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The relationship among various learner characteristics and reading achievement as measured by the Florida Comprehensive ...

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Material Information

Title:
The relationship among various learner characteristics and reading achievement as measured by the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Privé, Amanda A
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Florida
high stakes tests
FCAT
motivation to read
ethnicity
Dissertations, Academic -- School Psychology -- Specialist -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: The present study examined the relationships among various learner characteristics and reading achievement, as measured by the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). Using a multiple regression, the independent variables grade, gender, ethnicity, and motivation to read were used to predict the dependent variable, reading achievement. Participants in this study consisted of 585 students from nine elementary, nine middle, and nine high schools across three districts in Florida. Using archival data from a database composed by the Florida Center for Reading Research, the FCAT and Motivation to Read Profile were used to compute reading achievement and motivation to read, respectively. FCAT reading achievement was measured by the participant's Sunshine State Standard score in reading, and motivation to read was measured by student responses on the 4-point likert scale of the Motivation to Read Profile.The findings indicate that grade level and motivation to read were significant positive predictors of FCAT reading achievement, and African American and Hispanic ethnicity status were significant inverse predictors of FCAT reading achievement. African American ethnicity status was the strongest predictor of FCAT reading achievement and motivation to read was the second strongest. Gender and mixed ethnicity status did not significantly predict FCAT reading achievement. Results of this study support the findings of previous research.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ed.S.)--University of South Florida, 2004.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Amanda A. Privé, M.A.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 92 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 57719255
notis - AJU6879
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0000552
usfldc handle - e14.552
System ID:
SFS0025243:00001


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T he R e l a t i ons hi p A m ong V a r i ous L e a r ne r C ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd R e a di ng A c hi e ve m e nt a s M e a s ur e d b y t he F l or i da C om p r e he ns i ve A s s e s s m e nt T e s t by A m a nda A P r i v M A A t he s i s s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he de g r e e of E duc a t i on S pe c i a l i s t D e pa r t m e nt of P s yc hol ogi c a l a nd S oc i a l F ounda t i o ns C ol l e ge of E duc a t i on U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : K a t hy B r a dl e y K l ug P h. D K e l l y P ow e l l S m i t h, P h. D L ou C a r e y, P h. D D a t e of A ppr ova l : O c t obe r 29, 2004 K e yw or ds : f c a t m ot i va t i on t o r e a d, e t hni c i t y, hi gh s t a ke s t e s t s f l or i da C opyr i ght 2 004 A m a nda A P r i v M A

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i T a bl e of C ont e nt s T a bl e of C ont e nt s i L i s t of T a bl e s i i i A bs t r a c t i v C ha pt e r O ne : I nt r oduc t i on 1 S t a t e m e nt of t he P r ob l e m 1 S t a t e A c c ount a bi l i t y T e s t s of R e a di ng A c hi e ve m e nt 2 F a c t or s t ha t I m pa c t R e a di ng A c hi e ve m e nt 3 M ot i va t i on a nd R e a di ng A c hi e ve m e nt 5 R a t i ona l e f o r t he S t udy 6 P u r pos e of t he S t udy 6 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i ons 7 C ha pt e r T w o: R e vi e w of S e l e c t e d L i t e r a t ur e 8 O ve r vi e w 8 N a t i ona l C r i s i s i n R e a di ng 8 A c c ount a bi l i t y 9 F l o r i da s S t a t e w i de A s s e s s m e nt S ys t e m 11 H i gh S t a ke s T e s t i ng 14 I m po r t a nc e of R e a di ng A c hi e ve m e nt 16 T he o r i e s of M ot i va t i on t o R e a d R e l a t e d t o R e a di ng A c hi e ve m e nt E xpe c t a nc y V a l ue T he o r y G oa l O r i e nt a t i on T he or y M ot i va t i ona l S ys t e m s T he or y 17 18 20 21 R e a di ng A c hi e ve m e nt 22 M ot i va t i on t o R e a d a nd R e a di ng A c hi e ve m e nt 22 M ot i va t i on t o R e a d a nd G r a d e 25 G r a de a nd R e a di ng A c hi e ve m e nt 31 G e nde r a nd R e a di ng A c hi e ve m e nt 33 E t hni c i t y a nd R e a di ng A c hi e ve m e nt 36 S um m a r y 37 P ur pos e of T hi s S t udy 37 C ha pt e r T hr e e : M e t hod 38 P a r t i c i pa nt s 38

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i i S e t t i ng 41 I ns t r u m e nt a t i on 43 F l or i da C om pr e he ns i ve A s s e s s m e nt T e s t 43 M ot i va t i on t o R e a d P r of i l e 45 P r oc e d ur e D a t a C ol l e c t or s / R e c r ui t m e nt a nd T r a i ni ng 47 48 D a t a C ol l e c t i on 49 R e s e a r c h D e s i gn 5 0 C ha pt e r F our : R e s ul t s 51 D e s c r i pt i ve I n f or m a t i on 51 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s 53 C ha pt e r F i ve : D i s c us s i on S um m a r y of R e s ul t s I m p l i c a t i ons f or S c hool P s yc hol ogy C ont r i but i ons t o t he F i e l d o f E duc a t i on D e l i m i t a t i on L i m i t a t i ons of t hi s S t udy D i r e c t i ons f or F ut ur e R e s e a r c h C onc l us i ons 60 60 66 68 71 71 73 74 R e f e r e nc e s A ppe ndi x A ppe ndi x A : M e a n a nd S t a nda r d D e vi a t i on of t he M ot i va t i on t o R e a d P r of i l e a nd t he F C A T A ppe ndi x B : S S S S c a l e d S c or e C onve r s i ons t o F C A T A c hi e ve m e nt L e ve l s 76 84 85 86

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i i i L i s t of T a bl e s T a bl e 1: D e m og r a phi c s G e nde r E t hni c i t y a nd G r a de L e ve l 40 T a bl e 2: D e m og r a phi c I nf o r m a t i on o f P a r t i c i pa t i ng C ount i e s 4 2 T a bl e 3 : D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s f or t he M ot i va t i on t o R e a d P r of i l e 52 T a bl e 4: D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s f or F C A T S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r d S c or e s 52 T a bl e 5: F C A T a c hi e ve m e nt l e ve l f r e que nc i e s a c r os s a l l c ount i e s a nd gr a de l e ve l s 5 3 T a bl e 6: I nt e r c or r e l a t i ons f or R e a di ng A c hi e ve m e nt a nd P r e di c t o r V a r i a bl e s 56 T a bl e 7: M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on S um m a r y f o r V a r i a b l e s P r e di c t i ng F C A T 57

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i v T he R e l a t i ons hi p A m ong V a r i ous L e a r ne r C ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd R e a di ng A c hi e ve m e nt A s M e a s ur e d by t he F l or i da C om p r e he ns i ve A s s e s s m e nt T e s t A m a nda P r i v A B S T R A C T T he pr e s e nt s t udy e xa m i ne d t he r e l a t i on s hi ps a m o ng va r i ous l e a r ne r c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s m e a s ur e d by t he F l or i da C om pr e he n s i ve A s s e s s m e nt T e s t ( F C A T ) U s i ng a m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on, t he i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e s gr a de ge nde r e t hni c i t y a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d w e r e us e d t o pr e di c t t he de pe nde n t va r i a bl e r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt P a r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy c ons i s t e d of 585 s t ude nt s f r o m ni ne e l e m e nt a r y, ni ne m i ddl e a nd ni ne hi gh s c hool s a c r os s t hr e e di s t r i c t s i n F l o r i da U s i ng a r c hi va l da t a f r om a da t a ba s e c om pos e d by t he F l or i da C e nt e r f or R e a di ng R e s e a r c h, t he F C A T a nd M ot i va t i on t o R e a d P r of i l e w e r e us e d t o c om put e r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d r e s pe c t i ve l y. F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt w a s m e a s ur e d by t he pa r t i c i pa nt s S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r d s c or e i n r e a di ng a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d w a s m e a s ur e d by s t ude nt r e s pons e s on t he 4 p oi nt l i ke r t s c a l e of t he M ot i va t i on t o R e a d P r of i l e T he f i ndi ngs i ndi c a t e t ha t gr a de l e ve l a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d w e r e s i gni f i c a nt p os i t i ve pr e di c t or s o f F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a nd H i s pa ni c e t hni c i t y s t a t us w e r e s i gni f i c a nt i nve r s e p r e di c t or s of F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n e t hni c i t y s t a t us w a s t he s t r onge s t pr e di c t or o f F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d w a s t h e s e c ond s t r onge s t G e nde r a nd m i xe d

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v e t hni c i t y s t a t us di d not s i gni f i c a nt l y pr e di c t F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt R e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy s uppor t t h e f i ndi ngs of pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h.

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1 C ha pt e r O ne I nt r oduc t i on St at e m e nt of t he P r obl e m W he n P r e s i de nt G e or ge W B us h de l i ve r e d hi s l a s t e duc a t i on r e f o r m pr o pos a l t o C ongr e s s he r e por t e d t ha t 70% of f our t h gr a de r s a r e una bl e t o r e a d a t a ba s i c l e ve l D a t a i ndi c a t e d t ha t a ve r a ge r e a di ng s c or e s f or 17 ye a r o l ds ha ve not i m pr o ve d s i nc e t he 1970 s a nd i n 1998, 60% of 12t h g r a de r s w e r e r e a di ng be l ow pr o f i c i e nc y ( F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003d) T w e l f t h g r a de m a l e s a nd f e m a l e s s c or e d l ow e r i n r e a di ng on a ve r a ge i n 2002 t ha n i n 1998 a nd r e a di ng s c or e s f or C a uc a s i a n a nd A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n t w e l f t h g r a de s t ude nt s ha ve a l s o de c l i ne d s i nc e 1992 ( F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003d ) E m pl oye r s r e por t e d i n 1999 t h a t 38% o f a ppl i c a nt s l a c ke d t he r e a di ng s ki l l s ne e de d f or t he j ob, t w i c e t he num b e r t he y s a w i n 1996 C hi l dr e n w ho ne ve r l e a r n t o r e a d gr ow up t o ha ve de a d e nd j obs l i ve on pu bl i c a s s i s t a nc e a nd of t e n w i nd up s e r vi ng t i m e i n p r i s on ( P a i ge 2003) R e a di ng ha s be e n i de nt i f i e d a s a c e nt r a l c om pone n t t o s uc c e s s i n our s oc i e t y ( S now B ur n s & G r i f f i n, 1998) T he f oc us on r e a d i ng ha s be c om e i nc r e a s i ngl y i m por t a nt due t o t he f i ndi ngs t ha t a l a r ge p r opor t i on of c hi l dr e n a r e not a bl e t o r e a d ( H ow e l l & N ol e t 2000 ) T he r e po r t by S now e t a l e nt i t l e d P r e v e nt i ng R e adi ng D i f f i c ul t i e s i n Y oung C hi l dr e n ( 1998) poi nt e d out t ha t t he m a j or i t y o f r e a di ng pr obl e m s t ha t a r e f a c e d by s c hool a ge d c hi l dr e n c oul d ha ve be e n a voi de d by p r e ve nt a t i ve e f f or t s i n e a r l y c hi l dhood.

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2 I f t he s e pr obl e m s c a n be pr e ve nt e d, t he n w hy a r e m a ny s t ude nt s gr a dua t i ng f r o m hi gh s c hool w i t h poor r e a di ng s ki l l s ( S now e t a l 1998) ? W i t hout t he a bi l i t y t o r e a d doc um e nt s t ha t a r e w r i t t e n a t hi ghe r r e a di ng l e ve l s a dol e s c e nt s a nd a dul t s w i l l ha ve f e w i f a ny c hoi c e s f o r s t e a dy i nc om e t h r oughout t he i r l i f e M a ny f u l l t i m e j obs r e qui r e upp e r l e ve l r e a di ng s ki l l s t o be s uc c e s s f ul T he a bi l i t y t o r e a d i s va l ue d f o r s oc i a l a nd e c onom i c a dva nc e m e nt ( S now e t a l 1998) T he U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on i s hi gh l y c onc e r ne d by t he r a t e s of hi gh s c hool gr a dua t e s r e a di ng a t l ow e r l e ve l s i n l i ght of t he i nc r e a s i ng hi ghl y c om pe t i t i ve e c onom y. I n t he l ong r un, t he gove r n m e nt w i l l e nd up s uppor t i ng c i t i z e ns t ha t a r e not a bl e t o s uppor t t he m s e l ve s w i t h t he i r o w n a bi l i t i e s ( S now e t a l 1998 ) W he n s t ude nt s l e a ve hi gh s c hool i n t oda y s s oc i e t y, t he y m us t ha ve m or e t ha n j us t m e r e l i t e r a c y t o s ur vi ve U n f or t una t e l y m a ny f a i l t o a c hi e ve e ve n t he m os t ba s i c r e a di ng s ki l l s H i gh s c hool gr a dua t e s m us t be a bl e t o r e a d de m a ndi ng m a t e r i a l t o ha ve m ode r a t e c a l c ul a t i on s ki l l s a nd be a bl e t o pr obl e m s ol ve i nde pe nde n t l y ( S now e t a l 1998) D e s pi t e t he g r i m s t a t i s t i c s a l l hope i s not l os t R e a di ng s ki l l s c a n be i m pa c t e d t hr ough m ul t i pl e e duc a t i ona l va r i a bl e s R e s e a r c h i s c ons i s t e nt l y s ho w i ng t ha t di f f e r e nt m ode l s of l e a r n i ng m a y e nc om pa s s num e r ous ki nds of l e a r ne r c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s t ha t ha ve be e n f ound t o f a c i l i t a t e r e a di ng ( D i P e r na e t a l 2002) St at e A c c ount abi l i t y T e s t s of R e adi ng A c hi e v e m e nt I n F l o r i da a nd a c r os s t he U ni t e d S t a t e s s c hool s a n d s t ude nt s a r e now be i ng he l d a c c ount a bl e f or t he i r r e a di ng a c h i e ve m e nt w i t h hi g h s t a ke s t e s t i ng. B a s e d on t he r e s ul t s of t he s e t e s t s s c hool s a nd e duc a t or s r e c e i ve m one y a nd s uppl i e s a c c or di ngl y. T he s e t ool s f a c i l i t a t e gr ow t h i n t hos e s t ude nt s w i t h l ow a c hi e ve m e nt a nd m ot i va t i on

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3 I n F l o r i da r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt i s m e a s ur e d by t h e F l or i da C om p r e he ns i ve A s s e s s m e nt T e s t ( F C A T ; F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003e ) T hi s s t a t e w i de a s s e s s m e nt m e a s ur e s r e a di ng, m a t he m a t i c s s c i e nc e a nd w r i t i ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd w a s de ve l ope d by c om m e r c i a l c ont r a c t or s a nd s c hool d i s t r i c t c ur r i c ul um c ont e nt c om m i t t e e s hi r e d by t he F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on ( F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on, 2003e ) C or r e l a t e s of ot he r hi gh s t a ke s r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t s ha ve be e n s t udi e d i n pa s t r e s e a r c h ( D i a m ond & O nw ue gbuz i e 2001) T he s e s t udi e s h a ve f ound t ha t m a ny f a c t or s i nf l ue nc e pe r f or m a nc e on s t a nda r di z e d r e a di ng t e s t s a nd i n t ur n i m pa c t r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt T he s e f a c t or s i nc l ude g r a de ge nde r e t hni c i t y, a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d. O ve r t he pa s t t w e nt y ye a r s m a ny t he o r i e s ha ve be e n de v e l ope d t o e xpl a i n t he s e f a c t or s a nd t he i r i m pa c t on t he ge ne r a l c onc e pt of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt I t i s i m por t a nt t o f i nd f a c t or s t ha t i m pa c t r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s m e a s ur e d by t he F C A T a nd de t e r m i na nt s of a c hi l d s de s i r e t o r e a d s o t ha t t he s e va r i a bl e s c a n be i nc o r por a t e d i n t o i nt e r ve nt i ons t o f a c i l i t a t e t he bui l di ng of r e a di ng s ki l l s F ac t or s t hat I m pac t R e adi ng A c hi e v e m e nt H e r be r t W a l be r g s ( 1984) T he or y of E duc a t i ona l P r oduc t i vi t y i s a m ode l of s c hool l e a r ni ng t ha t ha s be e n e xt e ns i ve l y t e s t e d a c r os s gr a de s a nd s ubj e c t m a t t e r T hi s m ode l m e a s ur e s va r i a bl e s r e l a t e d t o l e a r ni ng a nd h ow one va r i a bl e i n f l ue nc e s t he ot he r va r i a bl e s t o f a c i l i t a t e s uc c e s s w i t hi n a c hi l d. W a l b e r g a nd c ol l e a gue s r e s e a r c he d m a ny m ode l s of l e a r ni ng a nd f ound t ha t m os t m ode l s i nc l ude d v a r i a bl e s r e pr e s e nt i ng a bi l i t y m ot i va t i on, qua l i t y of i ns t r uc t i on a nd qua nt i t y of i ns t r uc t i on ( H a e r t e l W a l be r g, & W e i ns t e i n, 1983) O t he r m ode l s a dde d t he c ons t r u c t s of s oc i a l e nvi r onm e nt of t he c l a s s r oom hom e e nvi r onm e nt pe e r i nf l ue nc e a nd m a s s m e di a

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4 C ons t r uc t s s uc h a s hom e e nvi r onm e nt c a n s i gni f i c a nt l y i m pa c t a c hi l d s s uc c e s s i n s c hool ( P unge l l o K upe r s m i dt B ur c hi na l & P a t t e r s on, 1996; W a ng H a r t e l & W a l be r g, 1993 ) P unge l l o e t a l ( 1996 ) s how e d t ha t ove r a l l a c hi e ve m e nt i n s c hool w a s ne ga t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o l ow f a m i l y i nc om e a nd hi gh s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve nt s i n t he hom e W a ng e t a l ( 1993) a l s o f ound t he s e r e s ul t s i n a r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t u r e on f a c t or s r e l a t e d t o s c hool l e a r ni ng. W a ng e t a l ( 1993) f ound m ul t i pl e s t udi e s s uppor t i ng t he f i ndi ng t h a t f a m i l y i nvol ve m e nt a nd pos i t i ve hom e e nvi r onm e n t a r e di r e c t l y pos i t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o a c a de m i c pe r f or m a nc e R e c e nt l y, D i P e r na a nd E l l i ot s ( 2002) m od e l o f a c a de m i c e na bl e r s w a s de s i gne d t o i nc l ude m a ny of t he s e c om m on c ons t r uc t s t o e xpl a i n t he pr oc e s s of l e a r ni ng a nd t he w a ys t o bui l d a c a de m i c c om pe t e nc e A c a de m i c e na bl e r s a r e nona c a de m i c s ki l l s a t t i t ud e s a nd be ha vi or s t ha t m a ke c ont r i but i ons t o a c a de m i c s uc c e s s ( D i P e r na V ol pe & E l l i o t 2002) T he t he or y be hi nd t hi s m ode l i s t ha t a c hi l d ne e ds m o r e t ha n j us t pur e a c a de m i c s ki l l t o s uc c e e d i n s c hool T hi s t he or y i s ba s e d on t he p r e m i s e t ha t t he r e a r e n ona c a de m i c va r i a bl e s t ha t i nf l ue nc e a c hi e ve m e nt T he c onc e pt o f a c a de m i c c om pe t e nc e e nc om pa s s e s a l l of t he s e va r i a bl e s ( D i P e r na & E l l i o t 2002) A c a de m i c c om pe t e nc e i s a m ul t i di m e ns i ona l c ons t r uc t t ha t i nc l ude s a bi l i t i e s m ot i va t i on a nd be ha vi or s o f s t u de nt s t ha t f a c i l i t a t e t he i r a c hi e ve m e nt i n s c hool D i P e r na a nd E l l i ot ( 2002) ha ve c a t e gor i z e d t he s e a bi l i t i e s m ot i va t i on a nd be ha vi or s i nt o t w o d i s t i nc t dom a i ns : a c a de m i c s ki l l s a nd a c a de m i c e na bl e r s A c a de m i c s ki l l s ha ve be e n i de nt i f i e d a s l a ngua ge ba s e d s ki l l s m a t he m a t i c s s ki l l s a nd c r i t i c a l t hi nki ng s ki l l s A c a de m i c e na bl e r s ha ve be e n i de nt i f i e d a s i nt e r pe r s ona l s ki l l s m ot i va t i on, s t udy s ki l l s a nd e nga ge m e nt ( D i P e r na & E l l i ot 2002)

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5 M ot i v at i on and R e adi ng A c hi e v e m e nt L a r ge por t i ons of s t ude nt s f r om a l l a ge s a nd s oc i a l c l a s s e s ha ve be e n s how n t o ha ve r e a di ng di f f i c ul t i e s ( S now e t a l 1998 ) R e a di ng f a i l ur e i s i nde pe nde nt of ge nde r a nd e t hni c i t y. H ow e ve r f a i l ur e t o r e a d i s m uc h m o r e l i ke l y a m ong poor nonw hi t e c hi l dr e n, w ho a r e nonna t i ve s pe a ke r s of E ngl i s h. T he s e c hi l dr e n a r e s l ow l y be c om i ng t he m a j or i t y i n m a ny of A m e r i c a s s c hool s a nd w i t hi n A m e r i c a n s oc i e t y. A l t hough t he popul a t i on of s c hool c hi l dr e n ha s i nc r e a s e d onl y f a i nt l y, t he num be r of s t ude nt s w i t h E ngl i s h a s a s e c ond l a ngua ge ( E S O L ) gr e w by 85 % a c r os s t he na t i on be t w e e n 1985 a nd 1992 ( S now e t a l 1998 ) I n a ddi t i on t o t he di s pr o por t i ona t e r a t e o f m i no r i t i e s w i t h r e a di ng di f f i c ul t i e s t he r e i s a l s o a di s pr opor t i ona t e r a t e of m a l e s w i t h r e a di ng di f f i c ul t i e s O ve r a l l m a l e m i nor i t i e s f a r e t he w o r s t F e m a l e s c ons i s t e nt l y s c or e hi ghe r i n r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt t ha n m a l e s a t a l l a ge s ( D i a m o nd & O nw ue buz i e 2001) W he n c om pa r e d t o m a l e s f e m a l e s m a y ha ve a h i g he r a f f i ni t y t ow a r d r e a di ng i n s c hool w hi c h l e a ds t he m t o a c hi e ve hi ghe r i n r e a d i ng t a s ks I n r e ga r d t o r e a di ng f e m a l e s a r e c ons i s t e nt l y m or e m ot i va t e d t o pe r f or m a nd t e n d t o e nj oy r e a di ng m o r e t ha n boys a t a l l a ge s ( D i a m ond a nd O nw ue buz i e 2 001) H ow e ve r r e s e a r c h r e ga r di ng m i no r i t y c hi l dr e n s m ot i va t i on t o r e a d ha s be e n l e s s a ppa r e nt R e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t a l l e t hni c gr oups a c r os s gr a de s de c r e a s e i n m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a c a de m i c r e a di ng, but oppos i t e t r e nds ha ve be e n f ound f or r e c r e a t i ona l r e a di ng. F or e xa m pl e A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s ha ve be e n s how n t o ha ve l e s s m ot i va t i on t o e nga g e i n r e c r e a t i ona l r e a d i ng, but m o r e m ot i va t i on t o e nga ge i n a c a de m i c r e a di ng, c om pa r e d t o C a uc a s i a n s t ude nt s of t he s a m e a ge a nd ge nde r ( D i a m ond & O nw ue gbuz i e 2001)

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6 T he s e f i ndi ngs t ha t gi r l s a r e m or e m ot i va t e d t o r e a d a nd hi ghe r a c hi e ve r s i n r e a di ng t ha n boys a t a l l a ge s a r e ve r y i m por t a nt f o r i ns t r uc t i ona l r e s e a r c h. E qua l l y i m por t a nt i s t he l a c k of f i ndi ngs s ugge s t i ng a c ons i s t e nt t r e nd i n m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a c r os s e t hni c i t y. T he i nc ons i s t e nc y of t he s e f i ndi ngs i s i m por t a nt t o not e f or f ut ur e di r e c t i ons of r e s e a r c h. R e s e a r c h de f i ni ng a c ons i s t e nt t r e nd i n m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a c r os s e t hni c i t y w i l l be us e f ul f or t e a c he r s a nd e duc a t or s t o de ve l op ne w e vi de nc e ba s e d m e t hods of i ns t r uc t i on a nd c onc e nt r a t e on t he gr oups of s t ude nt s t ha t ha ve be e n s how n t o ne e d i ns t r uc t i on t he m os t R at i onal e f or t he St udy E duc a t or s a nd ps yc hol ogi s t s ha ve be e n s t udyi ng h ow m ot i va t i on a nd c ogni t i ve f a c t or s i m pa c t l e a r ni ng a nd a c hi e ve m e nt f o r a t l e a s t t he l a s t t w e nt y ye a r s ( L i nne nbr i nk & P i nt r i c h, 2002) T he pr e s e nt i nve s t i ga t i on w a s t he f i r s t s t udy t o e xpl o r e t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n m ot i va t i on a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s m e a s ur e d by t he F C A T F e w s t udi e s ha ve be e n publ i s he d on r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s m e a s ur e d by t he F C A T a nd i t s r e l a t i ons hi p t o a c a de m i c e na bl e r s T hi s s t udy s he d s l i ght on s om e o f t he c or r e l a t e s of F C A T r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e a nd i n t ur n gi ve s di r e c t i on f or r e a di ng i n t e r ve nt i ons t o de ve l op r e a di ng c om pe t e nc y. P ur pos e of t he St udy A s of 2004 t he r e a r e f e w s t udi e s publ i s he d on t he F C A T a nd i t s m o t i va t i ona l c or r e l a t e s I t w a s pr e di c t e d t ha t f i ndi ngs f r om t hi s s t udy w i l l pr ovi de i nf or m a t i on on t he m ot i va t i ona l c or r e l a t e s of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s m e a s ur e d b y t he F C A T T hi s i nf or m a t i on c a n be us e d t o de s i gn p r e ve nt i on a nd i nt e r ve nt i on pr og r a m s i n r e a di ng f or s t ude nt s a t r i s k f or r e a di ng f a i l ur e T he pur pos e of t hi s s t ud y w a s t o de t e r m i ne w he t he r

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7 t he r e i s a r e l a t i ons hi p a m ong t he de m og r a phi c va r i a bl e s gr a de ge nde r e t hni c i t y, a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d w i t h r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s m e a s ur e d by t he F C A T R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i ons T he f ol l ow i ng r e s e a r c h que s t i ons w e r e a ddr e s s e d: 1. W ha t i s t he r e l a t i ons hi p a m ong t he i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e s or va r i ous l e a r ne r c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s gr a de ge nde r e t hni c i t y a nd m ot i v a t i on t o r e a d w i t h t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e l e ve l o f r e a di ng a c hi e v e m e nt a s m e a s ur e d by t he F C A T ? 2. W hi c h i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e g r a de ge nde r e t hn i c i t y, o r m ot i va t i on t o r e a d ha s t he s t r onge s t r e l a t i ons hi p t o t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s m e a s ur e d by t he F C A T ?

