotation: Author: Shivlani M.P.; Letson D.; Theis M. Title: Visitor preferences for public beach amenities and beach restoration in South Florida. Coastal Management 31, no.4 (2003) p. 367-385. Classification: Recreation and Leisure Annotation:

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198 Author: Holdnak, A; Pennington Gray, L Title: Farm Tourism: A Case Study In Florida s Orange Groves. Parks and Recreation [Parks & R]. Vol. 35, pp. 146-150+. Sep 2000. Classification: Recreation and Leisure Annotation: NATURE BASED/ ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS Author: N/A Title: Birds of a feather boost county s economy. American City & County v. 115 no4 (Mar. 2000) p. 76. Classification: Nature Based Annotation: Author: Motavalli, John Title: Manatee mania E Magazine: The Environmental Magazine, Mar/Apr97, Vol. 8 Issue 2, p46, 2p, 1c. Classification: Environmental Concerns Annotation: Focuses on endangered manatee, a marine mammal in Florida. Its features and habitat; Swimming with the manatees as a big eco-tourism business; How Crystal River in Florida loves manatees; Effects of fishing lines and low water in manatees; How manatees have no natural predators; Why there have been no known injuries to manatees. Author: Laycock, G.; Karnow, C.

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199 Title: Good times are killing the Keys. (cover st ory) Audubon, Sep/Oct91, Vol. 93 Issue 5, p38, 12p, 1 graph, 17c. Classification: Environmental Concerns Annotation: Explains how mass tourism, development, destruction of wildlife habitat and poor waste disp osal are endangering the Florida Keys, or Monroe County, Fla. Town of Key West; Destruction of mangrove forests, coral reefs and sea-grass meadows; Declining fish and bird populations; Key deer; Use of Jet Skis and outboard motors which rip up sea-grass meadows; `Fecal contamination from sewage; Overcrowding; Prodevelopment attitudes; Manatees. Author: McKenney, Alexis; Dustin, Daniel; Wolff, Robert Title: Key West Florida: The Sweetest Do Nothing Contrived. Source: Parks & Recreation, Sep2000, Vol. 35 Issue 9, p108, 7p. Classification: Environmental Concerns Annotation: Focuses on the tourism industry in Key West, Florida. Historical background of the island; Role of Julius Stone in turning Key West to a vacation destination; Pr oblems brought about by tourism; Developments in Key West. Author: Conaway, James Title: A Jewel in the Dry Tortugas. Smithsonian, Nov99, Vol. 30 Issue 8, p124, 9p, 13c. Classification: Environmental Concerns Annotation: Reports on Fort Jeffe rson National Park in the Dry Tortuga region of the Florida Keys How remoteness impacts tourism and the ability to deliver supplies; Effects of severe weather; History of the fort and why it was built; Ab undance of poaching; Efforts to preserve the aging fort; Architectural features; Details of research on turtles; Outlook.

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200 Author: Park T.; Bowker J.M.; Leeworthy V.R. Title: Valuing snorkeling visits to the Florida Keys with stated and revealed preference models. Journal of Enviro nmental Management 65, no.3 (2002) p. 301312. Classification: Nature Based Annotation: Author: Weisskoff, Richard. Title: Missing pieces in ecosystem resto ration: The case of the Florida Everglades Economic Systems Research Vol. 12 iss. 3 p. 271-303. Classification: Environmental Concerns Annotation: The largest ecosystem restoration in the world a $7.8 billion rescue package is now beginning in the Florid a Everglades. This paper examines both the economic impact of the restoration it self and those pieces that are missing from the official project analysis; namely increased tourism, urban construction, in-migration, and changing agricultural pa tterns. These pieces comprise a variety of scenarios that are tested for a 45 ye ar planning period with an augmented input-output model derived from a regional SAM. The new output and employment generated by the missing pieces, which are small relative to the vast economic base of the region, do represent a considerable increase over the annual growth, especially by the year 2045. We co nclude with a discussion of ways in which a growing regional economy might be reconciled with ecosystem restoration. Author: Southwick Associates, Inc. Title: The 2001 Economic Benefits of Watch able Wildlife Recreation in Florida. Prepared for: Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. February 10, 2003. Classification: Nature Based

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201 Annotation: Author: “Environmental Economics Symposium Committee” Greater Miami Chamber of Commerce, “Environment al Affairs Group & Environmental Economics Council” National Audubon Society, “Everglades Conservation Office” South Florida Water Management District Title: In South Florida, Th e Environment Is The Economy Prepared for: Greater Miami Chamber of Commerce. June 1999. Classification: Environmental Concerns Annotation: Author: Holland, S., Ditton R., and Graefe A. Title: An Ecotourism perspective on billfish fisheries. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 6(2) pp. 1-20. 1998. Classification: Nature Based Annotation: Author: Shackley, M. Title: Manatees and Tourism in Southern Florida: Opportunity or Threat? Journal of environmental management. 34, no. 4, (April 1992): 257-266. Classification: Environmental Concerns Annotation: Author: Glaser, Marc A.; Denhardt, Robert B. Title: Economic and Environmental Concerns and Local Development Policy: Tourism From the Perspective of the Host Population. Public Works Management & Policy 3, no. 3 (1999): 209-223.

