USF Libraries
USF Digital Collections

System integration and testing using object oriented programming based control

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
System integration and testing using object oriented programming based control
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Datar, Prashant P
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Visual c++
Environment control
Device communication
Software instrument control
Modular programming
Dissertations, Academic -- Electrical Engineering -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Various techniques are used in the process of software development. The requirements of the system being designed and the constraints dictate the selection of a particular method to be used. This thesis attempts to explain the various types of development techniques available to software designers and programmers. It places specific emphasis on the Object Oriented style of design that is presently widely used in all areas of industry. Object Oriented Programming (OOP) involves a number of new concepts that make software design and development more modular. The actual problem is broken down into a number of smaller components and the functionality of each component is coded separately. These pieces of code are then integrated to form the final application. All the concepts that make this type of programming possible are explained.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.E.E.)--University of South Florida, 2002.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Prashant P. Datar.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 88 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001680944
oclc - 62331917
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0000595
usfldc handle - e14.595
System ID:
SFS0025285:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.loc.govstandardsmarcxmlschemaMARC21slim.xsd
leader nam Ka
controlfield tag 001 001680944
003 fts
005 20060215071016.0
006 m||||e|||d||||||||
007 cr mnu|||uuuuu
008 051123s2002 flu sbm s000 0 eng d
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a E14-SFE0000595
035
(OCoLC)62331917
SFE0000595
040
FHM
c FHM
049
FHMM
090
TK145 (ONLINE)
1 100
Datar, Prashant P.
0 245
System integration and testing using object oriented programming based control
h [electronic resource] /
by Prashant P. Datar.
260
[Tampa, Fla.] :
b University of South Florida,
2002.
502
Thesis (M.S.E.E.)--University of South Florida, 2002.
504
Includes bibliographical references.
516
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
538
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
500
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 88 pages.
3 520
ABSTRACT: Various techniques are used in the process of software development. The requirements of the system being designed and the constraints dictate the selection of a particular method to be used. This thesis attempts to explain the various types of development techniques available to software designers and programmers. It places specific emphasis on the Object Oriented style of design that is presently widely used in all areas of industry. Object Oriented Programming (OOP) involves a number of new concepts that make software design and development more modular. The actual problem is broken down into a number of smaller components and the functionality of each component is coded separately. These pieces of code are then integrated to form the final application. All the concepts that make this type of programming possible are explained.
590
Adviser: Moreno, Wilfrido A.
653
Visual c++.
Environment control.
Device communication.
Software instrument control.
Modular programming.
690
Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x Electrical Engineering
Masters.
773
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.595



PAGE 1

SYSTEM INTEGRATION AND TESTIN G USING OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING BASED CONTROL by PRASHANT P. DATAR A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement s for the degree of Master of Science in Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering College of Engineering University of South Florida Major Professor: Wilfrido A. Moreno, Ph.D. James T. Leffew, Ph.D. Grisselle Centeno, Ph.D. Date of Approval: November 14, 2002 Keywords: device communication, environment control, modular programming, software instrument control, visual c++ Copyright 2003, Prashant P. Datar

PAGE 2

i Table Of Contents List Of Tables v List Of Figures vi List Of Acronyms viii Abstract x 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Wafer Polishing 1 1.2 System Requirements 3 2 Programming Concepts 4 2.1 Unstructured Programming 4 2.2 Procedural Programming 4 2.3 Modular Programming 5 2.4 Object Oriented Programming (OOP) 6 2.4.1 Objects 6 2.4.2 Messages 7 2.4.3 Class 8 2.4.4 Inheritance 8 2.5 Object Oriented Languages (OOPLs) 9 2.6 Reasons For Choosing VC++ 10 3 Communication Interfaces 12 3.1 Serial Communication 13

PAGE 3

ii 3.1.1 Data Bits 13 3.1.2 Stop Bits 14 3.1.3 Parity Bits 14 3.1.4 DTE And DCE Devices 15 3.1.5 Baud Rate 15 3.1.6 RS-232 Protocol 15 3.2 GPIB IEEE-488 Bus 18 3.2.1 Data Lines 20 3.2.2 Handshake Lines 20 3.2.3 Interface Management Lines 21 4 System Integration 24 4.1 Instruments Used 26 4.1.1 VP-9000 Motor Controller 26 4.1.2 PS2520G Power Supply 27 4.1.3 Lock-In Amplifier 7260 28 4.1.4 Data Acquisition Card (DAQ) 30 4.1.5 Temperature Controller And Sensor 31 4.1.6 Humidity Sensor 32 4.2 Hardware Integration 33 4.2.1 GPIB IEEE-488 Bus 33 4.2.2 RS-232 Serial Bus 35 4.3 Software Integration 35 4.3.1 Login Dialog 36

PAGE 4

iii 4.3.2 Main 36 4.3.3 Motion 38 4.3.4 Lock-In 39 4.3.5 Automation 40 4.3.6 Automation Graph 41 4.3.7 Statistical Analysis Tool 43 4.3.7.1 Testing Algorithm 43 4.3.8 Temperature Control 45 4.3.9 Humidity Control 46 4.3.10 Class Interaction 47 5 System Processes 49 5.1 Testing Procedure 49 5.1.1 Contact Point 50 5.1.2 The Automation Thread 50 5.1.3 The New-Automation Thread 51 5.1.4 The Temperatur e Control Thread 54 5.1.5 The Humidity Control Thread 56 6 Results And Further Work 59 6.1 Surface Uniformity Testing 59 6.2 Effects Of Ambient Conditions 61 6.3 Future Work 63 References 65 Bibliography 66

PAGE 5

iv Appendices 67 Appendix A: The RS-232 Standard 68 Appendix B: Programming For DAQ 69 Appendix C: Programming For Instruments 70 Appendix D: Software Documentation 71 D.1: Login 71 D.2: Main 71 D.3: Lock-In 71 D.4: Motion 72 D.5: Contact Point 72 D.6: Automation 73 D.7: Graph Data 75 D.8: Temperature And Humidity Control 75 D.9: Statistical Analysis 76

PAGE 6

v List Of Tables Table 4.1: Instruments Int egrated Into The System 26 Table 4.2: GPIB Device Addresses 34 Table 4.3: Step Sizes For Axes Controlled By The VP 9000 38 Table 6.1: Surface Uniformity Test Results 61 Table 6.2: Test Parameters 61 Table 6.3: Multifactor Analysis Results 62 Table A.1: RS-232 Signal Levels 68

PAGE 7

vi List Of Figures Figure 1.1: Integrated Cir cuit Wafer Polishing 2 Figure 3.1: 25-pin Connector On A DTE Device (PC Connection) 16 Figure 3.2: 9-pin Connector On A DTE Device (PC Connection) 16 Figure 3.3: Block Diagram Of The GPIB IEEE-488 Bus 19 Figure 3.4: The GPIB IEEE-488 Connectors 22 Figure 3.5: GPIB IEEE-488 Connector Pin Diagram 23 Figure 4.1: CMP Pad Test Setup 25 Figure 4.2: VP 9000 VELMEX Motor Controller 27 Figure 4.3: PS2520G Progr ammable Power Supply 28 Figure 4.4: DSP Lock-In Amplifier 7260 30 Figure 4.5: The ISeries CNi16D Temperature Controller 32 Figure 4.6: HIH-3610-001 Humidity Sensor 32 Figure 4.7: GPIB Bu s Configurations 34 Figure 4.8: Login Window 36 Figure 4.9: Main Window 37 Figure 4.10: Motion Window 39 Figure 4.11: Lock-In Window 39 Figure 4.12: The Automation Window 40 Figure 4.13: 3-D Graph Window With Axes Projections 42 Figure 4.14: Flowchart For Pad Uniformity Testing 44

PAGE 8

vii Figure 4.15: The Statistical Analysis Tool 45 Figure 4.16: Setup For Temperat ure And Humidity Control 47 Figure 4.17: Class Interaction Diagram 48 Figure 5.1: Find Contact Point Function 50 Figure 5.2: Flowchart For Automthread 52 Figure 5.3: Flowchart For Newautomthread 53 Figure 5.4: Flowchart For Te mperature Control Thread 55 Figure 5.5: Function To Convert A Deci mal Value To A Hexadecimal String 56 Figure 5.6: Flowchart For Humidity Control 58 Figure 6.1: 60 Sectors On Pad 62 Figure A.1: RS-232 Data Format 68 Figure B.1: DAQ Programming Flow 69 Figure C.1: Instrument Programming Flow 70

PAGE 9

viii List Of Acronyms IC Integrated Circuit CMP Chemical Mechanical Planarization OOP Object Oriented Programming OOPL Object Oriented Programming Language USB Universal Serial Bus NIC Network Interface Card GPIB General Purpose Interface Bus IEEE Institute of Electric al and Electronic Engineers PC Personal Computer ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange DTE Data Terminal Equipment DCE Data Communication Equipment TD Transmit Data RD Receive Data RTS Request To Send CTS Clear To Send DSR Data Set Ready DTR Data Terminal Ready CD Carrier Detect RI Ring Indicator

PAGE 10

ix HPIB Hewlett Packard Interface Bus TTL Transistor Transistor Logic DIO Data Input Output DAV Data Available NFRD Not Ready For Data NDAC Not Data Accepted ATN Attention EOI End Or Identify IFC Interface Clear REN Remote Enable SRQ Service Request RAM Random Access Memory DAQ Data Acquisition Card PI Proportional-Integral PD Proportional-Derivative PID Proportional-I ntegral-Derivative MFC Microsoft Foundation Classes OCX Object Control COM Component Object Model MSE Mean Square Error DOF Degree Of Freedom

PAGE 11

x System Integration And Testing Us ing Object Oriented Programming Based Control Prashant P. Datar ABSTRACT Various techniques are used in the process of software development. The requirements of the system being designed and t he constraints dictate the selection of a particular method to be used. This thesis attempts to explain the various types of development techniques available to software designers and programmers. It places specific emphasis on the Object Oriented style of design that is presently widely used in all areas of industry. Object Oriented Programming (OOP ) involves a number of new concepts that make software design and development more modular. The actual problem is broken down into a number of smaller components and the functionality of each component is coded separately. These pieces of code are then integrated to form the final application. A ll the concepts that make this type of programming possible are explained.

