USF Libraries
USF Digital Collections

The impact of peer tutoring and self-monitoring on oral reading fluency for children who exhibit symptoms of attention-d...

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
The impact of peer tutoring and self-monitoring on oral reading fluency for children who exhibit symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Leis, Shannon M
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Adhd predominantly inattentive type
Second grade students
Self-graphing
Curriculum-based measurement
Academic interventions
Dissertations, Academic -- Interdisciplinary -- Specialist -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of peer tutoring and self-monitoring interventions on the oral reading performance of students exhibiting symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Predominantly Inattentive Type. A multiple baseline across participants design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the peer tutoring and self-monitoring interventions with four second grade students who were tutored by fourth grade students. Results indicated that the median number of words read correct per minute as measured by curriculum-based measurement reading probes increased from baseline to intervention phases for three of the four tutee participants. In addition, the median number of errors from baseline to intervention phases decreased for three of the four participants. However, data were highly variable for three of the four participants.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ed.S.)--University of South Florida, 2005.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Shannon M. Leis.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 108 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001681038
oclc - 62708579
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001089
usfldc handle - e14.1089
System ID:
SFS0025410:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

T he Im pa c t of P e e r T ut or i ng a nd S e l f M o ni t ori ng o n O ra l R e a di ng F l u e nc y for Chi l dre n w ho E xhi bi t S ym pt o m s of A t t e nt i on D e fi c i t / H ype r a c t i vi t y D i s ord e r by S ha nnon M L e i s A t he s i s s ubm i t t e d i n pa rt i a l fu l fi l l m e n t of t he re qui r e m e n t s for t he d e gre e o f E duc a t i on S pe c i a l i s t D e pa rt m e n t of P s yc hol ogi c a l a nd S oc i a l F ounda t i ons Col l e ge of E duc a t i on U ni ve rs i t y of S out h F l ori da M a j or P rofe s s or: K e l l y A P ow e l l S m i t h P h.D M e m be rs : K a t hy L Bra dl e y K l ug, P h.D L i nda R a ffa e l e M e nd e z P h.D D a t e of A pprova l : F e brua ry 22, 2005 K e yw ords : A D H D P re dom i na nt l y Ina t t e nt i ve T ype s e c ond gra d e s t ude nt s s e l f gr a p hi ng, c urri c ul u m ba s e d m e a s ure m e nt a c a d e m i c i nt e rve n t i ons C opyri ght 2005 S ha nnon M L e i s

PAGE 2

i T a bl e of Con t e nt s L i s t of T a b l e s i i i L i s t of F i gure s i v A bs t ra c t v Cha pt e r O ne Int rodu c t i on 1 A s s oc i a t i on be t w e e n A D H D a nd A c a de m i c P robl e m s 2 A c a de m i c D e fi c i t s 2 A c a de m i c U nde ra c hi e v e m e nt 3 Ra t i ona l e for t h e S t udy 4 Re s e a rc h Q ue s t i ons 4 Cha pt e r T w o. L i t e r a t ur e Re vi e w 5 S e l f M a na ge m e nt 5 S t udi e s Im pl e m e nt i ng S e l f M a na ge m e n t S t ra t e gi e s 6 P e e r T ut ori ng 1 9 S t udi e s Im pl e m e nt i ng P e e r T ut ori ng 21 S um m a ry 28 Cha pt e r T hr e e M e t hodol ogy 31 P a rt i c i p a nt s 32 S e t t i ng 35 E vi de nc e of E t h i c a l Cons i de r a t i on s 35 P a rt i c i p a nt Re c rui t m e n t P ro c e dure s 36 D e pe nde nt M e a s ur e s 36 T e c hni c a l A d e qua c y of C BM Re a di ng P robe s 37 S e l e c t i on a nd A dm i n i s t ra t i on of CBM Re a di ng P robe s 38 W oodc oc k J oh ns on III T e s t s of A c hi e ve m e nt 39 Cons um e r S a t i s fa c t i on 41 Re s e a rc h D e s i gn 41 P re B a s e l i ne 41 Ba s e l i ne 42 P e e r T ut ori ng 43 S e l f M oni t ori ng/ S e l f G ra p hi ng 44 P roc e dura l Re l i a b i l i t y 45 Int e rra t e r A gre e m e nt 46 D a t a A na l ys i s 47

PAGE 3

i i Cha pt e r F our. Re s ul t s 49 S urve y L e ve l A s s e s s m e nt D a t a 49 D a t a A na l ys i s 51 P a rt i c i p a nt 1 51 P a rt i c i p a nt 2 52 P a rt i c i p a nt 3 53 P a rt i c i p a nt 4 53 S oc i a l V a l i di t y 55 Cha pt e r F i ve D i s c us s i on 5 9 P ra c t i c a l Im p l i c a t i ons 63 L i m i t a t i ons 65 Re c om m e nda t i ons for F ut ure Re s e a rc h 68 Conc l us i ons 71 Re fe re nc e s 73 A ppe ndi c e s 80 A ppe ndi x A : Cons e nt F o rm s 81 A ppe ndi x B: T ut or R e c om m e nd a t i on F orm 91 A ppe ndi x C: P e e r T u t or i ng T r a i ni n g Che c kl i s t 92 A ppe ndi x D : P e e r T ut or i ng Im pl e m e nt a t i on Che c kl i s t 93 A ppe ndi x E : T u t e e G r a ph T ra i ni ng Che c kl i s t 94 A p pe ndi x F : P rogre s s M oni t ori ng D a t a for P a rt i c i pa n t 1 95 A ppe ndi x G : P rogre s s M oni t ori ng D a t a for P a rt i c i pa n t 2 96 A ppe ndi x H : P rogre s s M oni t ori ng D a t a for P a rt i c i pa n t 3 97 A ppe ndi x I : P rogre s s M oni t ori ng D a t a for P a rt i c i p a n t 4 98 A ppe ndi x J : Chi l dre ns Int e rve nt i o n Ra t i ng P rofi l e 99 A ppe ndi x K : Int e rve n t i on Ra t i ng P rofi l e 100

PAGE 4

i i i L i s t of T a b l e s T a bl e 1 S um m a ry of T u t e e P a rt i c i p a nt s D e m ogra phi c Inform a t i on 33 T a bl e 2 R e s ul t s from A D H D Ra t i ng S c a l e IV S c hool a nd H om e V e rs i on s (D uP a ul e t a l ., 1998) 3 4 T a bl e 3 S um m a ry of T u t or P a rt i c i p a nt s D e m ogra phi c Infor m a t i on 35 T a bl e 4 D e m ogra ph i c Info rm a t i on f or E l e m e nt a ry S c hoo l 35 T a bl e 5 R e s ul t s of W oodc o c k J ohns on III T e s t s of A c hi e v e m e n t Re a di ng Ba s i c Re a d i ng S ki l l s 40 T a bl e 6 S urve y L e v e l A s s e s s m e nt D a t a 51 T a bl e 7 CIRP Re s ul t s 57 T a bl e 8 IRP Re s ul t s 58

PAGE 5

i v L i s t of F i gure s F i gure 1. P rogre s s m oni t ori ng gra phs f or p a rt i c i pa nt s 1, 2, 3, a nd 4 101

PAGE 6

v T he Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T ut ori ng on O ra l Re a di ng F l ue n c y for Chi l dre n w ho E xhi b i t S ym pt o m s of A t t e n t i on D e fi c i t / H ype r a c t i vi t y D i s orde r S ha nnon M L e i s A BS T RA CT T hi s s t udy e xa m i ne d t h e e ffe c t s of pe e r t u t ori ng a nd s e l f m oni t or i ng i nt e r ve nt i ons on t he ora l r e a d i ng pe rform a nc e of s t ud e nt s e xhi bi t i ng s ym p t om s of A t t e n t i on D e fi c i t / H ype ra c t i v i t y D i s orde r: P re do m i n a nt l y Ina t t e n t i ve T ype A m u l t i p l e ba s e l i n e a c ros s pa rt i c i pa n t s de s i gn w a s us e d t o e va l ua t e t he e ff e c t i ve n e s s of t he pe e r t ut ori n g a nd s e l f m oni t or i ng i nt e rve nt i ons w i t h four s e c ond gra de s t ude n t s w ho w e re t ut or e d by f ourt h gra de s t ude nt s Re s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he m e di a n nu m be r of w ords re a d c orre c t pe r m i nut e a s m e a s ure d by c urri c ul um b a s e d m e a s ure m e nt r e a di ng prob e s i nc re a s e d f ro m ba s e l i ne t o i nt e rve nt i on pha s e s for t hr e e of t he four t ut e e pa r t i c i pa n t s In a ddi t i on, t h e m e di a n nu m be r of e r rors from ba s e l i ne t o i nt e rve n t i on pha s e s de c re a s e d for t hre e of t he four pa rt i c i pa nt s H ow e ve r, d a t a w e r e hi g hl y va ri a b l e for t hr e e of t he four pa r t i c i pa nt s In a ddi t i on, t he pe r c e n t a ge of i nt e rv e nt i on da t a poi n t s t ha t ov e rl a pp e d ba s e l i ne d a t a w a s hi ghe r t ha n t he pe rc e n t a ge of non ov e rl a p pi ng da t a po i nt s Cons um e r s a t i s fa c t i on w a s ra t e d pos i t i ve l y by t ut e e a nd t e a c he r pa r t i c i pa nt s A l l t u t e e p a rt i c i p a nt s ra t e d pe e r t ut ori ng a s a f a i r i n t e rv e nt i on a nd a gre e d t ha t t hi s i n t e rve n t i on w oul d he l p t he m do b e t t e r i n s c hool In a ddi t i on, t e a c h e r ra t i ngs i ndi c a t e d t ha t p e e r t ut ori ng w a s a n a c c e pt a b l e a nd be ne fi c i a l i nt e rve nt i on for s t ude nt s T h e t e a c he rs r e port e d t ha t t he y l i ke d t h e proc e d ure s us e d i n t hi s i nt e rve nt i on. T e a c h e r ra t i ngs a l s o i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he s e t e a c he rs w oul d

PAGE 7

vi re c om m e nd t hi s i n t e rv e nt i on t o ot he r t e a c he rs a nd w oul d i m pl e m e n t t hi s i n t e rv e nt i o n w i t h ot he r s t ude n t s T he s e t e a c he rs a l s o s t rongl y a gre e d t ha t t hi s i nt e rve n t i on w oul d be a ppropri a t e for a v a ri e t y of s t ude nt s Im p l i c a t i ons for fut ure re s e a rc h a nd pra c t i c e a r e di s c us s e d.

PAGE 8

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 1 Cha pt e r O ne Int roduc t i on A t t e nt i on D e f i c i t / H ype r a c t i vi t y D i s orde r ( A D H D ) i s a be ha vi or di s orde r c ha ra c t e r i z e d by i na t t e nt i ve hype r a c t i ve a nd i m pul s i v e be ha v i ors A c c ordi ng t o t he D i a gnos t i c a nd S t a t i s t i c a l M a nua l of M e nt a l D i s orde rs (D S M IV T R; A m e ri c a n P s yc hi a t ri c A s s oc i a t i on, 2000) t o b e di a gn os e d w i t h A D H D a n i ndi vi dua l m us t e xhi bi t s i x or m ore s ym pt om s of i n a t t e nt i on a nd/ o r hype ra c t i vi t y i m pul s i v i t y for a t l e a s t s i x m ont hs i n w hi c h i m pa i r m e nt i s e vi de n t i n s oc i a l a c a d e m i c or oc c up a t i on fun c t i on i n g a c ros s t w o or m ore e nvi ronm e n t a l s e t t i ngs S ym pt om s of i na t t e nt i on i nc l ude poor a t t e n t i on t o d e t a i l di ff i c ul t y s us t a i ni ng a t t e nt i on, fa i l ure t o c om p l e t e t a s ks di s orga ni z a t i on, l os i ng t hi ngs ne c e s s a ry t o pe rform t a s ks e a s i l y di s t ra c t e d, a nd oft e n forge t ful (A m e r i c a n P s yc hi a t r i c A s s oc i a t i on, 2000). S ym pt om s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h hype ra c t i vi t y i nc l ud e fi dg e t i ng, l e a v i ng s e a t oft e n i n s i t ua t i ons i n w hi c h a n i ndi v i du a l i s e xpe c t e d t o r e m a i n s e a t e d, runni ng or c l i m bi ng a round i n i na ppropri a t e s i t ua t i ons di ffi c ul t i e s i n qu i e t l y e nga g i ng i n l e i s ure a c t i vi t i e s a nd t a l k i ng e x c e s s i ve l y. I m pul s i v i t y s ym pt om s i nvol ve fr e que nt b l urt i ng ou t w he n i t i s not t he i nd i vi dua l s t i m e t o gi v e v e rba l re s pons e s di ffi c ul t y w a i t i ng p a t i e nt l y, a nd i nt e rrupt i ng ot he rs or i n t rudi ng upon ot h e rs (A m e ri c a n P s yc hi a t r i c A s s oc i a t i on, 2000). S t ude nt s t ypi c a l l y s pe nd 6 hours pe r d a y, 5 da ys pe r w e e k, for 9 m ont hs out of t he ye a r i n s c hool C l a s s room e nvi ron m e n t s re qui re s t ude n t s t o be a b l e t o s i t qui e t l y for s us t a i ne d pe ri ods of t i m e T hus c hi l dr e n d i a gnos e d w i t h A D H D w ho ha ve di ffi c ul t i e s s i t t i ng s t i l l qui e t l y a nd foc us i ng t h e i r a t t e n t i on fa c e s e ve r a l c h a l l e nge s i n t h e s c hool

PAGE 9

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 2 e nvi ronm e n t a s c om p a re d t o a t yp i c a l c hi l d. T he pre va l e n c e of c h i l dre n d i a gnos e d w i t h A D H D i n t he s c hool s ys t e m i s a ppr oxi m a t e l y 3% t o 7% (A m e r i c a n P s yc hi a t r i c A s s oc i a t i on, 2000). Chi l dr e n di a gnos e d w i t h A D H D e xpe ri e nc e di ffi c ul t i e s i n c o m p l e t i ng t a s ks i n c om pa r i s on t o t he i r pe e rs T he y t y pi c a l l y c om p l e t e fe w e r a s s i gnm e nt s w i t h l e s s a c c ura c y t h a n t he i r c l a s s m a t e s A s t he s e c hi l dre n de v e l op i n t o a dol e s c e n t s t he i r r a t e of s c hool dropout a nd s us pe ns i on i s s i gni fi c a nt l y hi ghe r t ha n a m ong t he i r pe e r c ount e r pa rt s (D uP a ul & S t one r, 2003). Chi l dr e n w ho e xpe ri e nc e probl e m s a t t e ndi ng t o t a s ks a re oft e n poor t e s t t a k e rs ha ve prob l e m s l i s t e ni ng t o t e a c h e rs l e c t ure s a nd group d i s c us s i ons a re di s orga ni z e d, a nd l a c k s uffi c i e nt s t udy s ki l l s T he s e c h i l dre n of t e n m a ke c a re l e s s m i s t a ke s i n t he i r a s s i gne d t a s ks a s a r e s ul t of t he i r i m pul s i ve r e s pons e s t o t a s ks (D uP a ul & S t one r, 2003). A s s oc i at i on be t we e n A D H D and A c ade m i c P r obl e m s A c ade m i c d e f i c i t s S t ude nt s di a gnos e d w i t h A D H D c a n be s e pa ra t e d i nt o t w o c a t e gor i e s : t hos e t ha t e xhi b i t a c a de m i c s ki l l s de fi c i t s a nd t hos e w i t h a c a de m i c pe rform a nc e de f i c i e nc i e s (D uP a ul & S t on e r, 1994). A c a de m i c s ki l l s de fi c i t s oc c ur w he n s t ude nt s l a c k t he a b i l i t i e s n e e de d t o l e a rn a c a de m i c s ubj e c t m a t t e r a s i t i s c urr e nt l y t a ught (D uP a ul & S t one r, 1994). F or e xa m p l e a c hi l d ha s di ff i c ul t y re a d i ng a s t ory fl u e nt l y w he n e nc ount e r i ng unknow n w ords be c a u s e t he de c o d i ng s ki l l s ne c e s s a ry t o l e a rn unfa m i l i a r w ords a re l a c k i ng. In c ont r a s t a c a de m i c pe rform a nc e d e fi c i e nc i e s i nvol v e t he A D H D s t ude nt s i na bi l i t y t o c om pl e t e a c a de m i c t a s ks due t o i m pul s i ve i na t t e nt i ve be ha vi ors e ve n t hough t h e c hi l d pos s e s s e s t he ne c e s s a r y s ki l l s (D uP a ul & S t one r, 19 94). F or e xa m pl e a c hi l d m a y ha ve d i ffi c u l t y r e m a i n i ng s e a t e d t o c om pl e t e a w ri t t e n a s s i gnm e nt a l t hough t h e c hi l d ha s t h e ne c e s s a ry s ki l l s t o c om p l e t e t he w ri t i ng

PAGE 10

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 3 a s s i gnm e nt A c c ord i ng t o D uP a ul a nd S t o ne r (2003), of c hi l dr e n di a gnos e d w i t h A D H D be t w e e n 20 t o 30 p e rc e nt a r e c l a s s i fi e d a s l e a rni ng d i s a bl e d. In a ddi t i on, t h e m a j ori t y of c hi l dre n d i a gnos e d w i t h A D H D w i l l e xh i b i t a c a de m i c und e ra c h i e ve m e nt l i ke l y due t o i nc om pl e t i on of a s s i gne d t a s ks a nd/ or i na c c ura t e r e s pons e s t o a s s i gnm e n t s a nd t e s t s (D uP a ul & S t one r, 2003). A c ade m i c und e r ac hi e v e m e n t S t udi e s i nv e s t i ga t i ng t he a c a d e m i c a c h i e ve m e nt of c hi l dre n w i t h A D H D s how t ha t t he s e c hi l dre n a re m or e l i ke l y t o re c e i ve l ow e r gra d e s i n a c a de m i c s ubj e c t s a nd l ow e r s c ore s on s t a nd a rd m e a s ure s of r e a di ng a nd m a t h t ha n c hi l dre n w i t hout di s a b i l i t i e s (S a unde rs & Cha m be rs 1996). M ore t ha n 80% of 11 y e a r ol ds di a gnos e d w i t h A D H D w e re re port e d a s be hi nd by a t l e a s t 2 y e a rs i n r e a di ng, s pe l l i ng, m a t h, or w ri t t e n l a ngua g e (A nde r s on, W i l l i a m s M c G e e & S i l va 1987). M ore t ha n ha l f of t he c h i l dre n w i t h A D H D t a ught i n ge ne r a l e du c a t i on c l a s s room s w i l l e xpe ri e n c e f a i l ur e i n s c hool or b e re t a i ne d i n a t l e a s t one gr a de by a dol e s c e nc e a nd m ore t ha n one t h i rd w i l l no t c om p l e t e hi gh s c ho ol (W e i s s & H e c h t m a n, 1986 ). In a s t udy c onduc t e d by Row e a nd Row e (1992), i n a t t e nt i ve ne s s w a s found t o ha ve s t rong n e g a t i ve i nfl ue nc e s on s t ude nt s re a di ng a c hi e v e m e nt T he i r f i ndi ngs i ndi c a t e d t ha t i n a t t e nt i v e ne s s m a y ha ve a s t ronge r i nfl ue n c e on re a di ng a c hi e v e m e nt t h a n ot he r f a c t ors s uc h a s s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us F e rgus s on a nd H orw ood (1992) e xa m i ne d t he pos s i bl e re c i pr oc a l re l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n a t t e n t i on de f i c i t s a nd re a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt T h e re s ul t s of t h i s i nve s t i ga t i on s upport t h e not i on t ha t a n a t t e nt i on de f i c i t ha s a s i gni f i c a nt e ff e c t on a c hi l ds re a d i ng a c hi e v e m e n t