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202 Classification: Environmental Concerns Annotation: THEME PARKS Author: Caproni, Joanna S. Title: Travel as Theater: A New Challe nge to the Credibility of Tourism Journal of Travel Research Vol. 30 iss. 3 p.54. Classification: Theme Parks Annotation: Let s Pretend is one of the strongest and fastest growing segments of the travel industry. In early 1991, th e New York Times reported that France was the number one tourist destination, with 50 million visitors a year. The US was 2nd, with 39.8 million, and Spain wa s 3rd, with 34.3 million. The 4th most popular destination was Disney World, with 28.5 million annual visitors. When the 12.9 million who visit Disneyland in Anaheim, California, and the estimated 12 million of Tokyo s Disneyland are added in, the total reaches 53.4 million visitors a year to these let s pretend worlds. Going to let s pretend theme parks is something that more people are do ing for many good reasons it is easy, it is relatively inexpensive, there are no unpleasant surprises, and it is guaranteed fun for the whole family. One of the new challenges to tourism is this magical sleight-of-hand substitution of th e perfectly fabulous fake for the often flawed original. Author: Milman, Ady Title: Market Identification of a N ew Theme Park: An Example from Central Florida Journal of Travel Research Vol. 26 iss. 4 p. 7-12. Classification: Theme Parks Annotation: Theme parks are a relatively new concept in tourism designed to cater to the family. They attempt to crea te the atmosphere of another time and

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203 place and emphasize one dominant them e around which all other elements are coordinated. Despite Central Florida s popular attractions, no comprehensive study has been conducted to determine the economic feasibility of additional parks in that competitive environment. For this exploratory study, no formal hypotheses were developed; however, an attempt was made to reveal tourist attitudes on theme parks in general, anim al-oriented parks, and horse-oriented parks. Findings highlighted the populari ty of man-made over natural-resource parks. Tourists also appeared to be passive in preferences, electing to view real things over exhibits. Night life activities were not favored. Thus, identifying a new theme park market should consider variables pertinent to the particular park, and promotional campaigns should emphasize unique features rather than a broad image concept. Author: Richards, Greg Title: Marketing China overseas: The role of theme parks and tourist attractions Journal of Vacation Marketing Vol. 8 iss. 1 p. 28-38. Classification: Theme Parks Annotation: In a competitive global tourism market, the creation and maintenance of national and regional im ages becomes crucial to the marketing process. As attraction visiti ng becomes a central element of everyday life, the role of attractions in image formation is also growing. A study examines the role of the parks in China, Florida and the Nether lands in creating an image of China, and in particular examines the familiarity of visitors and non-visitors with the markets presented in these parks. The analysis shows that while Dutch nonvisitors have a fairly naive image of China, Dutch respondents are fairly conversant with the major cultural attractions of the country. Author: O Brien, Tim Title: Universal Orlando president discusses industry. Amusement Business vol. 114 iss. 46 Nov 18, 2002. Classification: Theme Parks

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204 Annotation: Bob Gault was named presid ent and COO of Universal Orlando in February 2002, after having served as acti ng president and COO since Nov. 2001. He took the helm during one of the most difficult times in the history of theme park industry. Following the terrorist attacks of Sept. 2001, domestic as well as international to urism dropped dramatically, and the parks in Central Florida received the br unt of that radical change in travel patterns. With more than 36 years in the business, Gault is responsible for the oversight of the entire Universal Orlando destination resort. In an interview, Gault says that Universal has trimmed fixed costs dramatically. The management team has done a very good job of controlling the variable costs and shaved expenses to the vari able seasonal attendance. He says that his style is one of valuing em ployees and making them feel better about their personal contribution and how important they are to the success of the business. Author: Hollinshead K. Title: Disney and commodity aesthetics: A critique of Fjellman s analysis of Distory and the Historicide of the past. Current Issues in Tourism 1, no.1 (1998) p. 58-119. Classification: Theme Parks Annotation: Author: Mintz, Lawrence Title: Simulated tourism at Busch Gardens: The Old Country and Disney s World Showcase, Epcot Center. Journal of Popular Culture Winter 1998 p47(1). Classification: Theme Parks Annotation: All reality can be seen as socially constructed, and this view is reflected in observations of tourism as staged authenticity, a simulation or a pseduo-event Social philosophers have been es pecially irritated by commercial simulations such as theme parks, in cluding the Old Country of the Busch Gardens, and the World Showcase of the Disney Worl d-EPCOT Center. The problem may lie in the standards an d assumptions of the philosophers

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205 themselves. False assumptions about what the tourist experience should be like may be misleading. Author: Caro de, Frank Title: Strategies of presen tation and control at Disney s EPCOT: field notes on tourism, folk ideas, and manipulating cu lture. Southern Folklore Spring 1997 v54 n1 p26(14). Classification: Theme Parks Annotation: Folklorists should study EPCOT s World Showcase at Walt Disney World to achieve a better understanding of how tourists understand and perceive the various cultures they encounter on trips and how cultural stereotypes are created. EPCOT s presentation of cultures is similar to how cultures are presented at folk festivals and in museums. The World Showcase provides a stereotypical view of each nation represented. Author: Borrie, William T Title: Disneyland and Disney World: De signing and Prescribing the Recreational Experience. Loisir et Societe/Soci ety and Leisure, 1999, 22, 1, spring, 71-82. Classification: Theme Parks Annotation: Disneyland (CA) & Walt Disney World (FL) are two of the best known & most highly visited tourism de stinations in the world. With this visibility & audience reach, the action of the Disney Co exte nds well beyond the boundaries of their theme parks, ie, th e standards that Di sney sets in the management of its park environments have the potential to become the standards against which all environments are judged. Similarly, the visitor expectations & experiences that Disney constructs can become models to which visitors would have all recreation managers aspire. Disney is often acknowledged as the premier visitor servic es organization, & it is partly this excellence that gives it stature & impact. As recreational visitors are increasingly being treated as customers, natural resource managers should consider the appropriateness of Disney s approach to designing & prescribing the visitor experience.

