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Establishing a farmers market for a low-income Latino community

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Title:
Establishing a farmers market for a low-income Latino community
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Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Bretnall, Ann L
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Community development
Health
Low-income
Nutrition
Political economy
Dissertations, Academic -- Applied Anthropology -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: For the past decade, Floridas Latino population has significantly increased and is now the third largest in the United States. The same trend has also occurred in Hillsborough County. Social and economic disparities are significant as Latinos earn less than non-Hispanic whites and many live in poverty. A major concern of this population is the lack of access to inexpensive fresh fruits and vegetables. Findings from prior research show that the diet of immigrants often change quickly upon their arrival to the United States, with an increased emphasis on fast food and soft drinks and a reduction in the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. Changing dietary patterns among Latinos in the United States show a shift towards more processed and refined foods, which can adversely affect health over time.Project New Life, Good Health (NLGH) was a community-based program, funded by several local agencies.The project centered on providing nutrition education, health education, and a farmers market to low income Latino families, including recently arrived immigrants living in and around Tampa, Florida. The objectives of NLGH were defined in accordance with community input through a series of meetings at a church in which many Latinos attend. The overall goal of NLGH was to increase knowledge about a healthy lifestyle and improve access to low-cost fresh fruits and vegetables through the associated farmers market.Over 400 people attended the farmers markets within a six month time frame and 46 individuals were interviewed at the five farmers market events. While the data show that some newly arrived immigrants attended the farmers markets, the majority of attendees were longer term residents, which lived in the U.S. for an average of 11 years.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2005.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Ann L. Bretnall.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 157 pages.

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University of South Florida
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aleph - 001681102
oclc - 62774082
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001012
usfldc handle - e14.1012
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SFS0025333:00001


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ABSTRACT: For the past decade, Floridas Latino population has significantly increased and is now the third largest in the United States. The same trend has also occurred in Hillsborough County. Social and economic disparities are significant as Latinos earn less than non-Hispanic whites and many live in poverty. A major concern of this population is the lack of access to inexpensive fresh fruits and vegetables. Findings from prior research show that the diet of immigrants often change quickly upon their arrival to the United States, with an increased emphasis on fast food and soft drinks and a reduction in the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. Changing dietary patterns among Latinos in the United States show a shift towards more processed and refined foods, which can adversely affect health over time.Project New Life, Good Health (NLGH) was a community-based program, funded by several local agencies.The project centered on providing nutrition education, health education, and a farmers market to low income Latino families, including recently arrived immigrants living in and around Tampa, Florida. The objectives of NLGH were defined in accordance with community input through a series of meetings at a church in which many Latinos attend. The overall goal of NLGH was to increase knowledge about a healthy lifestyle and improve access to low-cost fresh fruits and vegetables through the associated farmers market.Over 400 people attended the farmers markets within a six month time frame and 46 individuals were interviewed at the five farmers market events. While the data show that some newly arrived immigrants attended the farmers markets, the majority of attendees were longer term residents, which lived in the U.S. for an average of 11 years.
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Establishing a Farmers Market fo r a Low-Income Latino Community by Ann L. Bretnall A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Anthropology College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: David A. Himmelgreen, Ph.D. Lorena Madrigal, Ph.D. Linda M. Whiteford, Ph.D. Date of Approval: April 15, 2005 Keywords: community development, health, low-income, nutrition, political economy Copyright 2005, Ann L. Bretnall

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DEDICATION To my husband Bob, who always believed in me, who never doubted me, who inspired me when inspiration wouldn't come. "To love someone deeply gives you strength. Being loved by someone deeply gives you courage." Lao Tzu, 16th Century

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the following agen cies for funding this project: Allegany Franciscan Foundation of Tampa Bay with the University of South Florida, Children's Board of Hillsborough County, and Gulf Coast North Area Health Education Center. There were key individuals at the churches who were suppor tive and I am grateful for their assistance. I am truly grateful to my professors who taught me so much about anthropology. I was fortunate to have a committee with combined talents of wisdom, expertise, and foresight. Dr. Lorena Madrigal and Dr. Linda Whiteford were always supportive of my efforts, who encouraged me, and who clarifie d topics, throughout al l of my anthropology studies. To Dr. David Himmelgreen whom I me t as an undergraduate student. He truly believed in my ability, giving me the confidence to complete this project. He enlightened me on issues affecting diverse communities with a perspective and knowledge, which allowed me to focus on the importance of community development. Dina Martinez, Laurie van Wyckhouse, a nd Maribel Vega were especially helpful in organizing the project. They were great to work with as a team, providing support to get the job done, while devel oping a wonderful friendships.

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I want to thank my husband’s family who I consider my own family. His parents Robert and Joan Bretnall, his sister and br other in-law; Patti and Paul Franzese; and his youngest sister Sandra for their support and fo r listening to all aspects of the project. Mostly I need to thank my wonderful hus band, Bob for his help, his patience, and his emotional support. I appreciated all th at you did for me through this adventurous journey. You are the one that has made this worthwhile.

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i TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Tables................................................................................................................. ....iii List of Figures................................................................................................................ ....iv ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ..v Chapter 1: Introduction....................................................................................................... 1 Statement of the Problem: Access to Healthy Foods in the Immigrant Latino Community..............................................................................................................3 Project Background..................................................................................................5 Objectives of the Internship.....................................................................................7 Limitations...............................................................................................................9 Internship Setting...................................................................................................10 Summary................................................................................................................12 Chapter 2: Literature Review............................................................................................14 Definition of Terms................................................................................................16 Immigration / Latinos................................................................................16 Acculturation..............................................................................................21 The Heterogeneity of Latinos/Hispanics...................................................23 What is a Farmers Market?........................................................................24 Expected Outcomes...............................................................................................27 Theoretical Outcomes................................................................................27 Political Economy......................................................................................28 Community Organizing a nd Development Theory....................................32 Summary................................................................................................................35 Chapter 3: Methods and Analysis.....................................................................................37 Project Participants................................................................................................38 Unstructured Exploratory Interviews.....................................................................43 Observation From A Distance...............................................................................44 Participant Observation..........................................................................................46 Survey Instrument..................................................................................................48 Data Collection......................................................................................................49 Analysis of Data.....................................................................................................49 Summary................................................................................................................50

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ii Chapter 4 Results............................................................................................................. .52 Unstructured Exploratory Interviews.....................................................................52 Observation From A Distance...............................................................................60 Participant Observation..........................................................................................63 Survey instrument results.......................................................................................69 Summary................................................................................................................74 Chapter 5: Discussion.......................................................................................................76 Introduction............................................................................................................76 Summary................................................................................................................95 Chapter 6: Conclusions and Recommendations...............................................................97 Introduction............................................................................................................97 Future Challenges and Recommendations...........................................................100 Recommendations................................................................................................100 References cited............................................................................................................... 105 APPENDICES.................................................................................................................123 Appendix A: Nutrition Seminars for Farmers Markets......................................124 Appendix B: 28-item Task List...........................................................................137 Appendix C: Local Farmers Markets..................................................................138 Appendix D: Farmers Market Nutrition Seminars..............................................143

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iii List of Tables Table 1: Sociodemographics.............................................................................................70 Table 2: Consumer Interest...............................................................................................72 Table 3: Consumer Preference..........................................................................................73

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iv List of Figures Figure 1: Consumer Ethnicity...........................................................................................70 Figure 2: Fruits purchased................................................................................................72 Figure 3: Vegetables purchased........................................................................................72

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v Establishing a Farmers Market for a Low-Income Latino Community Ann L. Bretnall ABSTRACT For the past decade, Florida’s Latino population has significantly increased and is now the third largest in the United States The same trend has also occurred in Hillsborough County. Social and economic dispar ities are significant as Latinos earn less than non-Hispanic whites and many live in poverty. A major concern of this population is the lack of access to inexpensive fresh fr uits and vegetables. Findings from prior research show that the diet of immigrants often change quickly upon their arrival to the United States, with an increased emphasis on fast food and soft drinks and a reduction in the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetabl es. Changing dietary patterns among Latinos in the United States show a shift towards more processed and refined foods, which can adversely affect health over time. Project New Life, Good Health (NL GH) was a community-based program, funded by several local agencies. The proj ect centered on providing nutrition education,

PAGE 10

vi health education, and a farmers market to low income Latino families, including recently arrived immigrants living in and around Tamp a, Florida. The objectives of NLGH were defined in accordance with community input th rough a series of meetings at a church in which many Latinos attend. The overall goal of NLGH was to increase knowledge about a healthy lifestyle and improve access to low-co st fresh fruits and vegetables through the associated farmers market. Over 400 people attended the farmers markets within a six month time frame and 46 individuals were interviewed at the five farmer’s market events. While the data show that some newly arrived immigrants attende d the farmers markets, the majority of attendees were longer term residents, which liv ed in the U.S. for an average of 11 years. In addition, to fresh produce and nutrition edu cation activities, social service and health care providers were also available at the fa rmer’s markets events. Finally, artisans, dancers, and other community members a nd groups provided cu lturally appropriate entertainment to the attendees. This thesis examines the processes in volved in organizing and implementing a community-based farmers market for a local low-income Latino community. While the information provided here will not work in a ll settings and with all populations, it does provide important insights into the proce ss of developing and implementing communitybased programs that center on food and nutrition issues.

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1 Chapter 1: Introduction According to United States (U.S.) Census 2000, there were over 280 million people residing in the United States. Of that number, more than 35 million (13%) are reported to be Latino, an ethnic minority group that now outnumbers the African American population (U. S. Census Bureau 2000) Furthermore, it appe ars that this trend will continue well into the century (U.S. Census Bureau 2000). For example, according to population projections (Day 1996:20) by 2050 it is estimated that the Latino population will grow to 97 million, representi ng a 177% increase from the year 2000. National data indicate th at nearly 37% of Latinos live in the Southern United States, with almost one-half living in inner-city areas (R amirez et al., 2003:2; Guzman 2001:3). Recent data also suggest an increa sing number of Latinos moving to suburban and rural areas throughout the United States (U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) 2002). These national population trends ar e also seen in Florida and Hillsborough County Since the early 1990s, Florida's Lati no population has grown by more than 669,000 people, the third-largest increase in the United States behind California and Texas (Mitchell 1999). A study by H illsborough County City-County Planning Commission indicates the Lati no population increased rapi dly from 106,908 persons in the year 1990 to 179,692 persons in the y ear 2000, representing a 68.1% increase.

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2 Today, Latinos account for 18% and 19.3% of the total population for Hillsborough County and City of Tampa, respectivel y (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000; Hillsborough County City-County Planning Commission 2001:43-4) Labor market research indicates Florida’s “economy attracts workers from a ll over the world…with 39% of foreign-born workers are from Latin America” (Age ncy for Workforce Innovation, electronic document: http://www.labormarketinfo.com/ publications/factsheeet-foreignborn.pdf ). When compared to non-Latino whites, La tinos are more likely to be younger, to earn lower wages, to work in service occupa tions or as laborers, to be unemployed, and not to have graduated from High School (Therr ien et al. 2000:5). United States Census data indicate that the pover ty rate is 22.6% for Latinos compared to 8.1% for nonHispanic whites (Bishaw and Iceland 2003:5) Although Florida’s Latino population is on the rise, their socio-economic status is unequal to increasing popul ation trends. For example, the 2000 Census Bureau reports indica te the Latino poverty rate in Florida is 18% (Office of Economic & Demographic Re search 2002) compared to 9.5% for nonHispanic whites. Furthermore, Florida labor statistics indicate that quarterly income of foreign-born Latino men is approximately 12% below the average of U.S. born workers. Female foreign-born workers “averaged about 92% of the earnings of female U.S.-born female workers” (Agency for Workfo rce Innovation, electronic document: http://www.labormarketinfo.com/pub lications/factsh eeet-foreignborn.pdf ). The higher average earnings for females may be due to a second or more jobs. Finally, approximately 19% of Latinos may not have adequate nutrition (Flo rida’s Labor Market Statistics, electronic document: http://www.labormarketinfo.com ). Social and economic

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3 disparities can have direct consequences in accessing or having resources for healthy nutritional foods, which are necessary for overall good health. Statement of the Problem: Access to He althy Foods in the Immigrant Latino Community The rapid increase in the Latino popu lation growth, high poverty rates among segments of this population, longstanding health disparities, the downsizing and elimination of public assistance programs, and a sluggish economy, place Latinos at increased risk for health problems (Himmelgreen nd:2). One public health concern that is receiving increasing atte ntion among public health researcher s and social scientists is the changing dietary patterns seen among Latinos in relationship to risi ng rates of diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and obesity (Himmelgreen et al. 2004a ) Changes in diet often occur when groups of people migrate or become more acculturated in another society. Latino population sub-groups show distinct differences in dietary intakes according to country of birth, generational status, and primary language spoken. In general, Latinos born in the United States eat diets higher in fat and lower in fiber compared with Latinos born outside the Unite d States (Dixon et al 2000:548). In many cases, dietary changes among immigrant groups are related to socioeconomic circumstances with poverty acting as a c onfounder with regard to the relationship between immigration and health (Hyman et al. 2002). For many Latino immigrants, economic security is the main concern while the consumption of a healthy, nutritious diet is a lower priority.

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4 Changes in dietary patterns are occu rring in low-income and middle incomes countries as a result of gl obalization and demographic and developmental transitions. These dietary changes are likely to be occurr ing at a much faster pace among immigrants to industrialized countries where access to low cost ‘modern’ highly processed food is much greater (Popkin 1998; Bermudez et al. 2003; Himmelgreen et al. 2004b). Many immigrants move to urban areas where there are very few of the larger grocery chains, but there are usually convenience stores or small mom and pop grocery operations ( bodegas ), which have a limited selection of fru its and vegetables. Low-income Latino households in the United States often have di fficulty in accessing a well-balanced diet at these stores (Mascarenhas 2002; Fisher 1999; USDA 2001). Moreove r, other factors such as lack of transportati on, unfamiliarity with local resources, lack of nutrition education opportunities, and / or fear of discovery especially among undocumented individuals may also play a role in lim iting access to healthy f ood (Fisher 1999; USDA 2001; Winne et al. 2000). Much more needs to be done to address these social issues, and in particular, culturally competent health education services need to be developed for recent Latino immigrants. Such services should promote wellness, disease prevention, and parenting and family skill building in an environment that is familiar to recently arrived Latino families (Himmelgreen n.d.:2). Perhaps more importan tly, it is imperative to improve the access of low cost fresh fruits, vegetables, and leaner cuts of meat and poultry for low-income immigran t groups in the United States. One approach to addressing the problem of food insecurity, which is the lack of available safe and nutritionally adequate foods among low-income urban populations is the development of combined nutrition e ducation, health promotion, and community-

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5 based farmer’s market programs (Himme lgreen 2000:335). Such programs not only provide nutrition information and increased access to health and social services, but they also improve access to fresh produce. During the last three years, the Department of Anthropology at the University of South Flor ida (USF) has collaborated with the Center for Family Health in Tampa to develop su ch a community project, which targets lowincome Latinos, including immigrant families. Project Background This project resulted from previous research conducted on Acculturation and Nutritional Needs Assessment of Tampa (ANN A-T), which investigated changes in food consumption and physical activity patterns of Latino immigrant’s families. The findings from research on ANNA-T were used to de velop project PAN (Providing Adequate Nutrition), which included a series of cultura lly tailored nutrition education and disease prevention seminars targeting low-income Latino families. Review of the data from the ethnographic interviews in ANNA-T and the nut rition seminars and focus groups from PAN reported the following: 1) lack of time and social support limited the opportunity for traditional family meals and 2) the diets of many immigrant families changed quickly with an emphasis on fast food and sodas and a reduction in the cons umption of fresh fruits and vegetables. While federal recommendations suggest the consumption of five to nine servings of fruits and vegetables per day for good h ealth (USDA 2003), many dietary studies have shown that the vast majority of Americans do not consume fresh fruits and vegetables at

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6 these recommended levels. Among other factors, ethnicity and income levels appear to affect consumption levels of fruits and ve getables. Barriers to fruit and vegetable consumption may include availability, costs, lack of knowledge of local fruits and vegetables, or skills associated w ith preparing fruits and vegetables. Prior research indicated a need for a co mmunity project, which included nutrition education and access to low cost fruits and ve getables. This project was designed with this in mind and the overall specific aims were to: 1) develop a culturally appropriate nutri tion education and disease prevention curriculum; 2) conduct a series of healthy eating an d disease prevention seminars; and, 3) to develop a church-based farmers mark et that includes nu trition education and health promotion presentations and ac tivities targeting low-income Latino families, especially recent immigrants. The focus of my thesis is on aim number three, which was to develop a churchbased farmers market at a local Latino church in Tampa whose congregation had expressed this need in their community. Speci fically, I will describe my role as project coordinator (as part of my internship expe rience) in the project while discussing the processes involved in establishing a multi-faceted community-based project. The larger goal is to provide information to others in terested in developing and implementing an applied nutritional an thropology project. While not al l the experiences I had while working on the project will be applicable to other community projects, some are likely to be useful when considering such interventions.

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7 I started the project in January 2002 as a class project for Research Methods in Applied Anthropology. This project was an opportunity to develop the groundwork for a sustained community project to help improve nutrition and health to low-income Latino immigrants. It addressed an immediate social and cultural issue to research the barriers and to resolve the barriers in accessing low cost fruits and vegetables. This project also presented an opportunity to use anthropology’s ethnographic me thods that I learned in class such as participation observation, interview techni ques, develop an evaluation instrument, and analyze collected data. It offered responsibilities, which I was able to apply my organizational skills, and was base d on previous work done in collaboration with Dr. Himmelgreen affording the opportuni ty to continue my work with him. Objectives of the Internship The objectives in organizing and implementing a church-based farmers market for a local low-income Latino community included: forming a community advisory committee that will provide input and guidance into the development of the farmers market; locating an appropriate venue; contacting produce vendors, social service agencies, health agencies, and artisan vendors; developing an advertising pl an such as flyers, free ra dio and television ads; developing a survey instrument for eval uating the effectiveness of the farmers market; facilitation of the farmers market;

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8 assist in development and administ ration of nutrition seminars; and administer and analyze data from the farmers market evaluation surveys. To accomplish these objectives, a community advisory committee was established in April 2002, which included recruiting loca l community members and church members to examine the feasibility of establishing a farmers market. The advisory committee members would meet the objectives agreed upon and help locate vendors, health educators, and social service agencies. To facilitate the farmers market, I worked with church members in disseminating informa tion through advertising with local Latino newspapers, radio stations, a nd television stations, and passi ng out bilingual flyers to local Latino businesses. I us ed the following outlets for advertising: La Gaceta, Latino Internacional and Nuevo Siglo newspapers; AMOR 1550 radio station; and Univision 62 and Telemundo 570 television. Various social service ag encies, health care vendors and produce vendors were contacted to participate in the farmers market The market also had to be coordinated with the nutrition educator w ho was presenting nutrition seminars. I had only a minor role in assisting the nutrition educator, wh ich included discussing ideas, assisting with support material, and helping organize the nu trition seminar on the day of the farmers market event. I developed the evaluation inst rument that consisted of preparing questions about various aspects of the farmers market ev ent such as demographics, general interest of the event, and items purchased. The eval uation instrument was developed in Spanish and English and was administered by bilingual speakers at the farmers market events. I

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9 asked various church members and anthropol ogy graduate students to assist in administering the evaluation instrument at market events. My participation benefited the project because of my previous experience in various business settings dealing with client s and with international students, organizing social events, as well as my ability to analy ze a situation and to make decisions quickly. At the farmers market events these various skills have helped to ensure a successful event. As an example, at the first farmers market held on Sunday, June 23, 2002, a Latino food vendor called the even ing prior to the event stati ng he would not be able to come, but offered to donate a la rge cooler of sodas, bottled water, and ice. This was a good compromise as it economically benefited th e church. I was able to get one of the church members to sell the beverages for a co st of 50 cents each with proceeds going to the church. At the second event on Sunday, July 28, 2002, I had to analyze quickly changing the time of nutrition games, since several families started to leave. A staff member gave an announcement that there would be a children’s contest held immediately with some of these families returning to the event. Limitations I was working with a Latino communit y, which included monolingual Spanish speakers and bilingual speakers. Although I know some Spanish, I am not fluent in the language. On occasion, this inhibited my ability to communicate with the community members and share ideas with some of the advisory committee. Moreover, there may have been instances when my ethnicity a nd gender hindered my ability to work with various community representatives. While th ese are real limitations, I did endeavor to

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10 integrate myself as much as possible in to the community using ethnographic field methods such as observation from a distance an d participant observation. For example, I attended most of the Sunday services at the church between May and October 2002 and afterwards I often helped to se rve food in the church kitchen. I also attended meetings regarding various church activit ies, volunteered for church ac tivities, and even prepared speeches, which I presented in Spanish to the congregation. I was eventually asked to participate in one of their c hurch rituals, which were reserved for a select few in the congregation. I also had the help of Dinorah (Dina) Martinez a bilingual graduate student in the Department of Anthropology at USF. She assisted me with translations, project support, and meetings with the community. In the end, I integrated myself to establish rapport and build a relations hip with this community. Internship Setting The project was conducted in collaborati on with the Center for Family Health (CFH), two Tampa based churches (the name s are not provided in order to maintain anonymity) with funding from the Allegany Fr anciscan Foundation, the Children’s Board of Hillsborough County, and the Gulfcoast No rth Area Health Education Center. The Center for Family Health, which ope ned in 1986, is a non-profit organization dedicated to providing low-cost and free health care to the working poor of the Tampa Bay area ( www.thecenterforfamilyhealth.org ). Local community members, local organizations, and grants provide funding for CF H. Services offered at the clinic are general practice medicine, primary gynecology, which includes affiliation with Moffit Cancer Center, and pediatric services. Many of the clients at CF H are from Colombia,

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11 with others from Venezuela, Central Ameri ca, and the Dominican Republic (Field notes February 5, 2002). The first church I worked with, begi nning in February 2002, and the one where the majority of farmers markets were conducted is located in an older East Tampa area. Situated in the area is a neighborhood, hotels, grocery stores, bodegas, and other small businesses. The church is adjacent to a neighborhood made up of working class households of various ethnicities. The church itself is mainly a Latino congregation and the only church service is on Sunday and in Spanish. Church members are low to middle income Colombians or Central Americans. I was introduced by and established contact with key church members by Dina Martinez who previously conduc ted nutrition focus groups with the church members. Through thes e key church members I was able to gain direct involvement in the church setting and at various church mee tings. The project was discussed at a community advisory comm ittee meeting on April 21, 2002, and was then presented to the Church Vestry members. Then I spoke with the Vestry members on Sunday May 5, 2002, outlining the goals of the project, which was to develop a sustainable farmers market that would offer low cost fresh fruits and vegetables to the community at large as well as access to social and health services. I obtained formal permission for the farmers market events from both of the church pastors and Church Vestry members (Field Notes, May 5, 2002). While the East Tampa Church was succe ssful in organizing and running several farmers markets over time, there were a set of developing problems, which impeded the success of the project. For example, chur ch membership began to fall resulting in financial constraints and very limited resources. After consultation with the church

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12 elders on Saturday, October 19, 2002 and w ith the funding agencies the previous summer, efforts were undertaken to include another local church in the project. I contacted a priest at one of the larger c hurches in Tampa. As part of community outreach, this church congregation had devel oped a Mission Church in 2001. During my part in the project, there was no building. Serv ices were offered in an open-air setting, on a grassy treed lot, with over 400 people attendi ng services on a weekly basis. With the help of a church supervisor and other comm unity members, a second farmers market site was set up in addition to the one in East Tampa. Summary For the past decade, Florida’s Latino popul ation has significantly increased as the third largest in the United States and Hillsborough County’s Latino population has also significantly increased. Soci al and economic disparities are significant with Latinos earning less and with more living in poverty. Changing dietary pa tterns among Latinos in their own countries and in the United Stat es show a shift toward s more processed and refined foods, which adversely affect overall health. The findings are supported from research conducted in ANNA-T and PAN, which indicated diets of many immigrant families changed quickly upon their arrival to the United States with an emphasis on fast food and sodas and a reduction in the consump tion of fresh fruits and vegetables. The objectives of this project are in accordance with community desires and needs. The venues for the markets provided a social and economic environment for the availability of culturally specific foods while introducing other nutriti onally adequate and healthy

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13 foods into the Latino diet. The goals of th e farmers market can help to improve the nutrition and health knowledge of the local low-income Latino community.