PAGE 11

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 4 R at i onal e f or t he S t udy W i t h t h e m a ny c ha l l e ng e s s t ude nt s w i t h A D H D fa c e i n t he c l a s s room s e t t i ngs e ffe c t i ve i n t e rv e nt i ons m us t b e i m p l e m e nt e d t o a s s i s t t he s e c hi l dr e n i n b e c om i ng a c a de m i c a l l y s uc c e s s ful S e ve r a l e m pi ri c a l s t udi e s provi de e vi de n c e for b e ha vi or a l i nt e rve n t i ons us e d i n t h e c l a s s room t o de c re a s e i na t t e nt i v e i m pu l s i ve a nd hyp e ra c t i ve be ha vi ors a m ong s t ud e nt s di a gnos e d w i t h A D H D H ow e ve r, m uc h l e s s re s e a r c h ha s be e n publ i s he d re ga r d i ng i nt e rve n t i ons t ha t a dd re s s t he a c a d e m i c pe rfor m a nc e out c o m e s of s t ude nt s w i t h A D H D T he purpos e of t he s t udy i s t o de t e r m i ne w he t he r e l e m e nt a ry a ge d c hi l dre n e xhi bi t i ng s ym pt o m s of A D H D P re dom i na nt l y Ina t t e nt i ve T ype w ho e ng a ge i n s e l f m oni t or i ng a n d pe e r t ut o ri ng s t ra t e gi e s i n re a di ng w i l l i m prov e t he i r re a di ng a c hi e v e m e nt c o m pa re d t o ba s e l i ne c ond i t i ons Ba s e l i ne c ond i t i ons w i l l c ons i s t of t h e re a di ng i ns t ru c t i on t he s e s t ud e nt s t ypi c a l l y re c e i v e i n t h e i r c l a s s room e nv i ronm e n t R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i ons T he fol l ow i ng r e s e a r c h que s t i ons w i l l be a ddre s s e d: 1. D oe s pe e r t ut ori ng c om bi n e d w i t h s e l f m o ni t ori ng s t ra t e gi e s i n t he g e ne r a l e duc a t i on c l a s s room i m prov e ora l r e a di ng fl ue nc y for e l e m e nt a ry a ge d c hi l dr e n e xhi bi t i ng s ym pt om s of A D H D w ho a re i de nt i fi e d a s l ow a c h i e v e rs i n re a d i ng? 2. D o t e a c he rs fi nd p e e r t ut ori ng t o be e ff e c t i ve a nd a c c e p t a bl e i nt e rve nt i ons for c hi l dre n e xhi bi t i ng s ym pt o m s of A D H D i n t he ge ne r a l e duc a t i on c l a s s room ? 3. D o s t ude nt s fi nd pe e r t u t ori ng t o b e e ff e c t i ve a nd a c c e p t a bl e for i m prov i ng t he i r re a di ng pe rfor m a n c e ?

PAGE 12

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 5 Cha pt e r T w o L i t e r a t ure R e vi e w T hi s l i t e ra t ur e re v i e w w i l l prov i de a s um m a ry a nd c r i t i qu e of t h e e m p i ri c a l re s e a rc h a va i l a bl e re ga rd i ng a c a de m i c i nt e rve nt i ons t ha t i m p a c t t he a c a d e m i c pe rform a nc e of s t ude n t s w i t h A D H D A c a de m i c i nt e rv e nt i ons a re s c hool b a s e d i nt e rve n t i ons t ha t foc us on m a n i pul a t i ng a nt e c e d e nt c ondi t i ons ( e .g., a c a de m i c i ns t ruc t i on, a c a d e m i c m a t e r i a l s ) (D uP a ul & E c ke r t 1997). D uP a ul a nd S t one r (199 4) s ugge s t e d t ha t i nt e rv e nt i ons s houl d pri m a r i l y foc us on i nc r e a s i ng a pprop ri a t e be h a vi ors s uc h a s a c a d e m i c produc t i vi t y a nd a c c ura c y ve rs us s i m pl y de c r e a s i ng d i s rupt i ve be ha vi or. T h i s l i t e ra t u re re v i e w w i l l fo c us on s e l f m a na g e m e n t a nd p e e r t u t ori ng s t ra t e gi e s a nd t he re s e a r c h s upport i ng t h e i m pa c t of t he s e s t r a t e gi e s on t h e a c a de m i c pe rform a nc e of s t ude n t s di a gnos e d w i t h A D H D Se l f m anage m e nt S e l f m a na g e m e n t i nt e rve n t i ons i nvol v e s t ra t e gi e s t ha t i nc orpor a t e s e l f m oni t ori ng, s e l f re i nfor c e m e nt a nd/ or s e l f i ns t ruc t i on (B a rkl e y, 1998). U s i ng t h e s e s t ra t e gi e s be ha vi o ra l a nd a c a de m i c pe rfor m a nc e c a n b e e va l ua t e d s e pa ra t e l y. In s e l f m oni t ori ng, s t ud e nt s a re t ra i n e d t o obs e rv e a nd re c o rd t he i r ow n be ha vi ors (D uP a ul & S t one r, 2003). S e l f re i nfor c e m e nt r e qui re s s t ude nt s t o e va l ua t e a nd r e i nforc e t he i r o w n be ha vi ors S e l f i ns t ru c t i on i nvol ve s t e a c hi ng s t ude nt s t he s t e ps of s t op, l ook, a nd l i s t e n t o i nc orpora t e w hi l e t h e y c om p l e t e t a s ks D uri ng t hi s proc e s s s t ude nt s i ni t i a l l y re c e i ve re i nforc e m e nt s from t ra i ne rs unt i l t he c hi l d s e l f i ni t i a t e s re i nforc e rs (e .g., pra i s e ). S e l f m oni t ori ng a nd s e l f re i nforc e m e n t s t ra t e gi e s ha ve be e n s om e w ha t s uc c e s s ful w i t h

PAGE 13

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 6 s t ude nt s di a gnos e d w i t h A D H D (Ba rkl e y, 1998). S e l f i ns t ruc t i on, w he n us e d by i t s e l f, ha s de m ons t ra t e d m i n i m a l s uc c e s s a m ong c hi l dre n w i t h A D H D (Ba rkl e y, 1998). St udi e s i m p l e m e n t i ng s e l f m anage m e nt s t r at e gi e s In a s t udy c onduc t e d by E dw a rds S a l a nt H ow a rd, Broughe r, a nd M c L a ughl i n (1995), t he i m pa c t of s e l f m a na ge m e nt on a t t e nt i on t o t a s k a nd re a d i ng c om pre he ns i on of c hi l dr e n di a gnos e d w i t h A D H D w a s e xa m i ne d. P a rt i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy i nc l ude d t hre e m a l e e l e m e nt a ry a ge d s t ude nt s di a gnos e d w i t h A D H D w ho s pe nt t he m a j ori t y of t he i r s c hool da y i n a g e ne ra l e duc a t i on c l a s s room T he t e a c he rs a nd t e a c he r a s s i s t a nt s w e r e t ra i ne d t o obs e rv e a nd re c ord t he i r obs e rva t i ons of pa rt i c i p a nt s o n t a s k be ha vi or dur i ng 20 m i nu t e r e a di ng l e s s ons Int e robs e rve r a gr e e m e nt a m ong t he t e a c he rs a nd a i de s w a s obt a i ne d pri or t o i m pl e m e nt i ng obs e rva t i ons a nd s e l f m a na ge m e nt pro c e dur e s A n i nt e rs c ore r a gre e m e nt c ri t e r i on of 90% w a s m e t a t t ha t t i m e S e l f m a na ge m e nt p roc e dur e s i nvol ve d t e a c he r s a nd s t ude nt s re c ord i ng on t a s k be ha vi or w he n prom pt e d by a t one a t v a ri a b l e i n t e rva l s a ve ra gi ng on e m i nu t e T he t e a c h e rs t ra i n e d t he s e s t ude nt s t o a s k t he m s e l ve s w he t h e r or not t he y w e re p a yi ng a t t e nt i on w he n pr o m pt e d by t he t one D uri ng 20 m i nut e re a d i n g l e s s ons t he s t ude nt s w e re i nfor m e d t o r e c ord t he i r re s pons e s t o t h i s que s t i on by w ri t i ng a pl us s i gn for on t a s k be ha vi or a nd a m i nus s i gn for off t a s k be ha vi or on a c a rd t a p e d t o t he i r de s ks P a rt i c i pa n t s e a rn e d poi nt s for on t a s k be ha vi or a nd re a di ng c o m pre he ns i on a c c ura c y. E a rne d poi n t s w e re e xc h a nge d f or pri vi l e g e s de t e rm i n e d by t he t e a c he rs a nd s t ude nt s E dw a rds e t a l (1995) us e d a n A BA BC w i t h a fol l ow up s i ngl e pa rt i c i p a nt d e s i gn. Ba s e l i ne c ondi t i ons c o ns i s t e d of t h e t ypi c a l c l a s s room rout i ne dur i ng 20 m i nu t e i nde pe nde n t w ork t i m e on re a di ng l e s s ons a nd c om pre h e ns i on of re a di ng pa s s a ge s

PAGE 14

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 7 D uri ng Ba s e l i ne 1, a t a p e re c orde d t on e w a s pl a ye d for t e a c he rs a nd a i ds t o re c ord pa rt i c i pa nt s on t a s k be ha v i or for a pe r i od of 2 w e e ks s t ude nt s w e re t ol d t o i gnor e t he t one N e xt s t ude n t s w e re t r a i ne d by t he i r t e a c he rs on t h e s e l f m a na g e m e n t proc e dur e s de s c ri be d a bov e for a p e ri od of one w e e k. S t ude nt s w e re t ra i ne d t o s e l f m a na ge a t t e n t i on t o t a s k by re s pondi ng t o pr e re c orde d t on e prom pt s O nc e pa rt i c i p a nt s re a c he d 90% a c c ura c y i n s e l f re c ord i ng, s e l f m a na ge m e nt proc e dure s w e r e i m p l e m e nt e d for a pe ri od of t hre e w e e ks duri ng re a d i ng l e s s ons F ol l ow i ng t he s e l f m a na g e m e nt proc e dure s t he c l a s s room re t urn e d t o b a s e l i n e c ondi t i ons for t w o w e e ks D uri ng Ba s e l i ne 2, t he t e a c he rs a nd a i de s c on t i nue d t o re c ord t he i r obs e rv a t i ons of on t a s k be h a vi or. A t t h i s t i m e t h e t one w a s he a rd onl y by t he t e a c he rs a nd a i de s A ft e r t hi s t i m e s e l f m a na g e m e nt proc e dure s a nd f a di ng w a s i m p l e m e nt e d f or a pe ri od of t hr e e w e e ks F a di ng i nvol v e d gra dua l l y i nc r e a s i ng t h e t i m e of i n t e rva l s i n w hi c h t he t on e s ounde d, t he re fore d e c re a s i ng t he fre que n c y of s t ude nt s s e l f re c ord i ng. U pon c om pl e t i on of t he s e l f m a n a ge m e nt pha s e fol l ow up probe s 1 & 2 w e r e a dm i ni s t e re d a t one m on t h i nt e rva l s Re a di ng c o m pre h e ns i on w a s m e a s ure d by t he pe rc e nt a ge of c orr e c t r e s pons e s on t he c om pr e he ns i on e xe rc i s e s Com pre he ns i on e xe rc i s e s c ons i s t e d of 10 qu e s t i ons re l a t e d t o a pa s s a ge or s hort s t ory t h e s t ude n t s re a d. T he que s t i ons e n t a i l e d v a ri ous form s s uc h a s c l oz e p a s s a ge s fi l l i n t h e bl a nks m a t c h i n g, or s e que nc i ng a c t i vi t i e s T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy i ndi c a t e d t h a t pa r t i c i pa n t s i m prove d t he i r re a di ng c om pre h e ns i on duri ng t h e s e l f m a na ge m e nt ph a s e s O n t he re a di ng c o m p re he ns i on e xe r c i s e s pa r t i c i pa nt 1 e a rne d a m e a n s c ore of 10% du ri ng Ba s e l i ne 1 c on di t i ons a m e a n s c ore of 52 % du ri ng s e l f m a na ge m e nt a m e a n s c ore of 21% dur i ng re t urn t o ba s e l i ne c ondi t i ons a nd a m e a n s c ore of 38% duri ng t he s e l f m a na g e m e nt + fa d i ng pha s e P a rt i c i pa nt 2 e a rn e d a m e a n s c or e of

PAGE 15

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 8 19% duri ng Ba s e l i n e 1, a m e a n s c or e of 5 7.3% duri ng s e l f m a n a ge m e nt a m e a n s c o re of 40% duri ng Ba s e l i n e 2, a nd a m e a n s c ore of 58.6% duri ng s e l f m a n a ge m e nt + f a di n g. P a rt i c i p a nt 3 e a rne d a m e a n s c ore of 33% duri ng Ba s e l i n e 1, a m e a n s c or e of 79.3% duri ng s e l f m a n a ge m e nt a m e a n s c ore of 49% duri ng Ba s e l i n e 2, a nd a m e a n s c ore of 72% duri ng s e l f m a n a ge m e nt + f a di ng. In a ddi t i on t o i m prov e d re a di ng c o m pre he ns i on a m ong t he 3 p a rt i c i pa n t s i n t hi s s t ud y, on t a s k be ha vi or a l s o i m prov e d duri ng s e l f m a na ge m e nt a nd s e l f m a na g e m e n t + fa d i ng c om pa re d t o t he b a s e l i ne c ond i t i ons A l l 3 pa rt i c i pa nt s i n c re a s e d on t a s k be h a vi or b y a n a ve ra ge of 37.5 % from Ba s e l i ne 1 t o s e l f m a na ge m e nt + fa di ng. T hi s s t udy provi de s e m pi ri c a l e vi d e nc e t ha t s e l f m a n a gi ng on t a s k be ha vi or i n c om b i na t i on w i t h a re w a r d s ys t e m i nc re a s e d a t t e n t i on t o t a s k a nd i m p rove d re a di ng c om pr e he ns i on a m ong t he s e c hi l dre n d i a gnos e d w i t h A D H D D e s pi t e t he pos i t i ve ou t c om e s of t hi s s t ud y, s e ve ra l l i m i t a t i ons e xi s t F or i ns t a n c e a va ri e t y of re a di ng c o m pre he ns i on e xe rc i s e s w e re us e d i n t hi s s t udy w hi c h m a y pl a y a rol e i n t h e va ri e d l e ve l s of t h e pa rt i c i p a nt s i m prove m e nt s i n re a di ng c om pre h e ns i on F ut ure s t udi e s c ons i de r i ng s e l f m a na g e m e nt a nd re a d i ng c om p re he ns i on m a y c ons i d e r us i ng a s t a nda rd form a t for t h e re a di ng c o m pre he ns i on e x e rc i s e s A l s o, fa di ng proc e dure s m a y ne e d t o be i nd i vi dua l i z e d t o h a ve t h e m os t pow e rful i m p a c t s uc h a s m ore gr a du a l fa di ng. F or i ns t a nc e pa rt i c i pa nt 1 s how e d a de c re a s e i n on t a s k be ha v i or duri ng s e l f m a na ge m e nt + fa di ng a s t one s w e re fa d e d M ore gra dua l fa d i ng proc e dure s m a y h a v e re s ul t e d i n h i ghe r l e ve l s of m a i n t a i n i ng on t a s k be ha vi or for t hi s pa rt i c i pa nt T he a u t hors c onc l ude d t ha t fu t ure s t udi e s s houl d c ons i de r i ndi vi du a l va r i a t i ons of t re a t m e nt c ha ra c t e r i s t i c s t o m a xi m i z e t he b e ne fi t s of s e l f m a na g e m e n t A ddi t i on a l l y, fut ure

PAGE 16

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 9 re s e a rc h s houl d e xa m i ne t h e i m p a c t of s e l f m a na ge m e nt pro c e dur e s w i t hout re w a rd s or i nc e nt i ve s T he a ut hors s ugge s t e d t ha t p a i r i ng s e l f m a n a ge m e nt w i t h s e l f m on i t ori ng us i ng gra phs or s e l f de ve l op e d goa l s m a y ha ve a gre a t e r i m p a c t t ha n i n c e nt i ve s L a s t l y, re s ul t s from t e a c he r i nt e rvi e w s s how e d t h a t t he po i nt s ys t e m w a s found t o b e t i m e c ons um i ng a nd s ugge s t e d t ha t r e w a rds / i n c e nt i ve s s ys t e m s s houl d be s i m pl e r. A j i bol a a nd C l e m e nt (1995) i n c orpora t e d goa l s e t t i ng a l ong w i t h s e l f m on i t ori ng a nd s e l f re i nfor c e m e nt s t r a t e g i e s t o de t e r m i ne t h e e ffe c t s of t he s e s t ra t e gi e s on a c a de m i c pe rform a nc e In t h i s s t udy, s i x m a l e pa rt i c i pa nt s a ge d 9 t o 12 ye a rs of a ge w i t h s ym pt om s of A D H D pa rt i c i pa t e d i n a 30 m i nut e t ut o ri ng c l a s s for re a d i ng. E a c h da y, t he pa rt i c i pa nt s s e t go a l s for t h e num be r of r e a di ng que s t i ons t h e y w oul d a ns w e r a nd s i gne d a pe rform a nc e c on t ra c t W he n e ve r t h e s t ude nt s a ns w e re d a re a di ng que s t i on, t he y w ou l d gi ve t he m s e l ve s a po i nt on t h e i r w ri s t c ou nt e rs T he s t ude n t s re c e i ve d s t a m ps w he n t he num be r of poi nt s e a rne d m a t c he d or e x c e e de d t he pe rfor m a n c e goa l A t a l a t e r t i m e t he s t a m ps c oul d be e xc h a nge d for ba c kup re i nforc e rs T hi s s t udy foc us e d on t h e a m oun t of que s t i ons a ns w e re d ve rs us t he a c c ur a c y of t he a ns w e rs T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy s how e d t ha t s e l f r e i nforc e m e nt proc e dure s i m prov e d t he a m ount of a c a d e m i c pe rform a nc e H ow e ve r, A j i bol a a nd C l e m e nt (1995) fou nd t ha t t h e c om b i na t i on of s e l f m a na g e m e nt s t ra t e gi e s a nd s t i m u l a nt m e di c a t i on provi d e d t he gre a t e s t i m prov e m e n t i n t h e a m oun t of a c a de m i c pe rform a nc e It i s i m port a nt t o no t e t h a t A j i bo l a a nd C l e m e nt s (1995) s t udy foc us e d on t h e a m ount of que s t i ons pa rt i c i pa n t s a ns w e re d c om pl e t e l y. S t ud e nt s w e re r e i nforc e d for t he num be r of re a d i ng que s t i ons e a c h a ns w e re d; a c c ur a c y of r e s pons e s w a s not re i nforc e d. T hi s proc e dure r a i s e s c on c e rns be c a us e pa rt i c i p a nt s m a y h a ve m a de c a re l e s s re s pons e s t o