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206 TRAVEL SAFETY Author: Pizam, Abraham. Title: Making tourists feel safe: whose responsibility is it?. Journal of Travel Research v. 36 (Summer 1997) p. 23-8. Classification: Travel Safety Annotation: DEVELOPMENT/HISTORY Author: N/A Title: EDUCATIONAL PERSPECTIVES FOR SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS. In Business, May/Jun2003, Vol. 25 Issue 3, p4, 1/5p. Classification: Development/History Annotation: The article presents inform ation on the 2003 Bell Conference to be held from July 17-19 at Florida Atlantic University in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. The conference will examine educationa l approaches that will lead more businesses to utilize sustainable mana gement methods. Conference topics include tourism and sustainability, green building and development, sustainability and natural resource industries; innovative academic programs and sustainable energy. Author: Finkl C.W.; Charlier R.H. Title: Sustainability of Subtropical Co astal Zones in Southeastern Florida: Challenges for Urbanized Coastal Enviro nments Threatened by Development, Pollution, Water Supply, and Storm Hazards. Journal of Coastal Research 19, no.4 (2003) p. 934-943. Classification: Development/History

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207 Annotation: Author: Crotts, J and Holland, S. Title: Objective indicators of the impa cts of rural tourism development in the state of Florida. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 1(2) pp. 112-120. 1993. Classification: Development/History Annotation: Author: Malecki E.J. Title: High tech, Mickey Mouse, and oranges: the development and coexistence of the military-space industry and tourism in central Florida. Florida Geographer 27 (1996) p. 37-53. Classification: Development/History Annotation: Author: Freeman Jr J.R. Title: Orlando International Airport planning for tomorrow. ITE Journal 60, no.7 (1990) p. 15-17. Classification: Development/History Annotation: Author: Winsberg M. Title: Changing areas of visitor interest in Florida 1950-1987. Florida Geographer 22(1988) p. 14-19. Classification: Development/History

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208 Annotation: Author: Glaser, Marc A.; Denhardt, Robert B. Title: Economic and Environmental Concerns and Local Development Policy: Tourism From the Perspective of the Host Population. Public Works Management & Policy 3, no. 3 (1999): 209-223. Classification: Development/History Annotation: Author: Turkel, Stanley Title: Henry Morrison Flagler: the man who invented Florida. Cornell Hotel & Restaurant Administration Quarterly. April 1998 v39 n2 p76(4). Classification: Development/History Annotation: Henry Morrison Flagler is considered Florida s earliest and most powerful developer, and one who was able to devise ways to boost the state s tourism industry. Inspired by his fondness for the Florida climate, Flagler worked for the laying of rails along the east coast in 1885, from south of the state to Key West. He also decided to build se veral hotels along the way, instituting what may well be today s booming tourist industry in Florida. Author: Bushnell, Jay R Title: Florida Community Colleges Role with Heritage Resource Preservation and Promotion in the Context of the ECHO Tourism Movement. Visions: The Journal of App lied Research for the Florida Association of Community Colleges; v2 n2 p51-54 Sum 1999. Classification: Development/History Annotation: Discusses the role that commu nity colleges can play in maintaining local heritage resources to support envi ronmental, cultural arts, heritage, and outdoor recreation (ECHO) tourism. States that tourism provides an opportunity

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209 for community colleges to spread the word about why the study of culture and history is important. Author: Piper, Harry M.; Piper, Jacquelyn G. Title: Florida Heritage Driving Tours: Joint Venture Takes Heritage Tourism to the Market. The Florida Anthropolo gist. 52, no. 3, (September 01, 1999): 205. Classification: Development/History Annotation: HIGHER EDUCATION Author: Ashley, Robert A; Bach, Susa n A; Chesser, Jerald W; Ellis, E Taylor Title: A customer-based approach to hospitality education Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly Vol. 36 iss 4 p74 Aug. 1995. Classification: Higher Education Annotation: The 1991 merger of the ho spitality program wi th the College of Business Administration at the University of Central Florida gave the hospitality faculty the opportunity to re-examine an d reconstruct its curriculum. The merger meant that just 27 credit hours would be available for hospitality courses. The faculty recruited 25 hospitality and tourism executives to help identify critical skills and knowledge. The result was a cu rriculum of 6 core hospitality courses and 3 electives, primarily intended for juniors and seniors. The rest of the curriculum involves 2 years of broad course work and one year of business courses. Courses focus on managerial skills instead of technical skills. Accounting, marketing, quantitative anal ysis, and economics are covered as part of the general-business curriculum. The faculty also determined that communication and interpersonal skills would not be taught as specific courses but through assignments in other content areas. URBAN ISSUES Author: Nicolaides, Becky M

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210 Title: The Resort City Gets Real. Journal of Urban History, 1998, 25, 1, Nov, 110-121. Classification: Urban Issues Annotation: A review essay on books by (1) G. Wesley Johnson, Jr. (Ed), Phoenix in the Twentieth Century: Essays in Co mmunity History (Norman: U Oklahoma Press, 1993); (2) Eugene P. Moehring, Resort City in the Sun Belt: Las Vegas, 1930-1970 (Reno & Las Vegas: U Nevada Press, 1995); & (3) Alejandro Portes & Alex Stepick, City on the Edge: The Transformation of Miami (Berkeley: U California Press, 1993). These three works o ffer very different perspectives on the evolution & future of the resort cities of Miami (FL), Las Vegas (NV), & Phoenix (AZ), & explore the human foundations of the resort city phenomenon. Johnson s collection draws on 500+ oral histories to discuss the development of urban Phoenix, but is criticized for its top-down approach that ignores the role of people & lacks a broader context. Moehring is praised for his treatment of the structural, infrastructural, & inst itutional aspects of Las Vegas urban development, but criticized for a lack of attention to social history. Portes & Stepick do provide this attention, but their avoidance of Miami s existence as a city before 1960 is criticized. T. Arnold. Author: Gladstone, David L Title: Tourism Urbanization in the Unit ed States. Urban Affairs Review, 1998, 34, 1, Sept, 3-27. Classification: Urban Issues Annotation: Explores the effects of what P. Mullins (eg, 1994) calls tourism urbanization, the evolution of tourismdependent metropolitan areas, on US metropolitan areas (eg, Las Vegas, NV, & Orlando, FL) & compares such cities to those outside the US (eg, Sunshine Coast & Gold Coast, Australia). Analysis of census data reveals distinct types of tourism urbanization in the US: (1) sun, sand, & sea tourism & (2) highly capital-intensive tourist attractions. The two types of tourist cities exhibit different social structures, & both differ in important ways from tourist cities outside the US.