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8 C ha pt e r T w o R e vi e w of S e l e c t e d L i t e r a t ur e O v e r v i e w T he pur pos e of t hi s c ha pt e r w a s t o r e vi e w t he e xi s t i ng l i t e r a t ur e on r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a c r os s gr a de ( t hi r d, s e ve nt h, a nd t e nt h) a c r os s ge nde r a nd a c r o s s e t hni c i t y. T h i s c ha pt e r be gi n s b y s he ddi ng l i ght on t he na t i ona l c r i s i s i n r e a di ng. I t t he n c ove r s t he t opi c s of a c c ount a bi l i t y i n e duc a t i on, t he N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t ( N C L B ) F l or i da s s t a t e w i de a s s e s s m e nt s ys t e m t he F l o r i da C om pr e he ns i ve A s s e s s m e nt T e s t ( F C A T ) a nd H i gh S t a ke s T e s t i ng. T h i s c ha pt e r t he n de f i ne s r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d ba s e d on t he e xi s t i ng l i t e r a t ur e T h i s c ha pt e r c onc l ude s w i t h a s um m a r y of t he r e s e a r c h e xa m i ni ng t he de m ogr a phi c va r i a bl e s ( gr a de ge nde r a nd e t hni c i t y ) r e l a t e d t o r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt N at i onal C r i s i s i n R e adi ng M a ny s t ude nt s go t hr ough s c hool w i t hout l e a r ni ng t o r e a d be yond a ba s i c l e v e l ( N a t i ona l R e a di ng P a ne l 2000 ) L a r ge num be r s o f s t ude nt s bot h w i t h a nd w i t hout di s a bi l i t i e s ha ve be e n f ound t o ha ve s e r i ous r e a di n g pr obl e m s a t a l l l e ve l s of s c hool i ng ( S hi nn, W a l ke r & S t one r 2002) T hi s di s t ur bi ng t r e nd a l s o i s s e e n a c r os s gr a de a nd e t hni c i t y ( N a t i ona l R e a d i ng P a ne l 2000 ) T he N a t i ona l A s s e s s m e nt of E duc a t i ona l P r ogr e s s ( N A E P ) a na t i ona l t e s t t ha t t r a c ks s t ude nt l e a r ni ng, f ound t ha t 37 % of f ou r t h gr a de s t ude nt s 26 % o f e i ght h gr a de s t ude nt s a nd 30% of t w e l f t h gr a de s t ude nt s ha ve not

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9 m a s t e r e d t he ba s i c s ki l l s t o r e a d i n s oc i e t y ( N a t i on a l C e nt e r f or E duc a t i ona l S t a t i s t i c s 2003 ) F ur t he r m o r e t hi s na t i ona l a s s e s s m e nt w a s f ound i n a l m os t a l l s oc i a l c ul t u r a l a nd e t hni c gr oups t e s t e d. A l a r m i ngl y, 29% of C a uc a s i a n s 69% o f A f r i c a n A m e r i c a ns 64% o f H i s pa ni c s 22% of A s i a n A m e r i c a ns a nd 52 % of A m e r i c a n I ndi a ns di d not ha ve t he ba s i c s ki l l s r e qui r e d t o r e a d i n t he f ou r t h g r a de ( N a t i ona l R e a di ng P a ne l 2000 ) E i ght y f i ve pe r c e nt o f c hi l dr e n w ho ha ve c om m i t t e d c r i m e s a nd 75 % o f a dul t s t ha t a r e i n pr i s on a r e i l l i t e r a t e ( N a t i ona l R e a di ng P a ne l 2000 ) I n t he f ut ur e t he s oc i e t a l c os t s t ha t w i l l be ne e de d t o f a c i l i t a t e t he l i ve s of t h e s e i ndi vi dua l s i nc l ude 224 bi l l i on dol l a r s a ye a r i n w e l f a r e pa ym e nt s c r i m e j ob c om pe t e nc e l os t t a xe s a nd r e m e di a l e duc a t i on ( N a t i ona l R e a di ng P a ne l 2000 ) I n a ddi t i on, U S c om pa ni e s e xpe nd ne a r l y 40 bi l l i on dol l a r s pe r ye a r be c a us e of i l l i t e r a c y ( N a t i o na l R e a di ng P a ne l 2000 ) D ue t o t he e xc e s s i v e a m ount s of s t ude nt s i n t he s c hool s ys t e m t ha t ha ve be e n a nd s t i l l a r e e xpe r i e nc i ng f a i l ur e i n r e a di ng t he gove r nm e nt ha s i m pl e m e nt e d na t i onw i de a c c ount a bi l i t y a c t s t o hol d e duc a t i ona l i ns t i t ut i ons a c c ount a bl e f or t he ou t c om e s of t he i r s t ude nt s A c c ount abi l i t y T he l i t e r a c y a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt r a t e s of s c ho ol a ge d c hi l dr e n a r e a t o ne of t he i r l ow e s t poi nt s ( H ow e l l & N ol e t 2000 ) T he N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t o f 2001 ( N C L B ) w a s s i gne d on J a nua r y 8 2002 by P r e s i d e nt G e or ge W B us h t o a ddr e s s s om e of t he s e di s he a r t e ni ng l i t e r a c y s t a t i s t i c s ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on 2003d ) T h i s ne w l a w w a s i ns pi r e d by P r e s i de nt B us h s r e f or m pl a n f or e duc a t i on a nd bui l t upon t he E l e m e nt a r y a nd S e c onda r y E duc a t i on A c t ( E S E A ) t ha t w a s e na c t e d i n 1965.

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10 N C L B s uppor t e d l e a r ni ng i n t he e a r l y ye a r s a nd w a s w r i t t e n unde r t he a s s um pt i on t ha t c hi l dr e n ne e d r e s our c e s dur i ng e a r l y c hi l dhoo d e duc a t i on t o ge t t he r i ght s t a r t T he de ve l ope r s of N C L B de s i gne d t hi s l a w ba s e d on S now e t a l s ( 1998) r e s e a r c h t ha t f ound t ha t c hi l dr e n w ho e nt e r s c hool w i t h l a ngua ge a nd p r e r e a di ng s ki l l s a r e m or e l i ke l y t o s uc c e e d i n r e a di ng ( F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on, 2003d) N C L B ha d f ou r m a i n t he m e s : a c c ount a bi l i t y f or r e s ul t s a n e m p ha s i s on e m pi r i c a l a nd e vi de nc e ba s e d i nt e r ve nt i ons e xpa nde d pa r e nt a l c hoi c e s a nd r e s our c e s a nd e xpa nde d l o c a l c ont r o l a nd f l e xi bi l i t y. T he m a i n obj e c t i ve o f N C L B w a s t o i m pr ove s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt a nd c ha nge t he phi l os ophy of A m e r i c a s s c hool s N C L B r e qui r e d a nnua l t e s t i ng of a l l publ i c s c hool s t ude nt s i n r e a di ng a nd m a t h gr a de s t hr e e t hr ough e i ght a nd onc e dur i ng hi gh s c hool A l ong w i t h t hi s t e s t i ng, a nnua l r e por t c a r ds w e r e a l s o r e qui r e d t o r e po r t s c hool pe r f or m a nc e t o pa r e nt s vot e r s a nd t a xpa ye r s T he s e r e por t c a r ds c ons i s t e d of e a s y t o r e a d, de t a i l e d r e por t s a bout s c hool s a nd di s t r i c t s t o i nf o r m pa r e nt s a bout w hi c h one s a r e s u c c e e di ng a nd w hy. F o r t he s e r e por t c a r ds a l l s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt da t a w e r e br oke n do w n by r a c e e t hni c i t y, ge nde r E ngl i s h l a ngua ge pr of i c i e nc y, m i gr a nt s t a t us di s a bi l i t y s t a t us a nd l ow i nc om e s t a t us A l s o i nc l ude d i n t hi s a c t w e r e pl a ns t o e ns ur e t ha t e ve r y c hi l d i n A m e r i c a r e a ds by t he t hi r d gr a de a nd t ha t e ve r y publ i c s c hool c l a s s r oom ha s a hi ghl y qua l i f i e d t e a c he r by 2005 ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on 2003d ) T he s e r e por t c a r ds hol d t e a c he r s a dm i ni s t r a t or s s c hool s a nd di s t r i c t s a c c ount a bl e f or t he i r s t ude nt s a c hi e ve m e nt D ue t o t he huge f oc us on a c c ount a bi l i t y w r i t t e n i n t o t he l a w w a s a s pe c i a l e m pha s i s on t he us e of e vi de nc e ba s e d a nd e m pi r i c a l l y ba s e d i nt e r ve nt i ons w i t hi n t he publ i c s c hool s ys t e m N C L B s t a t e d t ha t s t a t e s a nd l oc a l e duc a t i on a ge n c i e s c oul d onl y

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11 us e pr ogr a m s a nd pr a c t i c e s t ha t ha ve be e n s uppor t e d by s c i e nt i f i c r e s e a r c h. T he s e w e r e t he onl y pr og r a m s a nd pr a c t i c e s t ha t w oul d be f e de r a l l y f unde d A l s o unde r N C L B pa r e nt s c oul d t r a c k t he t r e nds i n a c hi e ve m e nt i n t h e i r c hi l d s s c hool a n d di s t r i c t a nd i f t he i r c hi l d s s c hool c ont i nue d t o ha ve poo r pe r f or m a nc e ha d t he opt i on t o t r a ns f e r t he i r c hi l d t o hi ghe r pe r f o r m i ng s c hool s i n t he a r e a o r r e c e i ve e xt r a s e r vi c e s f r om t he c om m uni t y. A l ong w i t h m o r e pa r e nt a l c hoi c e s N C L B a l s o ga v e s t a t e a nd l oc a l e duc a t i on a ge nc i e s m or e c hoi c e s N C L B s t a t e d t he r ol e of t h e f e de r a l gove r nm e nt i n e duc a t i on a nd how i t s houl d be r e de s i gne d t o m a ke i m pr ove m e nt s f or ou r e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m I t a l s o s e t s t a nda r ds f or a c a de m i c s a s s e s s m e nt s a nd t he a c c ount a bi l i t y s ys t e m f or a c hi e ve m e nt w i t hi n t he f e de r a l e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m T he r e w a s how e ve r f l e xi bi l i t y bui l t i n f or e a c h s t a t e t o de c i de t he w a ys i n w hi c h t he y pl a nne d t o d e t e r m i ne t he i r a c a de m i c s t a nda r ds a nd a s s e s s m e nt pr oc e dur e s F l or i da s St at e w i de A s s e s s m e nt Sy s t e m I n F l o r i da a n or ga ni z e d s t a t e w i de a s s e s s m e nt pr ogr a m ha s e xi s t e d f or m or e t ha n t hi r t y ye a r s ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on 200 3c ) T he F l o r i da C om pr e he ns i ve A s s e s s m e nt T e s t ( F C A T ) i s t he l a t e s t ve r s i on o f F l or i da s s t a t e w i de a s s e s s m e nt pr ogr a m T hi s t e s t s a t i s f i e s t he r e qui r e m e nt f or a s s e s s m e nt pr oc e dur e s f or t he N C L B A c t T he F C A T w a s i ni t i a t e d i n 1972 a nd ha s gone t hr ough m a ny c ha nge s ove r t he ye a r s I t w a s a dm i ni s t e r e d f or t he f i r s t t i m e s t a t e w i de i n t he s pr i ng of 1998 T he de ve l opm e nt o f t he F C A T w a s gui de d by t he S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r ds T he S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r ds a r e F l or i da s a c a de m i c s t a nda r ds S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r ds w e r e de s i gne d t hr ough t he c ol l a bor a t i on of m a ny e duc a t or s f r o m a c r os s

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12 F l or i da r e vi e w e d by t he i nt e r e s t e d pa r t i e s r e vi e w e d by t he s c hool di s t r i c t s a nd a dopt e d by t he S t a t e B oa r d of E duc a t i on i n 1996 ( F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003a ) T he y s e t s t a nda r ds i n r e a di ng, w r i t i ng, s c i e nc e a nd m a t h T he F C A T de ve l ope r s us e t he s e s t a nda r ds f r om t he f our di f f e r e nt s ub j e c t a r e a s t o d e s i gn s pe c i f i c que s t i ons f or t hi s a s s e s s m e nt t ool ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on 2003a ) T he s e s t a nda r ds r e pr e s e nt t he know l e dge a nd s ki l l s F l or i da s t ude nt s w i l l ne e d t o a c hi e ve t o s uc c e e d i n s oc i e t y. T he y a r e not m i ni m a l s ki l l s but a r e r i go r ous h i gh s t a ke s e xpe c t a t i ons t ha t w i l l pr e pa r e s t ude nt s t o c om pe t e i n t he w or k f or c e i n t he i r f ut u r e T he F C A T s ur pa s s e s t he m i ni m um r e qui r e m e nt s o f t he N C L B a c t N C L B r e qui r e s a s s e s s m e nt i n r e a di ng a nd m a t h one t i m e i n gr a de s 3 5, 6 9 a nd 10 12. T he F C A T a s s e s s e s r e a di ng a nd m a t h a c hi e ve m e nt i n a l l g r a de s 3 10, s c i e nc e i n g r a de s 5, 8 a nd 10, a nd w r i t i ng i n 4 8 a nd 10 T he S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r ds s e t obj e c t i ve s i n r e a di ng f or pr e s c hool t hr ough gr a de t w e l ve I n e a c h g r a de t he r e a r e t w o r e a di ng s t a nda r ds t ha t m us t be m e t T he s e s t a nda r ds i ndi c a t e t ha t e a c h s t ude nt us e s t he r e a di ng pr oc e s s e f f e c t i ve l y a nd t ha t e a c h s t ude nt c ons t r uc t s m e a ni ng f r om a w i de r a nge of t e xt s ( F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on 2003e ) T he que s t i ons f or F C A T R e a di ng a r e de s i gne d ba s e d on t he s e t w o s t a nda r ds A t e a c h gr a de l e ve l t he r e a r e di f f e r e nt t a s ks r e qui r e d. T hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s m us t be a bl e t o do m a ny t hi n gs s uc h a s us e a t a bl e of c ont e nt s us e s i m pl e s t r a t e gi e s t o de t e r m i ne m e a ni ng a nd i nc r e a s e voc a bul a r y f o r r e a di ng, a nd c l a r i f y unde r s t a ndi ng by r e r e a di ng, s e l f c or r e c t i on, s um m a r i z i ng c he c ki ng ot he r s our c e s a nd c l a s s or gr oup d i s c us s i ons S e ve nt h gr a de s t ude nt s m us t be a bl e t o do m or e a dva nc e d r e a di ng a nd us e ba c kgr ound know l e dge of t he s ubj e c t a nd t e xt s t r uc t ur e kn ow l e dge t o m a ke c om pl e x p r e di c t i ons of c ont e nt pur pos e a nd o r ga ni z a t i on of t he

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13 r e a di ng s e l e c t i on. S e ve nt h g r a de s t ude nt s m us t a l s o be a bl e t o do a dva nc e d t a s ks s uc h a s i de nt i f yi ng t he a ut hor s pu r pos e i n a va r i e t y of t e xt s a nd l oc a t e or ga ni z e a nd i nt e r pr e t w r i t t e n i nf o r m a t i on f or a va r i e t y of pu r pos e s i nc l u di ng c l a s s r oom r e s e a r c h a nd pe r f or m i ng r e a l w or l d t a s ks T e nt h gr a de s t ude nt s m us t be a bl e t o t a ke r e a di ng one s t e p f ur t he r a nd a c c om pl i s h t a s ks s uc h a s s e l e c t a nd us e s t r a t e gi e s t o unde r s t a nd w or ds a nd t e xt a nd m a ke a nd c onf i r m i n f e r e nc e s f r om w ha t i s r e a d, i nc l udi ng i nt e r pr e t i ng di a gr a m s gr a phs a nd s t a t i s t i c a l i l l us t r a t i ons T he y m us t a l s o be a bl e t o de m ons t r a t e t he a bi l i t y t o a na l yz e t he va l i di t y a nd r e l i a bi l i t y of p r i m a r y s our c e i nf or m a t i on a nd us e t he i n f or m a t i on a ppr opr i a t e l y. T he F C A T M a t he m a t i c s a s s e s s e s c ont e nt i n t he f i v e a r e a s of num be r s e ns e c onc e pt s a nd ope r a t i ons m e a s ur e m e nt ge om e t r y a nd s pa t i a l s e ns e a l ge br a i c t hi nki ng, a nd da t a a na l ys i s a nd pr oba bi l i t y ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003e ) F C A T S c i e nc e a s s e s s e s c ont e nt f r om e i ght c ont e nt a r e a s na t ur e of m a t t e r e ne r gy, f or c e a nd m ot i on, p r oc e s s e s t ha t s ha pe t he E a r t h, E a r t h a nd s pa c e pr oc e s s e s of l i f e how l i vi ng t hi ngs i nt e r a c t w i t h t he i r e nvi r onm e nt a nd na t ur e of s c i e nc e ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on, 2003e ) F or t he w r i t i ng a s s e s s m e nt s t ud e nt s a r e gi ve n a s i ngl e e s s a y pr om pt t o t e s t w r i t i ng p r of i c i e nc y. S t ude nt s a r e r e qui r e d t o w r i t e r e s pons e s t o a s s i gne d t opi c s i n a s i ngl e t e s t i ng pe r i od ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E du c a t i on, 2003e ) T he p r om pt s f o r f ou r t h gr a de dur i ng 2003 r e qui r e d s t ude nt s t o e xpl a i n w hy t he y e nj oy pl a yi ng a pa r t i c ul a r ga m e or t o w r i t e a n e s s a y a bout w ha t m i ght ha ppe n i f t h e y t ook c a r e o f a n a ni m a l f o r one da y T he e i ght h g r a de pr om pt s f or 2002 r e qui r e d s t ude n t s t o e xpl a i n w ha t i s i nt e r e s t i ng i n t he i r c om m uni t y or t o w r i t e a n e s s a y c onvi nc i ng t he s c h ool t o a c c e pt t he i r c hoi c e a bout how t he s c hool s houl d s pe nd i t s m one y. F i na l l y t he t e nt h gr a de pr o m pt s f or 2003 r e qui r e d

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14 s t ude nt s t o e xpl a i n w hy a pa r t i c ul a r c our s e i n s c hool m i ght be us e f ul i n t he f u t ur e o r t o w r i t e a n e s s a y c onvi nc i ng t he s c hool boa r d a bout w he t he r s t ude nt s w ho ha ve f a i l i ng gr a de s s houl d be a l l ow e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n s c hool c l ubs or s por t s T he F C A T w a s de ve l ope d w i t h t he a s s i s t a nc e of c ont e nt a r e a c om m i t t e e s i n F l or i da w ho t e a c h or s upe r vi s e m a t he m a t i c s r e a di ng, w r i t i ng, a nd s c i e nc e T he de s i gne r s a t t he D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on ha ve t o a ppr ove t h e ove r a l l t e s t de s i gn, t he be nc hm a r ks t o be a s s e s s e d, t he t e s t s pe c i f i c a t i ons a nd t he t e s t i t e m s t he m s e l ve s T he i ni t i a l m a t e r i a l s w e r e de ve l ope d by t he F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E du c a t i on t e s t c ont r a c t or a nd t he n t he out s i de c ont e nt a r e a c om m i t t e e s c ons i s t i ng of m a t h, r e a di ng w r i t i ng, a nd s c i e nc e t e a c he r s a nd s upe r vi s or s s e r ve d a s t he r e vi e w e r s a nd va l i da t or s N C L B r e qui r e s t ha t e a c h s t a t e w i de a s s e s s m e nt pr ogr a m m us t s pe c i f y w ha t c hi l dr e n a r e e xpe c t e d t o know a nd s houl d be a bl e t o do c ont a i n de m a ndi ng c ont e nt a nd e nc our a ge t he i ns t r uc t i on of c om pl e x s ki l l s T he F l or i da s ys t e m m e e t s t he s e r e qu i r e m e nt s T he F C A T I ndi vi dua l S t ude nt R e por t s how s t he s t ude nt s pe r f or m a nc e a nd how he / s he c om pa r e s t o t he na t i ona l s a m pl e T hi s r e po r t s how s w ha t t he c hi l d i s a bl e t o do a nd w ha t he / s he s houl d be a bl e t o do. I t a l s o pr ovi de s a m e a s ur e of g r ow t h t ha t pa r e n t s a nd t e a c he r s c a n c om pa r e f r o m ye a r t o ye a r T hr ough t he us e o f t he S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r ds t he r e a r e m a ny c ha l l e ngi ng que s t i ons de s i gne d a nd t he us e of c om pl e x s ki l l s a r e ne e de d t o s ol ve t he m T he s e s ki l l s a r e m e a s ur e d on t he F C A T t h r ough c ha l l e ngi ng a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt s t a nda r ds a nd a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s F C A T A c hi e ve m e nt l e ve l s H i gh St ak e s T e s t i ng T he F C A T a nd t he s t a nda r ds de ve l ope d f o r F l o r i da a r e bui l t upon t he pr e m i s e t ha t a l l c hi l dr e n c a n l e a r n S t ude nt s l e a r n i n va r i e d w a ys a nd m a ny r e qui r e m o r e t i m e a nd/ or a

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15 di f f e r e nt t ype of i ns t r uc t i on ( H ow e l l & N ol e t 200 0) B y put t i ng i n t o pl a c e a un i ve r s a l s t a nda r di z e d s t a t e w i de a s s e s s m e nt c ont r ove r s y ha s e m e r ge d b e t w e e n F l or i da e duc a t or s a nd pol i c y m a ke r s r e ga r di ng i t s a ppr op r i a t e ne s s f or a l l c hi l d r e n T he m a i n di s a gr e e m e nt i s ove r t he us e of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng. H i gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng f or s t ude nt s i nvol ve s us i ng t e s t r e s ul t s t o m a ke c r i t i c a l de c i s i ons a bout a s t ude nt s f ut ur e ( e g. g r a de r e t e nt i on) T he s e de c i s i ons a r e m a de di r e c t l y ba s e d on one t e s t T he N a t i ona l A s s oc i a t i on of S c ho ol P s yc hol ogi s t s ( N A S P ) p r opos e d i n t he i r pos i t i on s t a t e m e nt on hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng ( N a t i ona l A s s oc i a t i on of S c hool P s yc hol ogi s t s 2002) t ha t i t i s not a pp r opr i a t e t o us e t he s c or e s of one s t a nda r di z e d t e s t f or m a ki ng m a ny i m por t a nt de c i s i ons a bout a c hi l d. N A S P ho pe s t ha t di s t r i c t s a nd s t a t e s t a ke i nt o c ons i de r a t i on t he t e s t s us e d a nd w ha t t he y m e a s ur e be f or e m a ki ng de c i s i ons a bout gr a dua t i on, r e t e nt i on, a nd t he a m ount of pa y f o r t e a c he r s or f unds f o r a s c hool ( N a t i ona l A s s o c i a t i on of S c hool P s yc hol ogi s t s 2002) P oo r out c om e s on t he F C A T c oul d be a n i ndi c a t or of t he ne e d f or e a r l y i nt e r ve nt i on c ha nge s i n t he c ur r i c ul um or a s c r e e ni ng f o r l e a r ni ng pr obl e m s M ul t i pl e m e a s ur e s of a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt i nc l udi ng t e a c he r a nd f a m i l y i nput s houl d a l l be t a ke n i nt o a c c ount w he n m a ki ng m o r e i m por t a nt de c i s i ons ( N a t i ona l A s s oc i a t i on of S c hool P s yc hol ogi s t s 20 02) P ol i c y m a ke r s a r e a t t r a c t e d t o h i gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng d ue t o t he l ow c os t c om pa r e d t o t he a m ount ne e de d f o r s ys t e m s or o r ga ni z a t i ona l c ha nge w i t hi n a s c hool o r di s t r i c t T he s e t e s t s a r e a l s o e a s y t o a dm i ni s t e r a nd do not t a ke a l ot of t i m e T he r e s ul t s a r e e a s y t o r e a d a nd a r e r e a di l y a va i l a bl e a f t e r t he t e s t i s a dm i ni s t e r e d ( L i nn 2000 ) H ow e ve r t he s e r e s ul t s m a y ha ve ne g a t i ve a nd i m m e di a t e e f f e c t s o n a c hi l d s p r e s e nt a nd f ut u r e s c hool i ng ( N a t i ona l A s s oc i a t i on of S c hool P s yc hol ogi s t s 20 02) A m r e i n a nd B e r l i ne r ( 2003)

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16 s how e d t hr ough t he r e s ul t s f r om 18 s t a t e s t ha t h i g h s t a ke s t e s t s do not l e a d t o h i ghe r s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt a nd a c t ua l l y c a n de c r e a s e s t ude nt m ot i va t i on t o l e a r n a nd l e a d t o hi ghe r s t ude nt r e t e nt i on a nd dr opou t r a t e s T he y f o und r e s ul t s s uppor t i ng t he i de a t ha t i f r e w a r ds a nd s a nc t i ons a r e c onne c t e d t o t e s t out c o m e s a nd pe r f or m a nc e t he n s t ude nt s be c om e l e s s i nt r i ns i c a l l y m ot i va t e d t o l e a r n. I n a dd i t i on, hi gh s t a ke s t e s t s c a n l e a d t e a c he r s t o s e i z e m or e c ont r ol ove r c l a s s r oom l e a r ni ng a nd gi ve s t ude nt s l e s s oppor t uni t i e s t o di c t a t e t he i r ow n l e a r ni ng ( A m r e i n & B e r l i ne r 2003 ) G i ve n t he i r r e s ul t s A m r e i n a nd B e r l i ne r ( 2003 ) c onc l ude d hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng m a y a c t ua l l y hu r t s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt r a t he r t ha n e nha nc e i t I m por t anc e of R e adi ng A c hi e v e m e nt A l ong w i t h t he goa l of m e a s ur i ng a c c ount a bi l i t y, h i gh s t a ke s t e s t s a r e of t e n gi ve n t o a s s e s s t he l e ve l of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt i n a s t ud e nt a nd t o a s s e s s t he a m ount of m a t e r i a l t he y ha ve l e a r ne d t hr oughout t he s c hool y e a r R e a di ng ha s be c om e a n i nc r e a s i ngl y va l ua bl e f a c e t of l i f e w i t h t he g r ow i ng c om pe t i t i ve ne s s of s oc i e t y. R e a di ng i s a l s o a ke y c om pone nt t o a s uc c e s s f ul l i f e w i t hi n c ont e m por a r y s oc i e t y ( S now e t a l 1998) I n F l o r i da r e a di ng i s t he f oc us of m a ny c ur r e nt e duc a t i ona l r e f or m pr oj e c t s t ha t a r e pa s s i ng t hr ough t he l e gi s l a t ur e U nf or t una t e l y, m a ny publ i c s c hool c hi l dr e n a r e ha vi ng m a j or di f f i c ul t i e s l e a r ni ng t o r e a d, a nd t e a c he r s a r e t r yi ng t he i r be s t t o he l p w i t hout m uc h a va i l ( F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003d) M a j or di f f i c ul t i e s e nc om pa s s pr obl e m s w i t hi n a l l a r e a s of r e a di ng f r o m phone m i c a w a r e ne s s phoni c s a nd f l ue nc y t o p r obl e m s l e a r ni ng voc a bu l a r y a nd c om p r e he ns i on. H i ghe r l e ve l s o f l i t e r a c y a r e de m a nde d t hr ough s t a t e w i de a s s e s s m e nt pr ogr a m s a nd s t ude nt s t e a c he r s a nd s c hool s a r e be i ng he l d a c c ount a bl e f o r t he i r r e a di ng s c or e s ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on

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17 2003a ) R e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt i n F l or i da i s qua nt i f i e d a s a c hi l d s l e ve l a t t a i ne d on t he F C A T r e a di ng t e s t s ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003e ) A L e ve l 2 or hi ghe r i s c ons i de r e d pa s s i ng, a nd a L e ve l 1 i s c ons i de r e d f a i l i ng. I n F l o r i da du r i ng t he 2003 t e s t i ng of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt 23% of t hi r d gr a de s t ude n t s 25% of f our t h gr a de s t ude nt s 25 % of f i f t h g r a de s t ude nt s 28% of s i xt h gr a de s t ude nt s 28% of s e ve nt h gr a de s t ude nt s 26% of e i ght h g r a de s t ude nt s 43% of ni nt h g r a de s t ude nt s a nd 33% of t e nt h g r a de s t ude nt s s c or e d a t L e ve l 1 ( F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i o n, 2003b) T he s e s t a t i s t i c s s how t ha t m or e t ha n one f our t h of F l or i da s s t ude nt s a r e not a bl e t o r e a d a t a l e ve l ne e de d t o f unc t i on s uc c e s s f ul l y i n l i f e a nd t he pe r c e nt a ge dr a s t i c a l l y i nc r e a s e s a f t e r m i ddl e s c hool ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on 2003b ) D ue t o t hi s t r a ve s t y, S now e t a l ( 1998 ) c i t e d t he n e e d t o i de nt i f y f a c t or s t ha t c or r e l a t e w i t h r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt P a s t r e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t gr a de ge nde r e t hni c i t y a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d ha ve a l l be e n r e l a t e d t o r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ( D i a m ond & O nw ue gbuz i e 2001) M ot i va t i on t o r e a d i s a va r i a bl e t ha t r e s e a r c he r s ha ve be e n i nc r e a s i ngl y f oc us i ng on ove r t he pa s t c oupl e o f ye a r s due t o t he r e l a t i ons hi p i t ha s be e n f ound t o ha ve w i t h r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ( B ong, 20 01; D i a m ond & O nw ue gbuz i e e t a l 2001; D i P e r na a nd E l l i o t 2002; G a m br e l l e t a l 19 96b; M c K e nna K e a r a nd E l l s w or t h 1995) T he or i e s of M ot i v at i on t o R e ad R e l at e d t o R e adi ng A c hi e v e m e nt T e a c he r s ha ve be l i e ve d f or m a ny ye a r s t ha t be f or e a ny a c hi e ve m e nt ga i ns c a n be m a de i n r e a di ng, f i r s t a c hi l d m us t be m ot i va t e d t o r e a d ( G a m b r e l l P a l m e r C odl i ng, & M a z z oni 1996b) A l a c k of m ot i v a t i on f r om t he s t ude nt i s r e l a t e d t o m a ny l ong l a s t i ng pr obl e m s t hr oughout t he ye a r f or a t e a c he r M ot i va t i on, how e ve r i s a ve r y c om pl e x