PAGE 17

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 10 que s t i ons t o i nc r e a s e opport un i t i e s for re i nforc e m e n t In t he c l a s s room s e t t i ng, a c a d e m i c produc t i vi t y i s e qua l l y i m port a n t a s a c c ur a c y. A ddi t i on a l l y, t hi s s t udy w a s c onduc t e d i n a s e pa ra t e c l a s s room i n t he m orni ng pri or t o s c hool s t a rt i ng. T he pa r t i c i pa n t s w e re t he onl y s t ude nt s i n t he c l a s s room duri ng t he s e s e s s i ons Be c a us e t he s e c ondi t i ons do not re f l e c t c ondi t i ons i n a t ypi c a l c l a s s room s e t t i ng, ge ne ra l i z i ng t he e ffe c t i ve n e s s of t he s e proc e dure s for s t ude nt s i n t ypi c a l c l a s s roo m c ondi t i ons i s unknow n. D uri ng ba s e l i ne a nd t hroughout a l l t he e xpe ri m e n t a l ph a s e s s t ude nt s w e re pa i d on e dol l a r e a c h for e a c h da y t he y a t t e nde d t he s e s s i ons A ddi t i ona l l y, a re s pons e c os t progra m w a s i m pl e m e nt e d i n w hi c h pa rt i c i pa n t s w e re fi n e d 10 c e n t s for e nga gi ng i n a ny of t he fo l l ow i ng be h a vi o rs : a rri vi ng l a t e t o a s e s s i on, de s t roy i ng c l a s s room prope rt y, phys i c a l a gg re s s i on t ow a rd s ot he rs a nd l e a vi ng t h e c l a s s room onc e t he s e s s i on be ga n. W i t h t he c o m bi n a t i on of s e l f m a na ge m e nt s t r a t e gi e s a nd t he re s pons e c os t progra m t he s pe c i fi c e ff e c t s of t h e re s pons e c os t progra m on s t ud e nt s a c a de m i c pe rfor m a nc e a r e unknow n. T he re for e i t i s a l s o di ffi c u l t t o d e t e r m i ne t o w ha t d e gre e s e l f m a na g e m e n t proc e dure s a l on e i m p a c t e d s t ude nt s a c a d e m i c pe rfor m a nc e S ha pi ro, D uP a ul a nd Bra dl e y K l ug (1998 ) s t udi e d t he i m pa c t of a c ogni t i ve ba s e d s e l f m a n a ge m e nt s t r a t e gy fro m t he w ork of Rhode M orga n, a nd Y oung (1983), w hi c h c om bi n e s s e l f m oni t ori ng a nd s e l f e va l ua t i on t e c hni qu e s P roc e dure s us e d by Rhode e t a l (1983) i nc l ude d t he fol l ow i ng fi ve pha s e s : ba s e l i ne c ondi t i ons t e a c he r m a na ge m e nt m a t c hi ng, f a di ng t o s e l f m a na ge m e n t a nd c om pl e t e s e l f m a n a ge m e nt Ba s e l i ne c ondi t i ons c ons i s t e d of i d e nt i f i c a t i on of t a rg e t be h a vi ors e i t he r a c a d e m i c n on a c a de m i c or bot h. A num e r i c a l s c a l e w a s de ve l ope d t o ra t e s t ude n t pe rform a nc e of t he s e be ha vi ors w i t hi n a s p e c i f i e d p e ri od w he n t he i nt e rv e nt i on w a s i m pl e m e n t e d. T h e s c a l e

PAGE 18

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 11 ra nge d from 1 poor t o 5 e xc e l l e nt . T h e s pe c i fi e d pe ri od w a s t he n di v i de d i n t o e qua l i nt e rva l s T he t e a c he r ra t e d s t ude n t pe rfor m a nc e of b e ha vi o r a t t he e nd of e a c h i nt e r va l a nd t hi s i nfo rm a t i on i s not s ha re d unt i l t h e t e a c h e r m a na ge m e nt ph a s e (pha s e 2). D uri ng t he t e a c h e r m a n a ge m e nt pha s e t he t e a c h e r i nform e d t h e s t ude nt of h i s / he r ra t i ng a t t he e nd of e a c h i n t e rva l T he r a t i ng w a s t ra ns fe rre d t o poi n t s w hi c h i n t u rn c oul d be e xc ha ng e d f or re w a rds t h a t t h e s t ude nt pi c ke d from a re i nfo rc e m e nt m e nu de v e l o pe d by t he s t ude nt a nd t he t e a c he r. T he t e a c h e r ra t i ngs w e re gr a phe d a nd prov i de d t o t he s t ude nt O nc e t h e s t ude nt r e a c he d de s i r a bl e ra t i ngs for a pprox i m a t e l y 3 t o 4 c ons e c u t i ve s c hool da ys t he s t ude n t m ove d on t o t he m a t c hi ng ph a s e D uri ng t he m a t c hi ng ph a s e t h e s t ude nt r a t e d hi s or he r ow n be ha vi o r a t t he e nd of e a c h i n t e rv a l w hi l e t he t e a c he r a l s o c ont i n ue d t o ra t e t he s t ud e nt s be h a vi or. T h e s e r a t i ngs w e re c om pa re d w i t h on e a not h e r. If t he s e ra t i ngs m a t c he d e xa c t l y, t he n t h e s t ude nt e a rne d t h e num b e r of poi nt s e qu i va l e nt t o t he ra t i ng pl us a n a dd i t i on a l bonus poi nt F or e xa m pl e i f bot h t he s t ude n t a nd t e a c he r ra t e d t he b e ha vi or a 4, t he s t ud e nt e a rne d 5 poi nt s If t he s t ude n t s ra t i ng d i ffe re d fro m t he t e a c h e rs ra t i ng by 1 poi nt t he s t ud e nt e a rne d t h e num b e r of poi nt s e qu i va l e nt t o hi s / he r ra t i ng provi de d by t he t e a c he r. F or e xa m pl e i f t h e c hi l d e a rne d a 3 ra t i ng b y t he t e a c h e r a nd t h e c hi l d ra t e d hi m / he rs e l f a 4 t he n h e / s he w o ul d e a rn 3 poi n t s W he n t he s t ude nt s ra t i ng di ff e re d fro m t he t e a c h e rs ra t i ng by m ore t ha n 1 poi n t t he s t ude nt re c e i v e d z e ro po i nt s for t ha t i nt e rv a l W he n a di s c r e pa n c y e xi s t e d be t w e e n t he s t ude nt s a nd t e a c he rs ra t i ng, t he t e a c he r provi de d a bri e f e x pl a na t i on t o t he s t ude n t T hi s e xpl a n a t i on w a s provi d e d t o a s s i s t t he s t ude nt i n be c om i ng a m ore a c c ura t e j udg e of hi s / he r be h a vi or i n r e l a t i on t o t he t e a c he rs pe rc e pt i on.

PAGE 19

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 12 T he fourt h pha s e i nvol ve d f a di ng t o s e l f m a na ge m e nt w hi c h c ons i s t e d of t he fa di ng of bot h t h e fre que n c y of s t ude nt a n d t e a c h e r ra t i ng c o m pa ri s ons a nd a v a i l a bl e ba c kup re i nfor c e rs T o r e duc e t he fre qu e n c y of ra t i ng c om pa r i s ons t he a m ount of opport uni t i e s t o e a rn bonus poi n t s l e s s e ne d. M ore s pe c i fi c a l l y, t he i nt e rv a l s i n w hi c h t he s t ude nt ha d t h e opport uni t y t o e a rn bonus poi nt s w e re re duc e d by 25% be g i nni ng w i t h 100% of t he i nt e rva l s provi d i ng t hi s oppor t uni t y t o 75%, t he n 50%, a nd s o on, unt i l m a t c h i ng no l onge r o c c urr e d. T o a c hi e v e t hi s re duc t i on i n opport uni t i e s a t t he e nd o f e a c h i n t e rv a l t h e t e a c he r pr e s e nt e d t he s t u de nt w i t h re d a nd bl a c k pl a yi ng c a rds be gi nni ng w i t h 3 r e d c a rds a nd 1 bl a c k c a r d. T he s t ude nt w a s prom p t e d by t h e t e a c h e r t o ra ndom l y dra w a c a rd. T he re d c a rds re s ul t e d i n ra t i ng c o m pa ri s ons or m a t c h e s for bonus poi n t s ; t he b l a c k c a rds re s ul t e d i n t he s t ud e nt re c e i vi ng t he nu m be r of poi n t s from hi s / he r s e l f ra t i ng, w i t hout c o m pa ri ng w i t h t h e t e a c he rs ra t i ng. G ra dua l l y, t h e t e a c he r r e pl a c e d t he num be r of r e d c a rds w i t h bl a c k c a rds r e s ul t i ng i n a s hi ft from 100% m a t c hi ng opport uni t i e s t o z e ro. S i m ul t a n e ous l y a s a re du c t i on i n m a t c h i ng opport uni t i e s oc c urr e d, t he dur a t i on of t he i nt e rva l s gra du a l l y i nc r e a s e d. F or i ns t a nc e i f t h e i ni t i a l i nt e rva l w a s 10 m i nut e s i n dura t i on, t h e i nt e rva l w oul d b e i n c re a s e d t o 15 or 20 m i n ut e s unt i l onl y on e ra t i ng oc c urre d a t t h e e nd of t h e s pe c i f i e d a c a de m i c pe r i od, w hi c h w oul d e v e nt u a l l y b e m ove d t o t he e nd of t he da y, t o e v e ry ot he r d a y, o r t o t he e nd of t he w e e k. A s a re s ul t t h e t i m e i t t ook a s t ude nt t o e a rn e nough poi nt s for b a c kup re i nfor c e rs i n c re a s e d, w hi l e t h e fre que nc y of e a rni ng t he s e re i nforc e rs de c re a s e d; t h e re for e fa di ng t o s e l f m a na ge m e nt D uri ng t hi s pha s e t he t e a c he r r a ndom l y i m pl e m e nt e d s urpri s e m a t c h e s i n w hi c h s t ude nt a nd t e a c h e r ra t i ngs w e re c o m pa re d for t he s t ude nt s opport un i t y t o e a rn bon us

PAGE 20

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 13 poi nt s T he s e s urpri s e m a t c h e s w e re de s i g ne d t o m a i nt a i n s t ude nt p e rform a nc e a s t h e s t ude nt progre s s e d t ow a rds c om p l e t e s e l f m a na ge m e nt T he fi na l pha s e of t h e s e proc e dure s de ve l ope d by Rhode e t a l (1983) w a s re f e rre d t o a s c om pl e t e s e l f m a na ge m e nt Co m pl e t e s e l f m a n a ge m e nt w a s a c hi e v e d w he n t h e s t ude nt re a c he d t he l e ve l of d e s i ra bl e be ha vi or us i ng s e l f ra t i ngs w i t hout a ny c om pa r i s on m a t c h e s w i t h t he t e a c he r r a t i ngs P rogre s s i on t o c om p l e t e s e l f m a na g e m e n t re s ul t e d i n c om pl e t e re m ova l of t he r a t i ng s ys t e m a nd ba c kup re i nfor c e rs D uri ng t h i s pha s e s e l f e va l ua t i on proc e dure s w e re gr a dua l l y fa de d t o fa c i l i t a t e m a i n t e n a nc e of t he s t ude n t s s e l f m a na g e d be h a vi or. S e l f e va l u a t i on pr oc e dure s c ons i s t e d of or a l v e rs us w ri t t e n re port s of s t ude nt ra t i ngs a t t he e nd of s pe c i fi e d p e ri ods N o t e a c he r r a t i ng m a t c he s oc c urre d a t t h i s t i m e N e xt ora l ra t i ngs w e re fa de d t o m or e c ove r t ra t i ngs i n w hi c h t he t e a c h e r prom p t e d t h e s t ude nt t o t hi nk of t h e i r pe rform a nc e ove r a s pe c i fi e d t i m e pe r i od. S ha pi ro e t a l (1998) a l t e r e d t he pro c e dure s us e d by Rhode e t a l (1983) by c ha ngi ng t h e ra t i ng s ys t e m t o a ye s / no for m a t In t h e S ha pi ro e t a l (1998) s t udy, t e a c he rs i de nt i f i e d fi v e de s i ra b l e t a rge t be ha v i ors (t hre e or four t h a t t h e s t ude n t w a s not de m o ns t ra t i ng pri or t o t he s e l f m oni t or i ng i nt e rve n t i on a nd on e or t w o t h a t t h e s t ude nt w a s c urre nt l y e ng a gi ng i n). Y e s re s pons e s w e re gi ve n poi n t va l ue s ; 1 poi n t pe r y e s re s pons e for be ha vi or o c c urre n c e duri ng t he ra t i ng i nt e rv a l A 4 ra t i ng w oul d be g i ve n i f t he s t ude n t e nga g e d i n 4 of t h e t a rge t b e ha vi ors P a rt i c i p a nt s i n t h e S ha pi ro e t a l (1998) s t udy i nc l ude d t w o a dol e s c e nt m a l e s t ude nt s i de nt i fi e d w i t h a l e a rni ng d i s a bi l i t y a nd A D H D F or s t ude nt 1, t he t e a c he r i de nt i f i e d t h e fol l ow i ng 5 t a rge t be h a vi ors : ha vi ng a l l m a t e r i a l s ne e de d for t he l e s s on, a t t e nd i ng t o t a s k, not t a l ki ng t o p e e rs us i n g a ppropri a t e l a ngua ge a nd ra i s i ng h i s ha nd t o

PAGE 21

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 14 be c a l l e d upon. T h e s e l f m oni t or i ng proc e dure s de s c ri be d a bove w e re i m pl e m e n t e d duri ng a 45 m i nu t e s oc i a l s t udi e s c l a s s pe ri od, be gi nni ng i n 15 m i nu t e i n t e rva l s for t he t e a c h e r m a na ge m e nt a nd m a t c hi ng ph a s e s T he n, fa di ng pro c e dur e s w e re i m p l e m e n t e d w hi c h gra dua l l y l e d t o c o m pl e t e s e l f m a n a ge m e n t A ddi t i ona l l y, da t a w e re c ol l e c t e d from t e a c he r re port s us i ng t h e A D H D Ra t i ng S c a l e (D uP a ul 1991) a nd t he Conn e rs T e a c he rs Ra t i ng S c a l e Re v i s e d (CT RS R; G oye t t e Conne rs & U l r i c h, 1978). D a t a w e re obt a i n e d from t h e CT RS R bot h b e fore a nd a ft e r t he i n t e rv e nt i on w a s i m pl e m e nt e d. T he A D H D Ra t i ng S c a l e w a s c om pl e t e d by t e a c h e rs a ft e r t he f i rs t four pha s e s of t he i nt e rve nt i on w e re i m pl e m e n t e d. S ys t e m a t i c di re c t obs e rv a t i ons of t h e s t ude n t s on t a s k be ha vi or w e r e c onduc t e d for t hr e e of t h e s oc i a l s t udi e s c l a s s pe ri ods Re s ul t s for s t ude nt 1 de m ons t ra t e d i m prov e m e nt s i n t he s t ude n t s be ha vi o r duri ng t he t e a c h e r m a n a ge m e nt pha s e w hi c h c on t i nue d a t or a bove t hi s l e v e l dur i ng t he m a t c h i ng pha s e D a t a c o l l e c t e d dur i ng di r e c t obs e rva t i ons s how e d i m prov e m e n t s i n t he s t ude nt s on t a s k be ha v i or from 75% of t h e i nt e rv a l s obs e rve d dur i ng ba s e l i ne c ond i t i ons t o 100% duri ng i m p l e m e nt a t i on of t h e s e l f m oni t ori ng i nt e rv e nt i on. D a t a c ol l e c t e d fr om t he CT RS R s how e d re duc t i ons on t he H y pe ra c t i vi t y a nd A t t e nt i on Ind i c e s w i t h s c o re s on t he a ddi t i ona l i ndi c e s fa l l i ng w i t h i n t h e a ve ra ge ra nge D a t a obt a i ne d fro m t he A D H D Ra t i ng S c a l e de m ons t ra t e d i m prove m e nt s on t he Ina t t e nt i on, Im pul s i v i t y, a nd T ot a l s c a l e s F or s t ude nt 2, t he fol l ow i ng fi ve b e ha vi or s w e re t a rge t e d: b e i ng pre p a re d for c l a s s c om pl e t i ng ho m e w ork, fol l ow i ng i n s t ruc t i ons t he f i rs t t i m e gi v e n, s t a yi ng on t a s k, a nd c om pl e t i ng c l a s s room a s s i gnm e nt s T he s a m e proc e dure s de s c r i be d e a rl i e r w e re us e d

PAGE 22

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 15 w he n i m pl e m e nt i ng t he i nt e rve nt i on. D a t a w e re c ol l e c t e d from t he CT RS R be for e a nd a ft e r i n t e rve n t i on i m pl e m e n t a t i on. A ddi t i o na l l y, da t a w e r e obt a i ne d from t e a c he rs us i ng t he Chi l d A t t e nt i on P rofi l e (B a rkl e y, 1990 ) a ft e r t h e fi rs t four pha s e s of t he i n t e rve n t i on w a s c onduc t e d. S ys t e m a t i c di r e c t obs e rv a t i ons of on t a s k be ha vi or w e r e a l s o c onduc t e d duri ng t hre e of t he s oc i a l s t udi e s c l a s s pe ri ods Re s ul t s for s t ude nt 2 s how e d i m prove m e nt s i n a c a d e m i c pe rform a nc e a nd on t a s k be ha vi or dur i ng t h e s e l f m on i t ori ng i nt e rve n t i on. Im prov e m e nt s i n i n a t t e nt i v e be ha vi or w e r e de m ons t r a t e d i n re duc e d s c ore s on t he Chi l d A t t e nt i on P rofi l e a nd t he C T RS R. O ne l i m i t a t i on re ga rd i ng t h e us e of s e l f m a na ge m e nt t e c hn i que s i nvol v e s t he pra c t i c a l i t y of i m pl e m e n t i ng t h e s e t e c hni q ue s i n t he na t ura l l y oc c urri ng c l a s s room s e t t i ng. A ddi t i ona l l y, t e a c h e rs m a y pe r c e i ve t he s e l f m oni t or i ng i nt e rve n t i on a s t oo t i m e c ons um i ng t o i m pl e m e nt B e c a us e t e a c he r s a c c e pt a bi l i t y of i n t e rv e nt i ons c a n ha ve a s i gni fi c a n t i m p a c t on t re a t m e nt fi d e l i t y, i t i s c ri t i c a l t ha t s uc h i s s ue s be a ddre s s e d. O ne w a y t o a ddre s s t he s e c onc e rns i s t o prov i d e t e a c he rs w i t h d e t a i l e d d e s c ri pt i ons of i nt e rve n t i on proc e dure s S c hool ps yc ho l o gi s t s c a n provi de t e a c he r t ra i n i ng on s e l f m oni t ori ng i nt e rv e nt i ons w hi c h s houl d i nc l ude m ode l i ng a nd / or de m ons t r a t i ng t he proc e dure s t o be us e d. A l s o, a n unde rs t a n di ng t ha t a n i ni t i a l i nve s t m e nt of t i m e for l e a rni ng a nd i m p l e m e nt i ng t he i nt e rv e nt i o n w i l l l e a d t o de c re a s e d t e a c he r t i m e s pe nt a ddre s s i ng a c a d e m i c pe rfor m a nc e a nd/ or be ha vi ora l c on c e rns t ha t t he s t ud e nt w i l l l e a rn t o m a na g e hi m / he rs e l f. P rovi d i ng t e a c h e rs w i t h e m pi r i c a l e vi d e nc e re ga rd i ng t he e ffe c t i ve ne s s of s e l f m a na g e m e n t t e c hni q ue s m a y a l s o fa c i l i t a t e t e a c he rs a c c e pt a nc e of t he s e i nt e rve nt i ons L a s t l y, s e l f m a na ge m e nt proc e dur e s provi de s t ud e nt s t he oppor t uni t y t o be c om e a c t i v e l y i nvo l ve d i n t he i r e duc a t i on.

