USF Libraries
USF Digital Collections

A vascular plant inventory of Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park, Pasco County, Florida

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
A vascular plant inventory of Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park, Pasco County, Florida
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Ferguson, Emily ( Emily May )
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Floristic inventory
Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park
Natural communities
Dissertations, Academic -- Biology -- Masters -- USF
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park, located in southwestern Pasco County, Florida, contains nearly 7,689.06 hectares (19,000 acres) and includes 18 natural communities. A floristic inventory was conducted on approximately 404.69 hectares (1,000 acres) within Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park which included 11 community types. A comparison of those 11 communities in the study area with the rest of the park shows that the dominant community types do occur within the study site, making it representative of the entire park. The objective of this study conducted from May 2003 to October 2004 was to compile a list of the vascular plant taxa found within the study area to be used by the Southwest Water Management District to help in their management regimes. A total of 475 taxa were collected, representing 104 families, and 269 genera. Of these 436 are native taxa, 16 endemic taxa, 39 non-native taxa, 32 county records, 7 listed taxa, and 5 commercially exploited taxa.Each natural community is described and an annotated list of the vascular plant taxa is presented.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of South Florida, 2004.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Emily Ferguson.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 78 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001505491
oclc - 60410829
notis - AJV6089
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0000580
usfldc handle - e14.580
System ID:
SFS0025271:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.loc.govstandardsmarcxmlschemaMARC21slim.xsd
leader nam Ka
controlfield tag 001 001505491
003 fts
006 m||||e|||d||||||||
007 cr mnu|||uuuuu
008 050201s2004 flua sbm s000|0 eng d
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a E14-SFE0000580
035
(OCoLC)60410829
9
AJV6089
b SE
SFE0000580
040
FHM
c FHM
090
QH307.2 (ONLINE)
1 100
Ferguson, Emily
q (Emily May)
2 245
A vascular plant inventory of Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park, Pasco County, Florida
h [electronic resource] /
by Emily Ferguson.
260
[Tampa, Fla.] :
University of South Florida,
2004.
502
Thesis (M.S.)--University of South Florida, 2004.
504
Includes bibliographical references.
516
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
538
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
500
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 78 pages.
520
ABSTRACT: Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park, located in southwestern Pasco County, Florida, contains nearly 7,689.06 hectares (19,000 acres) and includes 18 natural communities. A floristic inventory was conducted on approximately 404.69 hectares (1,000 acres) within Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park which included 11 community types. A comparison of those 11 communities in the study area with the rest of the park shows that the dominant community types do occur within the study site, making it representative of the entire park. The objective of this study conducted from May 2003 to October 2004 was to compile a list of the vascular plant taxa found within the study area to be used by the Southwest Water Management District to help in their management regimes. A total of 475 taxa were collected, representing 104 families, and 269 genera. Of these 436 are native taxa, 16 endemic taxa, 39 non-native taxa, 32 county records, 7 listed taxa, and 5 commercially exploited taxa.Each natural community is described and an annotated list of the vascular plant taxa is presented.
590
Adviser: Wunderlin, Richard.
653
Floristic inventory.
Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park.
Natural communities.
690
Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x Biology
Masters.
773
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
4 0 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.580



PAGE 1

A Vascular Plant Inventory of Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park, Pasco County, Florida by Emily Ferguson A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science Department of Biology College of Arts and Science University of South Florida Major Professor: Richard Wunderlin, Ph.D. Clinton Dawes, Ph. D. Frederick Essig, Ph.D. Date of Approval: October 29 (Friday), 2004 Keywords: floristic inventory, Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park, natural communities Copyright 2004, Emily Ferguson

PAGE 2

i Table of Contents List of Tables .....................................................................................................................iii List of Figures ....................................................................................................................iv ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................vi INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................................................1 Site Overview .....................................................................................................................2 Physical Location ................................................................................................2 Early Inhabitants .................................................................................................3 Acquisition History .............................................................................................5 Disturbances Affecting the Study Area ..............................................................6 Management Regimes .........................................................................................7 Climate ................................................................................................................9 Geology .............................................................................................................10 Soils ..................................................................................................................10 Topography and Hydrology ..............................................................................13 METHODS .......................................................................................................................15 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION .......................................................................................16 The Natural Communities .................................................................................................21 Floodplain Forest ..............................................................................................21 Basin Swamp ....................................................................................................23 Dome Swamp ....................................................................................................24

PAGE 3

ii Depression Marsh .............................................................................................27 Wet Prairie ........................................................................................................28 Mesic Flatwoods ...............................................................................................29 Sandhill .............................................................................................................30 Scrubby Flatwoods ...........................................................................................32 Sand Pine Scrub ................................................................................................34 Xeric Hammock ................................................................................................35 Ruderal and Disturbed Sites .............................................................................37 Annotated List of the Vascular Flora ................................................................................39 Pteridophytes (Ferns and Fern allies) ...............................................................40 Gymnosperms ...................................................................................................41 Monocotyledons ................................................................................................41 Dicotyledons .....................................................................................................50 Literature Cited .................................................................................................................70

PAGE 4

iii List of Tables Table 1Synopsis of the Vascular Plants found in the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area. .............................................................................................................17 Table 2 Taxa endemic to Florida and occurr ing in the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area. .............................................................................................................17 Table 3 Non-native taxa found in the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area listed by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council ..............................................................18 Table 4 Endangered, Threatened, or Commercia lly Exploited vascular plant taxa in the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area ...........................................................18 Table 5 Summary of Natural Communities in Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park and the study area ..............................................................................................................19

PAGE 5

iv List of Figures Figure 1 Location of Jay B. Starkey W ilderness Park, Pasco County, Florida................2 Figure 2 Map of Jay B. Starkey Wilderne ss Park with the st udy area outlined...............5 Figure 3 Disturbance caused by feral hogs.......................................................................8 Figure 4 Map of soil types in the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area...............12 Figure 5 Map of Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area topography including the burn site, trails, and unpaved roads.......................................................................14 Figure 6 Map of the natural communities in the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area........................................................................................................................20 Figure 7 Floodplain forest in the southern end of the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area..............................................................................................................22 Figure 8 Basin swamp located in the middle of the lower half of the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area...................................................................................24 Figure 9 A dome swamp located within th e Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area ...............................................................................................................................26 Figure 10 The inside of a dome swamp with in the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area........................................................................................................................26 Figure 11 Depression marsh found within the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area ...............................................................................................................................27 Figure 12 Wet prairie located above the larg e basin swamp within the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area...................................................................................28

PAGE 6

v Figure 13 Mesic flatwoods located on the northeast edge of the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area...................................................................................30 Figure 14 Sandhill community inside the no rthwest section of the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area...................................................................................31 Figure 15 Scrubby flatwoods foun d within the loop in the s outheast section of the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area.................................................................33 Figure 16 Pinus palustris with the epiphyte Tillandsia x floridana ...............................33 Figure 17 Sand pine scrub along the power line artery along the western edge of the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area.................................................................35 Figure 18 The xeric hammock found within the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness study area ...............................................................................................................................36 Figure 19 The improved pasture area in Ja y B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area...38 Figure 20 Ruderal disturbed area along the west side of the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area......................................................................................................38

PAGE 7

vi A Vascular Plant Inventory of Jay B. Star key Wilderness Park, Pasco County, Florida Emily Ferguson ABSTRACT Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park, located in southwestern Pasco County, Florida, contains nearly 7,689.06 hectares (19,000 acres ) and includes 18 natural communities. A floristic inventory was conducted on approxi mately 404.69 hectares (1,000 acres) within Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park which incl uded 11 community types. A comparison of those 11 communities in the study area with the rest of the park shows that the dominant community types do occur within the study site making it representative of the entire park. The objective of this study conducted from May 2003 to October 2004 was to compile a list of the vascular plant taxa found within the study area to be used by the Southwest Water Management District to help in their management regimes. A total of 475 taxa were collected, representing 104 families, and 269 genera. Of these 436 are native taxa, 16 endemic taxa, 39 non-native taxa 32 county records, 7 listed taxa, and 5 commercially exploited taxa. Each natural co mmunity is described and an annotated list of the vascular plant taxa is presented.

PAGE 8

1 INTRODUCTION Florida is a unique state w ith a relatively flat topogr aphy and fast draining, sandy soils. These conditions would presumably lead to a flora with low di versity, but that is not the case. The state is about 100 km l ong and spans about 6.5 latitude causing the flora to be quite diverse consisting of over 4,100 taxa of native and naturalized nonnative vascular species (Wunderlin and Hans en, 2003), the third most diverse in the United States. As Florida is the fourth most populated state, it is important to work to conserve and protect the states flora. Several agencies in Florida work to secure large tracts of land in an effort to prevent development and to establish areas of conservation. The S outhwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD or the District) owns many parcels of land for a variety of water management practices including the protection and development of potable water supplies, aquifer recharge, water quality enhancement, restorat ion and protection of natural systems, and structural flood c ontrol (SWFWMD, 1990). The property upon which the inventory was conducted is owne d and managed by SWFWMD. The results of this research are intended to help the Dist rict make knowledge-based management plans for its property.

PAGE 9

Site Overview Physical Location 2 Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park is located in southwestern Pasco County, Florida, near the west coast of central Florida (Figure 1). It is 6.4 km (4 mi) northeast of Seven Springs and 4.4 km (2.75) mi northwest of Odessa. Main access to the Park is Wilderness Road approximately 5.6 km (3.5 mi) from State Road 54. The Park is included within Sections 1, 21, and 26, Township 26 South, Range 17 East and Sections 1011, 13, 22, and 33, Township 25 South, Range 17 East. It comprises approximately 7,689.06 hectares (19,000 acres). A portion considered to represent the major habitats found within the entire park was selected for this inventory. The entire park consists of 18 natural communities. There are 11 natural communities found within the study area. The research site, consisting of approximately 449.6 hectares (1,111 acres), includes portions of Sections 3, 8, and 15, Township 26 South, Range 17 East. The boundaries surrounding the study site comprise a ruderal power line artery along the western edge, a paved biking trail at the northern boundary, an unpaved road running due south along the eastern edge, and the Anclote River as the southern boundary (Figure 5). Figure 1 Location of Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park, Pasco County, Florida

PAGE 10

3 Early Inhabitants The first humans who lived near the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park were aboriginals called the Safety Harbor Culture or the Tocobaga, who inhabited the Florida Gulf coast (Lawson et al. 1981). The period of their i nhabitance was from 900 A.D. through the early eighteenth cen tury (Milanich, 1994). The sett lement area extended from the Withlacoochee River south to the Char lotte Harbor area, wh ich includes Pasco County (Milanich, 1994). Tocobaga arrowhead s have been unearthed on the Starkey property, suggesting their use of the land to hunt (Lawson et al. 1981). Approximately 33 prehistoric archaeological sites have been identified as temporary campsites for hunting within the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park (SWFWMD, 1990). Hunters on the Starkey property could have or iginated from two different sites. The first was a flint workshop located 3.22 km (2 mi) north of the Anclote River along the coastline. Tarpon Springs was the second archeological site consid ered one of the most famous of all Gulf Coast mounds, at the mouth of the Ancl ote River (Willey, 1949). They cultivated the land and developed pottery. In the eighteen th century after the Spanish established themselves across the state, the remaining Tocobaga were thought to have joined the Creek from further North as they moved s outh seeking refuge fr om persecution by the new settlers. The first legal records pertaining to the ownership of the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park date from 1856, when much of the property was turned over to the Internal Improvement Board (Lawson et al. 1981). In 1883, Hamilton Disstons Florida Land and Improvement Company bought all of the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park property except portions where settlers lived. In 1891, the Florida Land and Improvement