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14 Chapter 2: Literature Review The number of anthropological articles a nd studies on farmers markets is minimal although there is a recent anthropology thesis (Furman, 2000), and an anthropology journal article on the topi c (Andreatta et al. 2000). There were several nonanthropological articles, which were in ot her academic journals (Family Economics and Nutrition 1997; Public Management 1994; In ternational Journal of Consumer Studies 2001), in newspapers (St. Petersburg Time s 2002; The Washington Post 2002; Western Fruit Grower 2002), and on the Internet (Nationa l Association of Farmers Markets, Florida Department of Agriculture). J ournal articles were on the economic and nutritional benefits, data from su rveys of services, or results of marketing interventions. The newspaper articles discu ssed the opening of new farmer s markets, the fresh foods available, or consumer’s interest in farm ers markets. The Internet sites discussed locations of farmers markets, establishing a nd managing a farmers market (University of Kentucky 1992; Colorado State University 1998), a nd links to other food system sites. A literature review on farmers market s indicate that low-income areas “face particular challenges such as a need for s ubsidies, community suppor t, a tailored product mix, community involvement as vendors, and transportation” (USDA-Anacosta 2001:v). Yet, farmers markets can foster community association and food association by bringing

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15 neighbors together, helping children to learn where their food comes from, and allowing families to talk directly with vendors a nd farmers who grow their own food (Fisher 1999:7; Corum et al. 2001:93). Researchers in nutrition and health recogni ze that fruits and vegetables are low in fat and provide essential nutrients to maintain a healthy body weight. Healthy People 2000 recommend five or more servings a da y of fruits and vegetables, but many lowincome Latinos often do not have easy access to high-quality food. For example, “existing data indicates fruit and vegetabl e consumption differs across income and ethnicity and is lowest among the poor and ce rtain minorities” (Sherman 1999:7). Since fruits and vegetables are low in fat, incr easing their consumption can help to improve overall health. National data indicates the median daily fruit and vegetable consumption is 3.1 servings for the lowest income group as compared to 3.7 for the highest income group (Fisher 1999:3). This difference in fru it and vegetable servings in low-income families is due to barriers in accessing fresh fruits and vegetables, such as perishability, cost, poor quality, availability, seasonality, diffi culty in preparation, or unfamiliarity with certain fruits and vegetables. Many i nner city locales are far from suburban supermarkets, and many low-income communities have lost long-term grocery stores. Many low-income Latinos do not have suffi cient income to purchase a complete complement of foods, nor reliable access to fresh foods. In this chapter I review the literature to clearly define immigration, acculturation, Latino heterogeneity, and farmer s markets. I will also attempt to critically review theories of political economy, which will consider food choices and food access for recent immigrants and then; community organization and development theory, which will

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16 reflect the process of empowerment for peopl e to solve and improve their nutrition and health problems via a farmers market. Thr ough these theories, I hope to portray macroand microprocesses influencing acce ss to healthy nutritional foods. Definition of Terms Immigration / Latinos Immigrants, people of diverse origins, background, and ethnicity transformed the core of United States population flocking to this nation from scores of countries. As a center of global capitalism, the United States attracts labor migrants and displaced persons (Chavez 1992:7). Immigrant families and descendants have followed paths to new homes, new occupations, and new confid ence as U.S. citizens. With increasing globalization and rapid expansion of immigra tion to the United States; especially from Latin American countries, experiences and accu lturative processes of immigrants varies depending on country, ethnicity, and gender. Reviewed immigration literature of historical analysis recounts and helps us understand social processes of changes affecting Latinos. Simply, migration is a social and phy sical process of people moving from one country to settle in another country. “Migra tion is conceptualized as an investment in human capital: people move to places wher e they can be more productive, given their skills.” Also, human migration is embedded in larger social structures, such as “households, kinship groups, friendship netw orks, and communities of residence or

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17 origin” (Cerruti 2001:187). Pedraza (1991:307) notes the Un ited States “remained the magnet that yesterday as well as t oday attracts the world’s poor.” Historically, the U.S. immigration polic y has been based on a desire to help families reunite. The major priorities of immigrant policy include reunifying families, meeting labor needs, and responding to humanitarian crises around the world (Angel 2000:1). Latinos have different histories of immigration and different experiences in the United States which can influence their so cial, economic, and political status” upon arriving in the United States (Hajat 2000: 2). Pedraza (1996:2) research indicates, “immigration can be broadly understood as c onsisting of four ma jor waves” over the course of American history, with the fourth wave consisting “of immigrants mostly from Latin American from 1965 into the present.” One of the first waves of Latino migration to the United States was at the turn of the 20th century. Economic expansion in the Unite d States at the turn of the century opened the door for cheap labor, which began a large migration from Mexico (Melendez et al. 1991:3). In 1848, the United States gained, by military c onquest and annexation, Mexican land as well as control over the lives of Mexicans living there. As a result, the concept of immigration became meaningless for many Mexicans now living in the United States (Hajat 2000). The Unite d States acquired the island of Puerto Rico in 1898 and people living on the island were granted U.S. citizenship in 1917. As U.S. citizens, Puerto Ricans were free to settle and wo rk anywhere in the United States. Again, economic expansion in the United States af ter World War II opened the door for cheap labor, which began a large migration from Puer to Rico to larger me tropolitan cities such as; New York, New Haven, Boston, and Chicago. For Puerto Ricans migrating to the

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18 United States, circumstances were similar to that of Mexicans, in that surplus labor conditions pushed people to migr ate (Melendez et al. 1991:3). In contrast to Mexicans a nd Puerto Ricans, Cubans and Central Americans have a somewhat different migration history. C uban migration has a st rong political-refugee component related to the Cuban Revolution in 1959. The Cuban immigrants who first came to the United States were well educated and wealthy. This combination with the assistance they received from the U.S. gove rnment sources provided them with socioeconomic conditions that were closer to that of non-Hispanic white Americans than to those of other Latino groups (Melendez et al. 1991:4). The most recent immigrants were in the 1970s and 1980s, are from Central and South American who “were often fleeing from violence, war, and poverty in their homelands” (Melendez et al. 1991:4). Our U.S. immigration laws promote fa mily reunification. Immigrants coming from countries with similar socioeconomic cl ass, language, and cultu re tend to live in communities where they will receive both social and economic support. “Family reunification immigration tends to occur in “c hains” that link family members and friends to common destinations.” This is especially the case for lower-skilled immigrants as they depend on kinship ties for assistance in gaining entry to informal job networks that exist in the “classic” immigrant magnet metro areas such as Los Angeles and Miami (Frey 1999:26). Latinos are still attracted to the United States, despite existence of Latinos ethnic institutions and customs that tend to reproduce group solidarity and social differentiation, but according to Melendez (1991 :2) “immigrants eventually acculturate into United State’s society.”

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19 Research also indicates th at recent immigrants tend to come from “Latin America, and are younger than average, than people who arrived decades ago” (Perry et al. 2003:2). Massey and colleagues (1999:221) suggest younger Latino immigration is “increasingly comprised of persons of labor force age and women of childbearing age.” Census 2000 indicates between 1995 and 2000, 5.6 million foreign-born people moved to the United States. Among recent waves of immigration, most foreign-born migrants, approximately 60% initially settled in one of six “gateway” states, California, New York, Texas, Illinois, New Jersey, and with Fl orida ranking third with 477,000 immigrants. Also, migrants are more likely to move to metropolitan areas in lieu of non-metropolitan areas, and more likely to move to the city in lieu of the s uburbs (Schachter et al. 2003:3). Many of the recent Latino immigrants have lower incomes and their job options are less attractive, as these individuals may not have “documentation of legal status or entered the country illegally” (Durand et al. 2000:9). Even with legal immigrant status, many Latinos still have difficul ties obtaining employment. During the 1990s, California experienced a severe recession, high unemp loyment, and greater wage competition generated by a large number of recently legalized immi grants “entering local labor markets making it difficult for Latino immigran ts to improve their socioeconomic status” (Durand et al. 2000:6). Many immi grants who are trained profe ssionals are forced to take low paying menial jobs. These professional in dividuals who have tr ained in disciplines such as medicine or law, cannot practi ce in the United States until they pass the professional boards and pay fees involved that quite high (DiazSprague 2003, electronic document www.awis.org ). Usually, economic developmen t and political instability are major factors behind Latino migration. The es tablishment of global markets into rural

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20 areas, rapid growth and improvement of communications, and population increases are among the contributing factors of Lati no migration (Engstrom 2000:33). Steady employment, increased wages, educationa l opportunities, political freedom, family reunification, and the “lure of the ‘good life’ have all contributed to Latinos immigrating to the United States” (Engstrom 2000:34). There is a large influx of Latinos from South America coming to the United States who are especially drawn to Florida and th e Tampa Bay area for previously mentioned reasons. Florida’s economy attrac ts Latino workers, or they co me because of family ties. Latinos comprised 90% of patients at CFH, with approximately 36% from Colombia (CFH 2002) while at the Mission Church a pproximately 80% of the congregation was from Mexico. “Due to steady job growt h, the unemployment rate in Hillsborough County remains lower than the state averages” (Hillsborough County City-County Planning Commission 2002:61). Many immigrants, especially Colombians are coming to Florida and Tampa Bay area not only for econom ic reasons, but also due to political unrest, violence, or kidnappings of fam ily members in their country (Frey 1999; Migration World Magazine 2000; Ordonez 2003). As reported in The Economist (2001:6), “tens of thousands of middle-and upper-class professionals and entrepreneurs have fled...being displaced from their homes by violence in the past five years…with Colombians now being second to Chinese in applying for political asylum.” Large numbers of Venezuelan profe ssionals are also coming to Fl orida due to “erratic economic policies” (The Economist 2001:6). Florida a nd the Tampa Bay area provide Latinos jobs, low cost of living, and for those fleeing viol ence, a less stressful environment to live.

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21 Even though migration can have negative effects on individuals and families such as culture shock, dislocation, and stereotypi ng, many immigrants still come to the United States for a variety of reasons, such as to improve their own and their family’s economic situation, seeking political asylum, or as re fugees. “Immigrants bring a whole host of social resources with them-such as their so cial class, race, education, gender, family, institutional knowledge, political attitudes, a nd values -from another society” (Pedraza 1996:11). Yet, immigration often disrupts th e life course of immigrants presenting challenges and affecting their socioec onomic situation (Blank 1994:4). Although, according to Hennessy (1984:175), as Latino im migrants are immersed in American culture the processes of migration may not be as important “as the processes of acculturation” which is changes in cultural a ttitudes, values, and behaviors that result from immigration experiences (Suarez-Oroco et al. 2002:291). Acculturation Acculturation is a process of culture cha nge in which continuous contact between two or more distinct so cieties is varied, based on ethnicity, gender, and / or class (Arcia et al. 2001:42; Crespo et al. 2001: 1254; Kaiser et al. 2001:542; http://www.rice.edu/project s/HispanicHealth/index.html ). Acculturation is an interrelated process by which immi grants adopt, internalize, and exhibit the behaviors of the host society including language, assimilati on into a society, alte ring family values, dietary changes, stress relating from attempts to maintain ethnic culture, and “daily life interactions and practices such as foods or friends” (Arcia et al 2001:42). Acculturation of one cultural group into a nother cultural group may “be evidenced by changes in

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22 language preference, adoption of common attitudes and values, membership in common social groups and institutions, and loss of se parate political or ethnic identification” (Hazuda et al. 1990). According to Hurt ado (1997:31), acculturation can be bidirectional where “cultural cont act can indeed bring change in both the minority group and the majority groups.” One notable aspect of cultural change fr om Latino immigrants to America is adoption of foods such as salsa, burritos, or chili. Acculturation processes such as language proficiency facilitates interaction with American people, media, and culture influencing Latinos vi ews on foods and diets. Arcia and co-workers (2001:50) note accult uration for Puerto Ricans is different from that of other Latino groups, due to E nglish language instruction in Puerto Rican schools. Puerto Ricans also have freedom in traveli ng between the island and the mainland, which may prepare an easier transi tion for Puerto Ricans into American culture. Callister’s (2002:24) research on Me xicans indicates, “assimilation of Mexicans is minimal compared with other cultural gr oups who immigrate to the United States, and they are highly protective of maintaining language as we ll as cultural beliefs, and traditions.” Mexican immigrants may be using social networks or immigrating to ethnic enclaves or neighborhoods already established in the United States. Describing the processes of acculturation is then associated with origins, which include country, culture (including diet), and social and economic background. For Latinos immigrating to the United States, ex periencing the process of acculturation can be understood by analyzing “causes, processe s, and consequences of migration” (Hondagneu-Sotelo 1991:304). History of immigration and acculturation is a dual process where culture, soci al, and economic processes in teract and affect Latino

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23 immigrant experiences. At th e initial location of farmers market events most of the congregation were middle-class Colombians w ho have been living here on average of 11 years, and are bi-lingual. The second location of the farmers market included a higher percentage of low-income Mexican immigrants who were monolingual. These individual lived in a low-income housing neighborhood. Th is trend may be associated with their own socioeconomic status in their countries or skilled labor versus professional labor. The Heterogeneity of Latinos/Hispanics As the focus of my internship was to target low-income Latinos in Tampa, I will a briefly discuss the terms Latino and Hispanic before fully describing the project. The Latino population of the United States is a hi ghly heterogeneous population that defies easy generalization. “Latinos are a big family ” glosses over the contradictions, tensions, and fissures around class, race, and color-th at often separate this population (SurezOrozco et al. 2002:3). The terms Latino and Hi spanic are not identical nor are they easy to define clearly; however, they are used as standardized hom ogeneous terminology in the English language for a heterogeneous mix of people that have di verse national origins and cultures from various Spanish speaking c ountries. Latinos trace their origin or descent to Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba and many other Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America constituting differences in religion, politics, custom s, social attitudes and socioeconomic status (Gracia et al. 2000: 1; U.S. Department of Commerce 1993:1). Latino and Hispanic are broad terms, which are generally used in a variety of ways, such as geographically, culturally, or politically, to characteri ze a group of people from the various countries previously mentioned. The term Hispanic is also associated in many

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24 places with “negative qualities su ch as laziness, shiftiness, la x morals, low-class, lack of education, drug use, and so on” (Gracia 2000:17 ). Yet some Latinos deride the use of “Hispanic” as an “anglicized cheapening of th eir Spanish roots” and insist on the use of “Latino” as an identity (de Va rona 1996:xviii). Latino is ge nerally restricted to persons from Latin America, yet there are many i ndigenous groups and many languages in Latin America other than Spanish. The Latino / Hispanic communities in the United States therefore do not encompass a homogenous gr oup of people but ha ve varying ethnic identities based on specific cultural histories. For consistency, the term Latino will be utilized in this document, but the author r ecognizes the distinctiv eness of many “Latino” national origin populations. What is a Farmers Market? Farmers markets are one aspect of a di rect marketing activity, which includes roadside stands, community supported ag riculture (CSAs), and pick-your-own operations, where sales of farmers agricultural products are made directly to the customer or final user (U.S. Department of Agricult ure 2002:1). Farmers markets are one of the oldest of all direct marketing approaches th at link consumers with their agro-food system (Andreatta et al. 2002:167). A farmers market also called a greenmarket, is defined as: “a public market at which farmers and ofte n other vendors, sell produce directly to consumers” (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language 2000). The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS) farmers market booklet (nd:np) is more descriptive and inclusive of other vendors in the term farmers market indicating it is “a direct marketing outlet, a place where farmers come together to sell

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25 produce directly to the consumer.” Farmer s markets are also defined as “a common facility or area where several farmers/growers gather on a regular, recurring basis to sell a variety of fresh fruits and vegetables and ot her farmer products directly to consumers” (Burns 1997:58). A farmers market can be viewed as a local level institution within an urban area, a service oriented, and /or manufacturing community where there is a need for specialization of fruits and vegetables. So metimes farmers markets are initiated as a vehicle for urban revitaliza tion, a grassroots community or ganizing, or boosting a local community’s economy (McGrath et al. 1993:307; http://www.ams.usda.gov/farmersmarkets/fedpro.htm ). “A principal function appears to be one of community building, but the market contributes powerfully to a sense of individual, personal renewal” (McGrath et al. 1993:308). Ma rkets are venues to education and engage consumers concerned wi th price and freshness of foods. Public awareness on how to eat better has fueled th e increase in the number of farmers markets in the United States ( http://www.nwpub.net ). Shoppers are educated, into wise buyers, concerned for their own and their families physi cal health. Farmers markets also draw in consumers to urban areas by tangibly revitali zing and healing the community (McGrath et al. 1993:308). Along with being a great pl ace for business and trade, farmers markets provide a relaxing atmosphere and an entertai ning place to meet with friends and shop. Most markets not only have fresh fruits a nd vegetables, but also include fish, poultry, dairy, and meats at relatively low prices (DeWeese 1974:4). Some farmers markets are designed exclusively for local growers while ot hers operate like flea markets, providing space for craftspeople and a broad variety of vendors. DeWeese (1974:53) notes the

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26 formal organization of the market is not elab orate. Transactions are conducted casually and they are governed by norms and sanc tions rather than by formal rules and regulations. Markets promise human conn ection at the place where “production and consumption of food converge, an experience not available either to consumers shopping superstore or hypermarkets or to farm ers selling through conventional wholesale commodity markets” (Hinrichs 2000:295). Ma rkets can address numerous social issues on an international (macro-level) or local (micro-level) scale such as increased consumption of agricultural products and access to health nutritious foods. A community market can have booths representing th e Audubon Society, American Cancer Society, school programs, or candidates for office, wh ere consumers can easily discuss issues and concerns (Corum et al. 2001:208). Markets al so provide direct c ontact and feedback between customers and producers. Farmers or vendors can also provide the consumer with knowledge on how vegetables are grow n, thus improving diet and nutrition by providing access to fresh food, and in educat ing the consumers as to the production and origin of their food ( http://www.farmersmarkets.net ). Farmers markets can also help to foster cooking skills through recipe distribution, cooking demonstrations, and other similar activities (Fisher 1999:7) Farmers markets customers are able to sample new products and varieties not ordi narily found in supermarkets ( http://www.farmersmarkets.net ). Hinrich (2000:298) notes supermarket designers now organize the perimeter of supermarkets, w ith high margin produce, meat, seafood, and deli foods to evoke the ambiance of the fa rmers market. Markets are settings for “exchanges embedded in social ties, based on proximity, familiarity, and mutual appreciation. Accordingly, in many towns, farm ers’ markets occurred at street side or

