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Assessing student reading progress

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Material Information

Title:
Assessing student reading progress a comparison of generic and basal curriculum-based reading probes
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Henson, Kelli S
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Curriculum-based measurement
Assessment
Fluency
Literacy
Dissertations, Academic -- Interdisciplinary -- Specialist -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to clarify and extend previous research on the comparibility of curriculum-based measurement oral reading fluency results using reading materials from outside of the students curriculum for repeated measurement over time. Specifically, this study evaluated the use of generic measurement materials for monitoring student reading growth and expected gains in words read correctly per minute over time at different grade levels. Sixty-four first through third grade students were assessed twice weekly using both AimsWeb and Open Court reading probes. The dependent variables in this study were the level, which is defined as the mean of the data points for each type of probe, and the slopes derived from the number of words read correctly across all of the data collection days.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ed.S.)--University of South Florida, 2004.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Kelli S. Henson.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 82 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001681048
oclc - 62715488
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001074
usfldc handle - e14.1074
System ID:
SFS0025395:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to clarify and extend previous research on the comparibility of curriculum-based measurement oral reading fluency results using reading materials from outside of the students curriculum for repeated measurement over time. Specifically, this study evaluated the use of generic measurement materials for monitoring student reading growth and expected gains in words read correctly per minute over time at different grade levels. Sixty-four first through third grade students were assessed twice weekly using both AimsWeb and Open Court reading probes. The dependent variables in this study were the level, which is defined as the mean of the data points for each type of probe, and the slopes derived from the number of words read correctly across all of the data collection days.
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i A s s e s s i ng S t ude nt R e a di ng P r ogr e s s : A C om pa r i s on of G e ne r i c a nd B a s a l C ur r i c ul um B a s e d R e a di ng P r obe s by K e l l i S H e ns on A t he s i s s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he de g r e e of E duc a t i on S pe c i a l i s t D e pa r t m e nt of P s yc h ol ogi c a l a nd S oc i a l F ounda t i o ns C ol l e ge of E duc a t i on U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : K e l l y A P ow e l l S m i t h, P h D K a t hy L B r a dl e y K l ug, P h D R obe r t F D e dr i c k, P h. D D a t e of A ppr ova l : N ove m be r 30, 2004 K e yw or ds : c ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt a s s e s s m e nt f l ue nc y l i t e r a c y C opyr i ght 2005 K e l l i S H e ns on

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i T a bl e of C ont e nt s L i s t of T a bl e s i i L i s t of F i gur e s i v A bs t r a c t v I nt r oduc t i on 2 C ur r i c ul um ba s e d M e a s ur e m e nt 2 D e ve l opm e nt a nd A na l ys i s of M oni t or i ng P r obe s 2 E xpe c t e d R e a di ng G r ow t h R a t e s 4 P ur pos e 5 R e vi e w of L i t e r a t u r e 7 H i s t or y a nd D e ve l opm e nt of C B M 7 U s e s of C B M 9 P r ogr e s s M oni t or i ng 9 R e a di ng T i m e S a m pl e L e ngt h 9 A ppr opr i a t e L e ve l of M oni t o r i ng P r obe s 10 E x pe c t a t i ons of R e a di ng G r ow t h 11 C B M R e a di ng R e l i a bi l i t y 15 T e s t R e t e s t R e l i a bi l i t y 15 A l t e r na t e F or m s R e l i a bi l i t y 15 C B M R e a di ng V a l i di t y 16 C r i t e r i on V a l i di t y 16 C ons t r uc t V a l i di t y 18 D i s c r i m i na nt V a l i di t y 19 F a c e V a l i di t y 22 R e a d i ng P r obe s f r om V a r yi ng C ur r i c ul um 23 P ur pos e of t he c ur r e nt s t udy 30 M e t hod 33 S e t t i ng 33 O ve r a l l S a m pl e a nd M i s s i ng D a t a 34 D e s c r i pt i on of F i na l S a m pl e 34 M a t e r i a l s 35 O pe n C our t R e a di ng P r obe s 35 A i m s W e b P r obe s 35

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i i D e pe nde nt M e a s ur e s 36 P r oc e dur e 39 D a t a C ol l e c t or s 39 P r ogr e s s M oni t or i ng 39 R e s e a r c h D e s i gn 39 D a t a A na l ys i s 39 R e s ul t s 41 I ndi vi dua l A na l ys i s 41 L e ve l C a l c ul a t i on 43 P e a r s on C or r e l a t i ons 47 S l ope C a l c ul a t i on 47 A na l ys i s of V a r i a nc e f or L e ve l 49 P os t H oc P r o c e dur e s f o r L e ve l 52 A na l ys i s of V a r i a nc e f or S l ope 52 P os t H oc A na l ys i s f or S l ope 53 G r ow t h R a t e A na l ys i s 53 D i s c us s i on 54 A na l ys i s of L e ve l D a t a 54 A na l ys i s of S l ope D a t a 57 S l ope D i f f e r e nc e s by G r a de 58 E xpe c t e d R e a di ng G r ow t h 60 C or r e l a t i on B e t w e e n L e ve l of P e r f or m a n c e a nd R a t e of G r ow t h 62 L i m i t a t i ons 63 I m pl i c a t i ons f or F ut ur e R e s e a r c h 64 I m pl i c a t i ons f or E du c a t i ona l P r a c t i c e 65 C onc l us i on 67 R e f e r e nc e s 68

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i i i L i s t of T a bl e s T a bl e 1 W e e kl y G r ow t h R a t e s i n N um be r of W o r ds R e a d C or r e c t l y A c r os s S t udi e s 14 T a bl e 2 P a r t i c i pa nt D e m ogr a phi c s B y G r a de L e ve l 35 T a bl e 3 T ype s of V a r i a bl e s U s e d i n S t udy 38 T a bl e 4 D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s f or L e ve l a nd S l ope on O pe n C our t B a s a l P r obe s a nd G e ne r i c A i m s W e b pr obe s by G r a de 39 T a bl e 5 R S qua r e d D e s c r i pt i ve s s by G r a de L e v e l a nd T ype of P r obe 42 T a bl e 6 L e ve l D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s by T ype of P r obe a nd G r a de 47 T a bl e 7 S l ope D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s by T ype of P r obe a nd G r a de 48 T a bl e 8 C or r e l a t i on C oe f f i c i e nt s f o r S l ope a nd I n t e r c e pt by G r a de 48 T a bl e 9 F va l ue s f or A N O V A R e s ul t s A c r os s G r a de a nd P r obe 50 T a bl e 10 T uke y s H S D T e s t A c r os s G r a de L e ve l s f or L e ve l 50 T a bl e 11 T uke y s H S D T e s t A c r os s G r a de L e ve l s f o r S l ope 52 T a bl e 12 W e e kl y M e a n G r ow t h i n W R C P M by G r a de 53

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i v L i s t of F i gur e s F i gur e 1 O ve r a l l m e a n W R C P M m e a s ur e d w i t h A i m s W e b m a t e r i a l s 43 F i gur e 2 O ve r a l l m e a n W R C P M m e a s ur e d w i t h O pe n C our t m a t e r i a l s 43 F i gur e 3 F i r s t gr a de m e a n W R C P M m e a s ur e d w i t h A i m s W e b m a t e r i a l s 44 F i gur e 4 F i r s t gr a de m e a n W R C P M m e a s ur e d w i t h O pe n C our t m a t e r i a l s 44 F i gur e 5 S e c ond gr a de m e a n W R C P M m e a s ur e d w i t h A i m s W e b m a t e r i a l s 45 F i gur e 6 S e c ond gr a de m e a n W R C P M m e a s ur e d w i t h O pe n C our t m a t e r i a l s 45 F i gur e 7 T hi r d g r a de m e a n W R C P M m e a s ur e d w i t h A i m s W e b m a t e r i a l s 46 F i gur e 8 T hi r d g r a de m e a n W R C P M m e a s ur e d w i t h O pe n C our t m a t e r i a l s 46

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v A s s e s s i ng S t ude nt R e a di ng P r ogr e s s : A C om pa r i s on of G e ne r i c a nd B a s a l C ur r i c ul um B a s e d R e a di ng P r obe s K e l l i S H e ns on A B S T R A C T T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o c l a r i f y a nd e xt e nd pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h on t he c om pa r i bi l i t y of c ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y r e s ul t s us i ng r e a di ng m a t e r i a l s f r om out s i de o f t h e s t ude nt s c ur r i c ul um f o r r e pe a t e d m e a s ur e m e nt ove r t i m e S pe c i f i c a l l y, t hi s s t udy e va l ua t e d t he us e of ge ne r i c m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l s f or m oni t or i ng s t ude nt r e a di ng gr ow t h a nd e xpe c t e d g a i ns i n w or ds r e a d c o r r e c t l y pe r m i nut e ove r t i m e a t di f f e r e nt gr a de l e ve l s S i xt y f our f i r s t t hr ough t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s w e r e a s s e s s e d t w i c e w e e kl y us i ng bot h A i m s W e b a nd O pe n C our t r e a di ng pr obe s T he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e s i n t hi s s t udy w e r e t he l e ve l w hi c h i s de f i ne d a s t he m e a n of t he da t a poi nt s f or e a c h t ype of pr o be a nd t he s l ope s de r i ve d f r om t he num be r of w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y a c r os s a l l of t he da t a c ol l e c t i on da ys A 3 ( gr a de ) x 2 ( pr obe t ype ) r e pe a t e d m e a s ur e s A N O V A us i ng t he t hr e e gr a de l e ve l s a s a be t w e e n gr oup va r i a bl e a nd t he t w o pr obe t ype s a s a w i t hi n gr o up va r i a bl e w a s c onduc t e d w i t h s l ope s a s t he de pe nde nt m e a s ur e a s w e l l a s w i t h l e ve l a s t he de pe nde nt m e a s ur e A na l ys i s of l e ve l s r e ve a l e d a s i gni f i c a nt ( p< 05) m a i n e f f e c t f o r p r obe t ype w i t h s i gni f i c a nt l y hi ghe r l e ve l s f ound i n A i m s W e b pr ob e s w he n c om p a r e d t o O pe n C our t pr obe s T he r e w a s a l s o a s i gni f i c a nt ( p< 05 ) m a i n e f f e c t f or gr a de w i t h W R C P M

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vi i nc r e a s i ng w i t h i nc r e a s i ng gr a de l e ve l H ow e ve r p os t hoc a na l ys i s r e ve a l e d t ha t t he l e ve l di f f e r e nc e w a s s i gni f i c a nt be t w e e n f i r s t a nd t h i r d g r a de onl y. T he s l ope a na l ys i s r e ve a l e d a s i gni f i c a nt m a i n e f f e c t f o r gr a de w i t h s t ude nt s i n f i r s t a nd s e c ond gr a de s m a ki ng m or e p r ogr e s s t ha n s t ud e nt s i n t hi r d gr a de T he s l ope s w e r e hi ghe r f or f i r s t a nd t hi r d g r a de r s i n A i m s W e b, but hi ghe r f or s e c ond gr a de r s i n O pe n C our t pr obe s S l ope s w e r e no t s i gni f i c a nt l y di f f e r e nt ba s e d on t he t ype o f p r obe w a s us e d t o m oni t or pr og r e s s B ot h A i m s W e b O pe n C our t pr obe s di s pl a ye d s e ns i t i vi t y i n t he m e a s ur e m e nt of r e a di ng g r ow t h ove r t i m e T hi s s t udy p r ovi de d s uppor t f or t he us e of m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l s f r om out s i de t he c ur r i c ul um f or C B M pr ogr e s s m oni t o r i ng. S pe c i f i c a l l y, ge ne r i c nonc ur r i c ul um ba s e d pr obe s w e r e e qua l l y a s s e ns i t i ve t o gr ow t h ove r t i m e a s c ur r i c ul um s pe c i f i c m a t e r i a l s

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1 C ha pt e r O ne I nt r oduc t i on R e a di ng ha s be c om e a f oc us f or m uc h r e c e nt r e s e a r c h a nd l e gi s l a t i on ( e g, N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd) A r e c e nt N a t i ona l A dul t L i t e r a c y S ur ve y r e po r t e d t ha t a bout 50% of a dul t s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d w e r e no t a bl e t o r e a d a t a p r of i c i e nt l e ve l I n a ddi t i on a dul t s w i t h pr of i c i e nt r e a di ng s ki l l s w e r e s i gni f i c a nt l y m o r e l i ke l y t o g r a dua t e f r om hi gh s c hool t ha n l e s s pr of i c i e nt pe e r s ( S um 1999) T he N a t i on a l R e a di ng P a ne l ( 2000) r e po r t e d t ha t ove r f or t y bi l l i on dol l a r s i s s pe nt e a c h ye a r by U S c om pa ni e s due t o i l l i t e r a c y. M oni t or i ng s t ude nt r e a di ng p r ogr e s s ha s be c om e a n i m por t a nt f oc us of r e s e a r c h i n r e s pons e t o t he ne e d f or i nc r e a s e d a c c ount a bi l i t y f or s t ude nt out c om e s A p r om i s i ng w a y t o i nve s t i ga t e s t ude nt r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e a nd g r o w t h i s t hr ough a s s e s s m e nt of r e a di ng f l ue nc y. R e s e a r c h ha s e s t a bl i s he d m e a s ur e s of or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y a s va l i d a nd r e l i a bl e pr e di c t or s of bo t h r e a di ng out c om e s a nd pe r f o r m a nc e on hi gh s t a ke s t e s t s ( G ood, S i m m ons & K a m e e nui 2001) T he N a t i ona l R e a di ng P a ne l w hi c h w a s c onve ne d t o a s s e s s t he r e s e a r c h on s t r a t e gi e s f or r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on of c hi l dr e n, i de nt i f i e d r e a di ng f l ue nc y a s a n i m por t a nt t opi c f or r e s e a r c h i n r e a di ng. R e a di ng f l ue nc y c a n be de f i ne d a s t he r a t e a nd a c c ur a c y i n or a l r e a di ng ( S h i nn, G ood, K nut s on, T i l l y & C ol l i ns 1992) R e a di ng f l ue nc y ha s a l s o be e n s how n t o c or r e l a t e hi ghl y w i t h c om p r e he ns i on ( D e no, M i r ki n, & C hi a ng, 1982; F uc hs F uc hs & M a xw e l l 1988) a not he r of t he i m por t a nt

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2 r e a di ng r e s e a r c h t opi c s i de nt i f i e d by t he N a t i ona l R e a di ng P a ne l R e a di ng f l ue nc y br i dge s t he ga p be t w e e n r e c ogni t i on a nd c om pr e he ns i on. C ur r i c ul um B as e d M e as ur e m e nt C ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt i s a ve hi c l e by w h i c h r e a di ng f l ue nc y c a n be f r e que nt l y m e a s ur e d i n or de r t o a s s e s s s t ude nt pr ogr e s s i n r e a di ng. C ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt ( C B M ) i s a s ys t e m of m e a s ur i ng s t u de nt pe r f or m a nc e w i t h s t a nda r di z e d m e a s ur e m e nt pr oc e dur e s w i t hi n t he c u r r i c ul um us e d i n t he c l a s s r oom D a t a f r om C B M i n r e a di ng a r e us e d t o m a ke e duc a t i ona l de c i s i ons f or r e f e r r a l s de ve l opi ng I ndi vi dua l E duc a t i on P l a ns p r ogr a m de ve l opm e nt a nd pr ogr a m e va l ua t i on ( D e no, 1985) C B M i n r e a di ng i s us e d i n bot h ge ne r a l e duc a t i on a nd s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s e t t i ngs t o a s s e s s s t ude nt r e a di ng pr ogr e s s a nd e a r l y i de nt i f i c a t i on of s t ude nt s a t r i s k f o r r e a di ng f a i l ur e A ddi t i ona l l y, m e a s ur e m e nt s of s t ude nt out c om e s c a n be us e d t o a s s e s s t he s uc c e s s of e duc a t i ona l pr ogr a m s a nd C B M pr ovi de s f or f r e que nt a s s e s s m e nt of s t ude nt out c om e s C B M i s e a s y t o a dm i ni s t e r a nd e f f i c i e nt t o a l l ow f or r e pe a t e d m e a s ur e m e nt I t i s c l e a r e a s y t o un de r s t a nd, a nd e c onom i c a l C B M i s a l s o s t a nda r di z e d a nd ha s e s t a bl i s he d r e l i a bi l i t y a nd va l i di t y ( D e no, 1985 ) D e v e l opm e nt and A nal y s i s of M oni t or i ng P r obe s T r a di t i ona l C B M of r e a di ng f l ue nc y r e qui r e s r e a di ng pr obe s f or pr og r e s s m oni t or i ng t o be de ve l op e d f r om t he c ur r i c ul um i n w hi c h s t ude nt s a r e c ur r e nt l y be i ng i ns t r uc t e d ( D e no, 1985 ) R e a di ng m a t e r i a l s f or m o ni t or i ng r e a di ng pr og r e s s a r e r a ndom l y s a m pl e d f r o m t he s t ude nt s c ur r i c ul um a nd pa s s a ge s a r e t ype d on s e pa r a t e pa pe r w i t h no pi c t ur e s T he s e r e a di ng s e l e c t i ons a r e c a l l e d r e a di ng p r obe s R e c e nt l i t e r a t ur e s ugge s t s t he pos s i bi l i t y t ha t r e a di ng pr ob e s m a y not ne e d t o be de ve l ope d f r om

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3 t he c ur r i c ul um i n w hi c h t he s t ude nt i s t a ught t o a c c ur a t e l y s how gr ow t h ove r t i m e D e s pi t e s om e c ont r a di c t or y f i nd i ngs ( H i nt z e S ha pi r o, & L ut z 1994 ) s om e s uppor t ha s be e n s how n f or t he c l a i m t ha t C B M or a l r e a di ng p a s s a ge s de ve l ope d f r om m a t e r i a l out s i de s t ude nt s c ur r i c ul um a r e s e ns i t i ve t o gr ow t h ove r t i m e O r a l r e a di ng pr obe s de ve l ope d f r om out s i de s t ude nt s c u r r i c ul um ha ve be e n a bl e t o s how c om pa r a bl e g r ow t h ove r t i m e t o pr obe s de ve l ope d f r om c ur r i c ul um m a t e r i a l s but t he num be r of w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y ha ve be e n s how n t o va r y a c c or di ng t o p r obe t ype ( H i nt z e & S ha pi r o 1997 ; B r a dl e y K l ug, S ha pi r o, L ut z & D uP a ul 1998; P o w e l l S m i t h & B r a dl e y K l ug 2001) I n 1999, E d f or m a t i on be ga n m a r ke t i ng A I M S w e b pr obe s ge ne r i c m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l s f or m oni t or i ng r e a di ng. W he r e a s t e a c he r s or ot he r s c hool s t a f f w oul d ha ve t o de ve l op pr obe s r e c or d a nd i nt e r pr e t i n f or m a t i on a nd gr a ph r e s ul t s us i ng t r a di t i ona l m e t hods E df o r m a t i on p r ovi de s s uppor t f or s c hool s a nd pa r e nt s w ho us e t he p r obe s by pr ovi di ng r e a di ng pr obe s o r ga ni z i ng pr o gr e s s m oni t or i ng r e s ul t s a nd pr ovi d i ng gr a phi c a l r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of s t ude nt p r ogr e s s A dd i t i ona l l y, t he r e a di ng d i f f i c ul t y of t r a di t i ona l r e a di ng pr obe s t e nd t o va r y f r om pr obe t o pr obe w i t h i n e a c h gr a de l e ve l ( F uc hs & D e no, 1994) H ow e ve r A I M S w e b pr ob e s a r e c l os e l y c ont r ol l e d f o r r e a da bi l i t y be c a us e t he y a r e de ve l ope d out s i de of a s pe c i f i c c ur r i c ul um ( H ow e & S hi nn, 2001) T he us e of ge ne r i c pr obe s pr obe s not de ve l ope d f r om a s pe c i f i c c ur r i c ul um s e e m s pr om i s i ng f or c onve ni e nc e a nd c ons i s t e nt r e a da bi l i t y, but l i t t l e r e s e a r c h ha s be e n c onduc t e d us i ng C B M r e a di ng pr obe s t ha t a r e no t de ve l ope d f r om a s pe c i f i c c ur r i c ul um P ow e l l S m i t h a nd B r a dl e y K l ug ( 2001) c om pa r e d ba s a l pr obe s t o T e s t s of R e a di ng F l ue nc y ( T O R F ) pr obe s t ha t a r e ge ne r i c R e s ul t s s how e d t ha t t he T O R F pr obe s a nd t he

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4 ba s a l pr obe s w e r e e qua l l y s e ns i t i ve m e a s ur e s of r e a di ng gr ow t h ove r t i m e H ow e ve r t hi s t ype of r e s e a r c h ha s not be e n done us i ng t he A I M S w e b pr obe s E x pe c t e d R e adi ng G r ow t h R a t e s S e ve r a l r e s e a r c he r s ha ve i nve s t i ga t e d r e a di ng gr o w t h s t a nda r ds a nd e xpe c t e d or a l r e a di ng gr ow t h r a t e s H ow e ve r t he out c om e s of t hi s r e s e a r c h h a ve va r i e d ( D e no, F uc hs M a r s t on, & S hi n 2001; M a r s t on & M a gnus s on, 19 85) I n a ddi t i on, r e s e a r c he r s ha ve not us e d ge ne r i c pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng r e a di ng m a t e r i a l s i n t he i r s t udi e s A l t hough K i ng, B r a de l y K l ug, K nof f a nd P ow e l l S m i t h ( 2002) i n ve s t i ga t e d t h e e f f e c t of di f f e r e nt t ype s of m a t e r i a l s us e d f o r p r ogr e s s m oni t or i ng on e xpe c t e d gr ow t h r a t e s f or s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s t hi s c om pa r i s on ha s not be e n m a de i n ge ne r a l e duc a t i on T he f oc us of t hi s s t udy i s on de t e r m i ni ng i f pr obe s dr a w n f r om s t ude nt s c ur r i c ul um m a t e r i a l a nd f r om ge ne r i c m a t e r i a l a r e e qua l l y a s s e ns i t i ve t o s t ude nt r e a di ng gr ow t h ove r t i m e a nd t he num be r of w or ds r e a d c o r r e c t l y pe r m i nut e I n a ddi t i on e xpe c t e d r e a di ng gr ow t h r a t e s a r e i nve s t i ga t e d a s a f unc t i on o f bot h gr a de l e ve l a nd t ype of pr obe P a r t i c i pa nt s f or t hi s s t udy w e r e s t ude nt s i n f i r s t t hr ough t hi r d gr a de e nr ol l e d a t a c e nt r a l F l or i da c ha r t e r s c hool f or s t ude nt s w ho ha ve f r e que nt out of s c hool s us pe ns i ons T he c ha r t e r s c hool de f i ne s out of s c hool s us pe ns i o n by t he F l or i da S t a t e D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( 1995 ) gui de l i ne s a s t he r e m ova l of a s t ude nt f r om t he publ i c s c hool e nvi r onm e nt f o r a pe r i od not i n e xc e s s of 10 da ys D ur i ng t he s t udy, t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a di ng pr ogr e s s w a s m oni t or e d t w i c e a w e e k ove r a 20 w e e k pe r i od us i ng p r obe s f r om t he s t ude nt s c ur r i c ul um a nd pr obe s de ve l ope d out s i de of t he c ur r i c ul um E a c h t e a c he r c onduc t e d pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng a nd da t a c ol l e c t i on i n he r i ndi vi dua l c l a s s r oom

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5 P ur pos e T he pur pos e of t he c ur r e nt s t udy i s t o c l a r i f y a nd e xt e nd pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h on t he c om pa r i bi l i t y of C B M or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y ( O R F ) r e s ul t s us i ng r e a di ng m a t e r i a l s f r om out s i de of t he s t ude nt s c u r r i c ul um f or r e pe a t e d m e a s ur e m e nt ove r t i m e S pe c i f i c a l l y, t hi s s t udy e va l ua t e d t he us e of ge ne r i c m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l s f o r pr og r e s s m oni t or i ng s t ude nt r e a di ng gr ow t h A ddi t i ona l l y, t hi s s t udy i n ve s t i ga t e d e xpe c t e d ga i ns i n w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e ove r t i m e a t d i f f e r e nt gr a de l e ve l s T he f ol l ow i ng que s t i ons w e r e s pe c i f i c a l l y a ddr e s s e d i n t hi s s t udy: 1) F or e l e m e nt a r y s t ude nt s do c ur r i c ul um ba s e d pr obe s r e s ul t i n t he s a m e num be r of w or ds r e a d c o r r e c t l y pe r m i nut e a s s t a nda r di z e d pr obe s de ve l ope d out s i de of a c ur r i c ul um ? 2) D o c ur r i c ul um ba s e d pr obe s r e s ul t i n t he s a m e r a t e of i nc r e a s e ove r t i m e i n w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e a s s t a nda r di z e d pr obe d de ve l ope d out s i de of a c ur r i c ul um ? 3) D oe s t he r a t e of i nc r e a s e ove r t i m e i n w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e di f f e r a t di f f e r e nt g r a de l e ve l s ? 4) I s t he r e a n i nt e r a c t i on e f f e c t of t ype o f p r obe a n d gr a de l e ve l f or t he r a t e of i nc r e a s e i n w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e ove r t i m e ? T he i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e s f o r t hi s s t udy w e r e ( a ) t ype of m a t e r i a l us e d f or pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng ( A i m s W e b pr obe s f r o m no s pe c i f i c c ur r i c ul um O pe n C our t pr obe s de ve l ope d f r om ba s a l r e a de r s ) a nd ( b) s t ude nt gr a de l e ve l ( f i r s t s e c ond, t hi r d ) T he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e s w i l l be ( a ) t he m e a n of t he nu m be r of w or ds r e a d c o r r e c t l y by e a c h