PAGE 23

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 16 S t udi e s ha ve a l s o s how n t ha t s e l f m on i t ori ng a c a de m i c a c c ura c y a nd produc t i vi t y s i m ul t a n e ous l y ha s be ne f i c i a l e ffe c t s for a l l of t he t a rge t be h a vi ors obs e rve d, a s w e l l a s i m prove d on t a s k be ha vi o r. S hi m a bukuro, P ra t e r, J e nki ns a nd E d e l e n S m i t h (1999) s t udi e d t he i m pa c t of s e l f m oni t or i ng bot h produc t i vi t y a nd a c c ur a c y on t h e a c a de m i c pe rform a nc e of s t ude n t s w i t h l e a rni ng di s a bi l i t i e s di a gnos e d w i t h a t t e n t i on de fi c i t / hype r a c t i vi t y d i s orde r (A D H D ) a c ros s t he fol l ow i ng t hre e a c a de m i c a re a s : r e a di ng c om pre he ns i on, m a t h e m a t i c s a nd w ri t t e n e xpre s s i on. O bs e rva t i on s of on t a s k b e ha v i or w e re a l s o re c orde d by bot h t he c l a s s room t e a c h e r a nd t he c l a s s room a s s i s t a nt t e a c he r. T he pa rt i c i p a nt s w e re t hre e m a l e s i n t he s i xt h a nd s e ve nt h gr a de t ha t a t t e nde d a pr i v a t e s c hool for s t ude nt s w i t h l e a rni ng d i s a bi l i t i e s S e l f m oni t o r i ng proc e dur e s w e re i m pl e m e nt e d i n a s e l f c on t a i n e d, m i x e d gr a de c l a s s room w hi c h c ons i s t e d of 17 s t ude nt s from t he s i xt h t hrough e i gh t h gra de Ins t ru c t i on of s e l f m oni t or i ng proc e dur e s w a s provi de d by t he c l a s s room t e a c he r, c e rt i f i e d i n s pe c i a l e duc a t i on. A s i ngl e group, m ul t i p l e ba s e l i ne d e s i gn a c ros s a c a de m i c a re a s (re a di ng, m a t h, a nd w ri t t e n e xpre s s i on) w a s us e d t o de t e rm i ne t h e e ff e c t i ve ne s s of t hi s s e l f m oni t ori ng i n t e rve n t i on on t h e a c a de m i c pe rform a nc e of t hre e s t ud e nt s Ins t ruc t i on of s e l f m oni t or i ng proc e du re s w a s provi de d by t he c l a s s room t e a c h e r, c e rt i f i e d i n s pe c i a l e du c a t i on. S e l f m on i t o ri ng i ns t ruc t i on i nvol v e d t he t e a c he r i ns t ru c t i ng t he e nt i re c l a s s i n c o m put i ng s c or e s for c l a s s a s s i gnm e nt c om p l e t i on (i .e ., nu m be r o f que s t i ons c om pl e t e d fro m t he t ot a l num b e r of que s t i ons provi de d) i n t o pe rc e nt a ge s us i ng c a l c u l a t ors T h e t e a c h e r de m ons t r a t e d s e v e ra l e x a m pl e s of pos s i bl e s t ude n t s c ore s N e xt t he t e a c h e r de m ons t r a t e d how t o r e c ord t h e s e s c ore s on a gra ph on a n e nl a rge d gra p h pre s e nt e d on t h e c h a l kboa rd. S c or e s w e re gra phe d a s da t a poi n t s us i ng bul l e t s a nd l i ne s

PAGE 24

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 17 w e re dra w n t o c onn e c t t he da t a poi n t s de m ons t ra t i ng t he t r e nd i n pe rfo rm a n c e T h e n, t he t e a c h e r ha d t he s t ude n t s pra c t i c e c om put i n g a c c ura c y s c ore s a s pe r c e nt a ge s (num b e r of que s t i ons a ns w e re d c orr e c t l y from t h e t ot a l num be r of que s t i ons c om pl e t e d). A ddi t i ona l l y, t he s e s c or e s w e re a l s o gra ph e d s e que nt i a l l y a s da t a poi nt s on t h e c ha l kboa rd gr a ph us i ng s m a l l xs a nd c on ne c t i ng t he s e da t a po i nt s t o de m ons t ra t e s t ude nt progre s s Ba s e l i ne c ond i t i ons for e a c h a c a de m i c a r e a c ons i s t e d of t h e t e a c h e r c om pu t i ng a nd re c ordi ng t he s t ud e nt s a c a de m i c pe rf orm a nc e (bo t h a c c ura c y a nd produc t i vi t y) a c ros s a l l t hr e e a c a d e m i c a re a s A ddi t i ona l l y, t he t e a c he r a nd t e a c he rs a s s i s t a n t c ol l e c t e d da t a re g a rdi ng t he on t a s k be ha vi or of t he s e t hre e s t ude n t s by c onduc t i ng s ys t e m a t i c be ha vi or obs e rva t i ons us i ng be h a vi ora l re c ordi ng s he e t s Be h a vi or obs e rv a t i ons of s t ude nt s w e re c onduc t e d for 10 m i nut e s duri ng e a c h of t he t hr e e a c a d e m i c pe ri ods u s i ng a 10 s e c ond t i m e s a m pl i ng proc e dure Ba s e l i ne obs e rva t i ona l d a t a w e re c o l l e c t e d ov e r a pe ri od of four da ys duri ng a l l t hr e e a c a d e m i c pe r i ods Int e robs e rv e r a gre e m e n t w a s a s s e s s e d e ve ry fourt h da y of t h e e xp e ri m e nt Int e robs e rve r re l i a bi l i t y w a s c o m put e d by di vi di ng t h e num be r of a gre e m e n t s for on t a s k be ha vi or b e t w e e n bot h obs e rve rs (t e a c he r a nd t e a c he r a s s i s t a nt ) by t h e t ot a l num b e r of obs e rva t i ons D uri ng i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he i n t e rv e nt i on pha s e s t ude nt s c orre c t e d t he i r c om pl e t e d a s s i gnm e nt s a s t he t e a c he r pro vi de d c orr e c t r e s pons e s ora l l y t o t he c l a s s N e xt t he s t ude nt s c o m put e d t he i r a c c ura c y a nd produc t i vi t y s c ore s a s de s c r i be d a bov e O nc e t he s c ore s w e re c om put e d, t he s t ud e nt s gr a phe d t he i r s c ore s a s da t a poi n t s on progre s s gra phs for e a c h a c a d e m i c pe ri od. T he t e a c h e r m oni t or e d s t ude nt a c c ura c y i n re port i n g

PAGE 25

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 18 a nd gra phi ng s c ore s by c i rc u l a t i ng a m ong t he s t ude nt s w hi l e t he y c om put e d a nd gr a phe d t he i r s c ore s Re s ul t s of t he S hi m a bukuro e t a l (1999) s t udy i ndi c a t e t ha t s e l f m oni t ori ng i m prove d a c a d e m i c produc t i vi t y a nd a c c u ra c y a s w e l l a s on t a s k be h a vi or for a l l t hr e e s t ude nt s a c ros s a l l t hre e a c a de m i c a r e a s M ore s pe c i fi c a l l y, i m prov e m e n t s of a c a d e m i c produc t i vi t y w e re gr e a t e r t ha n i m prove m e nt s i n a c a d e m i c a c c ura c y, a nd a c a d e m i c produc t i vi t y ga i ns w e re h i ghe r i n re a d i ng c om pre he ns i on a nd m a t h t h a n i n w ri t t e n e xpre s s i on. A ddi t i ona l l y, i m prove m e nt s i n on t a s k be ha vi or w e re gre a t e r i n m a t h a nd re a di ng t h a n i n w ri t t e n e xpre s s i on. T hi s m a y pa rt i a l l y b e due t o t he d i ffe re n c e i n s m a l l group ve rs us l a rge group i ns t ru c t i on. W he n re vi e w i ng t h e fi ndi ngs of t hi s s t udy t he fol l ow i ng i m port a nt l i m i t a t i ons s houl d be c ons i de re d. B e c a us e t hi s s t udy w a s c onduc t e d i n a re s t r i c t e d s e t t i ng, a s e l f c ont a i n e d c l a s s room i n a pr i va t e s c hool fo r s t ude nt s w i t h l e a rni ng di s a b i l i t i e s ge ne ra l i z a t i o n of t he s e fi nd i ngs a c ros s s e t t i ngs w a s not c ons i de re d. A ddi t i ona l l y, re s ul t s of t hi s s t udy c oul d be i nfl ue n c e d by e xp e r i m e nt e r bi a s be c a us e t he c l a s s room t e a c he r i m pl e m e nt e d t he i nt e rve nt i on a nd obs e rve d be ha vi or w i t hou t t he i nvol ve m e n t of a n out s i de obs e rve r. F orm a l m e a s ure s of s oc i a l va l i di t y w e re not i nc l ude d i n t hi s s t udy. Inform a t i on ob t a i n e d from t h e t e a c h e r a nd s t ude nt s i nvol ve d w oul d b e he l pfu l i n unde rs t a ndi ng t h e i r pe rc e p t i ons of t he e ffe c t i ve n e s s of t he s e l f m on i t ori ng i nt e rve nt i on. L a s t l y, a c he c kl i s t t o m oni t or t he i nt e gr i t y of i nt e rve n t i on i m pl e m e nt a t i on w oul d p ro vi de a s ys t e m a t i c m e a ns for a s s e s s i ng t re a t m e n t i nt e gr i t y.

PAGE 26

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 19 P e e r T ut or i ng P e e r t ut ori ng i s a n i ns t ruc t i ona l s t ra t e gy t h a t ha s e m p i ri c a l s upport for i t s e ffe c t i ve ne s s w i t h c h i l dr e n (D uP a ul & S t o ne r, 1994). A c c ordi ng t o t he l i t e ra t ur e pe e r t ut ori ng i s de f i ne d a s a n i ns t ruc t i ona l s t r a t e gy i n w hi c h t w o s t ude n t s pa i r up w i t h on e a not he r (one i s t he t u t or, a nd on e i s t he t ut e e ) t o w ork t oge t he r on a c a d e m i c a c t i vi t i e s T e a c h e rs m oni t o r s t ude nt s progre s s a nd p a rt i c i pa t i on t hrough a s up e rvi s ory rol e T h re e e m pi ri c a l l y s upport e d p e e r t u t ori ng progra m s re vi e w e d e x t e ns i v e l y i n t he pe e r t ut or i ng l i t e r a t ure i nc l ud e : c l a s s w i de pe e r t ut or i ng (CW P T ), pe e r a s s i s t e d l e a rni ng s t ra t e gi e s (P A L S ), a nd re c i proc a l pe e r t ut or i ng (RP T ). Cl a s s w i de pe e r t ut ori ng p rogra m s i n c l ude t he fol l ow i ng c om pone n t s w i t hi n t h e ge ne ra l e duc a t i on c l a s s room : one on one t ut ori ng i n w hi c h dya d pa i rs a r e s e l e c t e d (e i t he r ra nd om l y or a c c ordi ng t o m a t c he d a bi l i t y) w i t hi n a gi ve n c l a s s room t o i nc l ude a l l s t ud e nt s i n t he c l a s s room ; group c ont i nge n c i e s for re i nforc e m e nt a re i m pl e m e n t e d ba s e d upo n poi nt s e a rne d w i t hi n a g i ve n dy a d or t e a m of dya ds ; t ut ors m oni t or t ut e e s pe rform a nc e a nd poi nt s e a rn e d; r e c i pro c a l t ut ori ng o c c urs i n w hi c h s t ude nt s s w i t c h t u t or t ut e e rol e s ; t u t ors provi de i m m e di a t e f e e dba c k, m ode l i n g c orre c t r e s pons e s a s a form of e rror c orre c t i on (G re e nw ood, M a he a dy, & D e l qu a dri 2002). T e a c h e rs provi de i ni t i a l t ra i n i ng fo r s t ude nt s re ga rdi ng pro c e dur e s for pre s e n t i ng a c a de m i c m a t e ri a l a w a rd i ng poi nt s a nd r e he a rs i ng t u t ori ng t e c hn i que s T e a m s a re de s i gne d w i t hi n t he c l a s s room a nd c om pe t e for t he t o t a l h i ghe s t poi n t s e a rn e d. T he w i nni ng t e a m i s de t e rm i n e d on a w e e kl y b a s i s a nd e a rns s oc i a l re w a rds (e .g. a ppl a us e of pe e rs ). Indi vi dua l s t ude nt p e rform a nc e a n d t e a m p e rform a n c e pr e s e nt e d i n poi nt s e a rne d i s pos t e d for t he e n t i re c l a s s t o vi e w (G re e nw ood e t a l ., 2002). G re e nw ood, D e l qua d ri

PAGE 27

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 20 a nd Ca rt a (1997) h a ve d e ve l op e d a m a nua l of CW P T proc e dur e s t o gui de t e a c he rs i m pl e m e nt a t i on (G re e nw ood, M a he a dy, & D e l qua dri 2002). P e e r a s s i s t e d l e a rni ng s t r a t e g i e s (P A L S ) i nc l ude s i m i l a r c om pone n t s of CW P T w hi l e a ddi ng d i ffe re n t e l e m e nt s of pe e r t e a c hi ng s t ra t e gi e s (G re e nw ood e t a l ., 2002) P A L S re a di ng i nvol ve s c l a s s w i de a c t i v i t i e s t ha t i nc l ude : p a rt ne r re a d i ng, s t ory re t e l l w i t h pa rt ne rs pa r a gra ph s hri nki ng, a nd pre di c t i on re l a ys (G re e nw ood e t a l ., 2002). In P A L S dya ds a re s e l e c t e d by m a t c hi ng h i gh pe rfo rm i ng re a d e rs w i t h l ow pe rfor m i ng re a de r s F i rs t hi gh pe rform i ng p e e rs t a k e on t h e ro l e of t ut ors m od e l i ng t ut or proc e dure s w h i l e l ow pe rform i ng pe e rs pa rt i c i p a t e a s t ut e e s (G re e nw ood e t a l ., 2002). A ft e r a pre de t e r m i n e d pe ri od of t i m e t he s t ud e nt s s w i t c h rol e s Re a d i ng m a t e r i a l s c ons i s t of c l a s s room t e x t book m a t e ri a l s w hi c h t he t e a c he r m a y c hoos e t o i nd i vi dua l i z e a c c ord i ng t o l e ve l of d i ffi c u l t y for e a c h dy a d (G re e nw o od e t a l ., 2002). Ind i vi dua l i z e d m a t e r i a l s f oc us on t he ne e ds of t h e l ow pe rfor m i ng re a de r s (G re e nw ood e t a l ., 2002). T ut e e s e a rn po i nt s ba s e d upon a c c u ra c y of p e rform a n c e a nd c oope ra t i ve b e ha vi or dur i ng s e s s i ons w hi c h i s m oni t ore d by t he t u t or (G re e nw ood e t a l ., 2002). Re c i proc a l p e e r t u t ori ng (RP T ) a l s o i nc l u de s m a ny s i m i l a r e l e m e nt s us e d i n CW P T a nd P A L S s uc h a s s t ude nt s pa rt i c i pa t e a s bot h t ut ors a nd t u t e e s a s t r uc t ur e d form a t of proc e dure s a r e i m p l e m e nt e d, a n d pe e rs m oni t or t he i r p e rform a nc e (G re e n w ood e t a l ., 2002). H ow e ve r, i n RP T s t ude nt s a re ra ndom l y m a t c he d w i t h s a m e a ge pe e rs t o form t ut ori ng dy a ds T he c urr e nt l i t e ra t ur e re vi e w s RP T a s a n e ffe c t i ve s uppl e m e nt a l i ns t ruc t i on a l s t ra t e gy for m a t h. In RP T s t ude nt s ha ve four opport un i t i e s t o re s pond t o probl e m s pre s e nt e d; t h e s e four opport un i t i e s a re i de n t i fi e d a s T ry 1, T ry 2, H e l p, a nd T ry 3 (G re e nw ood e t a l ., 2002). T ut ors pre s e n t i ndi vi dua l m a t h probl e m s on fl a s hc a rds w i t h

PAGE 28

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 21 t he a ns w e r a nd s t ru c t ure d for m a t for c orre c t i ons provi de d on t he ba c k of t h e fl a s hc a r d. T he t ut e e c o m pl e t e s t h e m a t h probl e m on t he provi de d, s t ru c t ur e d w orks he e t If t h e t ut e e s re s pons e i s a c c ur a t e t he t u t or provi de s t h e t ut e e w i t h ve rba l pra i s e a nd c on t i nue s w i t h t he ne xt probl e m If t he t ut e e s re s pons e i s i nc orre c t t h e t ut or re fe rs t o t he s t ruc t ure d for m a t for provi di ng a s s i s t a nc e on t he b a c k of t he fl a s hc a rd. N e xt t he t u t e e a t t e m p t s t o a ns w e r t he probl e m a s e c ond t i m e (T ry 2). If t he t ut e e fa i l s t o c o m pl e t e t h e probl e m t h e s e c ond t i m e a t e a c h e r a i d e i s c a l l e d upon t o provi de a ddi t i ona l c oa c hi ng us i ng t h e c orre c t s ol ut i on m ode l T he t ut e e i s gi ve n t he opp ort uni t y t o s ol v e t he prob l e m a ft e r re c e i vi ng t hi s he l p (H E L P ). In T ry 3, t he t u t e e i s gi v e n a fi na l opport uni t y t o s ol ve t he probl e m i nde pe nde n t l y (G re e nw ood e t a l ., 2002). A ft e r 10 m i nut e s s t ude nt s s w i t c h t u t ori ng rol e s O nc e a ful l 20 m i nut e t ut or i ng s e s s i on e nd s s t ude nt s a re gi ve n a qui z (of 16 m a t h probl e m s ) c ove r i ng t h e m a t h m a t e ri a l t a ug ht Indi vi dua l s t ude nt p e rform a n c e i s c om pa re d t o i ndi vi du a l pre d e t e r m i n e d goa l s If a s t u de nt e xc e e ds hi s / h e r goa l h e / s he e a rns a w i n for t he da y. A ft e r e a c h dya d e a rns fi ve w i ns , t he dya d i s gi ve n a pr e s e l e c t e d re w a rd. St udi e s i m pl e m e n t i ng pe e r t ut or i ng. D uP a ul a nd H e nni ngs on (1993) e xa m i n e d t he e ffe c t s of pe e r t ut or i ng on t h e c l a s s room pe rform a nc e of a s t ud e nt di a gnos e d w i t h A D H D T he s t udy i nvol ve d a s e ve n y e a r ol d m a l e di a gnos e d w i t h A D H D w ho ha d ne ve r re c e i v e d s t i m u l a nt m e d i c a t i on, n or w a s he on a ny s t i m ul a nt m e di c a t i on a t t h e t i m e t he s t udy w a s c onduc t e d. T h e s t udy w a s i m pl e m e nt e d i n t h e pa r t i c i pa nt s s e c ond gr a de ge ne ra l e duc a t i on c l a s s room duri ng m a t h e m a t i c s i ns t ruc t i on. O bs e rva t i ons of t h e pa rt i c i pa nt s on t a s k a nd fi dg e t i ng b e ha vi ors w e re re c orde d us i ng a m odi f i e d ve rs i o n of t he A D H D Be ha vi or Codi ng S ys t e m (Ba r kl e y, 1990, a s c i t e d i n D uP a ul & H e nni ng s on, 1993). Curri c ul um b a s e d m e a s ure m e nt (C BM ) probe s w e re us e d t o a s s e s s t he