PAGE 12

xi The thesis presents a det ailed account of the development process of a system used to make measurements on polyurethane pads that are used in the Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) process. The setup uses a combination of a number of instrument s to provide excitation to the pad and measure its response. A computer c ontrols all these in struments using a single application. Microsoft Visual C++ was used to develop this application. It makes extensive use of a Graphic User Interface (GUI), Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) and driver librari es from instrum ent manufacturers in order to present a user-fri endly interface to the operator. System Integration, which is the technique used to make the instruments involved interact with the so ftware is explained. The application involves the use of a number of C++ classes and dialog boxes. Each of these is explained along with the underlying algorithms.

PAGE 13

1 1 Introduction The objective of this work was to expl ain the various stages involved in the development of software that interact ively manages an industrial or research based system. This type of application softw are is significantly different from programs that are written to speed up com putation or manage a la rge inventory. In these types of applications, the dat a is presented to the computer and the software either manipulates or organizes the information in a manner required to provide the desired results. This thesis deals with software development techniques that provide automation for applications that control and operate equipment so as to minimize the level of supervision required. The development starts with a clear understanding of the problem evaluating the various method of programming, choosing a means of implement ation and finally carrying out extensive testing. A system built to study the characteristics of polyurethane pads that are used in Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP ) explains the entire process. [1] 1.1 Wafer Polishing Pads made of polyurethane material are used in the Integrated Circuit (IC) industry to polish wafers between su ccessive manufacturing steps. An integrated circuit is manufactured using a series of steps. Each step adds or prepares the wafer for a future step to add an element or group of elements that

PAGE 14

2 form the actual circuit from the wafer design. Some of the steps in the process deposits material on top of the devices alre ady laid on the wafer (deposition) or increase the thickness of some, but not a ll, of the materials already deposited (growth), while other steps cut or perfo rate some areas in order to create a communication path between layers (etching). Figure 1.1: Integrated Circuit Wafer Polishing The problem arises when one of the pr ocesses does not result in a planar surface. When that happens the next steps in the process can result in a badly laid area, a deformation that results in a bad connection in the circuit or an unwanted connection. In order to correct a problem, there must be a way to ensure that all the layers created in the wafer are free of deformations, which will ensure a high yield and reliabilit y in the production of the IC. CMP is the process whereby most of the deformations in a wafer surface are eliminated. CMP result s in a planar surface layer over which any other layer

PAGE 15

3 can be laid, which results in a wafer su rface with a very low possibility of deformation. Changes in physical factors such as temperature and humidity produce physical effects on the CMP pads. When th is happens the surface-uniformity of wafers polished using these pads cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, it is necessary to determine how the pads respond to ambient changes and control the polishing process in such a way as to maintain wafer quality. [1] 1.2 System Requirements A large number of instruments were used to carry out experiments on the pads. A single program was to control all the instruments through a host computer. The software was to be des igned in such a way that experiments required minimal user intervention. T he operator only had to specify the area under study and the requir ed temperature and humidit y for the run. The equipment had to be controlled so the ex periment was carried out under constant conditions. The program required the ab ility to store readings to a file and manipulate the readings statistically in or der to produce result s. The algorithms and concepts used to develop the softw are are explained in the following chapters. Results of te sting and conclusions are pr esented in chapter six.

PAGE 16

4 2 Programming Concepts Programming techniques can be classi fied depending upon their efficiency and level of complexity. Unstructured programming Procedural programming Modular programming Object Oriented programming 2.1 Unstructured Programming Programming starts with the construc tion of small and simple programs. Such programs usually consist of a single main-program which contains a sequence of statements that mo dify data that is global to the program. This type of programming presents a considerable disadvantage once the physical size of the program starts getting larger. For example, consider a certain sequence of statements that is to be repeated at different locations in a program. This sequence will have to be copied at the differ ent locations. This requirement has lead to the idea of extracting such sequences, naming them and providing a method to call and return from these procedures [2] 2.2 Procedural Programming Procedural programming places recurri ng sequences of statements in a single place. A procedure-call, hereafter referred to simply as a call is used to

PAGE 17

5 invoke the procedure. After the sequence is processed, flow of control proceeds to the position immediately after t he position where the call was made. Procedural programming allows progr ams to be written in a more structured and error free format. Each pr ocedure executes a particular part of the program. Therefore, debuggi ng of the program is simplified and it is easier to locate and correct any e rrors. Therefore, a pr ogram can be viewed as a sequence of procedural calls. The main pr ogram is responsible for passing data to the individual calls. The data is pr ocessed by the procedures and the results are presented once the pr ogram has finished. The procedural approach results in a single program that is divided into small pieces called procedures. To enabl e the use of general procedures or groups of procedures in other programs, t hey must be individually available. For that reason, modular progr amming allows grouping of procedures into modules. [2] 2.3 Modular Programming In modular programming, procedures of a common functionality are grouped together into separate modules Therefore, a program no longer consists of a single part. Wi th modules it is divided into several smaller parts that interact through procedure calls in order to form the whole program. Each module can have its own data. This allows each module to manage an internal state which is modified by calls to procedures of the module. However, there is only one state per module and each module exists at most once in the whole program. [2]

PAGE 18

6 2.4 Object Oriented Programming (OOP) Object Oriented Design is a softw are design method that models the characteristics of abstract or real objec ts through the use of classes and objects. Objects are a key to an understanding of OOP An object is a software bundle of related variables and methods. Software objects are often used to model realworld objects found in everyday life. Important terms and concepts used in OOPS require special attention. 2.4.1 Objects All real world objects have two characte ristics, state and behavior. If a car is considered as an object it will have a curr ent state, which could be indicated by parameters such as gear, engine speed, number of wheels and number of gears. Additionally, the car will exhibit a behavior, which could be described by actions such as change of gear, brake applicati on or change in engine speed. Software objects are modeled after real world obj ects. Software objects also possess states and exhibit behavior. A software object describes its state through the use of one or more variables. A variable is an item of data named by an identifier. A software object implements its behavior with methods. A method is a function (subroutine) associated with an object. Variables describe the state of an object while methods describe its behavior. Changing the values of the a ssociated variables c hanges the state of an object. The variables of an object are not directly accessible to the outside world. They can only be accessed through the object’s methods. Therefore, the methods form a kind of protective casing for the variables. This packaging of

PAGE 19

7 variables is referred to as encapsulation Encapsulation is a simple, yet powerful, idea that provides two advantages to software programmers. Modularity : The source code for an object can be written and maintained independently of the source code for other objects. T herefore, an object can be easily accessed by various parts of the system. Information Hiding : An object has a public interface that other objects can use to communicate with it. Howeve r the object can maintain private information and methods that can be changed at any time without affecting the other objects that depend on it. [3] 2.4.2 Messages Software objects interact and communicate with each other through the use of messages In a program, objects usua lly appear as components of a larger application that contai ns many objects. Interact ions between these objects achieve complex behavior and higher order functionality. Ob jects communicate with each other by using messages. Along with the message the receiving object needs information that tells it what to do. There are three components that comprise a message. Object to which the message is addressed Method to be executed Parameters required by the method Messages provide two important benefit s. Since an object's behavior is expressed through its methods, mess age passing supports all possible interactions between objects. Additionally, objects are not required to be in the

PAGE 20

8 same process or even on the same machine in order to send and receive messages. [3] 2.4.3 Class A class is a blueprint or prototype, which defines the variables and the methods that are common to all objects of a certain kind. A class defines the variables and methods that determi ne the state and behavior of objects. However, different objects belonging to a class will not have the same state simultaneously. For example, a ca rmaker’s particular car model can be considered as a class with each car of that model an object. Although all the cars will look similar, their states will be different at a given time. In OOPS terminology an object is said to be an instance of a class. Classes can also define class variables These are variables whose value remains the same for all objects of the cl ass. If one object changes this value all objects receive the new value. This saves memory since all the objects of one class share the variable and hence only one copy of that variable needs to be created. For example, if t here is a variable that stor es the number of gears in a car, the value will be the same for all objec ts of that car cla ss. Hence, only one class variable needs to be declared for this purpose. Similarly a class method can also be defined. Class methods can be invoked directly from a class instead of having to be invoked in each indi vidual instance of the class. [3] 2.4.4 Inheritance A class inherits its state and behavior from its super-class Inheritance provides a powerful and natural me chanism for organizing and structuring

PAGE 21

9 software programs. Objects are defined in terms of cla sses. If automobiles is considered as a class, then cars, trucks and busses can be considered as derived classes from the automobiles class. Automobiles is a super-class cars, trucks and busses become sub-classes of the automobile class. Each sub-class inherits variables and methods from its super-class. Sub-classes can override inherited qualities and provide specialized implementations. The number of inheritances is not lim ited to one. The inheritance tree or class hierarchy can be as tall as the programmer wishes. Inheritance offers various advantages. Sub-classes provide specialized behav iors from the basis of common elements provided by the super-class. Through the use of inheritance, programmers can reuse the code in the super-class many times. Programmers can implement s uper-classes, which are called abstract classes in order to define generic behaviors. The abstract super-class defines and may partially implement the behavior. Howeve r, much of the class is undefined and unimplemented. Other programmers f ill in the details with specialized subclasses. [3] 2.5 Object Oriented Languages (OOPLs) The industry offers programmers a wi de choice of OOPLs such as C++, Java, Smalltalk, Delphi, Eiffel and Python. Each of these languages support the aforementioned concepts used in Obje ct Oriented Programming (OOP). However, the most widely used, of these programming languages, are C++ and Java. The C++ language was first designed and implem ented by Bjarne

PAGE 22

10 Stroustrup. Java is an OOPL introduced by Sun Microsystems. Alan Kay invented Smalltalk in the 1970s at Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Center. It is unique in that it uses nouns from the English language for objects and verbs for messages. This language was also the inspiration and technical basis for the Macintosh and s ubsequent windowing based systems. Delphi is another true obj ect oriented and compiled language. However, it only allows Single Inheritance. It is a form-based language with distributable components with syntax similar to BASIC. 2.6 Reasons For Choosing VC++ Object Oriented Programming concepts we re developed in the late 1980s. At that time C did not support the technology and hence could not garner any of its benefits. C++ was developed in order to overcome this shortcoming of C. As the technology grew new graphical interfaces were developed. An object oriented as well as a visual programming language was needed to keep pace with the new standard. Therefore, Visual C++ was born. Visual C++ is C++ with capabilities that support the graphical user interface technology required for OLE, OCX, ActiveX and Database programming. Mi crosoft offers VC++ as part of its Visual Studio. Additionally, Ms-VC++ programmers can also make good use of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFCs) in applications. [4] The nature of this project was such that it needed to make use of hardware to monitor and control the testi ng. VC++ was chosen since it is a highlevel language that allows the hardwar e to be accessed in a powerful and efficient manner. Additionally, it offers standard libraries to enable serial and

PAGE 23

11 parallel communication, which proved to be a great convenience. VC++ also possesses the capability to create low-leve l code that is associated with such things as Operating Systems, Device dr ivers, Dynamic Link Libraries (DLLs), Internet Servers, Objects and Database Systems. VC++ uses MFCs effectively, which makes the creation and customization of dialog boxes very easy and straightforward. Dialog boxes allow t he application interfac e to be made user friendly.