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27 sometimes in special building, usually on designa ted days at set time. One could come to market, expecting to see a certain farmer, w hose eggs or rhubarb or spring greens one especially fancied. The relationship between producer and consumer was not formal or contractual, but rather the fruit of familiarity, habit and sentiment, seasoned by the perception of value on both sides” (Hinrich 2000:298). At both Tampa locations market events the focus was on increasing fruits and vegetable consumption and improving overall health, but we did try to provide othe r social services available in the community that would meet the more immediate need s of the community by having a local food bank, a health mobile, and employment services. In newspapers, journal articles, and websit es there has been no consistent use of apostrophe for farmers / farmer’s market. For convenience I will use the spelling as farmers market(s) or the term market, whic h will include the term flea market unless indicated otherwise. Expected Outcomes Theoretical Outcomes Theoretically, I hope to present a cleare r understanding of processes at the macrolevel using a political economic framewor k. Additionally, I will use theory in community development to examine micro-leve l changes that affect nutrition and health among Latino immigrants as they adjust to li fe in the United States. Both of these theories provide a useful foundation in deali ng with the complexity of social processes for establishing a community project. This project focuses attention on processes that

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28 assist individual in a specific community to make informed decisions for planning goaloriented changes. Warry suggests, “researc hers communicate theoretical assumptions to participants and engage the research community in a di alogue concerning the nature of theory and its relationship to intervention” (1992:156). If I can attain Warry’s objective in simple terms I will have accomplished an understanding of theory and will have educated others in its practical application for applied anthropology. Political Economy Political economy analyzes the larger pers pective of social processes with smaller local variations in diverse communities. The political economy of health “posits that the source of much illness depends largely upon f actors related to class” (Chavez 1992:7). Anthropological politic al economy is concerned with “ how global systems and history intersect with local systems and history in relating the contexts for understanding the actions of peoples. This appro ach is concerned with the soci al relations and institutions, which control fundamental res ources, including social labor, the exertion of this control being an expression of power. It locates actors wielding power in social field and concentrates on the specificity of local cons tructions of power rela tions in the fields, including those that have their sources out side of particular regions, which is how external forces ar e internalized” (Goo dman et al. 2001:13). In looking at the context or r oots of global and local systems, a political economy perspective can “encourage us to be very careful about the dimensions along which we characterize social relationships, making strong distinctions between production relationships and exchange relationships” (S mith et al. 2001:464). Political economy can

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29 also be used to address the processes that produce social and cultu ral differences under specific historic conditions. By looking at the local constructi on of power relations, recognition of cultural pro cesses can be grounded in unequal relations. Thus in evaluating unequal power and its underlying social relationships, processes can be evaluated that create differentiation, which can affect nutrition, which is then reflected in health. A political economy analysis can be base d on resources, which are allocated not because of relative merit or efficiency but on the basis of power. The unequal distribution of wealth, health, and life chances in a society is seen as heavily determined by the interaction of politic s, economy, and sociocultural forces. The dynamic of ethnicity, class, and gender and the role of broad social influences determine who gets treated or untreated. Health or social problems are among th e central issues with which political economy is concerne d indicating the nature of pow er and economics in society. Immigrants face many challenges upon arriving in the United States, such as obtaining work and housing, which may affect health du e to stressful social environments. Many Latino immigrants may feel the influence of dominant society’s power and a lack of access to societal resources due to language barrier, income, or if they are illegal immigrants (Minkler et al. 2001:8). Leatherman (2001) utilizes political economy in examining issues of poverty, social relations and health of the peoples in the Andes of Southern Peru. His research uses political economy to examine how macr o-level (global, nati onal, and regional) interactions of historical po litical and economic and social forces impact micro-level interactions between illness and househol d economy in impoverished communities.

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30 Finally, he stresses the impor tance of trying to contextua lize how people’s attitudes and perceptions at the local level are influe nced by the people’s broader global history. DeWalt (2001) also incorporates a polit ical economic perspective in research conducted on malnutrition for the people li ving in Southern Honduras. The emphasis here is on the macroand micro-level links as related to malnutrition and health. Malnutrition and health problems are due in part to a conseque nce of change of agricultural practices, from less cultivation of crops, and to increasing pastureland for grazing for an increase in profit in the gl obal market. Also, people became unemployed and small farmers lack access to rent or ow n fertile land due to increased pastureland needed for livestock. By looking at differe ntial access to land, the political economic perspective illustrates the complexities, cons equences, and causal effects of malnutrition and poor health in people’s lives and their biological response. A political economic perspective focuses on the broader relationships on nutrition and health in historical cont ext vis--vis migration to the United States. Additionally, the kinds of food people choose to eat and the food available to them is rooted in sociocultural forces and environmental determinan ts that shape identity. As Goodman and colleagues (2000:110) state: “food is rich with social and ideological meaning, and food systems reflect larger systems of thought, pow er, and control.” Fact ors that may affect lack of access to nutritiona l foods are the “globalization of world food markets …education and food policies …the availabil ity of local competi tive food markets, adequate transportation, health educati on, and acculturation” (Himmelgreen 2002:6). Research indicates fruit and vegetable pr ices are an important factor for lowincome consumers. Another barrier for thos e on fixed incomes may be an increased cash

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31 flow at the beginning of the month, but not as much cash at the end of the month to purchase nutritious foods. Even with a household budget, other emergency expenditures may occur reducing the opportunity to purchas e of fruits and vegetables (Fisher 1999; Fisher and Embleton 2002; Travers 1996). I ndividuals and families with limited income may value fresh fruits and vegetables, but they may not have enough money to buy sufficient quantities to mainta in their health and to support a farmers market. Fisher (1999:6) states, “low-income consumers tend to be more constrained in their food shopping choices than other consumers, because of more limited transportation resources combined with fewer retail options.” Low-income areas may not have public transportation due to city budgets and operati ng costs. Lack of transportation makes consumers depend on high-price corner stores with a poor selection of healthy foods, including fruits and vegetables. Without nearby supermarkets, low-income consumers often need to travel outside their neighbor hood, which may be especially expensive or time-consuming given lower than average rates of vehicle ownership. Public transportation can also prove inconvenient, give n the fact that bus r outes are not typically designed around food shopping. Even if there is a local supermarket chain, research indicates prices in inner city supermarkets are higher than prices in their suburban counterparts (Fisher 1999:6). Food consumption patterns are determ ined by food preferences, food quantity, and food distribution. The nutritional health of low-income families and individuals is affected by the amount of fresh, nutritious f ood they “can obtain for their money or their food stamps” (Fitchen 2000:338). Due to econo mic constraints, these foods often cost more than the same foods bought by more a ffluent people. Als o, due to lack of

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32 transportation or inadequate storage space, low-income families and individuals shopping at the smaller neighborhood stores, in lieu of th e larger supermarkets, tend to pay higher prices for their food items. The diets of lo w-income families and individuals “appear to be excessive in starches, fats, and sugars while being deficient in a ny or all of: meats and other proteins, vegetables and fruits and milk products” (Fitchen 2000:339). Political economy theory in this project can address issues of access to fresh fruits and vegetables and ill health. Obesity is a major health concern for recently arrived Latino immigrants. Families are faced with poverty, with unfamiliarity of food variety at grocery stores, and with a lack of access to fres h fruits and vegetables tend to rely heavily on the ease of America’s fast food diet. Une qual distribution of pow er and resources can be seen in the location of the two of Florida’s State farmers markets located in Hillsborough County. Both s tate farmers markets are in th e more affluent sections of town, dominated by whites. Also, low-income individuals may not visit these farmers market as the time it takes to travel to the area and public or private transportation may be a cost issue. Community Organizing and Development Theory Here I examine how community organiza tion or community development theory can be used for community-based farmer s markets as proposed in the project. Community organizing is define d as “the process by which community groups are helped to identify common problems or goals, mobilize resources, and in other ways develop and implement strategies for reaching the goals they collectively have set” (Minkler et al. 1999:30). Inherent in community organization is the concept of empowerment, which is

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33 “a social action process by which individua ls, communities, and organization gain mastery over their lives in the context of ch anging their social and political environment to improve equity and quality of life” (Minkler et al. 1999:40). Several models of community organizati on have been in pr actice since 1987. I have used Rothman’s (1987) model as a guide, wh ich consists of three distinct models of practice: 1. locality development which is “heavily process oriented, stressing consensus and cooperation and aimed at building group identity and a sense of community; 2. social planning which is “task oriented, stressing rational-empirical problemsolving; and, 3. social action is process and task oriented. Recent models of community organization, which are influenced by Rothman’s model, emphasize community strengths, whic h “direct the organizi ng in a process that creates healthy and more equal power re lations” (Minkler et al. 1999:35). In emphasizing community strengths within di verse groups, systems can be identified illustrating shared values and encourage the development of shared goals. One example Minkler et al. (1999:37) cite s is the Community Organiza tion and Development model for communities of color Br athwaite et al. ( 1994). The Community Organization and Development model engages the anthropologist (s) in “getting to know the community and its ecology through participatory ethnography and gaining entre and credibility”, which facilitates the development and effec tive function of a “community dominated and controlled coalition board.” Project participan ts will expect a social exchange in which

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34 they will commit their time expecting to receive some benefits (Wandersman et al. 1999:270). Community development also can include the definition of community organizing which is “to draw together a number of su ch groups or organization into concerted actions around a specific topic, issue, or ev ent.” Community development is “committed to broad changes in the structure of power relations in society through the support they give community groups” by identifying issues with a course of action to solve issues (Labonte 1999:88). This definition is more encompassing than community organizing, which can be seen as a process while commun ity development focuses on assisting others to identify with and bring about changes in their community. Contemporary organizing approaches empha size direct citizen participation or a “bottom-up” decision-making process to determine community needs (Rissel et al. 1999:63). Also, “community organizing draws fr om a commitment to serving the people, to advocacy, and to citizen participation.” At a grassroots level people have better access to services, more people are included in the decision-making process, and individuals are empowered to make decisions and control re sources (Fisher 1999:60) This project was geared to community organizing, focusing on a participatory democracy and letting the people decide what is needed in their commun ity. This is a democratic means to larger objectives to transcend in dividuals in this lowincome Latino community. Manderson et al. (1998) discusses her community based development work on community concerns and need s with Australia’s longitudi nal study on women’s health. The researchers discuss the lengthy process in addressing the comm unity concerns and needs affected by historical, political, cultu ral, and economic obstacles. The first 18

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35 months involved only consu ltative and recruitm ent process with varying Indigenous communities and Filipina immigrant wome n communities. Manderson et al. (1998) illustrates different strategies as an adaptive process of contrasts to identify community concerns and needs of the target communitie s. Each group of women was approached differently to participate. Women in the in digenous communities were not receptive as they were not involved in the process to pa rticipate and saw no benefits in the proposed research. Filipina women were in select communities that had the collaboration of Filipino organizations. Her research articl e illustrates how community organization can be a long time changing and varying process in research communities. In establishing the farmers market for a Latino community, I understand the cultural complexity in deali ng with a heterogeneous group. As a guide I utilized the model of social action, which is both task and process oriented as discussed by Rothman et al. (1987). Social action is concerned with encouragi ng the problem-solving abilities of the local community and w ith achieving tangible changes to solutions of imbalance in inequity between the commun ity and the larger society. Summary Latinos are not a homogeneous group that can be categorized easily but come from different geographic areas, cultures, and political persuasions. The U.S. immigration policy has always been to reunify families, meet labor needs, or respond to humanitarian crises around the world. Lati no immigrants come to the United States for these specific reasons. As they acculturate to American society they adopt, internalize,

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36 and exhibit behaviors of U.S. citizens incl uding dietary changes, while attempting to maintain their own ethnic culture. Farmers markets are local institutions w ithin a community where there is a need for specialization of fruits and vegetables. Farmers markets serve a variety of functions and are initiated for a variety of reasons such as urban revitalizati on or as grassroots community organizing. Many people go to market s to obtain fresh locally grown fruits and vegetables. Yet, research indicates low-income populations eat fewer fruits and vegetables. A theory based approach at a macro leve l and micro level addresses barriers faced by Latinos in accessing fruits and vegetables su ch as income, availability, and community resources. Community orga nizing provides the vehicle fo r empowerment in achieving collectively set goals.

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37 Chapter 3: Methods and Analysis The project officially began in Janua ry 2002 and ended October 2004, under the direction of another project director. I completed interv iews, observations, and data collection for the project by the end of May 2003, but my responsibility as project director ended in August 2003 as I moved from Tampa to Gainesville, Florida. While the farmers markets were completed and reasonabl y successful, several in ternal (church) and external (larger community) obstacles limite d the outreach capacity of the overall program. Moreover, these obstacl es included: the time it took to establish an advisory committee, getting church members geared up for running the markets, and getting the Latino business community involved in the proj ect. Even with obstacles, I was able to establish, organize, and coordinate the co mmittee within two months, which included church and local community members. The fi rst farmers market event at the church was held on June 23, 2002. I had a total of eight individuals on the final committee who were eager to participate and be involved. In tr ying to get the church members to volunteer and geared up for the events, I would make an announcement in Spanish during church services, and I would call peop le prior to meetings, which I scheduled after church services. In addition, I contacted seve ral local Latino clubs, organizations, and businesses to participate at the events.

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38 The development and implementation for the project utilized the following methods and techniques as out lined by Schensul et al. (1999) and discussed below: unstructured exploratory interv iews with key informants; observation from a distance, participant observation; and collecting data on and analyzing data from the survey instruments; These methods employed are congruent with the objectives of the project. Exploratory interviews were with four key in formants involved with agriculture or Latino community services. I photo documente d and took field notes of my visits, conversations, and general observations of the various farmers markets. The survey instruments were bi-lingual and administer ed by monolingual and bi -lingual individuals with randomly selected customers at ma rket events. I advised participant’s confidentiality of their identities. Individuals that administered surveys were advised to inform participants of their confidentiality. I have used project staff members’ actual names, but all of the other individuals involve d in the project I have used fictional names and endeavored to keep thei r identities confidential. Project Participants Before discussing the methods employed I feel it is necessary to discuss key individuals in the project to ai d in understanding th is process-oriented research. I have tried to highlight the skills teamwork, and networking needed to establish a community project. All the individuals involved in the project worked toward a common goal of getting the project started with the aid of community members. The individuals working directly with David Himmelgreen were; Dina Martinez, Laurie Van Wyckhouse, Maribel

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39 Vega, and I who all worked well together in communication, coordina ting activities, and helping each other in different aspects of the project. The principal investigator and the indi vidual who developed the project is David Himmelgreen, Ph.D., an Assistant Profe ssor in Anthropology at USF. David Himmelgreen managed the project, coordinated staff, and assisted with improving project design. Dina, who implemented and coor dinated PAN, was bi-lingual and was a tremendous help and asset on the farmers mark et project. Dina was instrumental in conveying information on prior projects, gaining access to the community, and coordinating nutrition activities Dina easily interacted wi th all of the individuals involved in the project. At advisory committee meetings, which may have looked disorganized due to several people simultane ously talking in two languages, Dina would effortlessly discuss the project in Spanis h and would then have to rapidly convey information to others in the group who did not speak Spanish. Dina also assisted Laurie in translating documents and helping with culturally appropriate handouts, foods, and ideas. In one of our conversations, she st ated that PAN’s “focus groups wanted a cooperative or a farmers market that woul d give them some pride and community involvement.” She said the people in the focu s group discussed the “cost of items such as cilantro, peppers, yucca, and plantains as e xpensive.” Also only “one person knew about the nearest flea market to the East Tampa Church, which offered fruits and vegetables at a low price, but not the rest of the individuals in the focu s group” (Field notes February 28, 2002). Dina had a natural gift for teachi ng and getting particip ants at the events involved in the nutrition activities. Since Dina had previously worked with this

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40 community her role was also to assist me with background information on prior projects, contacts, and ideas for the events. Laurie is a nutritionist hired to devel op the nutrition curriculum for the seminars at the farmers market and for other commun ity organizations. Laurie worked closely with David Himmelgreen to develop healthy eating, obesity, and diabetes seminars. She also coordinated her efforts with social a nd health service agencies that could also provide materials in Spanish to participate at the market. Since Laurie was not bi-lingual, she coordinated seminar activitie s with Dina and assisted in presenting nutrition seminars and games at the farmers markets. Laurie’s responsibilities for the farmers market were to: coordinate efforts and materials with Dina, obtain materials related to specific seminar activities; such as nutrition la bels of various fruit bevera ges indicating sugar content, provide bi-lingual handouts for referral serv ices or nutritional r ecipes, explain and demonstrate activities, and obtain various prizes for contests. Laurie developed curriculums based on the prior projects data ; targeting and cult urally relating to improving health and increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among low-income Latinos. Laurie’s curriculums were so precise and detailed that anyone would be able to take over responsibilities of the position easily. Laurie also worked with me for feedback on ideas, obtaining props, materials, and handouts for the seminars. I also assisted her at the farmers markets as various activities need ed to be coordinated based on time frames and organizing people to participate in the ac tivities. Laurie eventually resigned her position for a full-time job elsewhere and Maribel Vega was hi red as the nutrition educator. She was a student at USF’s Edu cation Department and is from Colombia. Maribel’s background is in educa tion, not nutrition but still proved to be an asset to the

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41 project. She quickly researched ANNA-T a nd PAN projects, prior nutrition seminars, and located numerous bi-lingu al resources on the Internet. Within one-half months of being hired, she was able to do her first nutriti on seminar. She coordinated seminars with the multi-cultural school, Mission church, and with a women’s domestic abuse center. Maribel and I also visited with people selling produce at diffe rent venues to participate at our farmers market. I also assisted her with nutrition seminars and with activities at the farmers markets. Maribel was able to t each me some cultural background on different Latino groups, which helped me understand more about the local Latino community. Several church and community members we re instrumental in getting the farmers market started at the two different venues. Again, I have used fictional names and have endeavored to keep their identiti es confidential. Father Luis is the head vicar at the East Tampa Church is from Colombia, elderly, and spoke only some English. Father Luis was always willing to help me with announcemen ts at church services on upcoming market events. He was also patient while tryi ng to understand my English and my minimal Spanish. Although when I could tell he n eeded help understanding me, I would locate someone to help translate. Another key i ndividual was Father Fund who was the parttime vicar at the Church, is also from Colo mbia, but is bi-lingual. Father Fund was instrumental in letting Laurie or I know whom to contact for specific tasks. I called him or spoke with him after church services numerous times for help, as the congregation seemed to depend on him more than they did on Father Luis. Father Fund would also assist in coordinating meetings, making announcements after church service, and translating some documents for market even ts. Father Fund’s wife, Cana was also instrumental in helping at the events by getting the youth to help Laurie or me by

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42 bringing out and setting up tabl es or chairs. Another key member was Carlos who has been involved with the church for over 10 year s. He is from Puerto Rico, is a Vestry member, and treasurer of the church. Carlos was the one individual I could usually count on to get tasks done such as; setting up th e public address system for the nutrition activities, contacting people to participate at the events, and asking other members for help at the events. He was always jovial and confided in me about church politics, various members, and church happenings. Jerry was the produce vendor whom Dina and Laurie met at a corner produce stand. He is from Peru, had a busy storefr ont business with three part-time employees, and set up his produce stand at Ybor’s Fresh Market and Temple Terrace Farmers Market on Saturdays. Jerry tried to help me as much as his time permitted but was busy buying and distributing his produce. He enjoye d discussing the process of buying the fruit wholesale, where it came fr om, and how to price the pr oduce at retail prices. On Sunday’s he would donate any frui ts and vegetables that needed to be consumed within a day to a church two blocks from his busine ss. At the farmers markets he provided a variety of fruits and vegetables, which were good quality at low prices. Due to his busy schedule, he was not able to participate at our second venue. We eventually held farmers market even ts at the Mission Church venue. Father Ben is an American priest who helped organi ze the Mission Church, which is in a diverse ethnic community that included low-income Latinos. Father Ben was involved in many aspects of this community, such as help ing the homeless and c oordinating community efforts to help children with school supplie s in the area of the Mission Church. I knew Father Ben for several years and his involvement in the community, which helped me to

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43 quickly gain access to this community. He suggested I contact Olivia who is overseer, manager, and organizer of activities at the church. Olivia is from Cuba, is the overseer or supervisor and a part-time employee at the Mission Church. Her resourcefulness was an as set to this low-income community. After church services she was constantly helping someone with their financial or material needs. At my initial visit after church se rvices, I waited over an hour, so I could discuss the project. Olivia also runs a food pantry and clothing distribution every Tuesday at the Mission Church. Olivia introdu ced me to Maria who is Puerto Rican and is a member from another Catholic Church who help ed at the Mission Church. Maria was instrumental in helping to organize the firs t farmers market at this venue. Two days before the first event, the produce vendor did not return my calls so Maria helped to translate and discuss the proj ect with numerous produce vendo rs at a wholesale produce location in Plant City. Unstructured Exploratory Interviews Unstructured exploratory interviews explore domains where not enough is known that is relevant to the re search conducted. Open-ended exploratory interview format allows “researchers maximum flexibility in exploring any topic in depth and in covering new topics as they arise” (Schensul et al. 1999:121). Bernard (1995:209) discusses unstructured interviewing as based on a clear pl an that is kept constantly in mind, but is also “characterized by a minimum of contro l over the informant’s responses.” My interviews were relatively unstructured as I was seeking general information from each individual about available services in the co mmunity. This format gave the respondent a

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44 relatively wide choice of responses; determined less by an exact answer to a question. Weller (1998:367) indicates the initial phase of a project “should be about gaining a broad understanding of the area of study…beginni ng with unstructured interviews.” An unstructured interview will let interviewees discuss the topic with a detailed answer expressing their knowledge in their own terms and at their own pace. In my research, unstructured interviews were with key inform ants as they provided me with information on the structure and function of farmers mark ets and available res ources as identified by recognized experts on the topic in the local Latino community. In using unstructured exploratory intervie ws with four key informants, I was able to establish personal relationships, to build rapport, to obtain information on farmers markets, to set the groundwork for contacts, a nd to obtain new contacts Interviews were utilized with key informants who were well informed on farmers markets, on the Latino community, and on community work to determin e the various resources available to the local Latino community. Previous research on ANNA-T and PAN identified individuals who were knowledgeable about farmers market and were cultural experts about the local Latino community. Exploratory interviews he lped to gain a broa der understanding and expand my knowledge of farmers market, pr oduce available, and community organizing. Observation From A Distance Wolcott (2001:97) notes researchers shoul d “constantly review what you they are looking for and whether or not they are seeing it or are likely to see it. The key is to look for recurring patterns or underlying themes in behavior or action.” Observation is “what can be seen through the eyes of the ethnogra pher. The quality a nd importance of the

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45 facts that an ethnographer observes a nd records depend on the observational, documentation, and interpretation skills of the observer and the opportunity he or she has for observing” (Schensul et al. 1999:95). Obse rvation from a distan ce was a beginning process in the project to identify and to lear n how a farmers market is set up, to identify culturally specific foods, and to identify sp atial organization for the church’s farmers market. By visiting various farmers markets, I was able to ascertain the variety, price, and availability of cultural foods and to purchas e these for quality and taste. This type of observation was the groundwork for my fieldwor k and helped to see if I could discern a pattern or methodology to apply in setting up farm ers markets at different local locations. Photographs were taken to document markets to see if there were patterns in situating vendors for a successful market. I documente d details of these visits, outcomes, and maps to farmers markets for qualitative analysis. I visited the State of Florida’s farmers mark et, in Ybor City, in Plant City, and in Sumter County to observe from a distance and participant observation. Each market was distinct in size and operation, offered fresh fruits and vege tables, and had a variety of vendors, but no social service agencies or hea lth units that provide literature or health screenings. Ybor’s Fresh Market is small, clean, and well organized in an open-air brick building, which is distant from other central Ybor businesses. It is open Saturday’s only, except for scheduled arts and craft festiv als, when numerous vendors are there on Saturday and Sunday. Also this area is bei ng renovated to revitalize the area but is being catered to an upscale clientele.