PAGE 11

4 Company sold the land to the Pasco Land Co mpany. Difficult financial times caused the demise of the Pasco Land Company. In 1895, Emily Lyon bought the property. A portion of the land was bought from her and owned pr ivately. They used the land to harvest turpentine, to hunt wild game, and to harv est Spanish moss. The area does contain two historical remains of old turpentine camps. These are identified by the rotting timber, tin roof, and broken clay vessels (SWFWMD, 1990). In 1910, Lyon Lumber Company was given the land by Emily Lyon. The Lyon and Dowling Lumber Companies harvested cypress and pine from the land and extricated the lumber via a narrow gauge railroad. In 1929, the land reverted back to the State for un paid taxes, before the Phoenix Tax Title Corporation paid the back taxes and acquired the property (Lawson et al. 1981). In 1937, Jay B. Starkey and Erne st, Dave, and Howard Cunningham bought over 6070.31 hectares (15,000 acres) for $3.46 per hectare ($1.40 per acre) and assumption of back taxes (Lawson et al ., 1981). The C-S (Cunningham-Starkey) Ranch was used to raise cattle by both families. As land values we nt up and cattle yields decreased, the land was often sold to developers. Jay. B. Starkey, Sr. outlived his partners and sold the cattle and the equipment to his son Jay. B. Starkey, Jr The senior Starkey still lived and worked the land with his son for cattle ranching and later during World War II, and even converted a smaller portion of la nd into an orange grove. Over the years, items such as timber, pine stumps, and resin were sold to provide extra income. In 1975, as the population increased in the county, Jay B. Star key, Sr. decided to preserve the land from development by selling sections to the Sout hwest Water Management District (Lawson et al. 1981).

PAGE 12

Acquisition History In 1937, Jay B. Starkey, Sr. and his partners bought 6,070.3 hectares (15,000 acres) that included the land that eventually became Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park (Starkey, 1980). After buying out his partners and coming to terms with the hardship of making a profit, Jay B. Starkey, Sr. and Jay B. Starkey, Jr. decided to sell part of the land to the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD). This process started in 1973 with the understanding that SWFWMD would maintain the land in its natural state (Lawson et al., 1981). By 1980, SWFWMD had acquired 1,407.9 hectares (3,479 acres) (Wells, 2004). From 1980 to 1986, the District was able to purchase another 1,358.9 hectares (3,358 acres) and between 1990 and 1999, SWFWMD obtained an additional 584.7 hectares (1,445 acres) to add to the Wilderness Park. The District further purchased 4,210.4 hectares (10,404 acres) in 2000 and 2001. Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park, managed by SWFWMD, now comprises approximately 18,875.9 acres. Only a small portion of the study area was part of the original transactions in 1975 and 1976. Another small parcel was bought by SWFWMD in 1982. The majority of the study area, contained in Sections 9 and 16, Township 26 South, Range 17 East, was purchased in 1984. Additional pieces were bought in 1990 and 2000. 8 Figure 2 Map of Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park with the study area outlined 5

PAGE 13

6 Disturbances Affecting the Study Area With the exception of the effects of cattle grazing and other minor improvements, the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park has undergone few changes despite the need to accommodate the growing population living in Pasco County. The west boundary for the study site is the right-of-way for the Florida Power Corporation electrical transmission line. This 46 m (150 ft) wide artery was c onstructed in the 1970s (SWFWMD, 1990). In order to maintain the right-of-way the ar ea is frequently cleared mechanically. In addition, SWFWMD did build at least 14 activ e production water wells within the Park (SWFWMD, 1990). These wells pump water from the Park to provide potable water for the city of New Port Richey. There are thr ee production wells with in the research area (Figure 5). To maintain Jay B. Starkeys agreement, the Park remains open for a number of recreational opportunities. In order to provide these recreational activities, SWFWMD constructed a paved road, hiking/biking trails horse riding trails, primitive camp sites, and semi-primitive road beds. A number of these features occur within the study area as well (Figure 5). The most recent disruption within the research site was a wildfire that was believed to have started from a lightning st rike June 3, 2004. After surviving the night, the wildfire consumed approximately 162 hect ares (400 acres) on J une 4, many of which were within the study site (Holan, 2004). Th e fire consumed a band of land through the center of the study area (Figure 5). This fire occurred towards the end of the research collection period and thus had li ttle impact on data collection.

PAGE 14

7 Management Regimes The management plan devised and implemented by SWFWMD (1990) includes several conceptual land uses. The most importa nt function for the District is to manage the well field withdrawals. The consumptive use permit renewed in 1979 allows the city of New Port Richey to withdraw 30 to 57 million liters per day from the 14 wells within the Park (SWFWMD, 1990). This water wit hdrawal has produced shorter hydroperiods, lower peak water levels, increased rates of succession into wetland areas, and unusual plant associations (SWFWMD, 1990). To manage areas of historical si gnificance SWFWMD pr otects them from disturbance by keeping hiking and horse-ri ding trails away fro m them. SWFWMD has opened the Park for low intensity resource-b ased recreation, buildi ng facilities for local use (SWFWMD, 1990). These recreational faci lities are managed by Pasco County. They include hiking, biking, horse riding, birding, camping, and any other non-motorized activities. The hiking/biking trails are separate from the horse riding trails to avoid safety hazards. Hunting is only permitted under contract from the District. Land management practices exercised by the SWFWMD include a number of ways to improve or preserve the quality of the property. The District uses prescribed burning to maintain the habitat communities and to restore habitats. During the summer months, there is greater t hunderstorm activity causing hi gher lightning frequency giving way to natural wildfires, which SWFWMD ha s to contain and control. The District normally burns during the winter months in order to limit and control the fire (SWFWMD, 1990). A population of feral hogs has disturbed th e soil while rooting, causing damage to

PAGE 15

some habitats and previously preserved historical sites (Figure 3). Part of the management plan is to reduce or minimize their impact. Figure 3 Disturbance caused by feral hogs 8

PAGE 16

9 Climate The climate of Pasco County is humid and subtropical (Chen and Gerber, 1990). The constant cyclical pattern consists of cool, dry winters and warm, humid summers. Annual mean temperature is 22C (SWFWMD, 1988). During th e winter months, December through February, the monthly mean temperature is 16C. The temperature will usually drop to freezing temperatures at least once a year. During the summer months, from June to September, the mont hly mean temperature is about 27C, with highs reaching about 33C. Rainfall in Pasco County varies seasona lly, oscillating betw een the rainy season and the dry season (SWFWMD, 1988). From Oc tober to May, rainfall is less than 10.2 cm (4 in) per month. During the summer m onths, June through September, the area receives about 18.4 cm (7.25 in) of rainfall per month. This accounts for about half of the rainfall for the year. In spring, central Florida, including Pasc o County, experiences harsher and longer, dry droughtlike conditions than either no rthern or southern Florida (Chen and Gerber, 1990). The high amounts of ra in that fall from June to September are attributed to the convective clouds, sea bree zes, and tropical storms. By the beginning of October, the rainfall decreases by about 50 percent from the summer months, indicating the beginning of the dry period.

PAGE 17

10 Geology The geology underlying Jay B. Starke y Wilderness Park is the Suwannee Formation deposited during the Oligocene epoc h of the Tertiary period (34 to 24 MYBP) (Scott et al 2001). This formation is a yellow to white, fossiliferous, fine-grained limestone (Wetterhall, 1964). It is a very porous formation that contains the Upper Floridan Aquifer. Below the Suwannee Formation are the Ocala and Avon Park Formations, both deposited during the Eocene ep och of the Tertiary period (55 to 34 MYBP). Both formations are also important parts of the Floridan aquifer system. Soils The soils found within the study site represent two general types. The first soil type is Chobee, which is a very poorly dr ained soil with a near ly level topography, usually found below swamps and river floodplai ns. This soil type normally has a dark surface layer of sandy loam with layers of calcareous gray and green sandy clay loam about 127 cm (50 in) below the surface layer (Stankey, 1982). The second more predominant soil, found under flatwoods and depressions, is the Pomona-EaugallieSellers, which is poorly drained to very poorly -drained, with an al most level topography. This soil unit consists of a bout 35 percent Pomona soils, 14 percent Eaugallie soils, 13 percent Sellers soils, and about 38 percen t of minor soil types (Stankey, 1982). In the study area the Pomona-Eaugallie-Sellers soil type is made up of nine of the minor soils as well as Pomona and Sellers. The Eaugallie soil type is lacking from the study area. There are twelve distinct soil types f ound within the study site (Figure 4). The most dominant types are: (1) C hobee soils, frequently flooded, 1.01 km 2 (250 acres); (2) Adamsville fine sand, 0.845 km 2 (209 acres); (3) Myakka fine sand, 0.578 km 2 (143

PAGE 18

11 acres); (4) Immokal ee fine sand, 0.518 km 2 (128 acres); and (5) Se llers mucky loamy fine sand, 0.461 km 2 (114 acres). The other soil types pr esent are (6) Pomona fine sand, 0.356 km 2 (88 acres); (7) Pomello fine sa nd: 0 to 5 percen t slopes, 0.291 km 2 (72 acres); (8) Wauchula fine sand: 0 to 5 percent slopes, 0.170 km 2 (42 acres); (9) Cassia fine sand: 0 to 5 percent slopes, 0.121 km 2 (30 acres); (10) Smyrna fine sand, 0.069 km 2 (17 acre); (11) Paola fine sand, 0.040 km 2 (10 acres); and (12) Basinger fine sand, 0.036 km 2 (9 acres) (Stankey, 1982).

PAGE 19

Figure 4 Map of soil types in the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area Legend Study Area Roads Trails StreamSoil types Adamsville fine sand Basinger fine sand Cassia fine sand Chobee soils Immokalee fine sand Myakka fine sand Paola fine sand Pomello fine sand Pomona fine sand Sellers mucky loamy soil Smyrna fine sand Wauchula fine sand 05001,0001,5002,000250Meters 12

PAGE 20

13 Topography and Hydrology Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park is lo cated in the Gulf Coastal Lowlands physiographic province (SWFWMD, 1988), which is characterized by low elevations and poor drainage. Within the research area, th e elevation ranges from 9.14 to 16.76 m (30 to 55 feet) (USGS, 1974) (Figure 5). The swamp and river floodplain area ranged from 9.14 to 10.66 m (30 to 35 feet). The majority of the area has an elevation of 10.66 to 12.19 m (35 to 40 feet). The only area that reaches 15.24 to 16.76 m (50 to 55 feet) in elevation is just above the south hiking/ biking trail along the eastern boundary covered by the study area boundary line. The Anclote River located primarily in Pasco County is about 27.36 km (17 miles) long. About 8.05 km (5 miles) of th e Anclote, excluding the south branch, are within the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Pa rk boundaries (SWFWMD, 1990). The southern border for the study site is an approximately 3.22 km (2 miles) section of the Anclote River (Figure 5). The Anclote is characterized as a slow moving, turbid, acidic, black water stream. The channel is not more than 6 m wide at any point along the southern boundary of the study area. The heavy shade from hardwoods limits the diversity of aquatic flora. During low flow stage, the stream is conf ined to the channel. As the rainy season starts, the Anclote quickly overflows its banks inundating the floodplain forest, which remains this way for two to three months. When the river overflows its banks, the water flowing into the floodplain removes waste and provides nutrients to the floodplain community (FNAI, 1990). The sediment load se ttles out as the water moves out of the channel. Heavier sediments are deposited first closer to the channel due to their weight,

PAGE 21

and finer, lighter sediments settle out more slowly further away from the channel. Legend Study Area Roads Trails Topography Anclote River Burned area 05001,0001,5002,000250Meters Anclote River305045403555453545404040404035454545404550454550 Contour Interval 5 ft Figure 5 Map of Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area topography including the burn site, trails, and unpaved roads 14

PAGE 22

15 METHODS Vascular plant specimen vouchers we re collected from May 2003 to October 2004 using standard field collec tion and herbarium techniques. Notes were made for each collection regarding the hab itat and frequency of occurr ence. One complete set of voucher specimens was deposited at the Univer sity of South Florida Herbarium (USF). The floras of Wunderlin (1998) and Wunder lin and Hansen (2003) were utilized for identifications, followed by verification with specimens in the USF herbarium. Vascular plants of special interest include those taxa that are Federal and/or State listed species (threatened and endangered) and exotic species listed by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC) (Wunderlin and Hansen, 2004). Plant species that are new county records as determined by the Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (Wunderlin and Hansen, 2004) are noted. The classification of communities fou nd within the study area follows those described by Florida Natural Areas I nventory (FNAI) (FNAI, 1990). The different communities are described and include the dominant species found within each layer (overstory, understory, and herbaceous gr ound layer) of the community. The photographs included were taken from June 2004 through October 2004.