PAGE 29

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 22 pa rt i c i pa nt s pe rform a n c e i n m a t h s ki l l s E a c h probe a s s e s s e d m i x e d m a t h s ki l l s c ons i s t i ng of 25 t w o a nd t hr e e di g i t a ddi t i on a nd s ubt ra c t i on m a t h probl e m s T h e pa rt i c i pa nt h a d 2 m i nu t e s t o c om pl e t e e a c h m a t h probe T he s c or i ng of t he m a t h pro be s c ons i s t e d of t he nu m be r of di g i t s w ri t t e n c orre c t l y. D uP a ul e t a l (1993) e xa m i ne d t he e ff e c t s of pe e r t ut or i ng on t he p a rt i c i p a nt s c l a s s room pe rform a nc e us i ng a n A BA B re ve rs a l e xpe r i m e nt a l de s i gn. Ba s e l i ne d a t a w e re c ol l e c t e d dur i ng t h e s e c ond gra d e c l a s s room s t ypi c a l m a t h i ns t ruc t i on, w hi c h i nvol v e d t he t e a c h e r provi di ng v e rba l i ns t ruc t i ons t o t he e nt i re c l a s s a nd i n t e rm i t t e nt l y s e l e c t i ng s t ude nt s t o a ns w e r re l a t e d m a t h probl e m s on t he boa rd or a t t h e i r de s ks T he t e a c he r l e d m a t h i ns t ru c t i on w a s 10 20 m i nut e s i n l e n gt h. A ft e r t he t e a c he r l e d i ns t ru c t i on, s t ud e nt s w e re a s s i gne d m a t h w orks he e t s re l a t e d t o t he m a t h i ns t ruc t i on duri ng i nde p e nde nt s e a t w ork. A s ne c e s s a ry, t he t e a c he r provi de d i ndi vi du a l a s s i s t a n c e t o s t ud e nt s duri n g i nde pe nde n t s e a t w ork. T hroughout t h e s t u dy, obs e rva t i ons of t he s t ud e nt s (on t a s k a n d fi dge t s ) be ha v i or w e re c onduc t e d for 10 m i nut e s duri ng m a t h i ns t ru c t i on for a t l e a s t 3 da ys pe r w e e k. Int e robs e rve r a gr e e m e nt c he c ks w e re c ondu c t e d dur i ng 17% of t he obs e rva t i on s e s s i ons w i t h a n ove r a l l a gre e m e nt of 92%. F ol l ow i ng t he obs e rva t i on s e s s i on s CBM m ul t i pl e s ki l l m a t h probe s w e re a dm i n i s t e r e d t o t h e pa rt i c i p a nt a nd ra ndom l y s e l e c t e d pe e rs t o prot e c t t h e pa rt i c i pa n t s c onfi de n t i a l i t y a s a re s e a rc h pa rt i c i pa nt CBM da t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d a t a m i ni m u m of t w i c e pe r w e e k t hroughout t h e s t udy. D uri ng t he s e c ond pha s e of t hi s e xp e ri m e n t c l a s s w i de pe e r t ut ori ng w a s i m pl e m e nt e d. T he p a rt i c i p a nt w a s pa i r e d w i t h a s e c ond gra d e pe e r of a bove a ve ra g e m a t h s ki l l l e v e l T u t ori a l s e s s i ons oc c urre d dur i ng t he s a m e t i m e t e a c h e r l e d m a t h i ns t ruc t i on t ha t t yp i c a l l y oc c urre d dur i ng t he b a s e l i n e pha s e s T he re for e pe e r t ut ori ng i n m a t h

PAGE 30

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 23 re pl a c e d t e a c h e r l e d m a t h i ns t ruc t i on duri ng e xpe ri m e nt a l pha s e s A ft e r t he i n i t i a l p e e r t ut ori ng pha s e a re t u rn t o ba s e l i ne c ondi t i ons oc c urre d i n w hi c h m a t h i ns t ruc t i on w a s t e a c h e r l e d a s pre vi ous l y d i s c us s e d. A ft e r t hi s pe ri od of ba s e l i ne c ondi t i ons pe e r t ut ori ng w a s re i m pl e m e nt e d. T o i nc orpora t e re i nfo rc e rs t he c l a s s w a s di vi de d i nt o t w o t e a m s A t t he e nd of e a c h w e e k duri ng pe e r t ut or i ng c ondi t i ons t h e t e a m w i t h t he m os t po i nt s w a s de c l a r e d t h e w i nne r. E a c h m e m be r of t he w i nne rs t e a m c oul d p a rt i c i pa t e i n a c l a s s w i de l ot t e ry, i n w hi c h s m a l l t oys (re i nforc e rs ) w e re a w a rde d on a ra ndom b a s i s Re s ul t s of t hi s s t udy s how e d t ha t t he pa r t i c i pa nt s on t a s k a nd fi dge t s be ha v i ors w e re va r i a bl e a c ros s t he i n i t i a l ba s e l i ne c o ndi t i on pha s e D uri ng t he i n i t i a l pe e r t u t or i ng c ondi t i on, t he pa r t i c i pa n t de m ons t r a t e d a n i nc re a s e i n on t a s k be ha vi or a nd a de c re a s e i n fi dge t i ng. A s a re s ul t of re t urn t o ba s e l i ne c ondi t i ons he s how e d a d e c r e a s e i n o n t a s k be ha vi or, a nd a n i n c re a s e i n fi dge t i ng. L a s t l y, w he n t he s e c ond pha s e of c l a s s w i de p e e r t ut ori ng w a s i m p l e m e nt e d, t he p a rt i c i pa n t s a t t e nt i on t o i ns t ru c t i on a nd hi s off t a s k m ot or a c t i v i t y i m prove d. T h e s t ude n t s pe rform a nc e on CBM m a t h prob e s a l s o w a s e xa m i ne d. D uri ng t he fi rs t ba s e l i ne c ondi t i on, hi s pe r form a nc e r a nge d fro m 0 t o 10 c orr e c t d i gi t s D uri ng t he fi rs t pha s e of p e e r t ut ori ng, h i s s c ore s ra nge d from 7 t o 10 c orre c t di g i t s D uri ng t he re t urn t o ba s e l i ne c ondi t i ons pha s e t he pa r t i c i pa n t r e c e i ve d a n a ve r a ge o f 7 c orre c t d i gi t s F i na l l y, duri ng t he l a s t pe e r t ut ori ng pha s e h i s pe rform a n c e i m prove d t o a n a ve ra ge s c ore of 13.3 di g i t s c orre c t (D uP a ul e t a l ., 1993). G i ve n t h e s e re s ul t s pe e r t ut ori ng w a s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a n i m p rove d pe rform a nc e on CBM m a t h prob e s de m ons t ra t i ng a n i m prove m e nt i n m a t h s ki l l s D uP a ul e t a l (1993) s how e d pe e r t u t ori ng t o be a s s oc i a t e d w i t h i m prov e d pe rform a nc e i n m a t h s ki l l s T he p a rt i c i pa n t s s c ore s i nc re a s e d i n t h e m e a n num be r o f

PAGE 31

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 24 c orre c t d i gi t s on CBM m a t h probe s T h e fi ndi ngs of t hi s s t udy s upport t he not i on t ha t c hi l dre n d i a gnos e d w i t h A D H D a re be t t e r a bl e t o s us t a i n t he i r a t t e n t i on t o i ns t ru c t i o n a nd c om pl e t e a c a d e m i c m a t e ri a l m or e a c c ura t e l y w he n t he y r e c e i ve on e on one i ns t ru c t i on t ha t provi d e s i m m e di a t e f e e dba c k, a l l ow s t he s t ude nt t o a c t i ve l y re s pond, provi d e s t he s t ude nt w i t h fre qu e nt prom p t s a nd provi d e s i ns t ruc t i on a t t h e i r l e ve l of a c a de m i c a b i l i t y a nd pa c e (D uP a ul & H e nni ngs on, 1993). A l t hough t he pa r t i c i pa nt i m prov e d hi s pe rform a nc e on CBM m a t h prob e s duri ng pe e r t ut or i ng c ondi t i ons t hi s s t udy i s l i m i t e d t o one pa rt i c i pa n t T hus t h e re s ul t s ne e d t o b e re pl i c a t e d w i t h o t he r c h i l dre n d i a gnos e d w i t h A D H D A l t hough i nt e robs e rve r re l i a bi l i t y c he c ks w e re c onduc t e d for be ha v i ora l obs e rva t i on da t a i n t e rs c o r e r re l i a bi l i t y c h e c ks on CBM da t a w e re no t c ondu c t e d. D uP a ul a nd H e nni ngs ons s t udy w a s c onduc t e d o ve r a 30 da y t i m e fra m e F ut ure s t udi e s s houl d be c onduc t e d ove r a l onge r t i m e pe ri od t o a s s e s s t he l ong t e rm i m pa c t of p e e r t u t ori n g on a c a de m i c a c h i e ve m e n t a nd t o a l l ow for a n a l ys i s of t re nd da t a A ddi t i ona l l y, t hi s s t ud y di d not i nc l ud e m e t hods for m oni t or i ng t re a t m e nt i nt e gri t y. S t ud i e s i nvol v i ng pe e r t ut ori ng s houl d c ons i de r us i ng a pe e r t ut o ri ng i m p l e m e nt a t i on c he c kl i s t t o m oni t o r t re a t m e nt i nt e gri t y. A l t hough t e a c h e rs a nd s t ude n t s t ypi c a l l y re port s a t i s fa c t i on w i t h pe e r t ut or i ng (G re e nw ood, Ca rt a & M a he a dy, 1991), s t udi e s e xa m i ni ng pe e r t ut o ri ng s houl d i n c l ude m e a s ure s of s oc i a l va l i di t y. Inform a t i on re ga rdi ng t he s t ud e nt s a nd t e a c he rs vi e w s of t hi s pe e r t u t ori ng i n t e rve n t i on w a s not r e p ort e d. L a s t l y, t he a ut hors c ou l d ha ve c ons i de re d c om pa ri ng t he pa rt i c i pa n t s w ork produc t s us i ng s i m i l a r m a t h s ki l l s duri ng ba s e l i ne c ondi t i ons a nd p e e r t u t ori ng ph a s e s or a t t he be gi nni ng of b a s e l i n e 1 a nd a t t h e e nd of pe e r t ut or i ng pha s e 2.

PAGE 32

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 25 In a not he r s t udy, D uP a ul E rv i n, H ook, a n d M c G oe y (1998) e xa m i n e d t h e e ffe c t s of c l a s s w i de pe e r t ut ori ng on c l a s s room be ha vi or a nd a c a de m i c pe rfor m a nc e of s t ud e nt s di a gnos e d w i t h A D H D T he s t udy c ons i s t e d of 18 c hi l dr e n (15 boys 3 gi rl s ) di a gno s e d w i t h A D H D a nd 10 pe e r c om pa r i s on s t ude nt s w i t h a ge s ra ng i ng from 6 t hrough 10 ye a rs of a ge P a rt i c i pa n t s a t t e nde d g e ne ra l e duc a t i on c l a s s e s ra ngi ng from f i rs t t hrough fi f t h gra de T he p e e r c om pa r i s on s t ude nt s w e re from t he s a m e c l a s s roo m s a s t he s t udy pa rt i c i pa nt s w i t h A D H D a nd w e re ra t e d b y t he i r t e a c h e rs a s a ve r a ge re g a rdi ng t h e i r be ha vi or a nd a c a de m i c pe rfor m a nc e T h e pe e r c om p a ri s on s t ude n t s w e re not t u t ors for a ny of t he s t ude n t s di a gnos e d w i t h A D H D i n t hi s s t udy. D i re c t obs e rva t i ons w e re c onduc t e d us i ng a m odi fi e d ve rs i on of Be h a vi or a l O bs e rva t i ons of S t ude nt s i n S c hool s (D uP a ul e t a l ., 1998). T h e be h a vi ors obs e rve d w e re c a t e gor i z e d a s a c t i ve on t a s k (e .g., w ri t i ng or a ns w e ri ng que s t i ons ), pa s s i ve on t a s k ( e .g., l i s t e ni ng t o i ns t r uc t i on), off t a s k (vi s ua l i n a t t e n t i on), a nd f i dge t s (t a s k i rre l e va n t m ot or a c t i v i t y). A pa rt i a l i nt e rva l c odi ng proc e d ure i n w hi c h be h a vi or w a s obs e rve d for 1 5 s e c onds w i t h 5 s e c onds for re c ord i ng be ha vi or, w a s us e d. O bs e rva t i on s e s s i ons w e re c onduc t e d du r i ng a c a de m i c i ns t ruc t i on a n d a c t i v i t i e s a nd l a s t e d for a t ot a l of 15 20 m i nut e s e a c h. D uP a ul e t a l (1998) e xa m i ne d a c a d e m i c p e rform a nc e by w e e k l y c om p a ri s ons of pre t e s t a nd pos t t e s t s c or e s for 14 of t he 1 8 s t ude nt s w i t h A D H D a nd for a l l 10 pe e r c om pa ri s on s t ude n t s T he t e s t s c ons i s t e d o f 10 t o 20 i t e m s w hi c h t ook a pprox i m a t e l y 2 t o 3 m i nut e s t o c om p l e t e T he m a t h t e s t s c ons i s t e d of a ddi t i on, s ubt ra c t i on, m ul t i p l i c a t i on, or d i vi s i on probl e m s t ha t w e re t a ught i n t he c l a s s room S pe l l i ng t e s t s i nvol v e d t h e t e a c h e r ve rba l l y s t a t i ng t h e s pe l l i ng w ords of t he w e e k, a nd t h e s t ude n t s

PAGE 33

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 26 re s pondi ng by w ri t i ng t h e s pe l l i ng w ord. P re t e s t s w e re a dm i ni s t e re d on M onda ys p ri or t o i ns t ruc t i on, a nd pos t t e s t s w e re a d m i ni s t e re d a t t he e nd of F ri da ys l e s s on. In t h i s s t udy, a n A BA B re ve rs a l de s i gn w a s i m pl e m e nt e d i n 18 c l a s s room s Ini t i a l l y, ba s e l i ne c ondi t i ons w e re i n c orpo ra t e d i nvo l vi ng t yp i c a l c l a s s room a c t i vi t i e s w hi c h i nc l ud e d s m a l l a nd l a rge group i ns t ruc t i on, a s w e l l a s i nde p e nde n t w ri t t e n a s s i gnm e nt s S t ude nt s a c t i v e l y re s ponde d w he n c a l l e d upon i ndi v i dua l l y a nd w he n c om pl e t i ng w ri t t e n a s s i gnm e nt s N e xt c l a s s w i de pe e r t ut ori ng (C W P T ) w a s i m pl e m e nt e d i n m a t h or s pe l l i ng. D uri ng C W P T c ondi t i ons s t ude nt s w e re pa i re d w i t h ot h e r s t ude nt s for 15 t o 20 m i nut e s pe r da y l e a rn i ng m a t h fa c t s or s pe l l i ng w ords re l a t e d t o c urre nt c urri c ul u m for 3 t o 4 da ys pe r w e e k. T h e t ut or di c t a t e d i t e m s from a s c r i pt a nd t he t ut e e re s ponde d t o t he i t e m s ve rba l l y. T h e t ut e e e a rne d t w o poi n t s for e a c h i ni t i a l c orre c t re s pons e W he n t he t ut e e re s ponde d i nc orr e c t l y, t he t u t or s uppl i e d t he c orre c t a ns w e r T he t ut e e t h e n ha d t he opport un i t y t o r e pe a t t he c orre c t re s pons e t hr e e t i m e s t o e a rn a poi nt T he i t e m l i s t w a s a d m i ni s t e re d a s m a ny t i m e s a s pos s i bl e duri ng t h e 10 m i nu t e s D uri ng CW P T t he t e a c h e r m on i t ore d t he i nt e ra c t i ons be t w e e n t he t u t ori ng pa i rs a nd provi de d a s s i s t a nc e a s ne e de d. Bonus poi n t s w e re a w a rde d t o t ut or i ng pa i rs on a r a n dom 5 m i nut e b a s i s for a ppropri a t e i ns t ruc t i ons a nd be ha vi ors A ft e r t he C W P T pha s e w a s i m pl e m e nt e d, ba s e l i ne c ondi t i ons w e re re e s t a bl i s he d. L a s t l y, C W P T w a s re i m p l e m e nt e d. E a c h c ond i t i on a l ph a s e w a s i m pl e m e n t e d for 1 t o 2 w e e ks T he c l a s s w a s di vi de d i nt o t w o t e a m s a nd po i nt s w e re t o t a l e d for e a c h t e a m A t t he e nd of e a c h w e e k, t h e m e m be rs of t he t e a m w i t h t he m os t po i nt s w e re d e c l a re d t he w i nn e rs a nd re c e i v e d a ppl a us e fr om t he ot he r t e a m

PAGE 34

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 27 T he re s ul t s of t h i s s t udy s how e d t ha t pe e r t ut ori ng ha d a pos i t i v e e ffe c t on a c t i ve e nga ge d be h a vi or, d e c re a s i ng pa s s i ve e ng a ge d t i m e a nd d e c r e a s i ng off t a s k be ha vi or a m ong t he A D H D pa rt i c i pa n t s Cha nge s i n t he a c a de m i c p e rform a n c e of s t ude n t s w i t h A D H D w e re va ri a b l e a c ros s pa rt i c i pa nt s S e ve n of t he pa r t i c i pa n t s w i t h A D H D a nd s e ve n of t he pe e r c o m pa ri s on pa r t i c i pa nt s e a rne d hi gh e r pre t e s t s c ore s i n C W P T i n c om pa ri s o n t o b a s e l i n e c ond i t i ons Im p l e m e nt a t i on of CW P T l e d t o i nc re a s e s i n po s t t e s t s c ore s for 5 of t he 14 s t ude nt s w i t h A D H D P os t t e s t s c ore s de c re a s e d for 6 of t he s t ude nt s w i t h A D H D duri ng t he re t urn t o ba s e l i n e c ondi t i ons T h e fi na l CW P T pha s e s how e d i m prove m e nt s i n pos t t e s t s c ore s of ni ne of t he s t ude nt s w i t h A D H D It w a s de t e rm i n e d t ha t 50% of t h e pa rt i c i p a nt s w i t h A D H D w e re t re a t m e nt s uc c e s s e s ba s e d upon a n i n de x of i m prove m e nt us i ng t h e fol l ow i ng for m ul a for e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt : [(CW P T M pos t t e s t CW P T M pre t e s t ) (ba s e l i n e M pos t t e s t ba s e l i ne M pre t e s t )]. T w o i ndi c e s of i m prov e m e nt w e re a ve r a ge d t o prov i de a s um m a ry i nd e x of i m prove m e nt T h e fi rs t i nd e x c o m pa r e d t he fi rs t ba s e l i n e pha s e w i t h t he fi rs t C W P T p ha s e T he s e c ond i nde x c om pa r e d t he s e c o nd ba s e l i ne ph a s e w i t h t h e s e c ond C W P T pha s e P a rt i c i p a nt s w i t h a t l e a s t a 10% i nde x of i m prove m e nt w e r e c ons i de r e d t re a t m e nt s uc c e s s e s In a ddi t i on t o e xa m i ni ng t re a t m e nt out c o m e s c ons um e r s a t i s fa c t i on que s t i onna i r e s w e re a d m i ni s t e re d t o t he t e a c he rs a nd s t ude n t s w ho pa rt i c i pa t e d i n t h e s t udy. A l l e xc e p t one of t h e t e a c h e rs re por t e d s a t i s fa c t i on w i t h pe e r t ut or i ng a nd pl a nne d t o c ont i nu e pe e r t ut ori ng a ft e r t e r m i na t i on of t he s t udy. T hi r t e e n of t he 16 pa rt i c i pa n t s w i t h A D H D w ho c om pl e t e d t he qu e s t i on r e port e d t h a t t h e y e nj oy e d pe e r t ut or i ng a n d w oul d re c om m e nd i t t o a fri e nd.