PAGE 24

12 3 Communication Interfaces Various interfaces exist for fac ilitating communication between a host computer and its peripheral devices. These range from the serial and parallel interfaces developed over time to the ones more recently evolved such as Universal Serial Bus (USB), Network Inte rface Cards (NIC), Optical and Wireless interfaces. Factors such as the requir ed speed of data transfer, distance from the host computer and cost decide which in terface is best suited for a particular application. The Serial inte rface, where the data is tran sferred bit by bit from one machine to another, is typically the slowes t. In the case of parallel transmission, the data is transferred in Bytes (8-bits simultaneously). Almost every PC has these interfaces as residents. Ports such as optical and USB are available on higher end machines where the time taken for data transfer is critical. Optical interfaces are typically used for a ccessing storage arrays and connecting highspeed networking equipment. NIC cards and wireless NIC cards are used to build scalable and reliable networks of computers. This research required extensive us e of RS-232 protocols to control instruments. Additionally, the General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB), a parallel communication interface from the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, was implemented to interface those devic es that offered a parallel interface capability. A proper underst anding of both these protocols was required. The

PAGE 25

13 following sections explain these tw o widely used techniques in device communication. 3.1 Serial Communication All IBM Personal Computers (PC) and co mpatible computers are typically equipped with two serial ports A Serial port sends and receives data one bit at a time over two wires. Two-way (Full Duplex) communications is possible with only three wires; one to send, one to receive and a common signal ground. The serial port on a PC is usually full duplex, which is capable of both transmission and reception. There are a la rge number of serial commu nication protocols available such as RS-232, RS-485, RS-422, and RS -449. These protocols differ on the basis of control signals and signal levels (voltages) employed. This chapter concentrates on the most widely used, RS-232C, protocol. The following subsections explain the terminology co mmonly used in serial communication. 3.1.1 Data Bits The measurement of the actual data pr ocessed in a transmission is given in terms of the number of data bits tr ansferred. When the computer sends a packet of information, the amount of ac tual data may not be 8 bits. Standard values for the data packets are 5, 7 and 8 bits. The setting chosen depends upon the type of information being transfe rred. For example, standard ASCII uses values from 0 to 127, which requi res 7 bits. Extended ASCII uses values from 0 to 255, which requires 8 bits. If the data being transferred is simple text (standard ASCII), then 7 bits of data per packet is suffi cient for communication. A packet refers to a single byte transfer, including start/stop bits, data bits and a

PAGE 26

14 parity bit. Since the number of actual bits depends on th e protocol selected, the term packet is used to cover all instances. 3.1 2 Stop Bits Stop bits are used to signal the end of communication for a single packet. Typical values are 1, 1.5 and 2 bits. Since the data is clocked across the lines and each device has its own clock, it is possible for the two devices to become slightly unsynchronized. T herefore, the stop bits not only indicate the end of transmission they also give the computer s some room for error in the clock speeds. The more bits that are used for stop bits the greater the lenience in synchronizing the different clocks. 3.1.3 Parity Bits These bits are used as a simple form of error checking. There are four types of parity: even, odd, marked, and spac ed. The option of using no parity is also available. For even and odd parity, the serial port sets the parity bit, which is the last bit after the data bits, to a value to ensure that the transmission has an even or odd number of logic high bits. Fo r example, when even parity is chosen, the parity bit is transmitted wit h a value of zero if the number of preceding one’s is an even number. For the binary va lue of 01100011 the par ity bit would be zero. If even parity were in effect and the binary number 11010110 were sent, then the parity bit would be one. Odd parity is just the o pposite. The parity bit is zero when the number of one bits in the preceding word is an odd number. Parity error checking is very rudimentary. Parity can detect single bit errors but it cannot actually locate the bit that is in e rror. Also, if an even number of bits were

PAGE 27

15 in error then the parity bit would not refl ect any error at all. Marked and spaced parity does not actually check the data bits. They simply set t he parity bit high for marked parity or low for spaced parity. This allows the receiving device to know the state of a bit, which enables it to deter mine if noise is corr upting the data or if the clocks of the transmitting and receivi ng devices are out of synchronization. 3.1.4 DTE And DCE Devices DTE stands for Data Te rminal Equipment and DCE stands for Data Communication Equipment. The PC is a DTE device while the Modem is typically a DCE device. DTE devices use a male connector while DCE devices use a female connector. 3.1.5 Baud Rate Baud rate is a measure of the number of times per second a signal in a communications channel varies or makes a transition between states. States are defined in terms of frequencies, voltage levels, or phase angles. One baud is one such change. If the signal on a line changes three hundred times per second, the baud rate is 300 baud. Baud-rate differs from bit -rate. Baud rate gives the rate of transmission of symbols un like bit-rate. The number of bits in a symbol depends upon the m odulation scheme used. 3.1.6 RS-232 Protocol The signals that control data trans fer for the RS-232 protocol are presented in Figures 3.1 and 3.2 on page 16. The TD (Transmit Data) wire is th e one through which data from a DTE device is transmitted to a DCE device. The TD line is kept in a mark condition by

PAGE 28

16 the DTE device when it is idle. The RD (Receive Data) wire is the one on which data is received by a DTE device. The DCE device keeps this line in a mark condition when idle. 1 Protective Ground 2 Transmitted Data (TD) Outgoing Data (from a DTE to a DCE) 3 Received Data (RD) Incoming Data (from a DCE to a DTE) 4 Request To Send (RTS) Outgoing flow control signal controlled by the DTE 5 Clear To Send (CTS) Incoming flow control signal controlled by the DCE 6 Data Set Ready (DSR) Incoming handshaking signal controlled by the DCE 7 Signal Ground Common reference voltage 8 Carrier Detect (CD) Incoming signal from a modem 20 Data Terminal Ready (DTR) Outgoing handshaking signal controlled by the DTE 22 Ring Indicator (RI) Incoming signal from a modem Figure 3.1: 25-pin Connector On A DTE Device (PC Connection) [5] Pin Number Direction of signal: 1 Carrier Detect (CD) (from DCE) Incoming signal from a modem 2 Received Data (RD) Incoming Data from a DCE 3 Transmitted Data (TD) Outgoing Data to a DCE 4 Data Terminal Ready (DTR) Outgoing handshaking signal 5 Signal Ground Common reference voltage 6 Data Set Ready (DSR) Incoming handshaking signal 7 Request To Send (RTS) Outgoing flow control signal 8 Clear To Send (CTS) Incoming flow control signal 9 Ring Indicator (RI) (from DCE) Incoming signal from a modem Figure 3.2: 9-pin Connector On A DTE Device (PC Connection) [5]

PAGE 29

17 The RTS (Ready to Send) line and the CTS (Clear to Send) line are used when "hardware flow control" is enabled in both the DTE and DCE devices. The DTE device puts this line in a mark condition to tell the remote device that it is ready to receive data. If the DTE devic e is not able to receive data, possibly because of it’s buffer being full, it will put this line in the space condition as a signal to the DCE to stop sending data. When the DTE device is ready to receive more data, after data has been removed from its receive buffer, it will place this line back in the mark condition. The complement of the RTS wire is CTS. The DCE device puts the CTS line in a mark condition to tell the DTE device that it is ready to receive data. Likewise, if the DCE device is unable to receive data, it will place this line in the space condition. Together, these two lines make up what is called RTS/CTS or hardware flow control The RS-232 protocol offers this type of flow control, as well as Xon/Xoff or software flow control Software flow control uses spec ial control characters, which are transmitted from one device to another to te ll the device to stop or start sending data. With software flow control the RTS and CTS lines are not used. The intended function of the DTR (D ata Transfer Ready) line is very similar to the RTS line. DSR (Data Set Ready) is the companion to DTR in the same way that CTS is to RTS. Some serial devices use DTR and DSR as signals to simply confirm that a device is connected and turned on. DTR is set to the mark state when the serial port is opened and is left in the mark state until the port is closed. The DTR and DSR lines we re originally designed to provide an alternate method of hardware handshaking. It is pointless to use both RTS/CTS

PAGE 30

18 and DTR/DSR for flow control signals at the same time. Therefore, DTR and DSR are rarely used for flow control. Carrier Detect (CD) is used by a m odem to signal that it has a made a connection with another modem or has det ected a carrier tone. The Ring Indicator (RI) line is toggled by a modem when an incoming call rings the receivers phone. The Carrier Detect (CD) and the Ring Indicator (RI) lines are only available with connections to a modem since modems transmit status information to a PC when either a carrier signal is detected or when the line is ringing. Signal voltage levels and the data fo rmat for the RS-232 protocol are presented in Appendix A. 3.2 GPIB IEEE-488 Bus The GPIB IEEE-488 bus was developed to connect and control programmable instruments and to prov ide a standard parallel interface for communication between instruments from different sources. This versatile interface was originally developed by Hewlett Packard (HP) and was referred to as the HP Interface Bus (HPIB). The I EEE renamed it as GPIB. The GPIB uses standard TTL negative logic. A generalized block diagram of the GPIB IEEE-488 bus is presented in Figure 3.3. At power-up, the GPIB IEEE-488 interface that is programmed to be the System Controller becomes the Active Controller in charge. The System Controller may optionally Pass Control to another controller, which would then become the Active Controller.