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6 pa r t i c i pa nt f or e a c h t ype o f C B M pr obe ( l e ve l ) a n d ( b) t he s l ope s de r i ve d f r om t he num be r of w or ds r e a d c o r r e c t l y i n e a c h C B M pr ob e t ype a c r os s t i m e T hi s s t udy of f e r s t hr e e m a i n c ont r i but i ons t o t he pr e s e nt C B M O R F l i t e r a t ur e ba s e F i r s t t hi s s t udy i nve s t i ga t e d t he c om pa r a bi l i t y of t w o s our c e s of m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l ( i e A I M S w e b, O pe n C our t ) f o r C B M O R F pr o gr e s s m oni t or i ng t ha t ha ve no t be e n pr e vi ous l y e xa m i ne d. S e c ondl y, by c ol l e c t i n g pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng da t a f or a l onge r pe r i od of t i m e ( i e 19 w e e ks ) t ha n o t he r s t udi e s e xa m i ni ng t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n r e a di ng gr ow t h ove r t i m e a nd t he m a t e r i a l us e d t o m e a s ur e i t ( i e f i ve t o t e n w e e ks ) t hi s s t udy di s pl a ye d a m or e c om pl e t e p i c t ur e of r e a di n g gr ow t h ove r t i m e T he r e s ul t s of t h i s r e s e a r c h m a y he l p t o c l e a r up t he di s pa r i t y i n f i nd i ngs T hi r d, by e xa m i ni ng di f f e r e nc e s i n e xpe c t e d gr ow t h r a t e s due t o d i f f e r e nc e s i n m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l s t hi s s t udy a dds t o t he r e s e a r c h on a c a de m i c gr ow t h s t a nda r ds f or s t u de nt s a nd c l a r i f i e s r e a s ons f or di f f e r e nc e s i n t he r e s ul t s of p r e vi ous r e s e a r c h. I n a ddi t i on, t h i s r e s e a r c h ha s a pr a c t i c a l i m pa c t i n t ha t i t m a y i nf o r m de c i s i ons a bout t he c h oi c e of pr og r e s s m oni t or i ng m a t e r i a l s a nd a s s i s t i n t he de ve l opm e nt of a ppr opr i a t e goa l s f or i m p r ove m e nt i n O R F w i t h t he e s t a bl i s hm e nt of a c a de m i c gr ow t h s t a nda r ds i n va r yi ng c ur r i c ul a

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7 C ha pt e r 2 R e v i e w of L i t e r at ur e T hi s c ha pt e r i nt r oduc e s t he hi s t or y a nd de ve l opm e nt of c u r r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt ( C B M ) w i t h c onc e nt r a t i on on t he or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y ( O R F ) m e a s ur e T hi s c ha pt e r i nc l ude s a de s c r i pt i on of t he t e c hni c a l f e a t ur e s of t he C B M O R F a nd e xpe c t a t i ons f or s t ude nt gr ow t h i n r e a di ng. S pe c i f i c r e s e a r c h s t udi e s r e l a t i ng t o t he e f f e c t s of t he de ve l opm e nt of C B M r e a di ng m a t e r i a l s f r om va r y i ng c ur r i c ul um a r e pr e s e nt e d. A di s c us s i on of t he pur pos e of t he c ur r e nt s t udy c onc l ude s t hi s c ha pt e r H i s t or y and D e v e l opm e nt of C B M C ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt ( C B M ) be ga n a s p a r t of a r e s e a r c h s t udy a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of M i nne s ot a i n t he 1970 s a nd ha s e vol ve d ove r t he pa s t 23 ye a r s T he r e s e a r c h w a s unde r t a ke n i n a n e f f or t t o he l p t e a c he r s t o i ndi vi dua l i z e a nd m odi f y i ns t r uc t i on ba s e d on m e a s ur e m e nt a nd e va l ua t i on pr oc e dur e s C B M w a s s e e n a s a w a y f or t e a c he r s t o m oni t or s t ude nt pr og r e s s w i t hi n t he c ur r i c ul um ( D e no, 1985 ) T hus br i dgi ng t he ga p be t w e e n m e a s ur e m e nt a nd i ns t r uc t i on. T r a di t i ona l publ i s he d, a nd nor m r e f e r e nc e d t e s t s ha ve be e n c r i t i c i z e d f o r t he i r i na bi l i t y t o i nf o r m de c i s i on m a ki ng a nd s uppor t e f f e c t i ve i ns t r uc t i on. C ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt w a s de ve l ope d a s a n a l t e r na t i ve t o t he s e a s s e s s m e nt t ool s ( F uc hs & D e no, 1994) C ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt w a s de s i gne d a r ound f our ba s i c c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s : ( 1) m e a s ur e s s houl d ha ve e s t a bl i s he d r e l i a bi l i t y a nd va l i di t y, ( 2) m us t be e a s y t o

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8 a dm i ni s t e r a nd e f f i c i e nt t o a l l ow f or r e pe a t e d m e a s ur e m e nt ( 3) s houl d be c l e a r a nd e a s y t o unde r s t a nd, a nd ( 4) e c onom i c a l ( D e no, 1985) T he us e of C B M i n s c hool s ha s s e ve r a l a dva nt a ge s i nc l udi ng s e ns i t i vi t y t o t he r a t e of pe r f or m a nc e not j us t pe r f o r m a nc e a c c ur a c y ( T i nda l 1988) C B M t e c hni que s a r e us e f ul i n i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i on m a ki ng a nd s e ns i t i ve t o gr ow t h ove r s hor t pe r i ods of t i m e ( D e no 1985) A l s o, C B M t e c hni que s a l l ow f or i m pr ove d c om m uni c a t i on be t w e e n de c i s i on m a ke r s a nd t he a bi l i t y t o i de nt i f y s t ude nt di f f i c ul t y a nd a dj us t i ns t r uc t i on i n a t i m e l y m a nne r C B M a l i gns t he c ur r i c ul um w i t h t he a s s e s s m e nt of s t ude nt s ki l l s a nd know l e dge by a l l ow i ng t e a c he r s t o di r e c t l y ve r i f y t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h l e a r ni ng ha s oc c ur r e d ( F uc hs & D e no, 1994 ) W i t h C B M s t ude nt s s ki l l s c a n be r e a di l y c om pa r e d t o t hos e o f t he i r pe e r s a nd m e a s ur e m e nt c a n be r e pe a t e d ove r t i m e ( D e no, 1985) S hi nn ( 1998 2002 ) de s c r i be s t he c ur r e nt vi e w o f C B M i n t e r m s of t hr e e bi g i de a s F i r s t C B M m e a s ur e s a r e dyna m i c i ndi c a t or s of ba s i c s ki l l s or D I B S C B M i s dyna m i c i n i t s s e ns i t i vi t y t o di f f e r e nc e s bot h a m on g i ndi vi dua l s a nd w i t hi n a n i ndi v i dua l ove r t i m e C B M i s a n i ndi c a t or i n t ha t i t i s ba s e d u pon e m pi r i c a l da t a a nd i s a ke y c or r e l a t e of i m por t a nt a c a de m i c be ha vi or s a nd s ki l l s C B M i s de s i gne d t o e va l ua t e s t ude nt s ba s i c s ki l l s not t he i r pe r f o r m a nc e i n s pe c i f i c c ont e nt a r e a s S hi nn s s e c ond bi g i de a i s f or m a t i ve e va l ua t i on a s t he m a i n pur p os e of C B M C B M i s de s i gne d f or pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng a nd e va l ua t i on c ont i nuous l y t hr oughout a p r ogr a m not j us t a t t he e nd of t he pr ogr a m S hi nn s t hi r d bi g i de a i nvol ve s us i ng C B M t o m a ke va r i ous de c i s i ons a s pa r t of a p r o bl e m s ol vi ng m ode l A p r obl e m s ol vi ng m ode l us ua l l y c ons i s t s of a ppr oxi m a t e l y f i ve de c i s i on s t a ge s i nc l udi ng p r obl e m i de nt i f i c a t i on, pr obl e m

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9 c e r t i f i c a t i on, e xpl o r i ng s ol ut i ons e va l ua t i ng s ol ut i ons a nd pr obl e m s ol ut i on ( D e no, 1989) U s e s of C B M A pl e t hor a of us e s f or C B M e xi s t i n bot h s pe c i a l a nd ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s e t t i ngs C B M c a n be us e d t o s c r e e n f or s t ude nt s w ho m a y ne e d s e r vi c e s de t e r m i ne e l i gi bi l i t y f o r s e r vi c e s pr ogr a m pl a nni ng p r ogr e s s m oni t or i ng i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i on m a ki ng, a nd pr ogr a m e va l ua t i on ( M a r s t on & M a gnus s on, 1985) M or e r e c e nt l y, C B M ha s be e n us e d t o i nf or m de c i s i ons a bout r e i nt e gr a t i on i nt o m a i ns t r e a m c l a s s r oom s ( P ow e l l S m i t h & S t e w a r t 1998 ) P r ogr e s s M oni t or i ng P r ogr e s s m oni t or i ng i s one of t he m a i n us e s f or C B M ( D e no, 1985 ) M uc h of t he r e s e a r c h i n t he a r e a o f p r ogr e s s m oni t or i ng ha s c onc e nt r a t e d on t he l e ngt h of m oni t or i ng di f f i c ul t y o f p r obe s us e d, a nd e xpe c t a t i ons f or s t ud e nt r e a di ng gr ow t h R e adi ng t i m e s am pl e l e ngt h D e no, M i r k i n, a nd C hi a ng ( 1982) c om pa r e d di f f e r i ng t i m e s a m pl e s of r e a di ng f o r 45 s t ude nt s R e s ul t s s how e d a hi gh c or r e l a t i on ( 97) be t w e e n m e a n num be r s of w o r ds r e a d c or r e c t l y i n 60 s e c onds a nd i n 30 s e c onds F uc hs T i nda l a nd D e no ( 1984 ) a l s o f ound a c o r r e l a t i on o f 97 be t w e e n or a l r e a di ng f or 30 s e c onds a nd f or 60 s e c onds A l t hough a h i gh c or r e l a t i on w a s f ound, r e s e a r c he r s i ndi c a t e d a s l i ght a dva nt a ge t o o r a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y m e a s ur e d f or 60 s e c onds r a t he r t ha n 30 s e c onds C ur r e nt pr a c t i c e us e s a one m i nut e t i m e s a m pl e a s t he s t a nda r d f or m e a s ur i ng s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e i n r e a di ng.

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10 A ppr opr i at e l e v e l of m oni t or i ng pr obe s S e ve r a l s t udi e s ha ve i nve s t i ga t e d t he e f f e c t s of pa s s a ge di f f i c ul t y on t he s e ns i t i vi t y o f C B M a s a m e a s ur e of s t ude nt gr ow t h i n r e a di ng ( H i nt z e D a l y, & S ha pi r o, 1998; M a r s t on & M a gnus s on, 1985; S hi nn G l e a s on, & T i nda l 1989) S hi nn e t a l va r i e d t he l e ve l of ba s a l r e a di ng pa s s a ge s a nd m e a s ur e d s t ude nt pr ogr e s s f or 30 s t ude nt s i n g r a de s one t hr o ugh s i x w ho w e r e r e a di ng be l ow g r a de l e ve l P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e m oni t or e d f our da ys a w e e k f or f our w e e ks H a l f of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e m oni t or e d i n m a t e r i a l one l e ve l a bove t he i r i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l a nd one l e ve l be l ow t he i r i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l T he ot he r ha l f of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e m oni t or e d i n m a t e r i a l s t ha t w e r e t w o a nd f ou r l e ve l s a bove t he i r i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l F or bot h gr oups e a s i e r pa s s a g e s r e s ul t e d i n s i gni f i c a nt l y m or e w or d s r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e how e ve r no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n s l ope s w e r e f ound T he s e r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e t ha t t he di f f i c ul t y of t he r e a di ng pa s s a ge di d not a f f e c t s t ude nt pr og r e s s T he r e s e a r c he r s s t a t e t ha t t he f a i l ur e t o f i nd di f f e r e nc e s i n t he s l ope s m a y ha ve b e e n due t o t he s m a l l s a m pl e s i z e a nd l ow pow e r U s i ng a s a m pl e of 291 s t ude nt s i n M i nne a pol i s s c hool s M a r s t on a nd M a gnus s on ( 1985) i nve s t i ga t e d t he l e ve l of m a t e r i a l t ha t yi e l de d t he gr e a t e s t s l ope T he r e s e a r c he r s pos i t e d t ha t t he l e ve l o f t he m a t e r i a l t ha t yi e l ds t he gr e a t e s t s l ope i s t he m os t s e ns i t i ve m e a s ur e of s t ude nt pr og r e s s a nd t hus t he be s t c hoi c e f or p r ogr e s s m oni t or i ng R e s ul t s s how e d t he gr e a t e s t s l ope f or m a t e r i a l i n w hi c h t he s t ude nt s r e a d 11 t o 20 w o r ds c or r e c t pe r m i nut e f or f i r s t a nd s e c ond gr a de r s a nd 41 t o 5 0 w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e f or t hi r d t h r ough s i xt h g r a de r s

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11 I n 1988, M a r s t on a nd M a gnus s on a dj us t e d t he s e gu i de l i ne s f or t he s e l e c t i on of a ppr opr i a t e l e ve l f or m oni t or i ng pr ogr e s s T he r e a di ng l e ve l a t w hi c h t he s t ude nt r e a ds be t w e e n 10 a nd 30 w o r ds c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e w a s s ugge s t e d f or f i r s t a nd s e c ond gr a de s t ude nt s T hi r d t h r ough s i xt h g r a de r s s houl d be r e a di ng be t w e e n 30 a nd 60 w or ds c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e i n m oni t o r i ng m a t e r i a l M or e r e c e nt l y, H i nt z e e t a l ( 1998 ) i nve s t i ga t e d t he e f f e c t s of pa s s a ge di f f i c ul t y on s t ude nt r e a di ng p r ogr e s s P a r t i c i pa nt s i nc l ude d 80 s t ude nt s i n gr a de s one t h r ough f our P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e m oni t o r e d t w i c e a w e e k f o r t e n w e e ks a t g r a de l e ve l a nd a t t he m or e di f f i c ul t goa l l e ve l R e s ul t s r e ve a l e d hi ghe r s l ope s i n gr a de l e ve l t ha n goa l l e ve l m a t e r i a l f or f i r s t a nd s e c ond gr a de s t ude nt s T he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n s l ope s f or t hi r d a nd f ou r t h g r a de s t ude nt s T he s e r e s ul t s a r e c ons i s t e nt w i t h t he e m pha s i s on de c odi ng a nd f l ue nc y i n g r a de l e ve l m a t e r i a l i n t he l ow e r gr a de s but not t he hi ghe r gr a de s S t ude nt s i n f i r s t a nd s e c ond gr a de ha ve e xpos ur e t o t he s ki l l s t a u ght a t g r a de l e ve l but i n hi ghe r gr a de s r e a di ng s ki l l s of f l ue nc y a r e no l onge r e m pha s i z e d or t a ught C ons e ns u s ha s not be e n r e a c he d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e ga r di ng t he di f f i c ul t y l e ve l of r e a di ng pr obe s f o r pr og r e s s m oni t or i ng. S hi nn e t a l f ound no di f f e r e nc e s i n r e a di ng gr ow t h due t o di f f e r e nc e s i n pa s s a ge di f f i c ul t y f or s t ude nt s r e a di ng be l ow gr a de l e ve l H ow e ve r H i nt z e e t a l ( 1998) f ound a pos s i bl e i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n pa s s a ge di f f i c ul t y a nd s t ude nt r e a di ng l e ve l D e s pi t e t he c ont r a di c t or y f i ndi ngs C B M r e s e a r c he r s t r a di t i ona l l y r e c om m e nd m oni t or i ng a t a hi ghe r l e ve l t ha n c ur r e nt i ns t r uc t i on. E x pe c t at i ons of r e adi ng gr ow t h. S e ve r a l r e s e a r c he r s ha ve s t udi e d e xpe c t e d or a l r e a di ng gr ow t h r a t e s f or di f f e r e nt g r a de l e ve l s a nd t ype s of e duc a t i ona l pl a c e m e nt ( F uc hs F uc hs H a m l e t W a l z & G e r m a nn, 1993; M a r s t on & M a gnus s on, 1985; M a r s t on &

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12 T i nda l 1995) M a r s t on a nd M a gnus s on ( 1985) i n ve s t i ga t e d w e e kl y r e a di ng gr ow t h r a t e s f or s t ude nt s r e c e i vi ng s e r vi c e s i n r e gul a r e duc a t i on T i t l e I a nd s pe c i a l e duc a t i o n i n gr a de s one t hr ough t h r e e T he a ve r a ge w e e kl y ga i ns i n w or ds r e a d c o r r e c t l y pe r m i nut e de c r e a s e d w i t h i nc r e a s i ng gr a de l e ve l a nd r e s ul t s a r e di s pl a ye d i n T a bl e 1. S i m i l a r l y M a r s t on a nd T i nda l ( 1995) f ound t ha t t he a ve r a ge s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt g a i ne d 1. 5 w or ds pe r w e e k i n f i r s t a nd s e c ond gr a de R e s ul t s a l s o s how e d t ha t s t ude nt s i n s pe c i a l e duc a t i on i n gr a de s t hr e e t o s i x ga i ne d a n a ve r a ge of onl y one w or d r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r w e e k. I n a ddi t i on s t ude nt s i n r e gul a r e duc a t i on ga i ne d t w o t o t hr e e w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r w e e k on a ve r a ge a nd s t ude nt s i n gr a de s t hr e e t o s i x a ve r a ge d 1. 5 t o 2 5 w o r ds ga i ne d pe r w e e k. F uc hs e t a l ( 1993) us e d C B M O R F t o m oni t or 117 s t ude nt s 14 i n s pe c i a l e duc a t i on c l a s s e s i n gr a de s one t h r ough s i x f or on e ye a r P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e m oni t or e d onc e pe r w e e k i n g r a de l e ve l non c ur r i c ul um m a t e r i a l R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n t he s l ope o f r e a di ng gr ow t h a s a f un c t i on of g r a de T he m e a n ga i n i n w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e w a s t he g r e a t e s t f or f i r s t gr a de r s a nd t he l e a s t f o r s i xt h gr a de r s R e s ul t s a r e di s pl a ye d i n T a bl e 1 K i ng, B r a dl e y K l ug K nof f a nd P ow e l l S m i t h ( 20 02) i nve s t i ga t e d e xpe c t e d gr ow t h r a t e s of s t ude nt s i n s pe c i a l e duc a t i on. T he s t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e 56 s t ude nt s e nr ol l e d i n s pe c i f i c l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y ( S L D ) pr og r a m s i n t h r e e s c hool s i n H e r na ndo C ount y, F L P r obe s f or pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng w e r e de ve l ope d f r o m t hr e e di f f e r e nt r e a di ng s e r i e s P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e m oni t o r e d t w o t i m e s pe r w e e k f o r e i ght w e e ks i n e a c h of t he t hr e e pr obe t ype s P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e m oni t or e d i n m a t e r i a l one l e ve l a bove t he i r i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l R e s ul t s s how e d a s i gni f i c a nt m a i n e f f e c t o f c ur r i c ul um on m e a n r e gr e s s i on s l ope s

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13 T he s l ope of i m pr ove m e nt a ve r a ge d a c r os s r e a di ng l e ve l s va r i e d a c r os s di f f e r e nt r e a di ng m a t e r i a l s T he r e w a s a l s o a m a i n e f f e c t of i ns t r uc t i ona l r e a di ng l e ve l on t he o r a l r e a di ng r a t e m e a n r e gr e s s i on s l ope s H ow e ve r unl i ke pr e v i ous r e s e a r c h ( F uc hs e t a l 1993 ; M a r s t on & T i nda l 1995) K i ng e t a l di d not f i nd t ha t s t ude nt s i n l ow e r g r a de i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l s di s pl a ye d hi ghe r o r a l r e a di ng g r ow t h r a t e s I ns t e a d, s t ude nt s a t t he f i r s t gr a de i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l e xhi bi t e d t he l ow e s t gr ow t h r a t e s w he n r e a di ng r a t e s a c r os s c ur r i c ul a w e r e a ve r a ge d. S t ude nt s a t t he s e c ond g r a de r e a di ng l e ve l h a d t he hi ghe s t r a t e of pr og r e s s D e no, F uc hs M a r s t on, a nd S hi n ( 2001 ) i nve s t i ga t e d e xpe c t e d r e a di ng gr ow t h r a t e s f or 2675 ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s a nd 324 s t ude nt s r e c e i vi ng s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s e r vi c e s i n gr a de s one t hr ough s i x D a t a w e r e de r i ve d f r om e xi s t i ng da t a ba s e s f r om f ou r l oc a l e duc a t i on a ge nc i e s f r om a c r os s t he U ni t e d S t a t e s T he a ge nc i e s va r i e d i n da t a c ol l e c t i on w i t h one a ge nc y c ol l e c t i ng w e e kl y da t a t hr oughout t he s c hool ye a r a nd t he ot he r t hr e e a ge nc i e s c ol l e c t i ng da t a on l y t h r e e t i m e s du r i ng t he s c hool ye a r A l l f our a ge nc i e s us e d gr a de l e ve l m a t e r i a l s R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d a ge ne r a l t r e nd w i t h de c r e a s i ng m e a n w e e kl y ga i ns i n w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e w i t h e a c h s uc c e s s i ve hi ghe r gr a de l e ve l T he onl y e xc e pt i ons t o t he t r e nd w e r e a s l i g ht i nc r e a s e i n t he m e a n w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e f r om f i f t h t o s i xt h gr a de f or b ot h ge ne r a l a nd s pe c i a l e duc a t i on a nd a s t a bl e m e a n i nc r e a s e i n w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e a c r os s t hi r d t h r ough f i f t h gr a de f or s pe c i a l e duc a t i on. T he s pe c i a l e d uc a t i on m e a n ga i ns w e r e m uc h l ow e r t ha n t he ge ne r a l e duc a t i on ga i ns f or gr a de s one t r ough f ou r H ow e ve r ne a r l y i de nt i c a l gr ow t h r a t e s f or ge ne r a l e duc a t i on a nd s pe c i a l e duc a t i on w e r e f ound f or gr a de s f i ve a nd s i x. R e s ul t s a r e di s pl a ye d i n T a bl e 1.