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18 c ons t r uc t T he r e ha ve be e n m a ny t he or i e s ove r t he ye a r s t ha t ha ve t r i e d t o e xpl a i n m ot i va t i on a nd i t s r ol e i n r e a di ng. O l df a t he r a nd c ol l e a gue s ( O l df a t he r & D a hl 1994 ; O l df a t he r & M c L a ughl i n, 1993 ) de s c r i be m ot i va t i on a s t he e ndur i ng dr i ve t o a c qui r e m or e i nf o r m a t i on t h r oughout l i f e O t he r t he o r i e s o f m ot i va t i on s t r e s s t ha t s e l f pe r c e pt i on pl a ys a m a j or r ol e i n l e a r ni ng t o r e a d ( D w e c k, 198 6) T he s e t he or i s t s be l i e ve t ha t m ot i va t i on i s a r e s ul t of a s t ude nt s l e a r ne d be l i e f s a bout hi s / he r ow n c om p e t e nc i e s a nd a bi l i t i e s S om e r e s e a r c h ( D w e c k, 1986; E c c l e s W i gf i e l d, H a r o l d, & B l um e nf e l d 1993) s uppor t s t he be l i e f t ha t l e a r ne d s e l f pe r c e pt i ons a n d e xpe c t a t i ons a r e t he m a i n de t e r m i na nt s of m ot i va t i on. D ue t o t he c om pl e xi t y o f m ot i va t i on, m a ny t he or i e s ha ve be e n pr opos e d t o t r y t o e xpl a i n t hi s c ons t r uc t T he r e a r e c ount l e s s t he or i e s of m o t i va t i on t ha t a r e di r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o r e a di ng, but t he r e a r e f our t he or i e s t ha t a r e c ur r e nt l y r e c e i vi ng t he m os t a t t e nt i on i n t he e duc a t i on l i t e r a t ur e : e xpe c t a nc y va l ue t he or y goa l or i e nt a t i on t he or y, i nt r i ns i c a nd e xt r i ns i c t he or i e s of m ot i va t i on, a nd m ot i va t i ona l s ys t e m s t he or y ( G a m br e l l 2001) T he s e t he or i e s a r e di s c us s e d i n t hi s c ha pt e r t o pr e s e nt t he r e a de r w i t h a ba c kgr ound of t he c ur r e nt w a ys i n w hi c h m ot i va t i on t o r e a d i s de f i ne d a nd c onc e pt ua l i z e d w i t hi n e duc a t i ona l i ns t i t ut i ons E x pe c t anc y V al ue T he or y T he e xpe c t a nc y va l ue t he or y ( E V T ) of m ot i va t i on hypot he s i z e s t ha t m ot i va t i on i s i nf l ue nc e d by a n i n di vi dua l s be l i e f s a bout w ha t he / s he t hi nks t ha t t he y a r e a bl e t o a c c om pl i s h ( G a m br e l l 2001) T hi s t he or y a l s o i nc l ude s how m uc h a n i ndi vi dua l l i ke s t he t a s k or w a nt s t o c om p l e t e i t R e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t t he e xpe c t a nc y pa r t of E V T i s a ve r y c r uc i a l c om pone nt a nd s how s t ha t r e a de r s w ho be l i e ve t he y ha ve t h e a bi l i t y t o r e a d a nd be s uc c e s s f ul a r e m or e l i ke l y t o s ur pa s s t hos e w ho do

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19 not ha ve t he e xpe c t a nc y be l i e f s ( S c hunk, 1985 ) G a m br e l l ( 1995 ) e xa m i ne d t he r ol e s of s e l f c onc e pt a nd va l ue i n m ot i va t i on t o r e a d. G a m br e l l a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 1995) i nt e r vi e w e d 330 t hi r d a nd f i f t h g r a de r s f r om f ou r s c hool s i n t w o M a r yl a nd c ount i e s A l l 330 pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s ponde d t o a r e a di ng s ur ve y, a nd 48 pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e s e l e c t e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t w o C onve r s a t i ona l I nt e r vi e w s T he 330 pa r t i c i pa nt s c a m e f r om 27 c l a s s r oom s T he 27 t e a c he r s of t he s e s t ude nt s gr ou pe d e a c h s t ude nt i nt o a bove gr a de on gr a de a nd be l ow g r a de l e ve l r e a di ng gr oups a nd t he n e a c h t e a c he r c hos e t w o m ot i va t e d a nd t w o unm ot i va t e d s t ude nt s f r om e a c h g r oup, ba s e d on t he i r ow n pe r c e pt i on. F or t y e i ght of t he s e s t ude nt s w e r e t he n r a ndom l y c hos e n t o be us e d f or t he t w o C onve r s a t i ona l I nt e r vi e w s a bout m ot i va t i on t o r e a d. T he r e s ul t s s how e d t ha t t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s ha d m or e po s i t i ve be l i e f s a bout r e a di ng t h a n f i f t h gr a de s t ude nt s a nd t he r e w a s a l s o a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e a m ong s t u de nt s gr oupe d by t he i r r e a di ng a bi l i t y w he n e xpe c t a nc i e s w e r e t a ke n i nt o a c c ount S t ude nt s w i t h l ow e r a bi l i t y s c or e d l ow e r i n t he i r s e l f c onc e pt a s a r e a de r a nd i n t he i r m ot i va t i o n t o r e a d T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy i m pl y t ha t s t ude nt s w ho be l i e ve t ha t t he y ha ve t he a bi l i t y t o r e a d a r e m o r e l i ke l y t o be be t t e r r e a de r s T hi s s t udy ha d a l i m i t a t i on bui l t i nt o i t s m e t hod. T he t e a c he r s c hos e t w o m ot i va t e d a nd unm ot i va t e d s t ude nt s f r om e a c h o f t he a bi l i t y gr oups ba s e d on t he i r ow n pe r c e pt i ons of t hos e c hi l dr e n T he t e a c he r s m a y ha ve t hought t he s t ude nt s w e r e m ot i va t e d or un m ot i va t e d, but w i t hout di s c us s i ng i t w i t h t he c hi l d, t he y m a y ha ve be e n w r ong. T he s e c hi l dr e n w e r e t he n us e d f or t he a na l ys e s i nvol vi ng t he C onve r s a t i ona l I nt e r vi e w s T he s e r e s ul t s m a y ha ve be e n s ke w e d due t he f a ul t y s e l e c t i on of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s

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20 G oal O r i e nt at i on T he or y I n a not he r t he or y na m e d goa l or i e nt a t i on t he or y t he r e a r e t w o t ype s of goa l s : l e a r ni ng a nd pe r f o r m a nc e ( G a m br e l l 2001 ) T hi s t he or y i s di f f e r e n t f r om t he f o r m e r t he or y di s c us s e d ba s e d on t hi s di s t i nc t i on o f goa l s L e a r ni ng goa l s a r e e xpe c t a t i ons of w ha t a s t ude nt w a nt s t o l e a r n a nd pe r f o r m a nc e goa l s a r e ba s e d on w ha t a s t ude nt ne e ds t o l e a r n t o ge t a g r a de T h e gr a de i s t he pe r f or m a nc e goa l L e a r ni ng goa l s ha ve be e n s how n t o l e a d t o i nc r e a s e d l e a r ni ng a nd m o r e t i m e de vot e d t o a n a s s i gnm e nt C hi l dr e n w i t h l i t e r a c y l e a r ni ng goa l s r e a d be c a us e t he y l i ke t o a nd w a nt t o l e a r n t o r e a d ( G a m br e l l 2001 ) T he M a e hr ( 1976) s t udy e xa m i ne d t he e f f e c t s of di f f e r e nt va r i a bl e s on e xt r i ns i c a nd i nt r i ns i c m ot i va t i on T hi s s t udy a na l yz e d s om e of t he s t udi e s t ha t ha d e va l ua t e d m ot i va t i on i n e duc a t i ona l r e s e a r c h up t o 1976 a nd c om p r i s e d a l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w of t he s e a r t i c l e s T hi s s t udy w a s not s pe c i f i c a bout i t s da t a c ol l e c t i on m e t hod. M a e hr ( 1976 ) f ound t ha t a l e a r ni ng goa l o r i e nt a t i on w a s r e l a t e d t o a hi ghe r i nt r i ns i c m ot i va t i on e nj oym e nt a nd d r i ve t o r e a d. E xt r i ns i c a nd i n t r i ns i c m ot i va t i on a r e t w o pr i m a r y t ype s of m ot i va t i on di s c us s e d by m ot i va t i ona l t he o r i s t s E xt r i ns i c m ot i va t i on r e f e r s t o m ot i va t i on t o a c c om pl i s h s om e t hi ng t ha t f ul f i l l s a n out s i de goa l T e a c he r pr a i s e a nd f e e dba c k a r e e xa m pl e s of e xt r i ns i c a l l y m ot i va t i ng f or c e s I n t r i ns i c m ot i va t i o n r e f e r s t o m ot i va t i on t o c hoos e t o do s om e t hi ng a nd t he n doi ng i t be c a us e you l i ke t o a n d not f o r out s i de r e w a r ds ( G a m br e l l 2001) A n e xa m pl e w oul d be a c hi l d c hoos i ng t o r e a d a book f r om t he H ar r y P ot t e r s e r i e s j us t t o s e e w ha t ha ppe ns or f o r t he t hr i l l of r e a di ng. W i gf i e l d a nd G ut hr i e ( 1997) e xa m i ne d s t ude nt s e xt r i ns i c a nd i nt r i ns i c m ot i va t i on. T he y a l s o l ooke d a t t he a m ount a nd t he br e a dt h o f t he i r r e a di ng T he r e w e r e 105 f o ur t h a nd f i f t h gr a de c hi l d r e n w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t hi s s t udy T he s e s t ude nt s c om pl e t e d a r e a di ng m ot i va t i on que s t i onna i r e

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21 de s i gne d f or t hi s s t udy, t w i c e du r i ng t he s c hool ye a r T he a m ount a nd br e a dt h o f t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a di ng w e r e m e a s ur e d us i ng di a r i e s a nd que s t i onna i r e s S t ude nt s w ho w e r e hi ghe s t i n i nt r i ns i c m o t i va t i on r e a d a l m os t t hr e e t i m e s a s m a ny m i nut e s pe r da y a nd r e a d m or e br oa dl y t ha n s t ude nt s l ow e s t i n i nt r i ns i c m ot i va t i on. G r oups hi gh a nd l ow i n e xt r i ns i c m ot i va t i on di d not ha ve s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s on t he a m ount r e a d o r b r e a dt h of r e a di ng. A l i m i t a t i on of t hi s s t udy w a s t he us e of a ne w r e a di ng m ot i va t i on s ur ve y t ha t ha d not be e n s uppor t e d by f o r m e r r e s e a r c h t o ha ve i nt e r na l va l i di t y a nd r e l i a bi l i t y A not he r l i m i t a t i on w a s t ha t s t ude nt s s e l f r e por t e d t he a m ount of r e a di ng t ha t t he y w e r e doi ng. D e pe ndi ng on t he i r l e ve l of m ot i va t i on t o r e a d m a y ha ve a f f e c t e d t he i r w i l l i ngne s s t o s e l f r e por t a c c ur a t e l y. M ot i v at i onal Sy s t e m s T he or y F or d ( 1992 ) pos i t s a m ot i va t i ona l s ys t e m s t he or y ( M S T ) t ha t e nc om pa s s e s t hr e e a s pe c t s of m ot i va t i on: pe r s ona l be l i e f s e m o t i ona l pr oc e s s e s a nd pe r s ona l goa l s P e r s ona l be l i e f s i nc l ude be l i e f s a bout one s c a pa bi l i t y t o pe r f or m a goa l a nd i f t he c ont e xt w i l l s uppor t i t s a t t a i nm e nt E m ot i ona l p r oc e s s e s a r e t he f e e l i ngs i ns i de a pe r s on w he n e va l ua t i ng pe r s ona l va l ue s P e r s ona l goa l s s ym bol i z e w ha t a l e a r ne r w a nt s t o know i n t he f ut u r e T hi s t he o r y i s bui l t on t he pr e m i s e t ha t pe opl e w i l l a l w a ys t r y t o a c c om pl i s h t he goa l s t ha t t he y be l i e ve t he y c a n a c hi e ve T he y t a ke i nt o a c c ount t he s e t hr e e a s pe c t s w he n e va l ua t i ng i f t he y w i l l be a bl e t o a c hi e ve s om e t hi ng o r not A l l f our of t he m ot i va t i ona l t he or i e s j u s t di s c us s e d t a ke i nt o a c c ount a n i ndi vi dua l s e xpe c t a t i on of s uc c e s s or f a i l ur e a s w e l l a s t he a m ount of w o r t h he / s he pl a c e s on t he a t t a i nm e nt o f t he t a s k ( G a m br e l l 2001 ) S t u de nt s w ho t r us t t ha t t he y a r e a bl e a nd pr of i c i e nt r e a de r s a r e m or e l i ke l y t o ou t pe r f o r m t h os e w ho do not ho l d s uc h be l i e f s

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22 ( S c hunk, 1985 ) R e s e a r c h ha s be e n i nve s t i ga t i ng t he c ons t r uc t of m ot i va t i on f or t he pa s t t hi r t y ye a r s ( M a e hr 1976) T hi s r e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t hi gh r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ha s be e n di r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o w he t he r t he y m ot i va t e d t o r e a d ( W i gf i e l d & G ut h r i e 1997) R e s e a r c h ha s a l s o s how n t ha t s t ude nt s w ho be l i e ve t ha t t he y ha ve t he a bi l i t y t o r e a d a r e a l s o t he hi ghe s t a c hi e ve r s i n r e a di ng ( G a m br e l l 19 95; S c hunk, 1985) H ow e ve r one l i m i t a t i on of a l l o f t he r e s ul t s of t he s t udi e s m e nt i o ne d e a r l i e r i s t ha t t he y onl y us e d s a m pl e s of e l e m e nt a r y a ge d c hi l dr e n M ot i va t i on t o r e a d ha s be e n s c a r c e l y r e s e a r c he d a c r os s hi ghe r gr a de l e ve l s w i t h ve r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h a t t he hi gh s c hool l e ve l R e adi ng A c hi e v e m e nt M ot i v at i on t o R e ad and R e adi ng A c hi e v e m e nt R e s e a r c h ha s s uppor t e d a s t r ong l i nk be t w e e n m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ( B ong, 2001 ; D i P e r na a nd E l l i ot 2002; G a m br e l l e t a l 1996b; M c K e nna K e a r a nd E l l s w or t h 1995) M c K e nna e t a l ( 1995 ) i nve s t i ga t e d t hi s r e l a t i ons hi p us i ng a s a m pl e of 18 185 s t ude nt s i n gr a de s one t hr ough s i x. T he s a m pl e i nc l ude d s t ude nt s f r om 22 9 s c hool s a nd 95 di s t r i c t s i n 38 s t a t e s M ot i va t i on t o r e a d i n t hi s s t udy, a s m e a s ur e d by t h e E l e m e nt a r y R e a di ng A t t i t ude S u r ve y ( M c K e nna & K e a r 1990 ) w a s a na l yz e d t o m e a s ur e i t s r e l a t i ons hi p t o r e a di ng a bi l i t y. R e a di ng a bi l i t y w a s de f i ne d by e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt s t e a c he r a s a bove a ve r a ge a ve r a ge o r be l ow a ve r a ge ba s e d on hi s or he r pe r c e pt i on M ot i va t i on t o r e a d w a s f ound t o be s i gni f i c a nt l y pos i t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o pe r c e i ve d r e a di ng a bi l i t y. O ne i m pl i c a t i on of t hi s s t udy i s t ha t t hi s r e l a t i ons hi p ha s be e n r e pl i c a t e d i n e a r l i e r s t udi e s T hi s r e pl i c a t i on i n f i ndi ngs w i l l he l p t o de s i gn i nt e r ve nt i ons f oc us i ng on m ot i v a t i on t o r e a d, w hi c h i s a va r i a bl e t ha t m a ny t e a c he r s m a y ove r l ook w he n de s i gni ng r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i ons T he l i m i t a t i on o f t hi s s t udy i s t ha t r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt w a s not a s s e s s e d t hr ough a s t a nda r di z e d m e a s ur e I t

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23 w a s a s s e s s e d by e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt s t e a c he r s pe r c e pt i on of hi s or he r a bi l i t y T he c ol l e c t i on of da t a on r e a di ng a bi l i t y, ba s e d on a pe r s on s pe r c e pt i on, m a y ha ve yi e l de d bi a s e d r e s ul t s T he G a m br e l l e t a l ( 1996b ) s t udy f ound s i m i l a r r e s ul t s G a m br e l l e t a l ( 1996b) us e d a s a m pl e of 330 t hi r d a nd f i f t h g r a de s t ude nt s i n 27 c l a s s r oom s f r om f ou r di f f e r e nt s c hool s T he s e s c hool s w e r e i n t w o s e pa r a t e s c hool di s t r i c t s i n a n e a s t e r n U S s t a t e T he M ot i va t i on t o R e a d S ur ve y w a s us e d t o m e a s ur e m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a nd e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt s t e a c he r s r a t i ng of hi gh, m i ddl e or l ow r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt w a s us e d t o a s s e s s r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt i n t hi s s a m pl e of pa r t i c i pa nt s T he pa r t i c i pa nt s t e a c he r s r e a d e a c h i t e m a l oud a nd r e c or de d t he i r s t ude nt s a ns w e r s T he r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t m ot i va t i on t o r e a d w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y pos i t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d t o r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt I nf o r m a t i on obt a i ne d f r om t hi s s t udy c oul d be us e d t o pl a n i ns t r uc t i ona l a s s i gnm e nt s w i t hi n t he c l a s s r oom t o f a c i l i t a t e a young s t ude nt s de ve l opm e nt of r e a di n g. T he l i m i t a t i ons o f t hi s s t udy i nc l ude d t he us e of a s e l f r e por t i ns t r um e nt a nd t he pr oc e dur e of i t s c om pl e t i on T hi s s ur ve y w a s c om pl e t e d by e a c h s t ude nt w i t h h i s / he r t e a c he r a s ki ng t he que s t i ons W i t h s e l f r e por t i ns t r u m e nt s i t i s ve r y ha r d t o de t e r m i ne i f pa r t i c i pa nt s a c t ua l l y f e e l t he w a y t ha t t he y r e por t ( G a m b r e l l e t a l 1996b) A ddi t i on a l l y, s i nc e t he t e a c he r w a s t he r a t e r of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt t he r e s ul t s yi e l de d f r o m t hi s r e s e a r c h m a y ha ve be e n s ke w e d by f a l s e da t a D i P e r na V ol pe a nd E l l i ot ( 2002) a l s o c onduc t e d a s t udy t o e xa m i ne t hi s r e l a t i ons hi p. T he y us e d 394 s t ude nt s i n k i nde r ga r t e n t hr ough s i xt h gr a de a nd 104 t e a c he r s T he s t ude nt s w e r e s pl i t i nt o t w o gr oups o f pr i m a r y ( g r a de s K 2) a nd i nt e r m e di a t e ( 3 5 ) s t ude nt s T he p r i m a r y s a m pl e c ons i s t e d of 192 s t ude nt s ( 56% f e m a l e

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24 44% m a l e ) w i t h 27% of a m i nor i t y s t a t us a nd 73 % of a m a j or i t y s t a t us T he i nt e r m e di a t e s a m pl e c ons i s t e d of 202 s t ude nt s ( 55% f e m a l e s 45 % m a l e s ) w i t h 19 % f r om a m i nor i t y s t a t us a nd 81% f r o m a m a j or i t y s t a t us T he s a m pl e w a s t a ke n f r om 21 s c hool s i n t he N or t he a s t e r n U ni t e d S t a t e s T he I ow a T e s t of B a s i c S ki l l s ( I T B S ) m e a s ur e d t he s t ude nt s r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd t he i r a c a de m i c s ki l l s a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d w e r e a s s e s s e d us i ng t he A c a de m i c C om pe t e nc e E va l ua t i on S c a l e s ( A C E S D i P e r na & E l l i ot 2000) E a c h pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c he r r a ndom l y s e l e c t e d f i ve s t ude nt s f r om he r c l a s s a nd c om pl e t e d t he A C E S f o r e a c h o f t he s e s t ude nt s a t 6 8 w e e ks i nt o t he s c hool ye a r a nd t he n a ga i n dur i ng t he f i na l m on t h of t he s c hool ye a r S t r uc t ur a l E qua t i on M ode l i ng w a s us e d t o a na l yz e t he da t a D i P e r na a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2002) f o und t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d t o be s i gni f i c a nt l y pos i t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d. F o r t he s t ude nt s i n t he pr i m a r y gr a de s t he r e w a s a s i gni f i c a nt pos i t i ve c or r e l a t i on f ound o f 0 62 be t w e e n m ot i va t i on a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt F o r t he s t ude nt s i n t he i nt e r m e di a t e gr a de s t he r e w a s a s i gni f i c a nt pos i t i ve c or r e l a t i on f ound o f 0. 66 T he s e r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e a s i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a t t he e l e m e nt a r y s c hool gr a de l e ve l T he s e r e s ul t s i m pl y t ha t t he s e t w o c ons t r uc t s m a y be r e l a t e d a nd t ha t t h i s r e l a t i ons hi p c a n be us e d t o de s i gn i nt e r ve nt i ons t o pr om ot e m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt O t he r s t udi e s ha ve f ound s i m i l a r r e s ul t s W a l be r g a nd T s a i ( 1985) f ound s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt pos i t i ve c or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d w he n us i ng da t a f r o m a N a t i ona l A s s e s s m e nt of E duc a t i ona l P r ogr e s s c ol l e c t e d dur i ng 197 9 1980 T he s a m pl e i n t he i r s t udy w a s 1, 459 ni ne ye a r ol d s t ude nt s T he s a m pl e r e pr e s e nt e d a l l r e gi ons a nd s i z e s of c om m u ni t i e s w i t hi n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s I n t he

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25 f i r s t s t a ge of s a m pl i ng, t he U ni t e d S t a t e s w a s di vi d e d i nt o gr oups o f c ont i guous c ount i e s or pr i m a r y s a m pl i ng uni t s I n t he s e c ond s t a ge s c h ool s w e r e s a m pl e d w i t hi n e a c h pr i m a r y s a m pl i ng un i t W i t hi n e a c h s c hool t e s t bo okl e t s w e r e a dm i ni s t e r e d t o a r a ndom s a m pl e of ni ne ye a r o l d s t ude nt s T he bookl e t c ont a i ne d a ge ne r a l r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t a s w e l l a s a s e ve n i t e m s ur ve y t ha t w a s us e d t o a s s e s s m ot i va t i on t o r e a d. A s i gni f i c a nt pos i t i ve c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d w a s f ound T he s e r e s ul t s i m pl y t ha t t he r e m a y be a s i g ni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d. T hi s i n f or m a t i on c a n be he l pf ul w he n de s i gni ng i nt e r ve nt i ons f or l ow r e a di ng m ot i va t e d o r l ow r e a di ng a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s A m a j o r l i m i t a t i on of t hi s s t udy w a s t ha t t he s a m pl e onl y c ons i s t e d of ni ne ye a r ol d s t ude nt s M or e r e s e a r c h ne e ds t o be c onduc t e d t o de t e r m i ne i f t hi s t r e nd i s s uppor t e d w i t h da t a f r om m i ddl e or hi gh s c hool a ge d c hi l dr e n. M a ny s t udi e s ha ve be e n c onduc t e d t o e xa m i ne t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d ( B ong, 2001; D i a m ond & O nw ue gbuz i e e t a l 2001; D i P e r na V ol pe a nd E l l i ot 2002; G a m b r e l l e t a l 1 99 6b; M c K e nna e t a l 1995) T he r e ha ve a l s o be e n s t udi e s t ha t ha ve e xa m i ne d t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a nd l e ve l of s c hool i ng ( D a vi e s & B r e m be r 1993; D i a m ond & O nw ue gbuz i e 2001 ; E c c l e s e t a l 1993; G a m br e l l e t a l 1996) I nc ons i s t e nt t r e nds ha ve be e n f ound a nd a r e di s c us s e d be l ow M ot i v at i on t o R e ad and G r ade R e s e a r c h i n t he a r e a of r e a di ng m ot i va t i on ha s s how n t ha t c hi l dr e n s t a r t s c hool w i t h m a ny hope f u l be l i e f s a nd a t t i t ude s t ow a r d r e a di ng ( G a m br e l l 1995) S om e of t he t i m e t he s e pos i t i ve be l i e f s s t a r t t o de c l i ne a c r os s t he e l e m e nt a r y ye a r s ( D a vi e s & B r e m be r 1993; D i a m ond & O nw ue gbuz i e 20 01; E c c l e s e t

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26 a l 1993 ; G a m br e l l e t a l 1996b) D a vi e s a nd B r e m be r ( 1993 ) a s s e s s e d m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a m ong e l e m e nt a r y a nd m i ddl e s c hool c hi l d r e n. P a r t i c i pa nt s i nc l ude d 216 s e c ond gr a de s t ude nt s 189 f ou r t h g r a de s t ude nt s a nd 206 s i xt h gr a de s t ude nt s T he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a dm i ni s t e r e d t he S m i l e y S e l f r e por t Q ue s t i onna i r e ( S S Q M or t i m o r e S a m m ons S t ol l L e w i s E c ob, 1988) t o m e a s ur e t he i r a t t i t ude s t ow a r d r e a di ng. R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he r e a di ng a t t i t ude s of boys a nd gi r l s de c l i ne d a c r os s t he e l e m e nt a r y s c hool ye a r s T he s e r e s ul t s a r e i m por t a nt f or de s i gni ng r e a di ng po l i c y a nd pr a c t i c e i n p r i m a r y a nd i nt e r m e di a t e s c hool s S om e l i m i t a t i ons of t hi s s t ud y w e r e t ha t i t onl y us e d a s i ngl e que s t i onna i r e t o a s s e s s c hi l dr e n s m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a nd i t us e d c r os s s e c t i ona l da t a i ns t e a d of l ongi t udi na l da t a t o l ook a t r e s ul t s a c r os s t i m e D i a m ond a nd O nw ue gbuz i e ( 2001) a nd M c K e nna e t a l ( 1995) r e por t e d s i m i l a r r e s ul t s D i a m ond a nd O nw ue gbuz i e ( 2001 ) e xa m i n e d m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a s a f unc t i on o f gr a de ge nde r e t hni c i t y a nd s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us P a r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy w e r e 1 968 c hi l dr e n i n ki nde r ga r t e n t h r ough f i f t h gr a de T he y w e r e a l l f r om a s m a l l i nne r c i t y s c hool di s t r i c t i n G e or gi a A pp r oxi m a t e l y 77% of t he s a m pl e w a s nonw hi t e a t e a c h gr a de l e ve l M c K e nna e t a l ( 1995) i nve s t i ga t e d s e ve r a l i s s ue s r e l a t e d t o m ot i va t i on t o r e a d. T he l ogi s t i c s of t hi s s t udy w e r e di s c us s e d i n t he s e c t i on a bove T he s a m pl e i nc l ude d s t ude nt s f r om 229 s c hool s a nd 95 di s t r i c t s i n 38 s t a t e s R e a di ng a t t i t ude s i n bot h of t he s e s t udi e s a s m e a s ur e d by t he E l e m e nt a r y R e a di ng A t t i t ude S ur ve y ( M c K e nna & K e a r 1990) de c r e a s e d a s c hi l dr e n a dva nc e d t hr ough t he e l e m e nt a r y gr a d e s A n i m pl i c a t i on of t he s e s t udi e s i s t ha t t he r e m i ght be a s e que nc e of de ve l opm e nt i n m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a c r os s t he e l e m e nt a r y s c hool ye a r s a nd t ha t e a r l y i nt e r ve nt i on i n a n e f f or t t o c a t c h r e a di ng di f f i c ul t i e s m a y he l p t o s t op t he de c l i ne i n m ot i va t i on t o r e a d A l i m i t a t i on f r om bot h of

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27 t he s e s t udi e s i s t ha t t he s e f i ndi ngs onl y s how l e ve l s of m ot i va t i on t o r e a d f o r c hi l dr e n a t one poi nt i n t i m e F ut ur e l ongi t udi na l s t udi e s us i ng t he s a m e s t ude nt s a t e a c h poi nt i n t i m e m a y pr ov i de f u r t he r s uppor t of a t r e nd i n m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a c r os s gr a de l e ve l G a m br e l l M a z z oni a nd K or ke a m a ki ( 1996a ) e s t a bl i s he d t ha t m ot i va t i on t o r e a d i nc r e a s e d dur i ng t he f i r s t gr a de but t he n de c l i ne d d ur i ng t he s e c ond gr a de f or F i nni s h a nd U S s t ude nt s T hi s f i ndi ng w a s r e por t e d a t t he a nn ua l m e e t i ng of t he A m e r i c a n E duc a t i ona l R e s e a r c h A s s oc i a t i on i n N e w Y or k, b ut no f u r t he r i nf or m a t i on c oul d be f ound on t h i s s a m pl e S uc h r e s ul t s m a y i ndi c a t e t h a t f i r s t g r a de i s a ve r y i m po r t a nt ye a r i n t he de ve l opm e nt of m ot i va t i on t o r e a d G a m br e l l e t a l publ i s he d s i m i l a r r e s ul t s on a n ol de r s a m pl e t ha t s a m e m ont h ( 1996b) w he n de s i gni ng t he M ot i va t i on t o R e a d P r o f i l e T hi s s a m pl e w a s di s c us s e d a bove T he M ot i va t i on t o R e a d S ur ve y w a s us e d t o m e a s ur e m ot i va t i on t o r e a d i n t hi s s a m pl e of pa r t i c i pa nt s T he pa r t i c i pa nt s t e a c he r s r e a d e a c h i t e m a l oud a nd r e c or de d t he i r s t ude nt s a ns w e r s T he r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s r e por t e d m or e pos i t i ve s c or e s f or m o t i va t i on t o r e a d t ha n f i f t h g r a de s t ude nt s I nf or m a t i on obt a i ne d f r om t h i s s t u dy c oul d be us e d t o pl a n i ns t r uc t i ona l a s s i gnm e nt s w i t hi n t he c l a s s r oom t o f a c i l i t a t e a young s t ude nt s de ve l opm e nt of r e a di ng. T he l i m i t a t i ons of t hi s s t udy i nc l ude d t he us e of a s e l f r e por t i ns t r um e nt a nd t he p r oc e dur e of i t s c om pl e t i on. T hi s s ur ve y w a s c om pl e t e d by e a c h s t ude nt w i t h hi s / he r t e a c he r a s ki ng t he que s t i ons W i t h s e l f r e por t i ns t r um e nt s i t i s ve r y ha r d t o de t e r m i ne i f pa r t i c i pa nt s a c t ua l l y f e e l t he w a y t ha t t he y r e por t ( G a m br e l l e t a l 1996b ) A ddi t i ona l l y be c a us e t he t e a c he r w a s t he e xa m i n e r t he s t ude nt s m a y ha ve f e l t pr e s s ur e d t o a ns w e r t he que s t i ons w i t h a ns w e r s t ha t w e r e s oc i a l l y de s i r a bl e f o r t he i r t e a c he r a nd c oul d ha ve s ke w e d t he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy.