PAGE 23

16 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A total of 475 taxa were collected wi thin the study area in Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park between May 2003 and Oct ober 2004. Vouchers were deposited in the University of South Florida Herbarium (USF). The flora found within the study area is comprised of 104 families and 269 genera (Table 1). The families with the greatest number of taxa are: Asteraceae (66), Poaceae (58), Cyperaceae (37), and Fabaceae (26). The genera with the most abundant taxa are: Rhyncospora (12), Quercus (10), Hypericum (10), Xyris (8), Ludwigia (8), Tillandsia (7), Dichanthelium (7), Panicum (7), Paspalum (7), Asclepias (6), and Polygala (6). Approximately 92% of the flora in th e study area is native and 8% non-native. Sixteen (3%) of the species found are endemi c to Florida (Table 2). Four of the 39 nonnative taxa are listed by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLE PPC, 2003) (Table 3). Thirty two taxa are county records fo r Pasco County (Wunderlin and Hansen, 2004). Twelve taxa are listed as threatened, enda ngered, or commercially exploited (Coile and Garland, 2003) (Table 4). All of the listed va scular plants are lis ted by the State and do not appear on the Federal list.

PAGE 24

17 Table 1 Synopsis of the Vascular Plants found in the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area. Taxa Genera Families Endemics Non-Native County Records Pteridophytes 12 9 7 0 1 2 Gymnosperms 7 4 3 0 0 0 Monocotyledons 158 69 23 2 17 13 Dicotyledons 298 187 71 13 21 17 Totals 475 269 104 15 39 32 Table 2 Taxa endemic to Florida and occurring in the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area. Asclepias feayi Garberia heterophylla Asimina obovata Mecardonia acuminata subsp peninsularis Asimina reticulata Micranthemum glomeratum Bigelowia nudata subsp. australis Phoebanthus grandiflorus Callisia ornata Polygala rugelii Carphephorus odoratissimus var. subtropicanus Scutellaria arenicola Chrysopsis subulata Stipulicida setacea var lacerata Coreopsis leavenworthii Tillandsia simulata

PAGE 25

18 Table 3 Non-native taxa found in the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area listed by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC, 2003) Category I Category II Panicum repens Rhynchelytrum repens Cinnamomum camphora Urena lobata Table 4 Endangered, Threatened, or Commercially Exploited Vascular Plant taxa in the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park st udy area (Coile and Garland, 2003). Endangered Threatened Commercially Exploited Tillandsia utriculata Garberia heterophylla Encyclia tampensis Lilium catesbaei Epidendrum conopseum Lobelia cardinalis Osmunda cinnamomea Pteroglossaspis ecristata Osmunda regalis var spectabilis Spiranthes laciniata Zephyranthes atamasca var treatiae Zamia pumila

PAGE 26

19 Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park consists of 18 natural communities. Within the study area (449.6 hectares or 1,111 acres), th ere are 11 distinct natural communities. Comparing the park with the study site shows th e study area is represen tative of the entire park (Table 5). The communities that fall out side the boundaries of the study area are not dominant communities making up a large portion of the park. This makes the plant list compiled for the study area representative fo r the majority of the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park. Table 5 Summary of Natural Communities (18) in Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park (SWP) and the selected study area (11) (SA) Natural Community SWP (hectares) SA (hectares) Natural Community SWP (hectares) SA (hectares) Basin Marsh 101.2 Oak Scrub 70.4 Basin Swamp 1422.1 61.5 Pine Plantation 22.2 Clastic Upland Lake 10.9 Ruderal and Disturbed 888.3 0.4 Depression Marsh 48.6 2.0 Sand Pine Scrub 206.0 20.2 Dome Swamp 234.7 10.5 Sandhill 275.6 34.4 Dry Prairie 0.8 Scrubby Flatwoods 331.4 40.5 Floodplain Forest 746.2 64.3 Wet Flatwoods 79.3 Hydric Hammock 28.3 Wet Prairie 40.9 4.0 Mesic Flatwoods 3005.6 207.2 Xeric Hammock 227.0 4.0

PAGE 27

Figure 6 Map of the natural communities in the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area Legend Study Area Roads Trails Anclote RiverNatural Communities Ruderal Basin swamp Depression marsh Dome swamp Floodplain forest Mesic flatwoods Pasture improved Sand pine scrub Sandhill Scrubby flatwoods Wet prairie Xeric hammock 05001,0001,5002,000250Meters Anclote River 20

PAGE 28

21 The Natural Communities The community classification for natura l communities found within the study area follows the Florida Natural Ar eas and Inventory guidelines (FNAI, 1990, 2004). The communities within the study area are discusse d from the lowest elevation type to the highest followed by the ruderal and disturbed area. Floodplain Forest The floodplain forest community is a forested wetland that consists of 64.3 hectares (159 acres) adjacent to the River. Th e soil below this community is Chobee soil (Stankey, 1982). Flooding in this community is closely linked to the rain events that persist throughout the summe r months (Ewel, 1990). The dominant tree species that make up the overstory of the floodplain forest are Taxodium distichum, Sabal palmetto, Ilex cassine, Carpinus caroliniana, Nyssa sylvatica var biflora, Quercus laurifolia, Quercus vi rginiana, Persea palustris, Fraxinus caroliniana, Acer rubrum, Ulmus alata, and Ulmus americana. Some of these species are buttressed due to the long hydroperiods e ndured throughout the ra iny season. Noteworthy epiphytic species are Tillandsia spp., Pleopeltis polypodioides, Encyclia tampensis, and Epidendrum conopseum. The woody understory includes Toxicodendron radicans, Campsis radicans, Berchemia scandens, Cephal anthus occidentalis, Psychotria nervosa, and Psychotria sulzneri. The herbaceous ground layer consists of a number of pteridophytes including Blechnum serrulatum, Woodwar dia areolata, Woodwardia virginica, Osmunda cinnamomea, Osmunda regalis, and Thelypteris interrupta. Also

PAGE 29

common are Carex gigantea, Rhyncospora miliacea, Scleria triglomerata, Hypoxis curtissii, Iris hexagona, Spiranthes odorata, and Saururus cernuus. A non-native species found along the unimproved trails into the floodplain forest is Urena lobata. Figure 7 Floodplain forest in the southern end of the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area 22

PAGE 30

23 Basin Swamp A basin swamp is a large irregularly-shape d depression that is not part of the river, although during the rai ny season it may be connected via surface flow to the river (FNAI, 1990). This region is vegetated by speci es similar to the floodplain forest. The soil types below the basin swamps in the study area are composed of Chobee soil and Sellers mucky loamy fine sand (Stankey, 1982); both of these are fr equently inundated with water. The study area cont ains 61.5 hectares (152 acres) th at are delineated as basin swamp. The largest basin swamp in the study ar ea is located in the middle of the lower half of the area and it appear s as though it was an oxbow originating from the Anclote River. The dominant overstory species include Taxodium distichum, Ilex cassine, Carpinus caroliniana, Nyssa sylvatica var biflora, Diospyros virginiana, Persea palustris, Fraxinus caroliniana, Acer rubrum, Gordonia lasianthus, Ulmus alata, and Ulmus americana. The basin swamp also contains a num ber of epiphytic species such as Tillandsia recurvata, Tillandsia simulata, Tillandsia usneoides Tillandsia x floridana, and Pleopeltis polypodioides. The dominant woody understory species found are Lyonia lucida, Myrica cerifera, and Cephalanthus occidentalis. The herbaceous ground layer species consists primarily of Sagittaria lancifolia Peltandra virginica Carex spp., Cladium jamaicense, Cyperus spp., Eleocharis spp., Scleria spp., Eriocaulon decangulare, Juncus spp., Amphicarpum muhlenbergianum, Leersia hexandra, Panicum hemitomon Pontederia cordata, Rhexia spp., and Saururus cernuus.

PAGE 31

Figure 8 Basin swamp located in the middle of the lower half of the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area Dome Swamp Dome Swamps are found throughout the study area. These circular to oblong depressions contain Sellers mucky loamy fine sand, a very poorly-drained soil type (Stankey, 1982). An impermeable clay layer beneath the soil helps maintain water levels in these depressions. The depression is due to the soils slumping into sinkholes formed in the limestone rock (FNAI, 1990). Most of the water found in the swamp is surface runoff from surrounding upland communities. The dome may become completely desiccated at the end of the dry season, exposing the peat layer for a couple of weeks. These areas have 24

PAGE 32

25 a domed profile from smaller trees in the sha llow water near the edge and larger trees in the middle of the swamp in the deeper wa ter (FNAI, 2004). The study area contains 10.5 hectares (26 acres) of dome swamp. The dominant tree in the dome is Taxodium ascendens. Other prominent overstory species include Ilex cassine, Persea palustris Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora, Diospyros virginiana, and Acer rubrum Epiphytic species, similar to those of the floodplain forest and basin swamp, include Tillandsia recurvata, Tillandsia simulata, Tillandsia usneoides, Tillandsia x floridana, and Pleopeltis polypodioides. A rare find in one of the swamps was the epiphytic Vittaria lineata. Typical woody understory species are Smilax laurifolia, Toxicodendron radicans Myrica cerifera, and Lyonia lucida. The herbaceous ground layer includes pteridophytes Woodwardia areolata, Woodwardia virginica, and Thelypteris interrupta Other ground layer species are Rhynchospora latifolia, Xyris spp., Spiranthes laciniata Helenium pinnatifidum, Drosera capillaries, Polygala cymosa, and Polygonum hydropiperoides.