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46 My research on Plant City’s Farmers Ma rket indicated a retail and wholesale venue, but when I visited Plant City’s Farm ers Market it was for wholesale customers only. Sumter County’s Farmers Market is al so a flea market, and the manager of operations provided information on the farm ers market and discussed her duties of managing a market that covers over 40 acr es with over 2000 stalls. Their website ( http://www.sumtercountyfarmersmarket.com ) indicates the market “is listed in the top 10 tourist attractions in Florida.” This ma rket has been in existence since 1937, open on Mondays only, from 7:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m., year round and had formally organized their vendors. Participant Observation Several anthropological researchers variously state this is one of several widely used methods, which anthropologists use in fiel dwork (Dewalt et al. 1998; Schensul et al. 1999; and Wolcott 2001). This method involves “establishing rapport in a new community; learning to act so that people go about their business as usual when you show up; and removing yourself every da y from cultural immersion so you can intellectualize what you have learned, put it into perspective, and write about it convincingly” Bernard (1995:137). This me thod is a “process of learning through exposure to or involvement in the day-to-day or routine activ ities of participants in the research setting. It provided a way to grasp the way things are orga nized and prioritized, how people relate to one anot her, and the ways in which social and physical boundaries are defined” (Schensul et al. 1999:91). This method has “no precisely defined procedures

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47 but includes participation on different levels such as key informant interviews, informal conversations, and observation from a distance. ” It is an “approach that contains a variety of information-gathering techniques that involve various forms of observationfrom unobtrusive ones to full-scale particip ation by a researcher deeply and actively absorbed in local activities” (Ervin 2000: 142). By using this method, Ervin (1999:142) suggests “there is also a certain amount of authenticity…because the researcher was actually there .” This method “is accepted almost uni versally as the central and defining method of research in anthropology. Yet ther e is no single agreed-on definition for what constitutes participan t observation” (Dewalt et al. 1998:259) but he suggests there are levels or degrees of participation (Dew alt et al. 1998:262). The levels include: “nonparticipation (when cultura l knowledge is acquired by watching television, reading newspapers or reading diarie s or novels), moderate partic ipation (when the ethnographer is present at the scene of the action but doesn’t actively participate or interact), and active participation (when the ethnogra pher actually engages in almo st everything that other people are doing as a means of trying to learn the cultural rules of be havior)”. If I were to classify my fieldwork with these suggested levels, it would be a mix of moderate to active participation w ould apply when I interacted with the people. My method was practical since most of the church commun ity activities were on the weekend, including the farmers market events; or occasionally there was a meeting during the week. This method was also the groundwork as it gave me a cultural experience, which I could discuss with key informants or other partic ipants of the project thereby adding to the qualitative data obtained. When I visite d other farmers markets this method also permitted observation of nonverbal behavior, which consisted of looking at the spatial

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48 arrangements of the various farmers markets and various interactions of customers as they approached various vendors. I also approached various ve ndors at the different farmers markets to see if they would be inte rested in participating in a church-based farmer market. I also participated in severa l of East Tampa Church’s events after church services where church members cooked lunc h for the congregation for a small fee. Survey Instrument I based the survey instrument on data gath ered from prior projects and a review of limited literature on farmers markets. As the literature review information on survey instruments was negligible, I extrapolated information from articles, which discussed findings of farmers markets. The survey instrument was a 20-item questionnaire, which included six questions relating to sociodemogr aphics and language spoken at home, and 14 questions relating to various aspects of the farmers market. The aim of the questionnaire was to obtain sociodemographic information, to get initial feedback on the implementation of the farmers market, and to get suggestions from the customers for future events. Laurie Van Wyckhouse was the nutritionist working on the project provided additional questions for the nutrition seminars focusing on knowledge and behavior related to the topics covered at each event. The first farmers market nutrition seminar held on Sunday, June 23, 2002 was on “make beverages count for your health.” She included questions such as; whether a produ ct is 100% fruit juice or has added sugar, did the seminar provide practical ideas for h ealthy beverages, and what aspects of the presentation were beneficial. The sec ond seminar held on Sunday, July 28, 2002, was on weight loss and chronic disease. She includ ed questions such as knowing if your weight

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49 puts you at risk for chronic disease, did th e information received motivate you to learn more about chronic disease, and what inform ation was useful. The next three farmers markets nutrition seminars held on Sept ember 22, 2002; October 20, 2002; and March 29, 2003 were about “the truth about weight loss”, which provided information and discussion about weight lo ss products, diet, and healt hy eating (See Appendix A). Data Collection Data was collected at the farmers market events with the assistance two anthropology graduate students, who were Kitty Klein and Jodi Owens. Maribel Vega, an Education graduate student and church members who were bi-lingual also assisted with the surveys. Interviewees were advise d their identity and responses would be kept confidential. Meetings, phone calls, and e-mails were main tained for qualitative data analysis on the processes involved in establishing the farmers markets. Analysis of Data Qualitative and quantitative analysis can provide descriptive information that can enhance and complement the interpretation of data gathering (Schensul et al. 1999:120). With several levels of data analysis, the goa l was to gain a clearer understanding of my observations, of the processes in establishing a farmers market and of new questions that may have arisen during the study of the project. Qualitative analysis represents “a different way to achieve a different level of understanding” as I was in the process of exploring explanations and searching for patterns in my ethnographic methods (Wolcott 2001: 163). This type of analysis provides

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50 a different way of understanding or iden tifying common themes and patterns of information. Qualitative data analysis included information from my e-mails, phone calls, key informant interviews, photographs and meetings, along with my personal interpretation of events in my field notes. My field notes, interviews, and meetings were chronologically entered daily into Microsoft Word 2000. The written notes and computer documentation were color coded to systematically analyze by repeated in ascertaining patterns of what were the social processes involved in establishing a farmers market. Descriptive statistics of quantitative da ta from surveys were analyzed using SPSS (v. 10.0.5). Descriptive statisti cs were run on all data to examine effectiveness of advertising, transportation used to get the market, consumer interest at the market, frequency of shopping at a farmers market, ite ms purchased, and preference for time of day, length of event, and day of event. Summary I used unstructured exploratory intervie ws with key informants, observation from a distance, participant observ ation, and data collection a nd analysis as a multi-method approach to my fieldwork. These methods provided the foundation for sustaining a longterm community based project. This was th e first anthropological community project I have organized, and any met hodological problems I encountered on the project were probably due to inexperience on my part in conducting research. Interviews were conducted in settings familiar to the intervie wee by asking questions that were suitable about the local community. I le arned it was a challenge to co nsistently keep in my mind what I was looking for and to see patterns when I was unobtrusive or was an active

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51 observer. I tried to look for recurring pattern s or underlying themes in behavior or action, I tried to understand participants desire to be involved in the project, and I tried to I looked for similarities and differences in data with the methods used. In analyzing my data, I spent cons iderable time reviewing observations, interviews, and field notes trying to unders tand the various layers of information and meaning to the processes. I colored coded my documentation and entered interviews and meetings chronologically on a table to find patter ns at the various farmers markets. I also systematically analyzed my documentation of meetings to see any similarities or differences between the two groups of participants. Project participants were cooperative and communicative providing valuable informati on to establish the market. I endeavored to see as much as I could, participate wh enever possible, and connect events using anthropological methods.

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52 Chapter 4 Results The following are results on my unstructu red exploratory interviews, observation from a distance, participant observation, evalua tion of the survey instruments, and field notes. Unstructured Exploratory Interviews Four exploratory interviews were conduc ted with key informants at their local offices. Interviews were conducted with two individuals in the agri cultural sector, which included a Public Policy Education agent a nd individuals of the local gleaners of Hillsborough County. Additionally, I inte rviewed two Latino community service providers that included an owner of a multi-cultural school, which teaches English as a second language, and the director of Latino soci al service agency. Pr ior to beginning the interview, I initially gave a brief introduction of myself; including my interest and a brief overview of the project. My first interview was with a male who was approximately 60 years old, who worked in the agricultural sector. He provided an insight to resources available at the local Cooperative Extension Ce nter and in the community. After my discussion of the history of the project, my interviewee stat ed many individuals in Tampa’s low-income

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53 Latino community “are at risk nutritionally” an d a farmers market c ould help to provide and to introduce low cost nutri tional fruits and vegetables in to their diets (Field notes February 22, 2002). Yet, my in terviewee stated, “there is no niche for the smaller farms in the area that would serve our needs for the farmers market ” (Field notes February 22, 2002). He informed me that Hillsborough ar ea has numerous large farms and hires out the harvesting of their agricultural products. Although this individua l stated that only smaller farmers would serve our needs, the St ate Agricultural agent stated, “you need to contact the large farmers in the area to see w ho can help with the project” (Field notes May 20, 2002). This individual sent me a pack et of materials on Florida’s State Farmers Markets, which included a list of approximate ly 270 farmers in the surrounding area, but I had found several local produce vendors that we re willing to participate in the farmers market events. He was actively involved in a community project working with the local Hunger Coalition organization. Community members from c hurches or social service agencies help the poor obtain nutritious foods A recent task force assessment indicated hunger is a problem, but the county administra tor did not have the funds to implement any interventions (Field notes, February 22, 2002). My interviewee also sugges ted I contact organic farmers, the local gleaners, or local food pantries in the area to participate in the farmers markets. Certified organic farmers also known as Community Supported Agriculture (CSA’s), with one local certified organic farmer in Tampa. He said they might help if they have a surplus of fruits and vegetables (Field notes, February 22, 2002). The director and owner of this CSA also lectures and certifie s other organic farms worldwide. My phone interview with the owner stated he was not able to particip ate at the farmers market due to a hectic

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54 schedule of harvesting season, lecturing, a nd certifying other organic farms. My interviewee also gave contact information on several social service agencies, and referral services, which currently help the Latino co mmunity. He gave me contact information for individuals in the local gl eaner association who work and coordinate their efforts with several farmers in the area. I did contact the local gleaners who help ed to provide an insight into their organization. I interviewed a husband and wife (approximately 65 years old), who were part-time employees representing the Hills borough County Gleaners Network, which is a community based project sponsored through the Society of Saint Andrew. The Society of Saint Andrew is a ministry that feeds the hungry by collecting fresh fruits and vegetables through gleaning to give to the various organiza tions that help to feed people with little income. Gleaning is the practice of hand gather ing crops that would “otherwise be left in the fields to rot or to be plowed under after harvest” becau se it may not be perfect or because prices drop so fast that farmers cannot afford to harvest these crops. This society coordinates volunteers, grower s, and distribution agencies to salvage food for the disadvantaged through gleaning ac tivities with local farmers ( www.endhunger.org/gleaning.htm ). This couple provided an insight into their operations, various farms they are allowed to glean, and local community members that assist their efforts in reaching various low-income populations, such as African Americans, Asians, and Latinos. This c ouple implemented the Hillsborough organization several years ago. Their interest came from a 1993 article in the local paper about a Scout leader organizing individuals and a lo cal organization to pick oranges for the homeless (Field notes March 1, 2002).

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55 The gleaners work closely with and coor dinate their efforts with owners and operators of large farms in the Hillsborough ar ea. This couple started gleaning activities in 1995 stating they “ended their first year with a few tons of produce” (Field notes March 1, 2002) which were delivered to vari ous social service agencies in the Tampa Bay area. Gleaners also collect perishable frui ts and vegetables from wholesale and retail sources, collect “prepared f oods from the food service i ndustry, and collect processed foods with long shelf lives” (FDACS nd:2). Gl eaned fruits and vegetables may not be marketable, but they are edible and nutritious. The fruits and vegetabl es are distributed to various social service agencies, such as Di vine Providence, Salvation Army, or Second Harvest, which are then redistri buted to other smalle r social service agencies or directly to individuals or families. Through their e fforts, their operation has grown to include distribution of fruits and vegeta bles to retirement centers. They also believe youth should be involv ed and experience the activities to learn where fruits and vegetables come from. On e of their youth volunteers has been with them for about five years actively committing her time and efforts. They discussed a gleaning event in January 2002 where 200 volunt eers of all ages picked 250 boxes of vegetables, which were then gi ven to 30 different non-profit ag encies. They try to work with different agencies that help the needy. Their work has been televised and written up in local newspapers. This press coverage has helped them with a donation of refrigerated trucks from a local company. There are several farms in the surrounding counties that work with the gleaners. The couple advised us there is always a projected schedule of gleaning activities, but the schedule is always subject to change due to increment weather. Gleaning is usually

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56 aimed for April, which is the end season. Activities start about 7:30 a.m. or 8:30 a.m., depending on the month and lasts about thr ee hours due to Florida’s hot and humid weather conditions. The gleaners provide equi pment, except for gloves, and follow safe picking practices such as; not having children pi cking fruits or vegeta bles but to put fruits and vegetables in the buckets. Two local box companies located in Tampa and in Plant City donated boxes to the gleaners for packing fr uits and vegetables. Also, local farmers contact this couple not to glean but to pick up fruits or vegetables already packaged, when a vendor does not pick up the produce. In April of 2002, another graduate stud ent and I joined a few other gleaning volunteers to pick dooryard fruit from a local resident who has been donating her oranges and grapefruits to the Gleaners Network for se ven years. The gleaners briefly discussed with the volunteers the process of picking the fruit, then provided us with rakes, citrus pickers, and buckets. The owner of the house stated, “I am so happy that I am able to help others with citrus, since it is so much for me and I th ink it is wonderful for all of you to come out and help on a Saturday morning” (Field notes April 6, 2002). We wore long pants and garden gloves and worked for thr ee hours in hot humid weather. Although I did not work as competently as individuals that work for a living in this field, this experience provided a minor insight into th is hard work of migrant workers. This couple stated the “food is perfec tly good and nutritious and simply left over after harvest season” (Field notes March 1, 2002). Millions of pounds of perfectly good food that would otherwise go to waste are give n to needy families at no cost to them. Gleaning activities can provide fresh fruits and vegetables to projects similar to ours. Also, it can unite individuals in the community with an activity that is beneficial to their

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57 health while providing a servic e. Our project can provide an opportunity for the church as an organization to glean for church memb ers or other low-income Latinos that do not have daily access to fruits and vegetables. This couple does participate in community events and agreed to participate in the farmers market events. My field notes indicate my first interv iew with the 60-year-old male and the couple who were with the Gleaner s Association agreed this w ould be a beneficial project for the targeted community. Both of the agricultural sector interviewees were informative and gave several contacts for soci al service and health agency providers to participate in the farmers market events. In terestingly, both intervie wees wanted me to invest my time in their worthwhile commun ity projects; such as volunteering for a hunger walk or gleaning, but this was also a common request to participate in other activities when I attended several meeti ngs in the Latino community. My other interviews were with loca l Latino community service providers. I interviewed an approximately 45-year-old female owner and director, of a non-profit multi-cultural school. This interview was initially to explore the possibility about using the school as an additional venue and help in advertising for the farmers market. The school would be an intermediary through which our project could get community members involved, since the director has num erous contacts and a relationship with helping the local Latino community. Th e school owner provided a background on the school; work involved in managing the schoo l; and elaborated on the mission of the school in working with the local Latino community. The school was established approximate ly eight years ago, mainly provides classes in English language, but also provide s computer instructi on, child-care training,

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58 and “whatever a majority of the students ma y request” such as Tai Chi (Field notes February 26, 2002). The school is the ow ners’ one-story house, with one large classroom, a computer room, kitchen, and he r office. She has been operating the school at her house since April 2000. Pr ior to this, she was teachin g at the local Chamber of Commerce. The school is on approximatel y one acre fronting a four-lane heavily trafficked road. There were approximately 40 students in attendan ce when I visited, but not all students were in attenda nce. She advised me that students are from all over the world, but a majority are from Spanish sp eaking countries. She stated there were approximately 50 people on her waiting list fo r English language instruction. The school owner also has the students perform “multi-cultural dances” at various local community events (Field notes February 26, 2002), which is an advertising tool for the school and at times brings in some revenue. The school owner stated she “would be interested in having the farmers market and this will greatly benefit the community” and the school (Field notes February 26, 2002). I was able to observe her with the studen ts as I volunteered to help the students read once a week. She always made them f eel important by discussing the importance of nationality, and praised them whenever they spoke English. This venue would have been ideal due to the number of students, her co mmunity activities, her contacts, and her ability to get the students to be involved. Although this venue did not work outpossibly due to other projects she was working on to raise money and marketing the school to the larger Latino community, it did provide me w ith key insights and contacts within the Latino community.