PAGE 35

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 28 A l t hough t he re s ul t s of t hi s s t udy s how prom i s e for CW P T a s a n e ffe c t i v e i nt e rve n t i on for s t ude n t s w i t h A D H D i n ge ne ra l e duc a t i on s e t t i ngs s om e i m port a nt l i m i t a t i ons of t hi s s t udy s houl d be n ot e d. F or e xa m pl e no m e a s ur e s w e re c onduc t e d pri or t o pe e r t u t ori ng c ond i t i ons t o d e t e rm i n e s t ude nt s i ni t i a l s ki l l l e ve l s A s a re s ul t for s om e of t he s t ude nt s t h e c urri c ul um i ns t ruc t e d duri ng pe e r t u t ori ng w a s not c ha l l e ngi ng. D uP a ul e t a l (1998) no t e t h a t t h e l a c k of c ha l l e ng i ng m a t e ri a l m a y ha v e re s ul t e d i n a c e i l i ng e ffe c t r e s ul t i ng i n m i ni m a l c ha ng e i n pos t t e s t s c ore s w he n c o m pa r i ng pe rform a nc e a m ong CW P T a nd b a s e l i n e c ondi t i ons T o a ddr e s s t hi s l i m i t a t i on, fut ur e s t udi e s i nvol vi ng p e e r t u t ori ng s houl d i n c l ude a s s e s s m e nt s (e .g. s urve y l e ve l a s s e s s m e nt s ) t o de t e r m i ne s t ud e nt s i ns t ruc t i on a l l e ve l s for pe e r t ut or i ng c urr i c ul u m A ddi t i on a l l i m i t a t i ons i nc l ud e c onc e rns of s oc i a l va l i di t y. F or i ns t a nc e one of t h e t e a c h e rs i nvo l ve d i n t hi s s t udy re port e d t ha t pe e r t ut or i ng w a s i ne ffe c t i ve a nd a n i n e ffi c i e nt us e of c l a s s t i m e T he t e a c he rs pe rc e pt i ons of t h e pe e r t ut ori ng i n t e rve n t i on c ou l d ha v e a ne g a t i ve i m pa c t on t re a t m e nt i nt e gr i t y. M ore s pe c i f i c a l l y, t he t e a c he r m a y ha v e be e n l e s s l i ke l y t o fol l ow i nt e rv e nt i on i m pl e m e n t a t i on proc e dure s a c c ur a t e l y c ont r i but i ng t o a ne g a t i v e i nfl ue nc e on t re a t m e nt r e s ul t s A l t hough 5 0% of t he pa rt i c i p a nt s w i t h A D H D w e re de t e rm i ne d t r e a t m e n t s uc c e s s e s 50% of t h e pa rt i c i pa n t s w i t h A D H D w e re de t e rm i ne d t re a t m e nt f a i l ur e s A ddi t i on a l l y, of t he 10 pe e r c om p a ri s on pa r t i c i pa nt s onl y 3 pa rt i c i pa nt s w e r e de t e rm i n e d t re a t m e nt s u c c e s s e s Sum m ar y O ve ra l l s e l f m a n a ge m e nt a nd p e e r t u t ori n g s t ra t e gi e s s how prom i s e i n i m prov i ng a c a de m i c pe rform a nc e of s t ud e nt s w i t h A D H D H o w e ve r, t h e c urr e nt l i t e r a t ure on a c a de m i c i nt e rve nt i ons foc us e s pri m a r i l y on i m prove m e nt s i n a c a d e m i c produc t i vi t y a nd

PAGE 36

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 29 a c a de m i c e nga g e m e n t a m ong c hi l dr e n w i t h A D H D F urt he r s t udi e s s houl d e xa m i ne t he e ffe c t s of s e l f m a na g e m e nt a nd p e e r t u t ori ng s t ra t e gi e s on a c a de m i c a c hi e v e m e n t out c om e s a m ong c hi l dre n w i t h A D H D W he n us i ng a c a d e m i c i n t e rve n t i ons i t i s i m port a n t t o m e a s ure s t ude n t s i ns t ruc t i on a l l e v e l t o d e t e rm i n e t he l e ve l of c urri c ul u m t o be i nc l ud e d i n i n t e rv e nt i ons A l t hough pr e vi ous s t udi e s ha ve i n c l ude d s t a n da rd i z e d m e a s ure s of i nt e l l i ge n c e a nd a c hi e ve m e nt s om e of t he s e s t udi e s ha ve fa i l e d t o i n c l u de m e a s ure s t ha t i de n t i fy s t ude n t s i ns t ruc t i o na l l e v e l s S urve y l e v e l a s s e s s m e nt s s houl d be c onduc t e d t o de t e rm i ne i ns t ru c t i on a l l e ve l s of pe e r t ut ori ng c urri c ul u m a nd CBM probe s s houl d be us e d t o m e a s ure t h e e ffe c t s of t h e s e i nt e rv e nt i ons on a c hi e ve m e nt out c om e s ove r t i m e D uP a ul e t a l (1998) s ugge s t t h a t CBM probe s m a y be m ore s e ns i t i ve t o i nt e rve n t i on e ff e c t s c om pa r e d t o publ i s he d norm re fe r e nc e d a c hi e ve m e nt m e a s ure s In t he s t udi e s i n c l ude d i n t hi s re v i e w i nt e rob s e rve r re l i a bi l i t y c he c ks w e re t ypi c a l l y c onduc t e d on b e ha v i ora l obs e rv a t i ons but i nt e rs c ore r r e l i a bi l i t y c he c ks on m e a s ure s of a c a de m i c pe rform a nc e w e r e not a l w a ys i n c l ude d. F ut ure s t ud i e s i nvol v i ng CBM m e a s ure s s houl d c onduc t i nt e rs c ore r r e l i a bi l i t y c he c ks t o fur t he r v a l i d a t e a c c ur a c y o f CBM da t a c ol l e c t i on. A ddi t i ona l l y, s om e of t he c urre n t s t udi e s ha v e fa i l e d t o i nc l ud e m e a s ure s t ha t m oni t or i m p l e m e nt a t i on of t re a t m e nt pro c e dure s w hi c h c a n l e a d t o i s s ue s w i t h t re a t m e n t fi de l i t y. S t ud i e s e x a m i ni ng e ffe c t i ve ne s s of i nt e rve n t i ons s houl d i nc l ude s om e form of m oni t ori ng i n t e rve n t i on i m p l e m e n t a t i on proc e dure s S oc i a l va l i di t y a p pe a rs t o be a not h e r a r e a of c on c e rn t h a t i s not a l w a ys c ons i de re d i n r e s e a rc h s t ud i e s T he vi e w s a nd pe rc e p t i ons of t hos e i m pl e m e n t i ng i n t e rve nt i ons i s a n i m port a nt c ons i d e ra t i on w hi c h c oul d ha ve a t r e m e ndous i m pa c t on t re a t m e nt i nt e gri t y a nd re s ul t s S t udi e s re ga rd i ng a c a de m i c i nt e rve nt i ons s houl d i nc l ud e m e a s ure s t ha t ga t he r qu a l i t a t i ve i nfor m a t i on

PAGE 37

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 30 re ga rdi ng pa r t i c i pa n t s pe rc e p t i ons of i nt e rve nt i ons L a s t l y, fut ure r e s e a r c h s houl d a l s o e xa m i n e m a i nt e n a nc e e ffe c t s of s e l f m a na ge m e nt a nd pe e r t ut or i ng s t ra t e gi e s on a c a de m i c pe rform a nc e a m ong c h i l dre n w i t h A D H D F ol l ow up a s s e s s m e n t s c oul d b e i m pl e m e nt e d t o de t e r m i ne t re a t m e n t ga i ns ove r a pe ri od of t i m e

PAGE 38

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 31 Cha pt e r 3 M e t hodol ogy T hi s c ha pt e r foc us e s on t h e pa rt i c i p a nt s s e t t i ng, a nd proc e du re s t ha t c om pr i s e d t hi s s t udy. P a rt i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy i nc l ud e d four s e c ond gra d e s t ude nt s w ho e xhi b i t e d s ym pt om s of A t t e nt i on D e fi c i t / H ype r a c t i v i t y D i s orde r: P re dom i na nt l y Ina t t e n t i ve T ype w ho w e re i de nt i f i e d a s l ow a c hi e ve rs i n re a di ng. T he s e s t ud e nt s w e re t ut e e s i n t he p e e r t ut ori ng s e s s i ons D a t a obt a i ne d fro m t he W oodc oc k J ohns on III T e s t s of A c hi e ve m e nt (W J III A CH ; W oodc oc k, M c G re w & M a t he r, 2001), t h e A D H D Ra t i ng S c a l e IV (D uP a ul P ow e r, A na s t opoul os & Re i d, 1 998), a nd s urve y l e ve l a s s e s s m e nt s (S L A ) w e re c om pa re d t o t he i nc l us i on c ri t e ri a de s c ri b e d i n t hi s c ha p t e r t o s e l e c t t u t e e p a rt i c i pa n t s F ourt h gra de s t ude nt s i d e nt i f i e d a s good r e a de rs a nd w e l l be h a ve d s t ude n t s w e re s e l e c t e d a s t ut ors for t he pe e r t ut or i ng s e s s i ons T he re s e a r c he r t r a i ne d t he t u t ors i n t he p e e r t ut ori ng proc e dure s de t a i l e d i n t hi s c ha p t e r. P e e r t ut ori ng o c c urr e d t hre e t i m e s pe r w e e k for 15 m i nut e s e a c h s e s s i on. Curri c u l um b a s e d m e a s ure m e n t (CBM ) re a di ng prob e s w e re a dm i ni s t e re d t o e a c h t ut e e t w i c e pe r w e e k t o a s s e s s t he e ffe c t i ve n e s s of t he pe e r t ut o ri ng a nd s e l f m oni t ori ng i n t e rv e n t i ons T ut e e p a rt i c i pa nt s gra ph e d t h e i r pe rfor m a nc e on CBM re a di ng probe s t w i c e p e r w e e k. A m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne d e s i gn w a s i nc orpor a t e d c om pa r i ng t he pe rform a nc e of pa rt i c i p a nt s i n re l a t i on t o ba s e l i n e c ondi t i ons Ba s e l i ne c ondi t i on s c ons i s t e d of t he t ypi c a l r e a di ng i ns t ruc t i on re c e i v e d i n t h e ge n e ra l e duc a t i on c l a s s room T e a c h e rs of t he t ut e e s a nd t he t ut e e pa rt i c i pa nt s c om pl e t e d m odi fi e d ve rs i ons of t h e Int e rve nt i on Ra t i ng P rofi l e (IRP ) a nd t he Chi l dre ns Int e rv e nt i on R a t i ng P rofi l e (CI RP ), re s pe c t i v e l y. T h e da t a c o l l e c t e d fro m t he I RP a nd CIRP provi de d qua l i t a t i ve i nfor m a t i on

PAGE 39

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 32 re ga rdi ng t h e a c c e p t a bi l i t y a nd e ffe c t i v e ne s s of t he s e l f m oni t or i ng a nd pe e r t ut or i ng i nt e rve n t i ons P ar t i c i pan t s P a rt i c i p a nt s i nc l ude d four s t ude n t s e nrol l e d i n ge ne ra l e du c a t i on s e c ond gra d e c l a s s room s a t a n e l e m e n t a ry s c hool i n c e n t ra l F l ori d a T he s t ud e nt s e xhi b i t e d a t l e a s t 6 of t he 9 i na t t e n t i on s ym pt o m s for A t t e nt i on D e fi c i t / H ype ra c t i v i t y D i s orde r: P re do m i n a nt l y Ina t t e n t i ve T ype a nd w e re c ons i d e re d l ow a c hi e v e rs i n re a di ng d e t e rm i ne d by CBM s urve y l e ve l a s s e s s m e nt (S L A ). S t ude nt s w ho pa rt i c i p a t e d a s t ut e e s i n t h i s s t udy m e t t he fol l ow i ng c ri t e ri a : 1. S t ude nt s i de nt i fi e d a s l ow a c hi e ve rs i n r e a di ng a s de t e r m i ne d by p e rform i ng be l ow i ns t ruc t i ona l l e ve l for t h e i r gra d e pl a c e m e nt o n t h e W ord A t t a c k a nd W ord Ide nt i f i c a t i on s ubt e s t s of t he W ood c oc k J ohns on III T e s t s of A c hi e ve m e nt a nd on S urve y L e v e l A s s e s s m e nt (S L A ) CBM re a di ng prob e s ( l e s s t ha n 40 w ords c orre c t pe r m i nut e w i t h m ore t ha n 4 e rrors for s e c ond gra de rs i n s e c ond gr a de l e ve l r e a di ng m a t e ri a l s ; F uc hs & D e no, 1982). P a rt i c i p a nt s w e re i n c l ud e d i f t h e y re a d 40 or m ore w ords c orre c t but w e re c ons i de re d be l ow i ns t ruc t i ona l l e v e l a c c or di ng t o t he i r pe rform a nc e s on t he W ord A t t a c k a nd W ord Id e nt i f i c a t i on s ubt e s t s from t he W J III T e s t s of A c hi e ve m e nt 2. T e a c h e r ra t i ngs on t he A D H D Ra t i ng S c a l e IV Ina t t e nt i on s ubs c a l e (D uP a ul e t a l ., 1998) w e r e a t or a bove t he 90 t h pe r c e nt i l e a nd t e a c he r ra t i ngs on t he H ype ra c t i v i t y Im pu l s i vi t y s ubs c a l e w e r e b e l ow t he 80t h p e rc e nt i l e S t ude n t s w h o e xhi bi t e d a t l e a s t 6 of 9 In a t t e nt i on s y m pt om s ba s e d on D S M IV T R

PAGE 40

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 33 c ri t e r i a (A P A 2000) de t e r m i ne d by t e a c he r re s pons e s on t he A D H D Ra t i ng S c a l e IV (D uP a ul e t a l ., 1998). 3. P a re nt ra t i ngs on t he H ype r a c t i vi t y I m pul s i vi t y s ubs c a l e w e r e a t or be l ow t h e 80t h pe rc e n t i l e 4. S t ude nt s w ho w e re c urre n t l y i n g e ne ra l e d uc a t i on c l a s s room s a nd w ho w e re not i n t he pro c e s s of be i ng re f e rre d for s pe c i a l e duc a t i on or w ho w e re no t a l re a dy r e c e i vi ng s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s e rv i c e s 5. S t ude nt s w hos e c um ul a t i ve s c hoo l re c ords di d not i ndi c a t e pre s e n c e of c o m orbi d di s orde rs A l t hough none of t he p a rt i c i p a nt s w e re on m e di c a t i on for A t t e nt i on D e fi c i t / H ype ra c t i v i t y D i s orde r, m e di c a t i o n w a s not c ons i de re d a f a c t or w he n de t e rm i ni ng pa r t i c i pa n t i nc l us i on. In a ddi t i on, re t e n t i on w a s not c ons i d e re d w he n de t e rm i ni ng e l i gi b i l i t y for pa rt i c i pa t i on i n t hi s s t udy. A c c ordi ng t o s c hoo l re c ords P a rt i c i pa n t 3 ha d be e n re t a i ne d pr e vi ous l y. T a bl e 1 Sum m ar y of T ut e e P ar t i c i pant s D e m ogr aphi c Inf or m at i on G e nde r E t hni c i t y A ge G ra de P a rt i c i p a nt 1 M a l e Ca uc a s i a n 8 2 P a rt i c i p a nt 2 M a l e A fri c a n A m e ri c a n 7 2 P a rt i c i p a nt 3 M a l e H i s pa ni c 10 2 P a rt i c i p a nt 4 M a l e A fri c a n A m e ri c a n 8 2

PAGE 41

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 34 T a bl e 2 R e s ul t s f r om A D H D R at i ng Sc al e IV S c h ool and H om e V e r s i ons (D uP aul e t al ., 19 98) S c hool V e rs i on H om e V e rs i on S um of Ina t t e n t i on S c ore s Ina t t e n t i on P e rc e nt i l e N um be r of It e m s Ra t e d O ft e n" or V e ry O ft e n" S um of Ina t t e n t i on S c ore s Ina t t e n t i on P e rc e nt i l e P a rt i c i p a nt 1 24 88t h 92nd 11 12 84t h 86t h P a rt i c i p a nt 2 22 92nd 94t h 13 11 84t h 85t h P a rt i c i p a nt 3 27 98t h 99t h 12 5 25t h 50t h P a rt i c i p a nt 4 24 88t h 92nd 12 8 50t h 75t h In a ddi t i on t o t he four p a rt i c i p a t i ng t ut e e s fou r fourt h gra de s t ude n t s a t t h e e l e m e nt a ry s c hool i d e nt i f i e d a s w e l l be ha ve d a nd a bove a ve r a ge i n r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s re port e d by t h e i r t e a c he rs w e re s e l e c t e d a s t ut ors Re s e a rc h s upport s t h e be n e fi t s o f c ros s a ge t ut ori ng for bo t h t ut ors a nd t ut e e s (U t l e y, M ort w e e t & G re e nw ood, 1997). In c ros s a ge t ut ori ng, o l de r s t ud e nt s w ho ha v e a l re a dy m a s t e re d t he a c a de m i c s ki l l s be i ng t a ught a r e s e l e c t e d a s t ut ors for younge r c hi l dre n w i t h l ow e r a c a de m i c s ki l l s (G re e n w ood, Ca rt a & H a l l 1988).