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211 TRANSPORTATION Author: Gapinski, James H; Tuckman, Howard P. Title: Amtrak, Auto-Train, and Vacation Travel to Florida: Little Trains That Could Management Science Vol. 24 iss. 11, July 1978. Classification: Transportation Annotation: An examination is carried out to ascertain whether Amtrak and Auto-Train altered the demand for vacation travel to Florida by train. A profile of tourist arrivals is prepared which reveals a downward trend until the inception of effective Amtrak and Auto-Train service. At that point, the trend is promptly reversed. A travel demand functio n is postulated to include: 1. income, 2. price, and 3. interaction dummies which allow for consequences of the trains. Due to multicollinearity, the equation is estimated by ridge regression. The results suggest that the trains modified both income and price effects in the function. A discussion is incl uded of the likely implicat ions of Amtrak and AutoTrain for the leisure industries of Flor ida. New business may open up near train depots for tourists, and there may be a gr owth in number of destinations visited by tourists. Author: DeSalvo, Joseph S. Title: Direct Impact of an Airport on Travelers Expenditures: Methodology and Application. Growth and Change, Fall 2002, v. 33, iss. 4, pp. 485-96. Classification: Transportation Annotation: Discusses Ta mpa International Aiport Author: Freeman Jr J.R. Title: Orlando International Airport planning for tomorrow. ITE Journal 60, no.7 (1990) p. 15-17.

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212 Classification: Transportation Annotation: Author: Gu, Zheng; Martin, Thomas L Title: Terrorism, Seasonality, and International Air Tourist Arrivals in Central Florida: An Empirical Analysis. Classification: Transportation Annotation: A multiple regression mo del is developed to explain the rapid growth in international passenger traffic at central Florida s Orlando International Airport (OIA), focusing on implications for regional tourism. Five variables are identified as significantl y related to the passenger arrivals. The positive relationship between the econom ic performance of other industrialized countries & OIA international arrivals is consistent with the hypothesis that income is a positive determinant in t ravel decision. The increasing hijacking incidents in Europe & the Middle East has a destination substitution effect: hijacking may have encouraged Canadian & European tourists to switch from European/Middle Eastern destinations to the US in general, & to Orlando in particular. The composite tourism supply v ariable, represented by the number of Orlando hotel/motel rooms, is positively related to OIA international arrivals. The two dummy variables of seasonality a pleasant winter & early spring sunshine – contribute significantly to international passenger arrivals.

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213

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214 APPENDICES

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215 Appendix A Employment Trends: Miami & Miami PMSA

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216Employment Trends: Miami & Miami PMSA The following statistics are taken from the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development’s State of the Cities Data System. Industry classifications utilized by the United Stat es Census Bureau have changed; the SIC classification system is no longer utiliz ed; the NAICS classifi cation system was adopted in 1998. The State of the Cities Data System has developed a formula to adjust NAICS data to SIC. The tables that contain SIC data are estimates based upon these adjustments. The NAICS data is a more accurate count, but is rather limited in its time span and so both data sets are given when presenting specifics within the service industry as it pertains to tourism and leisure. The specific data look at tourism and leisure related or generated employment, establishments and wages. What makes these employment numb ers even more significant is the sheer number of beach communities within th e PMSA such as the cities of Miami Beach and North Miami Beach as well as the densely populated city of Hialeah with over 200,000 residents. This exercise is loosely based on Gladstone’s (1998) article reviewed earlier in this chapter. Points to remember The 1990 census reported Miami’s population as being 18.5 percent of its total PMSA population and that this number decreased to 16.4 percent in 2000. Miami experienced a 23.9 percent increase in service employment between 1991-2001 Miami’s PMSA experienced a 30.0 percen t increase in service employment between 1991-2001

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217 Table A.1 Hotels and Other Lodging Places: Employed Geographic Area 1991 2001 Miami 5,828 5,789 PMSA (Miami) 21,274 22,646 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 7000 Miami has experienced a 0.7 percent employment decrease Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 6.4 percent employment increase Miami comprised 27.4 percent of total employment in 1991 Miami comprised 25.6 percent of total employment in 2001 Table A.2 Hotels and Other Lodgin g Places: Average Annual Salary Geographic Area 1991 2001 Miami $18,511 $19,895 PMSA (Miami) $15,125 $19,125 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 7000 Miami has experienced a 7.5 percent increase in wages Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 21 percent increase in wages Table A.3 Hotels and Other Lo dging Places: Establishments Geographic Area 1991 2001 Miami 88 99 PMSA (Miami) 443 407 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 7000

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218 Miami has experienced a 11.2 percent increase in establishments Miami’s MSA has experienced a 8.2 percent decrease in establishments Miami comprised 19.9 percent of total establishments in 1991 Miami comprised 24.3 percent of total establishments in 2001 Table A.4 Amusement & Recreation: Employed Geographic Area 1991 2001 Miami 2,156 5,369 PMSA (Miami) 8,632 15,005 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 7900 Miami has experienced a 149.0 percent employment increase Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 73.8 percent employment increase Miami comprised 25.0 percent of total employment in 1991 Miami comprised 35.6 percent of total employment in 2001 Table A.5 Amusement & Recreation: Wages Geographic Area 1991 2001 Miami $42,648 $38,066 PMSA (Miami) $25,476 $23,788 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 7900 Miami has experienced a 10.7 percent decrease in wages Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 6.6 percent decrease in wages

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219 Table A.6 Amusement & Recreation: Establishments Geographic Area 1991 2001 Miami 121 198 PMSA (Miami) 577 830 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 7900 Miami has experienced a 63.6 percent increase in establishments Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 43.8 pe rcent decrease in establishments Miami comprised 21 percent of total establishments in 1991 Miami comprised 23.9 percent of total establishments in 2001 Table A.7 Museums, Botanical and Zoological Gardens: Employed Geographic Area 1991 2001 Miami 397 673 PMSA (Miami) 526 851 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 8400 Miami has experienced a 69.5 percent employment increase Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 61.8 percent employment increase Miami comprised 75.5 percent of total employment in 1991 Miami comprised 79.1 percent of total employment in 2001