PAGE 33

Figure 9 A dome swamp located within the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area Figure 10 The inside of a dome swamp within the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area 26

PAGE 34

Depression Marsh Depression marshes are similar in vegetation to basin swamps (FNAI, 1990). They are characterized by low depressions in the flatwoods community due to slumping around the edges of a sinkhole or water collecting on top of a hardpan subsurface layer. Two hectares (5 acres) of depression marsh occur in the study area. The soil types found below the depression marshes are Adamsville fine sand and Basinger fine sand. These regions typically do not contain any overstory species. Woody species include Ilex glabra, Hypericum fasciculatum, Stillingia aquatica, and Myrica cerifera. The herbaceous ground layer contains Carex spp., Cyperus spp., Eleocharis spp., Scleria spp., Eriocaulon decangulare, Lachnanthes caroliana, Juncus spp., Amphicarpum muhlenbergianum, Panicum hemitomon, Xyris spp., Rhexia spp., and Sabatia grandiflora. Figure 11 Depression marsh found within the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area 27

PAGE 35

Wet Prairie Four hectares (10 acres) of the study area is covered by an open wetland herbaceous community. This is often found within the mesic flatwoods or surrounding the fringe of a dome or basin swamp. The underlying soil types are Basinger fine sand and Myakka fine sand (Stankey, 1982). The area is poorly drained due to the subsoil layer of hardpan clay. The wet prairie includes some invading hardwood species: Ilex glabra, Hypericum fasciculatum, Stillingia aquatica, and Myrica cerifera. The herbaceous ground layer primarily consists of Carex spp., Cyperus spp., Eleocharis spp., Fimbrystylis spp., Scleria spp., Eriocaulon decangulare, Syngonanthus flavidulus, Lachnanthes caroliana, Juncus spp., Aletris lutea, Aristida stricta, Amphicarpum muhlenbergianum, Panicum hemitomon, Xyris spp., Eupatorium mohrii, Drosera capillaries, Rhexia mariana, Polygala spp., and Sabatia spp.. 28 Figure 12 Wet prairie located above the large basin swamp within the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area

PAGE 36

29 Mesic Flatwoods The most dominant fire adapted community found in the study area (207 hectares or 512 acres) is mesic flatwoods. This comm unity has a relatively flat topography. The dominant soil types found beneath this commun ity are Immokalee fine sand, Myakka fine sand, and Smyrna fine sand. These soils norma lly have low levels of nutrients and organic matter (FNAI, 2004). A hardpan cl ay layer under the soil causes poor water drainage in the rainy season and xeric conditions during the dry season (FNAI, 1990). This is a stressful environment for plants. Pl ants are either dealing with too much water constantly keeping their roots wet, or too little water avai lable as their roots are unable to penetrate through the hardpan layer. The overstory layer present in this community is composed of Pinus palustris and Pinus elliottii. These pines are widely spaced across the community allowing for a dense woody understory layer. The understory layer includes Serenoa repens, Ilex glabra, and Lyonia lucida. Smaller understory layer species are Gaylussacia dumosa, Vaccinium corymbosum Vaccinium myrsinites, and Quercus minima. The rich herbaceous ground layer includes Pteridium aquilinum, Amphica rpum muhlenbergianum, Aristida stricta, Dichanthelium ensifo lium, Dichanthelium portoricense, Sorghastrum secundum, Elephantopus elatus, Eupatorium m ohrii, Euthamia caroliniana, Pityopsis graminifolia, Pterocaulon pycnostachyum, Seymeria cassioides, Polygala lutea, and Polygala setacea.

PAGE 37

Figure 13 Mesic flatwoods located on the northeast edge of the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area Sandhill The sandhill community makes up 34.3 hectares (85 acres) of the study area. There are two areas; both are high in elevation at 12.19.24 m (40 ft) that has topography consisting of hills and gentle slopes. The underlying soil beneath both of these sandhill communities is the Adamsville fine sand, which is also found under the scrubby flatwoods community within the park. The deep sandy soils that are easily leached and well drained create xeric characteristics in this community. The overstory layer is intermittent, allowing sunlight to reach the ground layer, which also adds to the 30

PAGE 38

xeric condition. The dominant overstory species include Pinus palustris, Quercus laevis, Quercus incana, and Quercus margaretta. Understory species include Serenoa repens, Rhus copallinum, Asimina obovata, Asimina reticulata, Licania michauxii, Diospyros virginiana, Gaylussacia dumosa, Quercus minima, and Myrica cerifera. The herbaceous ground cover layer consists primarily of Rhynchospora megalocarpa, Aristida stricta, Dichanthelium portoricense Sorghastrum secundum, Asclepias humistrata, Balduina angustifolia, Phoebanthus grandiflorus, Pityopsis graminifolia, and Pterocaulon pycnostachyum. Figure 14 Sandhill community inside the northwest section of the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area 31

PAGE 39

32 Scrubby Flatwoods Forty hectares (100 acres) of scrubby flatwoods occur within the study area. The community found in the study area is encircled by the bridle path (Figure 5). The soil type under the scrubby flatwoods is Adamsville fine sand (Stankey, 1982). The vegetation is made up of a mixt ure of mesic flatwoods and sa nd pine scrub species. It is characterized by an open pine canopy with sp arse scattered clumps of oak species and patches of open sand (FNAI, 1990). In the study area a number of the Pinus palustris had the epiphyte Tillandsia x floridana growing on them (Figure 16). The species found in the oversto ry of this community include Pinus palustris, Pinus clausa, Quercus chapmanii Quercus geminata, and Quercus myrtifolia. The dense understory layer contains Serenoa repens, Garberia hete rophylla, Lyonia ferruginea Lyonia fruticosa, and Ximenia americana. The herbaceous ground layer is contains Pteridium aquilinum, Rhynchospora megalocarpa, Aristida spiciformis, Aristida stricta, Dichanthelium portoricense Carphephorus corymbosus, and Lupinus diffusus.

PAGE 40

Figure 15 Scrubby flatwoods found within the loop in the southeast section of the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area Figure 16 Pinus palustris with the epiphyte Tillandsia x floridana 33

PAGE 41

34 Sand Pine Scrub This community develops along the ri dgeline of ancient dune formations composed of very fine sand sometimes referred to as sugar sand. There is one area containing a scrub community totaling 20.2 he ctares (50 acres) within the study area along the western boundary. The soil under the sand pine scrub is Pomello fine sand (Stankey, 1982). These fine sands allow rain water to quickly percolate down to the aquifer creating a xeric growing condition (FNAI, 1990). The scrub can have an open or closed canopy consisting of Pinus clausa with various oaks and shrubs dominating the understory. Normally this community type e xhibits patches of exposed sand, however in the study area there are very few The scrub found within the study area has mature Pinus clausa, an indication of fire suppression. Under the Pinus clausa, the dominant overstory consists of Quercus geminata, Quercus myrtifolia, and Quercus chapmanii. The understory shrub layer contains Serenoa repens, Asimina obovata, Garberia heterophylla, Licania michauxii, Ceratiola ericoides, Lyonia ferruginea Lyonia fruticosa, and Ximenia americana. The herbaceous ground cover is sparse; howe ver some common herbs found there are Rhynchospora megalocarpa Pityopsis graminifolia, and Palafoxia intergrifolia.

PAGE 42

Figure 17 Sand pine scrub along the power line artery along the western edge of the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area Xeric Hammock Xeric hammock is considered a degraded fire-excluded scrub or sandhill community (FNAI, 1990). The xeric hammock in the study area is an advanced sandhill community. Four hectares (10 acres) of this community is found on the fringes of the northern sandhill community (Figure 5). The hammock occurs on two soil types Adamsville fine sand and Immokalee fine sand. The community lacks a closed overstory canopy. A low canopy is present from the shrub layer dominated by oaks. The overstory species consist of Pinus palustris (few), Quercus geminata, and 35

PAGE 43

Quercus laevis. The dense woody understory consists primarily of Serenoa repens, Licania michauxii, Lyonia fruticosa, Quercus chapmanii, and Quercus myrtifolia. The herbaceous ground layer includes Pteridium aquilinum, Rhynchospora megalocarpa, Aristida stricta, Dichanthelium portoricense, and Galactia elliotii. Figure 18 The xeric hammock found within the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness study area 36

PAGE 44

37 Ruderal and Disturbed Sites The ruderal area within the study area includes areas of disturbance due to anthropogenic changes. This encompasses pa ved roads, unpaved roads, hiking trails, horse riding trails, well pump houses, improved pasture, and the fringe of the power line artery. Ruderal areas generally have the highest number of no n-native species growing in or along them. The improved pasture about half a hectare in the study area is where the native habitat was converted into grazing land by clearing and planting non-native species. The ruderal roads, trails, and power line sites contain a high number of nonnative species because of the recent disturbances caused by their construction and subsequent use. The most prominent non-native is Paspalum notatum followed by Crotalaria spp., Indigofera hirsuta, and Ludwigia peruviana. The Southwest Water Management District has worked to manage these rudera l areas to encourage native species to recolonize the area.

PAGE 45

Figure 19 The improved pasture area in Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area Figure 20 Ruderal disturbed area along the west side of the Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park study area 38

PAGE 46

39 Annotated List of the Vascular Flora The vascular flora of the study area at Jay B. Starkey Wilderness Park in the following list is documented by vouchered specimen in the USF Herbarium. The list is divided into four major sections: pter idophytes, gymnosperms, monocotyledons, and dicotyledons. Within these sect ios the list is then arranged alphabetically by family, genus, and species. The nomenclature follows the Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (Wunderlin and Hansen, 2004). Each species and infraspecific taxon is followed by a common name and its frequency of occurrence. The frequency of occu rrence is given as: R, rare, less than four individuals found; O, occasional, between four and 15 plants not ed; and C, common, more than 15 plants in the immediate area. Following the frequency of occurrence, the natural community from which the species was collected is noted. The natural communities include: BS, basin Swamp; DM, depression marsh; DS, dome swamp; FF, forest floodplain; MF, mesic flatwoods; RD, ruderal and di sturbed areas include the power lines, road beds, and improved pasture; SH, sandhill; SF, scrubby flatwoods; SP, sand pine scrub; WP, wet prairie; and XH, xeric hammock. The numbers in brackets at the end of each species ar e the collector number(s). Species of special note are indicated us ing specific symbols or font. Species endemic to Florida are listed in bold font. Non-native species are marked with an asterisk. New records for Pasco County are indicated by an underline. Those exotic species listed by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council are listed with their ranking. Category I species

PAGE 47

40 alter Floridas natural plant community by displacing native species and changing the structure of the community (FLEPPC, 2003). Ca tegory II species have the ability in the future to alter Floridas natural plant comm unities by displacing natives and changing the community structure (FLEPPC, 2003). Pteridophytes (Ferns and Fern allies) Blechnaceae Blechnum serrulatum Rich.toothed midsorus fern; C; DS (116, 498, 538) Woodwardia areolata (L.) T. Moorenetted chain fern; C; FF (552, 822) Woodwardia virginica (L.) Sm.Virginia chain fern; C; FF (523, 499, 418) Dennstaedtiaceae Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. pseudocaudatum (Clute) A. Hellertailed bracken fern; C; MF (249, 823) Lycopodiaceae Lycopodiella alopecuroides (L.) Cranfillfoxtail club-moss; R; BS (266) Osmundaceae Osmunda cinnamomea L.cinnamon fern; C; FF (347) Osmunda regalis L. var. spectabilis (Willd.) A.Grayroyal fern; O; FF (553, 655) Polypodiaceae Phlebodium aureum (L.) J. Sm.golden polypody; O; DS (579) Pleopeltis polypodioides (L.) E.G. Andrews & Windham var. michauxiana (Weath.) E.G. Andrews & Windhamresurrection fern; C; FF (398) Thelypteridaceae