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14 T a bl e 1 W e e k l y G r ow t h R at e s i n N um be r of W or ds R e ad C or r e c t l y A c r os s St udi e s S t udy G r a de 1 G r a de 2 G r a de 3 G r a de 4 G r a de 5 G r a de 6 M a r s t on & M a gnus s on ( 1985) R e gul a r E duc a t i on S pe c i a l E duc a t i on 4. 4 1. 6 2. 7 1. 4 2. 6 1. 9 F uc hs F uc hs H a m l e t W a l z & G e r m a nn ( 1993) C om bi ne d 2. 1 1. 5 1. 1 84 49 32 D e no, F uc hs M a r s t on, & S hi n ( 2001 ) R e gul a r E duc a t i on S pe c i a l E duc a t i on 1. 80 83 1. 66 57 1. 18 58 1. 01 58 58 58 66 62 K i ng, B r a dl e y K l ug K nof f a nd P ow e l l S m i t h ( 2002 ) S pe c i a l E duc a t i on 0007 a 931 a 003 a N ot e a D a t a a ve r a ge d a c r os s a l l t h r e e pr obe t ype s us e d I nve s t i ga t i ons of e xpe c t e d r e a di ng g r ow t h r a t e s va r i e d i n r e s ul t s by gr a de l e ve l S om e of t he s e di f f e r e nc e s m a y be due t o t he nu m b e r of da t a c ol l e c t i on poi nt s i n e a c h s t udy. F o r e xa m pl e D e no e t a l ( 2001) da t a w a s c ol l e c t e d onl y t hr e e t i m e s i n a ye a r M a r s t on a nd M a gnus s on ( 1985) c ol l e c t e d da t a onc e a w e e k f or 16 w e e ks a nd K i ng e t a l ( 2002) c ol l e c t e d da t a t w i c e a w e e k f o r e i ght w e e ks D i f f e r e nc e s a l s o m a y be due t o va r i a bi l i t y i n pa r t i c i pa nt popu l a t i ons F or i ns t a nc e da t a f or bo t h s pe c i a l e duc a t i on a nd ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s w a s c om bi ne d i n t he F u c hs e t a l ( 1993) s t udy w he r e a s D e no e t a l ( 2001) a nd M a r s t on a nd M a gnus s o n ( 1985) s e pa r a t e d t he t w o g r oups t o r e por t r e s ul t s I n a ddi t i on t he d i s pa r i t y i n f i ndi ngs c oul d be due t o t he di f f i c ul t y l e ve l o f t he m oni t or i ng m a t e r i a l s K i ng e t a l ( 2002) m oni t or e d s t ude nt s a t one l e ve l a bove t he i r

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15 i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l w hi l e F uc hs e t a l ( 1993) a nd M a r s t on a nd T i nda l ( 1995) m oni t or e d i n gr a de l e ve l m a t e r i a l C B M R e adi ng R e l i abi l i t y T e s t r e t e s t r e l i abi l i t y S e ve r a l s t udi e s ha ve e s t a bl i s he d hi gh t e s t r e t e s t r e l i a bi l i t y f or C B M or a l r e a di ng m e a s ur e s ( T i nda l G e r m a nn & D e no, 1983; T i nda l M a r s t on, & D e no, 1983; H a r t m a n & F ul l e r 1997 ) T i nda l G e r m a nn, e t a l r a ndom l y s a m pl e d 30 f i f t h gr a de r e gul a r e duc a t i on s t ude nt s f r o m t he s i x s c hool di s t r i c t s i n one c ount y. T e s t r e t e s t r e l i a bi l i t y w a s e xa m i ne d i n t w o r a ndom l y s e l e c t e d pa s s a ge s f r om t he ba s a l r e a de r i n w hi c h e a c h s t ude nt w a s i ns t r uc t e d. T he ba s a l c ur r i c ul um di f f e r e d by s c hool E a c h pa r t i c i pa nt w a s t e s t e d t w i c e w i t h t w o w e e ks be t w e e n s e s s i on s T he t e s t r e t e s t r e l i a bi l i t y of t he C B M or a l r e a di ng pa s s a ge s w a s 97. T i nda l M a r s t on, e t a l ( 1983) i nve s t i ga t e d t e s t r e t e s t r e l i a bi l i t y us i ng a m uc h l a r ge r s a m pl e of 566 s t ude nt s i n gr a de s one t hr ough s i x. A l l pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a dm i ni s t e r e d t hi r d gr a de pa s s a ge s f r om t hr e e di f f e r e nt ba s a l s e r i e s P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e t e s t e d t w i c e w i t h 1 0 w e e ks be t w e e n s e s s i ons T he t e s t r e t e s t r e l i a bi l i t y of t he C B M pa s s a ge s w a s 92. M or e r e c e nt l y, H a r t m a n a nd F ul l e r ( 1997) e xa m i n e d t he t e s t r e t e s t r e l i a bi l i t y of C B M or a l r e a di ng us i ng 26 s t ude nt s i n gr a de s one t hr ough t hr e e f r om a r ur a l e l e m e nt a r y s c h ool R e a di ng pa s s a ge s de ve l ope d f r om l i t e r a t u r e us e d i n t he c l a s s r oom s of t he s t ude nt s w e r e a dm i ni s t e r e d t w i c e t o e a c h s t ude nt w i t h t w o w e e ks s e pa r a t i ng s e s s i ons R e s ul t s s how e d t e s t r e t e s t r e l i a bi l i t y f or t he t hr e e g r a de l e ve l s of s t ude nt s t o r a nge f r om 91 t o 99 A l t e r nat e f or m s r e l i abi l i t y T i nda l G e r m a nn, e t a l ( 1983) T i nda l M a r s t on, e t a l ( 1983) a nd H i nt z e S ha pi r o a nd L ut z ( 1994) i nve s t i ga t e d a l t e r na t e f o r m s r e l i a bi l i t y I n

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16 t he s t udy de s c r i be d a bove T i nda l G e r m a nn, e t a l a l s o a dm i ni s t e r e d t w o pa r a l l e l r e a di ng pr obe s dur i ng t he s a m e s e s s i on a nd f ound t he a l t e r na t e f or m s r e l i a bi l i t y t o be 94. A ddi t i ona l l y, T i nda l M a r s t on, e t a l a dm i ni s t e r e d a l t e r na t e f or m s one w e e k a pa r t a nd f ound a r e l i a bi l i t y o f 89. H i nt z e e t a l ( 1994) f ound s om e w ha t l ow e r a l t e r na t e f or m s r e l i a bi l i t y. P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e 48 t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s f r om t w o r u r a l s c hool s H a l f of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e i ns t r uc t e d us i ng a ba s a l s e r i e s a nd t he ot he r pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e i ns t r uc t e d i n a l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d c ur r i c ul um E a c h pa r t i c i pa nt w a s a dm i ni s t e r e d t w o di f f e r e nt r e a di ng pa s s a ge s de ve l ope d f r om e a c h o f t he c ur r i c ul a A l t e r na t e f o r m s r e l i a bi l i t y r a nge d f r om 56 t o 96. T he l ow e r r e l i a bi l i t y c oe f f i c i e nt s m a y be due t o t h e di f f e r e nt c ur r i c ul a us e d i n m e a s ur e m e nt C B M R e adi ng V al i di t y C r i t e r i on v al i di t y T o e s t a bl i s h t he c r i t e r i on va l i di t y of t he C B M one m i nut e or a l r e a di ng m e a s ur e s e ve r a l s t udi e s ha ve c om pa r e d w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y t o ot he r m e a s ur e s of r e a di ng. T he s e m e a s ur e s ha ve i nc l ude d bot h ot he r c ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e s a nd publ i s he d, s t a nda r di z e d, nor m r e f e r e nc e d m e a s ur e s D e no e t a l ( 1982) c onduc t e d s t udi e s t o de t e r m i ne c onc ur r e nt va l i di t y us i ng s e ve r a l m e a s ur e s I n one s t udy, s e ve r a l c ur r i c ul um ba s e d a nd publ i s he d, s t a nda r di z e d m e a s ur e s w e r e a dm i ni s t e r e d t o 15 s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s a nd 18 r e gul a r e duc a t i on s t ude nt s i n gr a de s one t hr ough f i ve T he c ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l s i nc l ude d t hr e e w or d l i s t s w i t h 60 w or ds on e a c h ( w or ds i n i s ol a t i on) 600 w o r d pa s s a ge s f r om t hr e e d i f f e r e nt ba s a l s e r i e s i n w hi c h s t ude nt s r e a d onl y e ve r y f i f t h w or d ( w or ds i n c ont e xt ) 300 w or d or a l r e a di ng pa s s a ge s f r om t h r e e ba s a l s e r i e s a nd t h r e e

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17 c l oz e c om pr e he ns i on pa s s a ge s f r om t he s a m e t h r e e ba s a l s e r i e s T he publ i s he d a nd s t a nda r di z e d m e a s ur e s i nc l ude d t he S t a nf or d D i a g nos t i c R e a di ng T e s t ( S D R T ) R e a di ng C om pr e he ns i on s ubt e s t ( K a r l s e n, M a dde n, & G a r n e r 1975 ) a nd t he W oodc oc k R e a di ng M a s t e r y T e s t ( W R M T ) W or d I de nt i f i c a t i on a nd W or d C om pr e he ns i on s ubt e s t s ( W oodc oc k, 1973) R e s ul t s s how e d t ha t t he c or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n t he one m i nut e o r a l r e a di ng pa s s a ge s a nd t he ot he r c ur r i c ul um ba s e d r e a di ng m e a s ur e s r a nge d f r om 81 t o 89. T he c or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n t he or a l r e a di ng pa s s a ge a nd t he publ i s he d a nd s t a nda r di z e d m e a s ur e s r a nge d f r om 73 t o 87 I n a not he r s t udy D e no e t a l ( 1982) a dm i ni s t e r e d s e ve r a l m e a s ur e s t o 23 s t ude nt s e nr ol l e d i n a pr ogr a m f or l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s a nd 43 s t ude nt s e nr ol l e d i n r e gul a r e duc a t i on. T he m e a s ur e s us e d w e r e l i s t s of t hi r d a nd s i xt h gr a de w o r ds i n i s ol a t i on a n or a l r e a di ng pa s s a ge f r om a ba s a l r e a de r a s i xt h gr a de l e ve l c l oz e pa s s a ge t he R e a di ng a nd P hone t i c A na l ys i s s ubt e s t s of t he S t a nf o r d D i a gnos t i c R e a di ng T e s t ( K a r l s e n, M a dde n, & G a r ne r 1975) a nd t he P e a body I ndi vi dua l A c hi e ve m e nt T e s t ( P I A T ) I nf e r e nt i a l a nd L i t e r a l R e a di n g C om pr e he ns i on s ubt e s t s ( D unn & M a r kw a r dt 1970) T he c or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n t he one m i nut e m e a s ur e of or a l r e a di ng a nd e a c h of t he ot he r r e a di ng m e a s ur e s r a nge d f r om 71 t o 87 w i t h t he e xc e pt i on of t he w or d m e a ni ng m e a s ur e w i t h c or r e l a t i ons r a ngi ng f r om 56 t o 57 M a r s t on a nd M a gnus s on ( 1985) i nve s t i ga t e d t he c r i t e r i on va l i di t y of t he C B M or a l r e a di ng m e a s ur e by c om pa r i ng t he num be r of w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e t o s c or e s on publ i s he d a nd s t a nda r di z e d m e a s ur e s of r e a di ng f or 26 t h i r d g r a de s t ude nt s T he m e a s ur e s us e d i nc l ude d t he V oc a bul a r y, R e a di ng W or ds C om pr e he ns i on, T ot a l R e a di ng, a nd W or d S t udy s e c t i ons of t he S t a nf o r d A c hi e ve m e nt T e s t ( M a dde n, G a r ne r

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18 R udm a n, K a r l s e n, & M a r w i n, 1973 ) t he S R A A c hi e ve m e nt s e r i e s V oc a bul a r y a nd C om pr e he ns i on s e c t i ons ( N a s l und, T hor pe & L e f e ve r 1978 ) a nd r e a di ng p r obe s de ve l ope d f r om t he G i nn 720 R e a di ng S e r i e s ( C l y m e r & F e nn, 1979 ) C or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n t he s ubt e s t s c or e s a nd t he num be r of w or d s r e a d c or r e c t l y on t he r e a di ng pa s s a ge r a nge d f r om 80 t o 90 w i t h t he e xc e pt i on of t he vo c a bul a r y s e c t i ons T he w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y w e r e l a t e r c om pa r e d t o t e a c he r r a t i ngs of s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt on a s c a l e f r om one t o f i ve T e a c he r r a t i ngs a nd w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y w e r e c or r e l a t e d a t 77. H i nt z e S ha pi r o C ont e a nd B a s i l e ( 1997) s t udi e d t he va l i di t y of t he C B M r e a di ng t e c hni que s a c r os s di f f e r e nt t ype s of c u r r i c ul a T he 57 e l e m e nt a r y s t ude nt s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he s t udy w e r e i ns t r uc t e d i n a l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d ba s a l s e r i e s w i t h s uppl e m e nt a l t r a de books O r a l r e a di ng pr obe s w e r e de ve l ope d f r o m t he ba s a l s e r i e s a nd t he a ut he nt i c r e a di ng m a t e r i a l T he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a d pa s s a ge s f r om e a c h t ype of c ur r i c ul um i n e a c h gr a de l e ve l one t hr ough f i ve T he r e s e a r c he r s c om pa r e d t he C B M or a l r e a di ng r e s ul t s w i t h s c or e s f r om t he D e gr e e s o f R e a di ng P ow e r T e s t ( D R P ) T he D R P t e s t ( K os l i n, K os l i n Z e no & I ve ns 1989) i s s i m i l a r t o a c l oz e r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on m e a s ur e w i t h e s c a l a t i ng di f f i c ul t y of r e a di ng pa s s a ge s T he num be r of w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y f r om t he r e a di ng pr obe s a nd t he D R P t e s t s c or e s c or r e l a t e d a t 67 f or t he a ut he nt i c l i t e r a t ur e pr obe s a nd 64 f or t he ba s a l s e r i e s pr obe s T he s e s t udi e s ha ve pr ovi de d a s ol i d f ounda t i on o f c r i t e r i on va l i di t y f o r c ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y m e a s ur e s C ons t r uc t v al i di t y F uc hs F uc hs a nd M a xw e l l ( 1 988) a s s e s s e d a n a s pe c t of c ons t r uc t va l i di t y by c om pa r i ng t he a ve r a ge num b e r of w o r ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e on C B M O R F w i t h t w o s ubt e s t s of t he S t a nf o r d A c hi e ve m e nt T e s t ( 1988) T he S t a nf o r d

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19 A c hi e ve m e nt s ubt e s t s c or e s a nd t he C B M r e a di ng r e s ul t s f or 10 boys a ge d ni ne t o f i f t e e n ye a r s w i t h m i l d t o m ode r a t e di s a bi l i t i e s w e r e c om p a r e d. T he r e s e a r c he r s pur por t e d t ha t a hi ghe r c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he C B M or a l r e a di ng m e a s ur e a nd t he S t a nf o r d A c hi e ve m e nt i nde x of r e a di n g c om pr e he ns i on t ha n be t w e e n t he or a l r e a di ng a nd t he i nde x of s t udy s ki l l s w oul d i ndi c a t e s uppor t f or t he c l a i m t ha t t he C B M or a l r e a di ng m e t r i c a s s e s s e s r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on s ki l l s F uc hs e t a l f ound t ha t t he c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he a ve r a ge num be r of w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e on t he C B M or a l r e a di ng m e a s ur e a nd t he i nde x o f R e a di ng C om pr e he ns i on ( 92) w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r t ha n t he c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he C B M r e a di ng m e a s ur e a nd t he i nde x o f W or d S t udy S ki l l s ( 81) T he s e f i ndi ngs s e e m t o l e nd s uppor t t o t he c ons t r u c t va l i di t y o f t he C B M or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y m e a s ur e D i s c r i m i nant v al i di t y S e ve r a l s t udi e s ha ve i nve s t i ga t e d di s c r i m i na nt va l i di t y by a s s e s s i ng t he de gr e e t o w hi c h t he or a l r e a di ng C B M m e a s ur e c a n di s c r i m i na t e a m ong gr oups t ha t t he or e t i c a l l y di f f e r i n t he i r r e a di ng s ki l l s D e no e t a l ( 1982) pr ovi de d e vi de nc e f or C B M or a l r e a di ng di s c r i m i na nt va l i d i t y by c om pa r i ng t he pe r f or m a nc e o f 27 s t ude nt s i n r e gul a r e duc a t i on t o 18 s t ude nt s i n a l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s r e s our c e pr og r a m i n gr a de s one t hr ough s i x. T he m e a n num be r o f w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y w a s hi ghe r f o r ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s t ha n f or s t ude nt s i n t he l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s r e s our c e pr ogr a m T he di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he gr oup m e a ns r e m a i ne d f a i r l y c ons t a nt a c r os s gr a de l e ve l s A s i m i l a r s t udy by D e no e t a l ( 1982) c om pa r e d t h e or a l r e a di ng r a t e s of 43 ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s a nd 23 s t ude nt s e nr ol l e d i n a l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s r e s our c e pr ogr a m i n f i r s t t hr ough s i xt h gr a de s O r a l r e a di ng s c or e s f or t he ge ne r a l e duc a t i on

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20 s t ud e nt s w e r e t hr e e t i m e s hi ghe r t ha n f o r t he s t ude nt s i n t he l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s r e s our c e pr ogr a m S hi nn a nd M a r s t on ( 1985 ) s t udi e d di s c r i m i na nt va l i di t y by c om pa r i ng t he o r a l r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e of 51 ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s 110 s t ude nt s r e c e i vi ng C ha pt e r 1 s e r vi c e s a nd 48 s t ude nt s w i t h m i l d di s a bi l i t i e s r e c e i vi ng pa r t t i m e s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s e r vi c e s T he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a l l i n t he f our t h t o t he s i xt h gr a de s A na l ys e s of va r i a nc e r e ve a l e d s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s a m ong a l l t he g r ou ps i n t he m e a n num be r of w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y. T he ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s a t t a i ne d t he hi ghe s t m e a n of w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y f ol l ow e d by t he m e a n f o r s t ude nt s r e c e i vi ng C ha pt e r 1 s e r vi c e s T he m e a n num be r of w or ds r e a d c o r r e c t l y by s t ude nt s r e c e i vi ng s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s e r vi c e s w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y l ow e r t ha n t he m e a ns f o r t he ot he r 2 s t ude nt gr oups M a r s t on a nd M a gnus s on ( 1985) pr ovi de d e vi de nc e f or C B M or a l r e a di ng di s c r i m i na nt va l i di t y, but s om e o f t he r e s ul t s w e r e m i xe d. T he y c om pa r e d t he o r a l r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e o f 130 ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ud e nt s 24 s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s a nd 104 s t ude nt s i n a T i t l e 1 pr og r a m w ho w e r e a l l i n t he f i r s t t hr ough t hi r d gr a de s P r ogr e s s m oni t or i ng l a s t e d f or 16 w e e ks w i t h pa s s a ge s f r om e a c h s t ude nt s gr a de l e ve l T he gr oup m e a n o f t he ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y hi ghe r t ha n t he m e a ns f or T i t l e 1 or s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s A l t hough, t he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he g r oup m e a ns f o r t he s pe c i a l e duc a t i on a nd T i t l e 1 s t ude nt s w he n a na l ys i s w a s don e by gr a de l e ve l s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound be t w e e n t he gr oups a t gr a de s t w o a nd t h r e e D i f f e r e nc e s i n t he de ve l o pm e nt a l t r e nds of t he t h r e e s t ude nt gr oups w e r e a s s e s s e d by m e a n s l ope c om pa r i s ons D i s c r i m i na t i on be t w e e n t he t hr e e gr oups w a s s how n i n gr a de s one a nd t w o w i t h ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s a ve r a gi ng t he

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21 m os t w or ds ga i ne d pe r w e e k a nd s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s a ve r a gi ng t he f e w e s t w or ds ga i ne d. F o r g r a de t hr e e t he s l ope f or ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s w a s a ga i n t he hi ghe s t but t he s l o pe s f or s pe c i a l e duc a t i on a nd T i t l e 1 s t ude nt s w e r e t he s a m e O ve r a l l or a l r e a di ng m e a s ur e m e nt w a s a bl e t o r e l i a bl y di s c r i m i na t e be t w e e n s t ude nt s w ho w e r e i n s pe c i a l e duc a t i on pr ogr a m s T i t l e 1 or C ha pt e r 1 p r ogr a m s a nd s t ude nt s w ho w e r e not i n s uc h pr o gr a m s A not he r w a y t ha t r e s e a r c he r s ha ve i nve s t i ga t e d di s c r i m i na nt va l i di t y i s t hr ough t he a s s e s s m e nt of t he C B M or a l r e a di ng m e a s ur e s s e ns i t i vi t y t o gr ow t h I n t hi s t ype of r e s e a r c h, de ve l opm e nt a l gr ow t h r a t e s a r e a s s e s s e d a s s t ude nt s a t va r i ous gr a de l e ve l s r e a d pa s s a ge s of e qua l di f f i c ul t y. T he num be r of w o r ds r e a d c or r e c t l y s houl d va r y pos i t i ve l y a c c or di ng t o s t ude nt gr a de l e ve l T h i s w oul d a l l o w s t ude nt pr ogr e s s i n r e a di ng t o be c l os e l y m oni t or e d a nd ut i l i z e d by s c hool s t a f f D e no e t a l ( 1982) s t udi e d de ve l opm e nt a l gr ow t h p a t t e r ns f or o r a l r e a di ng a c r os s gr a de s one t hr ough s i x f or s t ude nt s i n r e gul a r e duc a t i on a nd i n a l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s r e s our c e pr ogr a m P a s s a ge s de ve l ope d f r om bot h t hi r d a nd s i xt h gr a de m a t e r i a l w e r e ut i l i z e d. T he r e s e a r c h e r s f ound t ha t t he s l ope of or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y w a s f a i r l y l i ne a r i n a pos i t i ve di r e c t i on a c r os s gr a de l e ve l s f or bo t h s t u de nt gr oups r e ga r dl e s s of t he pa s s a ge di f f i c ul t y. F uc hs a nd D e no ( 1992) e xa m i ne d or a l r e a di ng g r o w t h r a t e s t o de t e r m i ne i f t he y w e r e a f f e c t e d by pa s s a ge di f f i c ul t y or t he c ur r i c ul u m f r om w hi c h t he y w e r e dr a w n T he 91 s t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s i n gr a de s one t hr ough s i x a l l r e a d pa s s a ge s de ve l ope d f r om t he t hi r d gr a de m a t e r i a l o f t w o di f f e r e nt r e a di ng s e r i e s T he de ve l opm e nt a l s l ope s f or bo t h c ur r i c ul um s e r i e s w e r e pa r a l l e l s t a bl e a nd l i ne a r T he onl y e xc e pt i on w a s t he

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22 pe r f or m a nc e dr op f or f i f t h g r a de s t ude nt s T o a s s e s s t he e f f e c t o f pa s s a ge di f f i c ul t y on de ve l opm e nt a l gr ow t h r a t e s F uc hs a nd D e no ( 199 2) c a l c ul a t e d s l ope s f or m a t e r i a l de ve l ope d f r om e a c h g r a de l e ve l i n e a c h c ur r i c ul u m s e r i e s R e s ul t s s how e d a s l i ght de c r e a s e i n de ve l opm e nt a l gr ow t h r a t e s a s t he di f f i c ul t y of t he m a t e r i a l i nc r e a s e d. T he s e f i ndi ngs s ugge s t t ha t C B M or a l r e a di ng de ve l opm e nt a l gr ow t h r a t e s a r e not a f f e c t e d by t ype of c ur r i c ul um a nd onl y s om e w ha t a f f e c t e d by t he di f f i c ul t y of t he m a t e r i a l T a bl e 2 c ont a i ns a s um m a r y of t he c i t e d di s c r i m i na nt va l i di t y r e s e a r c h. O ve r a l l C B M O R F w a s a bl e t o r e l i a bl y d i s c r i m i na t e be t w e e n s t ude nt s w ho w e r e i n s pe c i a l e duc a t i on pr ogr a m s T i t l e 1 or C ha pt e r 1 p r ogr a m s a nd s t ud e nt s w ho w e r e not i n s uc h pr og r a m s I n a ddi t i on, C B M O R F w a s a bl e t o va l i d l y di s c r i m i na t e gr ow t h i n r e a di ng pr of i c i e nc y. F ac e v al i di t y Y e l l D e no, a nd M a r s t on ( 1992 ) s ur ve ye d s pe c i a l e duc a t i on t e a c he r s t o i nve s t i ga t e t he ba r r i e r s t o t he us e of C B M O R F O ne pr i m a r y c onc e r n of t he t e a c he r s w a s w he t he r t hi s m e t r i c m e a s ur e s c om pr e he ns i on. S uppl e m e nt i ng or a l r e a di ng w i t h a m e a s ur e of c om pr e he ns i on w a s s ugge s t e d. A l t hough ot he r e m pi r i c a l l y s ound c ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e s of r e a di ng ha ve be e n s how n t o m e a s ur e c om pr e he ns i on ( i e c l oz e a nd w r i t t e n r e c a l l ) none of t he m c or r e l a t e a s hi ghl y w i t h s t a nda r di z e d m e a s ur e s of r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on a s t he or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y m e a s ur e ( S ha pi r o, 1989) A c c or di ng t o F uc hs a nd D e no ( 1992, p. 233) R e a di ng a l oud f r om a t e xt de m ons t r a t e s t he s t r onge s t r e l a t i on w i t h s oc i a l l y i m por t a nt w i de l y us e d c r i t e r i on m e a s ur e s of r e a di ng T he a bi l i t y of t he o r a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y m e t r i c t o m e a s ur e c om pr e he ns i on ha s be e n w e l l doc um e nt e d ( D e no, M i r ki n & C hi a ng, 1982 M a r s t on & M a gnus s on, 1985) a nd r e s ul t s l e nd t he m s e l ve s w e l l t o i ns t r uc t i ona l pl a nni ng a nd da t a ba s e d de c i s i on m a ki ng.