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220 Table A.8 Museums, Botanical an d Zoological Gardens: Wages Geographic Area 1991 2001 Miami $26,088 $24,211 PMSA (Miami) $24,832 $24,729 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 8400 Miami has experienced a 7.2 percent decrease in wages Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 0.3 percent decrease in wages Table A.9 Museums, Botanical and Zo ological Gardens: Establishments Geographic Area 1991 2001 Miami 10 14 PMSA (Miami) 21 32 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 8400 Miami has experienced a 40.0 percent increase in establishments Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 52.4 perc ent increase in establishments Miami comprised 47.6 percent of total establishments in 1991 Miami comprised 43.4 percent of total establishments in 2001 Table A.10 Eating and Drinking Places: Employed Geographic Area 1991 2001 Miami 10,680 15,066 PMSA (Miami) 46,074 58,314 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 5800 *classification not found within services

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221 Miami has experienced a 41.1 percent employment increase Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 26.6 percent employment increase Miami comprised of 23.2 percent of total employment in 1991 Miami comprised of 25.8 percent of total employment in 2001 Table A.11 Eating and Drinking Places: Wages Geographic Area 1991 2001 Miami $12,455 $12,733 PMSA (Miami) $11,985 $12,728 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 5800 *classification not found within services Miami has experienced a 2.2 percent increase in wages Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 6.2 percent increase in wages Table A.12 Eating and Drinking Places: Establishments Geographic Area 1991 2001 Miami 756 825 PMSA (Miami) 2985 3337 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 5800 *classification not found within services Miami has experienced a 9.1 percent increase in establishments Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 11.8 perc ent decrease in establishments Miami comprised 25.3 percent of total establishments in 1991 Miami comprised 24.7 percent of total establishments in 2001

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222 Table A.13 Air Transportation: Employed Geographic Area 1991 2001 Miami 2,486 3,720 PMSA (Miami) 19,873 17,812 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 4500 *classification not found within services Miami has experienced a 49.6 percent employment increase Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 10.4 pe rcent employment decrease Miami comprised of 12.5 percent of total employment in 1991 Miami comprised of 20.9 percent of total employment in 2001 Table A.14 Air Transportation: Wages Geographic Area 1991 2001 Miami $36,214 $26,214 PMSA (Miami) $38,392 $33,563 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 4500 *classification not found within services Miami has experienced a 26.9 percent reduction in wages Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 12.6 percent reduction in wages

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223 Table A.15 Air Transportation: Establishments Geographic Area 1991 2001 Miami 74 116 PMSA (Miami) 260 449 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 4500 *classification not found within services Miami has experienced a 56.8 percent increase in establishments Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 72.7 perc ent decrease in establishments Miami comprised 28.5 percent of total establishments in 1991 Miami comprised 25.8 percent of total establishments in 2001 Table A.16 Performing Arts, Spectator Spor ts & Related Industries: Employed Geographic Area 1998 2001 Miami 1,840 2,559 PMSA (Miami) 4,108 4,689 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7110 Miami has experienced a 39.1 percent increase in employment Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 14.1 percent increase in employment Miami comprised of 44.8 percent of total employment in 1998 Miami comprised of 54.6 percent of total employment in 2001

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224 Table A.17 Performing Arts, Spectator Sports & Related Industries: Wages Geographic Area 1998 2001 Miami $67,996 $65,442 PMSA (Miami) $40,904 $43,946 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7110 Miami has experienced a 3.8 percent decrease in wages Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 7.4 percent increase in wages Table A.18 Performing Arts, Spectator Sports & Related Industries: Establishments Geographic Area 1998 2001 Miami 68 103 PMSA (Miami) 315 374 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7110 Miami has experienced a 51.1 percent increase in establishments Miami’s MSA has experienced a 18.7 percent increase in establishments Miami comprised of 21.6 percent of total establishments in 1998 Miami comprised of 27.5 percent of total establishment in 2001 Table A.19 Museums, Historical Sites & Like Institutions: Employed Geographic Area 1998 2001 Miami 606 684 PMSA (Miami) 742 865 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7120

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225 Miami has experienced a 12.9 percent increase in employment since 1998 Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 16.6 percent increase in employment Miami comprised 81.8 percent of total employment in 1998 Miami comprised 79 percent of total employment in 2001 Table A.20 Museums, Historical Si tes & Like Institutions: Wages Geographic Area 1998 2001 Miami $25,689 $24,154 PMSA (Miami) $25,569 $24,688 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7120 Miami has experienced a 6.0 percent decrease in wages Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 3.4 percent decrease in wages Table A.21 Museums, Historical Sites & Like Institutions: Establishments Geographic Area 1998 2001 Miami 13 14 PMSA (Miami) 27 33 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7120 Miami has experienced a 7.7 percent increase in establishments Miami’s MSA has experienced a 21.2 percent increase in establishments Miami comprised of 48.1 percent of total establishments in 1998 Miami comprised of 42.4 percent of total establishment in 2001

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226 Table A.23 Amusement, Gambling, & Recr eation Industries: Employed Geographic Area 1998 2001 Miami 658 1,463 PMSA (Miami) 4,177 5,640 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7130 Miami has experienced a 122.3 percent increase in employment Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 35.0 percent increase in employment Miami comprised 15.8 percent of total employment in 1998 Miami comprised 26 percent of total employment in 2001 Table A.24 Amusement, Gambling, & Recreation Industries: Wages Geographic Area 1998 2001 Miami $36,089 $16,426 PMSA (Miami) $19,625 $17,156 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7130 Miami has experienced a 54.4 percent decrease in wages Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 12.6 percent decrease in wages Table A.25 Amusement, Gambling, & Recrea tion Industries: Establishments Geographic Area 1998 2001 Miami 70 78 PMSA (Miami) 329 357 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7130 Miami has experienced a 15.1 percent increase in establishments