PAGE 42

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 35 T a bl e 3 Sum m a r y of T ut or P ar t i c i pant s D e m ogr aphi c Inf or m at i on G e nde r E t hni c i t y G ra de T ut or 1 F e m a l e Ca uc a s i a n 4 T ut or 2 F e m a l e Ca uc a s i a n 4 T ut or 3 M a l e Ca uc a s i a n 4 T ut or 4 M a l e Ca uc a s i a n 4 Se t t i ng T hi s s t udy w a s c onduc t e d a t a n e l e m e n t a r y s c hool i n c e n t ra l F l or i da A t t h e t i m e of t hi s s t udy, t he popul a t i on of t he e l e m e n t a ry s c hool w a s 541 s t ude nt s of w hi c h 53 % w e re m a l e s a nd 47% w e re f e m a l e s T he e t hni c groups t ha t m a ke up t he popul a t i on o f t hi s s c hool i nc l ud e : 43% Ca u c a s i a n, 23% A fri c a n A m e ri c a n, a nd 34% H i s pa ni c N i n e t y pe rc e nt of t he s t ude n t s a t t he s c hool r e c e i v e d fre e or r e duc e d c os t l unc h. A s um m a ry of t he de m ogr a phi c i nform a t i on for t he s c ho ol i s provi de d i n T a bl e 4 T a bl e 4 D e m ogr aphi c Inf or m at i on f or E l e m e n t ar y Sc hool Ca uc a s i a n A fri c a n A m e ri c a n H i s pa ni c A s i a n N um be r of M a l e s 124 74 89 0 N um be r of F e m a l e s 109 50 95 0 E v i de n c e of E t hi c al Cons i d e r at i ons P e rm i s s i on from t he Ins t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w Boa rd w a s s e c ure d be for e t he s t udy w a s c onduc t e d. D i s t r i c t p e rm i s s i on a l s o w a s obt a i ne d pr i or t o c ondu c t i ng t hi s s t udy. P a r e nt a l

PAGE 43

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 36 w ri t t e n c ons e n t a nd p a rt i c i pa n t a s s e nt w a s a c qui re d pr i or t o s t ud e nt s i nc l us i on i n t h i s s t udy. P a rt i c i p a nt s w e re r e fe rre d t o a s P a rt i c i pa n t 1, P a rt i c i pa n t 2, P a rt i c i p a nt 3, a nd P a rt i c i p a nt 4 w he n r e port i ng r e s ul t s t o e ns ure t he c onf i de nt i a l i t y of i nd i vi du a l s i nvol ve d i n t hi s s t udy. P ar t i c i pan t R e c r ui t m e nt P r oc e dur e s T he pri nc i pa l i nve s t i g a t or a s ke d for t e a c h e rs t o vol unt e e r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t h i s s t udy. W i t h t h e a s s i s t a nc e of t he s c hool p s yc hol ogi s t a nd t he E x c e pt i ona l S t ude nt E duc a t i on (E S E ) s e rvi c e s c oord i na t or a t t he s c hool pot e n t i a l s t ude nt p a rt i c i p a nt s (t ut e e s ) w e re i de nt i fi e d w i t hi n t h e s e c ond gr a de c l a s s room s of t he t e a c he rs w ho vol unt e e re d. T he s e s t ude nt s w e re e va l ua t e d a c c ordi ng t o t he c ri t e ri on pro c e dur e s pre vi ous l y out l i ne d. A ddi t i ona l l y, fourt h gra d e pa r t i c i pa nt s (t u t ors ) w e re re c rui t e d ba s e d upon t e a c he rs i de nt i fy i ng s t ude nt s a s good re a de rs a nd w e l l be h a ve d s t ud e nt s T he s c hoo l ps yc hol ogi s t provi de d fourt h gra d e t e a c h e rs w i t h a t u t o r re c om m e nda t i on form t o nom i n a t e s t ud e nt s i n t he i r c l a s s room s (A ppe ndi x B) D e pe nde nt Me as ur e s Curri c ul um b a s e d m e a s ure m e nt (CBM ) re a di ng probe s w e re a dm i n i s t e re d t o t he pa rt i c i pa nt s t w o t i m e s pe r w e e k ove r t he c ours e of 7 w e e ks t o doc um e n t c h a nge s i n or a l re a di ng fl u e nc y a s a func t i on of pe e r t ut or i ng. CBM c a n be s t be c ha r a c t e ri z e d a s dy na m i c i ndi c a t ors of ba s i c s ki l l s (S hi nn, 2002). CBM i s dyna m i c i n t ha t prob e s a re br i e f m e a s ure s de s i gne d t o be s e ns i t i ve t o ga i ns i n s t ude nt pe rfor m a nc e ove r s hort p e ri o ds of t i m e T he re for e CBM provi de s a n e ffe c t i ve m e a ns for m on i t ori ng s t ud e nt progr e s s fre que nt l y. In r e ga rd t o CBM a s i ndi c a t ors CBM probe s m e a s ure ke y be h a vi ors t h a t i ndi c a t e ove r a l l pe rform a nc e i n a n a c a d e m i c a re a (S hi nn, 2002). F or e xa m pl e i n re a di ng

PAGE 44

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 37 CBM probe s m e a s ure ora l r e a d i ng fl ue n c y O ra l re a di ng f l ue n c y ha s s how n s t rong c orre l a t i on w i t h ov e ra l l re a di ng pe rfor m a n c e A ddi t i on a l l y, CBM da t a provi d e s bot h qua nt i t a t i v e a nd qua l i t a t i ve i nfor m a t i on re ga rdi ng s t ude nt p e rform a n c e i n ba s i c s ki l l a re a s Im port a nt l y, m ul t i pl e probe s a re a v a i l a b l e a l l ow i ng for r e pe a t e d m e a s ure m e n t of s t ude nt pe rform a nc e T he s e progr e s s da t a c a n be us e d t o e va l ua t e t he e ffe c t i ve n e s s of i nt e rve n t i ons (e .g., pe e r t u t ori ng) i n b a s i c s ki l l a re a s s uc h a s re a d i ng or m a t h. CBM pr obe s c a n be t a ke n d i re c t l y from t he c urr i c ul um i n w hi c h t he s t ud e nt i s i ns t ru c t e d. Re s e a rc h a l s o s upport s t he us e of s a m e l e ve l probe s not t a ke n di r e c t l y from t he s t ud e nt s c urri c ul u m a s e ff e c t i ve i n m oni t or i ng c ha nge re ga rdl e s s of w hi c h re a d i ng c urri c ul u m s e ri e s t he s t ude n t i s be i ng i ns t ruc t e d (F uc h s & D e no, 1992; F uc hs & D e no, 1994; P ow e l l S m i t h & Bra d l e y K l ug, 2001). T e c hni c al a d e quac y of CB M r e ad i ng p r obe s N um e rous s t udi e s ha ve de m ons t ra t e d CBM s s t rong t e c hni c a l a de qua c y, i n pa r t i c u l a r for CBM re a di n g (s e e M a rs t on, 1989; S hi nn, G ood, K nut s on, T i l l y, & Col l i ns 1992). D e no, M i rke n, a nd Chi a ng (1982) e xa m i ne d t he v a l i d i t y of C BM re a di ng m e a s ure s by c orre l a t i ng t he s e m e a s ure s w i t h t h e fol l ow i ng c ri t e ri on, nor m re fe re n c e d t e s t s of re a d i ng: t h e S t a nfor d D i a gnos t i c Re a di ng T e s t (K a rl s e n, M a dd e n & G a rdne r, 1975), t he W oodc o c k Re a d i ng M a s t e ry T e s t (W RM T ; W ood c oc k, 1973), a nd t he P e a body Ind i vi dua l A c hi e ve m e nt T e s t (P IA T ; D unn & M a rkw a rdt 1970). Re s ul t s s how e d t ha t CBM re a di ng m e a s ure s i n w hi c h s t ude nt s re a d fro m t he i r ba s a l re a d e r for one m i nut e w e re v a l i d m e a s ure s of re a di ng w i t h c orre l a t i on c oe ff i c i e nt s ra ngi ng from .73 t o .91. In a ddi t i on t o s t ud i e s e xa m i n i ng t he v a l i d i t y of CBM a s t e c hni c a l l y a d e qua t e m e a s ure s of re a d i ng, s e ve ra l s t udi e s ha ve i nv e s t i ga t e d t h e re l i a b i l i t y of CBM re a di ng m e a s ure s M a rs t on (1989)

PAGE 45

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 38 re vi e w e d s e v e ra l of t he s e s t udi e s (S hi nn, 1981; T i nda l G e rm a nn, e t a l ., 1983); t he fol l ow i ng t hre e m e t hods w e re us e d t o d e t e rm i ne re l i a b i l i t y: t e s t re t e s t e s t i m a t e s pa r a l l e l form e s t i m a t e s a nd i nt e r ra t e r a gre e m e n t c oe ffi c i e nt s A m ong t he s e f i ve s t udi e s t e s t re t e s t re l i a b i l i t y c o e ffi c i e nt s ra ng e d from 82 t o .97; pa ra l l e l form e s t i m a t e s ra ng e d f rom .84 t o .96; a nd i n t e rra t e r a gre e m e nt c oe ffi c i e nt s w e re .99. Se l e c t i on and a dm i ni s t r at i on of CB M r e a d i ng p r obe s CBM s t a nda rd re a di ng pa s s a ge s de ve l ope d by E dform a t i on (H ow e & S hi nn, 2001) a s pa rt of A IM S w e b form a t i v e a s s e s s m e nt w e r e ra ndom l y s e l e c t e d t o c onduc t s urv e y l e v e l a s s e s s m e nt s a nd t o m oni t or s t ude n t s ora l re a di ng fl u e nc y. A I M S w e b re a di ng pa s s a ge s a re t e c hn i c a l l y a de qua t e w i t h r e l i a bi l i t y c orr e l a t i ons ra ngi ng from .81 t o .89 a c ros s gra de s 1 t hrough 7 (H ow e & S hi nn, 2001). T he pri nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or us e d a s t a nda rdi z e d s c r i pt t o prov i de i ns t ruc t i ons w he n i nd i vi dua l l y a d m i ni s t e ri ng CBM probe s T he pri nc i p a l i nv e s t i ga t o r us e d a s t opw a t c h t o m oni t or t he t i m e ; e a c h s t ude nt w a s gi ve n one m i nut e t o r e a d t h e pa s s a ge a l oud. W h i l e t he s t ud e nt w a s re a d i ng, t he pri n c i p a l i nve s t i ga t o r a l s o he l d a c opy of t he s a m e p a s s a ge t o r e c ord a ny e rrors t he s t ude nt m a de E x a m pl e s of e rrors i nc l u de : om i t t i ng w ord(s ), s ubs t i t ut i on of w ord ( s ) or m i s pronunc i a t i ons of w ord ( s ) (S hi nn, 1989). A t t he e nd of t h e one m i nut e t i m e pe r i od, t he pri nc i pa l i nve s t i g a t or m a rke d t he l a s t w ord t he s t ude nt r e a d on t h e CBM probe P robe s w e re s c ore d by c ount i ng t he nu m be r of w ords re a d c orr e c t l y a nd e rrors i n on e m i nu t e T he pri nc i p a l i nv e s t i ga t or a s c hoo l ps yc hol ogy gra dua t e s t ud e nt c ol l e c t e d CBM da t a for e a c h t u t e e pa rt i c i p a nt i n t hi s s t udy. T he pri nc i p a l i nve s t i ga t or pr e vi ous l y h a d re c e i v e d s e ve n w e e ks of t r a i ni ng i n a dm i ni s t e r i ng a nd s c ori ng c urri c ul u m ba s e d m e a s ure s d uri ng he r P s yc hoe duc a t i on a l A s s e s s m e nt I c ours e i n t he S c hoo l P s yc hol ogy P rogra m a t t he U ni v e rs i t y of S out h F l ori d a In a ddi t i on,

PAGE 46

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 39 t he pri nc i pa l i nve s t i g a t or h a s c onduc t e d s urve y l e ve l a s s e s s m e nt s a nd c ol l e c t e d CB M progre s s m oni t ori ng da t a i n h e r pra c t i c um s e t t i ng. T h e pri nc i pa l i nve s t i g a t or c he c k e d he r ow n a c c ura c y i n s c ori ng CBM re a di ng pro be s pri or t o da t a c ol l e c t i on. T he pri n c i pa l i nve s t i ga t or s c ore d vi d e ot a pe d s a m p l e s pr ovi de d by he r fa c ul t y a dvi s or of c h i l dre n re a di ng s e l e c t e d CBM pa s s a ge s T he n, t he pri nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or c he c ke d he r a c c ur a c y w i t h t he s c ori ng k e y. Int e rra t e r a gre e m e n t w a s c a l c ul a t e d us i ng t he fo l l ow i ng form u l a : num be r of a gre e m e nt s di vi d e d by t ot a l nu m be r of a gre e m e nt s pl us di s a gre e m e n t s m ul t i p l i e d by 100. A c r i t e r i on of 95% a c c ura c y w a s re qui r e d t o be ob t a i n e d be fore proc e e di ng w i t h t he s t udy. In t e rr a t e r a gre e m e nt w a s 100 pe r c e n t Woodc oc k J ohns on III T e s t s of A c hi e v e m e nt T he W oodc o c k J ohns on III T e s t s of A c hi e ve m e n t (W J III A CH ; W oodc o c k, M c G re w & M a t he r, 2001) i s a n i ndi vi du a l l y a dm i ni s t e r e d, s t a nda rd i z e d, a nd norm re fe re n c e d c o m pre he ns i v e t e s t b a t t e ry of a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t s T h e W ord Ide n t i fi c a t i on a nd t he W ord A t t a c k s ubt e s t s w e re us e d t o a s s e s s t ut e e pa r t i c i pa n t s ba s i c re a di ng s ki l l s T he W ord Ide nt i f i c a t i on s ubt e s t re qui r e s pronunc i a t i on of i s ol a t e d w ords (S a t t l e r, 2001). T he W ord A t t a c k s ubt e s t re qu i re s t he pronun c i a t i on of e i t he r nons e ns e w ords or l ow fre que nc y w ords (S a t t l e r, 2001). F rom t h e ra w s c ore e a rn e d by t he c hi l d, a s t a nda rd s c ore a nd a n i ns t ruc t i ona l ra ng e s c ore c a n be de t e rm i ne d. T he W oodc o c k J ohns on III T e s t s of A c hi e ve m e n t ha s a d e qua t e re l i a bi l i t y a nd va l i di t y for m e a s uri ng a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt M e di a n i nt e rn a l c ons i s t e nc y r e l i a bi l i t i e s for t he W J III A CH ra nge from .76 t o .97 ( Mdn r x x = .88) for s ubt e s t s a nd from .85 t o .96 for c l us t e rs (S a t t l e r, 2001). In a ddi t i on, t ot a l t e s t c om pa r i s ons be t w e e n t he W J III A CH a nd t he K a ufm a n T e s t of E duc a t i on a l A c h i e ve m e nt (K T E A ) s how a c orre l a t i on of 79

PAGE 47

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 40 (S a t t l e r, 2001). A c orr e l a t i on of .65 w a s f ound be t w e e n t h e W J III T o t a l A c h i e ve m e nt a nd t he W IA T T ot a l A c hi e ve m e nt (S a t t l e r 2001). Ba s e d on t he WJ II I Com pus c or e and P r of i l e s P r ogr am (S c hra nk & W oodc o c k, 2001) a l l of t h e pa rt i c i p a nt s gra d e pl a c e m e nt s w e re 2.8. P a rt i c i p a nt 1s Ba s i c Re a di ng S ki l l s fe l l a t t h e be gi nn i ng s e c ond gra d e l e ve l 2.0 w i t h 1.8 gra d e l e v e l r e a di ng m a t e r i a l de e m e d e a s y a nd 2.3 gr a de l e ve l m a t e ri a l d e t e rm i ne d di ff i c ul t (S e e T a bl e 5 ). P a rt i c i pa nt 2s Ba s i c Re a di ng S ki l l s fe l l a t t he 2.3 gra de l e ve l w i t h 2.0 gra d e l e ve l r e a di ng m a t e ri a l c ons i de re d e a s y a nd 2.6 gra d e l e v e l re a di n g m a t e r i a l c ons i de r e d di ffi c ul t for t hi s pa rt i c i pa nt F or P a rt i c i p a nt 3, B a s i c Re a di ng S ki l l s fe l l a t t h e 1.8 gra de l e v e l w i t h 1. 6 gra de l e v e l m a t e ri a l de e m e d e a s y a nd 2.1 gra de l e v e l r e a di ng m a t e ri a l i de n t i fi e d a s di ffi c ul t L a s t l y, P a rt i c i pa n t 4s Ba s i c Re a di ng S ki l l s c om pos i t e fe l l a t t he 2.2 gr a de l e ve l w i t h 1.9 re a d i ng l e ve l m a t e ri a l s de t e rm i ne d e a s y a nd 2.5 re a di ng l e ve l m a t e ri a l s i ndi c a t e d a s di ff i c ul t T a bl e 5 R e s ul t s of Woodc o c k J ohns on III T e s t s of A c hi e v e m e n t R e ad i ng B as i c R e adi ng S k i l l s G ra de E qui va l e nt E a s y t o D i ffi c ul t S t a nda rd S c ore s P e rc e nt i l e s P a rt i c i p a nt 1 2 1.8 t o 2.3 85 16 P a rt i c i p a nt 2 2.3 2.0 t o 2.6 91 27 P a rt i c i p a nt 3 1.8 1.6 t o 2.1 80 9 P a rt i c i p a nt 4 2.2 1.9 t o 2.5 89 22

PAGE 48

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 41 Cons um e r Sat i s f ac t i on S t ude nt t u t e e s c o m pl e t e d a m odi f i e d ve rs i on of t he Chi l dr e ns Int e rve n t i on R a t i ng P rofi l e (CIRP ; W i t t & E l l i ot 1985), a nd t he i r t e a c h e rs c om pl e t e d a m odi f i e d ve rs i o n of t he Int e rv e nt i on R a t i ng P rofi l e (IRP ; M a rt e ns & W i t t 1982) t o de t e rm i ne t he a c c e p t a b i l i t y of t hi s i nt e rve n t i on (A ppe ndi x J a nd K ). W i t t a nd M a r t e ns (1983) e x a m i ne d t he t e c hni c a l a de qua c y of t he IRP a nd fou nd t ha t t h e IRP c orr e l a t e d .86 w i t h t h e E va l ua t i ve S c a l e of t he S e m a nt i c D i ffe r e n t i a l W i t t a nd M a rt e ns (1983) a l s o found t he re l i a b i l i t y c oe ff i c i e nt of t he IRP t o be .98. Curre nt l y, no i nfor m a t i on i s a va i l a b l e re ga rdi ng t h e re l i a b i l i t y a nd va l i di t y of t he CIRP T he m odi f i e d ve rs i on of t h e CIR P re qui re d pa r t i c i pa n t s t o ra t e e a c h i t e m ba s e d on a 5 poi nt L i ke r t s c a l e (e .g., 1 = a gre e 5 = di s a gre e ). T h e m od i fi e d v e rs i on of t he IR P re qui re d t e a c h e r pa rt i c i p a nt s t o ra t e e a c h i t e m ba s e d upon a 6 poi nt L i ke rt s c a l e (e .g., 1 = s t rongl y di s a gre e 6 = s t rongl y a gr e e ). R e s e ar c h D e s i gn T hi s s t udy us e d a m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne d e s i gn a c ros s pa rt i c i pa n t s t o e va l ua t e t he e ffe c t i ve ne s s of s e l f m on i t ori ng a nd pe e r t ut ori ng on t he or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y for c hi l dre n e xhi bi t i ng s ym pt om s of A D H D ; P re dom i n a nt l y Ina t t e n t i ve T ype w ho a r e l ow a c h i e vi ng i n re a di ng. E ffe c t s of t he i n t e rv e nt i on w e r e de m ons t ra t e d by i n t roduc i ng t he i nt e rv e nt i on t o di ffe re n t ba s e l i ne s a c ros s t he four pa rt i c i pa nt s a t di ffe r e nt t i m e s (K a z di n, 1982). P roc e dure s s pe c i fi c t o e a c h ph a s e of t he s t udy a re de s c ri b e d i n t he fol l ow i ng s e c t i on s P r e bas e l i ne P e e r t ut o rs pa rt i c i pa t e d i n t w o t ra i ni ng s e s s i ons E a c h s e s s i on w a s a pproxi m a t e l y 20 m i nut e s i n l e ng t h a nd w a s c onduc t e d by t he pr i nc i p a l i nv e s t i ga t or. F i rs t t he pri nc i pa l i n ve s t i g a t or m od e l e d t h e rol e of t h e t ut or. N e x t t h e i nve s t i ga t or a nd t ut or rol e p l a ye d w i t h t h e t ut or i n t ra i ni ng pe rform i ng t h e rol e of t ut e e w hi l e t he