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23 R e adi ng P r obe s f r om V ar y i ng C ur r i c ul um T he m e t hods of c ur r i c ul um ba s e d a s s e s s m e nt s ha r e t hr e e m a i n t e na nt s : ( 1) m a t e r i a l i s de ve l ope d f r om t he s c hool or c l a s s c ur r i c ul um ( 2) m e a s ur e m e nt i s r e pe a t e d ove r t i m e a nd ( 3) i n f or m s i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i on m a ki ng ( T uc ke r 1987 ) O ve r t he pa s t de c a de r e s e a r c h ha s be gun t o que s t i on T uc ke r s f i r s t t e na nt F uc hs a nd D e no ( 1994 ) c onc l ude d t ha t i t i s no t c r i t i c a l f o r i ns t r uc t i ona l l y u s e f ul m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l t o be de ve l ope d f r om t he s t ude nt s c ur r i c ul um I ns t e a d t he e s s e nt i a l f e a t ur e s of i ns t r uc t i ona l l y us e f ul m a t e r i a l a r e : ( 1) t he oppo r t uni t y f or m e a s ur e m e nt t o be r e p e a t e d ove r t i m e w i t h m a i nt e na nc e of di f f i c ul t y l e ve l s ( 2) t he a bi l i t y t o a s s e s s c ha nge s i n a c t ua l out c om e s of s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt a nd ( 3 ) t he a bi l i t y t o pr oduc e qua nt i t a t i ve a s w e l l a s qua l i t a t i ve de s c r i pt i ons of s t ude nt pe r f o r m a nc e A c c or di ng t o F uc hs a nd D e no ( 1994) t he s ol e a dv a nt a ge of us i ng pr obe s ba s e d i n t he c ur r i c ul um i s f a c e va l i di t y f or t e a c he r s us i ng C B M T e a c he r s m os t of t e n de ve l op t e s t s f r om t he i r ow n c ur r i c ul um t o a s s e s s s t ude nt p r ogr e s s ( F uc hs & D e no, 1994) S e ve r a l di s a dva nt a ge s of us i ng pr obe s ba s e d i n t he c ur r i c ul um w e r e not e d i nc l udi ng t he f a c t t ha t c ur r i c ul um m a t e r i a l s w i t hi n a pr ogr a m or book va r y s i gni f i c a nt l y w i t h r e ga r d t o di f f i c ul t y. A c c or di ng t o F uc hs F uc hs a nd D e no ( 1982) up t o 10 r e a di ng pa s s a ge s m a y ne e d t o be dr a w n f r o m a t e xt be f or e one pa s s a ge m a y r e pr e s e nt t he t e xt a c c ur a t e l y. T hi s t ype of va r i a bi l i t y i n c ur r i c ul a r m a t e r i a l s i nt r oduc e s a ddi t i ona l m e a s ur e m e nt e r r or M a t e r i a l s dr a w n f r om out s i de t he c ur r i c ul um m a y be m or e e a s i l y c ont r ol l e d f o r di f f i c ul t y l e ve l S e c o ndl y, w he n m a t e r i a l i s d r a w n f r om t he c ur r i c ul um i n w hi c h t he s t ude nt i s i ns t r uc t e d, f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h pa s s a ge s m a y be a f a c t or i n t he r e s ul t s S t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e w oul d be a r e s ul t of p r i or e xpe r i e nc e w i t h t he m a t e r i a l a nd not t he a ppl i c a t i on of l e a r ni ng.

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24 U t i l i z a t i on of m a t e r i a l w i t h va r yi ng f a m i l i a r i t y f o r t he s t ude nt c a n be a s our c e o f m e a s ur e m e nt e r r or A l s o, us i ng m a t e r i a l s ba s e d i n t he c ur r i c ul um m i ght r e duc e t he ge ne r a l i z a bi l i t y of t he i nf o r m a t i on ga i ne d F uc hs a nd D e no ( 1994) not e d t ha t i f gr ow t h i s de m ons t r a t e d s ol e l y i n c ur r i c ul um m a t e r i a l de c i s i ons r e s ul t i ng f r om t hi s i n f or m a t i on m i ght not be ge ne r a l i z a bl e t o r e a di ng out s i de t he c ur r i c ul um V oc a bul a r y a nd l i ngui s t i c pa t t e r ns a r e r e c ur r e nt i n m a ny c ur r i c ul a a nd m a y h a ve a c ont r ol l i ng e f f e c t on s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e S t ude nt s m a y pe r f or m w e l l w i t hi n t he c ur r i c ul um but s t r uggl e w i t h r e a di ng f r om ot he r s our c e s ( F uc hs & D e no 1994) F e w s t udi e s ha ve be e n c onduc t e d t o i nve s t i ga t e t he i m pa c t of c ur r i c ul a r va r i a t i on on c ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt or a l r e a di ng f l u e nc y. F uc hs a nd D e no ( 1992) c onduc t e d a s t udy t o a s s e s s t he e f f e c t s of t he us e o f di f f e r e nt c ur r i c ul um m a t e r i a l s i n C B M a nd t o a dd t o t he l i t e r a t ur e on C B M s t e c hni c a l a de qua c y. T he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he s t udy i nc l ude d 91 s t ude nt s i n f i r s t t h r o ugh s i xt h gr a de S i x t e e n pe r c e nt of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e c e i ve d s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s e r vi c e s a nd 25% r e c e i ve d C ha pt e r 1 s e r vi c e s A publ i s he d a nd s t a nda r di z e d a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t ( P a s s a ge C om pr e he ns i on t e s t of t he W oodc oc k R e a di ng M a s t e r y T e s t s ) a nd t he C B M or a l r e a di ng m e a s ur e w i t h pr obe s de ve l ope d f r om t he G i nn 720 ( 1976) a nd pr obe s de ve l ope d f r om S c ot t F or e s m a n U nl i m i t e d r e a di ng s e r i e s ( 1976) a t e a c h gr a de l e ve l f r om pr i m e r t o s i xt h gr a de w e r e a dm i ni s t e r e d. C B M r e a di ng s how e d dur a bi l i t y of t e c hni c a l a de qua c y a c r os s di f f e r e nt c ur r i c ul um m a t e r i a l s D e s pi t e di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he r e a di ng s e r i e s ( S c ot t F o r e s m a n, a l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d s e r i e s w i t h a c om pr e he ns i on f oc us a nd t he G i nn S e r i e s w i t h a m or e t r a di t i ona l di ve r s e phone t i c f oc us ) no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he t w o s e r i e s o n t he C B M w e r e f ound S l ope s

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25 c om put e d f or t he t w o s e r i e s c ur r i c ul a w e r e c om pa r a bl y l i ne a r a nd s t a bl e I n a ddi t i on c r i t e r i on va l i di t y w a s not a f f e c t e d by t he di f f i c ul t y of t he pa s s a ge s us e d. H i nt z e S ha pi r o a nd L ut z ( 1994) c onduc t e d a s t ud y t o bui l d upon t he F uc hs a nd D e no ( 1992) s t udy a nd t o i nc r e a s e t he l i t e r a t u r e ba s e on t he t e c hni c a l f e a t ur e s of t he C B M i n r e a di ng. P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e 48 t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s 24 s t ude nt s f r om a r u r a l s c hool a nd 24 s t ude nt s f r om a n ur ba n s c hool i n N e w J e r s e y. T he s t ude nt s i n t he r ur a l s c hool w e r e i ns t r uc t e d w i t h t he S c ot t F or e s m a n r e a di ng s e r i e s ( l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d) a nd ur ba n s t ude nt s w e r e i ns t r uc t e d w i t h t he H ought on M i f f l i n ba s a l s e r i e s ( t r a di t i ona l phoni c s ba s e d s e r i e s ) S t ude nt s r e c e i vi ng s p e c i a l e duc a t i on or C ha pt e r 1 s e r vi c e s w e r e not i nc l ude d i n t he s a m pl e P r obe s w e r e de ve l ope d onl y f r om t hi r d gr a de m a t e r i a l i n e a c h of t he r e a di ng s e r i e s R e s e a r c he r s c onduc t e d t e a c he r i nt e r vi e w s a nd a dm i ni s t e r e d pr obe s t w i c e pe r w e e k f o r ni ne w e e ks R e g a r dl e s s of t he r e a di ng s e r i e s i n w hi c h t he s t ude nt s w e r e t a ught pe r f or m a nc e de c l i ne d w he n s t ude nt s w e r e m oni t or e d us i ng t he l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d s e r i e s a nd pe r f or m a nc e i nc r e a s e d w he n m oni t or e d w i t h t he t r a di t i ona l ba s a l s e r i e s T he r e f o r e t he us e of pr obe s d e ve l ope d f r om t he t r a di t i ona l ba s a l s e r i e s f or pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng s how e d g r e a t e r s e ns i t i vi t y t o gr ow t h ove r t i m e t ha n t he us e of l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d pr obe s I n a ddi t i on, s t ude nt s i ns t r uc t e d us i ng t he t r a di t i ona l s e r i e s s how e d s i gni f i c a nt l y m or e i m p r ove m e nt ove r t i m e t ha n s t ude nt s i ns t r uc t e d us i ng t he l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d s e r i e s T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy m a y ha ve be e n l i m i t e d by t he non r a ndom a s s i gnm e nt of c ondi t i ons a nd pos s i bl e l a c k of i ns t r uc t i o na l i nt e gr i t y a s e vi de nc e d by t he t e a c he r i nt e r vi e w s R e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy i nd i c a t e t ha t t he c ur r i c ul um m a t e r i a l f r om w hi c h t he r e a di ng pa s s a ge s a r e dr a w n m a y i nf l ue n c e C B M or a l r e a di ng r e s ul t s T he s e l i m i t a t i ons m a y t h r e a t e n t he va l i di t y of t he r e s e a r c h. A ddi t i ona l l y, t he us e of onl y t hi r d

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26 gr a de s t ude nt s a s pa r t i c i pa nt s m a y l i m i t t he ge ne r a l i z a bi l i t y of t he f i n di ngs t o s t ude nt s a t ot he r gr a de l e ve l s I n f ol l ow up r e s e a r c h, H i nt z e a nd S ha pi r o ( 1997) s ought t o e xt e nd H i nt z e e t a l s ( 1994) f i ndi ngs by i nc l udi ng pa r t i c i pa nt s a t va r i ou s gr a de l e ve l s f r om a va r i e t y of s c hool s P a r t i c i pa nt s of t he s t udy w e r e 160 s t ude nt s i n s e c ond t hr ough f i f t h gr a de s f r o m one ur ba n a nd one s ubur ba n s c hool di s t r i c t S t ude nt s i n t he s ubur ba n s c hool d i s t r i c t w e r e i ns t r uc t e d w i t h t he S c ot t F o r e s m a n l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d r e a di ng s e r i e s a nd s t ude nt s i n t he ur ba n di s t r i c t w e r e i ns t r uc t e d us i ng t he H ought on M i f f l i n ba s a l s e r i e s R e s e a r c he r s c onduc t e d t e a c he r i nt e r vi e w s a nd de ve l ope d C B M r e a di ng pr obe s f r om e a c h of t he t w o i ns t r uc t i ona l r e a di ng s e r i e s S t ude nt pr ogr e s s w a s m oni t or e d i n e a c h pr ob e t ype t w o t i m e s pe r w e e k f o r e i ght w e e ks S t ude nt s w e r e m o ni t or e d w i t h pr obe s de ve l ope d f r o m c ha l l e ngi ng l e ve l m a t e r i a l s i n w hi c h t he s t ude nt w a s pr of i c i e nt one g r a de l e ve l a bove t he s t ude nt s c ur r e nt g r a de l e ve l W he n m on i t or e d us i ng t he l i t e r a t ur e b a s e d pr obe s s t ude nt s di s pl a ye d gr ow t h ove r t i m e de s pi t e di f f e r e nc e s i n m a t e r i a l s us e d f or i ns t r uc t i on. A l s o, s t ude nt s i n a l l g r a de s e xc e pt gr a de 2 d i s pl a ye d gr ow t h ove r t i m e on t he ba s a l s e r i e s pr obe s L a r ge r gr ow t h r a t e s w e r e f ound f or s e c ond, t hi r d, a nd f ou r t h g r a de s t ude nt s w he n t he y w e r e m oni t o r e d w i t h l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d pr obe s I n c ont r a s t f i f t h gr a de s t ude nt s s how e d hi ghe r gr ow t h r a t e s w he n m oni t or e d w i t h t he ba s a l s e r i e s pr obe s D e s pi t e t he s e di f f e r e nc e s bot h t ype s of p r obe s s how e d s e ns i t i vi t y t o gr ow t h i n or a l r e a di ng r a t e ove r t i m e i r r e s pe c t i ve of t he m a t e r i a l s i n w hi c h s t ude nt s w e r e i ns t r uc t e d. I n c ont r a s t t o t he H i nt z e e t a l ( 1994) f i ndi ngs pos i t i ve s l ope s w e r e f ound f o r a l l s t ude nt s w he n m oni t or e d i n l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d m a t e r i a l s r e ga r dl e s s of i ns t r uc t i ona l c ur r i c ul um

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27 R e s ul t s of a s t udy by B r a dl e y K l ug, S ha pi r o L ut z a nd D uP a ul ( 1998) s uppor t e d t he f i ndi ng t ha t l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d pr obe s m a y unde r e s t i m a t e s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e ( H i n t z e e t a l 1994 ) but f ound t ha t l i t e r a t u r e ba s e d a nd ba s a l ba s e d pr obe s w e r e bot h s e ns i t i ve t o gr ow t h ove r t i m e T w e nt y e i ght s e c ond gr a de r s a n d 30 f i f t h g r a de r s f r o m t h r e e s c hool s i n s ubur ba n P e nns yl va ni a pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he s t udy P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e r a ndom l y s e l e c t e d f r om s t ude nt s s c or i ng be t w e e n t he 25 t h a nd 7 5 t h pe r c e nt i l e on t he C a l i f or ni a T e s t of B a s i c S ki l l s C B M r e a di ng pr obe s w e r e de ve l ope d f r om t he l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d r e a di ng s e r i e s i n w hi c h t he s t ude nt s w e r e i ns t r uc t e d ( H ough t on M i f f l i n L i t e r a r y S e r i e s ) a nd f r om a ba s a l s e r i e s ( H a r c our t B r a c e J ova ni c h R e a di ng S e r i e s ) B ot h t ype s of pr obe s w e r e s e l e c t e d f r om e nd of t he ye a r goa l m a t e r i a l s a s i ndi c a t e d by t he s e c ond a nd f i f t h g r a de t e a c he r s P r ogr e s s w a s m oni t or e d t w o t i m e s pe r w e e k f or t e n w e e ks O ve r a l l r e s e a r c he r s f ound t he C B M or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y m e a s ur e t o be s e ns i t i ve t o gr ow t h a c r os s t i m e f o r s t ude nt s be i ng i ns t r uc t e d i n a l i t e r a t u r e ba s e d c ur r i c ul um L i t e r a t ur e ba s e d pr obe s a nd ba s a l s e r i e s pr obe s w e r e bot h e f f e c t i ve m e a s ur e s of s t ude nt p r o gr e s s ove r t i m e A l t hough bot h p r obe t ype s di s pl a ye d s e ns i t i vi t y, m e a n pe r f or m a nc e us i ng ba s a l pr obe s w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y hi ghe r t ha n m e a n pe r f or m a nc e us i ng l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d pr obe s T he l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d pr obe s m a y ha ve unde r e s t i m a t e d t he l e ve l o f s t ude nt pe r f o r m a nc e I n a ddi t i on t he l i t e r a t u r e ba s e d pr obe s m a y ha ve c ont a i ne d a gr e a t e r pe r c e nt a ge of unf a m i l i a r voc a bul a r y t ha n t he ba s a l pr obe s G e ne r a l i z a bi l i t y o f t he s e f i ndi ngs m a y be l i m i t e d be c a us e onl y s e c ond gr a de s t ude nt s w ho w e r e r e a di ng i n t he a ve r a ge r a nge w e r e i nc l ude d i n t he s a m pl e P ow e l l S m i t h a nd B r a dl e y K l ug ( 2001) c onduc t e d r e s e a r c h t o e xpa nd p r i or r e s e a r c h on t he us e of di f f e r e nt s our c e s us e d f or t h e de ve l opm e nt of C B M r e a di ng p r obe s a nd t he us e of t he s e pr obe s t o m oni t o r o r a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y ove r t i m e P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e

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28 36 s t ude nt s i n t he s e c ond gr a de w hos e r e a di ng l e v e l s w e r e be l ow t hos e of t he i r pe e r s a c c or di ng t o t he i r t e a c he r s S t ude nt s r e c e i vi ng s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s e r vi c e s a t t he t i m e of s e l e c t i on w e r e not i nc l ude d i n t he s a m pl e R e s e a r c he r s us e d r e a di ng pr obe s de ve l ope d f r om t he ba s a l s e r i e s us e d i n t he s t ude nt s s c hool ( M a c m i l l a n or S c r i bne r ) a nd T O R F ( T e s t s of R e a di ng F l ue nc y) de ve l ope d by D e no D e no, M a r s t on, a nd M a r s t on ( 1987) T he T O R F p r obe s w e r e not c ons t r uc t e d f r o m a s pe c i f i c c ur r i c ul um P r obe s us e d f or pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng w e r e de ve l ope d f r om l ong t e r m goa l m a t e r i a l de f i ne d a s one gr a de l e ve l a bove t he s t ude nt s c ur r e nt r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i o na l l e ve l de t e r m i ne d by S L A D a t a c ol l e c t i on i nvol ve d a dm i ni s t r a t i on a nd s c or i ng o f e a c h t ype of p r obe t w i c e pe r w e e k f o r f i ve w e e ks P r ogr e s s m oni t or i ng w i t h t he t w o t ype s o f pr obe s r e ve a l e d a l e ve l c ha nge but t he r a nk or de r of i ndi vi dua l s r e m a i ne d c ons t a nt T he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a d s i gni f i c a nt l y m o r e w or ds c or r e c t on t he T O R F pr obe s t ha n on t he ba s a l pr obe s H ow e ve r t he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he s l ope s of t he s c or e s f or t he t w o p r obe t ype s B ot h t ype s of pr obe s s how e d c ons i s t e nt s e ns i t i vi t y t o gr ow t h i n or a l r e a di ng r a t e s ove r t i m e K i ng, B r a dl e y K l ug K nof f a nd P ow e l l S m i t h ( 20 02) i nve s t i ga t e d t he e f f e c t s of pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng m a t e r i a l s de ve l ope d f r o m va r yi ng c ur r i c ul a w he n us e d w i t h s t ude nt s r e c e i vi ng s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s e r vi c e s T he s t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e 56 s t ude nt s e nr ol l e d i n s pe c i f i c l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y ( S L D ) pr og r a m s i n t h r e e s c hool s i n H e r na ndo C ount y, F L P a r t i c i pa nt s r e c e i ve d pr i m a r y r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on f r om a n E S E t e a c he r us i ng t he S R A R e a di ng M a s t e r y S e r i e s P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e s e pa r a t e d i nt o t h r e e gr oups by r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l us i ng s ur ve y l e ve l a s s e s s m e nt G r oup one r e a d on a f i r s t g r a de i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l G r oups t w o a nd t h r e e r e a d on s e c ond a nd t hi r d gr a de l e ve l s

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29 r e s pe c t i ve l y. P r obe s f or pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng w e r e de ve l ope d f r om t he S R A R e a di ng M a s t e r y R a i nbow E di t i on ( E nge l m a nn & B r une r 1995) S c ot t F o r e s m a n C e l e br a t e R e a di ng! ( 1995 1997) a nd t he A c c e l e r a t e d R e a de r P r ogr a m ( A dva nt a ge L e a r ni ng S ys t e m s I nc 1996) T he S R A R e a di ng M a s t e r y pr ogr a m i s a di r e c t i ns t r uc t i on c ur r i c ul um w i t h c ont r ol l e d voc a bul a r y pr e s e nt a t i o n a nd s e que nc e w hi l e C e l e br a t e R e a di ng! i s a l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d s e r i e s t ha t i s l e s s c ont r ol l e d a nd s e que nc e d. T he A c c e l e r a t e d R e a de r P r ogr a m i s a n a ut he nt i c l i t e r a t ur e pr ogr a m w i t h hund r e ds of books a t pr e de t e r m i ne d l e ve l s of r e a da bi l i t y a nd no r e qui r e d s e que nc i ng. P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e m oni t or e d t w o t i m e s pe r w e e k f or e i ght w e e ks i n e a c h of t he t hr e e pr obe t ype s P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e m oni t o r e d i n m a t e r i a l one l e ve l a bove t he i r i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l R e s ul t s of t he K i ng e t a l ( 2002) r e s e a r c h s how e d a s i gni f i c a nt m a i n e f f e c t o f c ur r i c ul um on m e a n r e gr e s s i on s l ope s T he s l ope of i m p r ove m e nt a ve r a ge d a c r os s r e a di ng l e ve l s w a s hi ghe s t f or t he A c c e l e r a t e d R e a de r P r og r a m a ut he nt i c l i t e r a t ur e p r obe s a nd l ow e s t f or t he S c ot t F or e s m a n l i t e r a t u r e ba s e d pr obe s T he r e w a s a l s o a m a i n e f f e c t of i ns t r uc t i ona l r e a di ng l e ve l on t he o r a l r e a di ng r a t e m e a n r e gr e s s i on s l ope s H ow e ve r unl i ke pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h ( F uc hs e t a l 1993; M a r s t on & T i nda l 1995) K i ng a nd he r c ol l e a gue s di d not f i nd t ha t s t ude nt s i n l ow e r g r a de i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l s di s pl a ye d hi ghe r or a l r e a di ng g r ow t h r a t e s I ns t e a d, s t ude nt s a t t he f i r s t gr a de i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l e xhi bi t e d t he l ow e s t gr ow t h r a t e s w he n r e a di ng r a t e s a c r os s c ur r i c ul a w e r e a ve r a ge d. S t ude nt s a t t he s e c ond gr a de r e a di ng l e ve l ha d t he hi ghe s t r a t e of pr og r e s s O ne e xpl a na t i on f or t hi s di s pa r i t y i n f i ndi ngs i s t ha t t he s t ude nt s w e r e gr ou pe d by i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l i n t he K i ng e t a l s t udy a nd by gr a de l e ve l i n t he F uc hs e t a l ( 199 3) a nd M a r s t on a nd T i nda l ( 1995) s t udi e s K i ng e t a l a l s o f ound t ha t t he m e a n r e gr e s s i on s l ope s di f f e r e d s i gni f i c a nt l y a s a

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30 f unc t i o n of i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l w he n pr obe s f r om e i t he r t he di r e c t i ns t r uc t i on or t he l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d c ur r i c ul a w e r e us e d. H ow e ve r pr obe s de ve l ope d f r om t he a ut he nt i c l i t e r a t ur e c ur r i c ul um w o r ke d e qua l l y a s w e l l f or s t ude nt s a t a l l t hr e e i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l s A l t hough di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he pr obe t ype s w e r e f ound f o r t he m e a n num be r of w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y o r a l r e a di ng pr obe s de ve l ope d f r om va r yi ng c ur r i c ul a ha ve s how n s e ns i t i vi t y t o r e a di ng g r ow t h ove r t i m e ( H i nt z e & S ha pi r o, 199 7; B r a dl e y K l ug e t a l 1998 ; P ow e l l S m i t h & B r a dl e y K l ug, 2001) H ow e ve r K i ng e t a l ( 2002 ) f ound va r yi ng s e ns i t i vi t y t o r e a di ng g r ow t h w he n di f f e r e nt m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l s w e r e us e d f or pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng. I n c ont r a di c t i on t o ot he r f i nd i ngs H i nt z e e t a l ( 1994) r e po r t e d t ha t r e a di ng m a t e r i a l s f r om out s i de t he s t ude nt s c ur r i c ul um w e r e not s e ns i t i ve t o C B M O R F gr ow t h ove r t i m e S t udi e s i nve s t i ga t i ng pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng m a t e r i a l s f r om di f f e r e nt c ur r i c ul a ha ve va r i e d a c c or di ng t o t he l e ngt h of p r ogr e s s m oni t or i ng da t a c ol l e c t i on a n d t he di f f i c ul t y l e ve l o f t he m a t e r i a l s us e d f or m oni t o r i ng. A ddi t i ona l l y r e s e a r c h i nve s t i ga t i ng t he a ppr opr i a t e us e of va r y i ng c ur r i c ul a f or O R F pr og r e s s m oni t or i ng ha s ut i l i z e d c ur r i c ul a r m a t e r i a l s de ve l ope d f r om on l y a f e w r e a di ng s e r i e s a nd non c ur r i c ul a r m a t e r i a l s I t i s unc l e a r w he t he r f i ndi ngs f r om t hi s r e s e a r c h c a n be ge ne r a l i z e d t o p r ogr e s s m oni t or i ng w i t h m a t e r i a l s de ve l ope d f r om ot he r s o ur c e s P ur pos e of t he C ur r e nt St udy T he pur pos e of t he c ur r e nt s t udy i s t o c l a r i f y a nd e xt e nd pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h on t he c om pa r i bi l i t y of C B M O R F r e s ul t s us i ng r e a di ng m a t e r i a l s f r om out s i de of t he s t ude nt s c ur r i c ul um f or r e pe a t e d m e a s ur e m e nt ove r t i m e S pe c i f i c a l l y, t hi s s t udy e va l ua t e d t he us e of ge ne r i c m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l s f or pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng s t ude nt r e a di ng gr ow t h