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59 I also interviewed a woman who was about 35 years old and was the Director of a local Latino community service agency. Th e purpose of the interview was to ask for assistance in advertising to the local Latino community, in organizing participants for the farmers market, and asking for referrals for a project coordinator (pri or to my role as project coordinator). She desc ribed her organization “as a social service agency for the Hispanic immigrants” (Field notes, Februa ry 27, 2002). It is liaison for Tampa Bay area Latino immigrants “trying to break down barriers to access” such as access to mental health services, access to school officials, a nd access to bus line se rvices (Field notes February 27, 2002). She suggested I visit the wholesale produce center on Hillsborough Avenue and 30th Street in Tampa, to find out what countries the people are from, and where do the wholesalers obtain their fresh fr uits and vegetables. To advertise the farmers market to the local Latino commun ity, she suggested “developing a culturally specific flyer / advertisement to put at key places such as bakeries restaurants, radio stations, and to notify people in Plant City and Wimauma” (Field notes February 27, 2002). She did note that a key obstacle would be transportation for the Latino community and inquired if the location of the farmers market would be near a bus line. After the interview, I did find out there is bus service near the chur ch. She also advised me that Tampa’s Latino community has artisans which produce indigenous art. Many of these artisans may be willing to participate in the farmers market but she did not have any contact information for these individuals. Sh e stated, “the entrepre neurship within this community would bring the people out of is olation and out of poverty” (Field notes February 27, 2002). She felt these individua l would benefit the project, providing an insight into their county, wh ich would also help me to understand cultural needs for the

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60 market. She would help organize participan ts for the farmers market and would check with community contacts for a project c oordinator. I knew she had built many relationships in the community, as the se veral Latino club meetings I attended, the members were all aware of her work and of the agency. Observation From A Distance Observation from a distance helped to familiarize me with the operations of and differences among several flea and farmers mark ets in the area regarding the acquisition and selling of fruits and vegetables in thei r respective venues. The local flea markets had several produce vendors, but we re scattered throughout the ma rket area. These markets had an informal structure with vendors either in an open-air buildi ng or outside with a covered tarp with several having no cover from the weather. Many of the produce vendors had locally grown produce such as lettu ce, tomatoes, and citrus. Other produce vendors purchased culturally specific Latino food s, such as chayote, various viandas, and cactus at the local wholesaler or from a whol esaler in Hialeah, Flor ida. I also visited several flea markets and farmers markets in nearby counties. One of the first flea markets I visited was approximately 1.5 miles from the church. This venue is located at one of the last drive-in movie theaters in Tampa. I arrived at 9:00 a.m., and noticed frenzied activ ity in the parking lot and at vendor stalls. At first it seemed disorganized, but it could have just been activity in the parking lot. There is a long open-air wooden structure area, with three rows of various vendors selling trinkets, watches, clothes, or fruits and ve getables. The covered area has a small snack bar with picnic tables and there were quite a few people eating. There were

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61 approximately 100 vendors and approximate ly 15-20 vendors selling a variety of produce. At one end of the area there were approximately six produce vendors under make shift canopied areas. There were anothe r two rows next to the wooden structure of vendors who were set up with tables with no cover in a seemingly haphazard placement compared with the rest of the vendors. Cu stomers seemed hurried, trying to get what they needed as quickly as possible and go to the next vendor. The manager of Ybor City’s Farmers Ma rket advised this on e is called a fresh market only as a marketing ploy (Field notes April 14, 2002). I observed there was more of an elite clientele attending the market. I visited Ybor’s Fresh Market several times and observed there were only a few artisans and one produce vendor. The market has four arts and craft festivals during the year. I attended one in March noting how the entire block is filled with an assortment of vendor s. At the March event people did not hurry from vendor to vendor compared to other ma rkets, but casually l ooked at artisan goods, while others sat enjoying the music, eating, or just observing other people. Sumter County’s Farmers Market had approximately 30 produce vendors located together under a shaded openair wooden structure. The rest of the area included a variety of consumer goods located in numer ous small one-story concrete buildings with approximately four rooms, while others had tables under open air woode n structures or in the open area with little or no shade. Produce vendors were the actual farmers or individuals who bought wholesal e (Field notes March 11, 2002) Prices of produce were not always displayed, and customers were alwa ys asking prices of the produce from the vendors. This actually engaged the produ cer and consumer more personally with additional questions on quality or taste. Th is part of the market was crowded at 10:00

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62 a.m., not only with stalls but also with custom ers, making it difficult to get to talk to the vendors or to buy fruits and vegeta bles (Field notes March 11, 2002). Although I was busy managing and coordina ting market events, I tried to use observation from a distance as much as possibl e. At the first farmers market event on June 23, 2002, it was a hot humid day. The event started at 1:00 p.m. and ended at 4:00 p.m., as agreed by the church members. I observed the vendors professionally displaying their products or services. Since the vendors had done this before their setup was done quickly. The church members cooking sw eltered under their canopy but enjoyed the social surroundings while having a constant flurry of customer s. After church services most of the people went to the food tables or lined up at the health mobile for a cholesterol checkup. The checkups took a pproximately 10 to 15 minutes for each individual, were in an air-conditioned bus equipped with seats and medical equipment that allowed only three people in at one time. I stopped by several times noting anywhere from five to ten people waiting outside in th e sun. They were all talking to each other, seemingly not bothered by the weather or the wait. I noticed the Latinos patience also while waiting to buy fruits and vegetables, food, or to talk to the other vendors. I also noticed this patience or easygoing in th e youth. If there was not a sponsored youth activity, they did not seem to mi nd waiting for their parents. This first event was a guideline for futu re events for the nutrition seminars. I did observe little activity at the fi rst nutrition seminar. The table, display, and chairs were set off further in the shade from the vendors due to the activities going on at the rest of the market. The nutrition seminars were inter active and the nutrition educator wanted the audience to participate without a ny distraction from the rest of the market events. At the

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63 rest of the events, the seminars were held in a central location to the vendors. This made a difference since people seemed to want to be close together. It also changed the social dynamics by integrating this activity at future events. Being at the center had the ability to easily engage people in activities. An added benefit to the events would have been Latino music, which we did have at the rest of the events. I was told one of the church members had previously organized folk dances. When I asker her, she willingl y agreed to put together a youth group for the rest of the events. This was done at one ot her event and was always popular as there was minimal movement from the crowd except for those photographing or videotaping the dances. At the second event, she also aske d her friends’ nine-year-o ld son to sing some folk songs. I did not understand what he wa s singing but could feel the emotion in his voice, which was strong and pleasant to hear. Again, the only people moving were those recording the event signifying a feeling of co mmunity that may be reminiscent of their home county. This also suggests the impor tance and values of maintaining social customs. Participant Observation Participant observation consisted of observing from a distance and then approaching various vendors at the different farmers market s to see if they would be interested in participa ting in the church-based farmer mark et. I spoke with several of the produce vendors who were Latino or of Latino de scent. I initially engaged the vendors in conversation about costs, where they obtai ned they produce, and about the type of produce they offered especially if I was not fam iliar with it, such as cactus, which is part

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64 of the Mexican diet. All of the vendors were willing to discuss thei r products, prices, and use of the produce. If the produce vendors were not busy, I would briefly discuss the project, and then ask if they would be interested in participating at a church-based farmers market. Several vendors were inte rested and gave me their names and phone numbers. I met a Latino vendor at Ybor’s Arts and Crafts festival in March who was willing to cook culturally specific foods for the fi rst farmers market. This individual called several times, concerned about what to char ge and how much mone y he would make. I was always cordial, but I advi sed this individual I could not guarantee how much money they would make, but suggested charging the same for the food as they usually did at various events. I received a call from this individual on Sunday morning stating they would not be able to attend si nce the weather indicated rain but stated, “we will donate a cooler of beverages and ice for the event” (F ield notes June 23, 2002). Luckily it did not rain, wherein I was actually pleased with th e compromise since it was a typical hot and humid Florida day. At the Sumter County Farmers Market, th e vendors did not want to participate due the travel distance to Tampa. The other farmers markets were cl oser and several of these vendors were receptive to participating at the events I did observe some vendors were uncomfortable while I explained the proj ect. This may have been due to customers coming and asking questions or the vendors ma y not have fully understood the English language. There was one non-Hispanic white produce vendor, but he definitely did not want to work on a Sunday. Several vendors gave me their phone numbers, stating they had other family members who would be intere sted in participating (Field notes March 2,

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65 2002). I met a Latino female vendor who ha d a variety of low-cost produce, was especially interested and quickly stated she would participate and have her family help her but did not attend any event. Another ve ndor wanted to participate but kept asking about the ethnicity of the particip ants (Field notes March 9, 2002). Some vendors I met at the various markets were only interested in discussing their products. This was evident when I introduced myself, then discussed the project. Sometimes people were direct in telling me they were not interested (no reason given), would tend to their products while listening, or begin speaking with customers or friends going by. Other vendors were ope n, talkative, and generally in terested but they also had reasons for not participating. Mostly these pe ople worked two jobs, worked weekends, or the time and day of the event was not convenient. Another opportunity for pa rticipant observation was at the community advisory committee meetings. An announcement concerni ng the farmers market project was made after a Sunday church service, inviting church members to pa rticipate in the meeting and to become members of the advisory comm ittee. On April 21, 2002 approximately two months prior to the first farmer s market event, a meeting was eventually held after church services, which included 15 church members, a nd four project staff members. As with most volunteers, there are sc heduling conflicts, and some of the community members who were willing to participat e in the committee were not able to attend. Yet, being late, ending the meeting late, or not attendi ng a meeting was common with individuals throughout the project, but I would not ge t offended or disappointed over these incidences. An agenda was provided along with a list of other community members on the committee. At the meeting, David Hi mmelgreen, Dina Martinez provided a brief

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66 history and goals of the project. This was also a social m eeting, so I had provided fruits, vegetables, and beverages for participants. Th is meeting seemed chaotic as some church members were socializing in the area of th e meeting while others were getting food and beverages. Also, the particip ants had a hard time heari ng or were talking during the presentation, yet none of the church members seemed to be concerned about this aspect or any of the other activities. Most of th e people agreed the last Sunday of the month, after church services from 1:00 p.m., to 4:00 p.m., would be best for the farmers market. Several issues were: how would profits by vendors be handled with a suggestion that each vendor provide a donation to the church dependent on their sales; there were undocumented immigrants in the congregation and we assured the church members the farmers market was to benefit the community and not to discourage or fri ghten individuals; have culturally appropriate food, which could be provided by church members; and have the farmers market similar to a flea market with various artisans and other merchandise for sale. Several people agreed to volunteer for respons ibilities once a market date was set, but no one specifically came forward for a specific ta sk. However, before the project could go forward the Church Vestry committee, who ar e lay members of the church, needed to approve the project. Ma ria who is a member of the church vestry volunteered to set up a meeting with these individuals to discuss a pproval for the project (Field notes April 21, 2002).

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67 East Tampa Church Vestry board me mbers did give their approval, their willingness to help, and to participate in the farmers market events. Yet, prior to the initial farmers market many who had volunteere d did not return repe ated phone calls or did not show up for follow up meetings. Even tually interest with church members in helping to organize and to implement future events significantly decreased. This is possibly due to the time involved in getti ng church members to organize community meetings, the time to contact vendors and othe rs to participate, or apathy of church members towards the farmers market. Alt hough church members discussed issues at length, I noticed a lack of leadership, consensus, a nd decision-making for what they wanted for the farmers markets. This may have been communication problem in our presentation by not having a clea r understanding of th eir responsibilities. I observed they would look to project staff for decisions but our role was to offer ideas or suggestions on how to access resources or whom to contact in the community. These suggestions may have possibly come across as a demand even though this was not our intention or may have been cultural on their part in not wanti ng to disappoint or upset us. I had several conversations with members about internal problems within the church and with the Diocese, which may also explain the difficulty to motivate the congregants. I also attended an October Latino festival at one of the local parks, the Sunday before the October farmers market event at the East Tampa Church. There were over 200 people at the event that offered free cancer sc reenings, had several Latino artisans, a DJ, and several people cooking various types of f ood. I knew then that the Latino community could be organized, and spoke to several of the individuals I ha d previously met at different meetings. Ana was someone who ha d come to one of the farmers market and

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68 was involved in several Latino clubs. She was always interested in the farmers market and stated this was a great idea. I asked Ana if she would make an announcement about next weekend and she talked to the crowd in Spanish about the October event for about five minutes. This Latino festival at the park had been an annual event for several years with the Colombian Clubs organizing and spons oring the event. There were several East Tampa church members associated the Colomb ian Clubs but their may have been a lack of influence from these people to get other members involved in a community project. At the Mission Church the advisory comm ittee was informal as I was dealing with only two key individuals, the pr iest and the overseer, Olivia. The informality was due to my perception of Olivia’s c onnection with and protection of the community. She was well respected in this community and made clear to me in our conversations this community was wary of outsiders (Field notes November 3, 2002; December 17, 2002). On February 6, 2003, I had an informal mee ting with her and two other individuals involved in the church. We disc ussed the project at length th en asked if they would want this type of event in the community. All of these individuals agr eed it would benefit the community and agreed to help with the event. Although these individu als did a great deal of work for the market, this could have been due to Father Ben’s influence in agreeing to start the project at the churc h. Olivia and another church member did discuss social and economic difficulties this community faced, as many were undocumented and worked at low paying jobs. They both presented ideas with what they wanted at the event such as: inexpensive calling cards, in expensive mailing options overs eas, and most importantly photo identification. Since many of the Lati nos in this community were undocumented, they were unable to obtain a driver’s licen se. The nutrition educat or, Maribel Vega and I

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69 had recently participated at a Tampa health fair where we met several vendors. We also met an individual with the Mexican Consulate, which is located in Orlando, who agreed to provide photo identifications for individua ls at the Mission Church. Olivia would contact someone she know who worked at the co nsulate to participate at our event. This meeting went smoother than committee meetings at the East Tampa Church. This is possibly due to having the meeting at Maria’s home where there was li ttle distraction or having less people involved. After they agree d, we then discussed issues and problems at the previous Church, as not to repeat probl ems. Olivia was receptive to the project; stating she would help to organize the event. Survey instrument results The purpose of the survey instrument was to get feedback on the implementation for and recommendations for future farmer s markets and on the nutrition education seminars. The survey instrument measured participant’s sociodemographics, consumer interest, advertising, and nut rition education seminars. The five farmers market events had more than 400 people in attendance, with a total of 46 individuals intervie wed. Surveys were bi-lingual and most were administered at the East Tampa Church with monolingual a nd bi-lingual volunteers from the church. Data indicate this population is not primarily composed of re cent immigrants since their average residency in the United States was 11 years. Data was also collected and analyzed on other aspects of the market such as ; was there a continued interest in artisans, social service agencies, or health agencies.

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70 Figure 1 EthnicityVenezualan Puerto Rican Mexican Guatamelan Greek Dominican Repub lican Colombian Bo livian Africa A mericanPercent60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Table 1 Sociodemographics Gender 70% female 30% male Ethnicity 54% Colombian Primary language spoken at home 72% -Spanish Table 1 indicates the sample was predominantly female (70%), with a large Colombian representation (54%, Figure 1), who mainly spoke Spanish at home (72%), with 17% of the respondents indicating Sp anish and English were spoken at home.

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71 Although as indicated in Table 2, many had never visited a farmers market (73%), most individuals (80%) did purchase some fruits and vegetables at the events. The data also indicated that 33% thought the hours should be longer than the three hours agreed upon by the advisory committee. Table 2 Consumer Interest Yes No Have you visited other farmers markets 27% 73% Should the farmers market hours been longer 33% 67% Did you purchase any fruits or vegetables 80% 20% Figure 2 indicates the type and percenta ge of fruits purchased and figure 3 indicates the type and percentage of vegeta bles purchased at the events. Most people purchased the following fruits: apples; banana s; oranges; and vege tables: potatoes and tomatoes. Most people were interested in buying produce (82%) wh ile a small portion of people (22%) attended the inte ractive nutrition seminars.

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72 Figure 3VEGETABLESToma t oes Squash R ed p e pper Pota toe s Onion s L e t t uce E ggpl a nt Celery Carro tsPercent12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Figure 2 FRUITSW atermelon Plums Pineapple Oranges Mangos Grapes Bananas Avocados ApplesPercent14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

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73 Table 3 indicates participants preferred having the market on Sunday (49%) and after church services from 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Table 3 Consumer Preference ExcellentAbove Average Below Average Poor Rate day of week 4940 47 Rate time of day 4845 25 Rate the number of service vendors 2764 72 A majority of the people heard about th e event through church (70%), or through family or friends (15%). Although there were various activities only 7% were interested in the health information provided and 95% were interested in having other activities such as organic gardening (27%). Many were interested in all of the activities (23%), which included buying fresh fruits and vegeta bles, nutrition education seminars, health information, cooked food, artisans, and folk dancing. The various activities were for the benefit of the community, but the nutrition seminars were an integral part of market events. The seminars were culturally designed as short fun activities to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in to participants daily

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74 diet. To avoid repetition and to get feed b ack from shoppers each market event featured different nutrition topics. Un fortunately, as indicated by th e statistical analysis, only 2.3% were interested in the nutri tion seminars. This statistic is significant as a meeting I had with some of the Church Vestry and c hurch members, just pr ior to the October 2002 event. At this October meeting, individuals in dicated they were interested in the nutrition seminars that would provide case studies of Latino health, visual material, and instructional cooking demonstrations as a way to improve their diet ary behaviors (Field notes October 19, 2002). I realized at this meeting they wanted different nutrition seminar activities held at the Church without having a farmers market. They suggested the time commitment involved in setting up a monthly event was too much for the members. The farmers market events were active community based projects involving volunteers unlike seminars, which were comm unity-oriented activities with no long-term commitment. Of the suggested recommendations, 20% i ndicated more advertising was needed. Even though market event information was sent to various news papers, radios, and television stations, this task was actively pursued every month. The next significant recommendation at 9% was to have more pr oduce vendors with a variety of fruits and vegetables. Summary In general, the identified needs as indi cated by the participants in this study were translated into realistic goals with limite d success. Even with obstacles, the project proceeded on a schedule agreed by the committee and church members. Unstructured

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75 exploratory interviews provide d research information and an indication of enthusiasm from community members to assist with reso urces for the project. Observation from a distance provided an opportunity to visit several farmers mark ets, to acquaint myself with operations, layout, and culturally specific f oods. Participant observation provided an opportunity to discuss with vendo rs about their fruits and vege tables, while asking if they would be interested in participating in the pr oject. Data analysis indicated that most of the participants had never been to a farm ers market; but they would visit one on a monthly basis, preferably after church serv ices. Many participants did buy fruits and vegetables at low cost, but still wanted more produce vendors and a greater variety of fresh fruits and vegetables. Data indicate a po sitive response to the ev ents with an overall satisfaction with vendors but a dditional advertising may have resulted in more of the Latino community participation. Results indicate that active participation and commitment was needed among community and pr oject participants to sustain long-term goals for the project.

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76 Chapter 5: Discussion Introduction In this chapter I will further examine the processes involved in establishing a community-based farmers market targeting a low-income Latino community. The goal here is not to provide a set of guidelines or “recipe” for successful farmers markets. A one-size fit all model does not work because ea ch setting and situation is unique. Rather the goal in this project is to describe th e social and cultural processes involved in developing and implementing a relatively comp lex program where coalition building is key for a successful program. As such, I disc uss the ways in which my internship played out, the high and low-points or pitfalls of doing this kind of work, and place this information in the context of the existing literature on community -based programs that emphasize empowerment. This information shoul d be useful to both students thinking about their own internships as well as agenci es interested specifically interested in community-based farmers markets. Community development was an integral pa rt of the project. There was a clear definition of the relevant community; low-in come Latinos and the church congregation. The church community had participated in pr ior research, which defined the problems of accessing culturally specific foods, and low cost fruits and vegetables. This community

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77 proposed a solution as a farmers market to be held at the church. Chrisman et al. (1999:136) notes that a community which has defined the problem and proposed a solution would “make the changes happen” by us ing an approach with which they were familiar and then “sustain in the project in the absence of the organizer.” The advisory committee role was to assist in community development by actively involving church members and for church members to take res ponsibility for the proj ect and activities. The community generated their ideas in a prio r project but the larger long-term goals may have been hindered by a lack of organization, action, or decision. My research into development of community based programs indicates as individuals engage in community organi zing, outcomes can increase a sense of community. Effective organi zing can transform community conditions or break down barriers to increase access to resources. As individuals in communities become empowered they are better able to solve proble ms such as improving their health and diet. Empowered communities can work effectively to bring about changes to some of the specific problems they face such as; a lack of access to fresh fruits and vegetables (Minkler et al. 1999:41). My research and interviews with local community members, service agencies, and health agencies, which work with the low-in come Latino community, indicated a positive response and willingness to participate in a c hurch-based farmers market. All of these individuals gave me ideas and suggestions as th ey had participated in various health fairs or meetings, which supported the Latino commun ity. My overall concept of the farmers market was a place for people to come together socialize, and with the nutrition seminars to learn in a communal setting. This ma y sound simplistic and easy but organizing the

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78 community proved a challenge to accomplish. My research indicated processes from other farmers markets around the country varied in their successes. The Anacostia Farmers Market in Washi ngton D.C., is located at a local African American Baptist Church, in an urban ar ea that has high unemployment, crime and poverty (USDA 2001:v). The goal for Anacostia ’s Farmers Market is similar to our project where the goal is to eventually ha ve the local community sustain the market economically. Research on this farmers ma rket indicates community organizing is a lengthy process. Community empowerment and i nvolvement is vital for residents to feel a sense of ownership and that the market is a vital part of their community. The authors of this research admit the process of community empowerment and community organizing has been difficult citing “vendor s are from outside the neighborhood and primarily not African American” (USDA 2001:19). Fisher’s (1999) research into farmers markets indicates community interest is esse ntial in establishing a farmers market. He discusses three low-income area farmers markets that ha d funding, individuals who had organized markets in other areas paid staff, and / or sponsorship but had limited success. The community members were “apprehensive about neighborhoods safety, community outreach was inadequate…with little leadersh ip role or commitment to the market, and time constraints of organizers.” There was a supermarket close to one of the markets locations, which provided “low-cost globall y-sourced food” (Fisher 1999:12). Although he indicates these markets were adver tised the “community never truly assumed ownership…despite the substa ntial organizing dedicated to this purpose” (Fisher 1999:12). This is not always the case of fa rmers markets in low-income communities. The successful markets discussed by Fisher (1999:26) had a broader coalition of groups

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79 in establishing the markets, farmers hired local residents as sales staff, and the markets maintain relations with the “neighborhood by promoting its roles as a vehicle for community economic development.” In Pasadena, California, in a low-income section of town, the “Villa Parke farmers’ market has operated since 1980 in a small park in an African-American” community (Corum et al. 2001:210). Market ma nagers attribute the “market’s longevity to the broad base of neighbor hood support, stating, this is th eir market” (Corum et al. 2001:210). Market managers fo ster relationships by “returning the market’s modes profits back to the community” with sponsor ship of sport teams, and helping families economically such as buying shoes for the youth. A comparable type of food and nutrition projects is a community garden. Garden projects are community programs designed to reach low-income communities. Lowincome residents of St. Johns Woods in Portland, Oregon designed and planted three 2,500 square foot community gardens. US DA funds the projec t through a non-profit organization. The gardening project has brought the community together to “break down racial and cultural tensions” and to have a se nse of pride in growing their own produce to sell at a weekly farmers market close to th em (Jacklet 2003). Anot her community garden is at a public housing complex in Los Angeles. Individuals in the community are taught about growing their own fruits and vegetables with the excess products sold at the local farmers market (Jackson 1996). The proce ss of learning how to establish a farmers market in focused meetings is what may have been needed to bring the Latino community together. At a Church meeting several mont hs after the start of the farmers market, members from the advisory committee stated “t hey wanted to have nut rition seminars in