PAGE 48

41 *Thelypteris dentata (Forssk.) E.P. St. Johndowny maiden fern; O; FF (554, 803) Thelypteris interrupta (Willd.) K. Iwats.hottentot fern; C; FF (354) Vittariaceae Vittaria lineata (L.) Sm.shoestring fern; R; DS (765) Gymnosperms Cupressaceae Juniperus virginiana L.red cedar; R; RD (782) Taxodium ascendens Brongn.pond-cypress; C; DS (170) Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.bald-cypress; C; FF (108) Pinaceae Pinus clausa (Chapm. ex Engelm.) Vasey ex Sarg.sand pine; C; SF (290) Pinus elliottii Engelm.slash pine; C; MF (595) Pinus palustris Mill.longleaf pine; C; MF (581) Zamiaceae Zamia pumila L.Florida arrowroot; R; MF (310) Monocotyledons Agavaceae Yucca filamentosa L.Adams needle; O; SH (91) Alismataceae Sagittaria graminea var. chapmanii J.G. Sm.Chapmans arrowhead; O; FF (480) Sagittaria graminea Michx. var. graminea grassy arrowhead; O; DS (115, 380)

PAGE 49

42 Sagittaria lancifolia L.bulltongue arrowhead; C; DS (528, 716) Amaryllidaceae Zephyranthes atamasca (L.) Herb. var. treatiae (S. Watson) MeerowTreats rainlily; R; FF (665) Araceae Arisaema triphyllum (L.) SchottJack-in-the-pulpit; R; FF (740) Lemna valdiviana Phil.Valdivia duckweed; C; BS (215) Peltandra virginica (L.) Schottgreen arrow arum; R; BS (776) Arecaceae Sabal minor (Jacq.) Pers.dwarf palmetto; C; FF (316) Sabal palmetto (Walter) Lodd. ex Schult. & Schu lt.f.cabbage palm; O; FF (794) Serenoa repens (W. Bartram) Smallsaw palmetto; C; MF (80) Bromeliaceae Tillandsia bartramii ElliottBartrams airplant; C; SH (494) Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L.ballmoss; C; SH (270) Tillandsia setacea Sw.southern needleleaf; C; FF (751) Tillandsia simulata Smallairplant; C; FF (305, 351, 577) Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L.Spanish moss; C; SH (452) Tillandsia utriculata L.giant airplant; O; SH (837) Tillandsia x floridana (L.B. Sm.) H. Luther; C; SF (306) Burmanniaceae Burmannia capitata (J.F. Gmel.) Mart.southern bluethread; O; DS (509) Commelinaceae

PAGE 50

43 Callisia ornata (Small) G.C. TuckerFlorida scrub roseling; O; MF (75, 138) Commelina erecta L.whitemouth dayflower; O; RD (781) *Commelina diffusa Burm. F.common dayflower; O; RD (77) Cyperaceae *Bulbostylis barbata (Rottb.) C.B. Clarkewatergrass; O; RD (838) Carex gigantea Rudgegiant sedge; C; FF (556, 661) Carex longii Mack.Longs sedge; C; FF (546, 558, 602, 830) Carex verrucosa Muhl.warty sedge; C; DS (383, 690, 706) Cladium jamaicense CrantzJamaica swamp sawgrass; C; DS (532) Cyperus croceus VahlBaldwins flat sedge; C; DS (224, 330) Cyperus haspan L.haspan flatsedge; C; DM (571, 539) Cyperus odoratus L.fragrant flatsedge; C; FF (545, 774) Cyperus polystachyos Rottb.manyspike flatsedge; C; DM (160, 243, 295) Cyperus retrorsus Chapm.pinebarren flatsedge; C; DM (136, 247, 293, 410) Cyperus surinamensis Rottb.tropical flatsedge; C; DM (104, 232, 294, 437) Eleocharis baldwinii (Torr.) Chapm.Baldwins sp ikerush; C; DS (423, 430) Eleocharis flavescens (Poir.) Urb.yellow spikerush; C; WP (231, 547) Eleocharis vivipara Linkviviparous spik erush; C; RD (836) Fimbristylis caroliniana (Lam.) FernaldCarolina fimbry; C; WP (221, 864) Fimbristylis cymosa R. Br.hurricanegrass; O; DS (515) *Fimbristylis schoenoides (Retz.) Vahlditch fimbry; O; RD (851) Fuirena breviseta (Coville) Covillesaltmarsh umbr ellasedge; C; DS (169, 513) Fuirena pumila (Torr.) Spreng.dwarf umbre llasedge; C; DS (233)

PAGE 51

44 Fuirena scirpoidea Michx.southern umbrellasedge; C; DS (429) Lipocarpha maculata (Michx.) Torr.American halfcaff sedge; O; DS (847) Rhynchospora cephalantha A. Graybunched beaksedge; C; FF (521, 573, 831) Rhynchospora colorata (L.) H. Pfeiff.starrush whitetop; O; WP (111) Rhynchospora corniculata (Lam.) A.Grayshortbristle horned beaksedge; O; RD (833) Rhynchospora fascicularis (Michx.) Vahlfascicled beaksedge; C; DM (122, 135, 182, 255, 365, 417, 485) Rhynchospora fernaldii GaleFernalds beaksedge; C; MF (329) Rhynchospora intermedia (Chapm.) Brittonpinebarren beaksedge; C; SH (189) Rhynchospora inundata (Oakes) Fernaldnarrowfruit horned beaksedge; C; DS (223, 228, 425) Rhynchospora latifolia (Baldwin) W.W. Thomasgiant whitetop; O; DS (758) Rhynchospora megalocarpa A. Graysandyfield beaksedge; C; SP (432, 786) Rhynchospora microcarpa Baldwin ex A. Graysout hern beaksedge; C; DM (529) Rhyncospora miliacea (Lam.) A. Graymillet beaksedge; C; FF (352) Rhynchospora plumosa Elliottplumed beaksedge; C; MF (416, 678, 681) Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunthwoolgrass; O; DM (780) Scleria baldwinii (Torr.) Steud . Baldwins nutrush; C; WP (742) Scleria reticularis Michx.netted nutrush; C; WP (428, 859) Scleria triglomerata Michx.tall nutgrass; C; SP (187) Eriocaulaceae

PAGE 52

45 Eriocaulon compressum Lam.flattened pipewort; C; WP (510) Eriocaulon decangulare L.tenangle pipewort; O; DS (225, 505) Lachnocaulon anceps (Walter) Morongwhitehead bogbutton; C; RD (85, 334, 526) Syngonanthus flavidulus (Michx.) Ruhlandyellow hatpins; C; MF (674, 703) Haemodoraceae Lachnanthes caroliana (Lam.) DandyCarolina redroot; O; MF (200) Hypoxidaceae Hypoxis curtissii Rosecommon yellow stargrass; C; FF (312) Hypoxis juncea Sm.fringed yellow star grassC; MF (97, 300, 656) Iridacae Iris hexagona WalterDixie iris; C; FF (660) Sisyrinchium nashii E.P. BicknellNashs blue-e yed grass; C; MF (668, 729) Sisyrinchium rosulatum E.P. Bicknellannual blue-eyed grass; R; RD (653) Juncaceae Juncus dichotomus Elliottforked rush; O; DM (548) Juncus effusus L.soft rush; C; DS (402, 537) Juncus elliottii Chapm.bog rush; C; DS (328) Juncus marginatus Rostk.shore rush; C; WP (144, 484, 435, 572) Juncus megacephalus M.A. Curtisbighead rush; C; DM (242) Juncus scirpoides Lam.needlepod rush; C; DS (258, 192, 205, 327) Liliaceae Lilium catesbaei WalterCatesbys lily; O; MF (371)

PAGE 53

46 Melanthiaceae Stenanthium densum (Desr.) Zomlefer & Juddc rowpoison; R; MF (805) Nartheciaceae Aletris lutea Smallyellow colicroot; O; MF (238, 723) Orchidaceae Calopogon tuberosus (L.) Britton et al.tuberous grasspink; R; MF (793) Encyclia tampensis (Lindl.) Smallflorida butterfly orchid; O; FF (662) Epidendrum conopseum R. Br.green-fly orchid; O; FF (350) Habenaria floribunda Lindl.toothpetal false re inorchid; C; BS (594) Pteroglossaspis ecristata (Fernald) Rolfegiant orchid; O; MF (817) Spiranthes laciniata (Small) Ameslacelip ladiestresses; O; DS (764) Spiranthes odorata (Nutt.) Lindl.fragrant ladi estresses; O; FF (566) Spiranthes praecox (Walter) S. Watsongreenvein la diestresses; O; MF (745) *Zeuxine strateumatica (L.) Schltr.soldiers orchid; R; MF (600) Poaceae Amphicarpum muhlenbergianum (Schult.) Hitchc.blue maidencane; C; BS (427, 514, 549) Andropogon brachystachyus Chapm.shortspike bluestem; O; MF (563) Andropogon glomeratus (Walter) Britton et al. var. glomeratus bushy bluestem; O; DS (436) Andropogon glomeratus (Walter) Britton et al. var. glaucopsis (Elliott) C. Mohr.purple bluestem; O; MF (476, 536) Andropogon gyrans AsheElliotts bluestem; C; SH (355, 486, 493, 870)

PAGE 54

47 Andropogon ternarius Michx.splitbeard bluestem; C; SF (469, 475, 492) Andropogon virginicus L. var. decipiens C.S. Campb.broomsedge bluestem; C; MF (471) Aristida palustris (Chapm.) Vaseylongleaf threeawn; O; MF (845) Aristida patula Chapm. ex. Nashtall threeawn; C; DS (407) Aristida purpurascens Poir. var. tenuispica (Hitchc.) AllredHillsboro threeawn; C; MF (562, 596, 680) Aristida spiciformis Elliottbottlebrush threeawn; C; MF (308, 364, 415, 474) Aristida stricta Michx. var. beyrichiana (Trin. & Rupr.) D.B. Wardwiregrass; C; MF (488, 596) Axonopus furcatus (Flgg) Hitchc. big car petgrass; C; RD (801, 829) Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm.common car petgrass; O; RD (857) Cenchrus spinifex Cav.coastal sandbur; C; MF (307, 319, 409) Ctenium aromaticum (Walter) A.W. Woodtoothach egrass; O; MF (519) *Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.Bermudagr ass; O; RD (842) *Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd. ex Asch. & Schweinf.durban crowfootgrass; C; MF (525) Dichanthelium commutatum (Schult.) Gouldvariable wi tchgrass; C; MF (861) Dichanthelium dichotomum (L.) Gouldcypress witc hgrass; C; MF (363, 401, 557) Dichanthelium ensifolium var. ensifolium (Baldwin ex Elliott) Gould witchgrass; C; WP (190, 411, 540, 675, 712, 865) Dichanthelium ensifolium (Baldwin ex Elliott) Gould var. unciphyllum (Trin.)