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31 A ddi t i ona l l y, t h i s s t udy i nve s t i ga t e d e xpe c t e d ga i ns i n w or ds r e a d c o r r e c t l y pe r m i nut e ove r t i m e a t di f f e r e nt gr a de l e ve l s R e s e a r c h que s t i on s a ddr e s s e d i n t hi s s t udy w e r e a s f ol l ow s : 1) D o c ur r i c ul um ba s e d pr obe s r e s ul t i n t he s a m e num be r of w or ds r e a d c o r r e c t l y pe r m i nut e a s s t a nda r di z e d pr obe s de ve l ope d out s i de of a c u r r i c ul um ? 2) D o c ur r i c ul um ba s e d pr obe s r e s ul t i n t he s a m e r a t e of i nc r e a s e ove r t i m e i n w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e a s s t a nda r di z e d pr obe d de ve l ope d out s i de of a c ur r i c ul um ? 3) D oe s t he r a t e of i nc r e a s e ove r t i m e i n w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e di f f e r a t di f f e r e nt g r a de l e ve l s ? 4) I s t he r e a n i nt e r a c t i on e f f e c t of t ype o f p r obe a n d gr a de l e ve l f or t he r a t e of i nc r e a s e i n w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e ove r t i m e ? T hi s s t udy of f e r s t hr e e m a i n c ont r i but i ons t o t he pr e s e nt C B M O R F l i t e r a t ur e ba s e F i r s t t hi s s t udy i nve s t i ga t e d t he c om pa r i bi l i t y of t w o s our c e s of m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l ( i e A I M S w e b, O pe n C our t ) f o r C B M O R F pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng t ha t ha ve no t be e n pr e vi ous l y e xa m i ne d. S e c ondl y, by c ol l e c t i n g pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng da t a f or a l onge r pe r i od of t i m e ( i e 19 w e e ks ) t ha n o t he r s t udi e s e xa m i ni ng t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n r e a di ng gr ow t h ove r t i m e a nd t he m a t e r i a l us e d t o m e a s ur e i t ( i e f i ve t o t e n w e e ks ) t hi s s t udy di s pl a ye d a m or e c om pl e t e p i c t ur e of r e a di n g gr ow t h ove r t i m e T he r e s ul t s of t h i s r e s e a r c h he l pe d t o c l e a r up t he di s pa r i t y i n f i ndi ng s T hi r d, by e xa m i ni ng di f f e r e nc e s i n e xpe c t e d gr ow t h r a t e s due t o di f f e r e nc e s i n m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l s t hi s s t udy a dde d t o t he r e s e a r c h on a c a de m i c gr ow t h s t a nda r ds f or s t u de nt s a nd c l a r i f i e d r e a s ons f or di f f e r e nc e s i n t he r e s ul t s of p r e vi ous r e s e a r c h. I n a ddi t i on, t h i s r e s e a r c h m a y ha ve a

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32 pr a c t i c a l i m pa c t i n t ha t i t m a y i n f or m de c i s i ons a bout t he c hoi c e of pr og r e s s m oni t or i ng m a t e r i a l s a nd a s s i s t i n t he de ve l opm e nt of a ppr opr i a t e goa l s f or i m pr ove m e nt i n O R F w i t h t he e s t a bl i s hm e nt of a c a de m i c g r ow t h s t a nda r ds i n va r yi ng c u r r i c ul a

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33 C ha pt e r T hr e e M e t hod T hi s s t udy a ddr e s s e d t he e f f e c t o f t he s our c e of r e a di ng m a t e r i a l f or pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng ( r e a di ng p r obe t ype ) on s t ude nt r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e ove r t i m e w i t hi n C B M S pe c i f i c a l l y, t he num be r o f w o r ds r e a d c or r e c t l y p e r m i nut e ( W R C ) us i ng r e a di ng p r obe s s a m pl e d f r om t he s t ude nt s c ur r i c ul um w a s c om pa r e d t o W R C us i ng ge ne r i c p r obe s T he r a t e of g r ow t h ove r t i m e i n W R C w i t h e a c h t ype of pr obe a t di f f e r e nt gr a de l e ve l s w a s a l s o c om pa r e d. Se t t i ng D a t a f or t h i s s t udy w e r e c ol l e c t e d f r om J a nua r y t o M a y of 2002. D a t a c ol l e c t i on w a s c onduc t e d a t a c e nt r a l F l o r i d a c ha r t e r s c hool s e r vi ng a ppr oxi m a t e l y 80 c hi l dr e n w ho ha ve ha d f r e que nt out of s c hool s us pe ns i ons a nd/ or e xpul s i ons f r om c e nt r a l F l or i da publ i c s c hool s E a c h t e a c he r c ol l e c t e d da t a i n he r i ndi vi dua l c l a s s r oom T he r e a di ng c ur r i c ul um us e d f o r i ns t r uc t i on w a s t he S R A O pe n C our t ba s a l s e r i e s ( 1997) T he O pe n C our t ba s a l s e r i e s i s gr ounde d i n s ys t e m a t i c phone m i c a w a r e ne s s w or d know l e dge a nd c om pr e he ns i on s ki l l s a l ong w i t h w r i t i ng a nd l a ngua ge a r t s s ki l l s a nd s t r a t e gi e s C ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt w i t h p r obe s de ve l ope d f r om O pe n C our t m a t e r i a l ha s be e n us e d a t t hi s s c hool f or t w o ye a r s

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34 O v e r al l Sam pl e and M i s s i ng D at a N i ne t y t hr e e s t ude nt s a t t e nde d t he c ha r t e r s c hool a t t he t i m e of da t a c ol l e c t i on. H ow e ve r not a l l s t ude nt da t a w e r e us e d i n a na l ys i s S i xt e e n s t ude nt s di d not r e a d a t l e a s t 10 w or ds pe r m i nut e i n gr a de l e ve l m a t e r i a l s a nd t hus pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng w a s c om pl e t e d w i t h a n a l t e r na t e a s s e s s m e nt t ool T he r e f or e da t a f r om t he s e 16 pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e not us e d i n a na l ys i s S e c ondl y, t he da t a f r om t w o s t ude nt s w e r e not us e d i n a na l ys i s due t o a c ha nge i n t he l e ve l of m oni t or i ng m a t e r i a l s dur i ng da t a c ol l e c t i on ( e g be ga n w i t h gr a de 2 m a t e r i a l s a nd f i ni s he d w i t h g r a de 3 m a t e r i a l s ) L a s t l y, t he num be r of da t a poi nt s obt a i ne d f or e a c h pa r t i c i pa n t w a s c a l c ul a t e d. W he n gr e a t e r t ha n 50% of t he da t a poi nt s w e r e m i s s i ng f or a ny pa r t i c i pa nt t hos e pa r t i c i pa nt s da t a w e r e dr oppe d f r om s ubs e que nt a na l ys e s A c c or di ng t o da t a c ol l e c t or s gr e a t e r t ha n 50% of m i s s i ng da t a r e s ul t e d f r om t he s t ude nt c ha ngi ng s c hool s T hi s c r i t e r i on r e s ul t e d i n 11 pa r t i c i pa nt s da t a be i ng dr oppe d f r om t he s t udy. A t ot a l of 29 pa r t i c i pa nt s da t a w e r e dr oppe d f r om a na l ys e s T he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e e i ght gi r l s a nd 21 boys 24 A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s t hr e e W hi t e s t ude nt s a nd t w o H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s F i f t e e n of t he dr oppe d pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e on f r e e or r e duc e d l unc h s t a t us T w e nt y o f t he s t ude nt s w e r e i n f i r s t g r a de s i x i n s e c ond gr a de a nd t hr e e i n t hi r d gr a de D e s c r i pt i on of t he F i nal Sam pl e T he f i na l s a m pl e f or da t a a n a l ys e s c ons i s t e d of 64 s t ude nt s 41 ( 64 1% ) boys a nd 23 ( 35. 9 % ) gi r l s 26 ( 40. 6% ) f i r s t g r a de r s 21 ( 32 8 % ) s e c ond gr a de r s a nd 17 ( 26. 6 % ) t hi r d gr a de r s S i xt y one ( 95. 3 % ) pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a nd 3 ( 4. 7 % )

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35 pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e w hi t e T a bl e 2 s how s t he de m og r a phi c s w i t hi n t he g r a de l e ve l gr o ups T a bl e 2 P ar t i c i pant D e m ogr aphi c s by G r ade L e v e l G r a de 1 G r a de 2 G r a de 3 N % N % N % G e nde r M a l e 16 61. 5 13 61. 9 12 70. 6 F e m a l e 10 38. 5 8 38. 1 5 29. 4 E t hni c i t y A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n 25 96. 2 20 95. 2 16 94. 1 W hi t e 1 3. 8 1 4. 8 1 5. 9 M at e r i al s O pe n C our t r e adi ng pr obe s T he O pe n C our t ba s a l s e r i e s ( 1997) i s a hi ghl y s t r uc t ur e d a nd e xpl i c i t phoni c s ba s e d a ppr oa c h t o t e a c hi ng r e a di ng t ha t o r ga ni z e s r e a di ng pa s s a ge s a c c or di ng t o r e a di ng di f f i c ul t y a nd phone t i c a l c onc e pt s C B M r e a di ng pr obe s w e r e de ve l ope d a t e a c h gr a de l e ve l by r a ndom l y s e l e c t i ng f r om m a t e r i a l a t t he be gi nni ng m i ddl e a nd e nd of t he ba s a l r e a de r s f o r e a c h g r a de l e ve l A i m s W e b r e adi ng pr obe s A i m s W e b p r obe s a r e g e ne r i c m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l s t ha t w e r e w r i t t e n by e duc a t or s i n one s c hool di s t r i c t i n t he M i dw e s t H ow e a nd S hi nn ( 2001) c onduc t e d s t a t i s t i c a l a na l ys e s on a pool of pos s i bl e r e a di ng pa s s a ge s us i ng da t a f r om a s a m pl e of 24 c hi l dr e n pe r g r a de l e v e l f r om a m i d w e s t e r n s c hool di s t r i c t P a s s a ge s w i t h a l t e r na t e f or m r e l i a bi l i t y be l ow 70 w he n c om pa r e d w i t h ot he r pa s s a ge s a t t he s a m e gr a de l e ve l w e r e d i s c a r de d. A ddi t i ona l l y pa s s a ge s w i t h a m e a n W R C t ha t di f f e r e d f r om t he gr a de l e ve l m e a n by m or e t ha n o ne s t a nda r d de vi a t i on w e r e a l s o di s c a r de d. L e xi l e gr a de d s t a nda r ds of r e a da bi l i t y ( S t e nne r S m i t h, & B ur d i c k, 1983 )

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36 w e r e us e d t o e s t i m a t e r e a di ng pa s s a ge di f f i c ul t y P a s s a ge s w i t h r e a da bi l i t y s c or e s out s i de t he nor m a l r a nge f or e a c h gr a de l e ve l w e r e e l i m i na t e d. F i na l l y, 23 t o 33 p r obe s i n e a c h gr a de l e ve l qua l i f i e d t o be us e d f or pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng. T he a ve r a ge a l t e r na t e f or m r e l i a bi l i t y of t he A i m s W e b pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng pr obe s f or gr a de s one t hr ough t hr e e i s 86 ( H ow e & S hi nn 2001 ) P r ogr e s s m o ni t or i ng w a s c onduc t e d w i t h s t ude nt s i n t he i r c u r r e nt g r a de l e ve l m a t e r i a l us i ng bot h O pe n C our t a nd A I M S w e b pr o be s O pe n C our t pr obe s w e r e s e l e c t e d a t r a ndom f or us e i n pr og r e s s m oni t or i ng, w hi l e A i m s W e b pr obe s w e r e us e d i n t he o r de r r e c om m e nde d by t he d e ve l ope r s D e pe nde nt M e as ur e s T he num be r of w o r ds r e a d c or r e c t l y w a s de t e r m i ne d f or e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt i n e a c h pr obe t ype t w o t i m e s pe r w e e k f or 19 w e e ks T he m e a n num be r of w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y f or t he t w o w e e kl y a dm i ni s t r a t i ons i n e a c h pr obe t ype w e r e u s e d i n a na l ys i s s o t ha t e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt ha d one da t a poi nt pe r w e e k i n e a c h pr o be t ype f or t he 19 w e e ks T he num be r of w o r ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e w a s de t e r m i ne d us i ng t he f ol l ow i ng s c or i ng c r i t e r i a f or C B M i n r e a di ng de s c r i be d by S hi nn ( 1989) : 1. W or ds r e ad c or r e c t l y W or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y a r e t h os e w or ds t ha t a r e pr onounc e d c or r e c t l y, gi ve n t he r e a di ng c ont e xt a T he w or d r e a d m us t be p r onounc e d r e e d w he n pr e s e nt e d i n t he c ont e xt of H e w i l l r e a d t he book, not a s r e d b. R e pe t i t i ons a r e not c ount e d a s i nc or r e c t s c S e l f c or r e c t i ons w i t hi n 3 s e c onds a r e c ount e d a s c or r e c t l y r e a d w or ds

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37 2. W or ds r e ad i nc or r e c t l y T he f ol l ow i ng t ype s of e r r or s a r e c ount e d: ( a ) m i s pr onunc i a t i ons ( b) s ubs t i t ut i ons a nd ( c ) o m i s s i ons F u r t he r w or ds not r e a d w i t hi n t h r e e s e c o nds a r e c ount e d a s e r r or s a M i s pr onunc i at i ons a r e w or ds t ha t a r e m i s r e a d: dog f or di g b. Subs t i t ut i ons a r e w or ds t ha t a r e s ubs t i t ut e d f o r t he s t i m ul us w or d; t hi s i s of t e n i nf e r r e d by a one t o one c or r e s ponde nc e b e t w e e n w or d or de r s : dog f or c at c O m i s s i ons or w or ds s ki ppe d or not r e a d; i f a s t ude nt s ki ps a n e nt i r e l i ne e a c h w or d i s c ount e d a s a n e r r or 3. 3 s e c ond r ul e I f a s t ude nt i s s t r uggl i ng t o pr on ounc e a w or d o r he s i t a t e s f or t hr e e s e c onds t he s t ude nt i s t ol d t he w or d a nd i t i s c ount e d a s a n e r r o r ( p 239 240) T he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e s i n t hi s s t udy w e r e l e ve l w hi c h w a s de f i ne d a s t he m e a n of t he da t a poi nt s f or e a c h t ype o f p r obe a nd t he s l ope s de r i ve d f r om O r di na r y L e a s t S qua r e s L i ne a r R e gr e s s i on E qua t i ons f or t he num b e r of w o r ds r e a d c or r e c t l y a c r os s a l l o f t he da t a c ol l e c t i on da ys T he s l ope o f t he nu m be r o f w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y f or e a c h s t ude nt i n e a c h pr obe t ype w a s c a l c ul a t e d us i ng a n O r di na r y L e a s t S qua r e s r e gr e s s i on. E a c h s l ope r e f l e c t e d t he s t ude nt s ga i n i n t he num be r o f w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y i n e a c h t ype of pr obe ove r t i m e T he s l ope s w e r e c a l c ul a t e d ba s e d on t he nu m be r o f pr obe s gi ve n t o e a c h s t ude nt w hi c h di f f e r e d due t o a bs e nc e s on t h e da y of a s s e s s m e nt or a c ha nge i n s c hool s S t ude nt s w ho ha d f e w e r t ha n 20 da t a po i nt s w e r e not us e d i n a na l ys i s T he va r i a bl e s us e d i n t hi s s t udy a r e l i s t e d i n T a bl e 3.

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38 T a bl e 3 T y pe s of V ar i abl e s U s e d i n St udy V a r i a bl e V a r i a bl e T ype S c a l e of M e a s ur e m e nt M a t e r i a l s us e d t o m oni t or s t ude nt r e a di ng pr ogr e s s ( T ype of pr obe A i m s W e b or O pe n C our t ) C a t e g or i c a l I nde pe nde nt V a r i a bl e N om i na l L e ve l of or a l r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e ( m e a n of a l l da t a poi nt s ) C ont i nuous D e pe nde nt V a r i a bl e I nt e r va l S l ope of o r a l r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e ( de t e r m i ne d by O r di na r y L e a s t S qua r e s r e gr e s s i on) C ont i nuous D e pe nde nt V a r i a bl e I nt e r va l G r a de l e ve l ( one t w o, or t hr e e ) C a t e gor i c a l I nde pe nde nt V a r i a bl e O r di na l P r oc e dur e D at a c ol l e c t or s E a c h o f t he t e a c he r s a t t he s c hool c ol l e c t e d da t a f o r e a c h s t ude nt i n t he i r c l a s s e s T e a c he r s w e r e e a c h f e m a l e a nd A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n. T e a c he r s c hos e t he t i m e of da y a nd l oc a t i on i n t he c l a s s r oom T he r e f o r e t he s e va r i a bl e s w e r e di f f e r e nt i n di f f e r e nt c l a s s r oom s T e a c he r s w e r e t r a i ne d i n t he us e of C B M by U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da f a c ul t y dur i ng a ha l f da y s e s s i on. A ddi t i ona l l y, a pow e r p o i nt pr e s e nt a t i on pr ovi de d by E df or m a t i on I nc w a s us e d t o t r a i n t e a c he r s i n t he us e of A I M S w e b pr obe s a nd t he i nput of i nf o r m a t i on i n t o t he c om put e r I nt e r r a t e r a gr e e m e nt w a s c ol l e c t e d pr i or t o t he be gi nni ng of da t a c ol l e c t i on a s pa r t of t he E d f or m a t i on t r a i ni ng f or t he us e o f A i m s W e b m a t e r i a l s a nd m e t E df or m a t i on t r a i ni ng s t a nda r ds

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39 P r ogr e s s m oni t or i ng. P r ogr e s s m oni t or i ng w a s c onduc t e d t w i c e a w e e k i n e a c h t ype of p r obe f o r e a c h of t he 19 w e e ks of t he s e m e s t e r f r om J a nua r y t o M a y of 2002. T e a c he r s e a c h c ol l e c t e d da t a i n t he i r ow n c l a s s r oom s T w o O pe n C our t pr obe s a nd t w o A i m s W e b pr obe w e r e us e d e a c h w e e k a nd t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on or de r w a s O pe n C our t a nd t he n A I M S w e b e a c h t i m e T he m e a n of t he t w o w e e kl y a dm i ni s t r a t i ons f or e a c h pr obe t ype w a s us e d i n a na l ys i s T he pur pos e of pr og r e s s m oni t or i ng w a s t o de t e r m i ne e a c h s t ude nt s r a t e of p r ogr e s s a nd t he di f f e r e nc e s i n s t u de nt pe r f or m a nc e i n t he t w o pr obe t ype s E a c h s t ude nt r e a d t he pa s s a ge out l oud a c c or di ng t o s t a nda r di z e d di r e c t i ons E a c h t e a c he r a s k e d a n i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt t o r e a d a pa s s a ge a nd t i m e d t he s t ude nt f or one m i nut e w i t h a s t opw a t c h. T e a c he r s us e d a c opy of t he s t ude nt pr obe s t o m a r k e a c h s t ude nt s e r r or s a nd a s ke d t he s t ude nt s t o s t op r e a d i ng a f t e r one m i nut e T e a c he r s c ount e d t he num be r o f w o r ds r e a d c or r e c t l y a nd t h e num be r of e r r o r s a nd r e c or de d t he s e num be r s on t he t e a c he r s c opy of e a c h pr obe R e s e ar c h de s i gn. A r e pe a t e d m e a s ur e s de s i gn w a s us e d i n t hi s s t udy. T he i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e s w e r e t he t ype o f p r obe s us e d i n pr og r e s s m on i t or i ng a nd t he s t ude nt s gr a de l e ve l T he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e s w e r e t he l e ve l o f t he num be r o f w o r ds r e a d c or r e c t l y a nd t he s l ope ( r a t e of c ha nge i n W R C P M pe r w e e k) i n e a c h t ype of pr obe D at a anal y s i s T he da t a a na l ys e s w a s us e d t o a ns w e r t he f ol l ow i ng que s t i ons : 1) D o c ur r i c ul um ba s e d pr obe s r e s ul t i n t he s a m e num be r of w or ds r e a d c o r r e c t l y pe r m i nut e a s s t a nda r di z e d pr obe s de ve l ope d out s i de of a c u r r i c ul um ?

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40 2) D o c ur r i c ul um ba s e d pr obe s r e s ul t i n t he s a m e r a t e of i nc r e a s e ove r t i m e i n w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e a s s t a nda r di z e d pr obe d de ve l ope d out s i de of a c ur r i c ul um ? 3) D oe s t he r a t e of i nc r e a s e ove r t i m e i n w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e di f f e r a t di f f e r e nt g r a de l e ve l s ? 4) I s t he r e a n i nt e r a c t i on e f f e c t of t ype o f p r obe a n d gr a de l e ve l f or t he r a t e of i nc r e a s e i n w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e ove r t i m e ? T he f i r s t s t e p i n a na l ys i s w a s t o pl ot t he W R C P M da t a f or e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt i n e a c h t ype of p r obe ove r t he t w e nt y w e e ks E a c h m e a n w e e kl y da t a c ol l e c t i on poi nt w a s pl ot t e d w i t h W R C on t he y a xi s a nd da t e on t he x a xi s T h i s s t udy c onc e pt ua l i z e d C B M O R F gr ow t h a s a l i ne a r f unc t i on us i ng t he s l ope a s t he pa r a m e t e r de s c r i bi ng t he c ha nge T he a s s um pt i on of l i ne a r i t y w a s ba s e d on t he r e s ul t s of s e ve r a l s t udi e s t ha t c onf i r m r e a di ng gr ow t h ove r t i m e a s a l i ne a r r e l a t i ons hi p ( e g. D e no, F uc hs M a r s t on, & S h i n, 2001; S hi nn, G ood, & S t e i n 1989 ) A r e gr e s s i on l i ne w a s f i t t o e a c h s t ude nt s da t a us i ng O r di na r y L e a s t S qua r e s R e gr e s s i on a nd t he r 2 s t a t i s t i c w a s us e d t o j udge t he goodne s s of f i t a nd t h e a ppr opr i a t e ne s s of a l i ne a r r e l a t i ons hi p. O r di na r y L e a s t S qua r e s r e g r e s s i on w a s us e d be c a us e i t ha s be e n s how n t o e s t i m a t e s l o pe m or e pr e c i s e l y t ha n t he s pl i t m i ddl e m e t hod a nd i t m i n i m i z e s t he di s t a nc e be t w e e n t he da t a poi nt s a nd t he r e gr e s s i on l i ne ( S hi nn e t a l 1989) T he l e ve l a nd s l ope of t h e r e gr e s s i on l i ne f o r e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt i n e a c h t ype of p r obe w e r e us e d i n a na l ys e s T he l e v e l w a s de t e r m i ne d by t a ki ng t he m e a n of a l l o f t he da t a poi nt s f o r e a c h i nd i vi dua l f o r e a c h t ype of pr obe a nd r e pr e s e n t s t he a ve r a ge num be r of w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y. T he s l ope r e pr e s e nt s t he r a t e o f c ha nge i n t he

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41 num be r of w or ds r e a d c o r r e c t l y ove r t i m e T he a ve r a ge l e ve l a nd s l ope f o r e a c h g r a de l e ve l a nd f or a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s c om bi ne d w e r e de t e r m i ne d. T he i nt e r c e pt f or e a c h r e gr e s s i on l i ne w a s c a l c ul a t e d us i ng O r di na r y L e a s t S qua r e s r e gr e s s i on t o a s s e s s s t ude nt s i ni t i a l r e a di n g pe r f or m a nc e f or e a c h t ype of pr obe T he c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he s l ope s a nd i nt e r c e pt s f or e a c h gr a de l e ve l a nd a n ove r a l l c or r e l a t i on w a s e xa m i ne d t o de t e r m i ne i f di f f e r e nc e s i n s l ope va l ue s w e r e r e l a t e d t o di f f e r e nc e s i n s t ude nt s i ni t i a l l e ve l o f pe r f or m a nc e T w o r e pe a t e d m e a s ur e s A N O V A s w e r e us e d i n t hi s s t udy be c a us e pa r t i c i pa nt s e xpe r i e nc e d e a c h of t he p r obe t ype c ondi t i ons A 3 ( gr a de ) x 2 ( pr obe t ype ) r e pe a t e d m e a s ur e s A N O V A us i ng t he t hr e e gr a de l e ve l s a s a be t w e e n gr oup va r i a bl e a nd t he t w o pr obe t ype s a s a w i t hi n gr oup va r i a bl e w a s c onduc t e d f or t he s l ope s a s w e l l a s f or t he l e ve l s T hi s pr oc e dur e w a s us e d t o de t e r m i ne i f t h e r e w a s a n e f f e c t by gr a de a nd/ o r pr obe t ype a nd a l s o i f t he r e w a s a n i n t e r a c t i on be t w e e n g r a de a nd pr obe t ype P os t hoc a na l ys e s w e r e c onduc t e d t o f u r t he r a na l yz e A N O V A r e s ul t s

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41 C ha pt e r F our R e s ul t s T hi s c ha pt e r de s c r i be s t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a m pl e t he s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s us e d t o a ns w e r t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons a nd t he out c om e s o f t he va r i ous a na l ys e s E a c h r e s e a r c h que s t i on w i l l be di r e c t l y a ddr e s s e d. I ndi v i dual A na l y s i s D a t a w e r e pl ot t e d f o r e a c h i nd i vi dua l i n e a c h t ype of pr obe ove r t he 19 w e e ks w i t h t i m e i n w e e ks on t he x a xi s a nd m e a n num be r of w o r ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e ( W R C P M ) on t he y a xi s D a t a f or 17 o f t he 19 w e e ks w e r e pl ot t e d a nd us e d i n t he a na l ys e s be c a u s e no da t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d i n w e e k 1 1 due t o s pr i ng va c a t i on. A l s o, pr e pa r a t i on f o r s t a t e s t a nda r di z e d t e s t i ng w a s c ond uc t e d dur i ng w e e k s e ve n a nd da t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d f or onl y 12. 5 % o f pa r t i c i pa nt s du r i ng t ha t w e e k. T hus da t a f o r w e e k 7 w e r e not us e d i n a na l ys e s e i t he r A r e gr e s s i on l i ne w a s f i t t o e a c h s t ude nt s da t a us i ng O r di na r y L e a s t S qua r e s r e gr e s s i on. T he R 2 s t a t i s t i c w a s us e d t o j udge t he goodne s s of f i t a nd t he a ppr op r i a t e ne s s of a l i ne a r r e l a t i ons hi p f o r e a c h i ndi vi dua l D e s c r i pt i ve da t a f or e a c h pr obe t ype i n e a c h gr a de a r e r e por t e d i n T a bl e 5 T he s e r e s ul t s s how e d t ha t t he g oodne s s of f i t f or t he i ndi vi dua l r e gr e s s i on l i ne s w a s ne a r l y t he s a m e f or t he t w o t ype s of p r obe s ove r a l l a nd i n f i r s t gr a de H ow e ve r t he goodne s s of f i t w a s s l i ght l y be t t e r f or s e c ond gr a de s t ude nt s

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42 us i ng t he O pe n C our t m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l s t ha n t he A i m s W e b m a t e r i a l s U s e of e i t he r t ype of m a t e r i a l f o r t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt pr og r e s s m oni t or i ng r e s ul t e d i n ove r a l l l ow goodne s s of f i t f or i ndi vi dua l s i n t he s t udy. T a bl e 5 R 2 D e s c r i pt i v e s by G r ade L e v e l and T y pe of P r obe A i m s W e b O pe n C our t G r a de M e a n S D M e a n S D 1 0. 62 0. 24 0. 61 0. 23 2 0. 37 0. 26 0. 44 0. 23 3 0. 13 0. 12 0. 06 0. 08 c om bi ne d 0. 41 0. 30 0. 41 0. 30 A l l pa r t i c i pa nt da t a w e r e pl ot t e d f or e a c h pr obe t y pe a nd a r e di s pl a ye d i n F i gur e s 1 a nd 2. T o f ur t he r e xa m i ne t he di f f e r e nc e s due t o m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l da t a w e r e pl ot t e d f or e a c h gr a de l e ve l i n e a c h t ype of p r obe a nd a r e di s pl a ye d i n F i gur e s 3 4 5 6 7, a nd 8 A l t hough t he a ggr e ga t e d da t a s e e m s i m i l a r i nc r e a s e d di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he pr obe t ype s i s m or e a ppa r e nt f o r t hi r d g r a d e T he num be r of out l i e r s i nc r e a s e d i n t hi r d gr a de t he s t a nda r d de vi a t i on i nc r e a s e d, a nd t he s l o pe s l e ve l e d out F u r t he r a na l ys e s w e r e ne c e s s a r y t o de t e r m i ne i f us i ng di f f e r e nt pr obe t yp e s f or m e a s ur e m e nt m a de a s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e i n t he r e s ul t i ng W R C P M L e v e l C al c ul at i on T he l e ve l w a s c a l c ul a t e d by t a ki ng t he m e a n of t he w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e ( W R C P M ) f or e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt i n e a c h t yp e of p r obe T he l e ve l s w e r e a l s o c a l c ul a t e d a c r os s gr a de s T he m e a ns a nd s t a nda r d de vi a t i ons f or e a c h pr obe t ype a t e a c h gr a de l e ve l a r e r e por t e d i n T a bl e 6.