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80 lieu of a big activity, to have instructi onal demonstrations su ch as cooking with vegetables, to discuss the stat istics, case studies, and have vi sual material” (Field notes October 19, 2002). Unfortunately, this meeting was the day before the last market event held at the East Tampa Church. Through the duration of the projec t I would ask church members what else they would like, but this topic of having only nut rition seminars was never brought up to me directly. I may have inadvertently come across assertive or to determined for this community to take over th e market or they may not have wanted to displease me by disclosi ng their true desires. Farmers markets have a positive impact in communities across the United States. ANNA-T and Project PAN provided base-line data and follow-up data for understanding the nutritional situati on of low-income Latinos; especia lly recently arrived immigrants. My project was the next step based on this prior research, which indicated significant changes in immigrant diets, which could lead to negative health c onsequences such as obesity, diabetes, or car diovascular diseases. Several pr ocesses involved in establishing the farmers markets events were based on aspects described in the literature. To reach the larger community of Lati nos, the church provided a ve nue where we were able to address several health and cultu ral issues by providing fresh fr uit and vegetables at a low cost together with nutrition education semi nars. Individuals on the project staff and community members did show a willingness and enthusiasm to establish and to sustain the markets. Some of the previously mentioned individuals had a positive impact on the project with their hard work, dedication, and a desire for the market events to be a success. In all of my research and conversat ions about the project I had only one public

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81 official knowledgeable on farmers markets ne gatively asked me “why help this group of people” (Field notes February 25, 2002). Bu t how would I know if I had a successful farmers market event? Bagley (2001:102) notes, “everything goes into opening day…If you start out successful, it builds.” Chorne y (2001:117) notes success includes four elements, which are community driven, spons ored, producer based, and have a correct mix of vendors. Markets are also successful when there is cooperation, involvement, and communication among community, producer, and cust omer (Marr et al. 1991). I feel that Fisher (1991:9) broadens the concept of su ccess indicating “rather than define some markets as successes and others as failures, it is more accurate to envision success in terms of a continuum.” The following is a discussion of severa l processes I used to have the market established as a long term community proj ect. This included researching, having a community advisory committee, locating a ve nue, soliciting vendors, and advertising, which correspond to reported literature on starting the farmers market (Florida Department of Agriculture nd; Swisher et al. 2003; ATTRA, 2002; University of Kentucky 1992; USDA 2002). Many of the articles also focused on large-scale farmers markets sponsored through local governments compared to this smaller grant-funded project. Although several articles did disc uss certain processes could take several months, such as forming a community a dvisory committee, locating a venue, and contacting vendors, there was one article ha ving a one-year timetable in establish a community farmers market (Stegelin 1992). Th e previous mentioned research articles also discussed exploring local regulations and obtaining insurance. The Church’s insurance did cover all church sponsored events at no addi tional costs. Local zoning

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82 regulations stipulated that if the market was a permanen t institution a city zoning employee would need to assess the situation for adherence to local regulations. Other processes discussed in the li terature were hiring employees vendor membership costs, applying for non-profit status, paid advert ising, and sponsorship by organizations, business, and local and state government agencies As the market was in the initial stages these processes would be looked into when c hurch members took over the market events. Another important process, which may have given church members quicker ownership to the market, would be to have a long-range business plan developed by the committee to present to the congregation. Fo r my part, this was not feas ible at the time due to the abbreviated time frame to start the market. Although in retrospect if I developed an outline for the committee, they may have developed it further to their benefit and sustaining the market. The above mentioned articles all disc ussed setting up a committee, which the articles expressed as board of directors, ex ecutive committee, or just committee, which is representative of a diverse and broad cro ss section of the community from different organizations and businesses. This was one of my initial tasks to c ontact individuals with various backgrounds to be part of the adviso ry board committee. I was able to recruit several individuals from the business and health community, in addition to church members, to be part of the advisory comm ittee. The advisory committee would “examine the feasibility of establishing a church-based farmers market, then meet on a regular basis to organize, to develop, and to coordinate volunteer church members for the farmers market” as this would increase community involvement, ownership, and support for the farmers market (Himmelgreen nd).

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83 Some other committee responsibilities w ould be to provide for overall direction for issues such as marketing, establish hours of market operation, fees for selling in the market, who may sell at the market, managing the market, and insurance needs. Corum et al. (2001:98) states that the committee “clearly establis hes a primary goal of providing a viable market place for farmers and cons umers.” A diverse community board should encourage discussions, confront issues that may be a problem later and offers a greater number of contacts to others to accomplish goals. FDACS (nd:np) is also specific on the duties of the board but expands on their role as ; “the Board of Directors governs the rules and regulation of the market, and is ultimately re sponsible for the success or failure of it.” Swisher et al. (2003:5) describe duties specifi c to the Board of Dir ectors oriented to a corporation; some of which are: to have 15 members on the board, length of service on the board, set goals of the farmers market, review and approve operational and strategic plans, and establish ethical standards. Also there is an additional Executive Committee describing their specific duties as: “have au thority to act on behalf of the Board of Directors, act as an advisory body, and report to the Board of Director s” (Swisher et al. 2003:6). The common thread is to have some sort of committee based on goals that will benefit consumer, farmer, and community. Our community advisory committee for the East Tampa Church did include several chur ch members and individuals in business and service agencies involved w ith the local Latino commun ity. The Mission Church advisory committee was smaller and more informal than the East Tampa Church. I eventually realized the East Tampa Church would have be en better served to meet regularly to discuss issues im portant to their needs. A de signated project coordinator

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84 from the church would have helped to dissemi nate information and assign tasks to other church members. I also facilitated the committee meetings to keep them on time and focused on the tasks needed for the markets, but not to make decisions on how the market would be managed. Although I stressed to committee memb ers that major decisions need to come from them and asked for their input, I made numerous decisions without members such as; advertising, obtaining vendors, or asking church members to participate as no one readily came forward to volunteer (Field notes May 26, 2002; June 30, 2002). At the initial meeting on April 21, 2002 at the East Tampa Church, members were given an overview of and apprised of funding for the project based on their previously requested needs. This project was a bottom-up deci sion-making process to determine community needs and geared to organizi ng this group to take action on their own behalf for market events. The initial interest and participati on of the church members in the project was receptive. Many individuals had suggestions for fund raising activities such as; cooking, selling clothes or other house hold items, and to have local Latino artisans participate. Another important aspect discussed in the lite rature was to have “r ules and regulations” developed by the committee which are well understood before opening the market (Florida Department of Agriculture nd; Swis her et al. 2003; ATTRA, 2002; University of Kentucky 1992; USDA 2002; Stegelin 1992). This was not discussed at the meetings, nor did I attempt to address this issue. In reflection, this may have been integral to the success of the project to serve as a guideline, which could address issu es such as products to be sold, fees to charge vendors, manage ment and leadership to oversee the farmers market, hours of operations, and clean up. Also, church members may have then

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85 perceived the project as more of an invest ment or ownership, wherein they may have engaged in the responsibilities of the farmers market. As previously mentioned, one decision made by the Church Vestry and agreed by the committee was to have the events after Sunday church services. At another meeting I faci litated, there were three committee members to plan a grand celebration in honor of Hispanic Heritage month in Oc tober. Carlos scheduled and invited several church members to a meeting at a local Latino restaurant for August 14, 2002. No reason was given as to why the others did not attend, even when I asked. At this meeting, Carlos explained his idea for an October weekend farmers market-festival event. I was pleasantly surprised at Carl os’ suggestion and his enthusiasm at this meeting. Everyone agreed a weekend farm ers market-festival event would be good publicity for the church. We spoke at leng th on what was needed to make this a successful event. I reiterated I would help only minimally so they could take over the farmers market event. Some ideas were to invite all the Diocese members, have a Latino band, have police with their K-9 dogs attend, ha ve a mobile medical unit, have a parade of flags from Latino countries, and to have a moon jumper for the children. I was asked to make a list all of the items we spoke of and to have several copies for the next meeting we scheduled on Friday, August 23, 2002 at 7: 00 p.m., at the church. The three individuals that attended this meeting woul d contact key church members to attend the August 23rd meeting that they knew would help with this large event. Carlos would ask Father Luis’ permission to have this event for two days and to have Sunday mass at an earlier time. Although these in dividuals initially planned th is event, my perception was Carlos and I had the enthusiasm to carry out the tasks for the event.

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86 At the August 23, 2002 meeting, there were approximately ten church members. I was hopeful these individuals would get this farmers market-festival event to be a big celebration. As with most meetings this init ially seemed chaotic and disruptive, but in reflection it was my percepti on on how to run a meeting. These people were at ease with a situation I viewed as distra ctive. At the onset of the meeting Father Fund discussed Carlos’ two-day farmers market-festival idea. After much discussion the event would be one day only from 11:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., as it would be better and easier for individuals to handle tasks. Church members were al so concerned about being good neighbors with any event held. The issue of live music wa s a concern for a two-day farmer marketfestival due to a festival held several year s ago where neighbors complained to church members and to the police. Also, I believe church members knew there were a number of illegal immigrants who attended services and did not want to have any bad press within the Diocese. Again, members deferred to me about their decision for a one-day event on Sunday. I let them know if this is what they wanted to do it would be a better event, since they would be in charge of the farmers market-festival. From the previous meeting, I had compiled a 28-item task list for chur ch members to volunteer (See Appendix B). Father Fund started to go over the list of tasks to be done fo r the farmers ma rket-festival. It was my plan to do as little as possible for them to feel empowered so they would feel this was their farmers market-festival. Since many of the individuals that came did not volunteer for any task, Father Fund who wa s running the meeting would ask me to do them. I took on several tasks after I asked if any one else would volunteer for them. Maybe my directness in asking questions or my previous experience was a stumbling block in getting volunteers. Yet all the atte ndees seemed happy with what emerged with

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87 the possibility of a big festival. Father Fund stated he would start announcing the festival at the Sunday, August 25th church service to let the c ongregation know of the October farmers market-festival and ask for volunteers (Field notes August 23, 2002). This event was not well attended by the local community or church members. In reflection my participant observation my have limited their perceived need to do the tasks or plan for future events. Another important aspect discussed in th e literature was venue location. Location of the markets was readily agreed upon at meetings with the East Tampa Church and Mission Church members. Location of the venue must be heavily trafficked by vehicles and or people to generate income for the vendors. Whether it is on private property, public space, downtown, or in a park location is critical to the success of a farmers market. The National Associati on of Farmers Markets website ( http://www.farmersmarkets.net ) states “location is everyt hing” and sites need to be convenient, be accessible, and have plenty of parking. Corum et al. (2001:106) discusses having a farmers market on “a central, landmark location…with easy access for customers, plenty of parking, visibility from main roads, shade trees, and public restrooms” which will help to have a well established successful farmers market. At the East Tampa Church venue the farmers market was not visible from a heavily trafficked road. Balloons attached to colorful signs were put on poles, which were on the north, south, west, and east sides of the church a dvertising the event to people coming off or going on the interstate, for people using th e public transportation system, for people bicycling or walking in the area. Stegelin (1992:4) notes location is also important, but location should be closer to the majority of consumers since the “typical customer will

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88 not drive a long distance to reach the farmer s market” rather than vendors or producers. Church members decided market events were to be held in the area behind the church rather than the front of the church as the rear area could hold nu merous vendors and is shaded by numerous tall trees. I had hoped the approximately 150 to 200 people usually attending church services woul d also tell family and frie nds about the farmers market, which would help to guarantee sales for the vendors along with increased community participation. The church members were give n flyers to pass out to local businesses and organizations but attendance at events was never over 100 people. There was more visibility at the Missi on Church since this was located in mixeduse residential area, close to businesses. Olivia stated many people would come to the farmers market since there were over 400 peopl e attending services. She also indicated many people walking by going to the stores since many of them did not have their own transportation (Field notes February 6, 2003). I did notice people always walking in the area whenever I attend ed the church services or stopped by when the food pantry was open. To me this was a good indication the farm ers market would be more successful at this venue. Although flyers were distribute d, turnout at this event was approximately 120 people. Many people did not atte nd the previous Sunday services due to rain, so they did not hear the announcement. Also discussed in the literature to or ganize a farmers market was having vendors, social service agencies, and health agencies to participate. This was another process which the literature discussed took several months to build rela tionships by visiting vendors, agencies, and businesses (ATTRA 2002; Corum et al. 2001; Swisher et al. 2003). This step in the process had to c onsider economic feasibility to low-income

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89 consumers versus profitability to vendors by convincing vendors to spend a few hours on a Sunday at the market would be worth their time. Swisher et al. (2003) discusses this step as the most “difficult of all…and a successful market needs a good mix of products to attract a regular clientel e.” Stegelin (1992:2) indicat es, “research has shown that assuring an adequate number of producers…is probably more important than evaluating consumer numbers in planning the market.” For me, this step was a challenge since I was looking for vendors that would be culturally re levant to this community. Many health and social service agencies we re receptive to the idea since this was their role in the community. I had observed most participants we re at the health mobile at the first event; but the data indicate only 6.8% were interested in only the health information provided. Local businesses and other vendors were more difficult to commit and to participate as these individuals sometimes worked seven da ys a week or already had commitments. I was always looking for new produce ve ndors and would stop at various produce stands in Hillsborough County (See Appendix C) If the vendor, who usually was the owner, was not busy I would briefly discu ss the project while inquiring where they obtained their produce, how long they had been at the location, and how they started their business. In talking to various produce ve ndors, I was trying to get a feel for their interest to participate at market events. Most produce vendors were the sole owners, did not have any other help, and worked six to seven days a week. I spoke with a produce vendor on February 26, 2002, whose produce st and was neat, orderly, organized, and offered a variety other products such as hone y, milk, eggs, boiled peanuts, and plants. This individual stated for a successful farm ers market “the place needs to be clean for people to come to, will need plenty of park ing, and the farmer will want to sell all the

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90 produce he or she brings to the farmers mark et” (Field notes Februa ry 26, 2002). On my visit to Ybor’s Fresh Market, I spoke with th e market manager who also stated, “the area should be neat and there has to be plenty of parking.” He gave suggestions such as having the farmers market event with a holid ay, to advertise, a nd to do as much as possible to get the vendors to attend (Field notes April 6, 2002). Although this was good advice, time constraints within my own sche dule made it difficult to follow all of the suggestions. The conversation with these indi viduals was typical of other conversations with produce vendors where they could not pa rticipate but always had suggestions on implementing a farmers market. I spoke with five vendors at a flea ma rket on March 2, 2002 who where interested in helping, but when I returned two or three weeks before the event, four of them said they could not help, giving various reasons su ch as being out of to wn that weekend or working the day of the event. One vendor st ated she “would be there and to call a few days before the event to remind me” (Field notes March 9, 2002). I visited her produce stand several times after this to purchase it ems and to discuss her participation in the farmers market event. I called several times prior to the event with no answer and could not leave a message, as there was no answeri ng machine. I did visi t her the next week, July 6, 2002 to see why she had not shown up a nd to see if she woul d like to participate in the next farmers market event. She st ated her “answering machine was not working” and she could not participate in the next farm ers market event since she would be out of town that weekend (Field notes July 6, 2002). After talking to vendors I realized building relationships would be ongoing process. Vendor s may have been kind in agreeing but the reality of schedules often made it impossible for them to commit to the day of the event.

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91 Also, many worked seven days a week and could not always gua rantee someone would help them with sales. The wholesale mark et on Hillsborough opens at 3:00 a.m., with several vendors stating they are at the market when it ope ns. Jerry the produce vendor, arrived early at the wholesale market stating, “he bargains for the best price he can get” (Field notes August 19, 2002). Vendors also want ed assurances they could make a profit, but actual sales were not discussed. Now that the location and se veral vendors had been obtaine d, the next step in the process was to advertise the event. FDACS (nd:np) indicates “to k eep things positive, simple, and clearly communicated.” Since th is was a grant-funded project I needed as much free advertising as possible. I did follow FDACS booklet to advertise in local papers, with posters, fliers, and balloons. FDACS also suggested having a feature story with planning a gala grand opening. This w ould have helped to secure publicity and consumers, but at that time the focus of mark et events was on having several and then to expand on the different processe s. Farmer markets need to be promoted to encourage shoppers to attend. A farmers market can use a fun ad message with a catchy phrase such as; “you’ll be ‘peased’ at what you find” (Cor um et al. 2001:155). I made the ad based on FDACS’s (nd:np) suggestion stating “feed the entire family…fresh fruits and vegetable…Nutritious, delicious, and whol esome produce available” hoping this would catch people eyes. I gave a notice for the event to one church member to put into newspapers and radio stations, but her time sc hedule permitted contact to only one of the local Latino newspapers (Field notes May 20, 2002). I soon discovered advertising was also an ongoing process to get volunteers but I called radio and te levision stations and sent out many notices by fax or e-mail each month. I asked another committee member

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92 who was well connected to the Latino commun ity to help by agreeing to assist with translations and suggestions on where to a dvertise, which was useful. I made the advertisements brief since I knew public se rvice announcements were free and wanted to ensure the events would be announced on Span ish radio and television. Newspapers also would put free notices of events if there was space available (FDACS nd; Marr et al. 1991; Swisher et al. 2003). I also e-mailed or faxed flyers to several Latino clubs and organizations, and social and health service agencies. Although I did this monthly, so that more people would hear or see message s, several church members mentioned they did not hear about the event on the television or radio sta tions, and did not read any notice in the newspapers. Again, notifications of community events were made at the discretion of the stations or newspapers. While reviewing my notes I had considered visiting individuals at the ne wspapers or stations public relations departments, which would have possibly given the events the fr ee promotion and advertising they needed. The above processes were the groundwork to make faci litation of the market an easy transition to ownership in the church congregation. These processes were to encourage participation and to publicize the fa rmers markets to others in the community. I also documented networking with church members, clubs, and organizations listing names and contacts of those interested in fu ture market events. These processes were documented to easily disseminate information to others, to meet deadlines, and to involve more church and community members in owne rship of the market. Key church members at times were hesitant to part icipate as they were involved in other responsibilities of the church such as; recovering from the loss of Anglo membership due to the Spanish only

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93 services, political discord with in the Church Vestry, and fi nancial difficulties during the previous year. Another important process was the prep aration of the nutrition seminars. The seminars provided an opportunity to examin e difficulties in encouraging consumption of fruits and vegetables. Seminar activities were specifically developed for market events to present the significance of eati ng fresh fruits and vegetables, to present ideas in cooking with fruits and vegetables, and to present overall improved health with the consumption of fruits and vegetables. My role in the nut rition seminars was to assist Laurie prior to market events to ensure she had the necessary resources for each market event. These seminars were designed to have church vol unteers, so they may be tter understand and to eventually assist in delivering the seminars. The nutrition seminars were culturally ta ilored to encourage participation. They focused on healthy beverages and healthy sn acks, how fun and health go hand in hand, and weight loss associated with a healthy diet of fruits and vegetables (See Appendix D). The seminars were both on how to use fresh fr uits and vegetables daily, while discussing nutrition information. The goal was to encour age additional consumption with the added benefit of improving overall health. Although the seminars included colorful displays, numerous paper handouts, visual hands on items such as colorful food label comparisons, and healthy beverages and health snacks they were not that well attended by participants. This may possibly due to the location as the first seminar area was not close to the other vendors and had to have shade so the food w ould not spoil in the heat of the day. Another reason for less participation at the seminars was church members had several meetings after services that lasted past th e time of the market event. This was an

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94 indication to me that the chur ch officials and members lacked resources to handle market events and had several issues and problems th at were of a higher priority than market events. The first farmers markets at both venues were well attended. At the East Tampa Church there were approximately 85 people who attended and at the Mission Church approximately 120 people attended. The latter attendance was due in part to the close proximity of the community with a higher tr affic of people walki ng and driving in the vicinity. The only adver tising for the Mission Church was an announcement the preceding two weeks before the event and the distribution of flyers in the community. According to Olivia this community would readily buy good quality fruits and vegetables, which we had plenty. When I contacted social service or health agencies for either event more of them knew of the Mission Church and were enthusia stic about participating. The following vendors did participate at this venue: Catholic Charities, The Spring, HART Line Transit Authority, and Hillsborough County Sheriff’s Department. Several church members cooked a variety of foods and sold the plates with meat, rice, salad, and a dessert for $5.00. Another church organization brought a stereo and public address system, and several people sang. This venue for the farmers market worked out better at the Mission Church due to Olivia and Maria’s involvement with establ ishing the Spanish only church services and their commitment to helping with the social and economic needs of the community. The Mission Church did not have a lot of money but had th e resources and help of congregation members from the tw o local Catholic Church’s, which were close to their

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95 location. I learned late in th e project the East Tampa Church also had a local Church sponsor, but I never heard from or saw this other congregation invol vement or offering their resources, which possibly led to recurr ing problems with the East Tampa Church’s officers and congregation. Summary There were several preliminary pro cesses for this project to establish a community based farmers market in a lo w-income Latino population that are not applicable to similar projects, but only a guideline, which I used for this specific community. Since I was able to establish a farmers market at two venues my findings suggest ways to improve on the processes. Both communities had a different composition of Latino groups and community involvement but outside involvement of other organizations was essential for a more successful market event at the Mission Church. Location must be visible to the la rger community. The fi rst venue was out of sight from the main thoroughfare, even with signs people were not drawn to the market. The open area at the second venue was fre quently traveled by residents in the community, which provided an opportunity fo r more people who had not heard of the event to attend. The continuity of and expert ise of staff are also essential to provide a connection to networks. As research indicates, markets in lo w-income communities can be sustained. Community participation, involvement, and co mmitment are integral to sustain a longterm project involving various community partners. Social service agencies and health agencies all had bilingual material and were willing to participate in events depending on

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96 their schedules. For the tim e I worked on the project, constant communication with key project members, church members, and ve ndors also helped to build networks in sustaining this project. This project provide s my insights into the processes involved in establishing a community-based project, wh ile reflecting my own thoughts to get the market established and sustained.