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28 T unne l l C a l de r a nd P ha up ( 1991 ) f ound r e s ul t s c ons i s t e nt w i t h t he a bove s t udi e s T he pur pos e of t he i r s t udy w a s t o e xa m i ne t he r e s u l t s of t he S hor t F or m R e a di ng A t t i t ude S ur ve y ( T unne l l C a l de r & J us t e n, 1988) T he y us e d a s a m pl e of 508 s t ude nt s i n gr a de s t w o t hr ough s i x f r om t w o d i f f e r e nt s t a t e s T he s t ude nt s w e r e f r om e l e m e nt a r y a nd m i ddl e s c hool s w i t hi n a n ur ba n s c hool di s t r i c t i n A r ka ns a s a nd a r u r a l s c hool di s t r i c t i n I l l i noi s T he y m e a s ur e d t he pa r t i c i pa nt s m ot i va t i on t o r e a d w i t h t he a bove m e nt i one d s ur ve y. P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a dm i ni s t e r e d t hi s s ur ve y by t he i r c l a s s r oom t e a c h e r R e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy s how e d t ha t c hi l dr e n ha d ve r y f a vor a bl e a t t i t ude s t ow a r d r e a di ng du r i ng t he pr i m a r y g r a de s but t he s e a t t i t ude s s l ow l y s t a r t e d t o de c l i ne dur i ng f i f t h a nd s i xt h gr a de I nde pe nde nt t t e s t s w e r e done t o de t e r m i ne i f s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s a r os e be t w e e n t he s pe c i f i c gr a de l e ve l s T he y f ound s i gni f i c a nt t s c or e s be t w e e n t hi r d a nd f our t h gr a de a nd be t w e e n f i f t h a nd s i xt h gr a de s t ude nt s O ne i m pl i c a t i on of t h i s s t udy i s t ha t a s hor t s ur ve y c oul d be us e d t o m e a s ur e s t ude nt s m ot i va t i on t o r e a d. T hi s i n f or m a t i on c a n be us e d a s a s c r e e ni ng t ool t o c a t c h t he de c l i ne s i n m ot i va t i on t o r e a d be f or e a c hi l d s t ops doi ng hi s / he r w or k a nd f a l l s be hi nd. T he s e r e s ul t s a l s o i m pl y t ha t m o t i va t i on t o r e a d doe s s i gni f i c a nt l y de c l i ne a c r os s gr a de T hi s i n f o r m a t i o n i s ne e de d t o de ve l op c u r r i c ul um a nd i ns t r uc t i ona l a c t i vi t i e s w i t hi n c l a s s r oom s e t t i ngs f o r l a t e e l e m e nt a r y a nd e a r l y m i ddl e s c hool T he l i m i t a t i ons of t hi s s t udy a r e pa r a l l e l t o t he l i m i t a t i ons of t he s t udy m e nt i one d e a r l i e r by G a m b r e l l e t a l ( 1 996b) T he T unne l e t a l ( 1991 ) s t udy a l s o us e d a s e l f r e por t s ur ve y t o c ol l e c t a l l of t he i r da t a a nd us e d c l a s s r oom t e a c he r s a s t he i r pr i m a r y e xa m i ne r s K us h a nd W a t ki ns ( 1996) f ound a s i m i l a r t r e nd. T hi s s t udy w a s c om pl e t e d t o e xa m i ne t he s t a bi l i t y of t he c ons t r uc t of m o t i va t i on t o r e a d ove r t i m e T he y e xa m i ne d t he m ot i va t i on t o r e a d s c or e s of 319 s t ude nt s e nr ol l e d i n f i r s t t hr ough f our t h gr a de i n a

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29 s out hw e s t e r n, s ubur ba n s c hool di s t r i c t T he y a l s o e xa m i ne d t hi s s a m pl e s m ot i va t i on t o r e a d s c or e s a ga i n t hr e e ye a r s l a t e r dur i ng t hi r d t hr o ugh s i xt h gr a de but due t o a t t r i t i on ove r t he ye a r s w e r e onl y a bl e t o a na l yz e a f i na l s a m pl e s i z e of 190 s t ude nt s ( 83 boys 107 gi r l s ) T he E l e m e nt a r y R e a di ng A t t i t ude S ur ve y w a s us e d t o r a t e t he i r m ot i va t i on t o r e a d. T he i r m ot i va t i on t o r e a d ha d a c ons i s t e nt de c l i ne a c r os s t he e l e m e nt a r y s c hool ye a r s T hi s t r e nd oc c ur r e d i n r e c r e a t i ona l a nd a c a d e m i c r e a di ng. R e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy i ndi c a t e t ha t i ns t r uc t i ona l f r a m e w or k f or r e a di ng u s e d dur i ng l a t e e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s houl d i nc l ude a c t i vi t i e s t ha t he l p t o i nc r e a s e s t ude nt s m ot i va t i on t o r e a d i n or de r t o buf f e r t he de c l i ne a c r os s t he s e ye a r s T hi s s t udy us e d a s e l f r e por t s ur ve y a nd s ha r e s t hi s l i m i t a t i on w i t h s t udi e s di s c us s e d e a r l i e r T hi s s t ud y a l s o ha d a l i m i t a t i on due t o t he a m ount of t he s a m pl e t ha t w a s l os t ove r t he t h r e e y e a r s t o s a m pl e a t t r i t i on O ve r one t hi r d of t he s a m pl e w a s l os t a nd t he i nc l us i on of t he s e s t ude nt s r e s ul t s i n t he a na l ys e s m a y ha ve l e d t o di f f e r e nt r e s ul t s T he A nde r s on, T ol l e f s on, a nd G i l be r t ( 1985 ) s t udy w a s c om pl e t e d t o c om pa r e i n a c r os s s e c t i ona l de s i gn, gi f t e d s t ude nt s m ot i va t i o n t o r e a d T he pa r t i c i pa nt s i nc l ude d 276 gi f t e d s t ude nt s ( 135 boys 140 gi r l s ) f r om a m ode r a t e l y s i z e d c om m uni t y s e r vi ng a di ve r s e s t ude nt body. T he m a j or i t y of t he s c hool w a s C a uc a s i a n ( 70% ) but 30% o f t he s c hool c ons i s t e d of A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, C hi c a no, A m e r i c a n I ndi a n, a nd E ngl i s h a s a s e c ond l a ngua ge s t ude nt s T he r e s e a r c he r s m e a s ur e d m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a c r os s f i r s t t hr ough t w e l f t h gr a de a m ong t he s a m pl e T he A n d e r s on e t a l ( 1985) s t udy us e d a que s t i onna i r e t ha t w a s de s i gne d t o m e a s ur e t he c o ns t r uc t of m o t i va t i on t o r e a d. T hi s m e a s ur e w a s de s i gne d, e s pe c i a l l y f or t hi s s t udy, du e t o t he l a c k of s ur ve ys a va i l a bl e t o a s s e s s m ot i va t i on t o r e a d i n pa r t i c i pa nt s ol de r t ha n e l e m e nt a r y s c hool a ge d c hi l dr e n T he

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30 i t e m s w e r e f i e l d t e s t e d pr i or t o be i ng i nc l ude d i n t h e que s t i onna i r e a nd t he c ont e nt va l i di t y w a s a s s e s s e d by e xpe r t j udge s T he s e r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t pr i m a r y s t ude nt s ha d a hi ghe r m ot i va t i on t o r e a d t ha n di d s e ni or h i gh s t u de nt s T he y a l s o f ound t ha t pr i m a r y s t ude nt s r e por t e d r e a di ng m o r e books t ha n t he i nt e r m e di a t e m i ddl e s c hool o r hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s T hi s s t udy i m pl i e s t ha t m ot i va t i on t o r e a d de c r e a s e s a s s t ude nt s m a t ur e a nd pr ogr e s s t hr ough s c hool T hi s t r e nd m a y be du e t o t he di f f e r e nc e s i n t he r e a di ng m a t e r i a l s us e d w i t hi n c l a s s r oom s by ol de r a nd you nge r s t ude nt s A l i m i t a t i on o f t hi s s t udy i s t he hom oge ne i t y o f t hi s s a m pl e G i f t e d s t ude nt s a r e gi ve n a he a vi e r a nd m or e i nvol ve d w or kl oa d t h r oughout t he i r ye a r s a t s c hool T he a m ount a nd l e ngt h o f books t ha t gi f t e d s t ude nt s i n m i ddl e or hi gh s c hool m a y ha ve t o r e a d m a y m a ke t he s e r e s ul t s di f f i c ul t t o ge ne r a l i z e t o ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s C ont r a r y t o t he s t udi e s di s c us s e d s o f a r i n t hi s s e c t i on, P a r ke r a nd P a r a di s ( 1986 ) f ound di s s i m i l a r e f f e c t s a c r os s e l e m e nt a r y s c hool T hi s s t udy w a s c onduc t e d t o a s s e s s i f m ot i va t i on t o r e a d c ha nge d a s boys a nd gi r l s pr og r e s s e d t hr ough e l e m e nt a r y a nd m i ddl e s c hool F or t hi s s t udy 134 c hi l dr e n i n f i r s t t hr ough s i xt h gr a de w e r e gi ve n t he H e a t hi ngt on R e a di ng A t t i t ude I nve nt o r y ( A l e xa nd e r & F i l l e r 1976; H e a t hi ngt on, 1975 ) t o m e a s ur e t he i r m ot i va t i on t o r e a d. T he s a m pl e w a s t a ke n f r om s e ve n e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s i n t he R oc ky M ount a i n R e gi on. E a c h i t e m on t he s ur ve y w a s r e a d t o e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt by t he e xa m i ne r be f o r e a r e s pons e w a s m a r ke d. A dm i ni s t r a t i on w a s a ppr oxi m a t e l y 10 t o 15 m i nut e s T he r e s e a r c he r s f ound no s i gni f i c a nt de c r e a s e s i n m ot i va t i on t o r e a d ove r f i r s t t hr ough t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s but t he r e w a s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt i nc r e a s e i n m ot i va t i on t o r e a d r e c r e a t i o na l r e a di ng, l i br a r y r e a di ng, a nd ge ne r a l r e a di ng f r om f our t h t o f i f t h gr a de D ue t o t he di s c r e pa nc y of t he f i ndi ngs f ur t he r

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31 r e s e a r c h i s ne e de d t o de t e r m i ne i f t he r e i s a uni ve r s a l t r e nd t ow a r d poo r e r m ot i va t i on t o r e a d i n t he hi ghe r g r a de s O ne l i m i t a t i on of t hi s s t u dy w a s t he nonge ne r a l i z a bi l i t y o f t hi s s a m pl e t o m a ny s c hool di s t r i c t s i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s T he s a m pl e w a s f r om a r ur a l c om m uni t y of 25, 000 pe opl e l oc a t e d i n t he R oc ky M ount a i n r e gi on a nd t he c ondi t i ons a nd s c hool i n t hi s s m a l l r e gi on m a y di f f e r f r om ot h e r r ur a l s ubur ba n or ur ba n di s t r i c t s w i t hi n t he r e m a i ni ng U ni t e d S t a t e s popul a t i on. M ot i va t i on t o r e a d ha s be e n r e s e a r c he d a c r os s gr a de but due t o t he di s c r e pa nc i e s i n t he f i n di ngs m or e r e s e a r c h ne e ds t o be c onduc t e d. N e w r e s e a r c h w i l l he l p e s t a bl i s h t r e nds i n m ot i va t i o n t o r e a d a c r os s di f f e r e nt l e ve l s of s c hool i ng. C ont r a r y t o t he f i ndi ng t ha t m ot i va t i on t o r e a d m a y de c r e a s e ove r t i m e m os t s t udi e s f ou nd r e s ul t s i ndi c a t i ng t ha t r e a di ng a c h i e v e m e nt i n s c hool a ge d c hi l dr e n a nd a dol e s c e nt s m a y i nc r e a s e ove r t i m e T he s e t w o f i n di ngs a r e c onf l i c t i ng f or e duc a t i ona l r e s e a r c h. M or e s t udi e s on t he s e t w o va r i a bl e s m a y be ne e de d t o f i nd m or e i nf or m a t i on a bout t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he s e t w o c ons t r uc t s G r ade and R e adi ng A c hi e v e m e nt F e w s t udi e s ha v e be e n unde r t a ke n w i t hi n t he l a s t de c a de e xa m i ni ng t he c ha nge s i n r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a c r os s gr a de ( D i a m ond & O nw ue gbuz i e 2001; D i P e r na & E l l i ot 2002; D i P e r na e t a l 2002; P unge l l o e t a l 1996 ) R e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ha s be e n f ound t o be m or e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o ge nde r e t hni c i t y a nd S E S ( D i a m ond & O nw ue gbuz i e 2001 ) T he f e w s t udi e s t ha t ha ve be e n c onduc t e d a r e not c om pa r a bl e due t o t he di f f e r e nc e s i n gr a de s e xa m i ne d. D i P e r na e t a l ( 2002 ) c onduc t e d a s t udy t o t e s t t he a de qua c y of a n a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt m ode l f o r e xpl a i ni ng t he a c hi e ve m e nt of s t ude nt s i n ki nde r ga r t e n t hr ough gr a de s i x. T he i r s a m pl e i nc l ude d 394 s t ude nt s a nd 104 t e a c he r s i n ki nde r ga r t e n t hr ough s i xt h gr a de T he s a m pl e w a s t a ke n

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32 f r om 21 s c hool s a c r os s t he N or t he a s t e r n U ni t e d S t a t e s P r i m a r y gr a de s c ons i s t e d of ki nde r ga r t e n t hr ough s e c ond gr a de a nd i n t e r m e di a t e gr a de s c ons i s t e d of gr a de s t hr e e t hr ough s i x. A ppr oxi m a t e l y 27 % o f t he pr i m a r y s a m pl e w e r e m i no r i t i e s a nd 11% of t he s t ude nt s h a d a n i de nt i f i e d di s a bi l i t y T he I ow a T e s t of B a s i c S ki l l s ( H i e r onym us e t a l 1990 ) w a s us e d t o m e a s ur e r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt i n t hi s s t udy. T he r e s e a r c he r s f ound a n i nc r e a s e i n r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a c r os s t he pr i m a r y gr a de s a nd i nt o t he i nt e r m e di a t e gr a de s T hi s i m pl i e s t ha t t he r e m a y be a uni ve r s a l i nc r e a s e i n r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a c r os s ye a r s of s c hool i ng. T he P unge l l o e t a l ( 1996 ) s t udy f ound a s i m i l a r t r e nd. T hi s s t udy w a s c om pl e t e d i n or de r t o e xa m i ne t he l ong t e r m e f f e c t s of l ow f a m i l y i nc om e a nd s t r e s s f ul l i f e e ve nt s on r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt P a r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy w e r e 1, 253 c hi l d r e n ( 52 % gi r l s 48 % boys ) T hi s s t udy w a s a l ongi t udi na l s t udy c om pl e t e d a c r os s f our ye a r s A popul a t i on of 1, 860 w a s c hos e n f or t hi s s t udy, but due t o a c om b i na t i on of f a c t or s s uc h a s c ons e nt s w i t hhe l d, l a c k o f pa r t i c i pa t i on, a nd e t hni c i t y no t s p e c i f i e d a s e i t he r A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n o r C a uc a s i a n, onl y 1, 253 pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e i nc l ude d i n t he a na l ys e s T he m a j o r i t y o f t he s a m pl e w a s C a uc a s i a n ( 60% ) a nd t he r e w e r e 40% A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n. T he S c i e nc e R e s e a r c h A s s oc i a t e s A c a de m i c A c hi e ve m e nt T e s t ( S R A N a s l und, T hor pe & L e f e ve r 1987) a nd t he I ow a T e s t of B a s i c S ki l l s w e r e us e d t o m e a s ur e a c hi e ve m e nt i n t hi s s t udy T he r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t r e a di ng s c or e s i nc r e a s e d t hr ough t he f i f t h g r a de a nd t he n r e m a i ne d s t a bl e t hr ough t he s e ve nt h gr a de T hi s s t udy i m pl i e s a l ong w i t h t he pr e vi ous one di s c us s e d, t ha t r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt i nc r e a s e s ove r t i m e H ow e ve r t hi s s t udy a l s o i m pl i e s t ha t t he r e m a y be a l e ve l of s c hool i ng i n w hi c h t he i nc r e a s e l e ve l s o f f T hi s s t udy i s l i m i t e d i t s s a m pl e T he s a m pl e f or t hi s s t udy c on s i s t e d onl y of s t ude nt s w ho i de nt i f i e d

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33 t he m s e l ve s a s e i t he r A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n o r C a uc a s i a n a nd t ha t s t a ye d i n t he s t udy f or m o r e t ha n one ye a r T he pa r t o f t he s a m pl e t ha t w a s l os t m a y ha ve ha d a n e f f e c t on t he r e s ul t s t ha t w e r e f ound D i a m ond a nd O nw ue gbuz i e ( 2001) f ound t he oppo s i t e t r e nd. T hi s s t udy w a s c onduc t e d t o i nve s t i ga t e r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s a f unc t i on of gr a de ge nde r e t hni c i t y, a nd s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us T hi s s t ud y w a s di s c us s e d pr e vi ous l y. T hi s s t udy us e d t he s a m e out c om e m e a s ur e t he I ow a T e s t o f B a s i c S ki l l s T he r e w a s a dr a s t i c de c r e a s e i n r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt f r om s e c ond t o t hi r d gr a de f ound f o r t he s a m pl e us e d. T he r e w a s a l s o a de c l i ne a c r os s t he e l e m e nt a r y ye a r s ( f r om s e c ond t o f i f t h ) T he s e r e s ul t s a r e c ont r a r y t o m os t ot he r s t udi e s t ha t ha ve e xa m i ne d r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd t he s e r e s ul t s i m pl y t ha t m or e r e s e a r c h m a y ne e d t o be c onduc t e d t o t e s t i f t he r e i s a uni ve r s a l i nc r e a s e or de c r e a s e a c r os s r e a di ng a c h i e ve m e nt f or di f f e r e nt gr oups of s t ude nt s T he i nf o r m a t i on ga i ne d f r om t he s e f ut ur e s t udi e s m a y i nf o r m i n t e r ve nt i on pl a nn i ng f or s t ude nt s a t di f f e r e nt l e ve l s of s c hool i ng. O ve r a l l m os t s t udi e s ha ve f ound t ha t a c hi e ve m e nt t e nds t o i nc r e a s e a c r os s gr a de S om e s t udi e s how e ve r ha ve not f ound t hi s t r e nd ( D i a m ond & O nw ue gbuz i e 2001 ) D ue t o t he di s c r e pa nc y, m o r e s t udi e s a r e ne e de d t o f i nd t he c or r e l a t e s of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt t o a s s e s s w ha t ot he r f a c t or s m a t be r e l a t e d t o t hi s i nc r e a s e or de c r e a s e i n a c hi e ve m e nt S i m i l a r t o r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a c r os s l e ve l of s c h ool i ng, t he r e ha s a l s o be e n oppos i ng t r e nds f ound f or r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a c r os s ge nde r G e nde r and R e adi ng A c hi e v e m e nt S om e s t udi e s h a ve f ound t ha t ge nde r i s r e l a t e d t o r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ( D i a m ond & O nw ue gbuz i e 2001; P unge l l o e t a l 1996 ) a nd

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34 ot he r s t udi e s ha ve f ound no s i gni f i c a nt c o r r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he s e t w o va r i a bl e s ( F l ynn & R a hb a r 1994) P unge l l o e t a l ( 1996 ) c onduc t e d a s t udy t o e xa m i n e t he e f f e c t s of l ow i nc om e a nd s t r e s s f ul l i f e s i t ua t i ons w e r e r e l a t e d t o r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt T hi s s t udy w a s di s c us s e d i n t he a bove s e c t i on. T he m a j or i t y of t he s a m pl e w a s C a uc a s i a n ( 60% ) a nd t he r e w e r e 40 % A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n. S c or e s f r om t he S c i e nc e R e s e a r c h A s s oc i a t e s A c a d e m i c A c hi e ve m e nt T e s t a nd t he I ow a T e s t o f B a s i c S ki l l s w e r e us e d t o m e a s ur e r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt B e i ng m a l e w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y ne ga t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o r e a di n g a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy i m pl y t ha t i nt e r ve nt i ons t a r ge t i ng m a l e s m a y be ve r y i m por t a nt t ool s t o us e t hr oughout e l e m e nt a r y s c hool C ons i s t e nt w i t h t he s e r e s ul t s D i a m ond a nd O nw ue gbuz i e ( 2001) f ound t ha t ge nde r w a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt T he r e s e a r c he r s us e d t he I ow a T e s t o f B a s i c S ki l l s t o a s s e s s t he l e v e l of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt i n t he s a m pl e T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy s how e d t ha t gi r l s ha d hi ghe r r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s t ha n boys ba s e d on s c or e s obt a i ne d on t he I ow a T e s t of B a s i c S ki l l s T he s e r e s ul t s l i ke t he s t udy di s c us s e d e a r l i e r i m pl y t ha t boys m a y be i n ne e d of m or e i n t e ns e r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i ons t ha n gi r l s w i t hi n t he e l e m e nt a r y s c ho ol s e t t i ng. A ve r y i m por t a nt l i m i t a t i on of t hi s s t udy i s t he s a m pl e t ha t w a s us e d f o r t he a na l ys e s T hi s s a m pl e w a s 77% A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a nd 23% C a uc a s i a n a nd c a m e f r om a s m a l l i nne r c i t y s c hool di s t r i c t T he r e s ul t s c oul d onl y ge ne r a l i z e t o s i m i l a r s a m pl e s of s t ude nt s C ont r a r y t o t he a bove f i nd i ngs F l ynn a nd R a hba r ( 1994) f ound no di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n ge nde r a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt F l ynn a nd R a hba r ( 1994) e xa m i ne d w he t he r m or e boys t h a n gi r l s f a i l r e a di ng on s t a nda r di z e d t e s t s T he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e 708

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35 ki nde r ga r t e ne r s ( 51. 6 % boys 48. 4 % gi r l s ) f r om 13 di s t r i c t s i n N o r t he r n E ur ope T he pa r t i c i pa nt s us e d w e r e t e s t e d i n ki nde r ga r t e n a nd t he n a ga i n i n f i r s t a nd t hi r d gr a de T o be us e d f or t he s t udy t he y ha d t o be p r e s e nt f or a l l t h r e e t e s t i ng s e s s i on s T he t e s t s us e d t o m e a s ur e r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt w e r e t he I ow a T e s t of B a s i c S ki l l s t he C a l i f or ni a A c hi e ve m e nt T e s t a nd t he S t a nf or d A c hi e ve m e nt T e s t R e a di ng f a i l u r e w a s m e a s ur e d by t ot a l r e a di ng s c or e s t ha t w e r e a t o r be l ow t he 10 t h p e r c e nt i l e T he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he a m ount o f gi r l s a nd boys w ho f a i l e d t he gi ve n r e a di ng t e s t s T hi s s t udy i m pl i e s t ha t m or e r e s e a r c h i s ne e de d on t he s e t w o va r i a bl e s S o f a r r e s e a r c h ha s not s how n a uni ve r s a l t r e nd be t w e e n ge nde r a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt A l i m i t a t i on o f t hi s s t udy w a s t ha t i t w a s c onduc t e d i n N or t he r n E ur op e T he r e a di ng c ur r i c ul um i n E u r ope m a y be di f f e r e nt t ha n t he c ur r i c ul um i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd s t ude nt s i n A m e r i c a m a y be t a ught i n di f f e r e nt w a ys T he s e r e s ul t s s houl d onl y be ge ne r a l i z a bl e t o t he N o r t he r n E ur ope a n popul a t i on A not he r l i m i t a t i on of t he s a m pl e w a s t ha t t hi s pa r t i c ul a r popul a t i on ha d s i gni f i c a nt l y m or e m a l e s r e f e r r e d f o r s pe c i a l e duc a t i on t ha n f e m a l e s s ugge s t i ng a ge nde r bi a s w i t h r e ga r d t o s t ude nt s w i t h pot e nt i a l l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s T he r e s e a r c h t ha t ha s be e n pe r f or m e d t o e xa m i ne g e nde r a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ha s f ound r e s ul t s t ha t pa r a l l e l t he t r e nds t ha t ha ve be e n f ound i n t he r e s e a r c h e xa m i ni ng ge nde r a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d. F o r bot h c ons t r uc t s r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd m o t i va t i on t o r e a d, gi r l s ha ve be e n s how n t o ha ve s t r onge r s i g ni f i c a nt l y pos i t i ve r e l a t i ons hi ps i n m os t of t he r e s e a r c h. H ow e ve r t he r e ha ve be e n di f f e r e nc e s f ound w i t hi n ge nde r ( D i a m ond & O nw ue gbuz i e 2001; G r a ha m 1994 ) W i t hi n t he va r i a bl e of ge nde r di f f e r e nt e t hni c gr oups ha ve be e n s how n t o ha ve di f f e r e nt l e ve l s of a c hi e ve m e nt

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36 E t hni c i t y and R e adi ng A c hi e v e m e nt S om e s t udi e s ha ve f ound t ha t A f r i c a n A m e r i c a ns do l e s s w e l l i n r e a di ng t ha n C a uc a s i a n ( D i a m ond & O nw ue gbuz i e 2001; G r a ha m 1994; P unge l l o e t a l 1996; S t e e l e & A r o ns on, 1995) G r a ha m ( 1994) not e d t hi s t r e nd ba s e d on t he i nf or m a t i on t a ke n f r om ove r 14 0 s t udi e s of A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a c hi e ve m e nt a nd m ot i va t i on us e d i n he r na r r a t i ve r e vi e w P unge l l o e t a l ( 1996) f ound a n a na l ogous t r e nd. I n t hi s s t udy A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t a t us w a s ne ga t i ve l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a c hi e ve m e nt a nd ove r a l l C a uc a s i a ns ha d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt l y hi ghe r m e a n i n t he i r r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e n t a s m e a s ur e d by t he S c i e nc e R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t e s A c a de m i c A c hi e ve m e nt T e s t a nd t he I ow a T e s t o f B a s i c S ki l l s T he r e w e r e a t ot a l of 1253 c hi l d r e n us e d f or t he a na l ys e s dur i ng t he f i r s t ye a r o f t h i s s t udy ( 60% C a uc a s i a n, 40% A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n) D u r i ng t he s e c ond ye a r t he r e w e r e 584 s t ude nt s us e d i n t he a na l ys e s a nd dur i ng t he a na l ys e s f or t he t hi r d a nd f our t h ye a r t h e r e w e r e 397 s t ude nt s us e d. D i a m ond a nd O nw ue gbuz i e ( 2001) r e por t e d c ons i s t e nt f i ndi ngs w i t h A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s e xhi bi t i ng s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt l ow e r l e ve l s o f r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt t ha n t he i r C a uc a s i a n c ount e r pa r t s O ne i m pl i c a t i on of e a c h o f t he s t udi e s di s c us s e d i n t hi s s e c t i on i s t ha t due t o t he l a c k o f r e s e a r c h a nd di s c r e pa nt f i ndi ngs i n t hi s a r e a m or e r e s e a r c h i s gr e a t l y ne e de d. A l s o, i f a t r e nd i s f ound be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt i nt e r ve nt i ons c a n be de s i gne d ke e pi n g t hi s i n m i nd, w hi c h w i l l f a c i l i t a t e l ow e r r e s i s t a nc e t o i nt e r ve nt i ons a nd hi ghe r a c hi e v e m e nt r a t e s D ue t o t he di f f e r i ng r e s ul t s f r om t he s e s t udi e s t he f i ndi ngs i m p l y t ha t m or e r e s e a r c h i s ne e de d on t he s e t w o va r i a bl e s t o e f f e c t i ve l y de s i gn r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i on s a nd c ur r i c ul a f or e t hni c a l l y di ve r s e gr oups