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43 F i gur e 1. O ve r a l l m e a n W R C P M m e a s ur e d w i t h A i m s W e b m a t e r i a l s F i gur e 2. O ve r a l l m e a n W R C P M m e a s ur e d w i t h O pe n C our t m a t e r i a l s 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Week

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44 F i gur e 3. F i r s t gr a de m e a n W R C P M m e a s ur e d w i t h A i m s W e b m a t e r i a l s F i gur e 4 F i r s t gr a de m e a n W R C P M m e a s ur e d w i t h O pe n C our t m a t e r i a l s

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45 F i gur e 5. S e c ond g r a de m e a n W R C P M m e a s ur e d w i t h A i m s W e b m a t e r i a l s F i gur e 6 S e c ond g r a de m e a n W R C P M m e a s ur e d w i t h O pe n C our t m a t e r i a l s

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46 F i gur e 7. T h i r d g r a de m e a n W R C P M m e a s ur e d w i t h A i m s W e b m a t e r i a l s F i gur e 8 T h i r d g r a de m e a n W R C P M m e a s ur e d w i t h O pe n C our t m a t e r i a l s

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47 T a bl e 6 L e v e l D e s c r i pt i v e St at i s t i c s by T y pe of P r obe and G r ade O pe n C our t pr obe s A i m s W e b pr obe s G r a de L e ve l N M e a n S D M e a n S D 1 26 27. 1 8 14. 46 35. 35 19. 25 2 21 41. 07 22. 17 54. 49 30. 57 3 17 66. 22 15. 66 71. 84 21. 21 P e ar s on C or r e l at i ons B e t w e e n O pe n C our t W R C P M and A I M Sw e b W R C P M by w e e k I n a ddi t i on t o de s c r i pt i ve a na l ys e s P e a r s on c or r e l a t i ons w e r e r un be t w e e n t he t w o pr obe t ype a t e a c h t i m e pe r i od t o e xa m i ne W R C P M i n e a c h pr obe t ype e a c h w e e k. C or r e l a t i on c oe f f i c i e nt s r a nge d f r om 93 t o 40 w i t h t hr e e c or r e l a t i on c oe f f i c i e nt s g r e a t e r t ha n 0. 9, s e ve n c oe f f i c i e nt s be t w e e n 80 a nd 89, f i ve be t w e e n 70 a nd 79 t w o be t w e e n 50 a nd 59, a n d one be t w e e n 30 a nd 39 A l l c o r r e l a t i ons be t w e e n t he pr obe t ype s a t e a c h t i m e pe r i od w e r e s i gni f i c a nt a t t he 05 l e ve l e xc e pt t he f i na l w e e k of da t a c ol l e c t i on w hi c h ha d a c or r e l a t i on c oe f f i c i e nt of 398 a t a p = 0. 091 s i gni f i c a nc e l e ve l O ve r a l l t he s e r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e t ha t t he t w o t ype s of m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l s a r e m e a s ur i ng t he s a m e t hi ng. Sl ope C al c ul at i on O r di na r y L e a s t S qua r e s ( O L S ) r e gr e s s i on a na l ys i s w a s c onduc t e d f or e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt i n e a c h t ype of r e a di ng m a t e r i a l r e s ul t i ng i n t w o s l ope va l ue s pe r pa r t i c i pa nt E a c h s l ope va l ue r e pr e s e nt e d t he i nc r e a s e i n t he nu m be r of W R C P M pe r w e e k us i ng e a c h t ype of p r obe f o r m e a s ur e m e nt S l ope va l ue s w e r e a l s o c a l c ul a t e d f or e a c h gr a de l e ve l a nd t he m e a ns a nd s t a nda r d de vi a t i ons f o r e a c h pr obe t ype a r e r e por t e d i n T a bl e 7. T i m e ( w i t h w e e k s t a r t i ng a t 0) w a s us e d a s t he i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e a nd W R C P M w a s t he

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48 de pe nde nt va r i a bl e i n e a c h a na l ys i s D a t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d t w o t i m e s pe r w e e k a nd t he m e a n W R C P M i n e a c h pr obe t ype w a s us e d i n t he a na l ys i s T a bl e 7 Sl ope D e s c r i pt i v e St at i s t i c s by T y pe of P r obe and G r ade O pe n C our t pr obe s A i m s W e b pr obe s G r a de L e ve l N M e a n S D M e a n S D 1 26 1. 48 0. 81 1. 49 0. 67 2 21 1. 26 0. 69 0. 92 0. 98 3 17 0. 14 0. 6 0. 41 0. 5 T o de t e r m i ne i f di f f e r e nc e s i n s l ope va l ue s w e r e r e l a t e d t o s t ude nt s i ni t i a l pe r f or m a nc e c o r r e l a t i ons w e r e c om put e d be t w e e n t he s l ope a nd t he i nt e r c e pt ( de t e r m i ne d by O r di na r y L e a s t S qua r e s R e gr e s s i on) a t e a c h g r a de l e ve l T he s e c or r e l a t i ons a r e di s pl a ye d i n T a bl e 8 T he onl y s i g ni f i c a nt c or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n s l ope a nd i nt e r c e pt w e r e f o r s e c ond gr a de A i m s W e b a nd t hi r d gr a de O pe n C our t T he s e r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e t ha t w he n m e a s ur e d w i t h A i m s W e b m a t e r i a l s t he l ow e r t he s e c ond gr a de s t ude nt s i ni t i a l pe r f o r m a nc e w a s t he f a s t e r t he i r r a t e of gr ow t h w a s ove r t he 19 w e e ks A l s o, w he n m e a s ur e d w i t h O pe n C our t m a t e r i a l s t he l ow e r t he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s i ni t i a l pe r f o r m a nc e w a s t he f a s t e r t he i r r a t e o f g r o w t h w a s ove r t he 19 w e e ks T a bl e 8 C or r e l at i on C oe f f i c i e nt s f or Sl ope and I nt e r c e pt by G r ade A i m s W e b O pe n C our t G r a de C or r e l a t i on S i gni f i c a nc e C or r e l a t i on S i gni f i c a nc e 1 025 902 235 248 2 443* 044 112 630 3 365 149 508* 0038 *p < 05

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49 A nal y s i s of V ar i anc e f or L e v e l T he f i r s t que s t i on t o be a ns w e r e d by t hi s s t udy w a s 1) F or e l e m e nt ar y s t ude nt s do c ur r i c ul um bas e d pr obe s r e s ul t i n t he s am e num be r of w or ds r e ad c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e as s t andar di z e d pr obe s de v e l op e d out s i de of a c ur r i c ul um ? T o a ns w e r t hi s que s t i on a 3 ( g r a de ) x 2 ( p r obe t ype ) r e pe a t e d m e a s ur e s A N O V A us i ng t he t hr e e gr a de l e ve l s ( f i r s t s e c ond, a nd t hi r d) a s a be t w e e n gr oup va r i a bl e a nd t he t w o pr obe t ype s ( O pe n C our t a nd A i m s W e b) a s t he w i t hi n gr oup v a r i a bl e w a s c onduc t e d w i t h l e ve l a s t he de pe nde nt m e a s ur e T a bl e 9 c ont a i ns t he A N O V A out c om e s f or m a i n e f f e c t a nd i nt e r a c t i on e f f e c t s T h i s a na l ys i s i ndi c a t e d no s i gn i f i c a nt i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n gr a de a nd pr obe t ype F ( 2, 61) = 0 30, p = 745. T he l e ve l a na l ys i s di d r e ve a l a s i gni f i c a nt m a i n e f f e c t f or bot h gr a de F ( 2, 61) = 17 36, p = 000 a nd pr obe t ype F ( 1 61 ) = 72. 41 p = 000. T he s e r e s ul t s m e a n t ha t w he n a ve r a ge d a c r o s s gr a de l e ve l s t he m e a n W R C P M w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y hi ghe r us i ng A i m s W e b m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l s t ha n O pe n C our t m a t e r i a l s A l s o, w he n a ve r a ge d a c r os s t he t w o m e a s ur e m e nt pr obe t ype s t he m e a n W R C P M of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n f i r s t s e c ond, a nd t hi r d gr a de s di f f e r e d s i gni f i c a nt l y. T he A i m s W e b pr obe s yi e l de d a m e a n of 35. 35 W R C P M i n f i r s t gr a de 54 49 i n s e c ond gr a de a nd 71. 84 i n t hi r d gr a de T he O pe n C ou r t m a t e r i a l s y i e l de d a m e a n o f 27. 18 W R C P M i n f i r s t gr a de 41. 07 i n s e c ond gr a de a nd 66. 22 i n t hi r d g r a de P os t hoc a na l ys e s w e r e c onduc t e d t o de t e r m i ne w he r e t he gr a de l e ve l di f f e r e nc e s w e r e

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50 T a bl e 9 F v al ue s f or A N O V A R e s ul t s of C B M i n R e adi ng A c r os s G r ade and P r obe T y p e s F a c t or L e ve l S l ope G r a de 9. 05* 22. 72* P r obe T ype 72. 41* 0. 03 G r a de x P r obe T ype 0. 30 2. 19 *p < 01 P os t H oc P r oc e dur e s f or L e v e l T uke y s H one s t l y S i gni f i c a nt D i f f e r e nc e ( H S D ) t e s t w a s us e d i n pos t hoc a na l ys i s m ul t i pl e c om pa r i s on pr oc e dur e t o c l a r i f y A N O V A r e s ul t s f or t he m a i n e f f e c t f or gr a de us i ng l e ve l a s t he de pe nde nt m e a s ur e T a bl e 10 out l i ne s t he pos t hoc c om pa r i s on r e s ul t s T he s e r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e t ha t t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s ha d t he hi ghe s t W R C P M a nd f i r s t gr a de s t ude nt s ha d t he l ow e s t W R C P M H ow e ve r t he di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t hi r d a nd s e c ond gr a de a nd be t w e e n s e c ond a nd f i r s t gr a de w e r e not s i gni f i c a nt ( p> 05) T he onl y s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n g r a de l e ve l s f or W R C P M w a s f or t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s w ho ha d s i gni f i c a nt l y m or e W R C P M t ha n f i r s t g r a de s t ude nt s i n t he s a m pl e T a bl e 10 T uk e y s H SD T e s t A c r os s G r ade L e v e l s f or W R C P M L e v e l G r a de C om pa r i s on M e a n D i f f e r e nc e S i gni f i c a nc e G r a de 3 G r a de 2 13. 38 0. 126 G r a de 3 G r a de 1 27 27* 0. 000 G r a de 2 G r a de 1 13. 88 0. 066 *p < 01 B e c a us e of t he s m a l l s a m pl e s i z e i n t hi s s t udy a nd t he r e s ul t i ng l ow p ow e r e f f e c t s i z e s w e r e c a l c ul a t e d t o f ur t he r c om pa r e pr obe t yp e m a t e r i a l s a t e a c h gr a de l e ve l T he e f f e c t s i z e s w e r e s m a l l a t 0 30 f o r t hi r d g r a de a nd m ode r a t e f or gr a de s one ( 0. 48 ) a nd t w o ( 0. 50 ) A I M S w e b pr obe s r e s ul t e d i n a hi ghe r l e ve l of W R C P M t ha n O pe n C our t

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51 pr obe s di d a t e a c h g r a de l e ve l T he r e f or e a c c or di ng t o t he s e a na l ys e s c ur r i c ul um ba s e d pr obe s ( O pe n C our t ) do not r e s ul t i n t he s a m e W R C P M a s s t a nda r di z e d pr obe s de ve l op e d out s i de t he c ur r i c ul um ( A I M S w e b) A nal y s i s of V ar i anc e f or Sl ope T he s e c ond a nd t hi r d que s t i ons t o be a ns w e r e d by t hi s s t udy w e r e 2) D o c ur r i c ul um bas e d pr obe s r e s ul t i n t he s am e r at e of i nc r e as e ov e r t i m e i n w or ds r e ad c o r r e c t l y p e r m i nut e as s t andar di z e d pr obe s de v e l ope d out s i de of a c ur r i c ul um ? 3) I s t he r e an i nt e r ac t i on e f f e c t of t y pe of pr obe and g r ade l e v e l f or t he r at e of i nc r e as e i n w or ds r e ad c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e ov e r t i m e ? T o a ns w e r t he s e que s t i ons a 3 ( g r a de ) x 2 ( pr obe t ype ) r e pe a t e d m e a s ur e s A N O V A us i ng t he t hr e e g r a de l e ve l s ( f i r s t s e c ond a nd t h i r d) a s a be t w e e n gr oup va r i a bl e a nd t he t w o pr obe t ype s ( O pe n C our t a nd A i m s W e b) a s t he w i t hi n g r oup va r i a bl e w e r e c onduc t e d w i t h s l ope a s t he de pe nde nt m e a s ur e T a bl e 9 c ont a i ns t he A N O V A out c om e s f or m a i n e f f e c t a nd i nt e r a c t i on e f f e c t s T he r e w a s no a s i gni f i c a nt i nt e r a c t i on e f f e c t f or gr a de a nd pr obe t ype F ( 2 61 ) = 2. 19, p = 120. N o s i gni f i c a nt m a i n e f f e c t f o r pr ob e t ype F ( 2, 61) = 0. 03 p = 856 w a s f ound. T he s l ope s m e a s ur e d by A i m s W e b m a t e r i a l s a t e a c h gr a de l e ve l w e r e not s i gni f i c a nt l y di f f e r e nt f r om t hos e m e a s ur e d by O p e n C our t m a t e r i a l s T he m e a n s l ope f or gr a de one m e a s ur e d w i t h A i m s W e b pr obe s w a s 1. 49, 0 92 f o r s e c ond, a nd 0. 41 f or t hi r d T he m e a n s l ope s m e a s ur e d w i t h O pe n C our t m a t e r i a l s w e r e 1. 48 f or f i r s t gr a de 1. 26 f or s e c ond, a nd 0. 14 f or t hi r d A l l s l ope s w e r e s m a l l e s t f or g r a de t hr e e a nd l a r ge s t f o r g r a de one T he s l ope a na l ys i s di d r e ve a l a s i gni f i c a nt m a i n e f f e c t f or g r a de F ( 2, 61) = 22. 72 p

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52 = 000, m e a ni ng t ha t w h e n a ve r a gi ng a c r os s t he t w o t pr obe t ype s t he r a t e o f r e a di ng gr ow t h i s s i gni f i c a nt l y di f f e r e nt a c r os s gr a de l e ve l s A ga i n, pos t hoc a na l ys e s w e r e c onduc t e d t o de t e r m i ne w he r e t he s e di f f e r e nc e s l i e P os t H oc A nal y s i s f or Sl ope T uke y s H one s t l y S i gni f i c a nt D i f f e r e nc e ( H S D ) t e s t w a s us e d i n pos t hoc a na l ys i s m ul t i pl e c om pa r i s on pr oc e dur e t o c l a r i f y A N O V A r e s ul t s f or gr a de l e ve l di f f e r e nc e s T a bl e 11 out l i ne s t he pos t hoc c om pa r i s on r e s ul t s T he s e r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e t ha t s t ude nt s i n f i r s t gr a de ha d s i gni f i c a nt l y s t e e pe r s l ope s f or W R C P M ga i ne d pe r w e e k t ha n t h i r d g r a de s t ude nt s a nd s e c ond gr a de s t ude nt s ha d s i gni f i c a nt l y s t e e pe r s l ope s f or W R C P M ga i ne d pe r w e e k t ha n t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s i n t he s a m pl e H ow e ve r t he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he g r ow t h i n f i r s t gr a de a nd s e c ond gr a de T a bl e 11 T uk e y s H SD T e s t A c r os s G r ade L e v e l s f or W R C P M Sl ope s G r a de C om pa r i s on M e a n D i f f e r e nc e S i gni f i c a nc e G r a de 1 G r a de 2 0. 39 0. 059 G r a de 1 G r a de 3 1. 21* 0. 000 G r a de 2 G r a de 3 0. 81* 0. 000 *p < 01 E f f e c t s i z e s w e r e c a l c ul a t e d t o f ur t he r i nve s t i ga t e d i f f e r e nc e s i n s l ope f o r t he t w o pr obe t ype s T he e f f e c t s i z e s w e r e s m a l l a t 0 01 f o r f i r s t gr a de a nd m ode r a t e f o r g r a de t w o ( 0 40) a nd f or gr a de t h r e e ( 0 49) T he s l ope va l ue s w e r e hi ghe r f o r A i m s W e b m a t e r i a l s i n f i r s t a nd t hi r d g r a de s H ow e ve r t he n e ga t i ve e f f e c t s i z e f or s e c ond gr a de i ndi c a t e s t ha t O pe n C our t m a t e r i a l s pr oduc e d hi gh e r s l ope va l ue s i n s e c ond gr a de T he r e f or e a l t hough t he s l ope va l ue s w e r e not s i gni f i c a nt l y di f f e r e nt a c c or di ng t o t he A N O V A a na l ys i s t he r a t e of gr ow t h i n W R C P M i s hi ghe r m e a s ur e d by A i m s W e b

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53 m a t e r i a l s t ha n by O pe n C our t m a t e r i a l s f or f i r s t a n d t hi r d gr a de r s a nd hi ghe r f o r O pe n C our t i n s e c ond gr a de T he a ns w e r t o que s t i on t w o ba s e d on t he s e a na l ys e s i s t ha t t he t w o t yp e s of pr obe s r e s ul t i n s i m i l a r gr ow t h r a t e s a t e a c h g r a de l e ve l N o s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n w a s f ound be t w e e n t he gr ow t h r a t e s i n W R C P M f or t he t w o t ype s of p r obe s F or que s t i on t h r e e t he s e a na l ys e s s how e d t ha t t he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt i nt e r a c t i o n e f f e c t f or g r a de a nd pr obe t ype de s pi t e t he f i ndi ng t ha t o ne pr obe t ype d i d not yi e l d f a s t e r gr ow t h i n W R C P M a t e a c h g r a de l e ve l G r ow t h R at e A nal y s i s S l ope da t a w e r e r e e xa m i ne d t o a ns w e r que s t i on f o ur 4 ) D oe s t he r at e of i nc r e as e ov e r t i m e i n w or ds r e ad c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e di f f e r at di f f e r e nt gr ade l e v e l s ? T he m e a n s l ope a t e a c h g r a de l e ve l c a n be c onc e pt ua l i z e d a s t he m e a n w e e kl y gr ow t h r a t e T he s e da t a f o r e a c h gr a de l e ve l a r e d i s pl a ye d i n T a bl e 12. R e s ul t s of t he A N O V A us i ng s l ope a s t he de pe n de nt m e a s ur e i ndi c a t e d a s i gni f i c a nt m a i n e f f e c t f o r g r a de l e ve l a nd pos t hoc a na l ys i s r e ve a l e d s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e n c e s i n gr ow t h r a t e s be t w e e n f i r s t a nd t hi r d gr a de a s w e l l a s s e c ond a nd t hi r d gr a de T he r e f or e t he gr ow t h r a t e s of W R C P M do di f f e r a t di f f e r e nt g r a de l e ve l s T a bl e 12 W e e k l y M e an G r ow t h i n W R C P M by G r ade G r ad e A i m s We b O p e n C ou r t 1 1. 49 1. 48 2 0. 92 1. 26 3 0. 41 0. 14

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54 C ha pt e r F i ve D i s c us s i on T he c ur r e nt s t udy w a s c onduc t e d t o c l a r i f y a nd e xt e nd pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h on t he c om pa r i bi l i t y of C B M O R F r e s ul t s us i ng r e a di ng m a t e r i a l s f r om out s i de t he s t ude nt s c ur r i c ul um f or r e pe a t e d m e a s ur e m e nt ove r t i m e S pe c i f i c a l l y, t hi s s t udy e va l ua t e d t he us e of ge ne r i c m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l s f or pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng s t ude nt r e a di ng gr ow t h ove r t i m e A ddi t i ona l l y, t hi s s t udy i nve s t i ga t e d e x pe c t e d ga i ns i n w or ds r e a d c o r r e c t l y pe r m i nut e ove r t i m e a t di f f e r e nt g r a de l e ve l s T he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons a ddr e s s e d i n t hi s s t udy w e r e pr i m a r i l y f oc us e d on w he t he r t he r e w e r e di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n c ur r i c ul um ba s e d r e a di ng pr obe s a nd ge ne r i c s t a nda r di z e d pr obe s de ve l ope d out s i de of a c u r r i c u l um f or m e a s ur i ng s t ude nt p r ogr e s s T hi s c ha pt e r e xpl a i ns t he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy i n r e l a t i on t o p r e vi ous r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs a nd di s c us s e s i m pl i c a t i ons f or f ut u r e r e s e a r c h a nd p r a c t i c e L i m i t a t i ons o f t he s t udy a r e di s c us s e d a l s o. A nal y s i s of L e v e l D at a T he l e ve l a na l ys i s r e ve a l e d a s i gni f i c a nt m a i n e f f e c t f or bot h g r a de a nd pr obe t ype S i gni f i c a nt l y hi ghe r l e ve l s of W R C P M w e r e f ound i n A i m s W e b pr obe s w he n c om pa r e d t o O pe n C ou r t pr obe s W he n c om pa r e d by gr a de l e ve l s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound be t w e e n f i r s t a nd t hi r d gr a de onl y R e s e a r c h ha s c ons i s t e nt l y s how n di f f e r e nc e s i n t he l e ve l of r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e of s t ude nt s m e a s ur e d w i t h pr obe s