PAGE 55

48 B.F. Hansen & Wunderlincypre ss witchgrass; O; MF (666) Dichanthelium erectifolium (Nash) Gould & C.A. Clarkerectleaf witchgrass; C; MF (220) Dichanthelium laxiflorum (Lam.) Gouldopenflower w itchgrass; O; MF (800) Dichanthelium portoricense (Desv. ex Ham.) B.F. Hansen & Wunderlin hemlock witchgrass; C; MF (605, 667, 676, 684, 713) Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koelersouthern cr abgrass; O; RD (856) *Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.Indian goosegrass; O; RD (841) *Eragrostis atrovirens (Desf.) Trin. ex Steud.thalia lovegrass; C; WP (229, 257, 575, 583, 844) Eragrostis elliottii S. WatsonElliotts lovegr ass; C; MF (412, 414, 438, 459, 543) Eragrostis secundiflora J. Presl subsp. oxylepis (Torr. ) S.D. Kochred lovegrass; O; MF (811) Eragrostis virginica (Zuccagni) Steud.coastal l ovegrass; C; WP (569) Eustachys petraea (Sw.) Desv.pinewoods finge rgrass; C; MF (164, 244) Leersia hexandra Sw.southern cutgrass; C; DM (542) Panicum anceps Michx.beaked panicum; C; DS (252, 137, 406, 835) Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx.fall panicgrass; O; DM (843) Panicum hemitomon Schult.maidencane; C; DS (753) *Panicum repens L.torpedograss; C; RD; FLEEPC-I (827) Panicum rigidulum Bosc ex Neesredtop panicum; C; BS (439, 490, 848) Panicum verrucosum Muhl.warty panicgrass; C; FF (420)

PAGE 56

49 Panicum virgatum L.switchgrass; C; MF (568) Paspalum floridanaum Michx.Florida paspalum; O; DS (246) Paspalum laeve Michauxfield paspalum; O; WP (184) *Paspalum notatum Flggbahiagrass; O; MF (186) *Paspalum notatum Flgg var. saurae Parodibahaigrass; C; MF (756) Paspalum praecox Walterearly paspalum; C; MF (226, 256) Paspalum setaceum Michx.thin paspalum; C; MF (421, 433, 489, 530, 806) *Paspalum urvillei Steud.vaseygrass; C; WP (245, 757) *Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd.) C.E. Hubb.rose natalgrass; C; MF; FLEPPC-II (809) Saccharum giganteum (Walter) Pers.sugarcane plumegrass; C; DS (424, 550, 582) *Sacciolepis indica (L.) ChaseIndian c upscale; C; DM (862) Sacciolepis striata (L.) NashAmerican cupscale; C; FF (534) Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguelenyellow bristlegrass; C; MF (172, 298) Sorghastrum secundum (Elliott) Nashlopsided i ndiangrass; C; MF (391) Sphenopholis obtusata (Michx.) Scribn.prairie we dgescale; C; FF (692) Sporobolus floridanus Chapm.Florida dropseed; O; MF (431, 863) Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br.smutgrass; C; MF (434) Sporobolus junceus (P.Beauv.) Kunthpineywoods dropseed; O; MF (763) Urochloa platyphylla (Munro ex C. Wright) R.D. Websterbroadleaf signalgrass; O; RD (883) Pontederiaceae

PAGE 57

50 Pontederia cordata L.pickerelweed; C; BS (109) Smilacaceae Smilax auriculata Walterearleaf greenbrier; C; SH (315) Smilax bona-nox L.saw greenbrier; C; FF (555, 672) Smilax glauca Waltercat greenbrier; O; FF (818) Smilax laurifolia L.laurel greenbrier; C; BS (522, 561, 592) Smilax pumila Waltersarsaparilla vine; O; SF (689) Typhaceae Typha latifolia L.broadleaf cattail; O; WP (773) Xyridaceae Xyris ambigua Beyr. ex Kunthcoastalplain yell oweyed grass; C; MF (145, 165) Xyris brevifolia Michx.shortleaf yelloweyed grass; O; RD (644) Xyris caroliniana WalterCarolina yelloweyed grass; C; MF (139, 814) Xyris difformis Chapm.bog yelloweyed grass; O; FF (166) Xyris elliottii Chapm.Elliotts yelloweyed grass; C; WP (133) Xyris fimbriata Elliottfringed yelloweye d grass; C; DS (389) *Xyris jupicai Rich.Richards yelloweyed grass; C; RD (544) Xyris platylepis Chapm.tall yelloweyed grass; C; WP (214) Dicotyledons Acanthaceae Dyschoriste oblongifolia (Michx.) Kuntzeoblongleaf twinflower; O; SH (750) Ruellia ciliosa Purshciliate wild petunia; O; SH (322) Adoxaceae

PAGE 58

51 Sambucus nigra L. subsp. canadensis (L.) BolliAmerican elder; O; BS (769) Viburnum obovatum WalterWalters viburnum; C; FF (346, 686) Amaranthaceae *Chenopodium ambrosioides L.Mexican tea; C; RD (789) Froelichia floridana (Nutt.) Moq.cottonw eed; C; SH (194) Anacardiaceae Rhus copallinum L.winged sumac; O; SH (361) Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntzeeastern po ison ivy; C; DS (533) Annonaceae Asimina angustifolia Raf.slimleaf pawpaw; O; SH (718) Asimina obovata (Willd.) Nashbig flower pawpaw; C; SP (650, 704, 785) Asimina reticulata Shuttlew. ex Chapm.netted pawpaw; C; SH (449, 636) Apiaceae Eryngium baldwinii Spreng.Baldwins eryngo; O; FF (87, 737) Eryngium yuccifolium Michx.button rattlesnakemaster; O; SH (143) Oxypolis filiformis (Walter) Brittonwater cowbane; C; RD (426, 578) Ptilimnium capillaceum (Michx.) Raf.mock bishopsweed; C; DM (105, 759, 790) Apocynaceae Asclepias feayi Chapm. ex A. GrayFlorida milkweed; C; MF (78, 96) Asclepias humistrata Walterpinewoods milkweed; C; SH (696) Asclepias longifolia Michx.longleaf milkweed; O; WP (227) Asclepias pedicellata WalterSavannah milkweed; O; MF (212)

PAGE 59

52 Asclepias tomentosa Elliottvelvetleaf milkweed; O; SH (810) Asclepias tuberosa L.butterflyweed; O; SH (88) Aquifoliaceae Ilex cassine L.dahoon; C; FF (397) Ilex glabra (L.) A. Gray gallberry; C; DM (259, 362, 450) Araliaceae Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.spadeleaf; C; DS (819) Hydrocotyle umbellata L.manyflower marshpennywort; C; DS (654, 721) Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb.whorled marshpennywort; O; FF (804) Asteraceae Acmella oppositifolia (Lam.) R.K. Jansen var. repens (Walter) R.K. Jansen oppositeleaf spotflower; O; DM (468) Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.common ragweed; C; MF (296, 318) Baccharis halimifolia L.groundsel tree; C; SH (455, 477) Balduina angustifolia (Pursh) B.L. Robcoastalplain honeycombhead; C; SH (208, 267, 271) Bidens alba (L.) DC. var. radiata (Sch. Bip) R.E. Ballard ex Melchert beggarticks; C; RD (285) Bigelowia nudata (Michx.) DC. subsp. australis L.C. Andersonpineland rayless goldenrod; C; MF (374, 727) Boltonia diffusa Elliottsmallhead dolls daisy; C; RD (481) Carphephorus corymbosus (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray coastalplain chaffhead; O; SF (291)

PAGE 60

53 Carphephorus odoratissimus (J.F. Gmel.) H. Hebert var. subtropicanus (DeLaney et al.) Wunderlin & B.F. Hansen vanillaleaf; C; MF (303) Carphephorus paniculatus (J.F. Gmel.) H. Heberthairy chaffhead; C; WP (495) Chaptalia tomentosa Vent.woolly sunbonnets; C; DM (580, 611) Chrysopsis mariana (L.) ElliottMaryland go ldenaster; C; MF (791) Chrysopsis subulata Smallscrubland goldenaster; C; MF (161, 197, 207, 815) Cirsium horridulum Michx.purple thistle; O; MF (691) Cirsium nuttallii DC.Nuttalls thistle; O; MF (195, 203) Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist var. canadensis Canadian horseweed; O; RD (171) Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist var. pusilla (Nutt.) Cronquistdwarf Canadian horseweed; C; RD (317, 358) Coreopsis leavenworthii Torr. & A. GrayLeavenworth s tickseed; O; MF (158) Croptilon divaricatum (Nutt.) Raf.slender scra tchdaisy; C; RD (551) Elephantopus elatus Bertol.tall elephantsf oot; C; SH (152, 283, 325) Erechtites hieraciifolius (L.) Raf. ex DC. fireweed; C; DS (146, 254) Erigeron quercifolius Poir.oakleaf fleabane; C; MF (657) Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd.prairie fleabane; C; MF (100) Erigeron vernus (L.) Torr. & A. Grayearly wh itetop fleabane; C; MF (162, 372, 574, 747) Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam.) Small ex Porter & Brittondogfennel; C; MF (483) Eupatorium compositifolium Walteryankeeweed; C; DS (441, 458, 478)

PAGE 61

54 Eupatorium mohrii GreeneMohrs throughwor t; C; MF (121, 448, 777) Eupatorium rotundifolium L.roundleaf throughwort; C; MF (209, 235) Eupatorium serotinum Michx.lateflowering thr oughwort; C; DM (344) Euthamia caroliniana (L.) Greene ex Porter & Brittonslender flattop goldenrod; C; MF (442, 467) Gaillardia pulchella Foug.firewheel; O; RD (90, 181) Gamochaeta falcata (Lam.) Cabreranarrowleaf purpl e everlasting; O; RD (640) Gamochaeta pensylvanica (Willd.) CabreraPennsylvania everlasting; O; RD (641) Garberia heterophylla (W. Bartram) Merr. & F. Harpergarberia; O; SP (512) Helenium pinnatifidum (Schwein. ex Nutt.) Rydb.southeastern sneezeweed; O; DS (725) Helianthus angustifolius L.narrowleaf sunflower; C; DS (464, 576) Helianthus radula (Pursh) Torr. & A. Graystiff sunflower; O; MF (356) Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.) Britton & Rusbycamphorweed; C; SH (366, 444, 535) Hieracium gronovii L.queendevil; O; SH (454, 603) Hieracium megacephalon Nashcoastalplain hawkweed; C; MF (174, 193, 260, 264) Iva microcephala Nutt.piedmont marshelder; C; DS (466, 531) Krigia virginica (L.) Willd. Virginia dwarfdandelion; C; RD (637) Lactuca graminifolia Michx.grassleaf lettuce; C; RD (720, 760) Liatris gracilis Purshslender gayfeather; C; SH (250, 375, 392)

PAGE 62

55 Liatris pauciflora Purshfewflower gayfeather; O; SH (324) Liatris spicata (L.) Willd.dense gayfeather; O; SH (378) Liatris tenuifolia Nutt.shortleaf gayfeat her; C; SH (403) Lygodesmia aphylla (Nutt.) DC.rose-rush; C; MF (81, 302) Mikania scandens (L.) Willd.climbing hemp vine; O; FF (110, 382, 869) Oclemena reticulata (Pursh) G.L. Nesomwhite-topped aster; C; DS (156, 447, 496, 711) Palafoxia intergrifolia (Nutt.) Torr & A. Graycoastalplain palafox; O; SH (154) Phoebanthus grandiflorus (Torr. & A. Gray) S.F. BlakeFlorida false sunflower; C; MF (129, 311, 587) Pityopsis graminifolia (Nutt.) Michx.narrowleaf sil kgrass; C; MF (261, 599) Pluchea foetida (L). DC.stinking camphorweed; O; DS (343) Pluchea rosea R.K. Godfreyrosy camphorweed; C; FF (101, 149, 198, 820) Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium (L.) Hilliard & B.L. Burttsweet everlasting; C; MF (393) Pterocaulon pycnostachyum (Michx.) Elliottblackroot; C; MF (79) Pyrrhopappus carolinianus (Walter) DC.Carolina desertchicory; O; XH (394) Sericocarpus tortifolius (Michx.) Nesswhitetop aster; C; MF (178, 445, 516) Solidago fistulosa Mill.pinebarren goldenrod; C; MF (443, 456) Solidago odora Aiton var chapmanii (Torr. & A. Gray) Cronquist Chapmans goldenrod; C; SH (153,282) Solidago stricta Aitonwand goldenrod; C; MF(503) Symphyotrichum adnatum (Nutt.) G.L. Nesomscaleleaf aster; O; MF (597)