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37 Sum m ar y F l or i da i s us i ng a hi gh s t a ke s s t a t e w i de a s s e s s m e nt s ys t e m t o hol d t he i r s c hool di s t r i c t s a c c ount a bl e f or r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt M a ny s t a t e s ha ve put s ys t e m s l i ke t hi s i n pl a c e due t o t he r e qui r e m e nt s of t he N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t of 2001 T hi s a c t hol ds s t a t e s a c c ount a bl e f or t he i r s t ude nt s r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s i n t he i r K 12 publ i c s c hool s M or e t ha n one f ou r t h of F l o r i da s s t ude nt s a r e not a bl e t o r e a d a t a l e ve l ne e de d t o f unc t i on s uc c e s s f ul l y i n l i f e a nd t he pe r c e nt a ge dr a s t i c a l l y i nc r e a s e s a f t e r m i ddl e s c hool A c a de m i c e na bl e r s s uc h a s m ot i va t i on, ha ve be e n f ound t o be r e l a t e d t o r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt A l s o, gr a de ge nde r a nd e t hni c i t y ha ve be e n s how n t o be s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt R e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt i n F l o r i da i s c ur r e nt l y m e a s ur e d by t he F C A T F e w e m pi r i c a l s t udi e s ha ve be e n unde r t a ke n on t he F C A T t hus f a r t o t e s t i t s de m ogr a phi c a nd m ot i va t i ona l c or r e l a t e s I f t he c o r r e l a t e s of t he F C A T a r e s how n t o be t he s a m e c or r e l a t e s of a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt a s m e a s ur e d i n ot he r s t udi e s t he n i nt e r ve nt i ons c a n be de ve l ope d t o e nha nc e s t ude nt s uc c e s s i n r e a di ng a nd pe r f or m a nc e on hi gh s t a ke s t e s t s P ur pos e of T hi s St udy W i t hi n t he f i e l d of e duc a t i ona l r e s e a r c h, a n e s t a bl i s he d r e l a t i ons hi p e xi s t s a m ong m ot i va t i on t o r e a d, g r a de ge nde r a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt A l s o a s m a l l num be r of s t udi e s s uppor t a s i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o f i nd t he r e l a t i ons hi p a m ong m ot i va t i on t o r e a d gr a de ge nde r e t hni c i t y a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s m e a s ur e d by t he F C A T

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38 C ha pt e r T hr e e M e t hod T he a r c hi va l da t a u s e d f or t hi s s t udy w e r e ob t a i ne d f r om a l a r ge r da t a ba s e m a i nt a i ne d by t he F l or i da C e nt e r f or R e a di ng R e s e a r c h t hr ough a gr a nt e nt i t l e d, I ndi vi dua l D i f f e r e nc e s i n F C A T P e r f o r m a nc e ( F C A T gr a nt ) T he I ndi vi dua l D i f f e r e nc e s i n F C A T P e r f or m a nc e G r a nt w a s us e d t o c onduc t a s t udy t ha t e va l ua t e d t he r e a di ng a nd c ogni t i ve s ki l l pr o f i l e of c hi l dr e n w ho a t t a i n d i f f e r e nt l e ve l s of out c om e on t he F C A T M e a s ur e s of or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y, phone m i c de c odi ng e f f i c i e nc y, s i ght w or d voc a bul a r y, or a l l a ngua ge voc a bul a r y, l i s t e n i ng c om pr e he ns i on ve r ba l a nd n on ve r ba l r e a s oni ng a bi l i t y, m ot i va t i on a nd e xpos ur e t o pr i nt w e r e c o m pl e t e d by t he f ul l s e t o f pa r t i c i pa nt s T hi s i nve s t i ga t i on f oc us e d on t he s ubs e t of 585 pa r t i c i pa nt s t ha t c om pl e t e d t he r e a di ng por t i on of t he F C A T a nd t h e M ot i va t i on t o R e a d P r of i l e T he i ns t r um e nt s a nd m e t hod di s c us s e d r e l a t e onl y t o t hos e us e d w i t h t hi s s ubs e t of pa r t i c i pa nt s T hi s c ha pt e r be gi n s w i t h a di s c us s i on of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd t he s e t t i ngs T he i ns t r u m e nt s us e d i n t hi s s t udy a r e pr e s e nt e d a l o ng w i t h a de t a i l e d de s c r i pt i on of t he pr oc e dur e s P ar t i c i pant s T he s a m pl i ng f r a m e c ons i s t e d of 585 t hi r d s e ve nt h, a nd t e nt h gr a de s t ude nt s a ge d 7 t o 17 ye a r s f r om t he H i l l s bor ough, B r ow a r d, a nd L e on C ount y S c hool D i s t r i c t s i n F l or i da B r ow a r d C ount y i nc l ude d 203 pa r t i c i pa nt s H i l l s bor ough C ount y i nc l ude d 168

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39 pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd L e on C ount y i nc l ude d 214 pa r t i c i pa nt s E a c h c ount y s pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e di vi de d a m ong t hi r d, s e ve nt h, a nd t e nt h gr a de s T h e pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e e nr ol l e d i n publ i c e l e m e nt a r y, m i ddl e a nd h i gh s c hool s dur i ng t he 2 002 2003 s c hool ye a r A l l pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he s t udy w e r e gi ve n a c ons e nt f o r m t o ha ve t he i r pa r e nt s s i gn a nd r e t ur n a nd on l y t hos e w ho r e t ur ne d t he s i gne d c ons e nt f or m w e r e e l i gi bl e t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s s t udy. O nl y 585 of t he 630 pr opos e d pa r t i c i pa nt s r e t ur ne d t he i r c ons e nt f or m s i n t i m e f or t he s t udy. A l l o f t he s t ude nt s i n t hi s s t u dy t o ok t he F C A T dur i ng t he 2002 2003 s c hool ye a r D e m ogr a phi c i nf o r m a t i on o f t he 585 pa r t i c i pa nt s i s pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 1 T hr e e hundr e d t hi r t y t hr e e w e r e f e m a l e ( 56. 9% ) a nd 252 ( 43. 1% ) w e r e m a l e O f t he 585 r e s ponde nt s 238 ( 30 7% ) w e r e C a uc a s i a n, 219 ( 37 4% ) w e r e A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, 101 ( 17. 3% ) w e r e H i s pa ni c 13 ( 2. 2% ) w e r e A s i a n, 10 ( 1. 7% ) ha d m or e t ha n one e t hni c i t y not e d, a nd 4 ( 7% ) pa r t i c i p a nt s di d not r e s pond t o t hi s que s t i on. T a bl e 1 a l s o s how s t ha t 182 ( 31. 1 % ) pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e i n t e nt h g r a de 188 ( 32. 1% ) w e r e i n s e ve nt h gr a de a nd 2 15 ( 36. 8 % ) w e r e i n t hi r d gr a de

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40 T a bl e 1 D e m ogr a phi c s G e nde r E t h ni c i t y, a nd G r a de L e ve l ( N = 585) V a r i a bl e N a m e n % G e nde r : M a l e 252 43. 1 F e m a l e 333 56. 9 E t hni c i t y: C a uc a s i a n 238 40. 7 A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n 219 37. 4 H i s pa ni c 101 17. 3 A s i a n/ P a c i f i c I s l a nde r 13 2 2 M i xe d 10 1 7 M i s s i ng 4 7 G r a de l e ve l : T e nt h 182 31. 1 S e ve nt h 188 32. 1 T hi r d 215 36. 8

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41 Se t t i ng T he t hr e e c oun t i e s w he r e da t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d a r e l oc a t e d a c r os s t he s t a t e of F l or i da T he s e c ount i e s i nc l ude d L e on H i l l s bor ough, a nd B r ow a r d T a bl e 2 s um m a r i z e s t he da t a f r om t he 2 002 2003 s c hool ye a r f r o m t he t hr e e c ount i e s i n t he f ol l ow i ng c a t e gor i e s : num be r of hi gh s c hool s m i dd l e s c hool s a nd e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s num be r of t ot a l r e s i de nt s num be r of t ot a l s t ude nt s pe r c e nt of s t ude nt s a t e a c h l e ve l e l i gi bl e f or f r e e or r e duc e d l u nc h br e a kdow n o f e t hni c i t i e s t ot a l n um be r of s c hool s t a f f t ot a l num be r of s c hool s t a f f w i t h a dva nc e d de gr e e s a ve r a ge nu m b e r of ye a r s of t e a c hi ng e xpe r i e nc e a nd t he pe r c e nt a ge of out of f i e l d t e a c he r s

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42 T a bl e 2 D e m ogr a phi c I nf or m a t i on of P a r t i c i pa t i ng C ount i e s V ari ab l e N a me Freq u en ci es N um be r / P e r c e nt a ge L e on H i l l s bor ough B r ow a r d H i gh s c hool s 5 28 27 M i ddl e s c hool s 8 44 40 E l e m e nt a r y s c hool s 25 123 136 T ot a l r e s i de nt s 240, 000 999, 000 1, 600, 000 T ot a l s t ude nt s O ve r 3 0, 000 171, 000 255, 000 M S F / R l unc h 34% 49% 43% E S F / R l unc h 44% 54% 46% C a uc a s i a n s t ude nt s 57% 47% 25. 5% A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s 35% 23% 36% H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s 3% 24% 23. 1% A s i a n s t ude nt s 1. 7% 1. 8% 3% I ndi a n s t ude nt s 3% 3% 3% M ul t i r a c i a l s t ude nt s 2. 2% 4% 2. 1% S t a f f w i t h a dva nc e d de gr e e s 40% 33% 38% A ve r a ge ye a r s of t e a c hi ng 18 12 12 O ut of f i e l d t e a c he r s 1% 6. 5% 3% N ot e F / R i s F r e e / R e duc e d, M S i s M i ddl e S c hool a nd E S i s E l e m e nt a r y S c hool ; H i gh S c hool F r e e / R e duc e d l unc h not a va i l a bl e

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43 L e on C ount y i s t he one hundr e d t hi r t y t hi r d l a r ge s t s c hool di s t r i c t i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s I t i s l oc a t e d on t he pa nha ndl e of nor t he r n F l or i da H i l l s bor ough C ount y i s l oc a t e d on t he w e s t e r n c oa s t of c e nt r a l F l o r i da a nd i s t he e l e ve nt h l a r ge s t s c hool di s t r i c t i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s B r ow a r d C ount y i s t he f i f t h l a r ge s t s c hool di s t r i c t i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd i s l oc a t e d on t he e a s t c oa s t of s out he r n F l o r i da O ut of t he t hr e e c ount i e s B r ow a r d i s t he l a r ge s t a nd ha s t he gr e a t e s t m i nor i t y popul a t i on I t i s a l s o not a bl e t ha t L e on C ount y ha s by f a r t he s m a l l e s t H i s pa ni c popul a t i on a nd H i l l s bor ough C ount y ha s t he m os t out o f f i e l d t e a c he r s F o r a l l t hr e e c ount i e s da t a on t he pe r c e nt a ge of hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s t ha t w e r e e l i gi bl e f o r f r e e a nd r e duc e d l u nc h w e r e not a va i l a bl e f r om e a c h di s t r i c t due t o t he l a c k of f a m i l i e s t ha t a ppl y w i t hi n t he hi gh s c hool s e t t i ng. I ns t r um e nt at i on F l or i da C om pr e he ns i v e A s s e s s m e nt T e s t ( F C A T ) T he F C A T i s a s t a t e w i de t e s t t ha t m e a s ur e s r e a di ng, m a t he m a t i c s s c i e nc e a nd w r i t i ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd w a s de ve l ope d by c om m e r c i a l c ont r a c t or s a nd s c hool di s t r i c t c u r r i c ul um c ont e nt c om m i t t e e s hi r e d by t he F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003e ) H ow e ve r t he onl y por t i on t ha t w a s us e d f or t hi s s t udy w a s t h e r e a di ng t e s t T he F C A T w a s a dm i ni s t e r e d ove r a w e e k l ong t i m e pe r i od. T hi s i n c l ude d t he t i m e ne e de d t o di s t r i but e m a t e r i a l s pr ovi de di r e c t i ons a nd t o c om pl e t e a l l o f t he s ubj e c t t e s t s T he F C A T w a s a r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t t ha t i s u s e d f or s c ho ol a ge d c hi l d r e n a nd a dol e s c e nt s T he F C A T r e a di ng a s s e s s e d c ont e nt f r om t w o a r e a s of t he R e a di ng a nd L a ngua ge A r t s S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r ds T he s e a r e a s a s s e s s e d a s t ude nt s a bi l i t y t o c ons t r uc t m e a ni ng f r om i nf o r m a t i ona l t e xt a nd m e a ni ng f r om l i t e r a t u r e ( F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003e ) T he F C A T A c hi e ve m e nt l e ve l s w e r e de ve l ope d by t he

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44 D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on. T hi s s t udy w a s c onc e r ne d w i t h t he S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r d ( S S S ) s c a l e d s c or e s on t he F C A T r e a di ng t e s t A s c a l e d s c or e i n t hi r d gr a de be t w e e n 407 500 i n s e ve nt h gr a de be t w e e n 402 500 a nd i n t e nt h gr a de be t w e e n 385 500 e qua l e d a L e ve l 5 C l a s s i f i c a t i on T hi s m e a nt t ha t t he c hi l d ha d s uc c e s s w i t h t he m os t c ha l l e ngi ng c ont e nt of t he S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r ds A t t hi s l e ve l a s t ude nt a ns w e r e d m o s t o f t he t e s t que s t i ons c or r e c t l y. B y a c hi e vi ng a s c a l e d s c or e i n t hi r d gr a de be t w e e n 345 406, i n s e ve nt h gr a de be t w e e n 357 401, a nd i n t e nt h gr a de be t w e e n 368 384 a c hi l d r e c e i ve d a L e ve l 4 C a t e gor y T h i s m e a nt t ha t a s t ude nt w a s s uc c e s s f ul w i t h m os t of t he c ha l l e ngi ng c ont e nt but m a y ha ve m i s s e d t he que s t i ons t ha t w e r e t he m os t di f f i c ul t A c hi e vi ng a s c a l e d s c or e i n t hi r d g r a de be t w e e n 297 344 i n s e ve nt h gr a de be t w e e n 313 356 a nd i n t e nt h gr a de be t w e e n 340 367 e qua l e d a L e ve l 3 C a t e gor y w hi c h m e a nt t ha t t he s t ude nt ha d pa r t i a l s uc c e s s w i t h t he c ha l l e ngi ng c ont e nt a n d w a s l e s s s uc c e s s f ul w i t h t he m os t di f f i c ul t que s t i ons A t t a i ni ng a s c a l e d s c or e i n t hi r d gr a de be t w e e n 272 296 i n s e ve nt h gr a de be t w e e n 280 312, a nd i n t e nt h g r a de be t w e e n 300 339 e qua l e d a L e ve l 2 C a t e gor y T hi s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he s t ude nt ha d l i m i t e d s uc c e s s w i t h t he di f f i c ul t c ont e nt F i na l l y, a c hi e vi ng a s c a l e d s c or e be t w e e n 100 271 i n t hi r d gr a de 100 279 i n s e ve nt h g r a de a nd 100 299 i n t e nt h gr a de e qua l s a L e ve l 1 r a t i ng a nd i ndi c a t e d t ha t a s t ude nt ha d l i t t l e s uc c e s s w i t h a ny of t he c ont e nt ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003e ) T he r a t i ona l e f or c hoos i ng t he F C A T f or t hi s s t udy w a s be c a us e t he gove r nor r e qui r e s a l l s t ude nt s gr a de t h r e e t hr ough t e n, i n t he s t a t e of F l or i da t o t a ke t he F C A T t o e s t a bl i s h t he i r r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt T hi s i ns t r um e nt ha s be e n pur por t e d t o be a ppr opr i a t e f or m e a s ur i ng t he i nt e nde d va r i a bl e of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt i n s t ude nt s T he c ont e nt r e l a t e d va l i di t y o f t he F C A T w a s s how n by t he c or r e s ponde nc e be t w e e n t he t e s t a nd t he

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45 be nc hm a r ks t he i t e m s a r e s uppos e d t o m e a s ur e A l l of t he i t e m s w e r e p i l ot t e s t e d on s m a l l gr oups of s t ude nt s a nd t he s t ude nt s w e r e i nt e r vi e w e d a f t e r e a c h s i t t i ng A l l t e s t i t e m s w e r e t he n f i e l d t e s t e d w i t h l a r ge r a ndom s a m pl e s of F l or i da s t ude nt s a c c o m pl i s he d by a dm i ni s t e r i ng s t a t e w i de f i e l d t e s t s or by i m be dd i ng i t e m s w i t hi n ope r a t i ona l f or m s T he s e t e s t s w e r e c onduc t e d by t he F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on. T he F C A T w a s hi ghl y c or r e l a t e d w i t h t he S t a nf o r d 8. A ddi t i ona l l y, t he F C A T S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r ds A s s e s s m e nt c om pone nt a nd t he F C A T N or m R e f e r e nc e d T e s t a r e c or r e l a t e d a t a bout t he 0 83 0 85 l e ve l I n t he F C A T B r i e f i ng book publ i s he d by t he D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( 2001) r e l i a bi l i t y a nd va l i di t y a r e di s c us s e d. T hi s publ i c a t i o n a f f i r m s t ha t t he f ou r t h, f i f t h, e i ght h, a nd t e nt h gr a d e F C A T a s s e s s m e nt s a l l ha d r e l i a bi l i t y i ndi c e s a bove 90. T hi s m e a ns t ha t t he i nt e r na l c on s i s t e nc y of t he i t e m s w a s c or r e l a t e d a t 90 or a bove T hi s t e s t ha s a l s o be e n s how n t o yi e l d r e l i a bl e s c or e s b ut no r e l i a bi l i t y i nde xe s a r e s pe c i f i e d ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on, 2001) M ot i v at i on t o R e ad P r of i l e T he M ot i va t i on t o R e a d P r of i l e ( M R P ; G a m br e l l e t a l 1996 b ) i nc l ude s t w o s e c t i ons t he R e a di ng S u r ve y a nd t he C onve r s a t i ona l I nt e r vi e w T he R e a di n g S ur ve y w a s t he onl y s e c t i on us e d f o r t hi s s t udy. A ddi t i ona l l y t w o que s t i ons w e r e a dde d t o t he s ur ve y us e d i n t hi s s t udy t o m e a s ur e t he m ot i va t i on t ha t t he pa r t i c i pa nt ha d f or t he upc om i ng F C A T T he R e a di ng S ur ve y i s a 20 i t e m s e l f r e por t m e a s ur e t ha t c o ns i s t s of t w o s ubs c a l e s a nd t a ke s a bout f i f t e e n m i nut e s t o di s t r i but e a dm i ni s t e r a nd c om pl e t e T hi s m e a s ur e w a s c hos e n by t he a dm i ni s t r a t or s of t he F C A T g r a nt t o a s s e s s m ot i va t i on t o r e a d. I t w a s pl a c e d i n t he be gi nni ng of t he ba t t e r y of t e s t s gi ve n t o e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt of t hi s s t udy, but t he da t a c ol l e c t or s ha d f l e xi bi l i t y w he n gi vi ng t hi s s e t of a s s e s s m e nt s a nd c oul d c ha nge t he or de r of t e s t s gi ve n a s t he y s a w f i t

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46 T he na m e s of t he s ubs c a l e s of t he M R P a r e S e l f C onc e pt a s a R e a de r ( 10 i t e m s ) a nd t he V a l u e of R e a di ng ( 10 i t e m s ) A l l of t he s ur ve y i t e m s us e d a 4 poi nt r e s pons e s c a l e I t e m c hoi c e f o r t he M R P w a s e s t a bl i s he d t hr ough a r e vi e w o f r e s e a r c h t he or i e s r e l a t e d t o m ot i va t i on a nd a n i nve s t i ga t i on of e xi s t i ng t ool s de s i gne d t o a s s e s s m ot i va t i on a nd a t t i t ude s t ow a r d r e a di ng I t e m s w e r e ga t he r e d f r om t h i s r e vi e w a nd us e d f or t he de ve l opm e nt of a n i ni t i a l pool of i t e m s f o r t he M R P T hr e e e xpe r i e nc e d t e a c he r s w ho w e r e gr a dua t e s t ude nt s i n r e a di ng c r i t i c a l l y e xa m i ne d ove r 100 i t e m s f or t he i r c ons t r uc t va l i di t y i n a s s e s s i ng m ot i va t i on t o r e a d. T he i t e m s t ha t w e r e a gr e e d upon by a l l t hr e e t e a c he r s w i t h 100% a gr e e m e nt w e r e s e l e c t e d a s opt i ons f or t he s ur ve y. T he s e i t e m s w e r e t he n gi ve n t o f our c l a s s r oom t e a c he r s w ho s or t e d t he m i nt o c a t e gor i e s of m e a s ur e s of s e l f c onc e pt m e a s ur e s of va l ue o f r e a di ng a nd i t e m s t ha t di d not s pe c i f i c a l l y f i t i nt o e i t he r c a t e gor y. T he i t e m s t ha t r e c e i ve d 100 % t r a i t a gr e e m e nt w e r e t he n s e l e c t e d t o c om pr i s e t he f i na l R e a di ng S ur ve y a nd us e d f or f i e l d t e s t i ng. T he f i e l d t r i a l ve r s i on of t he R e a di ng S u r ve y, w hi c h i nc l ude d 20 i t e m s w a s a dm i ni s t e r e d t o 330 t hi r d t hr ough f i f t h gr a de s t ude nt s i n t w e nt y s e ve n c l a s s r oom s i n f our s c hool s f r om t w o s c hool di s t r i c t s i n a n e a s t e r n U S s t a t e F a c t or a na l ys e s w e r e pe r f o r m e d us i ng t he unw e i ght e d l e a s t s qua r e s m e t hod a nd a v a r i m a x r ot a t i on T he f i na l publ i s he d ve r s i on onl y i nc l ude d i t e m s t ha t l oa de d c l e a nl y on t he t w o t r a i t s S e l f C onc e pt a s a R e a de r a nd V a l ue of R e a di ng. A c c or di ng t o G a m b r e l l e t a l ( 1996b) C r onba c h s a l pha s t a t i s t i c w a s c a l c ul a t e d a nd w a s m ode r a t e l y hi gh f or bot h s ubs c a l e s ( s e l f c onc e pt = 75 va l ue = 82) I n t he c ur r e nt s t udy t he C r onba c h a l ph a c oe f f i c i e nt w a s 83 F or t he G a m br e l l e t a l ( 1996b ) s t udy t he pr e a nd pos t t e s t r e l i a bi l i t y c oe f f i c i e nt s a l s o w e r e m ode r a t e l y hi gh ( s e l f c onc e pt = 68 va l ue = 70) ( G a m br e l l e t a l 1996 b ) A h i gh s c or e on

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47 t hi s s c a l e i ndi c a t e d t ha t a s t ude nt ha s hi gh s e l f pe r c e i ve d c om pe t e nc e i n r e a di ng a nd s e l f pe r c e i ve d pe r f or m a nc e r e l a t i ve t o pe e r s T hi s s c or e a l s o i ndi c a t e d t ha t a s t ude nt pl a c e s a hi g h a m ount o f va l ue on r e a di ng t a s ks a nd r e l a t e d a c t i vi t i e s P r oc e dur e T o obt a i n a r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s a m pl e of publ i c s c hool s t ude nt s i n F l or i da t hr e e r e gi ona l uni ve r s i t y ba s e d r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s i t e s w e r e c hos e n by t he F C A T gr a nt a dm i ni s t r a t or s A t t he s e s i t e s f a c ul t y f r om F l or i da S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y, t he U ni ve r s i t y o f S out h F l or i da a nd F l or i da A t l a nt i c U ni ve r s i t y w e r e c hos e n t o r e pr e s e nt a nd c ol l e c t da t a f or L e on, H i l l s bor ough, a nd B r ow a r d c ount i e s r e s pe c t i ve l y. T he f a c ul t y r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s f r om e a c h uni ve r s i t y w e r e a c c ount a bl e f o r obt a i ni n g I ns t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w B oa r d ( I R B ) a ppr ova l f r om t he i r r e s pe c t i ve c ount y a nd un i ve r s i t y, e nl i s t i ng a nd t r a i ni ng t he da t a c ol l e c t or s c hoos i ng t he pa r t i c i pa t i ng s c hool s a nd c ol l e c t i ng da t a w i t hi n e a c h s c hool E a c h of t he t hr e e c ount i e s w a s t o ha ve 210 pa r t i c i p a nt s a s s e s s e d, di vi de d a m ong t hr e e e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s t hr e e m i ddl e s c hool s a nd t h r e e hi gh s c hool s T he s c hool s c hos e n a t e a c h l e ve l w e r e t o i nc l ude one w i t h a l ow s oc i oe c o nom i c s t a t us ( S E S ) popul a t i on one w i t h a m i ddl e S E S popul a t i on a nd one w i t h a hi gh S E S popul a t i on a t e a c h of t he e l e m e nt a r y, m i ddl e a nd h i gh s c hool l e ve l s T he r e gi ona l i nve s t i ga t or s w i t hi n H i l l s bor ough C o unt y di s c us s e d a l i s t of a l l of t he s c hool s i n t he c ount y w i t h t w o s c hool e xpe r t s f r om t he l oc a l uni ve r s i t y. T he y na r r ow e d t he l i s t of s c hool s i n t he c ount y dow n t o 18 e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s 16 m i ddl e s c hool s a nd 16 hi gh s c hool s t ha t w e r e i de nt i f i e d a s s pe c i f i c a l l y f i t t i ng i nt o t he c a t e gor y of l ow s oc i o e c onom i c s t a t us ( S E S ) m i ddl e S E S a nd hi gh S E S T he n t he l i s t o f s c hool s w a s s e nt t o t he F C R R f or f ur t he r r e du c t i on A s t udy a dm i ni s t r a t or a t t he F C R R e nt e r e d

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48 t hos e 50 s c hool s i nt o a da t a ba s e c ont a i ni ng t he S E S l e ve l s of e ve r y s c hool i n t he r e s pe c t i ve c ount y i n or de r t o c hoos e a n e l e m e nt a r y m i ddl e a n d h i gh s c hool i n t he hi gh m i ddl e a nd l ow S E S r a nge s ( G r e a t S c hool s 2003) O ne hi gh S E S one m i ddl e S E S a nd one l ow S E S l e ve l s c hool w a s c hos e n a t e a c h of t h e e l e m e nt a r y, m i dd l e a nd hi gh s c hool l e ve l s B a c kup s c hool s a l s o w e r e c hos e n f or e a c h c ount y i n t he c a s e t ha t t he s e l e c t e d s c hool pe r s onne l w e r e not i nt e r e s t e d i n pa r t i c i pa t i n g i n t he s t udy. T he B r ow a r d a nd L e on c ount y s i t e s us e d s i m i l a r p r oc e dur e s t o s hor t e n t he i r l i s t s of s c hool s but s e l e c t e d t he i r f i na l s c hool s ba s e d pr i m a r i l y on e t hni c i t y a nd s e c onda r i l y on t he S E S c om pos i t i on of t he s c hool A l l t hr e e di s t r i c t s de c i de d on one s c hool w i t h a l ow S E S popul a t i on, one s c hool w i t h a m i ddl e S E S po pul a t i on, a nd one s c hool w i t h a hi gh S E S popul a t i on a t e a c h o f t he e l e m e nt a r y, m i ddl e a nd hi gh s c hool l e ve l s A f t e r e a c h uni ve r s i t y r e pr e s e nt a t i ve r e c e i ve d I R B a ppr ova l t h e y c ont a c t e d t he bui l di ng pr i nc i pa l s t o r e que s t pa r t i c i pa t i on, a nd i n s om e c a s e s e m a i l e d a s t udy s um m a r y s t a t e m e nt A t e a c h s c hool t he pr i nc i pa l de c i de d how t o di s t r i but e i nf o r m e d c ons e nt f or m s A l l t hi r d a nd s e ve nt h gr a de s t ude nt s a t e a c h s c hool r e c e i ve d c ons e nt f or m s f r om t he i r t e a c he r s a nd t hos e w hos e pa r e nt s a gr e e d f or t he i r c hi l d r e n t o be i nvol ve d s i gne d a nd r e t ur ne d t he c ons e nt f or m s O nl y s t ude nt s w i t h s i gne d c ons e nt f or m s w e r e a bl e t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s s t udy. A t e a c h hi gh s c hool t he a s s i s t a nt pr i nc i pa l or t he r e a di ng s pe c i a l i s t w a s c ont a c t e d a nd gi ve n t he c ons e nt f o r m s t o d i s t r i but e t o r e a di n g a nd E ngl i s h t e a c he r s f or t he i r t e nt h gr a de s t ude nt s O nl y t hos e t e nt h gr a de s t ude nt s t h a t r e t ur ne d t he i r s i gne d c ons e nt f or m s w e r e e l i gi bl e t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy. D at a C ol l e c t or s / R e c r ui t m e nt and T r ai ni ng E a c h u ni ve r s i t y us e d s i m i l a r m e t hods f or r e c r ui t i ng da t a c ol l e c t or s S pe c i f i c a l l y, a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da da t a