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97 Chapter 6: Conclusions and Recommendations Introduction The role of applied anthropologists in co mmunity projects is to conduct research and investigate local community problems in a systematic method to achieve community needs. Project PAN provided the setting fo r community members to define a problem with a proposed solution to meet their speci fic dietary needs. This study focused on initial stages to establish a community based farmers market. The farmers market events accomplished these goals by providing a social and economic environment for the availability of culture specifi c foods and to introduce othe r nutritionally adequate and healthy foods into the Latino diet. There has been a signific ant increase in population of Latino immigrants to the United States, Florida, and the Tampa Bay area. Dietary patterns among Latinos in their own countries and in the United States show a shift towards more processed and refined foods, which adversely affect overall healt h. Research indicates social and economic disparities among Latinos are ba rriers in accessing nutritious healthy foods. Based on federal recommendations of five to nine dail y servings of fruits and vegetables are essential for good health Prior research within Tampa’s Latino community indicates their diets changed quickly upon their arrival to the United States with an emphasis on

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98 America’s fast foods, sodas w ith no nutrients, and a reduction in the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. By providing a social and economic environment for the availability of culturally specific foods and introducing other nutri tionally adequate and healthy foods into the Latino di et, goals of the farmers mark et can help to improve the nutrition and health knowledge of the local low-income Latino community. This study used a multi-method approach into the processes for establishing a community-based project. Interviews, observation from a di stance, participant observation, and questionnaires were all used. My research revealed significant information to empower a community and to establish a sustainabl e community project. My insights of the farmers ma rket project is the continuous and ever evolving process of designing and organizing necessary to impl ement the event. From interviews and observations, there seems to be a genuine interest among the co mmunity members and vendors to participate. The reviewed literatur e also indicates the pos itive advantages to all of the individuals involved in local farmer s markets. The visits to the various farmers markets show they have an open and informal setting, diverse in size and organization, which provides a unique ambiance to the s hopping experience. The social setting provided an atmosphere to easily converse w ith vendors, compared to the obligatory and sometimes uncomfortable interaction with employees in a grocery store. Although East Tampa Church members we re aware and advised of the project goals prior to the first farmers market, there is no one reason the farmers market was not sustainable at this location. Working with this community group to empower them to run their own farmers market was not successful as church members showed apathy, lack of commitment, and a lack of involvement possibly that I was an out sider and not a member

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99 of their church. Church members were al so asked to volunteer to help the nutrition educator as this would be a learning e xperience for them, but no one came forward. Location may have also been a factor, since the events were not visible from the main road. Yet, an even poorer community at the Mission Church welcomed us heartily into their community as their economic and social needs may have been greater, and / or Olivia was a trustworthy member committed to helping this community. Several church members at this venue volunteered to help with nutrition seminars and future events. Each low-income community has differe nt social and economic issues. Many low-income Latino communities face barriers in accessing fruits and vegetables such as; availability, cost of fresh produce, transpor tation costs, and / or language. Low-income individuals also work multiple jobs preventi ng them from going to farmers markets that are open only on specific days and times. It is expected that the farmers market project participants will have an increased understanding about healthy ea ting and disease prevention, and that the family-oriented activities will faci litate improved nutrition and health knowledge. The farmers market will also benefit the community, as it will pr ovide a venue to understand the community needs, to educate, and to im prove the nutrition and health of the local Latino community. By involving the local residents of the commun ity in the process to establish the farmers market staff and organizers would provide a means through which community organizing would take place. Our ongoing research will provide loca l communities with the resources to continue and manage a farmers market as a positive and sustainable alternative to their local economy. In the end, improving and pr omoting healthy lifesty les through increased

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100 access to local and culturally relevant fresh fruits and vegetables by using a communitybased farmers market, and to improve nutriti on knowledge using a series of interactive nutrition education presentations and wo rkshops (i.e., supermarket visits). Future Challenges and Recommendations For an applied intervention to work, the social environment a nd cultural attitudes of the low-income Latino community must be understood so that solutions such as a farmers market can be applied as a nutri tion and health intervention at the local community level. The goal of the project was to increase access for consumption of fruits and vegetables to the low-income Latino community. Without improved access, low-income Latino immigrants will not likely consume recommended daily servings of fruits and vegetables. Also, the effort of the local community to help organize and to help establish the farmers market as their own will be crucial to the success of the farmers market as a permanent institution in their community. Recommendations A collaborative project such as this requires an extensive commitment of planning, time, and resources. This project can be used as a reference source for similar projects. The following recommendations are inte nded to address issues, which were encountered in working on this community-based project. 1. Project staff’s expertise should complement each other. This project’s staff had an area of expertise, which helped to identify issues, concerns,

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101 accomplish goals, and solve problems encountered throughout the project. The combined talents of the staff, which included prior ex perience in event organization, education, and presentations, aided in the continuation of the farmers market as it built on our knowledge to improve upon each event. 2. Each low-income community has different social and economic needs that need to be addressed during init ial stages of the project. Individuals at the East Tampa Church comm unity were involved in Project PAN’s focus groups, which helped to identify their need for a farmers market. Several individuals indicated they did not know where to get lo w cost, high quality fruits and vegetables, which led to the idea of the farmers market The Mission Church community faced social and economic barriers in accessing low cost, high quality fruits and vegetables. Many were recent immigrants who did not know th e language and worked minimum wage jobs. With a focus on providing culturally specific components we endeavored in the initial processes to contact bi-lingua l social and health service vendors. One vendor worked with the Hillsborough Workforce Center whic h was visited by many individuals looking for work or higher paying jobs. The East Tampa Church community was more interested in the cholesterol health screenings provided at the events. 3. For low-income community based project s, subsidies, and sponsorships are needed on a continuing basis, but more so initially to sustain the project until it is fully established as a community institution. Sponsorship of community markets with loca l businesses or organi zations that are well

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102 known can provide an opening to other commun ity groups and individuals, which is an essential component of the ma rkets. The East Tampa Church community did have a sister-sponsored church, but this was brought to my attention late in the process. This sister-sponsored church had a large middle-income non-Hi spanic white congregation, which may have aided them at the events. The Mission Church’s affiliation with other local churches was prominent at their Sunday se rvices. Individuals from theses churches came to help by providing food, clothing, and occasionally medical or dental services after church services. These individuals were also instrumental in helping at the farmers markets events at this location. Sponsorshi p can help to provide an understanding of the community, identifying available community resources and persons, and evaluating specific needs of the community. 4. Guidelines need to be initially estab lished by the community advisory committee with help from staff members. For low-income communities that do not have all the resources or face barriers due to language, community leadership is needed at the onset of the project to provide a clear understanding of project goals. This should in clude tasks, which need to be done prior, during, and after events. Plan market events at least three months in advance for social service agencies and health agencies to commit and schedule their time. Many social service and health agencies have commitmen ts scheduled far in advance. Community leaders should give small tasks to accomp lish with an immediate commitment from volunteers. Individuals need specific instruct ions on tasks while assuring them this will not take much of their time. With clear directives from committee members, this will

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103 ensure the events will go relatively smoot hly. Community members need to meet on a regular basis to outline goals and procedures while addressing issues that are encountered with each event. Meetings ensure communication and a sense of community. Also, establish relationships with local community groups such as I did with the Colombian Club. This is another process, which needs to be done on a regular basis by staff and community members. These community gr oups may have people willing to help financially, by recommending othe rs to help, or getting their group to participate in the events. 5. Community volunteers need to be active ly involved in communicating the benefits of a farmers market. Volunteers need to communicate to neighbor s, friends, and businesses of upcoming events. By discussing the farmers markets th ey will see and understand more clearly the benefits for themselves and their community. A successful farmers market is a resource to a community as an area can receive an ec onomic boost; it is a social center bringing people together, and a place for learning about locally grown fruits and vegetables. 6. Staff members should only be facilita tors of meetings. Community members need to address and handle issues or pr oblems as part of the empowering and ongoing processes of a community based project. The facilitators’ role is to help keep the meeting focuses on the subject within a reasonable time frame for everyone. When community members discover the process of discussing issues, determining task s, and taking responsibility, th is will lead to individual

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104 and community growth. Increased knowledge within the group can be presented to others for increased participation. 7. Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption by low-income individuals is a practical applied goal through culturally specific farmers markets with nutrition seminars. A farmers market will increase awareness on ho w to improve an individuals diet. The educational seminars provide a foundation to motivate people to buy and eat more fruits and vegetables. Community members can lear n through nutrition education seminars that use recipes to guide the consumer in l earning about buying fruits and vegetables. 8. Youth activities should be provided that connect a healthy diet with physical activity Youths need to feel they are also part of the event, which will en sure their family will return and become involved in the commun ity. The youth were very active with the focused activities for them. Many families we re willing to stay longer since the youth were actively involved. The yout hs could be entrepreneurs by starting a garden project, selling crafts, or selling cooked goods. This community based research project used multiple anthropological methods. As an applied intervention, this project in itiated a solution to a specific need for lowincome Latino immigrants to obtain low cost fruits and vegetables in a socially acceptable environment.

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105 References cited Agency for Workforce Innovation 2002 Florida Facts, Foreign-Born Worker s in the Florida Labor Market. Electronic document, http://www.labormarketinfo.c om/publications/factsheetforegnborn.pdf accessed May 5, 2004. Agency for Workforce Innovation 2003 Florida Census Data Center. Electronic document, http://www.labormarketinfo.com/censu s2000/sf3-profiles/sf3-fl-50-cnty57.pdf accessed April 30, 2004. Agricultural Marketing Service 2000 Farmers Markets. United States Department of Agriculture. Electronic document, http://www.ams.usda.gov/farmersmarkets/fedpro.htm accessed March 15, 2002. Aldrich, Lorna and Jayachandran N. Variyam 2000 Acculturation Erodes the Diet Quality of U.S. Hispanics. Frozen Food Digest 15(5 July): 24-29. American Anthropological Association 1986 STATEMENTS ON ETHICS, Principles of Professional Re sponsibility, Adopted by the Council of the American Anthr opological Association. Electronic document, http://www.aaanet.org/stmts/ethstmnt.htm accessed December 2, 2002 Anderson, Robert, Kenneth Wieand, and Gina Space 2001 Economic Patterns In Hillsbor ough County in 1997: Hillsborough county Zip Code Business, Employment and Farm Pa tterns Analysis. University of South Florid Center for Economic Development Research, College of Business Administration.

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106 Andreatta, Susan and William Wickliffe II 2002 Managing Farmer and Consumer Expectations: A Study of a North Carolina Farmers Market. Human Organization 61(2):167-176. Angel, Jacqueline L., Ronald J. Angel, Kyriakos S. Markides 2000 Late-life Immigration, Changes in Living Arrangements, and Headship Status among Older Mexican-origin Individuals. Social Sc ience Quarterly 81(1):389404. Anliker, Jean Ann, Mark Winne, and Linda T. Drake 1992 An Evaluation of the Connecticut Fa rmers’ Market Coupon Program. Journal of Nutrition Education 24(4):185-192. Arcia, E., M. Skinner, D. Bailey, and V. Correa 2001 Models of Acculturation and Health Behaviors among Latino Immigrants to the US. Social Science & Medicine 53:41-53 Atkinson, Maureen, and John Williams 1994 Farmers Markets (in North Amer ica). Public Management 76(1):16-21. Bachmann, Janet 2002 Farmers’ Markets, Marketing and Busi ness Guide. Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas. Electronic document, http://attar.ncat.org/attarpub/PDF/farmermarket.pdf accessed April 30, 2004 Bermudez, Odilia I., and Katherine, L. Tucker 2003 Trends in Dietary Patterns of Latin American Populations. Cadernos Sade Pblica 19(Sup 1):S87-S99. Bernard, H. Russell 1995 Research Methods In Anthropology, Qu alitative and Quantitative Approaches. Walnut Creek: Alta Mira Press.

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120 Swisher, M.E., James Sterns, and Jennifer Gove, 2003 Starting a Farmers’ Market. Univer sity of Florida IFAS Extension, Electronic document, http://www.edis.ifas.ufl.edu accessed October 23, 2003. The Florida Department of Agricultu re and Consumer Services booklet. No date How To Establish A Fa rmers market. No Page number given. The Florida Department of Health 2003 Florida WIC, Women, Infants, & Children. Electronic document, http://doh.state.fl.us /family/WIC/indexold.html accessed May 5, 2004. Therrien, Melissa and Roberto R. Ramirez 2000 The Hispanic Population in the Un ited States: March 2000. Current Population Reports, P20-535, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. Travers, Kim D. 1996 The Social Organization of Nutriti onal Inequities. Social Science Medicine 43(4):543-553. United States Department of Commerce 1993 We the American…Hispanics. Econom ics and Statistics Administration Report. September 1993 Bureau of the Census. Unites States Department of Agriculture Natio nal Agricultural Statistics Service National Agricultural Statistic Service 2002 First Look At The 2002 Census of Agriculture. Electronic document, http://www.nass.usda.gov/census accessed April 1, 2004. Unites States Department of Agriculture Natio nal Agricultural Statistics Service National Agricultural Statistic Service 2002 Farm Labor, Florida. Electronic document, http://www.nass.usda.gov/fl/econ/labor/2002 accessed April 1, 2004. Unites States Department of Agriculture 2003 Fabulous Fruits…Versatile Vegetabl es, Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Electronic document, http://www.usda.gov/cnpp/Pubs /Brochures/FabFruitsscreen.pdf accessed May 12, 2004.

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122 Winne, Mark 2000 Community Food Security. A Guide to Concept, Design, and Implementation. Community Food Security Coalition: Vencie, CA. Wolcott, Harry F. 1999 Ethnography, A Way of Seeing. Altamira Press: Walnut Creek, CA. Wolcott, Harry F. 2001 The Art of Fieldwork. A ltamira Press: Walnut Creek, CA

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123 APPENDICES

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124 Appendix A: Nutrition Semi nars for Farmers Markets Make Beverages Count For Your Health Objective: Increase pl ant food consumption Message: Make beverages count for h ealth—try drinking 100% fruit juice. Materials/Activity: Fruit juice soda, see Fruit Beverage Seminar Supportive Materials Verbal: Would you like to try a s oda made with 100% fruit juice? 1. Introduction: Fruit juice has many imposte rs; fruit drink, fruit punch, fruit smoothies, fruit milkshake….and the list goes on. Fru it flavors are easy fo r food manufacturers to create and inexpensive to make. These flavored sugar water mixtures are then sold for ridiculously high prices. Often ma nufacturers will add an occasional small amount of juice so that the wo rds, “fruit juice” can be legally added to the label. This fools many customers into thinking they are drinking fruit juice. Another special trick is for the manufacturer to add large amounts of sugar to fruit juice. This is legally called a “fruit drink” and is not as healt hy for you as 100% fruit juice. Be a smart consumer…look for the real thing…look for the words 100 % fruit juice on the product label. 2. What’s the big deal if we dr ink fruit flavored sugar water instead of 100% fruit juice? a. For starters, fruit does so many things for your body that the fakes can’t do. i. Healthy source of energy. Do you know that at least half of your calories should come from the type of energy stored in plants? That energy is called carbohydrate. When the plant f ood has not been highly refined and concentrated, as in the case of suga r-making, they come packed with good nutrients too. Research shows that the healthiest groups of people are those who eat predominantly fruits, ve getables, and whole grain products. ii. Vitamins/Minerals: Vitamins and mi nerals help our bodies to function normally. For you to understand the many beneficial nutrients found in fruit, you would have to read an enti re book! Suffice it to say that without the nutrients in fruit, ou r bodies would not be able to fight illness, grow properly, adapt to seeing in the dark, bear ch ildren, heal wounded skin, and accomplish many other necessary f unctions. Quite literally, without the nutrients in fruit, we look sic k…feel sick … and eventually die. iii. Anti-oxidants: Some of the more r ecent research tells us that certain nutrients in fruit called anti-oxidants protect our bodies from heart disease and cancer. This is great news! The food that tastes so good not only keeps our bodies running, but also protects us from getting cancer and heart disease! iv. Fiber: The fiber in fruit is help ful in keeping your digestive system regular. Whenever possible, purchas e juice with pulp or juice your own fruit so that you can get some of its beneficial fiber.

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125 Appendix A: Nutrition Seminars for Farmers Markets (Continued) Make Beverages Count For Your Health v. (Conclusion) So fruit is great fo r your health. On the other hand, consuming a lot of sugar c ontributes to poor health. b. Sugar contributes to obesity by filling us up without providing any nutritional value. i. Everyone has a different idea about wh at weight looks good, but research tells us what weight is healthiest If you know how tall you are, check your weight against the poster…(descri be location). It will tell you what weight is healthy for you. ii. Being overweight significantly increas es your risk of getting diabetes, cancer, heart disease, stroke, gallb ladder disease, high blood pressure, having breathing problems, and having mobility problems. c. Sugared beverages dehydrate your b ody. A short time after drinking a sweetened beverage, you might notice that you’re thirsty again. This is due to the sugar content of the drink and yo ur body’s need to dilute the sugars. d. Contributes to cavities/rotten teeth. Being able to keep your own teeth throughout your lifetime is va luable. Ask anyone who has lost them! Once a tooth begins to rot, it will continue to create progressively more problems throughout your lifetime. e. (Conclusion) So when deciding to purcha se a sugared beverage, it is wise to consider not only the hefty price tag of th e beverage itself, but also the cost to your health. 3. Since we, in FL, must drink a lot of fluid to keep up with the losses, what are some healthy options? a. Diluted fruit juice to avoid getting too many calories and becoming obese on a good thing; either with water or with s oda water, like in the sample you just tried. b. Blended fruit with extra water or ice— you can sweeten with a sugar substitute like aspartame, but it’s alwa ys best to enjoy the natural flavors of food without over-sweetening. c. Fruited milkshakes by blending fruits that are low in acid like berries (strawberries, blueberrie s, raspberries,…), banana, melon, and peaches with reduced-fat milk or yogurt, and ice. You can add flavoring extract and aspartame if desired. Again, it’s always best to enjoy the natural flavors of food without over-sweetening. d. Other healthy beverage options include: i. Water—(show pitcher of fluid require ment for average adult). This represents the amount of fluid that an average adult and child ages 7-10 should drink each day for good health. Children ages 1-3 need 1300 ml/day, ages 4-6 need 1800 ml/day (a bout 2 quarts), and teenagers need up to 3000 ml/day (3 quarts). You would need to drink more on days that you are out in the heat for a long time. It’s important to know that thirst is

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126 not a good indicator that you’ve consumed enough fluid! When you are thirsty, your body is already dehydrated! Water is an excellent fluid source. Though Tampa water does not tast e the best, it is safe to drink. Try squeezing some lemon juice or lime juice into the water for an improvement in flavor. ii. Vegetable juice

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127 Appendix A: Nutrition Seminars for Farmers Markets (Continued) Make Beverages Count For Your Health iii. Reduced fat milk—(purple and blue tops) Getting used to drinking reduced fat milk for those 2 years and older helps to protect you from heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and other chronic diseases. If you have a problem maintaining a hea lthy weight, using reduced fat milk for drinking and in recipes is very helpful. iv. Decaffeinated tea—contains those wonde rful antioxidants that protect you from cancer and heart disease. Caffe ine causes your body to lose fluid, so using decaffeinated products is impo rtant in a hot climate. Add lemon juice for an extra boost of goodness and use a sugar substitute like aspartame if necessary. 4. Since we’re talking about bevera ges, it’s important to bring up a word about alcohol. If you are an adult who is not pregnant, alcoho l is fine to drink in small quantities and in the right setting. On the other ha nd, it dehydrates the body, contains few worthwhile nutrients, and can lead to physical and emotional addiction. Once addiction occurs, the quantity of alcohol c onsumed tends to increase, which takes its terrible toll on the person’s health and lif e and on the lives of family and friends. 5. Cost: Described on the display board is an average cost per serving of fruit flavored sugar beverages verses 100% juice. The cost for juice is a little higher… $0.08 per serving. But to prevent weight gain, we r ecommend that you dilute that juice in half with water. That means it actually costs 5 cents more per serving to purchase the fruit flavored sugar water! Not only is it less e xpensive to drink dilu ted 100% fruit juice, but you will reap the many health benefits besides! 6. Conclusion: Since you have to drink quite a bit of fluid (hold up the container to show quantity) to care for your body’s n eeds in a hot place like FL, make your beverages count toward your health. Check labels to assure that you are getting ingredients that will help your body rather than hurt your body. Try drinking “100% fruit juice”, vegetable juice, “reduced fat” milk, water, and “decaffeinated” tea more often. Limit alcohol and beverages sweetened with sugar since they rarely contribute to good health and often cont ribute to health problems. Thanks for attending our session on healthy beverages. I’d like to now answer any questions you may have. Laurie Van Wyckhouse, M.S., R.D., L.D.