PAGE 63

56 Symphyotrichum carolinianum (Walter) Wunderlin & B.F. Hansenclimbing aster; O; FF (586) Symphyotrichum dumosum (L.) G.L. Nesomrice button aster; C; SH (491, 504, 731) Vernonia gigantea (Walter) Trel. ex Branner & Covillegiant ironweed; O; FF (860) Betulaceae Carpinus caroliniana WalterAmerican hornbeam; O; FF (341) Bignoniaceae Campsis radicans (L.) Seeman ex Bureautrumpet creeper; O; FF (313) Brassicaceae Lepidium virginicum L.Virginia pepperweed; C; RD (652) Cactaceae Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf.pricklypear; C; SH (217) Campanulaceae Lobelia cardinalis L.cardinalflower; O; FF (396) Lobelia glandulosa Walterglade lobelia; O; MF (507) Lobelia paludosa Nutt.white lobelia; C; MF (275, 722, 821) Triodanis perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl.clasping Venus s lookingglass; O; RD (714) *Wahlenbergia marginata (Thunb.) A. DC.southern rockbell; C; RD (216, 715) Caryophyllaceae Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. Ex Schult. West I ndian chickweed; O; RD (607) Stipulicida setacea Michx. var. lacerata C.W. James pineland scalypink; C; SP

PAGE 64

57 (659) Chrysobalanceae Licania michauxii Prancegopher apple; C; SH (95) Cistaceae Helianthemum carolinianum (Walter) Michx.Carolina frostweed; C; MF (634, 761) Helianthemum corymbosum Michx.pinebarren frostweed; C; SH (180, 616, 639) Lechea mucronata Raf.hairy pineweed; C; SH (191) Lechea torreyi (Chapm.) Legg. ex Brittonpied mont pineweed; C; MF (210, 629, 853) Clusiaceae Hypericum cistifolium Lam.roundtop St. Johns-wo rt; C; WP (117, 213, 335, 157, 646) Hypericum crux-andreae (L.) CrantzSt. Pete rs-wort; O; WP (348) Hypericum fasciculatum Lam.peelbark St. Johns-wort; C; DS (234, 520) Hypericum gentianoides (L.) Britton et al.pin eweeds; C; DS (196, 239, 279, 570) Hypericum hypericoides (L.) CrantzSt. Andrews-cross; C; DS (142, 446, 834) Hypericum mutilum L.dwarf St. Johns-wort; C; DS (99, 112) Hypericum myrtifolium Lam.myrtleleaf St. Johns-wort; C; WP (86, 177) Hypericum reductum (Svenson) W.P. AdamsAtlant ic St. Johns-wort; O; SH (796)

PAGE 65

58 Hypericum setosum L.hairy St. Johns-wort; O; DS (373) Hypericum tetrapetalum Lam.fourpetal St. Johns-wort; C; MF (176, 206) Convolvulaceae Ipomoea sagittata Poir.saltmarsh morni ng-glory; O; DS (812) Stylisma patens (Desr.) Myintcoastalplain dawnflower; O; SH (269, 272) Cornaceae Cornus foemina Mill.swamp dogwood; O; FF (685) Nyssa sylvatica Marshall var. biflora (Walter) Sarg.swamp tupelo; C; FF (705, 728, 779) Droseraceae Drosera capillaris Poir.pink sundew; C; DS (120, 726) Ebenaceae Diospyros virginiana L.common persimmon; C; SF (702) Ericaceae Bejaria racemosa Vent.tarflower; C; SF (118, 292, 487) Ceratiola ericoides Michx.Florida rosemary; O; SP (787) Gaylussacia dumosa (J. Kenn.) Torr. & A. Graydw arf huckleberry; C; SH (649, 669, 738, 795) Lyonia ferruginea (Walter) Nutt.rusty staggerbush; O; SF (732) Lyonia fruticosa (Michx.) G.S. Torr.coastalplain staggerbush; O; SF (612, 733) Lyonia lucida Lam.fetterbush; C; DS (287, 560, 591, 613) Vaccinium corymbosum L.highbush blueberry; O; MF (627) Vaccinium myrsinites Lam.shiny blueberry; C; MF (76, 615, 642)

PAGE 66

59 Vaccinium stamineum L.deerberry; O; SH (651, 673) Euphorbiaceae Acalypha gracilens A. Grayslender threeseed mercury; O; RD (802) Chamaesyce hirta (L.) Millsp.pillpod sandmat; O; RD (839) Chamaesyce hyssopifolia (L.) Smallhyssopleaf sandmat; C; RD (387) Chamaesyce maculata (L.) Smallspotted sandmat; O; RD (866) Cnidoscolus stimulosus (Michx.) Engelm. & A. Graytread-softly; O; SH (253) Croton glandulosus L.vente conmigo; O; RD (840) Croton michauxii G.L. Websterrushfoil; C; SH (131, 788, 816) *Phyllanthus urinaria L.chamber bitter; O; RD (855) Stillingia aquatica Chapm.water toothl eaf; O; BS (222) Stillingia sylvatica L.queens deligh t; O; SH (102, 168) Fabaceae Amorpha herbacea Walterclusterspike false indigobush; O; SH (94) Apios americana Medik.groundnut; O; DS (813) Centrosema virginianum (L.) Benth.spurred butterfly pea; (92, 284) Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michx.) Greenepartridge pea; C; SH (163, 278) Chamaecrista nictitans (L.) Moench var aspera (Muhl. ex Elliott) H. S. Irwin & Barnebysensitive pea; C; SH (321) Clitoria mariana L.Atlantic pigeonwings; O; MF (323) *Crotalaria lanceolata E. Meylanceleaf rattlebox; O; RD (236, 850) *Crotalaria pallida Aiton var. obovata (G. Don) Polhillsmooth rattlebox; O; RD (218)

PAGE 67

60 Crotalaria rotundifolia J.F. Gmel.rabbitbells; C; SH (126, 127, 326, 405, 670) *Crotalaria spectabilis Rothshowy rattlebox; C; RD (479) *Desmodium incanum DC.tickfoil; C; RD (248, 386, 470) Desmodium paniculatum (L.) DC.panicled ticktr efoil; O; SH (408) *Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC.threeflower tickfoil; O; RD (807) Galactia elliottii Nutt.Elliotts milkpea; O; SH (159, 749) Galactia regularis (L.) Britton et al.eastern milkpea; O; MF (824, 854) Galactia volubilis (L.) Brittondowny milkpea; C; SH (357, 767, 784) *Indigofera hirsuta L.hairy indigo; C; RD (457) Indigofera spicata Forssk. trailing i ndigo; O; RD (826) Lupinus diffusus Nutt.skyblue lupine; O; SH (635) *Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb.wild bushbean; O; RD (124) *Medicago lupulina L.black medick; O; RD (710) Mimosa quadrivalvis L. var. angustata (Torr. & A. Gray) Barnebysensitive brier; O; SH (268) Rhynchosia michauxii VailMichauxs snoutbean; O; SH (671) *Senna obtusifolia (L.) H.S. Irwin & Barnebycoffeeweed; O; RD (868) Tephrosia chrysophylla Purshscurf hoaryp ea; O; RD (867) Vicia acutifolia Elliottfourleaf vetch; O; FF (708) Fagaceae Quercus chapmanii Sarg.Chapmans oak; O; SF (695, 701) Quercus geminata Smallsand live oak; C; SH (453) Quercus incana W. Bartrambluejack oak; O; SH (694)

PAGE 68

61 Quercus laevis Walterturkey oak; C; SH (472, 473) Quercus laurifolia Michx.laurel oak; O; FF (314, 463) Quercus margaretta Ashe ex Smallsand post oak; R; SH (762) Quercus minima (Sarg.) Smalldwarf live oak; C; SH (179, 320, 419) Quercus myrtifolia Willd.myrtle oak; C; SF (333, 462) Quercus nigra L.water oak; O; MF (309) Quercus virginiana Mill.live oak; O; DS (746) Gelsemiaceae Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) W.T. Aitonyellow jessamine; O; SF (620) Gentianaceae Sabatia brevifolia Raf.shortleaf rosegentian; O; MF (286, 301) Sabatia calycina (Lam.) A. Hellercoastal rosegentian; O; FF (739) Sabatia grandiflora (A. Gray) Smalllargeflower rosegentian; C; DM (262, 390, 518) Geraniaceae Geranium carolinianum L.Carolina cranesbill; O; RD (709) Haloragaceae Proserpinaca pectinata Lam. combleaf mermaidweed; O; DM (564, 741, 768) Iteaceae Itea virginica L.Virginia willow; O; BS (664) Lamiaceae Callicarpa americana L.American beautyberry; O; MF (119) Hyptis alata (Raf.) Shinnersmusky mint; C; DM (274, 331, 345)

PAGE 69

62 *Hyptis mutabilis (Rich.) Briq.tropical bu shmint; O; FF (173, 276) Piloblephis rigida (W. Bartram ex Benth.) Raf.w ild pennyroyal; O; MF (630) Salvia lyrata L.lyreleaf sage; O; BS (606) Scutellaria arenicola SmallFlorida scrub skullcap; C; SH (132) Teucrium canadense L.woodsage; C; DM (113) Trichostema dichotomum L.forked bluecurls; C; MF (377) Lauraceae *Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Preslcamphortree; R; BS; FLEPPC-I (734) Persea palustris (Raf.) Sarg.swamp bay; C; FF (289, 353) Lentibulariaceae Pinguicula pumila Michx.small butterw ort; O; MF (588) Utricularia foliosa L.leafy bladderwort; O; DS (527, 771) Utricularia inflata Walterfloating bladderwort; O; BS (626) Utricularia juncea Vahl.southern bladde rwort; O; DM (369) Utricularia subulata L.zigzag bladderwort; O; WP (273) Linaceae Linum medium (Planch.) Britton var. texanum (Planch.) Fernaldstiff yellow flax; O; WP (797) Loganiaceae Mitreola petiolata (J.F. Gmel) Torr. & A. Gra ylax hornpod; O; DS (497) Mitreola sessilifolia (J.F. Gmel.) G. Donswamp hornpod; C; WP (148, 370, 379, 852) Lythraceae