PAGE 31

19 Bus Device 1 Device 2 System Controller Device 14 Figure 3.3: Block Diagram Of The GPIB IEEE-488 Bus There are three types of devices t hat can be connected to the GPIB IEEE488 bus. These devices are termed List eners, Talkers or Controllers depending on their function. Some devices include more than one of these functions. The standard allows a maximum of thirtyone devices to be connected to the same bus. It is possible to have several Controllers on the bus but only one may be active at any given time. The Active Controller may pass control to another controller, which in turn can pass it back or on to another controller. A Listener is a device that can receive data from the bus when instructed by the controller and a Talker transmits data on to the bus when instructed. The Controller can set up a talker and a group of listeners so that it is possible to send data to groups of devices.

PAGE 32

20 The GPIB IEEE-488 interface system consists of 16 signal lines and 8 ground lines. The 16 signal lines are divided into 3 groups. 3.2.1 Data Lines The lines DIO1 through DIO8 are us ed to transfer addresses, control information and data. The IEEE 488 standar d defines the formats for addresses and control bytes. Data formats are undefined and may be ASCII (with or without parity) or binary. DIO1 is the Least Si gnificant Bit, which will correspond to bit 0 on most computers. 3.2.2 Handshake Lines The handshaking process is outlined as follows. When the Controller or a Talker wishes to transmit data on the bus it sets the DAV (Data Not Valid) line high and checks to see that the Not Ready For Data (NRFD) and Not Data Accepted (NDAC) lines are both low. If the check is successful it puts the data on the data lines. When all the devices t hat can receive the data are ready, each releases its NRFD line. W hen the last receiver releases NRFD the Controller or Talker takes DAV low, which indicates that valid data is on the bus. In response each receiver takes NRFD low again to indicate it is busy and releases NDAC when it has received the data. When the last receiver has accepted the data, NDAC will go high and the C ontroller or Talker can set DAV high again to transmit the next byte of data. If after setting the DAV line high the Controller or Talker senses that both NRFD and NDA C are high, then an error will occur. Additionally, if any device fails to perfo rm its part of the handshake and releases either NDAC or NRFD, data cannot be trans mitted over the bus. Eventually a

PAGE 33

21 time-out error will be generated. The speed of the data transfer is controlled by the response of the slowest device on the bus. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate data transfer rates on the GP IB IEEE-488 bus since they are always device dependent. 3.2.3 Interface Management Lines The five interface management lines (ATN, EOI, IFC, REN, SRQ) manage the flow of control and dat a bytes across the interfac e. The Attention (ATN) signal is asserted by the Controller to i ndicate that it is placing an address or control byte on the data bus. ATN is re leased to allow the assigned Talker to place status or data on the data bus. The Controller regains control by reasserting ATN. This process is no rmally performed synchronously with the handshake to avoid confusion between c ontrol and data bytes. The End Or Identify (EOI) signal has two uses. A Ta lker may assert EOI simultaneously with the last byte of data to indicate endof-data. The Contro ller may assert EOI along with ATN to initiate a parallel poll. Although many devices do not use parallel poll, all devices should use EOI to end transfers. The Interface Clear (IFC) signal is asserted only by the System Controller in order to initialize all device interfaces to a known state. Afte r releasing IFC, the System Controller is the Active Controller. Only the Syst em Controller asserts the Remote Enable (REN) line. Its assertion does not plac e devices into remote control mode. Assertion of REN simply enables a device to go into remote mode when addressed to listen. When in remote mode a device should ignore its local front panel controls. The Service Request (S RQ) line functions like an interrupt. It

PAGE 34

22 may be asserted by any device to request t he Controller to perform some action. The Controller must determine which devic e is asserting SRQ by conducting a serial poll. The requesting device releases SRQ when it is polled. The GPIB IEEE-488 standard allows up to thirty-one devices to be interconnected on one bus. Each device is assigned a unique primary address, which ranges from 0-31 by setting t he address switches on the device. A secondary address may also be specified, which also ranges from 0-31. The GPIB IEEE-488 standard greatly simplifies the interconnection of programmable instruments by clearly defining mechanica l, hardware and electrical protocol specifications. The cables used to connect devices to the GPIB IEEE488 Bus are pictured in Figure 3.4. Figure 3.4: The GPIB IEEE-488 Connectors

PAGE 35

23 The connector pin diagram for a GPIB IEEE 488 Bus connector is presented in Figure 3.5. Figure 3.5: GPIB IEEE-488 Connector Pin Diagram

PAGE 36

24 4 System Integration System Integration for this project in volved the task of integrating all the hardware and instruments together and bringing them under the control of a single software program. The following is an enumeration of tasks involved with the project, for which the use of hardware became necessary. Controlling the position of the sensor above the pad Controlling the pad position relative to the sensor Generating an excitation signal for the pad Measuring the response produced by the pad Controlling and tracking the humidit y and temperature levels during the experiment The entire system was comprised of a total of seven instruments and some additional components. The system r equired integration at two different levels; physical and logical. Physically the instruments were connected on two different buses, which depended on the ty pe of communication interface they required. The two bus systems used were the RS-232 Serial interface and the GPIB IEEE-488 interface. On top of this physical layer was the logical layer that provided interaction control between the in struments. The various objects and classes created through the use of Micros oft Visual C++ implemented the logical interaction of the instruments.

PAGE 37

25 A model of the setup used to carr y out experiments on the pads is presented in Figure 4.1. In addition to the pad shape depicted in the Figure 4.1, pads can be semi-circular as well as circular without the gap in the center. Figure 4.1: CMP Pad Test Setup The assembly shown was mounted on a finely polished steel table. The supports for the table could be adjusted so that the pad was always perfectly horizontal. Temperature and the humidit y control was required in the vicinity of the pads in order to study the effects of these physical factors on the pads. Therefore, the test setup depicted in Figure 4.1 was enclosed inside a wooden insulating chamber.

PAGE 38

26 4.1 Instruments Used This sub-section provides informa tion about the hardware used in the system. Table 4.1 provides basic info rmation on all devices utilized during the testing. Table 4.1: Instruments In tegrated Into The System Instrument Manufacturer Function Interface VP 9000 Motor Controller Velmex, Inc. Control of motors used to move sensor Serial RS-232C PS2520G Programmable Power Supply Tektronix Provide power to hold pad while measurement is being carried out GPIB IEEE – 488 Lock-In Amplifier 7260 EG&G (AMETEK) Generate excitation signal. Measure response GPIB IEEE – 488 Data Acquisition Card 6035E National Instruments Control of switches used for tracking humidity PCI Temperature Controller and Sensor Newport Instruments Temperature control and measurement Serial RS-232C SERVO – 260 Studio Amplifier Samson Amplify Oscillator Output Humidity Sensor Honeywell Measure humidity Analog I/O 4.1.1 VP-9000 Motor Controller The VP 9000 is a programmable stepper motor controller, which is capable of running up to four motors alternately. The controller uses a powerful microprocessor, support circuitry and has 64 Kilobytes of nonvolatile Random Access Memory (RAM) for storing set up parameters and pr ograms. Commands and data can either be entered using the RS232 Serial Interface or by using the front panel menu. An alpha numeric display displays the motor positions and

PAGE 39

27 setup parameters. A host computer can send commands to the controller through its RS-232 serial interface. Commands can specify motion in absolute as well as relative indices. An absolute index is a move relative to the abs olute zero position. A relative index is a move in a certain direction and for a ce rtain distance from the present position. The instrument manual provides tables to estimate the number of steps required to cover a given distance. Of the four available lines on the VP 9000 only three were used. The instrument controlled the position of the sensor relative to the center of the pad (X-axis) the height of the sensor above the pad surface (Zaxis) and the angle of the pad with respect to the sensor position (Radial axis). Detailed information about how this control was implemented using the class CMotion is provided in later sections [6]. The VP 9000 VELMEX Motor Controller is pictured in Figure 4.2. Figure 4.2: VP 9000 VELMEX Motor Controller 4.1.2 PS2520G Power Supply The PS2520G is a Programmable Power Su pply from Tektronix. It offers three power outputs. Two of these s upply voltage from 0 to 36 V and current from 0 to 1.5 A. The third one has a hi gher current capability of 0 to 3 A and

PAGE 40

28 supplies voltages from 0 to 6 V. The instrument has a Light Emitting Diode (LED) display to indicate t he voltage and current levels. The PS2520G has a GPIB IEEE-488 interface that enables a host computer to control it through the use of Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments (SCPI). This device was used to provide a 12 V output to open a Vacuum Valve. This enabled the vacuum pump to create enough suction for the pad under test to be grabbed and held in pl ace while a measurement was being performed on it [7]. The PS2520G Progr ammable Power Supply is pictured in Figure 4.3. Figure 4.3: PS2520G Pr ogrammable Power Supply 4.1.3 Lock-In Amplifier 7260 A lock-in amplifier can be used for two basic purposes. To recover a signal in the presence of overwhelmi ng background noise or to provide high resolution measurements of relatively clean signals over several orders of

PAGE 41

29 magnitude and frequency. Modern inst ruments like the 7260 offer many additional features. These in struments are used in varied fields of research such as Optics, Electrical Engineering, F undamental Physics and Material Sciences. The Lock-In 7260 provides the following functions: Precision Oscillator Vector Voltmeter Phase Meter AC Signal Recovery Frequency Meter Transient Recorder Spectrum Analyzer Noise Meter The Lock-In amplifier was central to the proper functioning of the system. This project used its Oscill ator and Voltmeter sections. The Oscillator generated a precise 26 KHz signal with amplitude of 0.5 V (peak to peak) that was amplified and used to excite the pad under test. The response from the pad was detected by an ultrasonic transducer probe and applied to a channel on the Lock-In amplifier. The amplifier was set to disp lay and transmit this reading to the host computer, see Figure 4.3. This Lock-In amplifier has a GPIB IEEE-488 interface for communication purposes. There are specific commands to control the instrument remotely. The CLockin class in the software was used to communicate with this device. [8]