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227 Miami’s MSA has experienced a 2.5 percent increase in establishments Miami comprised of 21.3 percent of total establishments in 1998 Miami comprised of 21.8 percent of total establishment in 2001 Table A.26 Accommodations: Employed Geographic Area 1998 2001 Miami 6,198 5,789 PMSA (Miami) 22,246 22,646 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7210 Miami has experienced a 6.6 percent decrease in employment Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 1.8 percent increase in employment Miami comprised of 27.9 percent of total employment in 1998 Miami comprised of 25.6 percent of total employment in 2001 Table A.27 Accommodations: Wages Geographic Area 1998 2001 Miami $20,143 $19,895 PMSA (Miami) $18,400 $19,125 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7210 Miami has experienced a 1.2 percent decrease in wages Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 3.9 percent decrease in wages

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228 Table A.28 Accommodations: Establishments Geographic Area 1998 2001 Miami 86 99 PMSA (Miami) 397 401 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7210 Miami has experienced a 15.1 percent increase in establishments Miami’s MSA has experienced a 2.5 percent increase in establishments Miami comprised of 21.7 percent of total establishments in 1998 Miami comprised of 24.7 percent of total establishment in 2001 Table A.29 Food Services & Drinking Places: Employed Geographic Area 1998 2001 Miami 12,536 15,174 PMSA (Miami) 54,284 58,849 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7220 Miami has experienced a 21 percent increase in employment Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 8.4 percent increase in employment Miami comprised of 23.1 percent of total employment in 1998 Miami comprised of 25.8 percent of total employment in 2001

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229 Table A.30 Food Services & Drinking Places: Wages Geographic Area 1998 2001 Miami $13,294 $12,733 PMSA (Miami) $12,596 $12,733 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7220 Miami has experienced a 4.2 percent decrease in wages Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 1.2 percent increase in wages Table A.31 Food Services & Drinking Places: Establishments Geographic Area 1998 2001 Miami 832 844 PMSA (Miami) 3,378 3,413 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7220 Miami has experienced a 1.4 percent increase in establishments Miami’s MSA has experienced a 1.0 percent increase in establishments Miami comprised of 24.6 percent of total establishments in 1998 Miami comprised of 24.7 percent of total establishment in 2001 Table A.32 Air Transportation: Employed Geographic Area 1998 2001 Miami 1,299 1,541 PMSA (Miami) 12,201 9,943 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 4810 *classification not found within services

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230 Miami has experienced a 18.6 percent increase in employment Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 18.5 percent decrease in employment Miami comprised of 10.6 percent of total employment in 1998 Miami comprised of 15.5 percent of total employment in 2001 Table A.33 Air Transportation: Wages Geographic Area 1998 2001 Miami $32,862 $30,766 PMSA (Miami) $34,672 $38,704 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 4810 *classification not found within services Miami has experienced a 6.4 percent decrease in wages Miami’s PMSA has experienced a 11.6 percent increase in wages Table A.34 Air Transportation: Establishments Geographic Area 1998 2001 Miami 56 63 PMSA (Miami) 175 180 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 4810 *classification not found within services Miami has experienced a 12.5 percent increase in establishments Miami’s MSA has experienced a 2.9 percent increase in establishments Miami comprised 32 percent of total establishments in 1998 Miami comprised 35 percent of total establishment in 2001

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231 The uniqueness of the statistics pr esented is found in the concentration of tourism related jobs and establishments located within the city of Miami versus those found within the Miami PM SA. The city of Miami consists of some 16.4 percent of the PMSA populati on. The concentration of jobs and establishments is distinctive within mo st every table when all information is available with many concentrations twice that of the local population. Tourism related salaries are on averag e lower in most cases then the area average. This is a common occurrence within tourism as it produces a large number of low skill low paying jobs. This is not to say that tourism does not provide financially rewarding careers. Those jobs specific to performing arts, spectator sports, and like industries are very rewarding and are also composed of highly trained highly educat ed professionals. This sector does not count professional athletes or st adium workers selling food or souvenirs it instead counts management, executiv es, administrators, trainers and other like professionals who are usually highly educated. This exercise does indeed show that the city of Miami the economic engine of a 2.2 million person PMSA has a sign ificant concentration of tourism and leisure employment and establishments in relation to the wh ole population of its PMSA. This leads one to assume that tourism and leisure are seen as important economic sectors within th e city of Miami.

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232 APPENDIX B EMPLOYMENT TRENDS: TAMPA & TAMPA”S MSA

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233Employment Trends: Tampa & Tampa’s MSA The following statistics are taken from the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development’s State of the Cities Data System. Industry classifications utilized by the United Stat es Census Bureau have changed; the SIC classification system is no longer utiliz ed; the NAICS classifi cation system was adopted in 1998. The State of the Cities Data System has developed a formula to adjust NAICS data to SIC. The tables that contain SIC data are estimates based upon these adjustments. The NAICS data is a more accurate count, but is rather limited in its time span and so both data sets are given when presenting specifics within the service industry. The specif ic data look at tourism related or generated employment, establishments and salaries. These tables represent the city of Tampa along with the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater Metropolitan Statistical Area. This exercise is loos ely based upon Gladstone’s (1998) article reviewed in chapter four. The City of Tampa in the year 1990 consisted of 13.5 percent of the total MSA population by 2000 this number had decr eased to 12.7 percent. The following pages contain employment data specific to tourism and leisure. The data given is for the City of Tampa and the Tampa MSA. The data provided includes number of jobs, average annual salary and numb er of establishments. The data shows that significant numbers of jobs and esta blishments can be found within the City of Tampa when compared to the Tampa MSA based on population. The data also reflects that on average those em ployees working within the City of Tampa make a higher salary then those in the MSA when in fact the average MSA worker makes more then the average city worker when all employment is considered. It should be noted that the majority of these jobs fall below the