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49 c ol l e c t or s w e r e s ought t hr ough e m a i l a nd f l ye r s a r ound t he C ol l e ge of E duc a t i on a nd D e pa r t m e nt of P s yc hol ogy. T he s t ude nt s w ho w e r e i nt e r e s t e d w e r e i nt e r v i e w e d by t he uni ve r s i t y r e pr e s e nt a t i ve T he da t a c ol l e c t or s t ha t w e r e c hos e n a t t he U ni ve r s i t y o f S ou t h F l or i da c ons i s t e d of t w o unde r gr a dua t e ps yc hol og y m a j or s s i x gr a dua t e s t ude nt s e nr ol l e d i n P h. D p r ogr a m s i n s c hool ps yc hol ogy, one g r a dua t e s t ude nt e nr ol l e d i n a P h D pr ogr a m i n C ur r i c ul um a nd I ns t r uc t i on w i t h a n e m pha s i s i n S pe c i a l E duc a t i on, a nd f i ve gr a d ua t e s t ude nt s e nr ol l e d i n a n A ppl i e d B e ha vi or A na l ys i s M a s t e r s P r ogr a m D a t a c ol l e c t or s f r om e a c h c ount y w e r e pa i d by t he F C R R T he y w e r e t r a i ne d t o a dm i ni s t e r a ba t t e r y of a s s e s s m e nt t ool s i nc l udi ng t he M R P du r i ng t w o, s i x hour s e s s i ons by r e s e a r c he r s i n vol ve d w i t h t he F C A T s t udy f r om t h e F C R R O n t he t r a i ni ng da y f or e a c h c ount y, da t a c ol l e c t or s w e r e t r a i ne d t o us e e a c h a s s e s s m e nt t ool ha d a n oppo r t uni t y t o pr a c t i c e a dm i ni s t e r i ng e a c h t ool a nd w e r e a l l ow e d t i m e f o r que s t i ons T he y w e r e t he n gi ve n one c om pl e t e t e nt h gr a de pr o t oc ol one t r a i ni ng m a nua l a nd one t e s t ki t w i t h a s t opw a t c h i nc l ude d. T he y w e r e a l s o i nf o r m e d a bou t t he i m po r t a nc e of t he F C A T a nd t he pr oc e s s f or a dm i ni s t e r i ng t he M R P i n s c hool s t o t h i r d, s e ve nt h, a nd t e nt h gr a de s t ude nt s D at a C ol l e c t i on. E a c h da t a c ol l e c t or w a s gi ve n on e or m o r e s c hool s a s da t a c ol l e c t i on s i t e s T he y a s s e s s e d t he pa r t i c i pa nt s dur i ng s c hool hour s w i t hi n t he m ont hs o f A pr i l a nd M a y i n t he ye a r of 2003. T he t e s t i ng t oo k a ppr oxi m a t e l y t w o hour s a nd t he da t a c ol l e c t or ha d t he c hoi c e t o do one t w o hour s e s s i on or s pl i t t he a s s e s s m e nt i nt o t w o, one hour s e s s i ons A l t hough t he r e w a s a p r e s c r i be d a r r a nge m e nt o f t e s t s t he e xa m i ne r c oul d gi ve t he m i n a ny o r de r T he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e r e m ove d f r om t he i r c l a s s r oom s by t he e xa m i ne r a nd e s c or t e d i nt o a t e s t i ng r oom T he e xa m i ne r t he n e x pl a i ne d t he s t udy t o t he pa r t i c i pa nt s

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50 a nd t ha t i t w a s onl y vol unt a r y a nd t he n a s ke d f or t he i r a s s e nt T he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d t o or a l l y gi ve t he i r a ns w e r s t o e a c h of t he qu e s t i ons on t he M R P T he ot he r i ns t r um e nt s w e r e f i l l e d out i ndi v i dua l l y by t he s e ve nt h a nd t e nt h g r a de s t ude nt s but w e r e r e a d a l oud f o r t he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s T he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e gi ve n no t i m e l i m i t t o c om pl e t e t he i ns t r um e nt s A f t e r t he pa r t i c i pa nt ha d f i ni s he d, he / s he w a s e s c or t e d ba c k t o hi s / he r r e s pe c t i ve c l a s s r oom by t he e xa m i ne r O nc e pe r w e e k, t he da t a c ol l e c t or s t u r ne d i n t he c o m pl e t e d pr ot oc ol s i nt o t he uni ve r s i t y r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s T he uni ve r s i t y r e p r e s e nt a t i ve s e nt e r e d t he da t a i nt o a da t a ba s e a nd t he n t he da t a w e r e s e nt t o t he F C R R t o or ga ni z e i n a m a i n da t a ba s e f or f ur t he r us e T w o r e s e a r c he r s a t t he F C R R c om pl e t e d i nt e r r a t e r c he c ks on a l l i nc om i ng da t a a nd a s e ni or r e s e a r c he r s e t t l e d a ny di s c r e pa nc y be t w e e n t he s i t e r a t e d pr ot oc ol a nd t he r e s e a r c he r r a t e d pr ot oc ol by r e s c or i ng t he pr ot oc ol T h i s pr oc e dur e i nd i c a t e s t ha t t he da t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d i n a s ys t e m a t i c m a nne r T he F C A T w a s gi ve n e a r l i e r i n t he ye a r t hr oughout M a r c h dur i ng r e gul a r s c hool hour s R e s e ar c h D e s i gn T o i l l us t r a t e t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he s a m pl e t he g r oup w a s de s c r i be d by gr a de l e ve l ge nde r a nd e t hni c i t y A ddi t i ona l l y, de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s i nc l udi ng t he m e a n a nd s t a nda r d de vi a t i on f or t he M ot i va t i on t o R e a d P r of i l e a nd t he F C A T a r e i nc l ude d by gr a de l e ve l ge nde r a nd e t hni c i t y. W i t hi n t he s t udy, t he pa r t i c ul a r va r i a bl e s be i ng e xa m i ne d, gr a de ge nde r e t hni c i t y, m ot i va t i on t o r e a d, a nd F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt w e r e a na l yz e d t hr ough a m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on. F i na l l y, t he r e gr e s s i on w a s a s s e s s e d t o de t e r m i ne t he r e l a t i ons hi p of e a c h p r e di c t or va r i a bl e t o t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt

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51 C ha pt e r F our R e s ul t s T he pr e s e nt s t udy w a s de ve l ope d t o e xa m i ne t he r e l a t i ons hi p a m ong va r i ous l e a r ne r c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s s uc h a s gr a de ge nde r e t hni c i t y, m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s m e a s ur e d by t he F C A T T w o s pe c i f i c r e s e a r c h que s t i ons w e r e i nve s t i ga t e d i n t hi s s t udy: 1) w ha t i s t h e r e l a t i ons hi p a m ong t he i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e s or va r i ous l e a r ne r c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s g r a de ge nde r e t hni c i t y, a nd m o t i va t i on t o r e a d w i t h t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e l e ve l o f r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s m e a s ur e d by t he F C A T a nd 2 ) w hi c h i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e gr a de ge nde r e t hni c i t y, or m ot i va t i on t o r e a d ha s t he s t r onge s t r e l a t i ons hi p t o t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s m e a s ur e d b y t he F C A T w i l l be di s c us s e d i n t hi s c ha pt e r D e s c r i pt i v e I nf or m at i on T he i nf o r m a t i on obt a i ne d t o a ddr e s s t he s e r e s e a r c h que s t i ons w a s pr ovi de d by s ur ve yi ng a r a ndom s a m pl e o f t hi r d, s e ve nt h, a nd t e nt h gr a de s t ude nt s f r om B r ow a r d, H i l l s bor ough, a nd L e on C ount i e s O f t he i ni t i a l 63 0 pa r t i c i pa nt s 585 w e r e e l i gi bl e t o i nc l ude due t o m i s s i ng da t a T he f a c t t ha t t he r e a r e m i s s i ng s t ude nt da t a due t o a bs e nc e s dur i ng F C A T a dm i ni s t r a t i on o r i nc om pl e t e s ur ve y c om pl e t i on, m e a n s t ha t t he r e s ul t s of t h i s s t udy s houl d be i nt e r p r e t e d c a ut i ous l y. T a bl e 3 i nc l ude s t he de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s i nc l udi ng t he m e a n, s t a nda r d de vi a t i on, r a nge s ke w ne s s a nd kur t os i s f or t he M ot i va t i on t o R e a d P r of i l e a nd T a bl e 4 i nc l ude s

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52 t he de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s i nc l udi ng t he m e a n, s t a nda r d de vi a t i on, r a nge s ke w ne s s a nd kur t os i s f or r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s m e a s ur e d by t he F C A T T he s e va r i a bl e s a r e de s c r i be d i n A ppe ndi x A by g r a de l e ve l ge nde r a nd e t hni c i t y. T he g r oup c l a s s i f i e d a s M i xe d or O t he r E t hni c i t i e s w a s t oo s m a l l t o be a bl e t o a de qua t e l y c om pa r e i t s a na l ys e s t o t he ot he r g r oups T a bl e 3 D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s f or t he M ot i va t i on t o R e a d P r of i l e ( N = 576) M S D R a nge S ke w ne s s K ur t os i s 68. 06 7. 707 41 396 174 N ot e T he s c or e s f or t he M ot i va t i on t o R e a d P r of i l e r a nge d f r o m 43 t o 84 L ow s c or e s r e pr e s e nt e d l ow m ot i va t i on t o r e a d w hi l e hi gh s c or e s r e pr e s e nt e d hi gh m ot i va t i on t o r e a d T a bl e 4 D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s f or F C A T S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r d S c or e s ( N = 571) M S D R a nge S ke w ne s s K ur t os i s 312. 25 56. 063 400 1 06 1. 420 I n T a bl e 4 S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r d s c a l e d s c or e s a r e r e por t e d T he c onve r s i on of t he s e s c or e s i nt o a c hi e ve m e nt l e ve l s a r e pr e s e nt e d i n A ppe ndi x B F or t ypi c a l a c hi e ve m e nt r e por t s l e ve l s a r e r e por t e d f r om 1, l o w t o 5 hi gh T he pr opo r t i on o f s t ude nt s i n t he s a m pl e a t e a c h a c hi e ve m e nt l e ve l a c r os s gr a de s i s i l l us t r a t e d i n T a bl e 5 T he s e pr opor t i ons a r e c ons i s t e nt w i t h t he ove r a l l F l or i da s t ude nt popul a t i on a t t he s a m e gr a de s

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53 T a bl e 5 F C A T a c hi e ve m e nt l e ve l f r e que nc i e s a c r os s a l l c ount i e s a nd gr a d e l e ve l s ( N = 585) F C A T A c hi e ve m e nt L e ve l n % 1 125 21. 4 2 135 23. 1 3 146 25. 0 4 124 21. 2 5 41 7 0 M i s s i ng 14 2 4 M ul t i pl e R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s M ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s a r e ba s e d on s e ve r a l a s s um pt i ons T he da t a w e r e s c r e e ne d a nd a n a s s e s s m e nt of e a c h a s s um pt i on w a s m a de T he f i r s t a s s um pt i on i s t ha t t he r e i s a l a r ge e nough s a m pl e s i z e S t e ve ns ( 1999) r e c om m e nds t ha t f o r s oc i a l s c i e nc e r e s e a r c h, a bout f i f t e e n s ubj e c t s pe r pr e di c t o r va r i a bl e a r e ne e de d. I n t hi s s t udy t he r e w e r e f our p r e di c t or va r i a bl e s w hi c h r e qui r e d 60 t ot a l pa r t i c i pa nt s t o be us e d f o r t he a na l ys i s t o be r e l i a bl e T hi s s t udy ha d a s a m pl e s i z e of 585 pa r t i c i pa nt s w hi c h di d no t vi ol a t e t hi s a s s um pt i on. N e xt m ul t i c ol l i ne a r i t y a nd s i ngul a r i t y w e r e e xa m i ne d. M ul t i c ol l i ne a r i t y i s pr e s e nt w he n t he i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e s a r e hi ghl y c or r e l a t e d a t 9 a nd a bove ( P a l l a nt 2001) T o t e s t f or m ul t i c ol l i ne a r i t y i nt e r c or r e l a t i o ns w e r e e xa m i ne d be t w e e n t he pr e di c t or va r i a bl e s ( s e e T a bl e 6) S i nc e no i nt e r c or r e l a t i ons of 90 o r hi ghe r w e r e f ound, t hi s a s s um pt i on di d not a ppe a r t o be v i ol a t e d. S i ng ul a r i t y oc c ur s w he n one i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e i s a c t ua l l y a c om bi na t i on of ot he r i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e s ( P a l l a nt 2001) N one of

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54 t he i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e s i n t h i s s t udy w e r e a c om bi na t i on of a ny of t he ot he r i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e s a nd t he r e f o r e t hi s a s s um pt i on di d not a ppe a r t o be vi ol a t e d e i t he r A n e xa m i na t i on of s c a t t e r pl ot s r e ve a l e d l i ne a r r e l a t i ons hi ps a m ong t he va r i a bl e s a nd not hi ng i n t he d e s i gn of t he s t udy w oul d l e a d r e s e a r c he r s t o que s t i on t he i nde pe nde nc e of t he r e s i dua l s T o e xa m i ne t he ho m os c e da s t i c i t y a s s um pt i on t he r e s i dua l s w e r e pl ot t e d w i t h t he pr e di c t e d va l ue s T hi s a s s um pt i on di d not a ppe a r t o be vi ol a t e d T he r e s i dua l s w e r e a l s o f ound t o be a ppr oxi m a t e l y nor m a l l y di s t r i but e d. O ut l i e r s w e r e s c r e e ne d f or us i ng s t a nda r di z e d r e s i dua l s T he m a xi m u m va l ue s f ound w e r e 4. 238 a nd 3. 590 r e s pe c t i ve l y. T a ba c h ni c k a nd F i de l l ( 1996) de f i ne ou t l i e r s a s c a s e s t ha t ha ve a s t a nda r di z e d r e s i dua l of m or e t ha n 3. 3 o r l e s s t ha n 3 3. W i t h l a r ge s a m pl e s s uc h a s 565, i t i s not unc om m on t o f i nd a num be r of out l yi ng r e s i dua l s ( P a l l a nt 2001) T hi s l e a ds t o t he be l i e f t ha t none o f t he c a s e s a r e ha vi ng a n undo i nf l ue nc e on t he r e gr e s s i on a na l ys i s A n i n t e r na l c ons i s t e nc y r e l i a bi l i t y e s t i m a t e of t he c ont i nuous pr e di c t or w a s 83 f o r m ot i va t i on t o r e a d, l e a di ng t o t he c onc l us i on t ha t t he m e a s ur e m e nt e r r or i s r e l a t i ve l y s m a l l F i na l l y t he pr e di c t or s c a n not be c ons i de r e d f i xe d, but r e gr e s s i on i s r obus t t o v i o l a t i ons of t hi s a s s um pt i on. I n s um m a r y, ba s e d on t he s c r e e ni ng of t he da t a i t a ppe a r e d a ppr opr i a t e t o p r oc e e d w i t h t he r e gr e s s i on a nd e xa m i ne i t s r e s ul t s a s va l i d. T he f i r s t r e s e a r c h que s t i on w a s de ve l ope d t o a ddr e s s t he r e l a t i ons hi p a m ong t he i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e s or va r i ous l e a r ne r c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s gr a de ge nde r e t hni c i t y a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d w i t h t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e l e v e l of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s m e a s ur e d by t he F C A T T o a na l yz e t hi s r e l a t i ons hi p i nt e r c o r r e l a t i ons w e r e e xa m i ne d ( T a bl e 6) a n d a m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on w a s c onduc t e d, us i ng t he S t a t i s t i c a l P a c ka ge f or t he

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55 S oc i a l S c i e nc e s ( S P S S 2003 ) M ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on pr e di c t s t he a m ount o f va r i a nc e a c c ount e d f or i n one va r i a bl e by a s e t o f pr e di c t o r s ( S t e ve ns 1999 ) T he de m ogr a phi c o r p r e di c t or va r i a bl e s of m ot i va t i on t o r e a d, g r a de ge nde r a nd A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n e t hni c i t y s t a t us H i s pa ni c e t hni c i t y s t a t us a nd M i xe d e t hni c i t y s t a t us w e r e e nt e r e d i nt o t he m ul t i p l e r e gr e s s i on. B y l e a vi ng out C a uc a s i a n e t hni c i t y s t a t us i t be c om e s t he c om pa r i s on va r i a bl e a nd t he r e s ul t s of t he r e gr e s s i on f o r a l l ot he r e t hn i c i t i e s a r e i n c om pa r i s on t o C a uc a s i a n e t hni c i t y s t a t us E a c h e t hni c i t y w a s dum m y c ode d w i t h m i nor i t y s t a t us a s one a nd C a uc a s i a n s t a t us a s z e r o. T he r e f or e i n t he a na l ys i s t hos e w i t h hi ghe r s c o r e s on t he e t hni c i t y va r i a bl e w e r e t hos e f r om a m i nor i t y c ul t ur e A ddi t i ona l l y m i s s i ng da t a w e r e a c c ount e d f or i n t he r e gr e s s i on by e xc l udi ng c a s e s pa i r w i s e T hi s m e a ns t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s da t a w e r e onl y us e d i n t he a na l ys i s i f t he r e w e r e no m i s s i ng va l ue s f or t he va r i a bl e s c om pa r e d. T he pa r t i c i pa nt m a y ha ve m i s s i ng va l ue s f or va r i a b l e s us e d i n ot he r a na l ys e s ( P a l l a nt 2001) C or r e l a t i on pr oc e dur e s w e r e us e d pr i or t o c onduc t i ng t he m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys i s t o de t e r m i ne how a nd t o w ha t de gr e e t he pr e di c t or va r i a bl e s w e r e r e l a t e d. C or r e l a t i on da t a i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n t he va r i a bl e s r a nge d f r om 012 t o 357 T he s e r e s ul t s a r e s how n i n T a bl e 6

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56 T a bl e 6 I nt e r c or r e l a t i ons f o r R e a di ng A c hi e ve m e nt a nd P r e di c t or V a r i a bl e s ( N = 565 ) V a r i a bl e 1 2 3 4 5 6 F C A T S S S s c a l e d s c or e 236** 012 027 353** 002 084 P r e di c t or V a r i a bl e s 1. M ot i va t i on t o R e a d 357** 175** 069 040 021 2. G r a de L e ve l 041 047 094* 032 3. G e nde r 092* 049 012 4. A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n 350** 146** 5. H i s pa ni c 088* 6. M i xe d p < 05 ** p < 01 W he n t he m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys i s w a s c onduc t e d t he obt a i ne d R va l ue w a s 215, s ugge s t i ng a bout 21. 5% of t he va r i a nc e i n r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt w a s a c c ount a b l e by t he s e t of p r e di c t or s C ohe n s ( 1992) e f f e c t s i z e f = R / ( 1 R ) w a s c om put e d t o be 27, w hi c h c a n be i nt e r p r e t e d a s a m e di um t o l a r ge e f f e c t us i ng C ohe n s r ough gui de l i ne s ( 02 s m a l l 15 m e di um 35 l a r ge )

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57 T a bl e 7 M ul t i pl e R e g r e s s i on S um m a r y f or V a r i a bl e s P r e di c t i ng F C A T V a r i a bl e B S E B M ot i va t i on t o R e a d 2. 076 296 287** G r a de L e ve l 1 631 780 084* G e nde r 1. 365 4. 329 012 A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n 48. 591 4. 768 418** H i s pa ni c 20. 520 5. 994 139** M i xe d 2. 164 1 1 644 007 N ot e R = 215 ( N = 565 p < 001) p < 05 ** p < 01. E qua t i on: r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt = 183. 621 + 2 076 m ot i va t i on t o r e a d + 1. 631*g r a de l e ve l + 1 365*ge nde r + 48. 591*A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n + 20 520* H i s pa ni c + 2 164* M i xe d T he r e s ul t s of t h e m ul t i p l e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys e s a r e f ound i n T a bl e 7 I n t hi s t a bl e t he f i r s t c ol um n l i s t s t he i nde pe nde nt p r e di c t or va r i a bl e s T he ne xt c ol u m ns r e por t t he uns t a nda r di z e d c oe f f i c i e nt s ( B ) t he s t a nda r d e r r or of B a nd t he be t a s a nd t he s i gni f i c a nc e l e ve l s T he s e va l ue s a r e f ol l ow e d by t he pr e di c t i on e qua t i on T hus i f t w o s t ude nt s a r e c om pa r e d w ho a r e i n t he s a m e g r a de a nd ha ve t he s a m e ge nde r a nd e t hni c i t y, t hos e w i t h one poi nt hi ghe r m ot i va t i on t o r e a d s c or e s w oul d be pr e di c t e d t o ha ve 2. 076 poi nt s hi ghe r on t he i r r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t or on t he S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r d F C A T r e a di ng s c a l e d s c or e S i m i l a r l y i f t w o s t ude nt s on e C a uc a s i a n a nd one A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, a r e c om pa r e d w ho a r e i n t he s a m e gr a d e a nd ha ve t he s a m e ge nde r a nd

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58 m ot i va t i on t o r e a d s c or e t hos e w ho a r e A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n w oul d be p r e di c t e d t o ha ve 48. 591 poi nt s l ow e r on t he i r r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t or on t he S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r d F C A T r e a di ng s c a l e d s c or e T he r e gr e s s i on c oe f f i c i e nt s f or m ot i va t i on t o r e a d, gr a de l e ve l a nd A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t a t us a nd H i s pa ni c s t a t us a r e a l l s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt ( t ( 565) = 7. 0 24, p < 001, t ( 565 ) = 2 092, p = 037 t ( 565) = 10. 191 p < 001, a nd t ( 565) = 3. 424, p = 001 r e s pe c t i ve l y) H ow e ve r t he r e gr e s s i on c oe f f i c i e nt f or ge nde r a nd M i xe d s t a t us w a s not s i gni f i c a nt ( t ( 565 ) = 315 p = 753 a nd t ( 565) = 186 p = 853, r e s pe c t i ve l y) T o f u r t he r a na l yz e t he c ont r i but i on of e a c h pr e di c t or va r i a bl e t o t he p r e di c t i on o f r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt t he s t a nda r di z e d r e gr e s s i o n c oe f f i c i e nt s w e r e c a l c ul a t e d. T h e s e c oe f f i c i e nt s i ndi c a t e t ha t a one s t a nda r d de vi a t i on c ha nge i n m ot i va t i on t o r e a d l e a ds t o a 287 s t a nda r d de vi a t i on c ha nge i n p r e di c t e d r e a di n g a c hi e ve m e nt hol di ng gr a de l e ve l ge nde r a nd e t hni c i t y c ons t a nt T he s e c ond r e s e a r c h que s t i on w a s de ve l o pe d t o e x a m i ne w hi c h i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e m ot i va t i on t o r e a d, gr a de ge nde r o r e t hn i c i t y ha s t he s t r onge s t r e l a t i ons hi p t o t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s m e a s ur e d by t he F C A T T o de t e r m i ne t he r e s ul t s of t hi s que s t i on s t a nda r di z e d be t a s w e r e e xa m i ne d f or e a c h of t he pr e di c t o r s B e t a s w i t h a pos i t i ve s i gn i n f r ont of t he m de s c r i be a pos i t i ve pr e di c t i on a nd t hos e w i t h a ne ga t i ve s i gn de s c r i be a ne ga t i ve pr e di c t i on A pos i t i ve pr e di c t i on m e a ns t ha t i f one s c or e goe s u p t he ot he r s c or e w i l l g o up, or a s one s c or e goe s dow n t he ot he r w i l l go dow n. A ne ga t i ve pr e di c t i on m e a ns t ha t a s one s c or e goe s up t he ot he r s c or e w i l l go dow n. A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n e t hni c i t y s t a t us ha s t he hi ghe s t be t a ( = 418 p < 001) w hi c h m e a ns t ha t i t w a s t he s t r onge s t p r e di c t or o f r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd m o t i va t i on t o r e a d ha d t he

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59 s e c ond s t r onge s t r e l a t i ons hi p t o t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ( = 287, p < 001) N e i t he r ge nde r no r M i xe d e t hni c i t y s t a t us s i gni f i c a nt l y pr e di c t e d F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a n d w e r e e qua l l y w e a k pr e di c t o r s B e c a us e A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n e t hni c i t y s t a t us ha d a n e ga t i ve B e t a t hi s i ndi c a t e s t ha t t hos e s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d a s A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n i n t h e a na l ys i s ha d l ow e r F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s t he n C a uc a s i a n pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd t ho s e w ho w e r e C a uc a s i a n ha d hi ghe r F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s t ha n A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n pa r t i c i pa nt s B e c a us e m ot i va t i on t o r e a d ha d a pos i t i ve B e t a t hi s m e a ns t ha t f or t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy, t hos e w i t h hi gh m ot i va t i on t o r e a d s c or e s a l s o ha d hi gh F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s a nd t hos e w i t h l ow m ot i va t i on t o r e a d s c or e s s i m i l a r l y ha d l ow F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s C ont r a s t i ngl y, t he va r i a bl e s o f ge nde r a nd M i xe d e t hni c i t y s t a t us w e r e e qua l l y w e a k pr e di c t or s o f F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt T he s e t w o va r i a bl e s di d not s i gni f i c a nt l y pr e di c t t he l e ve l of F C A T r e a di ng a c h i e ve m e nt t ha t a pa r t i c i pa nt obt a i ne d.