PAGE 42

30 Figure 4.4: DSP Lock-In Amplifier 7260 [9] 4.1.4 Data Acquisition Card (DAQ) The National Instruments 6035E Data Acquisition Card features sixteen channels (eight differential) of 16-bit analog input, two channels of 12-bit analog output, a 68-pin connector and eight lines of digital I/O. This card was primarily used by the syst em to implement humidity control. A humidity sensor generated a signal, whic h is mathematically related to the actual humidity. The signal was read by the analog input of the DAQ. The digitized signal value was sent to the pr ogram, which mathematic ally converted it to the actual humidity value. Based on whether the humidity level was to be increased or decreased, the program inst ructed the DAQ to output an electrical voltage on its corresponding analog outputs. The DAQ output voltage activated relays in order to enable the required system. [10] The DAQ functioned in conjunction with the National Instruments SC-2050 I/0 Board and the SC-2062 Relay Board. National Instruments provides driver software for the DAQ. Libr ary routines from the DAQ software were used in the VC++ program to implement humidity control. [11]

PAGE 43

31 4.1.5 Temperature Controller And Sensor The iSeries CNi16D temperature contro ller fully controlled the temperature during the experiments. The temper ature controller provides an RS-232 interface, which enabled remote control by the use of commands specified in its configuration manual. The instrument has analog inputs and outputs. A thermocouple is connected to the analog input to sense the temperature. The analog output operates a relay that supplies power to the heater. Depending upon the current temperature, once the setpoint is specif ied, the instrument enables/disables the relay. A temperature dead-band can be specified in which the controller maintains the state of the relay. The optional analog output can be pr ogrammed within a range of 0-10 Vdc or 0-20 mA. It is selectable as eit her a control output or as a calibrated retransmission of the process value, whic h is a unique feature among controllers. The type of control is also selectab le. On/Off, Proportional-Integral (PI), Proportional-Derivative (PD) and Proporti onal-Integral-Derivative (PID) can be selected [12]. The iSeries CNi16D Temper ature Controller is pictured in Figure 4.5.

PAGE 44

32 Figure 4.5: The ISeries CNi1 6D Temperature Controller 4.1.6 Humidity Sensor The HIH-3610 monolithic Integrated Cir cuit (IC) humidity sensor is designed specifically for high volume Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) users. Direct input to a controller or other device is made possible by this sensor's linear voltage output. With a typical current draw of only 200 A, the HIH-3610 is ideally suited for low drain, battery powered systems. The sensor requires a supply voltage of 4.0 to 5.8 V and operates over a temperature range of -40 F to 185 F. The HIH-3610-001 Humidity Sens or is pictured in Figure 4.6. Figure 4.6: HIH-3610-001 Humidity Sensor The Relative Humidity (RH) is deriv ed from the mathematical relation

PAGE 45

33 RH = (((Voltage/5.0)-0.016)/0.0062), here Voltage is the voltage value obtained from the output of the sensor. The voltage output of the sensor is picked up by the DAQ analog input, which is read by the program. [13] 4.2 Hardware Integration Device manufacturers outfit thei r instruments with communication capabilities in order to enabl e operators to control t he instruments remotely. Ethernet, USB, Serial and Pa rallel interfaces are examples of communication connection capabilities that ar e routinely provided. M any instruments that use the GPIB IEEE-488 interface have the capabi lity to decode the SCPI instruction set. Others have very specific command fo rmats, which are specified by their manufacturers. In order to control su ch devices from a host computer, the communication link has to be established. Once the communication link is established the software is simply requir ed to send instructions to the instrument in the form of strings. Manufacturers provide libraries that include commands specifically designed to make the inst rument perform specific tasks. These library files were linked into the projec t so that the commands offered could be used freely anywhere within the program. 4.2.1 GPIB IEEE-488 Bus The Lock-In amplifier and the Tektr onix Power Supply were two devices connected to this bus. Table 4.2 specif ies the GPIB address that was used for each device on the bus.

PAGE 46

34 Table 4.2: GPIB Device Addresses Device GPIB Address Computer (GPIB Card) Controller 21 EG&G Lock-In amplifier 7260 12 Tektronix PS2520G Power Supply 6 The devices on a GPIB bus could be a rranged in two configurations; linear and star. The linear configur ation configured the devices in a daisy chain. The connector from the controller is attached to one device. The second device is connected to the first and the chain continue s. In a star configuration all the devices are connected to the controller using dual-ended stackable connectors. The two configurations are depicted in Fi gure 4.6. This pr oject used the star configuration. The Controller card was di rectly connected to the Lock-In amplifier and the Power Supply. Figure 4.7: GPIB Bus Configurations

PAGE 47

35 4.2.2 RS-232 Serial Bus Unlike the GPIB, the RS-232 interf ace does not specify a designated controller. Communication between devices consists of passing serial data with start and stop bits. The Temperature Controller and the VP 9000 Motor Controller used the RS-232 protocol. These devices were connected to ports COM1 and COM5 respectively. In order to provide additi onal COM ports the National Instruments PCI-232/8 port extender was used. This PCI card and its cables provide eight serial ports that can be used simultaneously. The VP 9000 was connected to the seri al port on the host using a 9-pin RS-232 connector. A simple threewire connection (Transmit, Receive and Ground) was used between the Temperature Controller and the host. Newport provides software, which allows the Temperature Controller to be configured from the computer through the RS-232 bus. 4.3 Software Integration Software Integration achieved the logical interconnection of the instruments used in the proj ect. A single program was required to control all the devices and processes involved. A m odular, object oriented approach, was used to develop the software that made full us e of the advantages provided by Visual C++. Visual C++ classes uniquely r epresented every device involved in the system. The software was designed through the use of modules, which constituted variables and methods that defined the behav ior of individual instruments. Each

PAGE 48

36 of the modules could be invoked and cont rolled by the main program. The program presents a user-friendly interf ace to the operator The level of automation provided was such that it was possible to conduct experiments over a range of values of the proc ess parameters without the need for user intervention. The following sections provide a deta iled explanation of each interface in the program in the same order as they would be presented to the operator while running the application. 4.3.1 Login Dialog The login window is a part of the CLoginDlg class. This class is derived from the CDialog class, which is a part of the Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC). Therefore, it inherit s all the functionality of t he CDialog class. The user is required to enter a valid identification and password in this box in order to gain access to the system. It provides a simp le way of protecting the application and its hardware from unauthorized use. The login window is presented in Figure 4.8. Figure 4.8: Login Window 4.3.2 Main The main dialog box is a part of the CMain class, which is also derived from the Cdialog class. The Main window is pres ented after the user gains

PAGE 49

37 access to the system from the login win dow. The CMain class is a fundamental component of the software. This class cont ains procedures to initialize all of the hardware in the system. Upon initializati on of this class, communication between the host and the serial devices (CNi16D and VP 9000) is initiated by defining the required parameters. Main also controls access to the processes that the system offers. The control box is opened, for a ll hardware to be used, from the menu on the main window. The main window is presented in Figure 4.9. Figure 4.9: Main Window The Main Dialog displays the settings of all instruments. It also prevents contention between the dialog boxes and medi ates where control exists at every point in the program. If at any time one class has control over another class then a second object of that class is prevented from being created by the Main class. This action prevents interference between objects.

PAGE 50

38 4.3.3 Motion The Motion dialog box is a front end t hat was used to control the position of the three axes through the use of the VP 9000 motor controller. The CMotion class contains functions to direct, contro l and display the position of each axis. The position of the actuator on the axis is displayed in terms of distance. The VP 9000 keeps track of the position in terms of steps. The dist ance per step, for each axis, is presented in Table 4.3. Table 4.3: Step Sizes For Axes Controlled By The VP 9000 Axis Step size Radial (X) 6.5 microns Vertical (Z) 2.5 microns Angular 0.5 degrees When the Motion dialog box is opened fr om the main window the class is provided a link to the corresponding serial po rt from the main window. This link is used to enable communication with t he host through the RS-232 protocol. Upon initialization, the motors controlling the X and Z-axes are reset to the zero position. This window offers the oper ator multiple options for moving the axes. The speed of motion of the axes can be controlle d. It is also possi ble to make coarse and fine adjustments to the ax es position by using the big and little boxes. The software allows both coarse and fine adjustment of the axis position. The Motion window with these controls is presented in Figure 4.10.

PAGE 51

39 Figure 4.10: Motion Window 4.3.4 Lock-In The dialog box for the CLockin class enables the operator to adjust the frequency and amplitude of the si gnal generated by the osc illator section of the Lock-In amplifier. This window is opened using the main window’s menu. The Lock-In window is presented in Figure 4.11. Figure 4.11: Lock-In Window At initialization the amplitude and frequency, of the signal generated, are set to 0.5 V (Root Mean Square) and 26KHz respectively. The device is set in the voltage mode and input A is monitored.

PAGE 52

40 4.3.5 Automation The Automation Dialog box is called from the Main window. This is one of the principal windows in the software t hat controls the different types of experiments that could be carried out. T he parameters for a set of experiments can be specified in the window itself or can be read from a file. Upon initialization all the devices in the system are init ialized and their windows are created but kept hidden. The CAutomation class uses objects of all the device classes to control the run. The result ing readings are stored in a file. This class can also spawn a window in which a th ree dimensional gr aph of the readings is plotted. The Automation window is presented in Figure 4.12. Figure 4.12: The Automation Window This class includes various VC++ threads for carrying out different kinds of experiments. Threads are also spawne d to control physical factors such as temperature and humidity. The humidi ty value is updated periodically during

PAGE 53

41 every run. The temper ature can be read from the CNi16D instrument. 4.3.6 Automation Graph The CAutomationGraph class includes functions t hat are used to plot data in three dimensions. It incorporates a special tool, the 3D Graph Object, which was developed by National Instruments. This tool provides the capability to present and spatially format the data gathered using the ultrasound signal on the PAD. The tool provides an enhanced type of OCX (object control) An OCX control exchanges data between two applications or between an app lication and an operat ing system. It incorporates a concept called Component Object Model (COM), which is a specification that defi nes a standard binary interface between objects. COM defines the interface modules and standard structures to pass data and also some additional function calls us ed by the application. The use of COM allows bypassing the language barriers bet ween applications. Objects based in COM can be placed inside any applicat ion in any graphica l language and will work in the same way in all of them. The 3-D graph can present multiple plots simultaneously while allowing the characteristics of each one to be change d separately. This tool uses special structures that provide information about t he position of each point in each of the graphs. A 3-D graph is used off-line to present data already collected and saved. It is also used on-line in real time wh ile the data is read from the Lock-In.The latter uses more resources from the syst em, which slows the process slightly.