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55 de ve l ope d f r om di f f e r e nt c ur r i c ul a ( e g H i nt z e S ha pi r o, & L ut z 1994; B r a dl e y K l ug S ha pi r o, L ut z & D u P a ul 1998; a nd P ow e l l S m i t h & B r a dl e y K l ug, 2001) S e ve r a l s t udi e s c om pa r e d l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d t o ba s a l ba s e d pr obe s ( i e H i nt z e S ha pi r o, & L ut z 1 994 a nd B r a dl e y K l ug S ha pi r o, L ut z & D uP a ul 1998) B r a dl e y K l ug, S ha pi r o, L ut z a nd D uP a ul ( 1998) f ound t ha t a l t hough bot h pr obe t ype s di s pl a ye d s e ns i t i vi t y, m e a n pe r f o r m a nc e us i ng ba s a l pr obe s w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y hi ghe r t ha n m e a n pe r f or m a nc e us i ng l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d pr obe s T he l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d pr obe s m a y ha ve unde r e s t i m a t e d t he l e ve l of s t ude nt pe r f o r m a nc e I n a ddi t i on, t he l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d pr obe s m a y ha ve c ont a i ne d a gr e a t e r pe r c e nt a ge of unf a m i l i a r voc a bul a r y t ha n t he ba s a l pr obe s T he c ur r e nt s t udy r e s ul t s m os t r e s e m bl e d t he r e s e a r c h f r om P ow e l l S m i t h a nd B r a dl e y K l ug ( 2001) w hi c h c om pa r e d ge ne r i c ( no s pe c i f i c c ur r i c ul um ) a nd ba s a l pr obe s A s i n t he c ur r e nt s t udy, t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a d s i gni f i c a nt l y m or e w o r ds c or r e c t l y us i ng ge ne r i c m e a s ur e m e nt pr obe s t ha n us i ng ba s a l pr ob e s T hi s di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he P ow e l l S m i t h a nd B r a dl e y K l ug ( 2001 ) a nd t he c ur r e nt s t udy c oul d be due t o di f f e r e nc e s i n r e a da b i l i t y be t w e e n t he t w o t ype s of pr obe s G e ne r i c pr obe s s uc h a s A i m s W e b a r e c ont r ol l e d f o r s t r i c t r e a da bi l i t y f o r e a c h pa s s a ge ( H ow e & S hi nn 2001 ) but ba s a l p r obe s s uc h a s O pe n C our t ( 1997 ) a r e c ont r ol l e d f or phone t i c a l c onc e pt s a l s o w i t h r e a di ng pa s s a ge s be i ng f oc us e d on t he c onc e pt be i ng c ove r e d f or t ha t s e c t i on of t he c ur r i c ul um O ve r a l l t he m e a n w or ds r e a d c or r e c t pe r m i nut e ( W R C P M ) w e r e c om pa r a bl e t o r e s ul t s of s e ve r a l ot he r s t udi e s a l t hough a bi t l ow e r ( e g H i nt z e S ha pi r o, & L ut z 1994; B r a dl e y K l ug, S ha pi r o, L ut z & D uP a ul 1998; P o w e l l S m i t h & B r a dl e y K l ug 2001) T he s t ude nt s i n t hi s s t udy w e r e r e a di ng a m e a n of 27. 18, 41. 07 a nd 66 22 W R C P M i n

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56 f i r s t s e c ond, a nd t hi r d gr a de r e s pe c t i ve l y i n O pe n C our t pr obe s a nd 35 35, 54. 49 a nd 71. 84 i n A i m s W e b pr obe s B r a dl e y K l ug e t a l f o und t ha t s e c ond gr a de s t ude nt s r e a d a m e a n of 58 64 a nd 54 50 w o r ds c or r e c t pe r m i nu t e i n ba s a l a nd l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d m a t e r i a l r e s pe c t i ve l y. P ow e l l S m i t h a nd B r a dl e y K l ug f oun d t ha t s e c ond gr a de s t ude nt s r e a d a m e a n of 38 3 a nd 50 0 w o r ds c or r e c t pe r m i nut e i n ba s a l a nd l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d m a t e r i a l r e s pe c t i ve l y. D e s pi t e s om e s i m i l a r i t y i n m e a n W R C P M a m ong s t udi e s be nc hm a r ks f or s uc c e s s f ul r e a di ng ha ve i nc r e a s e d i n r e c e nt ye a r s T he m e a n W R C P M w e r e l ow c om pa r e d t o F l o r i da s t a t e be nc hm a r ks a s w e l l a s r e a di ng be nc hm a r ks e s t a bl i s he d by t he a ut hor s of D I B E L S ( D yna m i c I ndi c a t or s of B a s i c E a r l y L i t e r a c y S k i l l s ) T hi s s a m pl e a s a gr oup, w e r e pe r f or m i ng s ubs t a nt i a l l y be l ow F l or i da e s t a bl i s he d be nc hm a r ks of 40, 9 0, a nd 110 a t t he e nd of f i r s t s e c ond, a nd t hi r d gr a de r e s pe c t i ve l y ( F l or i da C e nt e r f or R e a di ng R e s e a r c h, 2004) I n a ddi t i on, s l ope da t a w e r e l ow pa r t i c ul a r l y f o r g r a de s t w o a nd t hr e e l e a di ng t o t he p r e di c t i on t ha t t he s e s t ude nt s w i l l f a l l f ur t he r a nd f ur t he r be hi nd w ha t i s e xpe c t e d of t he m i n s c hool c ur r i c ul um s a n d on hi gh s t a ke s t e s t s R e s e a r c h ha s e s t a bl i s he d m e a s ur e s of or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y a s v a l i d a nd r e l i a bl e pr e di c t or s of bot h ove r a l l r e a di ng out c om e s a nd pe r f or m a nc e on hi gh s t a ke s t e s t s ( G ood, S i m m ons & K a m e e nui 2001) T he m e a n W R C P M f or e a c h g r a de l e ve l of t he c ur r e nt s t udy f a l l i nt o t he m ode r a t e l y be l ow g r a de l e ve l a nd i n ne e d of a ddi t i ona l i nt e r ve nt i on c a t e gor y of t he F l or i da be nc hm a r ks f o r o r a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y ( F l or i da C e nt e r f or R e a di ng R e s e a r c h, 2004) I n a ddi t i on t he s e da t a a r e m e a ns a nd m a ny of t he s t ude nt s i n t he s a m pl e ha d s i gni f i c a nt l y l ow e r l e ve l s of pe r f o r m a nc e T he s e d a t a s ugge s t t ha t m a ny of t he pa r t i c i pa t i ng s t ude nt s w e r e i n ne e d of i nt e ns i ve r e m e di a t i on t o i nc r e a s e gr ow t h r a t e s a nd

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57 br i dge t he ga p be t w e e n t he i r pe r f or m a nc e a nd t he e s t a bl i s he d i ndi c a t or s f or s uc c e s s i n s c hool A nal y s i s of Sl ope D at a T he s l ope a na l ys i s di d not r e ve a l a s i gni f i c a nt m a i n e f f e c t f or p r obe t ype S l ope s w e r e not s i gni f i c a nt l y di f f e r e nt ba s e d on t he t ype o f pr obe t ha t w a s us e d t o m on i t or pr ogr e s s B ot h A i m s W e b a nd O pe n C our t p r obe s w e r e s i m i l a r l y s e ns i t i ve t o r e a di ng gr ow t h ove r t i m e R e s e a r c h on va r yi ng m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l f o r C B M O R F ha s s how n s i m i l a r r e s ul t s w i t h c om pa r a bl y l i ne a r a nd s t a bl e g r ow t h ove r t i m e ( H i nt z e & S ha pi r o, 1997; B r a dl e y K l ug e t a l 1998; P ow e l l S m i t h & B r a dl e y K l ug, 2001) H ow e ve r not a l l s t udi e s f ound e qua l s e ns i t i vi t y t o gr ow t h ove r t i m e f or C B M O R F m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l f r om di f f e r e nt s our c e s I n H i nt z e S ha pi r o a nd L ut z ( 1994) r e ga r dl e s s of t he r e a di ng s e r i e s i n w hi c h t he s t ude nt s w e r e t a ught pe r f or m a nc e de c l i ne d w he n s t ude nt s w e r e m oni t or e d us i ng t he l i t e r a t u r e ba s e d s e r i e s a nd pe r f or m a nc e i nc r e a s e d w he n m oni t or e d w i t h t he t r a di t i ona l ba s a l s e r i e s T he r e f or e t he us e of p r obe s de ve l ope d f r om t he t r a di t i ona l ba s a l s e r i e s f or p r og r e s s m oni t or i ng s how e d gr e a t e r s e ns i t i vi t y t o gr ow t h ove r t i m e t ha n t he us e of l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d pr obe s A l s o K i ng, B r a dl e y K l ug K nof f a nd P ow e l l S m i t h ( 2002) f ound va r yi ng s e ns i t i vi t y t o r e a di ng g r ow t h w he n di f f e r e nt m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l s w e r e us e d f or pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng. T hi s r e s e a r c h s how e d a s i gni f i c a nt m a i n e f f e c t of c ur r i c ul um on m e a n r e gr e s s i on s l ope s T he s l ope of i m pr ove m e n t a ve r a ge d a c r os s r e a di ng l e ve l s w a s hi ghe s t f or t he A c c e l e r a t e d R e a de r P r ogr a m a ut he nt i c l i t e r a t ur e pr obe s a nd l ow e s t f o r t he S c ot t F or e s m a n l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d pr obe s T he r e w a s a l s o a m a i n e f f e c t of i n s t r uc t i ona l r e a di ng l e ve l on t he or a l r e a di ng r a t e m e a n r e g r e s s i on s l ope s F i na l l y K i ng e t a l f ound

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58 t ha t t he m e a n r e gr e s s i on s l ope s di f f e r e d s i gni f i c a nt l y a s a f unc t i on of i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l w he n pr obe s f r om e i t he r t he di r e c t i ns t r uc t i on o r t h e l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d c ur r i c ul a w e r e us e d. H ow e ve r pr obe s de ve l ope d f r om t he a ut he nt i c l i t e r a t ur e c ur r i c ul um w or ke d e qua l l y a s w e l l f or s t ude nt s a t a l l t h r e e i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l s M e t hodol ogi c a l di f f e r e nc e s m a y c ont r i but e t o t he di s pa r i t y of f i ndi ngs a c r os s s t udi e s T he H i n t z e e t a l ( 1994 ) s t udy us e d r e a di ng pr obe s t ha t w e r e de ve l ope d onl y f r om t h i r d g r a de m a t e r i a l i n e a c h of t he r e a di ng s e r i e s T he s a m pl e i n t he K i ng e t a l s t udy c ons i s t e d s ol e l y of s t ude nt s r e c e i vi ng s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s e r vi c e s I n a ddi t i on m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l a nd gr oup pl a c e m e nt w e r e d e t e r m i ne d by i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l r a t he r t ha n gr a de l e ve l Sl ope D i f f e r e nc e s by G r ade T he s l ope a na l ys i s r e ve a l e d a s i gni f i c a nt m a i n e f f e c t f or gr a de F ur t he r e xa m i na t i on of s l ope by gr a de l e ve l r e ve a l e d hi ghe r s l ope s f or f i r s t a nd t hi r d gr a de r s i n A i m s W e b m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l but hi ghe r s l ope s f or s e c ond gr a de r s i n O pe n C our t m a t e r i a l A l t hough t he s l ope s w e r e not s i gni f i c a nt l y di f f e r e nt a t a ny gr a de l e ve l one t ype of m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l w a s not m or e s e ns i t i ve t o gr ow t h ove r t i m e f or e a c h gr a de l e ve l H i nt z e a nd S ha pi r o ( 1997) f ound s i m i l a r r e s ul t s w i t h l a r ge r gr ow t h r a t e s f or s e c ond, t hi r d, a nd f ou r t h g r a de s t ude nt s w he n m on i t or e d i n l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d pr obe s H ow e ve r f i f t h g r a de s t ude nt s s how e d hi ghe r gr o w t h r a t e s w he n m oni t o r e d w i t h ba s a l pr obe s S t udi e s ha ve not s how n a c ons i s t e nt pa t t e r n f or w hi c h pr obe t ype s s how m or e gr ow t h a t w hi c h gr a de l e ve l I n t he c ur r e nt s t udy, r e s ul t s s how e d s m a l l e r s l ope s a s a f unc t i on of i nc r e a s i ng gr a de l e ve l S l ope s w e r e s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r f or g r a de s one a nd t w o t ha n f or gr a de

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59 t hr e e R e s e a r c h t e nds t o s how t ha t t he a ve r a ge w e e kl y ga i ns i n w or ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e de c r e a s e w i t h i nc r e a s i ng gr a de l e ve l ( F uc h s F uc hs H a m l e t W a l z & G e r m a nn 1993; M a r s t on & M a g nus s on, 1985; M a r s t on a nd T i nda l 1995) H ow e ve r unl i ke ot he r r e s e a r c h, K i ng, B r a dl e y K l ug, K nof f a nd P ow e l l S m i t h ( 2002 ) di d not f i nd t ha t s t ude nt s i n l ow e r g r a de i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l s di s pl a ye d hi ghe r or a l r e a di ng g r ow t h r a t e s w i t h a s a m pl e of s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s I ns t e a d, t he s t ude nt s a t t he f i r s t g r a de i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l e xhi bi t e d t he l ow e s t g r ow t h r a t e s w he n r e a di ng r a t e s a c r os s c ur r i c ul a w e r e a ve r a ge d. S t ude nt s a t t he s e c ond gr a de r e a di ng l e ve l ha d t he hi ghe s t r a t e of pr ogr e s s I n a ddi t i on H i nt z e a nd S ha pi r o ( 1997) m oni t o r e d r e a di ng pr ogr e s s of ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s i n ba s a l ba s e d a nd l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d c ur r i c u l a R e s ul t s r e ve a l e d i nc r e a s i ng s l ope s a s a f unc t i on of i nc r e a s i ng gr a de l e ve l s T he onl y e xc e pt i on t o t hi s f i ndi ng w a s hi ghe r s l ope s f or gr a de f our c om pa r e d t o g r a de f i ve w he n m oni t or e d w i t h l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d pr obe s O ne e xpl a na t i on f or t hi s di s pa r i t y i n f i ndi ngs i s t ha t t he s t ude nt s w e r e gr oupe d by i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l i n t he K i ng e t a l s t udy a nd by g r a de l e ve l i n t he F uc hs e t a l ( 1993) a nd M a r s t on a nd T i nda l ( 1995) s t udi e s T hi s gr ou pi ng i nf or m a t i on m e a ns t ha t i n t he K i ng e t a l s t udy a f our t h gr a de s t ude nt c oul d be m oni t or e d w i t h f i r s t g r a de r e a di ng m a t e r i a l a nd be c om pa r e d t o f our t h gr a de s t ude nt s m oni t or e d i n f our t h gr a de r e a di ng m a t e r i a l O t he r r e s e a r c h ha s c om pa r e d s t ude nt r e a di ng pr ogr e s s onl y by gr a de l e ve l w he t he r pr ogr e s s w a s m oni t or e d us i ng gr a de l e ve l i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l or a bove gr a de l e ve l m a t e r i a l s

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60 E x pe c t e d R e adi ng G r ow t h A not he r pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o e xa m i ne e xp e c t e d r e a di ng gr ow t h r a t e a t e a c h gr a de l e ve l i n e a c h t ype of pr obe A i m s W e b a nd O pe n C our t r e s ul t s f or f i r s t g r a de w e r e ve r y s i m i l a r w i t h a gr ow t h of 1 49 a nd 1. 48 w or ds pe r m i nut e r e s pe c t i ve l y. I n s e c ond gr a de w e e kl y r a t e s of c ha nge w e r e 0. 92 f or A i m s W e b a nd 1. 26 f or O pe n C our t T he t hi r d gr a de A i m s W e b s l ope i n W R C P M w a s 0. 41 a nd 0 14 f or O pe n C our t T he s e s l ope s a r e l ow e r t ha n t hos e f ound i n ot he r s t udi e s of ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s r e a di ng ga i ns ( D e no, F uc hs M a r s t on, & S hi n, 2001; F uc hs e t a l 1993; M a r s t on & M a gnus s on, 1985) A l t hough t he c ur r e nt f i ndi ngs f or gr ow t h o ve r t i m e a r e l ow e r t ha n ot he r r e s ul t s f or ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s t he y m o r e c l os e l y r e s e m bl e r e s ul t s f or s t ude nt s r e c e i vi ng s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s e r vi c e s M a r s t on a nd M a gnus s on f ound g r e a t e r gr ow t h f o r f i r s t s e c ond a nd t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s t ha n t he c ur r e nt s t udy w i t h gr ow t hs of 1 6, 1. 4 a nd 1. 9 r e s pe c t i ve l y. H ow e ve r c ur r e nt s t udy r e s ul t s w e r e gr e a t e r t ha n r e s ul t s of t he D e no e t a l s t udy f or s t ude nt s i n s pe c i a l e duc a t i on i n f i r s t gr a d e ( 0. 83 ) a nd s e c ond gr a de ( 0. 57 ) but l ow e r t ha n t he t hi r d gr a de r e s ul t s ( 0 58) S i m i l a r l y c ur r e nt r e s ul t s f o r w e e kl y ga i n w e r e hi ghe r f or f i r s t ( 0 0007) a nd t hi r d gr a de s ( 0 003) b ut c om pa r a bl e f o r s e c ond gr a de ( 0. 931) S om e of t he s e di f f e r e nc e s a c r os s t he s e s t udi e s m a y be due t o t he num be r of da t a c ol l e c t i on poi nt s i n e a c h s t udy. I n t he c ur r e nt s t udy s t ude nt s w e r e m oni t o r e d t w i c e a w e e k f or 17 w e e ks a c r os s a 19 w e e k pe r i od. H ow e ve r da t a c ol l e c t i on pe r i ods va r i e d w i de l y a c r os s pr e vi ous s t udi e s F o r e xa m pl e D e no e t a l ( 2001 ) c ol l e c t e d da t a on l y t hr e e t i m e s i n a ye a r M a r s t on a nd M a gnus s on ( 1985) c o l l e c t e d da t a onc e a w e e k f o r 16 w e e ks a nd K i ng e t a l ( 2002) c ol l e c t e d da t a t w i c e a w e e k f or e i ght w e e ks

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61 D i f f e r e nc e s a l s o m a y be due t o va r i a bi l i t y i n pa r t i c i pa nt popul a t i ons F or i ns t a nc e da t a f or bot h s pe c i a l e duc a t i on a nd ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s w e r e c om bi ne d i n t he F uc hs e t a l ( 1993) s t udy, w he r e a s D e no e t a l ( 2001 ) a nd M a r s t on a nd M a gnus s on ( 1985) s e pa r a t e d t he t w o gr ou ps t o r e por t r e s ul t s T he c ur r e nt s t udy m oni t o r e d ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s w ho w e r e pr i m a r i l y A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n ( 95% ) a s oppos e d t o o t he r s t udi e s w i t h l i t t l e m i no r i t y r e pr e s e nt a t i on. F o r e xa m pl e B r a dl e y K l ug e t a l ( 1998 ) ha d a 5% m i nor i t y w i t h 1% A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s a m pl e P ow e l l S m i t h a nd B r a dl e y K l ug ( 2001) ha d 24% m i no r i t y pa r t i c i pa nt s but no A f r i c a n A m e r i c a ns w e r e i n t he i r s a m pl e H i nt z e e t a l ( 1994 ) us e d t w o s c hool s i n a na l ys i s w i t h s c hool A ha vi ng 8 % m i no r i t y w i t h no A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd s c hool B ha vi n g 25% m i nor i t y w i t h 12 5% A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n pa r t i c i pa nt s A not he r popul a t i on va r i a bl e t ha t m a y a l s o be a f a c t or i s t he be ha vi or p r obl e m s e vi de nt i n t he s c hool f r om w hi c h t he c u r r e nt s a m pl e w a s t a ke n. M os t s t ude nt s a t t he c ha r t e r s c hool ha d f r e que nt di s c i pl i ne pr ob l e m s i n ot he r e duc a t i ona l s e t t i ngs R e s e a r c h ha s s how n a c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n be ha vi or pr obl e m s a nd di f f i c ul t y r e a di ng. F or e xa m pl e V a ughn, H oga n, L a nc e l ot t a a nd S ha pi r o ( 1992 ) c o m pa r e d s i x gr oups o f ki nde r ga r t e n s t ude nt s w i t h a nd w i t hout be ha vi or pr obl e m s w hi c h i nc l ude d a t t e nt i on d i f f i c ul t i e s c onduc t pr obl e m s a nd a nxi e t y. T he s t ude nt s w i t ho ut be ha vi or p r obl e m s de m ons t r a t e d hi ghe r r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s t ha n di d t he g r o ups w i t h r e por t e d be ha vi or p r obl e m s a s i ndi c a t e d by t he R e vi s e d B e ha vi or P r obl e m C he c kl i s t pe e r r a t i ngs of s oc i a l a c c e pt a nc e t e a c he r r a t i ngs of s oc i a l s ki l l s a nd s e l f r a t i ngs A l s o, K ul e kow s ki s ( 1996 ) e xa m i ne d r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt r e l a t e d t o be ha vi or pr obl e m s f or s e c ond gr a de s t ude nt s S t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d by t he i r t e a c he r s a s ha vi ng t r o ubl i ng be ha vi or ha d s i gni f i c a nt l y

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62 l ow e r r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s on t he M e t r opol i t a n A c hi e ve m e nt T e s t S e ve n t ha n s t ude nt s w ho w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a s non t r oubl i ng. A not he r pos s i bl e r e a s on f or t he di f f e r e nc e s i n gr o w t h r a t e s a c r os s s t udi e s m a y be t he l e ve l of t he m a t e r i a l us e d f or m oni t o r i ng. I n t h i s s t udy, gr a de l e ve l m a t e r i a l w a s us e d f or m oni t or i ng r e ga r dl e s s of t he s t ude nt s r e a di ng l e ve l s T he onl y r e qui r e m e nt w a s t ha t t he s t ude nt s r e a d a t l e a s t 10 w o r ds pe r m i nu t e i n t h e gr a de l e ve l m a t e r i a l s R e s ul t s of a M a r s t on a nd M a gnus s on ( 1985) s t udy s how e d t he gr e a t e s t s l ope f or m a t e r i a l i n w hi c h t he s t ude nt s r e a d 11 t o 20 w or ds c or r e c t pe r m i nut e f o r f i r s t a nd s e c ond gr a de r s a nd 41 t o 50 w o r ds r e a d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nu t e f or t hi r d t hr ough s i xt h gr a de r s I n 1988, t he s a m e r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t be t w e e n 10 a nd 30 w or ds c or r e c t pe r m i nut e f or f i r s t a nd s e c ond gr a de s t ude nt s a nd be t w e e n 30 a n d 60 w or ds f or t hi r d t hr ough s i xt h gr a de r s yi e l de d t he hi ghe s t s l ope s S hi nn, G l e a s o n, a nd T i nda l ( 1989 ) f ound no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n s l ope be t w e e n e a s i e r pa s s a g e s ( one l e ve l be l ow i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l ) a nd m or e di f f i c ul t pa s s a ge s ( one l e ve l a bove i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l ) A l t hough t he r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he di f f i c ul t y of t he r e a di ng pa s s a ge di d not a f f e c t s t ude nt pr og r e s s t he r e s e a r c he r s s ugge s t e d t ha t t he f a i l ur e t o f i nd di f f e r e nc e s i n t he s l ope s m a y ha ve b e e n due t o t he s m a l l s a m pl e s i z e ( 30 s t ude nt s ) a nd l ow pow e r F i na l l y, H i nt z e D a l y, a nd S ha pi r o ( 1998) f ound hi ghe r s l ope s i n gr a de l e ve l c om pa r e d t o goa l l e ve l m a t e r i a l f or f i r s t a nd s e c ond gr a de s t ude nt s T he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n s l ope s f o r t hi r d a nd f our t h gr a de s t ude nt s C or r e l at i on B e t w e e n I ni t i al L e v e l of P e r f or m anc e and R at e o f G r ow t h E duc a t or s of t e n a s s um e t ha t s t ude nt s w ho pe r f or m a t l ow l e ve l s a l s o di s pl a y

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63 s l ow e r gr ow t h, how e ve r t he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy s ugge s t t ha t e ve n w he n a s t ude nt ha s l ow i ni t i a l s ki l l s i t doe s not m e a n t ha t t he y w i l l ha ve a s l ow e r r a t e of pr ogr e s s T hi s f i ndi ng i s c ons i s t e n t w i t h f i ndi ngs of P ow e l l S m i t h, S hi nn, S t one r a nd G ood ( 2000 ) K i ng e t a l ( 2002) a l s o f ound t ha t w he n m e a s ur e d w i t h A c c e l e r a t e d R e a de r P r ogr a m m a t e r i a l s s t ude nt s w ho di s pl a ye d t he l ow e s t l e ve l of pe r f or m a nc e ha d t he hi ghe s t r a t e o f g r ow t h ove r t i m e L i m i t at i ons T hi s s t udy ut i l i z e d a pr e e xi s t i ng da t a s e t t ha t p r oh i bi t e d a l t e r a t i ons t o m uc h of t he m e t hodol ogy ( e g. pa r t i c i pa nt s e l e c t i on) G i ve n t he s e c i r c um s t a nc e s t he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy ha ve t o be i nt e r pr e t e d i n l i ght of s e ve r a l l i m i t a t i ons F i r s t t hi s s t udy u t i l i z e d onl y 64 pa r t i c i pa nt s w hi c h i ndi c a t e s gr oup s i z e s of 26, 21, a nd 17 s t ude nt s A l a r ge r da t a s e t m i ght yi e l d di f f e r e nt r e s ul t s S e c ond, t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e dr a w n f r om onl y one s c hool T h i s s c hool m a y or m a y not be s i m i l a r t o ot h e r s c hool s i n e duc a t i ona l s t a nda r ds t e a c hi ng m e t hodol ogi e s a nd s t ude nt popul a t i on T he s e unknow n va r i a bl e s w i l l r e qui r e c a ut i on i n ge ne r a l i z i ng t he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy t o o t he r s c hool s T hi r d ut i l i z i ng pa r t i c i pa nt s f r om onl y t h r e e gr a de l e ve l s ( i e f i r s t s e c ond, a nd t hi r d) m a y l i m i t t he e xt e r na l va l i di t y o f t he r e s ul t s s uc h t ha t f i ndi ngs m a y onl y be ge ne r a l i z e d t o s t ude nt s i n f i r s t t hr ough t hi r d gr a de s F ou r t h, t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e 64% m a l e 95% A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, a nd m a ny ha d be ha vi or a l pr obl e m s w h i c h doe s not a c c ur a t e l y r e f l e c t t he e t hni c c om pos i t i on of t he c ount y, s t a t e o r c ount r y T he ge ne r a l i z a bi l i t y o f r e s ul t s m a y be l i m i t e d by t he ove r r e pr e s e nt a t i on of A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n a nd m a l e s t ude nt s H ow e ve r t he r e pr e s e nt a t i on of A f r i c a n A m e r i c a ns i n t hi s s t u dy i s i n s ha r p c ont r a s t t o ot he r s t udi e s i n t he a r e a o f r e a di ng a s s e s s m e nt w i t h ve r y f e w A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n pa r t i c i pa nt s