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60 C ha pt e r F i ve D i s c us s i on T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o e xa m i ne t he r e l a t i ons hi p a m ong t he l e a r ne r c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s gr a de ge nde r e t hni c i t y, a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d w i t h r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s m e a s ur e d by t he F C A T A s um m a r y of t he r e s ul t s of t he s t udy a nd t he i r i m pl i c a t i ons f or s c hool ps yc hol ogy a nd c ont r i but i ons t o t he f i e l d of e duc a t i on a r e de s c r i be d i n t hi s c ha pt e r A ddi t i o n a l l y t he de l i m i t a t i ons a nd l i m i t a t i ons of t hi s s t udy, r e c om m e nda t i ons f or f ut ur e r e s e a r c h, a nd c onc l us i ons a r e i nc l ude d Sum m ar y of R e s ul t s R e s e a r c h que s t i on one a ddr e s s e d t he r e l a t i ons hi p a m ong t he i nde pe nde nt v a r i a bl e s gr a de ge nde r e t hni c i t y a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d w i t h t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e l e ve l of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s m e a s ur e d by t he F C A T M ot i va t i on t o r e a d, gr a de l e ve l A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n e t hni c i t y s t a t us a nd H i s pa ni c e t hni c i t y s t a t us w he n c om pa r e d t o C a uc a s i a n e t hni c i t y s t a t us w e r e s i gni f i c a nt s t a t i s t i c a l pr e di c t or s of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd a c c ount e d f or 21 5% of t he t ot a l va r i a nc e B ot h m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a nd gr a de l e ve l ha d s i gni f i c a nt pos i t i ve r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt w hi l e bot h A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a nd H i s pa ni c e t hni c i t y s t a t us ha d s i gni f i c a nt ne ga t i ve r e l a t i ons hi ps A l t hough a l l o f t he s e va r i a bl e s ha d s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e a t t he 05 l e ve l onl y t he A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n e t hni c i t y s t a t us a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d pr e di c t o r s de m ons t r a t e d pr a c t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e T he s e t w o va r i a bl e s ha d B e t a s s t r onge r t ha n 25 w hi c h i s t he va l ue

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61 m os t c om m onl y f ound f or t he s e pr e di c t or s i n pa s t r e s e a r c h ( B ong, 20 01; D i P e r na & E l l i ot 2002; G a m br e l l e t a l 1996 b; M c K e nna e t a l 1995 ) T he f i ndi ng of m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a s a s i gni f i c a nt p os i t i ve pr e di c t or o f F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt s ugge s t s t ha t c hi l dr e n i n t hi s s t udy w ho w e r e m os t m ot i va t e d t o r e a d a l s o ha d t he hi ghe s t F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s T he s e r e s ul t s a r e c ons i s t e nt w i t h pa s t r e s e a r c h i n w hi c h m ot i va t i on t o r e a d ha s be e n f ound t o be s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o va r i ous ot he r hi gh s t a ke s t e s t s of r e a di ng a c h i e ve m e nt ( B ong, 20 01 ; D i P e r na & E l l i ot 2002; G a m br e l l e t a l 1996 b; M c K e nna e t a l 199 5) B e c a us e t he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy a r e c ons i s t e nt w i t h pa s t r e s e a r c h, a m or e de pe nda bl e r e l a t i ons hi p c a n be s uppor t e d be t w e e n t he c ons t r uc t s of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a nd e duc a t or s c a n de s i gn pur pos e f ul i nt e r ve nt i ons t o i nc l ude t he s e va r i a bl e s T he s i gni f i c a nc e of t he gr a de l e ve l pr e di c t or i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he g r a de i n w h i c h t he s t ude nt w a s i n, a t a l l l e ve l s a f t e r e nt e r i ng t he ot he r pr e di c t or s pr e di c t e d t he l e v e l of F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt T hi s r e s ul t w a s c ongr ue nt t o t he f i ndi ngs of D i P e r na e t a l ( 2002) but i nc ons i s t e nt w i t h t he f i ndi ngs f ound by D i a m ond a nd O nw ue gbuz i e ( 2001 ) T he r e s ul t s of t he pr e s e nt s t udy i m pl y t ha t t he gr a d e l e ve l of e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt de t e r m i ne d t he l e ve l of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt t ha t t he y obt a i ne d T he hi ghe r t he gr a de l e ve l t ha t t he pa r t i c i pa nt w a s i n, t he hi ghe r F C A T a c hi e ve m e nt s t a nda r d s c or e t he y obt a i ne d. A t e a c h gr a de l e ve l t he F C A T a s s e s s e s di f f e r e nt s ki l l s T h i s m a y s ugge s t t ha t s t ude nt s a t l ow e r gr a de s m a y not be a c hi e vi ng a hi gh gr a de on t he F C A T but t hr oughout t he i r ye a r s of s c hool i ng t he y a c qui r e a w i de r a m ount o f know l e d ge a nd t e s t t a k i ng s ki l l s t o r e c e i ve hi ghe r s c or e s A l t e r na t i ve l y t hi s m a y s ugge s t t ha t t he s t ude nt s w ho a r e pe r f o r m i ng a t t he l ow e s t l e ve l s on t he F C A T a t t he l ow e r gr a de s m a y be dr oppi ng out o f s c hool by t he t i m e

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62 t ha t t he y ge t t o t he t e nt h gr a de T h i s w oul d m e a n t ha t s t ude nt s t a ki ng t he F C A T i n t he t e nt h gr a de m a y no t be r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of t he s t ude nt s t ha t a r e t a ki ng t he F C A T i n t he t hi r d a nd s e ve nt h gr a de s T he i nc ons i s t e nc y w i t h pa s t r e s e a r c h e xa m i ni ng t hi s c ons t r uc t of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a c r os s gr a de i ndi c a t e s t ha t m or e r e s e a r c h i s ne e de d i n t hi s a r e a G r a de a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ha ve be e n e xa m i n e d i n m os t ot he r s t udi e s ut i l i z i ng e l e m e nt a r y a nd m i ddl e s c hool a ge d c hi l dr e n ( D i a m ond & O nw ue gbuz i e 2001; D i P e r na & E l l i o t 2002; D i P e r na e t a l 2002; P unge l l o e t a l 1996 ) T he s i gni f i c a nc e of t he gr a de l e ve l pr e di c t or o f r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt w i t hi n t he p r e s e nt s t udy of pa r t i c i pa nt s w i t h t he i nc l us i on of hi gh s c h ool a ge d s t ude nt s s ugge s t s t ha t t he l ow e r l e ve l F C A T e xa m i na t i ons m a y be t e s t i ng s ki l l s t ha t s t ude nt s a r e not p r of i c i e n t i n unt i l hi ghe r gr a de s A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a nd H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s ha d s i gni f i c a nt l y l ow e r r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s c om pa r e d t o C a uc a s i a n s t ude n t s T hi s f i ndi ng o f e t hni c i t y r e l a t e d t o r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt i s c ons i s t e nt w i t h pa s t r e s e a r c h on ot he r m e a s ur e s of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ( D i a m ond & O nw ue gbuz i e 2001; G r a ha m 1994; P unge l l o e t a l 1996; S t e e l e & A r ons on, 1995) A l t hough pa s t r e s e a r c h h a s s how n t ha t e t hni c i t y i s r e l a t e d t o r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt f e w s t udi e s ha ve e xa m i ne d m i nor i t y s t ude nt s ot he r t ha n A f r i c a n A m e r i c a ns T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy a d d t o t he l i t e r a t ur e be c a us e now a r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a nd H i s pa ni c e t hni c i t y s t a t us w i t h F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ha s be e n i nt r oduc e d F u t ur e r e s e a r c h w i l l ne e d t o i nve s t i ga t e t hi s f ur t he r t o e s t a bl i s h c ons i s t e nt t r e nd s M or e ove r t he s e r e s ul t s ha ve a v e r y i m por t a nt i m pl i c a t i on T he s e r e s ul t s s ugge s t t ha t m i nor i t y s t ude nt s a s a g r oup a r e pe r f or m i ng w or s e t ha n m a j or i t y s t ude nt s on hi gh s t a ke s m e a s ur e s of r e a di ng a c hi e v e m e nt T hi s m a y oc c ur due t o r e a s ons s uc h a s t e s t bi a s or una c c ount e d f or m ode r a t i ng va r i a bl e s s uc h a s s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us

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63 ( S E S ) I n t he c ur r e nt s t udy dur i ng e xpl or a t o r y a na l ys e s w he n S E S w a s a dde d i n t o t he r e gr e s s i on, i t w a s f ound t o s i gni f i c a nt l y ne ga t i ve l y pr e di c t F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt m e a ni ng t ha t t hos e s t ude nt s c ons i de r e d l ow S E S a nd c ode d a s a 2 o r 3 ( f r e e a nd r e duc e d l unc h, r e s pe c t i ve l y) ha d s i gni f i c a nt l y l ow e r F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s T hi s f a c t or i s i m po r t a nt t o e xa m i ne i n t hi s s t udy be c a us e a l t hough on l y 36 % o f t he t ot a l s a m pl e w a s c ons i de r e d l ow S E S 16% of t he C a uc a s i a n s t ude nt s ove r ha l f ( 59% ) of t he A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s a nd 40% of t he H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s s a m pl e d w e r e of l ow S E S T hi s m e a ns t ha t due t o t he s i gni f i c a nt l y l a r ge r p or t i on of t he A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a nd H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s c a t e gor i z e d a s l ow S E S t he va r i a bl e of S E S m a y ha ve c ont r i bu t e d t o t he i r l ow e r s c or e s on t he F C A T a nd not t he i r e t hni c s t a t us F a m i l i e s t ha t ha ve l ow s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us m a y not ha ve t he ne c e s s a r y r e s our c e s i n t he hom e or i n t he n e i ghbor hood s c hool t o a l l ow t he i r c hi l d r e n t o l e a r n t he m a t e r i a l ne e de d t o de m ons t r a t e pr of i c i e nc y on hi gh s t a ke s t e s t s of r e a di ng ( M ol f e s e M odgl i n, & M ol f e s e 2003 ) C ons e que nt l y, t he r e s ul t s of t he pr e s e nt s t udy ne e d t o be i nt e r pr e t e d c a ut i o us l y I n c ont r a s t t he t w o r e m a i ni ng p r e di c t or va r i a bl e s ge nde r a nd M i xe d e t hni c i t y w he n c om pa r e d t o C a uc a s i a n e t hni c i t y w e r e not s i gni f i c a nt pr e di c t or s o f F C A T S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r ds s c a l e d s c or e s C ons i s t e nt w i t h t he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy, F l ynn a nd R a hba r ( 1994) f ound t ha t ge nde r w a s not s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o r e a di ng a c hi e v e m e nt H ow e ve r D i a m ond a nd O nw ue gbuz i e ( 2001) a nd P unge l l o e t a l ( 1996 ) i n pr e vi ous s t udi e s f ound ge nde r t o be a s i gni f i c a nt p r e di c t or o f r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt m e a s ur e d w i t h o t he r i ns t r um e nt s T he r e s ul t s of t he pr e s e nt s t udy m a y h a ve di f f e r e d w i t h pa s t r e s e a r c h due t o t he c onf l i c t i ng e t hni c c om pos i t i on of t he s a m pl e s T he pr e s e nt e xa m i na t i on us e d a ve r y di ve r s e s a m pl e of s t ude nt s i nc l udi ng 41% C a uc a s i a n, 37% A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, a nd 17%

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64 H i s pa ni c a nd t he y w e r e s pr e a d t hr oughou t t hi r d, s e ve nt h, a nd t e nt h gr a de s B ot h t he P unge l l o e t a l ( 1996 ) a nd t he D i a m ond a nd O nw u e gbuz i e ( 2001) s t udi e s us e d l e s s di ve r s e s a m pl e s P unge l l o e t a l ( 1996) us e d a l ong i t udi na l s a m pl e of 60% C a uc a s i a n a nd 40% A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s i n e l e m e nt a r y a nd m i ddl e s c hool a nd t he D i a m ond a nd O nw ue gbuz i e ( 2001) s t udy us e d a s a m pl e o f 77 % A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a nd 23 % C a uc a s i a n s t ude nt s t ha t i nc l ude d s t ude nt s i n K i nde r ga r t e n t hr ough f i f t h gr a de B e c a us e no s t udi e s w e r e f ound t ha t e xa m i ne d t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n M i xe d e t hni c i t y a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt i t w a s hypot he s i z e d t ha t t he l ow s a m pl e s i z e f or t he M i xe d e t hni c i t y g r oup ( n = 4 o r l e s s ) undoubt e dl y r e duc e d i t s pr e di c t i ve p ow e r R e s e a r c h que s t i on t w o a ddr e s s e d w hi c h i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e gr a de ge nde r e t hni c i t y, or m ot i va t i on t o r e a d ha d t he s t r onge s t r e l a t i ons hi p t o t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt I n t hi s s t udy A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n e t hni c i t y s t a t us w a s f ound t o be t he s t r onge s t pr e di c t or of F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s A s t r ong l i nk be t w e e n e t hni c i t y a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ha s be e n obs e r v e d on m os t ot he r hi gh s t a ke s t e s t s o f r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ( D i a m ond & O nw ue gbuz i e 2 001; G r a ha m 1994; P unge l l o e t a l 1996; S t e e l e & A r ons on, 1995 ) T he s e s t udi e s ha ve a l s o s how n a s t r ong l i nk be t w e e n S E S l e ve l a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ( D i a m ond & O nw ue gbuz i e 2001) T he s e s t udi e s ha ve c ons i s t e nt l y r e po r t e d t ha t A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s do l e s s w e l l i n r e a di ng t ha n C a uc a s i a n s t ude nt s a nd c hi l dr e n f r om l ow S E S l e ve l hous e hol ds do l e s s w e l l i n r e a di ng t ha n s t ude nt s f r om m i ddl e or hi gh S E S l e ve l hous e hol ds S i m i l a r t o t he pr e s e nt s t udy, s t a nda r di z e d a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t s w e r e us e d t o m e a s ur e r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt i n pa s t r e s e a r c h c i t i ng t hi s t r e nd T he pr e s e nt f i ndi ngs s uppor t t he c ons i s t e n t l i nk be t w e e n A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n e t hni c i t y s t a t us S E S l e ve l a nd hi gh s t a ke s r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t s

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65 a nd s houl d be t a ke n i nt o c a r e f ul c ons i de r a t i on by e duc a t or s us i ng t he s e t e s t s t o m a ke c ul t ur a l l y c om pe t e nt de c i s i ons f or a ny m i no r i t y s t u de nt T he f i ndi ng t ha t t h i s w a s t he s t r onge s t pr e di c t or i s ve r y i m por t a nt t o c ons i de r S uc h a f i ndi ng m e a ns t ha t a bove a l l ot he r va r i a bl e s e xa m i ne d i n t h i s s t udy, A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n e t hni c i t y s t a t us m os t pow e r f ul l y pr e di c t e d r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s on t he F C A T H ow e ve r a s m e nt i one d e a r l i e r t hi s f i nd i ng m a y be a c c ount e d f o r by va r i a bl e s l e f t out of t he de s i gn. L ow S E S ha s be e n s how n i n pa s t r e s e a r c h t o be r e l a t e d t o l ow l e ve l s of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd be c a us e t he A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy ha d a s i gni f i c a nt l y l a r ge r a m ount o f l ow S E S f a m i l i e s t ha n t he C a uc a s i a n s t ude nt s t hi s f i ndi ng ne e ds t o be e xa m i ne d c a ut i ous l y ( D i a m ond & O nw ue gbuz i e 2001 ; P unge l l o e t a l 1996 ) M ot i va t i on t o r e a d w a s f ound t o be t he s e c ond s t r o nge s t pr e di c t or of F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt T h i s l i nk be t w e e n m o t i va t i o n t o r e a d a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt on ot he r s t a nda r di z e d m e a s ur e s ha s be e n s uppor t e d by pa s t r e s e a r c h a nd t he i m p l i c a t i ons of t hi s r e l a t i ons hi p w e r e di s c us s e d e a r l i e r ( B ong, 200 1; D i a m ond & O nw u e gbuz i e e t a l 2001; D i P e r na a nd E l l i o t 2002; G a m br e l l e t a l 19 96b; M c K e nna K e a r a nd E l l s w or t h 1995) T he p r e s e nt f i ndi ng i nd i c a t e s t ha t a bove a l l ot he r pr e di c t or s e xc e pt A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n e t hni c i t y s t a t us i nc l udi ng gr a de ge nde r H i s pa ni c e t hni c i t y s t a t us a nd M i xe d e t hni c i t y s t a t us m ot i va t i on t o r e a d w a s t he s t r onge s t pr e di c t or o f F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e D ue t o t he s t r ong p r e di c t a bi l i t y of m o t i va t i on t o r e a d on F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt t hi s va r i a bl e i s i m p o r t a nt t o a s s e s s w he n w or k i ng w i t h s t ude nt s of l ow r e a di ng a bi l i t y w i t hi n t he F l o r i da s c hool s ys t e m

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66 A ddi t i on a l s uppor t f or t he s e r e s ul t s i nc l ude t ha t t h e di s t r i but i on o f F C A T a c hi e ve m e nt l e ve l s obt a i ne d by t he pr e s e nt s a m pl e pa r a l l e l e d t he di s t r i but i on o f F C A T a c hi e ve m e nt l e ve l s obt a i ne d by t he popul a t i on of F l or i da s t ude nt s i n g r a de s t hr e e s e ve n, a nd t e n dur i ng t he s a m e s c hool ye a r ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on 2004a ) T hus t he di s t r i but i on of a c hi e ve m e nt l e ve l s a c r os s t hi r d, s e ve nt h, a nd t e nt h gr a de s t ude nt s on t he 2002 2003 F C A T m a t c he d t he di s t r i but i on of t hi s s a m pl e I m pl i c at i ons f or Sc hool P s y c hol ogy W i t hi n t he f i e l d of s c hool ps yc hol og y, r e s e a r c he r s a r e a s s e s s i ng t he e f f e c t s of m ot i va t i on t o r e a d on r e a di ng a c hi e v e m e nt T o da t e f e w s t udi e s ha ve i nve s t i ga t e d t he r e l a t i ons hi p of t h i s va r i a bl e a nd F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt T hi s s t udy de m ons t r a t e s t ha t gr a de e t hni c i t y a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d w e r e f oun d t o be s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o t he F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt l i nki ng t he s e r e s ul t s t o pa s t r e s e a r c h i n w hi c h t he s e s a m e v a r i a bl e s w e r e e xa m i ne d i n r e l a t i on t o ot he r t e s t s of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt T he i m pl i c a t i ons of t he s e f i ndi ngs s ugge s t t ha t s c h ool ps yc hol ogi s t s i n F l or i da ne e d t o e xpa nd t he i r e f f o r t s w he n de s i gni ng i nt e r v e nt i ons t o i nc r e a s e bot h m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a nd r e a di ng a bi l i t y. S c hool ps yc hol ogi s t s m us t be m or e a w a r e of t hi s s i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi p a nd a c t i ve l y de s i gn i nt e r ve nt i ons t ha t a ddr e s s bot h s ki l l a nd i nt e r e s t A ddi t i ona l l y, t he f i ndi ngs s ugge s t t ha t i nt e r ve nt i on s m a y ne e d t o be m or e i n t e ns e a nd s e ns i t i ve f or A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a nd H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s or s t ude nt s f r om a l ow S E S hous e hol d due t o t he l ow e r s c o r e s t ha t t he s e gr oup s of s t ude nt s a r e r e c e i vi ng on t he F C A T A f ur t he r i m pl i c a t i on f o r t he f i e l d o f s c hool ps yc hol ogy i s t he us e of t he r e s ul t s of t he pr e s e nt s t udy i n t r a i ni ng p r ogr a m s I f A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a nd H i s pa ni c e t hni c i t y s t a t us S E S l e ve l a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a r e r e pe a t e d l y f o und t o be s uc h s t r ong pr e di c t or s o f

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67 F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt t r a i ni ng pr ogr a m s m i ght w a nt t o a s s i gn a r t i c l e s de ve l op a s s i gnm e nt s a nd de s i gn r e s e a r c h t o e xpl or e t he s e r e l a t i ons hi ps f ur t he r t o e ns ur e t ha t f ut ur e s c hool ps yc hol ogi s t s ha ve t he a bi l i t y t o de s i gn a c a de m i c i nt e r ve nt i ons t a ki ng r e a di ng a bi l i t y, m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a nd e t hni c i t y i n t o a c c ount S c hool ps yc hol ogi s t s ha ve a f ur t he r r ol e of f os t e r i n g a n e nvi r onm e nt i n w hi c h m ot i va t i on a nd a bi l i t y i s a bl e t o t hr i ve A s s e e n by t he r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t ur e m a ny t hi ngs c a n a f f e c t t he l e ve l of m ot i va t i on i n a pa r t i c ul a r s t ude nt ( G a m br e l l 2001 ) S ys t e m i c i s s ue s w i t hi n a s c hool or t he c l i m a t e of a s c hool w i t h a f a i l i ng gr a de a s m e a s ur e d by t he F C A T t he ye a r be f or e m a y not f a c i l i t a t e nor m a l de ve l opm e nt of m ot i va t i on f o r a c a de m i c s F ur t he r m or e i f a s t ude n t s hom e e nvi r onm e nt doe s not c ul t i va t e t he gr ow t h of m ot i va t i on f or a c a de m i c s t he n i t i s e s pe c i a l l y i m por t a nt f o r s c hool s t o a s s um e t hi s r e s pons i bi l i t y. A n a ddi t i ona l r ol e f or a s c hool ps yc hol ogi s t w oul d be t o t a ke r e s e a r c h f r om t he c ur r e nt s t udy a nd s i m i l a r r e s e a r c h t o p r om ot e t he i m por t a nc e of f os t e r i ng a n e nvi r onm e nt i n w hi c h bot h m o t i va t i on a nd a bi l i t y a r e a bl e t o gr ow F i na l l y, s c hool ps yc hol ogi s t s s houl d c a r e f ul l y e xa m i ne t he s e r e s ul t s i n s uppor t o f a m ode l of a c a de m i c e na bl e r s a nd t he i r e f f e c t s on r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt i n s c hool s ( D i P e r na & E l l i o t 2002 ) A c a de m i c e na b l e r s a r e n ona c a de m i c a t t i t ude s a nd be ha vi or s s uc h a s m ot i va t i on t o r e a d, t ha t a l l ow a s t ude nt t o pa r t a ke i n, a nd pr o f i t f r om a c a de m i c i ns t r uc t i on ( D i P e r na & E l l i ot 2002) C ur r e nt l y, r e s e a r c he r s i n s c hool ps yc hol ogy a r e de s i gni ng m ode l s t o a s s e s s t he e f f e c t of a c a de m i c e na bl e r s on a c t ua l a c hi e ve m e nt i n s c hool s T hi s s t udy s uppor t s t ha t m ot i va t i on a s a n a c a de m i c e na bl e r f or r e a d i ng pr e di c t s a s i gni f i c a nt a m ount of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt w hi c h i ndi r e c t l y pr e di c t s a s i gni f i c a nt a m ount of a c a de m i c c om pe t e nc e A p r opos e d m ode l by D i P e r na a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2002) s ugge s t s

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68 t ha t m ot i va t i on t o r e a d di r e c t l y i n f l ue nc e s s t udy s ki l l s a nd e nga ge m e nt i n s c hool a nd t ha t t he s e t w o e na bl e r s di r e c t l y i n f l ue nc e t he de ve l opm e nt of a c a de m i c s ki l l s T he s e r e s e a r c he r s f ur t he r s ugge s t t ha t p r i or a c hi e ve m e nt a nd i nt e r pe r s ona l s ki l l s c a n di r e c t l y i m pa c t m ot i va t i on t o r e a d. M a ny pa s t t he or e t i c a l a nd e m pi r i c a l m ode l s o f a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt ha ve not i nc l ude d m a ny o f t he s e s t ud e nt va r i a bl e s or e na bl e r s ( D i P e r na e t a l 2002 ) T he m ode l e xa m i n e d by D i P e r na a nd c o l l e a gue s a t t e nds t o t he s e be c a us e f a i l i ng t o a ddr e s s t he m m a y l e a d t o f a u l t y a s s e s s m e nt a nd i nt e r ve nt i on pl a ns de f i c i e nt i n c r uc i a l f a c t or s t ha t a r e f unda m e nt a l t o a s t ude nt s a c a de m i c f a i l ur e ( D i P e r na e t a l 2002) C ont r i but i ons t o t h e F i e l d of E duc at i on T he s e r e s ul t s a r e e s pe c i a l l y i m por t a nt t o t he f i e l d o f e duc a t i on E d uc a t or s a c r os s t he s t a t e a r e f a c i l i t a t i ng t he de ve l opm e nt o f s t ude nt s r e a di ng s ki l l s by i m pl e m e nt i ng t he R e a di ng F i r s t i ni t i a t i ve t he J us t R e a d F a m i l i e s p r o gr a m a n d t he F a m i l i e s B ui l di ng B e t t e r R e a de r s w or ks hops a l l w hi c h i nc l ude a va r i e t y of r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i ons ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2004b ) T he r e s ul t s of t h e pr e s e nt s t udy s houl d i nf o r m t he de s i gn of t he s e i nt e r ve nt i ons a nd f ut ur e i de a s f or r e a di ng d e ve l opm e nt i n s c hool s R e a di ng F i r s t ha s a s i t s goa l f o r e ve r y c hi l d t o r e a d a t or a bove gr a de l e ve l by 2012. F l o r i da r e c e i ve d $52 m i l l i on i n f e de r a l R e a d i ng F i r s t f unds w hi c h w i l l t o t a l ove r $300 m i l l i on i n s i x ye a r s t o he l p a i d t hi s goa l T he J us t R e a d F a m i l i e s pr ogr a m i s a s um m e r r e a di ng pr og r a m w hi c h pr ovi de s pa r e nt s w i t h i nf or m a t i on a bout a c t i ve l y r e a di ng w i t h t he i r c hi l dr e n du r i ng t he s um m e r m ont hs F i n a l l y, t he F a m i l i e s B ui l di ng B e t t e r R e a de r s w or ks hops a r e de s i gne d f or pa r e nt s of K i n de r ga r t e n t hr o ugh t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s t o l e a r n a bout s i m pl e a c t i vi t i e s t he y c a n do w i t h t h e i r c hi l dr e n t o i m p r ove r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on 20 04b)

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69 T he f e de r a l a nd s t a t e gove r nm e nt s a r e s pe ndi ng m uc h of t he e duc a t i on budge t on t he s e r e a di n g i nt e r ve nt i ons t o e na bl e F l or i da t o s a t i s f y t he r e qui r e m e nt s o f N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd ( N C L B ) a nd A de qua t e Y e a r l y P r og r e s s N C L B w a s put i nt o pl a c e t o e nha nc e a l l c hi l dr e n s r e a di ng a bi l i t i e s r e ga r dl e s s of r a c e e t hn i c i t y, pove r t y L i m i t e d E ngl i s h pr of i c i e nc y, ge nde r a nd m i gr a nt s t a t us ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003d) T he r e s ul t s of t he p r e s e nt s t ud y s ugge s t t ha t A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a nd H i s pa ni c c hi l dr e n a r e r e c e i vi ng s i gni f i c a nt l y l ow e r gr a de s on t he a s s e s s m e nt us e d f or m e a s ur i ng a c hi e ve m e nt t o m e e t t he r e qui r e m e nt s of N C L B i n F l or i da a nd t ha t l e ve l of S E S a l s o m a y pl a y a m a j or r ol e K e e pi ng t he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy i n m i nd, e du c a t or s m us t c ons i s t e nt l y di s a ggr e ga t e a nd a na l yz e da t a f r om F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd e ns ur e t ha t i t l a c ks t e s t bi a s T h e y m us t a l s o t a ke i nt o a c c ount t he l e ve l of S E S a nd e t hn i c i t y of e a c h c hi l d f o r w hi c h t he y us e F C A T r e s ul t s t o m a ke h i gh s t a ke s de c i s i ons A ddi t i ona l l y, t he s e r e s ul t s a r e i m por t a nt f or t e a c he r s a nd s t a f f w he n de s i gni ng i nt e r ve nt i ons T o i nc r e a s e m ot i va t i on t o r e a d, c hi l d r e n ne e d t o be i nvol ve d i n hi gh i nt e r e s t a c t i vi t i e s t o f a c i l i t a t e i nt r i ns i c m o t i va t i on ha ve i nc e nt i ve s t o pr om ot e e xt r i ns i c m ot i va t i on a nd be gi ve n i nc r e a s e d c hoi c e s a bout t h e books t ha t t he y c a n r e a d i n or de r t o l e a r n t o vi e w r e a di ng a s f un a nd e xc i t i ng ( G a m br e l l 1996) W he n a s t ude nt i s a c t i ve i n de s i gni ng hi s / he r r e a di ng e nvi r on m e nt t he i r a t t i t u de t ow a r ds r e a di ng i s pos i t i ve l y a f f e c t e d ( T ow e l l 2001 ) T he i m pl i c a t i ons s e e m c l e a r f or e duc a t or s E a r l y i nt e r ve nt i on i n r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt m a y c ur b t he l a t e r de c l i ne i n m ot i va t i on t o r e a d W hi l e t he pr a c t i c a l a ppl i c a t i on of t hi s s t udy t o t he s pe c i f i c s c hool s ys t e m s i n w hi c h t he da t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d i s gr e a t t he r e s ul t s s houl d not be a ut om a t i c a l l y ge ne r a l i z e d t o ot he r s c hool di s t r i c t s w hos e de m ogr a phi c va r i a b l e s va r y f r om t he s a m pl e t ha t w a s us e d

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70 i n t h i s s t udy. H ow e ve r t he r e s ul t s t ha t i nd i c a t e d t h a t m ot i va t i on t o r e a d w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y pos i t i ve l y r e l a t e d t o r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt w e r e c on s i s t e nt w i t h t he M c K e nna e t a l ( 1995) s t udy t ha t us e d a na t i ona l l y s t r a t i f i e d r a ndom s a m p l e I n t ur n t hi s s t udy m a y be a bl e t o a dd t o t he f i e l d o f e duc a t i on be c a us e i t f ur t he r s uppor t s t hi s c or r e l a t i on L i ke w i s e t he i nve r s e r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t a t us a nd H i s pa ni c s t a t us w i t h a c hi e ve m e nt i n r e a di ng i s i m por t a nt i n a n e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m i n w hi c h m i nor i t i e s a r e s l ow l y be c om i ng t he m a j o r i t y i n m a ny c ount i e s O f t he pa r t i c i pa nt s us e d i n t hi s s t udy, H i s p a ni c s t ude nt s c om pr i s e d a l m os t one f i f t h of t he s a m pl e w hi l e t he num be r of A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s w a s a l m os t e qua l t o t he num be r o f C a uc a s i a n s t ude nt s ( 37% a nd 41% r e s pe c t i ve l y) O f pa r t i c ul a r i nt e r e s t i s w he t he r f a c t o r s s uc h a s t he l a c k of A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a nd H i s pa ni c t e a c he r s a s r ol e m ode l s pl a y a pa r t i n s t ude nt s l ow e r r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e n t I n B r ow a r d C ount y m i nor i t y s t ude nt s c om pr i s e 74. 5% of t he t ot a l s t ude nt s a nd m i nor i t y t e a c he r s onl y c om pr i s e 33% of t he t ot a l t e a c he r s I n H i l l s bor ough C ount y m i nor i t y s t ude nt s c om pr i s e 53% o f t he t ot a l s t ude nt popul a t i on a nd m i nor i t y t e a c he r s onl y c om p r i s e 23% of t he t ot a l t e a c he r s F i na l l y, i n L e on C ount y m i nor i t y s t ude nt s c o m pr i s e 43% of t he t ot a l s t ude nt popul a t i on a nd m i no r i t y t e a c he r s c om pr i s e 25% of t he t ot a l t e a c he r s ( F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2004c ) T hi s m a y be i m por t a nt f o r t he f i e l d of e duc a t i on t o e xa m i ne f ur t he r A ddi t i ona l l y m i nor i t y c hi l dr e n m a y not ha ve t he oppor t uni t i e s t o be e nc our a ge d o r i ns pi r e d by r ol e m ode l s t ha t t he y c a n r e l a t e t o i n t he s c hool s a s t e a c he r s or i n t he books t ha t t he y r e a d ( D ona t o, 1997) A l s o, s t e r e ot ype t hr e a t m a y be c ont r i but i ng t o t hi s f i ndi n g. S t e r e ot ype t hr e a t i s a vi e w t ha t m a ny A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n c hi l dr e n ha ve i n w hi c h t h e y a s s oc i a t e t he i r s uc c e s s i n e duc a t i on w i t h a c t i ng w hi t e ( S us ki nd, 1998 ) S t e e l e a nd A r ons on ( 1995) f ound t hi s t o be r e l a t e d