PAGE 54

42 The use of a faster computer or the us e of more time betw een updates provides a solution to this problem. The block in which this object is embedded also complies with the premise of reusability. This means that any other system can use this block separately, with no changes to the code, and maintain the same capabilities and interfaces. Using three dimensions for the presentat ion of data enables the user to obtain more information from different angles. The transfer of data to a graphic object is through special types of variables called variants, which allow the same data to have different data types. The 3-D Graph window is presented in Figure 4.13. Figure 4.13: 3-D Graph Window With Axes Projections

PAGE 55

43 4.3.7 Statistical Analysis Tool Measurements obtained from the pads yield results in terms of millivolts. The readings from each run are stored in s eparate files. The Statistical Analysis Tool uses these data files to check the uniformity of the pad surface. Voltage readings obtained at each point depend on the thickness of the pad at that point. If the readings are approximately the same in value the pad has a uniformly thick surface with very few perturbations. This program uses the F-test to analyze the pad’s uniformity. In statistics, an F-test is usually used to test for the equality in the standard deviations of two populations. 4.3.7.1 Testing Algorithm The F-value for the test is calcul ated by taking the ratio of the Mean Square Error (MSE) of each line and the to tal MSE. This value is compared with the value obtained form the F-table. If t he calculated value is larger than the one obtained from the table the pad surface is non-uniform. In statistical terminology t he Degree of Freedom (DOF) is a measure of variability that expresses the number of options avai lable within a variable or space. In a sy0stem with N st ates the degree of freedom is N. In this case, if “a” is the number of lines and “n” is t he number of points on each line on which measurements are made and N=n*a then the DOFnumerator is (a-1) and DOFdenominator is (N-a).

PAGE 56

44 This tool is a dialog box in whic h the file containing the readings corresponding to the required experiment is selected. The program reads the measured values from the f ile, performs the F-test and di splays the results. The calculated and observed F-values are di splayed along with a comment about the pad’s uniformity. The flowchart in Figure 4.14 depicts the procedure used. Figure 4.14: Flowchart For Pad Uniformity Testing Start Read val[i] sum_mean=sum_ mean+value End of File reached? mean=sum_mean/ N No A A Yes sstot=(val[i]mean)*(val[i]mean) i=0 j=n*i tmp_cnt=tmp_cnt+ val[j] is j=(n*i)+(n-1) No B B C treat_mean[i]=tmp _cnt/n i=0 j=n*i is j=(n*i)+(n-1) sser_tmp[i]=sqr (val[j]-treat_mean(i) E E i=0 sserr=sserr+sserr_ tmp[i] is i=(a-1) sstrt=sstot-serr mserr=sserr/(N-a) mstrt=sstrt/ ( a-1 ) fcal=mstrt/mserr Read ftab from file Yes No C Yes No Yes Yes is fcal>=ftab Pad is uniform Pad is not uniform No Yes Exit D D

PAGE 57

45 Figure 4.15: The Statistical Analysis Tool 4.3.8 Temperature Control The Tmpcntrl class maintains the variables and methods for setting and maintaining the temperature at a desired value during a run. Upon initialization, communication is established with the CNi16D via the RS-232 protocol. Independent functions cause the transfe r of commands to and data from the instrument. During a run the control rests with the CAutomation class. This class communicates with all the instruments by ma king use of objects of the respective classes. If any command needs to be s ent to an instrument the corresponding function is called. Temperat ure control, by its nature, is a process that runs continuously during the entire c ourse of the experiment. This requires the control to remain with the class that implements temperature cont rol. However, this is not possible. Therefore, the CAutomation class spawns a VC++ thread for this purpose. Threads run parallel to the main program and are controlled by the

PAGE 58

46 process that initiates them. Threads are widely used in this application. Temperature control is accompli shed by comparing the current temperature with the requi red temperature in order to develop the proper correction. Based on the result of this comparison the CNi16D is instructed to either activate or deactivate the relay t hat supplies power to the heater element. Control is implemented only for raising t he temperature and main taining it at a desired value. There is no capability fo r cooling. There is a dead-band of 2 F before the relay is reactivated when the environment starts to cool. The temperature controller uses the On/Off m ode. PI, PD or PID mode can also be used if required to control temperature. 4.3.9 Humidity Control Humidity control is similar to te mperature control. It needs to be implemented in such a way that it runs in the background, as a process, throughout the duration of t he experiment. Unlike temp erature, the humidity can be controlled in both directions. The CHumcontrol class provides control for humidification as well as dehumidification. Upon initialization of this class the voltage from the HIH-3610 humidity sensor is read by the DAQ and the corresponding humidity value is displayed on the screen. Humidity Control is implem ented in the form of a thread spawned from the CAutomation class. The thr ead compares the current humidity with a desired value and activates the required ap paratus accordingly. The Humidity Controller has a dead-band of 3 percent age points within which the setup maintains its state. The environment cont rol setup is presented in Figure 4.16.

PAGE 59

47 Figure 4.16: Setup For Temper ature And Humidity Control 4.3.10 Class Interaction The interaction between all the afor ementioned classes can be illustrated using a class interaction diagram. Each block in the diagram represents a class in the software. The dialog boxes of the classes under Main are opened using the menu on the Main dialog box. The Automation dialog box can be used to open the temperature, humidity and the statistical to ol windows. The 3-D graph object can be updated during a run to re flect the latest data. The Class Interaction Diagram is presented in Fi gure 4.17. The process steps used to collect data will be addressed in Chapter 5. Workstation Temp. Controller Heater Element Temp./ Hum. Sensor Relay Water Environmental Chamber Fan

PAGE 60

48 Figure 4.17: Class Interaction Diagram Login Main Lock-In Motion Kepco Automation Temperature Control Humidity Control Automation Graph

PAGE 61

49 5 System Processes The system can scan the pads under test in a number of different ways in order to carry out an inve stigation of their proper ties. A regular scan with constant angular and radial increments is most often used. A constant-radius scan measures pad response at all points at a fixed distance from the center. These two scans produce the maximum correlation between data taken on the same test sample at diffe rent times due to the low uncertainty in the point position. A random scan measures data without following a fixed pattern. This type of scan can be used to examine surfac e uniformity by comparing the results of two different tests over the same area. A spiral sca n starts from the inside and moves outward in a spiral. A spiral sc an covers the maximum surface area. The spiral scan requires the radial and angular motors to work simultaneously making the associated algorithm more intricate. 5.1 Testing Procedure In order to begin testing on a new pad its size and geometry have to be known. The depth at which the reading s are taken on a pad is a critical parameter. If the probe is pushed too much into the pad it can create a permanent stress at that point, which will alter the mechanical properties of the pad. Hence, it is necessary to know the exact position of the pad’s surface relative to the position of the probe on the Z-axis.

PAGE 62

50 5.1.1 Contact Point The Contact Point is the distance of the pad’ s surface from the zero position on the Z-axis. The Contact Po int of a pad depends on its thickness. Prior to beginning experiments, it is necessary to determine the value of the Contact Point in order to establish c onfidence in the depth parameter during a run. An iterative function is used to determine the value of the Contact Point. The procedure involves taking a set of r eadings and fitting them to a line. After the next reading is taken, its deviation fr om the line’s equation is determined and a new line is plotted if t he reading exceeds a pre-defined threshold. A snapshot of this function being executed is presented in Figure 5.1. Figure 5.1: Find Contact Point Function 5.1.2 The Automation Thread The software required numerous cont rolling and monitoring techniques in order to work in tandem. Therefore, the concept of threads was used

PAGE 63

51 extensively. The automthread was us ed to make regular and repeatable scans on the pad as explained in section 5.1.1. The thread was started after the radi al and angular pos itional parameters were specified in the Automation window. The thread opened a file specified by the user in order to stor e the collected data. The X and Z-axes motors were initialized to their zero positions. The probe was moved to the specified starting point. After the measurement was co mpleted the VP 9000 moved the probe over the radial and angular increments specified. Two parameters, runn and pause were used to check user intervention. If these variables bec ame zero or one the thread was stopped. The flowchart pres ented in Figure 5.2, page 4, illustrates the steps involved. 5.1.3 The New-Automation Thread The newautomthread was developed after the automthread. In the automthread the parameters r equired for a run were specified in the automation window. This limited the number of runs to one. If a new set of readings was to be taken the parameter values had to be changed and the thread started again. This problem was overcome in the newautomthread. This thread read the variable values from a file and completed the run. The f ile was simply a text file containing the position, angul ar increment, radial incr ement, depth, temperature and humidity. Values for one run were specified without a line break. The flowchart presented in Figure 5.3, page 5, illustrates the flow for the newautomthread.