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234 average salary for either the city or MSA. What makes the following statistics even more significant is the fact that Tampa’s MSA consists of St. Petersburg a long established retirement and tourist destination of over 250,000 residents, Clearwater a long established retirement and tourist destination of over 100,000 re sidents and miles of small tourist dependent gulf coast beach towns. The MSA also consists of the remainder of Hillsborough and Pinellas counties as well as Pasco and Hernando counties to the north. While the city of Tampa experience d a decrease in the number of mining, construction, manufacturing and wholesal e trade establishments, the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater MSA experienced growth within construction, manufacturing and wholesale trade establis hments corresponding to the increase in employment numbers within thes e areas. The Tampa-St. PetersburgClearweater MSA also experienced a 4.1 percent decrease in its retail trade establishments, although it did gain em ployment within this area. It also increased its service establishments by 24.3 percent compared to the Tampa’s 13.8 percent yet the concentration of tour ism establishments and corresponding employment will be shown to favor th e city of Tampa over the Tampa-St. Petersburg-MSA. Points to remember The 1990 census reported Tampa’s population as being 13.5 percent of its total MSA population and that this number decreased to 12.7 percent in 2000. Tampa experienced a 52.1 percent increase in service employment between 1991-2001 Tampa’s MSA experienced a 57.2 percent increase in service employment between 1991-2000 *(2001 totals N/A)

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235 Table B.1 Hotels and Other Lodging Places: Employed Geographic Area 1991 2001 Tampa 4,481 5,125 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) 14,592 15,271 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 7000 Tampa has experienced a 14.4 percent employment increase Tampa’s MSA has experienced a 4.7 percent employment increase Tampa comprised of 30.7 percent of total employment in 1991 Tampa comprised of 33.6 percent of total employment in 2001 Table B.2 Hotels and Other Lodging Places: Wages Geographic Area 1991 2001 Tampa $13,778 $19,706 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) $13,494 $16,991 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 7000 Tampa has experienced a 43 percent increase in wages Tampa’s MSA has experienced a 25.9 percent increase in wages

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236 Table B.3 Hotels and Other Lodging Places: Establishments Geographic Area 1991 2001 Tampa 72 96 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) 472 479 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 7000 Tampa has experienced a 33.3 percent increase in establishments Tampa’s MSA has experienced a 1.5 percent increase in establishments Tampa comprised of 15.3 percent of total establishments in 1991 Tampa comprised of 20 percent of total establishments in 2001 Table B.4 Amusement & Recreation: Employed Geographic Area 1991 2001 Tampa 3,941 7,191 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) 11,789 N/A Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 7900 Tampa has experienced a 82.5 percent employment increase Tampa comprised of 33.4 percent of total employment in 1991

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237 Table B.5 Amusement & Recreation: Wages Geographic Area 1991 2001 Tampa $25,573 $27,459 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) $16,837 N/A Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 7900 Tampa has experienced a 7.4 percent increase in wages Table B.6 Amusement & Recreation: Establishments Geographic Area 1991 2001 Tampa 114 165 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) 655 863 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 7900 Tampa has experienced a 44.7 percent increase in establishments Tampa’s MSA has experienced a 31.8 percent increase in establishments Tampa comprised of 17.4 percent of total establishments in 1991 Tampa comprised of 19.1 percent of total establishments in 2001

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238 Table B.7 Eating and Drinking Places: Employed Geographic Area 1991 2001 Tampa 13,726 15,790 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) 61,507 64,949 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 5800 Tampa has experienced a 15.1 percent employment increase Tampa’s MSA has experienced a 5.6 percent employment increase Tampa comprised 22.3 percent of total employment in 1991 Tampa comprised 24.3 percent of total employment in 2001 Table B.8 Eating and Drinking Places: Wages Geographic Area 1991 2001 Tampa $10,894 $14,034 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) $9,867 $11,466 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 5800 Tampa has experienced a 28.8 percent increase in wages Tampa’s MSA has experienced a 16.2 percent increase in wages

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239 Table B.9 Eating and Drinking Places: Establishments Geographic Area 1991 2001 Tampa 689 740 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) 3,402 3,541 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 5800 Tampa has experienced a 7.4 percent increase in establishments Tampa’s MSA has experienced a 4.1 percent increase in establishments Tampa comprised of 20.3 percent of total establishments in 1991 Tampa comprised of 20.9 percent of total establishment in 2001 Table B.10 Air Transportation: Employed Geographic Area 1991 2000 Tampa 2,912 5,935 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) 3,957 N/A Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 4500 Tampa has experienced a 103.8 percent employment increase Tampa comprised of 73.6 percent of total employment in 1991

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240 Table B.11 Air Transportation: Wages Geographic Area 1991 2000 Tampa $41,251 $33,293 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) $36, 744 N/A Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 4500 Tampa has experienced a 19.3 percent decrease in wages Table B.12 Air Transportation: Establishments Geographic Area 1991 2000 Tampa 30 47 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) 77 121 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: SIC 4500 Tampa has experienced a 56.7 percent increase in establishments Tampa’s MSA has experienced a 57.1 percent increase in establishments Tampa comprised 39 percent of total establishments in 1991 Tampa comprised 38.8 percent of total establishments in 2001

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241 Table B.13 Performing Arts, Spectator Sp orts & Related Industries: Employed Geographic Area 2000 2001 Tampa 1,675 1,584 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) 3,442 N/A Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7110 Tampa has experienced a 2.5 percent decrease in employment Tampa comprised 48.7 percent of total employment in 2000 Table B.14 Performing Arts, Spectator Sports & Related Industries: Wages Geographic Area 2000 2001 Tampa $82,395 $82,299 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) $70,895 N/A Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7110 Tampa has experienced a 0.1 percent decrease in wages

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242 Table B.15 Performing Arts, Spectator Sports & Related Industries: Establishments Geographic Area 2000 2001 Tampa 53 55 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) 233 240 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7110 Tampa has experienced a 3.8 percent increase in establishments Tampa’s MSA has experienced a 3.0 percent increase in establishments Tampa comprised of 20.9 percent of total establishments in 2000 Tampa comprised of 22.9 percent of total establishment in 2001 Table B.16 Museums, Historical Site s & Like Institutions: Employed Geographic Area 2000 2001 Tampa 486 552 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) 805 N/A Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7120 Tampa has experienced a 13.6 percent increase in employment Tampa comprised 60.4 percent of total employment in 2000