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71 t o i nt e l l i ge nc e t e s t pe r f or m a nc e s o i t m a y a l s o be i m por t a nt t o c ons i de r w he n e xa m i ni ng a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t pe r f or m a nc e D e l i m i t at i on T he r e s e a r c h de s i gn i nc l ude d one i nt e nt i ona l l i m i t a t i on. T hi s de l i m i t a t i on i s r e l a t e d t o e t hni c d i ve r s i t y. F or t he pur pos e s of t h i s s t udy, pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho r e por t e d a ny ot he r e t hni c i t y t ha n A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, C a uc a s i a n, or H i s pa ni c / L a t i no, w e r e pl a c e d i nt o a not he r c a t e gor y l a be l e d M i xe d E t hni c i t i e s pr i o r t o pe r f or m i ng t he s t a t i s t i c a l a na l ys e s A l s o, t hos e w ho r e por t e d m or e t ha n one e t hni c i t y w e r e a l s o pl a c e d i nt o t he M i xe d E t hni c i t y c a t e gor y L i m i t at i ons of t h i s St udy T he r e s e a r c h de s i gn f or t hi s s t udy ha d s e ve r a l e xt e r na l a nd i nt e r na l t hr e a t s t o va l i di t y. A pos s i bl e t hr e a t t o t he i nt e r na l va l i di t y o f t hi s s t udy w a s t he us e o f s e l f r e por t t o a s s e s s a c hi l d s m ot i va t i on t o r e a d. I t i s not pos s i bl e t o c onc l ude w he t he r c hi l dr e n a c t ua l l y f e e l be l i e ve or do t he t hi ngs t he y r e por t ( G a m br e l l e t a l 1996) I n a ddi t i on, due t o t he f l e xi b i l i t y o f t he or de r i n w hi c h t he ba t t e r y o f t e s t s w e r e gi ve n i n t he l a r ge r s t udy t ha t t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e s a m pl e d f r om s e l f r e p or t e d m ot i va t i on t o r e a d m a y ha ve be e n i nf l ue nc e d. I f t he m ot i va t i on t o r e a d s ur ve y w a s gi ve n be f or e t he t w o hour ba t t e r y of t e s t s m ot i va t i on t o r e a d m a y ha ve be e n r e por t e d di f f e r e nt l y t ha n i f t he s ur ve y w a s gi ve n a f t e r t he t w o hour s o f r e a di ng a nd i nt e l l i ge nc e t e s t i ng. A not he r pos s i bl e t hr e a t t o t he i nt e r na l va l i di t y of t hi s s t udy w a s t he us e of a s i ngl e m e a s ur e t o a s s e s s r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt T he F C A T i s a t i m e d hi gh s t a ke s t e s t t ha t i s t a ke n dur i ng s c hool hou r s A ddi t i ona l l y m a ny c hi l dr e n m a y ge t a nxi ous a bout t hi s t e s t A n a ddi t i ona l pos s i bl e t hr e a t t o t he i n t e r na l va l i di t y of t h i s s t udy w a s t he us e of t he

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72 M ot i va t i on t o R e a d P r o f i l e t o m e a s ur e t he va r i a bl e of m o t i va t i on t o r e a d. A s s e e n w i t hi n t he r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t ur e t he r e a r e m ul t i pl e m ot i va t i ona l t he or i e s w i t hi n t he f i e l d of e duc a t i on. B e c a us e of t he c ont r ove r s y r e ga r di ng t h e or i e s of m ot i va t i on t he us e of a s i ngl e m e a s ur e t o a s s e s s m ot i va t i on t o r e a d m a y be c r i t i c i z e d A t hr e a t t o e xt e r na l va l i di t y w a s t ha t t he s a m pl e w a s onl y t a ke n f r o m t hr e e c ount i e s i n t he s t a t e of F l or i da T he r e f or e t he pop ul a t i on a nd e c ol ogi c a l ge ne r a l i z a bi l i t y ( T a s ha kkor i & T e ddl i e 2003) of t he s t udy ne e d t o be i nt e r pr e t e d w i t h c a ut i on. A ddi t i ona l l y, be c a us e t he s a m pl e of s c hool s w a s c hos e n by S E S a nd not by t he e t hni c br e a kdow n of t he s c hool t he de m ogr a phi c s of t hi s s a m pl e do not r e f l e c t t he de m ogr a phi c s w i t hi n t he s t a t e of F l o r i da T hi s m e a ns t ha t be c a us e s c hool s w e r e s a m pl e d by t he i r S E S l e ve l t he r a c i a l m a ke up of t he s e s c hool s m a y ha ve be e n ove r l ooke d a nd t he m i nor i t y s t ude nt s m a y h a ve be e n ove r s a m pl e d. T h e gr oup o f pa r t i c i pa nt s ut i l i z e d f o r t hi s s t udy s l i ght l y ove r s a m pl e d A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ud e nt s T he pe r c e nt a ge o f A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ud e nt s i n t hi s s t udy e qua l e d 38 % of t h e t ot a l s a m pl e ye t t he pe r c e nt a ge o f A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s w i t hi n t he publ i c s c hool s a c r os s t he t hr e e c ount i e s ut i l i z e d f or t hi s s t udy w a s onl y 31% T he s l i ght ove r s a m pl i ng m a y e xpl a i n w hy A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t a t us w a s t he s t r onge s t pr e di c t or of r e a di ng a c hi e v e m e nt I n c ont r a s t t he di s t r i but i on of a c hi e ve m e nt l e ve l s obt a i ne d by t hi s s a m pl e on t he F C A T w e r e c om pa r a bl e t o t he di s t r i but i on of a c hi e ve m e nt l e ve l s obt a i ne d a c r os s t he s t a t e of F l o r i da du r i ng t he s a m e s c hool ye a r ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on, 200 4 a ) T he s e da t a i m pl y t ha t e ve n t hough t he e t hni c r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he s a m pl e us e d f o r t he s t udy w a s not e qua l t o t he e t hni c r e pr e s e nt a t i on of F l o r i da popul a t i on of s t ude nt s dur i ng t he 2002 2003 s c hool ye a r t he y d i d, none t he l e s s m a t c h i n t he i r di s t r i but i on of s c or e s on t he F C A T

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73 A not he r t hr e a t t o t he e xt e r na l va l i di t y of t he s t udy i s s a m pl e bi a s T hi s m e a ns t ha t e ve n t hough t he s c hool s w e r e c hos e n t o be e t hni c a l l y di ve r s e a nd r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of m ul t i pl e S E S l e ve l s onl y t he s t ude nt s w ho r e t ur ne d a c ons e nt f or m w e r e s e l e c t e d a s pa r t i c i pa nt s T he r e f or e t he c om pr i s e d s a m pl e m a y ha ve une qua l l y r e p r e s e nt e d S E S l e ve l s a nd e t hni c i t i e s t ha n w e r e pr i m a r i l y i nt e nde d i n t he de s i gn of t he s t udy D i r e c t i ons f or F ut ur e R e s e a r c h D ue t o t he l i m i t a t i ons of t hi s s t udy, s e ve r a l r e c om m e nda t i ons a r e s ugge s t e d f or f ut ur e r e s e a r c h. I n r e ga r ds t o t he l i m i t a t i ons i nvol v e d i n us i ng a s e l f r e por t m e a s ur e f ut ur e s t udi e s s houl d us e qua l i t a t i ve m e t hods a s w e l l a s qua nt i t a t i ve m e t hods t o g a i n a c om pr e he ns i ve r a t i ng of a c hi l d s m o t i va t i on t o r e a d. I nt e r vi e w s w i t h s t ude nt s t he i r pa r e nt s a nd t he i r t e a c he r s m a y f a c i l i t a t e t he de s i g n a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on of a s uc c e s s f ul l i t e r a c y pr ogr a m i n F l or i da A l s o, due t o t he va r i e t y of m o t i va t i ona l t he or i e s w i t hi n t he f i e l d of e duc a t i on, f ut ur e r e s e a r c he r s s houl d us e m ul t i pl e m e a s ur e s t o a s s e s s t hi s c ons t r uc t A not he r r e c om m e nda t i on f or f ut ur e r e s e a r c h w oul d be t o us e a l a r ge r m o r e r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s a m pl e of s t ude nt s T he s a m pl e us e d f or t hi s s t udy c a n on l y be ge ne r a l i z e d t o t he pa r t i c i pa t i ng c ount i e s A ddi t i ona l l y, t he s a m pl e w a s r e s t r i c t e d t o onl y t hos e s t ude nt s w h o r e t ur n e d a c ons e nt f o r m w i t hi n t he a m ount of t i m e a l l ot t e d A ddi t i ona l s t udi e s w i t h m or e t i m e t o c ol l e c t da t a s houl d m a i l out a ddi t i ona l c on s e nt f o r m s t o f a m i l i e s t ha t di d not r e t ur n t he m a nd r e m i nde r pos t c a r ds t o e ns ur e a m or e r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s a m pl e F ur t he r a na l ys i s of t he s e c ons t r uc t s i s s ugge s t e d. I n pr e vi ous s t udi e s ge nde r ha s be e n a s i gni f i c a nt pr e di c t or of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e n t ( D i a m ond & O nw ue gbuz i e 2001 ;

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74 P unge l l o e t a l 1996 ) C ont r a r y t o p r i or r e s e a r c h t hi s s t udy f ound t he oppos i t e t r e nd. F ut ur e s t udi e s s houl d f ur t he r i nve s t i ga t e t he s e c ont r a di c t or y f i ndi ngs F ur t he r m or e f ut ur e a na l ys e s c oul d e xa m i ne t he s e s a m e r e s e a r c h que s t i ons but i nve s t i ga t e di f f e r e nc e s a c r os s bot h S E S l e ve l a nd e t hni c i t y I n r e ga r ds t o e t hni c i t y, f ut ur e s t udi e s m a y be ne e de d t ha t i nc l ude l a r ge r s a m pl e s of ot he r e t hni c g r oups ( e g. A s i a n or N a t i ve A m e r i c a n) F o r t he va r i a bl e of S E S f ut ur e s t udi e s s houl d i nve s t i ga t e i t s r e l a t i ons hi p not onl y w i t h F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt but a l s o w i t h m ot i va t i ona l c or r e l a t e s M or e ove r a l t hough t hi s s t udy w a s a s na ps hot of a di ve r s e gr oup of s t ude nt s f ut ur e s t udi e s m a y a dd m or e va l ua bl e i nf or m a t i on by us i ng a l ongi t udi na l de s i gn t o a s s e s s r e a di ng a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a c r os s t i m e i n t he s a m e s t ude nt s I n a ddi t i on, t o r e pl i c a t e t he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy, t he r e l a t i ons hi p b e t w e e n m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt c oul d be e xa m i ne d i n r e l a t i on t o ot he r a s s e s s m e nt s of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt s uc h a s C ur r i c ul um B a s e d M e a s ur e m e nt or pe r m a ne nt pr oduc t s w i t hi n t he c l a s s r oom s e t t i ng. R e pl i c a t i ons of t he s e r e s ul t s a r e ne e de d t o a s s i s t e duc a t or s i n r e c ogni z i ng s t ude nt s w ho a r e t he m os t i n ne e d of i nt e r ve nt i ons C onc l us i ons T hi s s t udy w a s c onduc t e d t o e xa m i ne t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n de m ogr a phi c va r i a bl e s s uc h a s gr a de ge nde r e t hni c i t y, a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s m e a s ur e d b y t he F C A T T he f i ndi ngs i ndi c a t e t ha t m ot i va t i on t o r e a d, gr a de A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n e t hni c i t y s t a t us a nd H i s p a ni c e t hni c i t y s t a t us a r e s i gni f i c a nt pr e di c t or s of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s m e a s ur e d by t he F C A T A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t a t us w a s t he s t r onge s t pr e di c t or i n t he p r e s e nt s t udy a nd ha d a n i nve r s e r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt w hi l e m ot i va t i on t o r e a d w a s t he s e c ond s t r onge s t pr e di c t or

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75 but ha d a pos i t i ve r e l a t i ons hi p t o F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt I n c ont r a s t ge nde r a nd M i xe d e t hni c i t y s t a t us w e r e not f ound t o be s i gni f i c a nt pr e di c t or s of F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt i n t hi s s t u dy. B e c a us e r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s m e a s ur e d by t he F C A T i s i m por t a nt t o m e a s ur e s c hool a c c ount a bi l i t y t he s e r e s ul t s a r e i m por t a nt f or t he f i e l d of s c hool ps yc hol ogy a nd t he f ut u r e of e duc a t i on. T h e va r i a bl e s of g r a de e t hni c i t y a nd m ot i va t i on t o r e a d n e e d t o be t a ke n i n t o a c c ount w he n de s i gni ng i ndi vi dua l i nt e r ve nt i ons a nd w he n c onc e pt ua l i z i ng s t a t e w i de l e gi s l a t i on or c l a s s r oom r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i ons

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76 R e f e r e nc e s A l e xa nde r J E & F i l l e r R C ( 1976 ) A t t i t ude s and r e adi ng. N e w a r k, D E : I nt e r na t i ona l R e a di ng A s s oc i a t i on. A m r e i n, A L & B e r l i ne r D C ( 2003) T he e f f e c t s of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng on s t ude nt m ot i va t i on a nd l e a r ni ng E duc at i onal L e ade r s hi p, 60 32 38 A nde r s on, M A T ol l e f s on, N A & G i l be r t E C ( 1985) G i f t e dne s s a n d r e a di ng: A c r os s s e c t i ona l vi e w of di f f e r e nc e s i n r e a di ng a t t i t ude s a nd be ha vi or s G i f t e d C hi l d Q uar t e r l y 29, 186 190. B ong, M ( 2001) B e t w e e n a nd w i t hi n dom a i n r e l a t i ons of a c a de m i c m ot i va t i on a m ong m i ddl e a nd hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s : S e l f e f f i c a c y, t a s k va l ue a nd a c hi e ve m e nt goa l s J our nal of E duc at i onal P s y c hol ogy 93 ( 1) 2 3 34. C ohe n, J ( 1992 ) A pow e r pr i m e r P s yc hol ogi c a l B ul l e t i n, 112, 155 159 D a vi e s J & B r e m be r I ( 1993) C om i c s or s t or i e s ? D i f f e r e nc e s i n r e a di ng a t t i t ude s a nd ha bi t s of gi r l s a nd boys i n ye a r s 2, 4, a nd 6. G e nde r and E duc at i on 5 ( 3 ) 305 318. D i a m ond, P J & O nw ue gbuz i e A J ( 2001) F a c t or s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd a t t i t ude s a m ong e l e m e nt a r y s c ho ol a ge d s t ude nt s R e s e ar c h i n t he Sc hool s 8 ( 1 ) 1 1 1. D i P e r na J C & E l l i ot S N ( 2000) A c ade m i c c om pe t e nc e e v al uat i on s c al e s S a n A nt oni o, T X : T he P s yc hol ogi c a l C or por a t i on

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77 D i P e r na J C & E l l i ot S N ( 2002) P r om ot i ng a c a de m i c e na bl e r s t o i m pr ove s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt : I nt r oduc t i on t o t he m i ni s e r i e s Sc hoo l P s y c hol ogy R e v i e w 31 ( 3) 293 297. D i P e r na J C V ol pe R J & E l l i ot S N ( 2002 ) A m ode l o f a c a de m i c e na bl e r s a nd e l e m e nt a r y r e a di ng/ l a ngua ge a r t s a c hi e ve m e nt Sc hool P s y c hol ogy R e v i e w 31 ( 3) 298 312. D ona t o, R ( 1997) T he ot h e r s t r uggl e f or e qual s c hool s : M e x i c an A m e r i c ans dur i ng t he c i v i l r i ght s e r a. A l ba ny, N Y : S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y of N e w Y or k P r e s s D w e c k, C S ( 1986) M ot i va t i ona l p r oc e s s e s a f f e c t i ng l e a r ni ng. A m e r i c an P s y c hol ogi s t 41 1040 1048 E c c l e s J S W i gf i e l d A H a r ol d, R & B l um e nf e l d, P C ( 1993 ) A ge a nd ge nde r di f f e r e nc e s i n c hi l dr e n s s e l f a nd t a s k pe r c e pt i ons dur i ng e l e m e nt a r y s c hool C hi l d D e v e l opm e nt 64, 830 847 F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( 2001) F C A T br i e f i ng book A ut ho r F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( 2003a ) R e t r i e v e d A ugus t 30, 2003 f r om ht t p: / / w w w f i r n. e du/ doe / c ur r i c / pr e k 12/ f r am e 2. ht m F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( 2003b) R e t r i e v e d A ugus t 30, 2003 f r om ht t p: / / w w w f i r n. e du/ doe / s as / f c at / pdf / f c r p03s t r pdf F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( 2003c ) R e t r i e v e d A ugus t 30, 2003 f r om ht t p: / / w w w f i r n. e du/ doe / s as / hs aphom e ht m F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( 2003d) R e t r i e v e d A ugus t 30, 2003 f r om ht t p: / / w w w e d. gov / nc l b/ ov e r v i e w / i nt r o/ pr e s i de nt pl an/ page _pg3. ht m l

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78 F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( 2003e ) R e t r i e ve d D e c e m be r 2, 2003, f r om ht t p: / / w w w f i r n. e du/ doe / s a s / f c a t ht m F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( 2004 a ) R e t r e i ve d O c t obe r 12 2004 f r om ht t p: / / w w w f i r n. e du/ doe / s a s / f c a t / pdf / f c r p03s t r pdf F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( 2004b) R e t r e i ve d O c t obe r 16 2004 f r om ht t p: / / w w w j us t r e a df l or i da c om / r e a di ng_f i r s t a s p F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( 2004c ) R e t r e i ve d O c t obe r 17 2004 f r om ht t p: / / w w w f i r n. e du/ doe / e i a s / e i a s pubs / pdf / m i nor t c h. pdf F l ynn, J M a nd R a hb a r M H ( 1994 ) P r e va l e nc e of r e a di ng f a i l ur e i n boys c om pa r e d w i t h gi r l s P s y c hol ogy i n t he Sc hool s 31 66 71. F or d, M E ( 1992) M ot i v at i ng hum ans N e w Y or k : S a ge G a m br e l l L B ( 1995) M ot i va t i on m a t t e r s I n W M L i ne k & E G S t u r t e va nt ( E ds ) G e ne r at i ons of l i t e r ac y : Se v e nt e e nt h y e ar book of t he c ol l e ge r e adi ng as s oc i at i on ( pp. 2 24) H a r r i s onbur g, V A : C ol l e ge R e a di ng A s s oc i a t i on. G a m br e l l L B ( 1996 ) C r e a t i ng c l a s s r oom c ul t ur e s t ha t f os t e r r e a di ng m ot i va t i on I n R L A l l i ngt on ( E d ) T e ac hi ng St r uggl i ng R e ade r s ( pp. 108 117) N e w a r k, D e l a w a r e : I nt e r na t i ona l R e a di ng A s s oc i a t i on. G a m br e l l L B ( 2001) W ha t w e know a bout m o t i va t i on t o r e a d. I n R F F l i ppo ( E d ) R e adi ng r e s e ar c he r s i n s e ar c h of c om m on gr ound ( pp. 129 143 ) N e w a r k, D E : I nt e r n a t i ona l R e a di ng A s s oc i a t i on. G a m br e l l L B M a z z oni S & K o r ke a m a ki R L ( 1996a A pr i l ) C r os s c ul t ur al m ode l s of hom e s c hool e ar l y l i t e r ac y pr ac t i c e s P r e s e nt a t i on a t t he a nnua l m e e t i ng of t he A m e r i c a n E duc a t i ona l R e s e a r c h A s s oc i a t i on, N e w Y or k.

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81 O l df a t he r P & M c L a ughl i n, J ( 1993) G a i ni ng a nd l os i ng v oi c e : A l ongi t udi na l s t udy of s t ude nt s c ont i nui ng i m pul s e t o l e a r n a c r os s e l e m e nt a r y a nd m i ddl e s c hool c ont e xt s R e s e ar c h i n M i ddl e L e v e l E duc at i on 17 1 25. P a i ge R ( 2003) S oc i e t y w i l l pa y i f ki ds c a n t r e a d. R e t r i e ve d M a y 15 2004 f r om ht t p: / / w w w gove r nm e nt gui de c om / govs i t e a dp? br e a d= *M a i n& ur l = ht t p% 3A / / w w w gove r nm e nt gui de c om / a m s / c l i c kT hr uR e di r e c t a dp% 3F 55076483% 2C 16 920155 % 2C ht t p% 3A / / w w w e d. gov/ P a l l a nt J ( 2001) S P SS s ur v i v al m anual N e w Y or k : O pe n U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s P a r ke r A & P a r a di s E ( 1986) A t t i t ude de ve l opm e nt t ow a r d r e a di ng i n g r a de s one t hr ough s i x. J our nal of E duc at i onal R e s e ar c h, 79 ( 5) 313 315. P unge l l o, E K upe r s m i dt J B ur c hi na l M & P a t t e r s on, C ( 1996) E nvi r onm e nt a l r i s k f a c t or s a nd c hi l dr e n s a c hi e ve m e nt f r om m i ddl e c hi l dhood t o e a r l y a dol e s c e nc e D e v e l opm e nt al P s y c hol ogy 32 ( 4) 755 767. S c hunk, D ( 1985 ) S e l f e f f i c a c y a nd s c hool l e a r ni ng. P s y c hol ogy i n t he Sc hool s 22, 208 223. S hi nn, M R W a l ke r H M & S t one r G ( E ds ) ( 2 002) I nt e r v e nt i ons f or ac ade m i c and be hav i or pr obl e m s I I : P r e v e nt i v e and r e m e di al ap pr oac he s W a s hi ngt on D C : N a t i ona l A s s oc i a t i on of S c hool P s yc hol ogi s t s S now C B ur ns S & G r i f f i n P ( E ds ) ( 1998) P r e v e nt i ng r e adi ng di f f i c ul t i e s i n y oung c hi l dr e n. W a s hi ngt on, D C : N a t i ona l A c a de m y P r e s s S P S S ( 2003) A br oad r ange of c apabi l i t i e s f or t he anal y t i c al pr oc e s s R e t r i e ve d N ove m be r 25, 2003 f r om ht t p: / / w w w s ps s c om /

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82 S t e e l e C M & A r ons on, J ( 1995) S t e r e ot ype t hr e a t a nd t he i nt e l l e c t ua l t e s t pe r f o r m a nc e of A f r i c a n A m e r i c a ns J our nal of P e r s onal i t y and Soc i al P s y c hol ogy 69 ( 5 ) 797 811. S t e ve ns J ( 1999 ) I nt e r m e di at e St at i s t i c s : A M ode r n A ppr oac h. ( 2 n d e d ) H i l l s da l e N J : L a w r e nc e E r l ba um A s s oc i a t e s I nc S us ki nd, R ( 1998) A hope i n t he uns e e n. N e w Y o r k : B r oa dw a y B ooks T a ba c hni c k, B G & F i de l l L S ( 1996) U s i ng m u l t i v ar i at e s t at i s t i c s ( 3 rd e di t i on) N e w Y or k : H a r pe r C ol l i ns T a s ha kkor i A & T e ddl i e C ( 1998 ) M i x e d M e t h odol ogy : C om bi ng qual i t at i v e and quant i t at i v e appr oac he s T hous a nd O a ks C A : S a g e T ow e l l J H ( 2001) T e a c hi ng i de a s : U s i ng c e l e br i t i e s t o m ot i va t e s t ude nt s t o r e a d T he R e adi ng T e ac he r 55 ( 1) 22 32 T unne l l M O C a l de r J E & J us t e n, J E ( 1988 ) A s hor t f o r m r e a di ng a t t i t ude s ur ve y R e adi ng I m pr ov e m e nt 25 146 151. T unne l l M O C a l de r J E & P ha up, E S ( 1991) A t t i t ude s of young r e a de r s R e adi ng I m pr ov e m e nt 28 ( 4) 237 243 W a l be r g, H J ( 1984) I m pr ovi ng t he pr oduc t i vi t y of A m e r i c a s s c hool s E duc at i onal L e ade r s hi p, 41 ( 8) 19 30 W a l b e r g, H J & T s a i S ( 1985) C or r e l a t e s of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd a t t i t ude : A na t i ona l a s s e s s m e nt s t udy. J our nal of E duc at i onal R e s e ar c h, 78 ( 3) 159 167. W a ng, M C H a e r t a l G D & W a l be r g H J ( 199 3) T ow a r d a know l e dge ba s e f or s c hool l e a r ni ng R e v i e w of E duc at i ona l R e s e ar c h, 63 ( 3) 249 294

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83 W i gf i e l d, A & G ut h r i e J T ( 1997 ) R e l a t i ons of c hi l dr e n s m ot i va t i on f or r e a di ng t o t he a m ount a nd br e a dt h o f t he i r r e a di ng. J our nal of E d uc at i onal P s y c hol ogy 9 420 433.

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84 A ppe ndi x

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85 A ppe ndi x A M e a n a nd S t a nda r d D e vi a t i on of t he M ot i va t i on t o R e a d P r of i l e a nd t he F C A T ( N = 585) V a r i a bl e N a m e T h i r d M a l e F e m a l e E t h n i ci t y C (4 3 ) A A (3 1 ) H (1 2 ) C (4 0 ) A A (5 8 ) H (1 9 ) Mo t i v at i o n 7 0 5 6 9 8 7 0 7 7 1 8 7 2 4 7 0 7 Mo t i v at i o n 6 3 9 1 8 4 6 2 6 0 7 9 FC A T 3 4 6 2 2 7 0 4 3 0 4 9 3 2 6 4 2 9 3 6 3 0 0 8 FC A T 6 5 5 4 2 5 4 9 0 5 2 4 5 3 9 7 9 6 S e ve nt h E t h n i ci t y C (3 5 ) A A (2 3 ) H (9 ) C (5 3 ) A A (4 0 ) H (1 6 ) Mo t i v at i o n 6 5 5 6 8 4 6 7 4 6 9 6 6 7 7 6 9 1 Mo t i v at i o n 7 5 5 7 6 2 6 5 7 1 6 7 FC A T 3 1 9 5 2 8 1 1 3 1 2 1 3 4 5 4 2 9 8 5 3 3 4 8 FC A T 5 8 0 5 1 8 3 4 5 4 9 1 4 7 7 5 7 5 T e nt h E t h n i ci t y C (3 3 ) A A (2 6 ) H (2 7 ) C (3 4 ) A A (3 8 ) H (1 7 ) Mo t i v at i o n 5 9 6 6 4 9 6 3 4 6 6 1 6 6 4 6 5 8 Mo t i v at i o n 8 3 7 8 5 9 9 5 7 0 6 6 FC A T 3 2 0 4 2 9 2 9 3 0 3 3 3 3 1 7 2 7 6 8 3 2 1 2 FC A T 3 7 2 4 9 0 4 5 2 4 7 7 3 0 9 3 0 2 N ot e N um be r s i n pa r e nt he s e s r e f l e c t f r e que nc i e s ; E t hni c i t y: C i s C a uc a s i a n, A A i s A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a nd H i s H i s pa ni c

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86 A ppe ndi x B S S S S c a l e d S c or e C onve r s i ons t o F C A T A c hi e ve m e nt L e ve l s A c hi e ve m e nt L e ve l G r a de 3 7 10 1 100 271 100 279 100 299 2 272 296 280 312 300 339 3 297 344 313 356 340 367 4 345 406 357 401 368 384 5 407 500 402 500 385 500


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LB1051 (ONLINE)
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The relationship among various learner characteristics and reading achievement as measured by the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test
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by Amanda A. Priv, M.A.
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University of South Florida,
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ABSTRACT: The present study examined the relationships among various learner characteristics and reading achievement, as measured by the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). Using a multiple regression, the independent variables grade, gender, ethnicity, and motivation to read were used to predict the dependent variable, reading achievement. Participants in this study consisted of 585 students from nine elementary, nine middle, and nine high schools across three districts in Florida. Using archival data from a database composed by the Florida Center for Reading Research, the FCAT and Motivation to Read Profile were used to compute reading achievement and motivation to read, respectively. FCAT reading achievement was measured by the participant's Sunshine State Standard score in reading, and motivation to read was measured by student responses on the 4-point likert scale of the Motivation to Read Profile.The findings indicate that grade level and motivation to read were significant positive predictors of FCAT reading achievement, and African American and Hispanic ethnicity status were significant inverse predictors of FCAT reading achievement. African American ethnicity status was the strongest predictor of FCAT reading achievement and motivation to read was the second strongest. Gender and mixed ethnicity status did not significantly predict FCAT reading achievement. Results of this study support the findings of previous research.
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