PAGE 70

63 *Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J.F. Macbr.Colombian waxweed; C; FF (219, 508, 799) Lythrum alatum Pursh var. lanceolatum (Elliott) Torr. & A. Gray ex Rothr. winged loosestrife; O; MF (277) Magnoliaceae Magnolia virginiana L.sweetbay; R; DS (658) Malvaceae *Urena lobata L.ceasarweed; C; FF; FLEPPC-II (500) Melastomataceae Rhexia cubensis Griseb.West Indian meadowbeauty; O; DS (183) Rhexia mariana L.pale meadowbeauty; C; DS (84, 697, 744) Rhexia nuttallii C.W. JamesNuttalls meadowbeauty; O; MF (185, 506) Menyanthaceae Nymphoides aquatica (J.F. Gmel.) Kuntzebig floatingheart; O; RD (832) Myricaceae Myrica cerifera L.wax myrtle; C; MF (332, 693) Nymphaeaceae Nymphaea odorata AitonAmerican white wa terlily; O; BS (752) Nuphar advena (Aiton) Aiton f.spatterdock; O; BS (754) Olacaceae Ximenia americana L.tallow wood; O; SP (460) Oleaceae Fraxinus caroliniana Mill.Carolina ash; C; FF (107, 337, 778)

PAGE 71

64 Onagraceae Gaura angustifolia Michx.southern beeblossom; O; MF (125, 128) Ludwigia linearis Walternarrowleaf primrosewillow; C; DS (280, 385, 451) Ludwigia linifolia Poir.southeastern primrosewillow; C; DM (265, 699) Ludwigia maritima R.M. Harperseaside primrosewillow; O; MF (147, 201, 263) Ludwigia microcarpa Michx.smallfruit primrosewillow; O; DS (297) Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) RavenMexican primrosewillow; O; DM (384, 541) *Ludwigia peruviana (L.) H. HaraPeruvian primrosewillow; O; RD (825) Ludwigia repens J.R. Forst.creeping primrosewillow; C; FF (772) Ludwigia suffruticosa Waltershrubby primrosewillow; O; DS (240) Oenothera humifusa Nutt.seabeach eveningprimrose; O; RD (638) Oenothera laciniata Hillcutleaf eveningpr imrose; O; RD (204) Orobanchaceae Agalinis fasciculata (Elliott) Raf.beach false foxglove; C; MF (359, 381, 502) Agalinis linifolia (Nutt.) Brittonflaxleaf fa lse floxglove; O; DM (846) Buchnera americana L.American bluehearts; O; MF (123, 755) Seymeria cassioides (J.F. Gmel.) S.F. Blakeyaupon blacksenna; O; MF (376, 422) Seymeria pectinata Purshpiedmont blacksenna; O; SH (368) Oxalidaceae Oxalis corniculata L.common yellow woodsorrel; O; RD (617) Passifloraceae

PAGE 72

65 Passiflora incarnata L.purple passionflower; O; RD (155) Plantaginaceae Plantago virginica L.Virginia plantain; O; RD (648) Polygalaceae Polygala cymosa Waltertall pinebarren milkwort; O; DS (724) Polygala lutea L.orange milkwort; C; MF (83, 188) Polygala nana (Michx.) DC.candyroot;C; MF (82, 281) Polygala rugelii Shuttlew. ex Chapm.yellow milkwort; O; WP (175) Polygala setacea Michx.coastalplain milk wort; C; MF (98, 211, 748) Polygala violacea Aubl. showy milkwort; C; MF (93) Polygonaceae Polygonella gracilis Meisn.tall jointweed; O; SH (367, 404, 567) Polygonella polygama (Vent.) Engelm. & A. GrayOctober flower; C; SH (395, 461) Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.swamp smartweed; C; DS (114, 399, 482) Polygonum punctatum Elliottdotted smartweed; C; RD (400) Rumex hastatulus Baldwinheartwing dock; O; RD (719) Portulacaceae *Portulaca amilis Speg.Paraguayan purslane; O; RD (808) Primulaceae Samolus valerandi L. subsp. parviflorus (Raf.) Hultenpineland pimpernel; O; FF (349) Rhamnaceae

PAGE 73

66 Berchemia scandens (Hill) K. Koch.rattan vine; O; FF (336) Rosaceae Photinia pyrifolia (Lam.) K.R. Robertson & J.B. Phippsred chokecherry; O; DS (628) Prunus caroliniana (Mill.) AitonCarolina la urelcherry; O; RD (631) Prunus serotina Ehrh.black cherry; O; RD (632) Rubus argutus Linksawtooth blackberry; C; DS (645, 663) Rubus cuneifolius Purshsand blackberry; C; MF (730) Rubus trivialis Michx.southern dewberry; O; FF (792) Rubiaceae Cephalanthus occidentalis L.common buttonbush; C; DS (524, 770) Diodia teres Walterrough buttonweed; C; SH (304) Diodia virginiana L.Virginia buttonweed; C; BS (106, 199, 388) Galium hispidulum Michx.coastal bedstraw; C; RD (598) Houstonia procumbens (J.F. Gmel.) Standl.inn ocence; C; MF (589, 604) Mitchella repens L.partridgeberry; O; FF (340, 688) Oldenlandia uniflora L.clustered mille graine; C; DS (103, 413) Psychotria nervosa Sw.wild coffee; C; FF (339) Psychotria sulzneri Smallshortleaf wild coffee; C; FF (338) *Richardia brasiliensis Gomestropical Mexican clover; C; RD (202) Spermacoce assurgens Ruiz & Pav.woodland false buttonweed; O; DM (241, 511) Spermacoce prostrata Aubl.prostrate false buttonweed; O; FF (299)

PAGE 74

67 Salicaceae Salix caroliniana Michx.Carolina willow; C; RD (633) Sapindaceae Acer rubrum L.red maple; C; FF (590) Saururaceae Saururus cernuus L.lizards tail; C; FF (585) Solanaceae Solanum americanum Mill. American black nightshade; O; FF (593) Tetrachondraceae Polypremum procumbens L.rustweed; C; RD (130) Theaceae Gordonia lasianthus (L.) J. Ellisloblolly bay; O; BS (288, 559) Ulmaceae Ulmus alata Michx.winged elm; O; FF (619, 682) Ulmus americana L.American elm; O; FF (735) Urticaceae Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw.false nettle; C; DS (342, 584) Verbenaceae Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greeneturkey tangle fogfruit; C; RD (89) *Verbena brasiliensis Vell.Brazilian verv ain; O; RD (775) Verbena scabra Vahlsandpaper vervain; O; MF (849) Veronicaceae Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennellherb-o f-grace; O; DM (625)

PAGE 75

68 Gratiola hispida (Benth. ex Lindl.) Pollard rough hedgehyssop; O; MF (140, 141) Gratiola pilosa Michx.shaggy hedgehyssop; O; BS (167, 766) Gratiola ramosa Walterbranched hedgehyssop; O; DS (698) Linaria canadensis (L.) Chaz.Canadian toadflax; C; DS (622, 643) *Lindernia crustacea (L.) F. Muell.Malaysian false pimpernel; O; RD (440) Mecardonia acuminata (Walter) Small subsp. peninsularis (Pennell) Rossow axilflower; C; WP (230, 743) Micranthemum glomeratum (Chapm.) Shinnersman atee mudflower; O; WP (623) Scoparia dulcis L.sweetbroom; C; MF (151) Violaceae Viola lanceolata L.bog white violet; O; DS (624) Viola palmata L.early blue violet; O; MF (647) Viola primulifolia L.primroseleaf violet; C; DS (601, 614, 618) Viola sororia Willd.common blue violet; O; FF (621) Viscaceae Phoradendron leucarpum (Raf.) Reveal & M.C. Johnst.oak mistletoe; O; BS (465) Vitaceae Ampelopsis arborea (L.) Koehnepeppervine; O; DS (150) Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.Virginia creeper; O; MF (783) Vitis rotundifolia Michx.muscadine; C; MF (360)

PAGE 76

69 Vitis shuttleworthii Housecalloose grape; O; MF (736)

PAGE 77

70 Literature Cited Chen, E. and J. F. Gerber. 1990. Climate. Pp. 11-34. In : R. L. Myers and J.J. Ewel (eds.). Ecosystems of Florida. University Presses of Florida. Gainesville, Florida. Coile, N. C. and M. A. Garland. 2003. Note s on Floridas endangered and threatened plants. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Gainesville, Florida. Ewel, K. C. 1990. Swamps. Pp. 281-323. In : R. L. Myers and J.J. Ewel (eds.). Ecosystems of Florida. University Pre sses of Florida. Gainesville, Florida. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC). 2003. List of Florida's Invasive Species. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. Internet: http://www.fleppc.org. Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI). 1990. Guide to the natural communities of Florida. Tallahassee, Florida. Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI). 2004. Natural Community Mapping Project of Starkey Wilderness Preserve, Southw est Florida Water Management District. Florida Natural Areas Invent ory. Tallahassee, Florida. Holan, M. 2004. Wildfire consumes 400 acres in Starkey Wilderness Park. Tampa Tribune. Pasco County Section, Tampa, Florida. June 4, Pp. 1, 6. Lawson, S. F., R. P. Ingalls, and C. Bayless. 1980. Preserving for the future: A history of the J. B. Starkey Wilderness Park. In : J. B. Starkey, Sr. Things I remember. Southwest Florida Water Management District. Brooksvi lle, Florida. Milanich, J. T. 1994. Archaeology of Precolumbia n Florida. University Press of Florida. Gainesville, Florida. Myers, R. L. and J.J. Ewel (eds.). 1990. Ecos ystems of Florida. University Presses of Florida. Gainesville, Florida. Nordlie, F. G. 1990. Rivers and springs. Pp. 392-425. In : R. L. Myers and J.J. Ewel (eds.). Ecosystems of Florida. University Presses of Florida. Gainesville, Florida. Scott, T. M, K. M. Campbell, F. R. Rupert, J. D. Arthur, T. M. Missimer, J. M. Lloyd, J. W. Yon, and J. G. Duncan. 2001. Geologic ma p of the state of Florida. Florida Geological Survey in cooperation with th e Florida Department of Environmental

PAGE 78

71 Protection. U.S. Department of the Interi or, U.S. Geological Survey, Center for Coastal Geology. Washington, D.C. (http://sflwww.er.usgs.gov/publicati ons/maps/florida_geology/). Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD). 1988. Ground-water resource availability inventory: Pasc o County, Florida. Brooksville, Florida. Southwest Florida Water Management Dist rict (SWFWMD). 1990. A plan for the use and management of the Starke y tract. Brooksville, Florida. Stankey, D. L. 1982. Soil survey of Pasco County, Florida. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences Department and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. U. S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C. Starkey, J. B., Sr. 1980. Things I remember. Southwest Florida Water Management District. Brooksville, Florida. United States Geological Survey (USGS). 1974. Odessa Quadrangle, Florida 7.5 Minute Series (topographic). United States Geological Survey, Department of the Interior. Washington, D.C. Wells, M. 2004. Pasco county property appraiser. Dade City, Florida. (http://appraiser.pascogov.com/). Wetterhall. W. S. 1964. Geohydrologic reconna issance of Pasco and southern Hernando Counties, Florida. Florida Geological Su rvey Report. Florida Geological Survey. Tallahassee, Florida. Willey, G. R.,. 1949. Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian miscellaneous collections, 113: (page numbers) Smith sonian Institute. Washington D. C. Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. University Press of Florida. Gainesville, Florida. Wunderlin, R. P., and B. F. Hansen. 2003. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida (second edition). University Press of Florida. Gainesville, Florida. Wunderlin, R. P., and B. F. Hansen. 2004. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants [S. M. Landry and K. N. Campbell (applicati on development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research.] Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida, Tampa. (http ://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/).