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64 T he r e f or e ge ne r a l i z a t i on t o A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n pop ul a t i ons m a y be i m p r ove d ove r c om pa r e d t o ot he r s i m i l a r s t udi e s T he r e a r e a l s o l i m i t e d da t a on i nt e r s c or e r a c c ur a c y a nd t e a c he r s c ol l e c t e d onl y da t a f o r t he i r ow n c l a s s e s D i f f e r e nc e s i n s c or i ng a m ong t e a c he r s a nd s i t ua t i ona l f a c t or s i n a dm i n i s t r a t i on ( di f f e r e nt t e a c he r s a dm i ni s t e r i ng pa s s a ge s di f f e r e nt l oc a t i ons w i t hi n c l a s s r oom s di f f e r e nt t i m e s of da y f or t e s t i ng, know l e dge of t i m i ng ) m a y ha ve a f f e c t e d r e s ul t s of t he a na l ys e s P r e vi ous r e s e a r c h ha s f ound t ha t s t ude nt r e a di ng r a t e m a y be a f f e c t e d by w ho a dm i ni s t e r s t he pr obe s w he r e t he pr obe s a r e a dm i ni s t e r e d, a nd i f t he s t ude nt know s he or s he i s be i ng t i m e d ( D e r r M i nne c i & S ha pi r o 1992) A ddi t i ona l l y p r obe s w e r e not c ount e r ba l a nc e d f or da t a c ol l e c t i on. D a t a w e r e us ua l l y c ol l e c t e d f or O pe n C our t pr obe s f ol l ow e d by A i m s W e b pr obe s w i t h no r a ndom or de r A l s o, A i m s W e b a nd O pe n C our t p r obe s w e r e e a c h done i n t he s a m e or de r f or e a c h s t ude nt w hi c h m a y c ons t i t ut e a t hr e a t t o i nt e r na l va l i di t y. L a s t l y, t hi s s t udy m e a s ur e d us i ng gr a de l e ve l m a t e r i a l r e ga r dl e s s of r e a di ng l e ve l T hi s c hoi c e m a y ha ve r e s ul t e d i n c e i l i ng e f f e c t s f or hi gh l e ve l r e a de r s T he gr e a t e s t gr ow t h i n r e a di ng ha s be e n s how n w he n m e a s ur e d j us t a t or j us t be yond i ns t r u c t i ona l l e ve l G i ve n t he s e l i m i t a t i ons ge ne r a l i z a bi l i t y m a y be l i m i t e d be yond t he i m m e di a t e pa r t i c i pa nt s a m pl e a nd f ur t he r r e s e a r c h m a y be ne e de d t o c onf i r m t he r e s ul t s of t h i s s t udy. I m pl i c at i ons f or F ut ur e R e s e ar c h T he r e s ul t s of t he c ur r e nt s t udy c oul d be f u r t he r va l i da t e d t hr ough r e pl i c a t i on. I n a ddi t i on, s i m i l a r r e s e a r c h w i t h va r i ous m i nor i t y gr oups a nd s t ude nt s w i t h va r i ous be ha vi or i s s ue s a nd di s a bi l i t i e s c oul d s he d l i ght on a ny di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n gr oups r e l a t e d t o m e a s ur e m e nt us i ng va r i ous m a t e r i a l s F ut ur e r e s e a r c h c oul d a l s o s e r ve t o di s t i ngui s h i f di f f e r e nc e s i n t he g r ow t h r a t e s i n t he c ur r e nt s t udy a nd p r e vi ous r e s e a r c h

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65 w i t h pr e dom i na t e l y C a uc a s i a n popul a t i ons a r e due t o t he m e a s ur e m e nt i t s e l f ( e g. t i m e f a c t or ) t ype s of m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l a nd/ or l ow l e ve l s of r e a di ng gr ow t h i n t he c ur r i c ul um i n w hi c h t he s t ude nt s a r e t a ught A s i m i l a r s t udy c oul d a l s o hi ghl i ght di f f e r e n c e s i n m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l s a nd r e a di ng gr ow t h f o r s t ude nt s w i t h be ha vi or a l c onc e r ns t o f ur t he r i nve s t i ga t e w ha t i m pa c t t he be h a vi or a l c onc e r ns ha ve on r e a di ng l e ve l a nd r a t e of r e a di ng g r ow t h. F ut ur e r e s e a r c h m a y a l s o a t t e nd t o t he di f f e r e nc e s i n l e ve l a m ong di f f e r i ng m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l s t o de t e r m i ne i f l e ve l be nc hm a r ks f or s uc c e s s f ul r e a di ng out c om e s a nd hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng a r e di f f e r e nt w i t h di f f e r i ng pr obe t ype s I t m a y be be ne f i c i a l t o know t he be nc hm a r ks t ha t a r e s pe c i f i c t o t he m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l e duc a t or s us e L ooki ng a t t he di f f e r e nc e s i n be n c hm a r ks m a y be m or e pr a gm a t i c f or l i t e r a t ur e a nd ba s a l ba s e d m a t e r i a l s t ha n t he ge ne r i c p r obe s t ha t a r e m or e s t r i c t l y c ont r ol l e d f o r r e a da bi l i t y a nd s e e m i ngl y s i m i l a r S i m i l a r l y t he l a r ge s c a l e m ove m e nt t ow a r d us i ng ge ne r i c pr obe s m a y e xpl a i n hi ghe r be nc hm a r k e xpe c t a t i ons t ha n p r e vi ous l y us e d i ns t r uc t i ona l pl a c e m e nt s t a nda r ds T hi s i s be c a us e t hi s r e s e a r c h s how e d t h a t l e ve l s of W R C P M w e r e hi ghe r w he n ge ne r i c pr obe s w e r e us e d f o r m e a s ur e m e nt r a t he r t ha n c ur r i c ul a r p r obe s F ut ur e r e s e a r c h c oul d e xa m i ne w he t he r e xpe c t a t i ons f or s t ude nt s ha ve i nc r e a s e d i n t hi s a r e a o r i f t he c ha nge i n w i de l y us e d s our c e s of m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l ha s dr i ve n t he i nc r e a s e i n be nc hm a r k s t a nda r ds I m pl i c at i ons f or E duc at i onal P r a c t i c e T he us e of ge ne r i c no t c ur r i c ul a r p r obe s w a s s how n t o be e qua l l y a s s e ns i t i ve t o gr ow t h ove r t i m e a s ba s a l pr obe s T he ge ne r i c p r o be s m a y be m or e e f f i c i e nt f or us e i n a n e duc a t i ona l s e t t i ng be c a us e t he y a r e pr e m a de a nd of t e n a r e a c c om pa ni e d by t e c hnol ogy

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66 f or g r a phi ng a nd o r ga ni z i ng pr og r e s s m oni t or i ng r e s ul t s A s t e c hnol ogy be c om e s i nc r e a s i ngl y vi t a l i n e duc a t i on ge ne r i c pr obe s m a y be c om e m or e a t t r a c t i ve t o e duc a t or s f or a bunda nt c om pa r i s on w i t h ot he r e duc a t or s a nd e a s e of us e T he di s pa r i t y i n f i nd i ng s be t w e e n t hi s s t udy a nd ot he r s t udi e s w i t h pr i m a r i l y C a uc a s i a n pa r t i c i pa nt s s he d s l i ght on t he ne e d t o m oni t or t he pr ogr e s s of va r i ous m i nor i t y gr oups w i t hi n a s c hool t o de t e c t p r obl e m s w i t h t he a c a de m i c c ul t ur e of a s c hool or t he i ne qui t y of t he e duc a t i on t he r e i n T hi s ne e d be c om e s a ppa r e nt w i t h A de qua t e Y e a r l y P r ogr e s s r e qui r e m e nt s unde r N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd ( 2001) i n w hi c h a l l g r oups a r e e xpe c t e d t o s how t he r e qui r e d pr og r e s s not j us t t h e ove r a l l s c hool C B M O R F pr e s e nt s a s one w a y t o ke e p t r a c k of pr ogr e s s w i t hi n d i f f e r e nt gr oups a nd i nd i c a t e w he r e c ha nge s a r e ne e de d.

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67 C onc l us i on T hi s s t udy c ont r i but e d t o t he pr e s e nt C B M O R F l i t e r a t ur e ba s e i n s e ve r a l w a ys F i r s t t h i s s t udy s uppor t s t he c om pa r a bi l i t y of t w o s our c e s of m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l ( i e A i m s W e b, O pe n C our t ) f or C B M O R F pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng t ha t ha d not be e n pr e vi ous l y e xa m i ne d a nd f ound t ha t t he y a r e a ppr oxi m a t e l y e qua l l y s e ns i t i ve t o gr ow t h ove r t i m e S e c ond, by c ol l e c t i ng pr ogr e s s m oni t o r i ng da t a f or a l onge r pe r i od o f t i m e ( i e 19 w e e ks ) t ha n ot he r s t udi e s e xa m i ni ng t he r e l a t i ons h i p be t w e e n r e a di ng g r ow t h ove r t i m e a nd t he m a t e r i a l us e d t o m e a s ur e i t ( i e f i ve t o t e n w e e ks ) t hi s s t udy p r ovi d e d a m or e c om pl e t e pi c t ur e of r e a di ng g r ow t h ove r t i m e T he r e s ul t s of t h i s r e s e a r c h he l pe d t o c l e a r up t he di s pa r i t y i n f i ndi ngs T hi r d, by e xa m i ni ng d i f f e r e nc e s i n e xpe c t e d gr ow t h r a t e s due t o di f f e r e nc e s i n m e a s ur e m e nt m a t e r i a l s t hi s s t udy a dde d t o t he r e s e a r c h on a c a de m i c gr ow t h s t a nda r ds f or s t ude nt s e s pe c i a l l y a s i t r e l a t e s t o A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n popul a t i ons I n a ddi t i on, t hi s r e s e a r c h ha s pr a c t i c a l i m pa c t i n i nf or m i ng de c i s i ons a bout t he c hoi c e of p r ogr e s s m oni t or i ng m a t e r i a l s a nd a s s i s t i ng i n t he de ve l opm e nt o f a ppr opr i a t e goa l s f o r i m p r ove m e nt i n O R F w i t h t h e e s t a bl i s hm e nt of a c a de m i c gr ow t h s t a nda r ds i n va r yi ng c ur r i c ul a F i na l l y t he s a m pl e c ons i s t e d pr i m a r i l y o f s t ude nt s w i t h be ha vi or a l di f f i c ul t i e s w ho w e r e p r i m a r i l y A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n. T he us e of t hi s s a m pl e pr ovi de d i ns i ght a nd pr e l i m i na r y da t a r e ga r di ng di f f e r e nc e s a m ong g r oups of s t ude nt s w ho di f f e r by e t hni c i t y a nd be ha vi or ut i l i z i ng m e a s ur e m e nt f r om di f f e r e nt s our c e s f or C B M O R F pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng.

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68 R e f e r e nc e s B r a dl e y K l ug, K L S ha pi r o E S L ut z J G D uP a ul G J ( 1998) E va l ua t i on of or a l r e a di ng r a t e a s a c u r r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e w i t hi n l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d c ur r i c ul um J our nal of Sc hool P s y c hol ogy 36 183 197 D e no, S L ( 1985) C ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt : T he e m e r gi ng a l t e r na t i ve E x c e pt i onal C hi l dr e n, 52 219 232 D e no, S L ( 1989) C ur r i c ul um b a s e d m e a s ur e m e nt a nd s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s e r vi c e s : A f unda m e nt a l a nd di r e c t r e l a t i ons hi p. I n M R S h i n n ( E d ) C ur r i c ul um B as e d M e as ur e m e nt : A s s e s s i ng Spe c i al C hi l dr e n ( pp. 1 17) N e w Y or k: G ui l f or d P r e s s D e no, S L D e no, D M a r s t on, D & M a r s t o n, D ( 1987) T e s t o f r e adi ng f l ue nc y : M e as ur e s f or s c r e e ni ng and pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng. M i nne a pol i s M N : C hi l dr e n s E duc a t i ona l S e r vi c e s D e no, S L F uc hs L S M a r s t on, D & S hi n J ( 2001) U s i ng c u r r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt t o e s t a bl i s h gr ow t h s t a nda r ds f or s t u de nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s Sc hool P s y c hol ogy R e v i e w 30 507 523. D e no, S L M i r ki n P K & C hi a ng, B ( 1982) I de nt i f yi ng va l i d m e a s ur e s of r e a di ng. E x c e pt i onal C hi l dr e n, 49 36 45

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69 D unn, L M & M a r kw a r dt F C ( 1970 ) P e abod y I ndi v i dual A c hi e v e m e nt T e s t C i r c l e P i ne s M N : A m e r i c a n G ui da nc e S e r vi c e s E nge l m a nn, S & B r une r E C ( 1995 ) R e adi ng M as t e r y ( R a i nbow e d. ) W or t h i ngt on, O H : S R A M a c m i l l a n/ M c G r a w H i l l F uc hs L S & D e no S L ( 1992) E f f e c t s of c ur r i c ul um w i t hi n c ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt E x c e pt i onal C hi l dr e n, 58 232 243 F uc hs L & D e no, S L ( 1994) M us t i ns t r uc t i on a l l y us e f ul pe r f o r m a nc e a s s e s s m e nt be ba s e d i n t he c ur r i c ul um ? E x c e pt i onal C hi l dr e n, 61 15 24 F uc hs L S F uc hs D & D e no S L ( 1982) R e l i a bi l i t y a nd va l i di t y of c ur r i c ul um ba s e d I nf or m a l r e a di ng i nve nt or i e s R e adi ng R e s e ar c h Q uar t e r l y 18( 1) 6 26 F uc hs L S F uc hs D H a m l e t t C L W a l t z L & G e r m a nn, G ( 1993) F or m a t i ve e va l ua t i on of a c a de m i c pr og r e s s : H ow m uc h g r ow t h c a n w e e xpe c t ? Sc hool P s y c hol ogy R e v i e w 22 27 48 F uc hs L S F uc hs D & M a xw e l l L ( 1988) T h e va l i di t y of i nf o r m a l r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on m e a s ur e s R e m e di al and Spe c i al E duc at i on, 9 20 28 F uc hs L S T i nda l G & D e no, S L ( 1984) M e t hodol ogi c a l i s s ue s i n c ur r i c ul um ba s e d r e a di ng a s s e s s m e nt D i agnos t i que 9 191 2 07. G ood, R H S i m m ons D C & K a m e e nui E ( 20 01) T he i m por t a nc e a nd de c i s i on m a ki ng c om pa r i bi l i t y of a c ont i nuum of f l ue nc y b a s e d i ndi c a t or s of f ounda t i ona l r e a di ng s ki l l s f or t hi r d gr a de hi gh s t a ke s out c om e s S c i e nt i f i c S t udi e s o f R e a di ng, 5, 257 288

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70 H a r t m a n, J M & F ul l e r M L ( 1997 ) T he de ve l opm e nt of c u r r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt nor m s i n l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d c l a s s r oom s J our nal of Sc hool P s y c h ol ogy 35( 4) p 377 389 H i nt z e J M D a l y I I I E J & S ha pi r o E S ( 199 8) A n i nve s t i ga t i on of t he e f f e c t s of pa s s a ge di f f i c ul t y l e ve l on out c om e s o f or a l r e a di n g f l ue nc y pr og r e s s m oni t or i ng Sc hool P s y c hol ogy R e v i e w 27 433 445. H i nt z e J M S ha pi r o E S ( 1997 ) C ur r i c ul um b a s e d m e a s ur e m e nt a nd l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d r e a di ng: I s c ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt m e e t i ng t he ne e ds of c ha ngi ng r e a di ng c ur r i c ul a ? J our nal of Sc hool P s y c hol ogy 35 351 375 H i nt z e J M S ha pi r o E S C ont e K L & B a s i l e I M ( 1997 ) O r a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y a nd a ut he nt i c r e a di ng m a t e r i a l : C r i t e r i on va l i di t y of t he t e c hni c a l f e a t ur e s of C B M s ur ve y l e ve l a s s e s s m e nt Sc hool P s y c hol ogy R e v i e w 26 535 553. H i nt z e J M S ha pi r o, E M & L u t z J G ( 1994 ) T he e f f e c t s of c ur r i c ul u m on t he s e ns i t i vi t y of c ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt i n r e a di ng. T he J our nal of Spe c i al E duc at i on, 28 188 202. H ow e K B & S h i nn, M M ( 2001) St andar d r e adi ng as s e s s m e nt pas s age s f or us e i n ge ne r al out c om e m e as ur e m e nt : A m anual de s c r i bi ng de v e l opm e nt and t e c hni c al f e at ur e s E de n P r a i r i e M N : E df o r m a t i on. K a r l s e n, B L M a dde n, R & G a r ne r E ( 1975 ) S t anf or d D i agnos t i c R e adi ng T e s t ( 2 n d e d. ) S a n A nt oni o T X : P s yc hol ogi c a l C or por a t i on

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71 K i ng, M L B r a dl e y K l ug, K L K nof f H M & P ow e l l S m i t h, K A ( 2002) T r ac k i ng t he r e adi ng pr ogr e s s of s t ude nt s w i t h s pe c i f i c l e ar ni ng di s abi l i t i e s : A c om par i s on of di r e c t i ns t r uc t i on, l i t e r at ur e bas e d, and aut he nt i c r e adi ng c ur r i c ul um bas e d m e a s ur e s U npubl i s he d m a nus c r i pt U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da K os l i n, B L K os l i n, S Z e no, S M & I ve ns S H ( 1989 ) T he de gr e e s of r e adi ng pow e r t e s t : P r i m ar y and s t andar d f or m s B r e w s t e r N Y : T ouc hs t one A ppl i e d S c i e nc e A s s oc i a t e s K ul e kow s ki s J ( 1996) T he e f f e c t o f s t ude nt be ha v i or on t he r e adi ng ac hi e v e m e nt of s e c ond gr ade s t ude nt s E r i c doc um e nt E D 397398 M a dde n, R G a r dne r E R R udm a n, H C K a r l s e n, B & M e r w i n, J C ( 1973) St anf or d A c hi e v e m e nt T e s t N e w Y or k: H a r c our t B r a c e J ova novi c h. M a r s t on, D & M a gn us s on, D ( 1985) I m pl e m e nt i ng c ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt i n s pe c i a l a nd r e gul a r e duc a t i on s e t t i ngs E x c e pt i onal C hi l dr e n, 52 266 276 M a r s t on, D & M a gnus s on, D ( 1988) C ur r i c ul u m ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt : D i s t r i c t l e ve l i m pl e m e nt a t i on. I n J L G r a de n J E Z i ns & M J C ur t i s ( E ds ) A l t e r nat i v e e duc at i onal de l i v e r y s y s t e m s : E nhanc i ng i ns t r uc t i onal opt i ons f or al l s t ude nt s ( pp. 137 172) W a s hi ngt on, D C : N a t i ona l A s s oc i a t i on of S c hool P s yc hol ogi s t s M a r s t on, D & T i nda l G ( 1995 ) P e r f or m a nc e m oni t or i ng. I n A T ho m a s & J G r i m e s ( E ds ) B e s t P r ac t i c e s i n Sc hool P s y c hol ogy I I I ( pp 597 607 ) W a s hi ngt on, D C : N a t i ona l A s s oc i a t i on of S c hool P s yc hol ogi s t s

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72 N a s l und, R A T hor pe L P & L e f e ve r D W ( 1 978) SR A A c hi e v e m e nt Se r i e s C hi c a go: S c i e nc e R e s e a r c h A s s oc i a t e s N a t i ona l R e a di ng P a ne l ( 2000) T e ac hi ng c hi l dr e n t o r e ad: A n e v i de nc e bas e d as s e s s m e nt of t he s c i e nt i f i c r e s e ar c h l i t e r at ur e on r e adi ng and i t s i m pl i c at i ons f or r e adi ng i ns t r uc t i on: R e por t s of t he s ubgr oups W a s hi ng t on, D C : N a t i ona l I ns t i t ut e of C hi l d H e a l t h a nd H um a n D e ve l opm e nt P ow e l l S m i t h K A & B r a dl e y K l ug K L ( 2001 ) A not he r l ook a t t he C i n C B M : D oe s i t r e a l l y m a t t e r i f c ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt r e a di ng pr obe s a r e c ur r i c ul um ba s e d? P s y c hol ogy i n t he Sc hool s 38 299 312. P ow e l l S m i t h K A & S t e w a r t L H ( 1998) T h e us e of c ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt i n t he r e i nt e g r a t i on of s t ude nt s w i t h m i l d di s a bi l i t i e s I n M R S hi nn ( E d. ) A dv anc e d appl i c at i ons of c ur r i c ul um bas e d m e as ur e m e nt ( pp. 254 297) N e w Y or k: G ui l f or d P r e s s S hi nn, M R ( E d ) ( 1998) A dv anc e d A ppl i c at i on s of C ur r i c ul um B as e d M e as ur e m e nt N e w Y or k: G ui l f or d P r e s s S hi nn, M & M a r s t on, D ( 1985) D i f f e r e nt i a t i ng m i l dl y ha ndi c a ppe d, l ow a c hi e vi ng, a nd r e gul a r e duc a t i on s t ude nt s : A c ur r i c ul um ba s e d a ppr oa c h. R e m e di al and Spe c i al E duc at i on, 6 31 38 S hi nn, M R G l e a s on, M M & T i nda l G ( 1989 ) V a r yi ng t he di f f i c ul t y of t e s t i ng m a t e r i a l s : I m pl i c a t i ons f or c ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt J our nal of Spe c i al E du c at i on, 23, 223 233.

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73 S hi nn, M R G ood, R H I I I K nut s on, N T i l l y, W D & C ol l i ns V L ( 1992) C ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt of o r a l r e a di ng f l u e nc y: A c onf i r m a t or y a na l ys i s of i t s r e l a t i on t o r e a di ng. Sc hool P s y c hol ogy R e v i e w 21, 459 479 S um A ( 1999) L i t e r a c y i n t he L a bor F or c e : R e s ul t s f r om t he N a t i ona l A dul t L i t e r a c y S ur ve y P ubl i c a t i on num be r N C E S 1999470 S t e nne r A J S m i t h, M & B ur d i c k, D S ( 1983) T ow a r d a t he o r y of c ons t r uc t de f i ni t i on. J our nal of E duc at i onal M e as ur e m e nt 20, 305 315 T i nda l G ( 1988) C ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt I n J L G r a de n, J E Z i ns & M J C ur t i s ( E ds ) A l t e r nat i v e E duc at i ona l D e l i v e r y Sy s t e m s : E nhanc i ng I ns t r uc t i onal O pt i ons f or al l St ude nt s ( pp. 111 135) W a s hi ngt on, D C : N a t i ona l A s s oc i a t i on of S c hool P s yc hol ogi s t s T i nda l G G e r m a nn, G & D e no, S L ( 1983) D e s c r i pt i v e r e s e a r c h on t he P i ne C ount y nor m s : A c om pi l at i on of f i ndi ngs ( R e s R e p. N o. 1 32) M i nne a pol i s : U ni ve r s i t y of M i nne s ot a I ns t i t ut e f o r R e s e a r c h on L e a r ni n g D i s a bi l i t i e s T i nda l G M a r s t on, D & D e no S L ( 1983) T h e r e l i abi l i t y of di r e c t and r e pe at e d m e as ur e m e nt ( R e s R e p. N o. 109) M i nne a pol i s : U ni ve r s i t y of M i nne s ot a I ns t i t ut e f or R e s e a r c h on L e a r ni ng D i s a bi l i t i e s T uc ke r J ( 1987 ) C ur r i c ul um ba s e d a s s e s s m e nt i s no f a d T he C ol l abor at i v e E duc at or 1, 4 10 V a ughn, S H oga n, A L a nc e l ot t a G & S ha pi r o, S ( 1992) S ubgr ou ps of c hi l d r e n w i t h s e ve r e a nd m i l d be ha vi or p r obl e m s : S oc i a l c o m pe t e nc e a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt J our nal of C l i ni c al C hi l d P s y c hol og y 21

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74 W oodc oc k, R W ( 1973 ) W oodc oc k R e adi ng M a s t e r y T e s t s C i r c l e P i ne s M N : A m e r i c a n G ui da nc e S e r vi c e s Y e l l M D e no, S L & M a r s t on, D ( 1992) B a r r i e r s t o i m pl e m e nt i ng c ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt D i agnos t i que 18( 1) 99 112.