PAGE 64

52 Figure 5.2: Flowchart For Automthread Start Read(startpos, stoppos, startang, stopang, radial-inc, angular-inc, depth) Open file to store data Set Lock-In amplitude and frequency Is a=10 and runn=0 Move probe to Contact Point-800 on Z-axis Move probe to start position and pad to startang C Move probe to contact point Move probe to contact point-800 Move probe to contact point + depth Read Magnitude using Lock-In. Update data on screen, Write to file, Update graph Is positionstopang No Yes B B Increase position by radial-inc Deactivate Pump Increment ang by angular-inc, position=startpos Exit Yes Yes A No A No A C

PAGE 65

53 Temperature and humidity contro l were implemented by the newautomthread. When the thread was st arted it spawned two processes to control these physical factors. As long as the temperature and humidity remained below a required level the thr ead was paused. The thread was only restarted when the processes notified t he thread that the required levels of temperature and humidity were reached. T he remainder of the thread is similar to automthread. When a run was complet ed the motors were re-initialized, the next set of parameters wa s read from the parameter file and the process continued. No capability existed, in the system, to implement cooling. Therefore, the parameter file always specified in creasing values of temperature. Figure 5.3: Flowchart For Newautomthread Start Open file to store data Open control file Is EOF A Read(startpos,stoppo s,stsrtang,stopang,an g-inc,radinc,depth,temp,hum Start temp and hum control Are temp and hum at reqd levels Update hum value on screen Yes same steps as automthread Exit A Yes No No

PAGE 66

54 5.1.4 The Temperature Control Thread An object of the temperature c ontrol class was created when the Automation class was initialized. The CNi16D was queried and the current temperature was displayed in the dialog bo x. However, the dialog box was kept hidden by the system. There were tw o situations that required starting temperature control. If the temperature needed to be monito red for chamber characterization purposes the thread would be star ted by using a button on the temperature control dialog box. If monitoring was required during a r un the automation thread could spawn a temperature control th read from within itself. Activating the Temp Control butt on on the automation window spawned a thread called tmpctlthread The only action performed by this thread was to make the dialog box visible to the operat or. The operator c ould then specify the required temperature level and actuate the control. Ther e were text boxes that displayed the current and desired tem peratures as the process continued. The implementation of tmpctlthread wa s simple. A flowchart illustrating the implementation of the th read is presented in Figure 5.4. Once a threshold level was fixed, on the CNi16D, no further decisions about switching the heater on or off were required. Upon starting, the thread checked to see whether the required temperature was spec ified in the dialog box. If the requir ed temperature was not specified and the aut omation class had spawned the thread during a run, the value of the threshold level was read from the automation cl ass. The thread

PAGE 67

55 converted the required temperature val ue to its equivalent hexadecimal number and passed the value to the CNi16D. The al gorithm is presented in Figure 5.5. At this point the actual control of the temperature was complete. However, when the threshold was r eached the automation thread had to be notified so the run could continue. This was accomplished by calling a function called comptemps. This function read the cu rrent temperature level and compared it to the threshold value once a second. If the two were equal a variable in the class was set. The autom ation thread monitored this variable in order to determine if the experiment could proceed. Figure 5.4: Flowchart For Temperature Control Thread Start Is value valid Yes Read threshold value from dialog box Convert value to Hexadecimal No Read value from automation class Send threshold to CNi16D Call function to compare temperature Exit

PAGE 68

56 Figure 5.5: Function To Convert A De cimal Value To A Hexadecimal String 5.1.5 The Humidity Control Thread The Humidity Control dialog box wa s created during the creation of the Automation class. However, like the tem perature control dialog box, it was kept hidden by the system until it s use was required. Pressing of a button on the Automation window spawned a thread called humctlthread that displayed the window and exits. The value of the requi red humidity could be specified in this window. The Start button on the window activated the humidity control. The humidity control window could be used dur ing chamber characterization or for other purposes when neither of the autom ation threads was running. Another Start Get temperature value Convert value to integer Convert value to binary Append zeros to make length a factor of four Reverse order of binary digits Form groups of four digits and find hex value Append hex value to a string Return hex string Exit

PAGE 69

57 way to control humidity was to use the inhumthread. The newautomthread started this thread, along wit h the temperature control th read, at the beginning of a run. The manner is which humidity cont rol was implemented was markedly different from the way temperature c ontrol was implement ed. Temperature control simply required setting the th reshold value on the CNi16D and notifying the automation class when the desired te mperature was reached. This was possible because the CNi16D was specif ically designed to monitor and control the temperature at a user-def ined value. In the case of humidity control, there was no single instrument that could implem ent control. Humidity control used a combination of a DAQ board, a hu midity sensor and a relay board. When execution began, the thread first read the values of the required and current humidity levels. If the humidity control dialog box was not open the required humidity value was read direct ly from the automation thread. The current value was read from the humidity control dialog box. Although this dialog box might not be open, it existed, which m ade it possible for the required value to be obtained. All the relays were put in the disabled state so that neither the humidification nor t he dehumidification apparatus was active. The actual part of the th read that implemented the c ontrol was in the form of a while loop. The loop checked t he humidity level every second and made decisions based on the current va lue. The thread made use of if statements to make decisions. There was a dead band of 3 percentage points around the required humidity level. When the act ual humidity was in the dead band region

PAGE 70

58 the thread switched off the control appar atus. Specific commands and data types were used to control the operati on of the relays. These commands and data types were part of the libraries supplie d by National Instruments. They were incorporated into the software. The fl owchart presented in Figure 5.6 illustrates the humidity control technique. Figure 5.6: Flowchart For Humidity Control Start Read threshold value from dialog Is value valid Read value from automation class Read current humidity value from screen Switch off all relays Is flag=0 flaglow=0, flaghigh=0, flagequal=0 Read voltage from sensor Convert voltage to humidity value and update screen Is reqd humactual hum Is flaghigh=0 Switch port 5 ON, Switch port 0 OFF, flaghigh=1 Is flag_hum=1 Is reqd hum<=actual hum+3 flag=1, flagow=0, flaghigh=0, port 0 OFF, port 5 OFF, humok=1 Is flag_dehum=1 Is reqd hum>=actual hum-3 flag=1, flagow=0, flaghigh=0, port 0 OFF, port 5 OFF, humok=1 Wait for 1 second A Yes No Yes A Yes Yes Yes Yes No Exit

PAGE 71

59 6 Results And Further Work The previous chapters provide an acc ount of the development process for an application that integr ated several instruments and brought them under the control of a single software program. This chapter provides some results obtained by using the various capabi lities of the software program. The main purpose of designing and building this software was to analyze polyurethane pads and study their respons e to varying physical conditions. The results can be used to find ways of maki ng the pads more resistant to such changes, thereby ensuring a longer working life. Pads of various dimensions and geom etry were tested using the system. The following sections present result s from tests performed on a pad using statistical analysis. 6.1 Surface Uniformity Testing There are various types of scans that can be used to collect statistical data from the pads. The system was des igned to enable operators to perform various scans such as random, linear, fu ll and sector-wise scans. This section deals with sector scans. The circular pad under study had a diamet er of thirty-two centimeters and a thickness of four millimet ers. For the purpose of analysis the pad was divided into three 120 sectors. A zero position was marked on the pad as a reference

PAGE 72

60 point for the radial motor. The three sectors ranged from 0 -60 120 -180 and 240 -300 These three sectors were i dentified as Sectors 0, 1 and 2 respectively. There were four parameters associat ed with every run. The values of these parameters determined the number of observations made and the density of points in every sector. The four parameters were as follows: Position: Each sector on the pad was identified by an integer. The value of position specified the sector over which the measurements were made. A value of “1” specified sector 1 (120 -240 ). Radial Increment: This value specified the separation between consecutive points on a line of the sector A value of “8” would leave eight millimeters between consecutive points. Angular Increment: Similar to Radi al Increment, Angular Increment was the angular separation between two neighboring lines on a sector. Depth: This parameter determined the depth to which the sensor pushed into the pad to determine the response at a point. The results obtained from the runs were st ored in text files. These values were analyzed using the statistical F-test to determine the uniformity of the pad over a given sector. The tabulated results are presented in Table 6.1. Sectors 1 and 2 were observed to be uniform as the probe moved along the sector in a circular fashion. Ho wever, for these two sectors the radial variations were significant. The obs erved readings varied as the probe was

PAGE 73

61 moved along the pad from t he periphery to the center. Sector 3 was non-uniform along both directions. Table 6.1: Surface Uniformity Test Results ComparisonF-test result Sector 0 (0 to 60 ): Line-wise Radial Insignificant Significant Sector 1 (120 to 180 ): Line-wise Radial Insignificant Significant Calculating the correlation between t he observed readings in two sectors provides an idea about their physical si milarity. A correlation close to 100% signifies that the sectors have a sim ilar surface whereas a low value of correlation is an indication of non-uniformi ty between sectors. The particular pad tested proved to have significant variations between sectors. 6.2 Effects Of Ambient Conditions The pad response to changing conditi ons of temperature and humidity was the focus of this testing. As in the previous tests the pad was divided into three sectors of equal size, see Figure 6. 1. Two more param eters, temperature and humidity, were introduced. The paramet er values are presented in Table 6.2 Table 6.2: Test Parameters Position Radial Increment (millimeters) Angular Increment (degrees) Temperature ( Fahrenheit) Humidity (%) 0 18 12 80, 90, 100 50, 60, 70 1 18 12 80, 90, 100 50, 60, 70 2 18 12 80, 90, 100 50, 60, 70

PAGE 74

62 Experiments using the paramet er values in Table 6.2 yielded nine sets of readings for each sector. Figure 6.1: 60 Sectors On Pad The analysis in section 6.1 was carried out using the Single Factor Analysis method. In this case the only factor that caused variation in the pad’s response was the location of the point on the pad where the reading was taken. In order to check for the effects of temperature and humidity on the pad’s response a Multifactor Analysis was used. The results from this test are presented in Table 6.3. Table 6.3: Multifactor Analysis Results Factor F-test Significance Sector 0 F-test Significance Sector 1 F-test Significance Sector 2 Temperature Yes Yes Yes Humidity Yes Yes Yes Temperature*Humidity Yes Yes Yes The results presented in Table 6.3 s how that Temperature and Humidity affected the pad’s response in every sector. The third column signifies that these two factors acting together also have an effe ct on the pad. Th erefore, if these

PAGE 75

63 two factors change together the pad’s response would be different than the response obtained when one factor remains constant and the value of the other factor is allowed to change. 6.3 Future Work The statistical experiments conduct ed demonstrated that the system is capable of testing the pads fo r their surface uni formity. A high value of uniformity is desired in pads since this would lead to better polished IC wafers. The experiments also demonstrated that the data acquired from t he system can be used to analyze the behavior of the pads under changing ambient conditions. This analysis is very important sinc e it helps in studying and improving pad properties, which will ultimately lead to better yields in IC manufacturing. Further statistical tests that use r egression analysis are to be carried out on the data taken by this system. These tests will determine the way in which the changes in temperature and humidity a ffect the pad’s response. These tests can determine whether the pad’s response will increase or decrease with a rise or fall in the values tem perature and humidity. These results are invaluable in characterizing the pad’s behavior. This system was designed to enable researchers to test pads using ultrasound testing. This system can be m odified to run tests on pads using laser beams. In laser testing the response of the pad at a point is measured in terms of the extent to which a laser-beam aimed at that point is scattered. The modular nature of the software makes it very easy to integrate this type of testing into the system. All that will be required is the inclusion of the de vice drivers for the laser

PAGE 76

64 interferometer and the develop ment of a new class that controls the laser. Coding for the laser experiments should fo llow the same philosophy as that for ultrasound testing. A thread spawned by the main program can move the laser over the pad and record readings as required.