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128 Appendix A: Weight Loss And Chronic Disease (Continued) DID YOU KNOW…? --A NUTRITION CONTEST-Plan: Nutrition contest with small prizes for correct answers and nutrition blurbs expanding upon answer. Title: Did You Know…? --A Nutrition Contest-Purpose: Confronting nutrition misinformation, particularly as it rela tes to weight loss, and linking weight to chronic disease. Public Announcement using microphone: “Can some foods help your body to burn fat? Is high protein the best diet for losing weight? Should everyo ne take nutritional supplements? Come join us -test your knowledge and win prizes! Get your friends, gather around….we will begin the co ntest in 2 minutes.” (Repeat) Logistics: Battery operated P.A. system, table located in between food tables, begin ~1:10 PM. Rules: “Raise your hand if you think you know the answer to the question.” The first to raise his or her hand will have the opportunity to answer. If answered incorrectly, we will give opportunity for another person to answer.” Prizes: Stationery items pl aced in basket—“pick one.” Seminar/Game Question 1 : How many of you have heard of the hi gh protein, low carbohydrate diet for weight loss? It suggests that you mostly ea t meat and other protein foods while avoiding carbohydrates like bread and rice. What does the best diet fo r weight loss look like? Is it: 1. The high protein/low carbohydrate diet 2. To burn extra calories through eating such things as grapefruit and hot peppers 3. To eat lots of grains, fruits, and vegeta bles while consuming less meat and milk Answer: Research tells us that the healthiest weight loss diet is the healthiest diet for all people—we should eat mostly grains, fruits, and vegetables—the carbohydrate foods, and less of the meats and milk—the protein foods, and even less of added fats and sugars. The high protein / low carbohydrate, on the ot her hand, is an extremely dangerous diet— people who have stayed on it for long periods of time have died because of it! Keep in mind that weight loss schemes are big busin ess in the United States—a multi-billion dollar business! This is why you hear so much false information in the media. The truth is, there is no food that burns calories for you. Eating hot peppers does not burn calories, and neither does eating grapefru it. …and for those who want the easy way out by using a meal supplement for weight loss—you won’t learn how to maintain a healthy weight through the rest of your life! It is st ill a matter of how many calories you eat in food compared with how many calories you burn through physical activ ity. Get yourself a copy of the food guide pyramid at this table (point to it). Follow what the food guide pyramid says as it relates to what types of foods you shoul d be choosing most….and just eat less. Make it your goal to lose 1 to 2 pounds per week in order to stay healthy.

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129 Appendix A: Weight Loss And Chronic Disease (Continued) Question 2 : Some people think they look good a nd look prosperous when they carry extra fat weight on their bodies. Others think the thinner they are, the better they look. Appearance and prosperity aside, how can we know what weight makes us the healthiest? 1. By watching Oprah Winfrey 2. By finding out our body mass index 3. By listening to what our friends think 4. By observing the weight of the models in the magazines? Answer: Research on healthy weight is summar ized in a weight for height chart called the Body Mass Index –or BMI-hanging by th e St. Joseph’s Community Health table (point to location). If the chart identifies you as being ove rweight, you are more likely to develop health problems such as heart diseas e, stroke, diabetes, certain cancers, joint pain, breathing difficulties, and gall bladder disease. But th ere is good news for those of you who are carrying excess weight-it often do esn’t take much weight loss to reduce your risk of chronic disease. St. Joseph’ s will be here until 4 PM to help you learn whether or not your weight puts you at risk for health problems and how much weight you would need to lose to take you out of the danger zone. Question 3 : We all know that people, when they gain extra we ight, will deposit more fat in certain places on the body. Where on our bodie s is weight gain most dangerous to our health: 1. Chest / 2. Waist / 3. Hips and thighs Answer: Research has found that people w ho gain weight predominantly around their waists are more likely to de velop heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and cancer. Some would think, “Fine, I’ll just work on wa ist exercises to keep extra weight off my waist.” Where you deposit fat is genetic— it is something over which you have no control! Exercise, on the other hand, increa ses muscle in the worked area making it look tighter, but it does not reduce fa t. If you gain excess weight mostly at your waist, it is critical that you lose the ex cess weight you have and prev ent its return through eating fewer calories in a balanced di et and being physically active. Question 4 : In this country, we have some bad eating habits that are causing us chronic illness and immature death. Can you lis t three of our bad eating habits? Answer: (Make comment on answers received and then list those not mentioned. Too much fast food is an acceptable answer at which point it should be explained that fast food is high in fat and calories, most ofte n low in fruits/vegetables. Too much salt/sodium is an acceptable answer at wh ich point it should be explained that we certainly rely too heavily on this particular seasoning instead of th e healthier herbs and spices, but that only some people are sensitive to the large quantity of salt in their diets.)

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130 We’re eating too much fat, too much sugar, too many calories leading to obesity, too little fiber, and too few fruits/vegetables. In th is country, we are suffering in large numbers due to the chronic diseases related to our bad eating habits…something over which we have total control! Our bad eating habits have everything to do w ith the epidemic of obe sity in our country and the rapid rise of diabetes—not just for adults, but for children as well! Other illnesses related to our diets are high blood pr essure, heart disease, stroke, softening of the bones leading to debilitating fractures, and certain cancers If we can learn to eat more like many of you have been raised to eat, we will be a healthier people. The strength of the eating habits of most Hispan ic countries is in th e consumption of large quantities of grains, fruits, and vegetables. The more closely you fo llow that pattern of eating, the better your health will be. Question 5 : Many people in this country don’t wo rry about learning to eat correctly. Knowing they need a variety of nutrients they instead take vitamin and mineral supplements to replace the good foods they s hould have eaten. Choose the out of the following answers: 1. Supplements alone are an excellent way to get our needed nutrients. 2. Supplements can help, but we also need to eat good foods. 3. Supplements are not helpful at all in providing our needed nutrients. Answer: No, supplements are not as good as eating food. There are many reasons for this. The science of nutrition is very young—we still don’t know all th ere is to be known about human requirements and chemicals in food. No supplement contains the unbelievable variety of chemicals found in, fo r example, just one piece of squash. Another issue is that some nutrients in pill form are absorbed well and others are not. Most importantly, large amounts of supplemen ts can skew the sensitive balance our bodies work at maintaining every minute of the day. They do this by providing too much of some nutrients and by lacki ng in others. Our bodies must then work very hard to quickly find what is usable, clear the system of the excess chemicals, and return to balance. Most people in this country do not realize the harm th ey are doing to their bodies by taking large quantities of nutritional supplements. If you want to be sure that you are getting the nutrients you n eed, eat according to the food guide pyramid and take a multiple vitamin and mineral supplement that does not exceed 100% “DV” (Daily Value) for any nutrient. Question 6 : We’ve all heard how a high cholestero l level in the blood is linked to an increased risk for heart disease and stroke. We also know this has much to do with our lifestyle of eating and exercise. What five categories listed on food labe ls—also listed here--provide the information we ne ed to control our cholesterol? (List the following on flip chart) Calories / Total Fat / Saturated Fat / Choles terol / Sodium / Total Carbohydrate / Dietary Fiber / Sugars / Protein

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131 Appendix A: Weight Loss And Chronic Disease (Continued) Answer: (Place check marks next to correct answers with ma rker.) The categories listed on the food label that help you control your ch olesterol are total calories, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and dietary fiber. As you can see, the cholesterol in our blood is affected by many components of food. Here in the U.S., we tend to eat too much food altogether, and too many of the offending foods over our lifetimes, leading to heart diseas e and stroke. Obesity is directly linked to our cholesterol levels and risk for heart disease, therefore people with high cholesterol levels might want to save high calorie foods for the occasional experience. Find out if weight loss is appropriate for you by visiting th e St. Joseph’s table (poi nt to it). Again, the two suggested approaches to weight loss mentioned earlier are to be more physically active and to reduce calories within the context of a balanced diet. Question 7 : It is important to keep the total amo unt of fat in our diets low to treat or prevent high blood cholesterol. Name 3 different food sources of fat. Answer: Fat is naturally f ound in all flesh-type foods a nd animal products; fish, poultry, meat, eggs, cheese, yogurt, milk, and butter. Fat remains in fish, poultry, and meat even when you trim the visible fat and take the skin off the poultry! It is also pressed out of nuts, seeds, and other plant products to be used as oil or made into margarine and shortening. A heart healthy diet for the average person is a diet predominantly free of fat except an allowed 5-6 tsp of fat added and 5-6 oz of very lean flesh food each day. This virtually puts fried foods, fatty meats like sa usage and hot dogs, and whole milk (with the red cap) into the category of being an occasional treat. To eat a diet low in fat, we must take advantage of some foods that have ha d the fat removed, such as milk, yogurt, and cheese. While making sure our food is mostly fat-free, we can also reduce our risk for heart disease by being careful to choos e the healthiest types of fats. The best fats to use— always in small quantities-are olive oil, ca nola oil, and peanut oil; the monounsaturated fats. The least healthy are the saturated fats. These are the fats that come from animals and the ones that are solid at room temperat ure—like the fat found in milk and meat, the skin on poultry, butter, lard, shortening, … You might be interested to know that the bad fats are also found in coconut milk and palm oil. Question 8 : In discussing how to take care of your heart, we haven’t yet talked about the cholesterol found in food. Can you name three foods high in cholesterol? Answer: Cholesterol is found only in animal products; chicken, fish, shell fish, meat, eggs, cheese, milk, yogurt, and butter. The organ meats tend to be extremely high in cholesterol. You will reduce your blood choles terol when you do such things as drink lower fat milk, trim the fat off meat, eat less flesh food, and switch from butter to margarine. Eating too much c holesterol contributes to a high blood cholesterol, which in turn contributes to heart disease.

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132 Appendix A: Weight Loss And Chronic Disease (Continued) Question 9 : On food labels you will also find in formation on the fiber content of food. Fiber helps to reduce your blood cholesterol le vel. What are three examples of foods containing fiber? Answer: Any whole grain, fruit, or vegetable (unless it is juice without pulp) contains fiber. Certain foods are exceptionally high in fiber—like broccoli, cauliflower, and dried beans and peas. Fiber is the indigestible po rtion of plant foods f ound in the structure, skin, seeds, and hulls of the food. Choosing hi gh fiber foods often can help to bring your cholesterol down to a more normal level. Project New Life, Good Health 7/02 Laurie Van Wyckhouse, M.S., R.D., L.D.

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133 Appendix A: The Truth abou t Weight Loss (Continued) General materials: Weight management pamphlets Contest materials: Seminar, contestant handouts cu t to provide only one question at a time to contestants, answer sheet, two markers, two pads of paper for contestants and one pad of paper for moderator to tally teams w ith winning answers, table with one chair at either end, horn, (stop) watch with sec ond hand, prizes in basket (at least # 12). Gather group and seat teams: Get two teams of two particip ants in place. Record the names of your team members so you can a ddress them by name. Teams face each other at opposite ends of table where they are provided with pad of paper, marker, and corresponding contestant handout. Directions to teams and audience : “We will provide you with a brief teaching en titled, “The Truth about Weight Loss.” I will ask you questions directly related to the teaching. Record your answers on the pad of paper in front of you. In most cases you onl y need to record the letter next to the correct answer. To help you in this proce ss, you will be given the contest questions and multiple choice answers. You will hear this horn (blow horn) when your 10 seconds for each question is over. I will ask you in turn to show their answers to the audience. I will then ask the audience for a show of hands as to which team they think gave the correct answer. The winners will be allowed to pick an item from the basket of prizes. Once there is a winning team(s), a new panel is fo rmed from the audience for the next topic.” Moderator must tally teams’ answers for wi nner to be announced. The team with the most correct answers in the set of 4 questions wins. Ties are acceptable. Health Message 1: Here in this country, we have a problem because we have too much food available. We have access to a hot cooked meal any hour of the day and night…as well as any number of gooey desserts! To remain a healthy weight in this society, it takes a lot of will power! Can any of you relate? Nutrition has become a popular topic because of this very reason! Everyone has an opinion about how to best lose weight. A fr iend might tell you she lost 10 pounds on the high protein diet, while a co-w orker might be skipping breakfa st and lunch because it has worked so well in the past. Some people c onvincingly claim that di et pills are the only way to go, while a family member might be working at the meal supplement route with great enthusiasm. There are so many options! How can you know what works best? First you need to know how to identify the bad advice. The following are some clues to advice that is not accurate and reliable:

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134 Appendix A: The Truth abou t Weight Loss (Continued) Promises that provide a quick and easy solution to your problem are usually bad advice. If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is! Fat weight is added to our bodies slowly, and must also be lost slowly. When you lose weight quickly, you are not losing fat weight—you are probably losing fluid, which will only have to be replaced later in order for you to be healthy. Real wei ght loss is not going to happen fast and it is not easy. Recommendations based on a si ngle study are also bad advice You hear these kinds of things on the news and read them in th e paper all the time! Conclusions can only be reached after many studies have come up with the same answer—not just one! These studies are inte resting to hear, but they ar e not information to act upon. Recommendations made in order to sell a product are usually ba d advice. Always question the motive of the person selling or having a financial stake in the product being sold. These are not the people to listen to when it comes to getting true information about weight loss. Often th e studies they publish in support of their products are also not relia ble and do not follow the same methods used by the scientific community. The untrained eye would not noti ce such things. …and if you think you’re better protected by purchasing from a store, think again. Unsafe products with false claims get on the stor e shelves all the time These companies only get into legal trouble once the government knows there is something wrong with the product or its label. Question the reliab ility of information used to sell products. Diets that list “good” and “bad” foods are not beneficial diets. Sometimes diets omit entire food groups, causing dangerous nutritiona l deficiencies. Weight loss programs should be realistic, which mean s that the diet must be ac ceptable as a lifestyle. A good program always allows for the occasional treat, whatever that might be. One piece of food will never make or break a ny diet….unless you eat that one piece of food every day! No food is “good” or “b ad” on a weight loss di et. There are only foods you eat more often and less often. Health Message 2: We all eat to get energy. The calories in food provide us w ith that energy. There are some people who say that you can eat all you wa nt of some foods to lose weight, but you must absolutely avoid other foods. No matter what people tell you, the number of calories you eat affects your weight. When you consume mo re calories than your body needs, this extra energy is stored as fat. Fat gets you through the tough times when there is little food to eat, but also increases your risk for chronic disease when you accumulate too much of it on your body. The best way to reduce body fat is to eat fewer calories and use more energy through physical activity.

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135 Appendix A: The Truth abou t Weight Loss (Continued) This issue raises a difficult question. Have n’t we all known someone who eats a lot of calories and still loses weight? Actually, it is possible for that to happen— if you are using a scale to monitor progress. This is because a scale weighs muscle, fluid, and fat weight. Many diets cause your body to lose fluid weight, fooling you into thinking they are effective. Anyone who has ever worked in the heat knows how easy fluid weight can be lost! But it is extremely important to the proper workings of your body. Fluid loss can be very dangerous. Your r eal goal is to reduce fat weight because it is extra fat on the body that causes chronic dis ease. When you want to lose fat weight, you have to reduce calories and exercise. That brings up another topic. What about muscle? Can you lose muscle when you are losing weight? Absolutely! In fact, muscle is often lost when people lose weight. This mostly happens when weight loss occurs too fast and without prope r physical activity. This is a shame because muscle tissue is very necessary to our health, and helps us to look and feel good. Muscle also helps us to k eep fat weight off, because it uses calories even at rest! During weight loss, be extra car eful to lose weight slowly—no more than 2 pounds per week—and be physically active so that you can either maintain or build muscle. Health Message 3: We’ve talked about how to evaluate weight loss diets and what type of weight is actually lost with many of these rapid weight loss prog rams. Now let’s turn our attention to the most effective principles for lo sing weight and keeping it off. Principle One: You must eat if you want to lose fat weight. “Now that doesn’t make sense!” … or does it? Consider w hy we have fat stored on our bodies—to get us through a period of starvation. When you restrict calories too much or eat only once a day, your body thinks food is not available. Rather th an using its fat stores for energy, it compensates by reducing your metabolism and holding onto its fat stores. Does anyone know what your metabolism is? (P ause to allow for answers.) It is how fast your body is running on the inside …how many calories you use each day just being alive. Once you have messed up your metabolism, it takes some time to get it back to normal. So, to lose fat weight you must eat and eat often to let your body know that food is available. Eat 3-6 times each day to lose fat weight the easiest. Principle Two: You must either eat fewer calor ies, or use up extra calories in physical activity …. or both As we learned earlier, food has calories and these calories add up, whether we believe they do or not! Despite what some people say, there is no food you can eat that takes more calories from you than it provides There is also no food that “burns” fat off your body. The most effective strategy for weight

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136 Appendix A: The Truth about Weight Loss (Continued) loss is to eat fewer calories and to increase your physical activ ity. If you do both of these things in moderation, the result will be a slow reduction in body weight. This slow process assures that you lose mostly fat wei ght and that you have learned new lifestyle habits. Principle Three: Eat like the Food Guide Pyrami d suggests; high in plant foods, moderate in animal foods, and low in adde d oils and sweets. Who can tell me the 3 food groups we should eat from predominantly ? (Allow for answers.) Grains, fruits, and vegetables. Divide every plate of food you eat into 4 equal parts. Make sure 3 of those parts are covered with plant foods ha ving very little fat added, and you will be on your way to a very healthy diet and the be st weight loss strate gy possible. Another helpful hint is to limit the fat conten t of the animal products you eat by choosing leaner cuts of meat, trimming the visible fat, and taking the skin off poultry. How many of you know that sausage is not a low fat meat? Try, in stead, to use a lean cut of meat and add the sausage sp ices to the recipe. Other animal products like milk and cheese can be purchased in their reduced fat varieties. Eat more plant products and less fat for the best weight loss diet. Principle Four: Weight loss diets are not appropriate for children! Nutrient restriction can greatly affect the growth and development of a child. Rather than restricting calories to lose weight, it is preferre d that they grow taller into their weight. All of the information you recei ved today is appropriate for children EXCEPT the recommendation for calorie restri ction. That means that children should increase physical activity, learn proper food habits (high in plant products and low in fat), and grow taller into their present weight—but not restrict calories. Conclusion: Weight loss has become a popular topic in our country because so many of us are suffering from obesity and its associated dis eases; like high blood pre ssure, heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. People often want to lose weight, but hope for quick and easy weight loss strategies rather than learning new lifestyle habits. If you have learned anything from this game, I hope you have hear d my message that weight does not just appear on our bodies…which means it also does not just disappear off our bodies. Weight loss that lasts takes time and effort. It takes changing our lifestyles. Thanks for attending our game entitled, “The Tr uth about Weight Loss.” Please stay to ask any questions about the topic that you would like. 9/02, Project New Life—Good Health Laurie Van Wyckhouse, M.S., R.D., L.D.

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137 Appendix B: 28-item Task List October 19th and 20th 2-day event / Decide on time: _______________ TASKS: NAME/ADDRESS/PHONE # 1) Flyers in Spanish and English 2) Contact United Cerebral Palsy to attend 3) St. Francis Da y Care Center booth 4) Contact Diocese for booth 5) Get flags representing Latin and South American countries: 6) Tent rental for various booths 7) Get banner announcing event 8) Get food vendors representing several countries to have samp les only (to sell or free?) 9) Get Coke or Pepsi to supply beverages 10) Get immigration information vendor, such as lawyer or INS 11) Call local hospitals 12) Call Spanish and English ra dio stations for advertising 13) Contact Spanish and English te levision stations for advertising 14) Contact newspapers for advertising 15) Contact Hispanic clubs and organizations 16) Get raffle items 17) Get recipes for a cookbook and organize cookbook to sell at this and future events 18) Call YMCA for youth activities 19) Contact local bands or D.J.’s for music 20) Contact the Army or Navy for medical unit 21) Contact Diocese churches 22) Contact other local churches 23) Contact artisans 24) Send note to all church members when event will be 25) Call the Junior League or Easter Seal to baby-sit 26) Contact police to have a booth and to patrol area 27) Other 28) Send thank you letters af ter event to the vendors

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138 Appendix C: Local Farmers Markets Fun Lan Flea Market March 2, 2002

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139 Appendix C: Local Farm ers Markets (Continued) Big Top Flea Market March 9, 2002

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140 Appendix C: Local Farmers Markets (Continued) Temple Terrace Farmers Market March 16, 2002

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141 Appendix C: Local Farm ers Markets (Continued) Ybor Fresh Market March 16, 2002

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142 Appendix C: Local Farm ers Markets (Continued) Webster Flea Market March 18, 2002

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143 Appendix D: Farmers Market Nutrition Seminars June 23, 2002

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144 Appendix D: Farmers Market Nutr ition Seminars (Continued) July 28, 2002

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145 Appendix D: Farmers Market Nu trition Seminars (Continued) September 22, 2002

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146 Appendix D: Farmers Market Nutr ition Seminars (Continued) October 20, 2002

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147 Appendix D: Farmers Market Nutr ition Seminars (Continued) March 29, 2003