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243 Table B.17 Museums, Historical Si tes & Like Institutions: Wages Geographic Area 2000 2001 Tampa $21,001 $19,455 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) $20,434 N/A Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7120 Tampa has experienced a 7.3 percent decrease in wages Table B.18 Museums, Historical Sites & Like Institutions: Establishments Geographic Area 2000 2001 Tampa 11 9 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) 35 34 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7120 Tampa has experienced a 18.2 percent decrease in establishments Tampa’s MSA has experienced a 2.9 pe rcent decrease in establishments Tampa comprised 31.4 percent of total establishments in 2000 Tampa comprised 26.5 percent of total establishments in 2001

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244 Table B.19 Amusement, Gambling, & Re creation Industries: Employed Geographic Area 2000 2001 Tampa 4,679 5,047 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) 11,684 N/A Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7130 Tampa has experienced a 7.9 percent increase in employment Tampa comprised 40 percent of total employment in 2000 Table B.20 Amusement, Gambling, & Recreation Industries: Wages Geographic Area 2000 2001 Tampa $15,705 $14,726 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) $14,679 N/A Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7130 Tampa has experienced a 6.2 percent decrease in wages

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245 Table B.21 Amusement, Gambling, & Recr eation Industries: Establishments Geographic Area 1999 2001 Tampa 85 84 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) 513 500 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7130 Tampa has experienced a 1.2 percent decrease in establishments Tampa’s MSA has experienced a 2.5 percent decrease in establishments Tampa comprised 16.6 percent of total establishments in 2000 Tampa comprised 16.8 percent of total establishments in 2001 Table B.22 Accommodations: Employed Geographic Area 1998 2001 Tampa 4,881 5,125 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) 14,970 15,271 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7210 Tampa has experienced a 5 percent increase in employment Tampa’s MSA has experienced a 2 percent increase in employment Tampa comprised 33 percent of total employment in 1998 Tampa comprised 33.6 percent of total employment in 2001

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246 Table B.23 Accommodations: Wages Geographic Area 1998 2001 Tampa $16,683 $16,919 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) $16,991 $19,706 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7210 Tampa has experienced a 1.8 percent increase in wages Tampa’s MSA has experienced a 16.5 percent increase in wages Table B.24 Accommodations: Establishments Geographic Area 1998 2001 Tampa 94 96 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) 475 479 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7210 Tampa has experienced a 2.1 percent increase in establishments Tampa’s MSA has experienced a 0.8 percent increase in establishments Tampa comprised 19.8 percent of total establishments in 1998 Tampa comprised 20 percent of total establishments in 2001

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247 Table B.25 Food Services & Drinking Places: Employed Geographic Area 1998 2001 Tampa 15,069 15,928 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) 63,591 65,577 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7220 Tampa has experienced a 5.7 percent increase in employment Tampa’s MSA has experienced a 3.1 percent increase in employment Tampa comprised 23.7 percent of total employment in 1998 Tampa comprised 24.3 percent of total employment in 2001 Table B.26 Food Services & Drinking Places: Wages Geographic Area 1998 2001 Tampa $11,887 $14,036 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) $10,722 $11,481 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7220 Tampa has experienced a 18.1 percent increase in wages Tampa’s MSA has experienced a 7.1 percent decrease in wages

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248 Table B.27 Food Services & Drinking Places: Establishments Geographic Area 1998 2001 Tampa 746 757 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) 3,657 3,623 Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 7220 Tampa has experienced a 1.5 percent increase in establishments Tampa’s MSA has experienced a 0.9 percent decrease in establishments Tampa comprised 20.4 percent of total establishments in 1998 Tampa comprised 20.9 percent of total establishments in 2001 Table B.28 Air Transportation: Employed Geographic Area 1998 2001 Tampa 4,881 4,905 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) N/A N/A Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 4810 Tampa has experienced a 1.5 percent increase in employment

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249 Table B.29 Air Transportation: Wages Geographic Area 1998 2001 Tampa $30,205 $34,636 MSA (Tampa-St. PetersburgClearwater) N/A N/A Source: SOCDS data system: U.S. Census: NAICS 4810 Tampa has experienced a 6.4 percent decrease in wages since 1998 The uniqueness of the statistics pr esented is found in the concentration of tourism related jobs and establishments located within the city of Tampa versus those found within the TampaSt. Petersburg-Clearwater MSA. The city of Tampa consists of some 12.6% of the MSA population. The concentration of jobs and establishmen ts is distinctive within every table when all information is available with many concentrations twice that of the population. The city of Tampa also ex hibits a lower per capita, household and family income when compared to the MSA. Tourism related salaries are higher in the city in most every case yet many are unfortunately still below the city averages. This is a common o ccurrence within tourism as it produces a large number of low skill low paying jo bs. This is not to say that tourism does not provide financially rewarding careers. Those jobs specific to performing arts, spectator sports, and like industries are very rewarding and are also composed of highly trained hi ghly educated professionals. This sector does not count professional athl etes or stadium workers who sell food or souvenirs it instead counts mana gement, executives, administrators, trainers and other like professionals.

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250 This exercise does indeed show that the city of Tampa the economic engine of a 2.3 million person MSA has a sign ificant concentration of tourism and leisure employment and establishments in relation to the wh ole population of its MSA. This leads one to assume that tourism and leisure are seen as important economic sectors within th e city of Tampa.

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Efforts to promote tourism as a catalyst for urban redevelopment in Florida
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insights from the anthropology of tourism and an annotated bibliography. /
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ABSTRACT: Tourism is a major contributor to the global economy and is an agent of cultural change. Tourism has been utilized throughout the United States as an engine of economic renewal in the promotion of redevelopment within many of our most celebrated urban centers. Urban tourism as it is found within Florida is explored. A chapter is dedicated to Tampa, Florida. Anthropology has spent little time or effort in attempting to understand the complexities of urban tourism and what it means for the cities of 21st century. The anthropology of tourism is utilized in exploring the political economy of tourism within urban spaces as they occur in Florida. Employment statistics, development trends and policy matters are presented to aid the reader in understanding the dynamics of urban tourism within Florida. Accompanying this effort on urban tourism is an annotated bibliography of Florida tourism.
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