PAGE 77

65 References [1] Test Automation and Design of Exper iments for Microelectronics CMP Pads, Franklyn A. Diaz, December 2000 [2] Introduction to Obje ct-Oriented Programming Us ing C++, Peter Mller Globewide Network Academy [3] Learning the Java Language, 19952000 Sun Microsystems, Inc. [4] J.P. Mueller, (1998) “Visual C ++ 6 from the ground up”, Osborne/McGrawHill [5] http://www.taltech.com [6] http://www.signalrecovery.com [7] VELMEX, INC., VP 9000 Motor Controller, Command Manual [8] Tektronix PS2520G Programmer Manual [9] EG&G instruments, Inc. (1997), Model 7260 DSP LockIn amplifier instruction manual, Princeton Applied Research [10] SC-205X Series User Manual [11] SC-206X Series User Manual [12] OMEGA, iSerie s Controller Manual [13] HIH-3610-001 Data S heet, http://www.honeywell.com

PAGE 78

66 Bibliography [1] OMEGA, iSeries Communication Manual [2] Visual C++6: The Complete Reference, Chris H. Pappas, William H. Murray, III, Osborne/McGraw-Hill [3] C++: Effective Object-Oriented Constr uction: concepts, principles, industrial strategies, and practices, Kayshav Da ttatri, Prentice Hall PTR, c1999

PAGE 79

67 Appendices

PAGE 80

68 Appendix A: The RS-232 Standard RS-232 Cables are commonly available wi th 4, 9 or 25-pin wiring. The 25pin cable connects every pin. The 9pin cables do not include many of the uncommonly used connections. The 4-pin cables provide the bare minimum of connections and have jumpers to provide handshaking for those devices that require it. These jumpers connect pi ns 4, 5 and 8 and also pins 6 and 20. In the IBM PC AT and m any new expansion boards a 9-pin serial port replaces the 25-pin connecto r. A 9-pin to 25-pin adapter cable can be used to connect this port to a standard 25-pin port. Table A.1 and Figure A.1 present the transmitted and received signal voltage levels and the protocol data format respectively. Table A.1: RS-232 Signal Levels Voltage Levels Transmitt ed Signal Received Signal Binary 0 +5 to +15 Vdc +3 to +13 Vdc Binary 1 -5 to -15Vdc -3 to -13 Vdc Figure A.1: RS-232 Data Format Start bit (Binary0) Data Bits (5, 6, 7 or 8) Parity (Even, Odd or None) Stop bits (1, 1.5 or 2)

PAGE 81

69 Appendix B: Programming For DAQ Figure B.1: DAQ Programming Flow The programming flow for data-acquisiti on devices is presented in Figure B.1. These devices are programmed th rough register access to the various chips and components on the hardware and by low-level calls to the operating system to control the bus, map hardware and allocate PC memory. Nearly all data-acquisition devices include high-level driver software, which isolates users from any low-level programming. The driv er software allows users to configure the hardware so that the operating system recognizes it and provides a basic programming interface. The user selects channels, input ranges and buffer sizes during the configuration step. During the start step the user instructs the device to start acquiring data when it receives a trigger. In the read step the user directs the program to transfer data across the bus to the PC memory. Once in memory, the data is available for analysis and manipul ation. The device can present the results in a numeric, graphical or tabular format. CONFIGURE START READ ANALYZE PRESENT

PAGE 82

70 Appendix C: Programming For Instruments Figure C.1: Instrument Programming Flow The programming flow for instrument s is presented in Figure C-1. Instruments are programmed via text commands or messages sent via I/O interfaces. Interfaces have an associated driver that allows the user the send commands to the device over the bus. Such drivers are incorporated into industry standard libraries that hide details from the users of the specific bus. Therefore, the progr ams written are indifferent to the type of interface being used. Instrument programming also follows a st andard progression of calls as shown in the Figure C.1. Upon init ialization the instrument is prepared to receive commands. Then the instrument is configured to make a specific measurement. After the measurement is completed comm unication with the instrument is closed in order to provide acce ss to other applications. INITIALIZE INSTRUMENT CONFIGURE INSTRUMENT MEASURE PARAMETER CLOSE SESSION

PAGE 83

71 Appendix D: Software Documentation This document is intended to serve as a manual for operating the system by using the software program interface. Interfaces presented to the user during execution of the program are explained in the same order as they appear. D.1: Login The Login screen is a security featur e that prevents unauthorized use of the system. Legitimate users can gain acce ss to the system by providing their login ID and password in the textbox es provided. The login-password combination is validated from a database in the software. D.2: Main Prior to displaying the Main screen the system initializes all the required hardware and communication channels. The text boxes in this screen were used to control axes positions and signal parameters but are now redundant. These variables are now controlled by other in terfaces, which are explained later. The Device menu-tab on this interface disp lays the screens to control various instruments used by the system. The Settings menu is used to open the automation window. The automation window controls various types of experiments offered by the system. D.3: Lock-In The Lock-In screen is used to find the optimum oscillator frequency at which the pad yields the maximum res ponse. The required amplitude and the

PAGE 84

72 Appendix D: (Continued) initial frequency are specified. The frequency sweep is started and the graphs are updated as readings are taken at t he specified amplit ude. The optimum amplitude and frequency were found to be 0.5 Vrms and 26 KHz respectively. D.4: Motion The Motion screen can be opened from t he main as well as automation screens. It is used to control and displa y the position as well as the speed of motion of the sensor. The text boxes titled Big are used to specify the distance through which the sensors ar e to be moved. The va lue in millimeters is multiplied by a factor of 10 and written into these boxes. There are two boxes, one for linear and the other for angular motion. The speed of motion is varied by checking the small or fast radio buttons. Small prov ides a speed range of 1500 to 2500 steps/second and fast provides a range of 2500 to 3000 steps/second. The home buttons for the respective axes move the sensor to the home or zero position of that axis. The movem ent is started by pressing the arrow buttons once for moving the axes through one step. D.5: Contact Point Altering the depth parameter signifi cantly changes the value of the measured signal. It is ther efore necessary to accurately determine the depth at which the measurement is made. The zero position of the Z-axis is fixed and therefore the distance from this position to the surface of the pad is required to specify the depth.

PAGE 85

73 Appendix D: (Continued) The Find Contact Point function is invoked from the automation screen to measure this distance. This module does not require any input from the user. However, before starting this program it is necessary to use the motion menu and move the sensor to a point over t he pad. The function uses an algorithm that differentiates between successive readings to detect contact between the sensor and the pad. The jump in the response signal is used to determine the location of the contact point. The cont act point and the intermediate readings are displayed on the screen. In order to get an average value for th is parameter the function can be run at various points on the pad and the readings can be averaged. D.6: Automation The automation window s pecifies parameters for runs and starts and monitors experiments. Every run has f our basic parameters associated with it; sector, radial increment, angular in crement and depth. Temperature and humidity levels are specifi ed if the effect of thes e factors on the pad is under study. The four parameters, se ctor, radial incremen t, angular increment and depth, can be specified on the screen in the dialog boxes prov ided. The start position, end position and increment are specified for the X and Radial axes. Pressing the linear start button starts the experiment.

PAGE 86

74 Appendix D: (Continued) The file to which the readings are to be saved is specified in the File settings area. This file can later be used to provide a graphical representation of the pad’s surface based on the observed readings. It is also possible to use the system in such a way that successive experiments are carried out with various combinations of the parameters. The parameters for every r un are written line-byline in a text file. The parameters are specified in s equence of sector, angular increment, radial increment, depth, temperature and hum idity. At the end of every run the system resets itself and begins a new r un with the new parameters on the next line in the control file. In this mode the start and stop angl e and radius are not specified since these are fixed at 0 60 250 mm and 154 mm respectively. The radial values depend on the pad’s size and have to be changed in the software to values that depend on the pad’s radius. The automatic mode is activated from the Choose file area by selecting the Run from file checkbox. The Automation control area starts and stops runs as well as displays the readings as they are taken. The Data Graph button opens the Graphical screen. The Find C.P. button is used to view the Contact Point window.

PAGE 87

75 Appendix D: (Continued) D.7: Graph Data This screen allows the user to view a 3-D graph of the readings. The color displayed at a point on the graph depends on the value of t he reading at that point. The user can also view x-y, x-z, and y-z axes projections of the graph by selecting the corresponding checkboxes on the right side of the image. The graph and color style is selected by che cking the required r adio button. The program offers nine graph styles and three color styles to facilitate analysis. In order to graph a par ticular data set the Graph Data button is pressed. The required file is selected from the file browser that opens. D.8: Temperature And Humidity Control The programs to control these paramet ers can be started in two ways. During chamber characterization, pressing the Temp. Control or Humidity Control buttons on the automation screen displays t he respective screen. The required value for the parameters can be specifi ed in these screens. Upon activating the Start button the temperature and humidity c ontrol starts and the changing values of the parameters ar e updated on the screen. In the second mode the automation cla ss activates these programs at the start of each run. The user has to spec ify the value of the required temperature first and then humidity in the control file a fter the other parameters. In this mode the dialog boxes for the programs that control these two factors are not displayed. The value of the current te mperature can be read from the front panel of the CNi16D and the humidity is displa yed on the automation screen as it

PAGE 88

76 Appendix D: (Continued) changes. The experiment does not star t till these paramet ers reach their required values. D.9: Statistical Analysis The statistical F-test is used to det ermine the uniformity of the pad. The statistical analysis toolbox does this test on a set of readings and determines whether the pad is uniform or not. The user has to browse and select the file in which the readings for a run are stored. Upon activating the Go button the program compares the calc ulated and tabulated F-values and provides the result in the textbox provided.