PAGE 49

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 42 i nve s t i ga t or pl a y e d t he rol e of t ut or. T h e n, t he i nve s t i ga t or a nd t ut or i n t r a i ni ng s w i t c he d rol e s O nc e t he t ut or fol l ow e d t h e t ut or i ng proc e dure s w i t h 100% a c c ur a c y w i t h t he i nve s t i ga t or i n t h e rol e of t he t u t e e t he t ut ori ng s e s s i on e nde d. T he pr i nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or a s s e s s e d t he t ut or i n t ra i n i ngs a c c ura c y o f i m pl e m e nt i ng t ut or i ng proc e dur e s us i ng a c he c kl i s t for t ra i ni ng (A ppe nd i x C ). B as e l i ne B a s e l i n e c ondi t i ons c ons i s t e d of t he t ypi c a l c l a s s room rout i ne for re a di ng i ns t ru c t i on. D uri ng b a s e l i ne c ond i t i ons s urve y l e ve l a s s e s s m e nt s w e re a dm i ni s t e re d t o g a t he r da t a re ga rd i ng t he s t ude nt s c urre n t l e ve l of r e a di ng p e rform a nc e S urve y l e ve l a s s e s s m e nt i s a m e t hod i nvo l vi ng t he a d m i ni s t r a t i on a nd s c ori ng of c urri c ul u m ba s e d m e a s ure m e nt (CBM ) pr obe s t o de t e r m i ne i f a di s c re pa n c y e xi s t s be t w e e n a s t ud e nt s e xp e c t e d pe rform a nc e l e ve l i n t he c urri c ul um a nd a c t u a l p e rfor m a nc e l e ve l (S hi nn, J ohns t on, M a l m qui s t & S w e e t l a nd B a ke r, 1993). P robe s w e re a dm i n i s t e re d a t e a c h l e ve l i n t he c urri c u l um be g i nni ng w i t h t he s t ude n t s g ra de l e ve l a nd t e s t i ng c ont i nue d i n s uc c e s s i ve l y l ow e r l e ve l s unt i l t he s t ud e nt re a c h e d a l e ve l a t w hi c h h e / s he w a s s uc c e s s ful T hi s l e ve l i s re f e rre d t o a s t he s t ude nt s i ns t ru c t i on a l l e ve l F ol l ow i n g s c ori ng proc e dur e s for re a di ng prob e s de v e l ope d by S hi nn, J ohns t on, M a l m qu i s t a n d S w e e t l a nd Ba k e r (1993), t h e m e d i a n s c or e of w ords re a d c orre c t l y a nd t he m e di a n num be r of e rrors from t h e s e probe s w e re us e d t o de t e r m i ne e a c h pa rt i c i p a nt s i ns t ruc t i on a l l e ve l Ba s e d upon s urve y l e ve l a s s e s s m e nt d a t a a nd ora l re a di ng fl u e nc y b e nc hm a rks (G ood, S i m m ons K a m e e nui K a m i ns ki & W a l l i ns 2002), a goa l a nd a i m l i ne for e a c h t ut e e p a rt i c i p a nt w a s e s t a b l i s he d. A c c ord i ng t o G ood, S i m m ons K a m e e nu i K a m i n s ki a nd W a l l i ns (2002), a b e nc hm a rk goa l for S pri ng of s e c ond gra de i s 90 w ords re a d

PAGE 50

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 43 c orre c t p e r m i nut e i n gra de l e ve l m a t e ri a l T he a i m l i n e a nd go a l ba s e d o n or a l re a di ng fl ue nc y be n c hm a rks w i t hout i nt e rve n t i on w e re c om pa re d t o t he pa r t i c i pa nt s progre s s i on w i t h i nt e rv e nt i on. H ow e ve r, i f a s t ud e nt w a s re a di ng s o fa r b e l ow be nc h m a rks t ha t a c c ordi ng t o F uc hs e t a l (1993) progre s s w a s c om pl e t e l y unr e a l i s t i c a goa l w a s s e t i n be t w e e n be n c hm a rks a nd re a l i s t i c s t a nda r ds for grow t h. A c c ordi ng t o F uc hs e t a l (1993), re a l i s t i c s t a nd a rds for grow t h a re be t w e e n 1.5 t o 2 w ords pe r w e e k a t G ra d e 2. F or e a c h of t he p a rt i c i p a nt s goa l s a nd a i m l i ne s w e re s e t a t a ga i n of 3 w ords pe r w e e k ove r t he c ours e of s e ve n w e e ks O nc e l i t t l e va ri a b i l i t y w a s de m ons t r a t e d a c ros s ba s e l i ne da t a poi n t s t he i n t e rve n t i on w a s i m pl e m e nt e d for P a rt i c i pa n t 1 w hi l e b a s e l i ne da t a c ol l e c t i on w a s c on t i nu e d for P a rt i c i pa n t s 2, 3, a nd 4. T he i n t e r v e nt i on w a s i m pl e m e nt e d for e a c h pa rt i c i pa n t s e que nt i a l l y F or e xa m pl e ba s e l i ne c ondi t i ons c ont i nu e d for P a rt i c i p a nt 2 for one a ddi t i ona l w e e k onc e t he i nt e rve nt i on ha d b e e n i m pl e m e nt e d fo r pa rt i c i pa nt 1. B a s e l i n e c ond i t i ons c on t i nu e d for P a rt i c i pa nt 3 fo r 2 a ddi t i ona l w e e ks onc e t he i nt e rv e nt i on ha d be e n i m p l e m e nt e d for P a rt i c i pa nt 1. A ddi t i ona l l y, b a s e l i n e c ondi t i ons c on t i nue d for P a r t i c i pa nt 4 fo r 3 a ddi t i on a l w e e ks onc e t h e i nt e rve nt i on h a s be e n i m p l e m e nt e d fo r P a rt i c i pa n t 1. O nc e t he i nt e rve nt i on ha d b e e n i m pl e m e nt e d, da t a c ol l e c t i on c ont i nu e d t hroughou t t he dur a t i on of t hi s s t udy. P e e r t ut or i ng. S t ud e nt s w e re pa i re d w i t h f ourt h gra de pe e r t u t ors w ho w e re a c hi e v i ng a bov e a ve r a ge i n r e a di ng a nd w ho di d not de m ons t r a t e b e ha vi o r probl e m s T ut ori ng s e s s i ons oc c urre d i n t h e t ut e e pa r t i c i p a nt s ge ne r a l e duc a t i on c l a s s room s D uri ng t he t ut or i ng s e s s i ons t he t ut or pr e s e nt e d a s t ory fro m t he t ut e e s re a d i ng c urri c ul u m T ut ors s e t a t i m e r for 5 m i nut e s t o be gi n w he n t h e t ut e e b e ga n re a di ng t he s t ory a l oud. W he n t he t u t e e m a d e e rrors s uc h a s om i s s i on of w ords s ubs t i t ut i on of

PAGE 51

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 44 w ords or m i s pronunc i a t i ons of w ords t he t ut or us e d a n e rror c orre c t i on pro c e dure de s c ri be d by H ook a nd D uP a ul (1999). F i rs t t he t ut or po i nt e d t o t he p l a c e of t h e e rr or a nd c orre c t l y s t a t e d t he e rror w ord. N e xt t he t ut or di r e c t e d t h e c hi l d t o re s t a t e t he e rr or w ord a nd re re a d t he s e nt e nc e c orre c t l y. T he t ut or provi d e d pos i t i v e pra i s e for t ut e e s c orre c t i ons A t t he e nd of t he f i ve m i nut e s t he t ut or r e s e t t h e t i m e r for a not he r f i ve m i nut e s a nd r e di re c t e d t he t ut e e t o re t urn t o t he be gi nn i ng of t he p a s s a ge t o r e a d a l o ud. T he pri nc i pa l i nve s t i g a t or t ra i n e d t he t ut or s a nd t ut e e s on t h e s e pe e r t ut or i ng proc e d ure s pri or t o i m p l e m e nt a t i on of t h i s i nt e rv e nt i o n. It w a s e xpe c t e d t h a t t h e num be r of w or ds re a d c orr e c t l y w oul d i nc r e a s e for P a rt i c i p a nt 1, w hi l e t h e num be r of w ords re a d c orr e c t l y for P a rt i c i p a nt s 2, 3, a nd 4, w ho ha d y e t t o be e xpos e d t o t h e i nt e rve n t i on, w oul d c on t i nue a t t he i r ba s e l i ne l e ve l s W he n t h e num be r of w ords re a d c orre c t l y fo r P a rt i c i p a nt 1 de m ons t ra t e d l i t t l e va r i a bi l i t y, t he i n t e rve nt i on w a s i m pl e m e n t e d w i t h P a r t i c i pa n t 2. T he s e proc e du re s c ont i nue d unt i l t h e i nt e r ve nt i on ha d b e e n i m pl e m e n t e d a c ros s a l l f our pa rt i c i pa nt s T u t ori ng s e s s i ons w e re 15 m i nut e s i n l e ng t h a nd w e r e i m pl e m e nt e d t hre e t i m e s pe r w e e k. T h e e ffe c t s of t he i nt e rv e nt i on w e re m on i t ore d by e a c h s t ude nt s pe rform a nc e on a on e m i nu t e CBM re a d i n g probe w hi c h w a s a dm i n i s t e r e d t w o t i m e s pe r w e e k by t he pri n c i p a l i nv e s t i ga t or. Se l f m oni t or i ng / s e l f gr aphi ng. T hroug hou t t he e xp e ri m e nt a l pha s e of t hi s s t udy, t he t ut e e s re a di ng progre s s w a s m oni t or e d us i ng CBM re a di ng probe s A ft e r e a c h t ut e e s fi rs t pe e r t u t ori ng s e s s i on, CBM progre s s m oni t ori ng d a t a w e r e c o l l e c t e d. O nc e t he s e da t a w e re c ol l e c t e d, t h e pri nc i pa l i nve s t i g a t or t ra i ne d t h e t ut e e s on proc e dure s for gra phi ng da t a poi n t s for t he num b e r of w ords re a d c orre c t l y p e r m i nu t e (A ppe nd i x E ) T u t e e g ra ph t ra i ni ng i nvol ve d t he i nv e s t i ga t or provi d i n g e a c h t u t e e w i t h a s a m pl e gr a ph a nd 5 s a m pl e

PAGE 52

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 45 da t a poi n t s (CBM s c ore s o f w ords re a d c o rre c t l y p e r m i nu t e ). F i rs t t h e i nv e s t i ga t o r de s c ri be d t h e proc e dure s of how t o gra ph one of t he s a m p l e CBM s c ore s ora l l y. N e x t t he i nve s t i ga t or de s c ri b e d t h e proc e dur e s ora l l y t o t he t u t e e w hi l e i m pl e m e n t i ng gra ph i n g proc e dure s a s f ol l ow s : ( a ) l oc a t e t he da t e t he s c ore w a s obt a i n e d on t h e x a xi s ( b ) l o c a t e t he num be r of w ords re a d c orr e c t pe r m i n ut e on t he y a xi s a nd ( c ) m a k e a m a rk w he re t he s e t w o l i n e s i nt e rs e c t or m e e t T he n, t h e i nve s t i g a t or prom p t e d t h e t u t e e t o fol l ow t he s e s t e ps us i ng t he r e m a i ni ng t hr e e CB M s c ore s W he n t he t u t e e ha d pe rfor m e d t hi s t a s k w i t h 100% a c c ura c y, t he t ra i n i ng e nd e d. T ut e e s gra ph e d da t a poi n t s for e a c h CBM da t a c o l l e c t i on s e s s i on us i ng gra phi ng pa pe r provi de d by t he i nve s t i g a t o r. T h e s e gra phs provi de d vi s ua l d i s pl a ys of e a c h s t ude nt s pe rform a n c e T he x a x i s w a s l a b e l e d w i t h d a t e s of CBM da t a c ol l e c t i on w hi l e t he y a xi s w a s l a b e l e d wor ds r e ad c or r e c t pe r m i nut e (W RCM ) i n e qu a l i n t e rv a l s T he pri nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or s poke t o t h e t ut e e s i ndi vi dua l l y a bout t h e i r p e rform a nc e on c e t he da t a w e re g ra phe d. In a ddi t i on, t ut e e s w e r e provi de d fol d e rs t o hol d t h e i r gr a phs a nd w e re gi ve n t he oppor t uni t y t o de c or a t e t he i r fol de rs By ha vi ng pa rt i c i p a nt s gra ph t he i r pe rform a nc e t h e pa rt i c i p a nt s m a y h a ve be e n m ot i v a t e d t o t ry t h e i r b e s t w he n re a d i n g e a c h pa s s a g e (F i a l a & S he ri d a n, 2003). P r oc e dur al R e l i abi l i t y T he pri nc i pa l i nv e s t i ga t or m oni t ore d i m p l e m e n t a t i on of pe e r t u t ori ng proc e du re s by ra ndom l y obs e rvi ng 40% of t he t o t a l p e e r t ut ori ng s e s s i ons us i ng a proc e dura l i m pl e m e nt a t i on c he c kl i s t (A pp e ndi x D ). G re s ha m (1989) re c o m m e nds t ha t obs e rv a t i ons oc c ur on a r a ndom s c h e dul e t o a i d i n r e d uc i ng pot e nt i a l r e a c t i v e e ff e c t s of obs e rva t i ons T he proc e dura l i m pl e m e n t a t i on c h e c kl i s t i nc l ud e d t he fo l l ow i ng i t e m s : ( a ) d i d t h e pe e r

PAGE 53

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 46 t ut or a rri v e on t i m e for t h e s e s s i on ; ( b ) d i d t he pe e r t u t or us e t he a ppropri a t e r e a di ng m a t e r i a l s dur i ng t h e s e s s i on; ( c ) d i d t he p e e r t u t or a dh e re t o t h e pe e r t u t ori ng pro c e dure s ; ( d) d i d t he pe e r t ut or c om pl e t e t he s e s s i on w i t hi n 15 m i nut e s ; a nd ( e ) d i d t he p e e r t ut or a dm i ni s t e r c orre c t i v e a nd pos i t i ve fe e dba c k t o t he t u t e e a ppropri a t e l y? Corre c t i v e a c t i on a nd fe e dba c k re ga rdi ng i nt e gri t y of i m pl e m e n t i ng proc e dure s m a y f a c i l i t a t e gre a t e r i nt e gri t y (G re s ha m 1989). T hus i f t ut or s w e re not fol l ow i ng t he proc e dur e s w i t h 100% a c c ura c y duri ng ra ndom obs e rv a t i ons pe e r t ut or t ra i ni ng boos t e r s e s s i ons w e re provi de d by t he e xa m i ne r a ft e r t he obs e rv a t i on w a s c om pl e t e Re s ul t s from t he obs e rva t i on c he c k l i s t s i ndi c a t e t h a t duri ng on e of t he s e ve n s e s s i ons t ut o r 1 w a s obs e rve d us i ng t he p roc e dura l i m pl e m e nt a t i on c h e c k l i s t t ut or 1 w a s fi ve m i nut e s l a t e D uri ng 40% of t he obs e rve d s e s s i ons t ut or 2 c oul d ha ve provi de d a ddi t i on a l pos i t i v e fe e db a c k t o P a rt i c i p a nt 2. In a ddi t i on, for 25 % of t he obs e rve d s e s s i ons f or t ut ors 3 a nd 4, m ore pos i t i v e pra i s e a nd fe e dba c k c o ul d ha ve be e n pro vi de d t o t ut e e pa r t i c i pa nt s T ut or 3 a l s o w a s ob s e rve d a rri vi ng 5 m i nut e s l a t e t o one of t h e four s e s s i ons he w a s obs e rve d. L a s t l y, t ut o r 4 w a s obs e rve d m i s s i ng t ut e e P a rt i c i p a nt 4s e rrors duri ng 25% of t he t ut ori ng s e s s i ons obs e rve d (1 of 4 s e s s i ons obs e r ve d). T he re fore t u t or 4 d i d r e c e i ve on e t ra i n i n g boos t e r s e s s i on. A l l ot h e r i t e m s i nc l ud e d on t he proc e dur a l i m pl e m e nt a t i on c he c k l i s t w e re fol l ow e d 100% of t he t i m e t h e y w e re c om p l e t e d. I nt e r r at e r A gr e e m e nt A n a udi ot a pe w a s us e d t o r e c ord p a rt i c i pa nt s pe rform a nc e duri ng CBM da t a c ol l e c t i on s e s s i ons N o pa rt i c i p a nt i d e nt i f i c a t i on i nform a t i on w a s provi d e d on t he t a pe s P a rt i c i p a nt s w e re r e fe rre d t o a s P a rt i c i pa n t 1, P a rt i c i p a nt 2, P a rt i c i p a nt 3, a nd P a rt i c i pa nt

PAGE 54

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 47 4 on t he a udi o t a pe CBM re a di ng prob e s w e re l a be l e d i n t he s a m e m a nne r t o pro t e c t pa rt i c i pa nt s c onf i de n t i a l i t y. A s e c ond, ou t s i de s c ore r (s c hool ps yc ho l ogy gra du a t e s t ude nt ) t ra i ne d i n s c or i ng CBM re a d i ng p robe s ra ndom l y s e l e c t e d 30% of t h e a udi o t a pe d s e s s i ons a c ros s a l l four pa rt i c i p a nt s t o re v i e w a nd s c ore CBM probe s a c c ordi ngl y. T he re fore i nt e rra t e r a gre e m e n t w a s obt a i ne d on 20 of t he pos s i bl e 64 prob e s t ha t w e re a dm i ni s t e re d i n t hi s s t udy. Int e rr a t e r pe rc e nt a gre e m e nt w a s c a l c ul a t e d by di v i di ng t he num be r of a gre e m e nt s by t he t ot a l num be r of a gre e m e nt s pl us di s a gr e e m e nt s m ul t i pl i e d by 100. P ri or t o i m pl e m e n t i ng t h i s s t udy, i t w a s de t e rm i ne d t h a t i n t e rr a t e r a gre e m e nt m us t fa l l a bove 90%. Re s ul t s of t he c a l c u l a t i on d e s c ri be d a bove i ndi c a t e a n i nt e rra t e r pe rc e nt a gre e m e n t of 97%. D at a A nal y s i s D a t a c ol l e c t e d fro m t he p a rt i c i pa n t s pe rfo rm a nc e s on CBM re a d i ng probe s w e re gra phe d t o m on i t or s t ude n t s progre s s a nd t he e ffe c t s of t he i nt e rve nt i on. D a t a c ol l e c t e d duri ng t he i n t e rve n t i on pha s e w e re c o m pa re d t o t he d a t a c ol l e c t e d duri ng b a s e l i n e c ondi t i ons T r e ndl i n e s w e re dra w n t o d e m ons t ra t e r a t e of c ha ng e i n s t ude n t pe rfor m a nc e ove r t i m e T o s um m a ri z e CBM progre s s m oni t ori ng d a t a l i ne a r t r e ndl i n e s w e re c a l c u l a t e d a nd dr a w n us i ng M i c ros oft E xc e l gra phi ng progr a m T he E x c e l progr a m c re a t e d t r e ndl i n e s by us i ng t he l i ne a r e qua t i on y = m x + b. T re nds w e re a n a l y z e d c om pa ri ng t he t r e nd i n p e rform a n c e duri n g ba s e l i ne c ondi t i ons t o t he t re nd i n pe rform a nc e duri ng t he i n t e rve n t i on pha s e a c ros s pa rt i c i pa n t s In a ddi t i on, a i m l i n e s dra w n ba s e d upon goa l s de r i ve d from s urv e y l e ve l a s s e s s m e nt d a t a w e r e c om p a re d t o t re ndl i n e s of pa rt i c i p a nt s pe rform a nc e s T hi s a na l ys i s provi d e d i nform a t i on a s t o h ow e a c h pa r t i c i pa n t pe rform e d i n c o m pa ri s on t o t he i r i ndi vi du a l goa l s

PAGE 55

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 48 T he pri nc i pa l i nve s t i g a t or v i s ua l l y i ns pe c t e d gra phe d da t a po i nt s t o de t e rm i ne va ri a bi l i t y a m ong s t ude n t s pe rform a nc e V a ri a bi l i t y re f e rs t o t h e c ons i s t e n c y i n da y t o da y pe rform a n c e w i t hi n e a c h pha s e (S hi n n, J ohns t on, M a l m qui s t & S w e e t l a nd Ba k e r, 1993). If va ri a bi l i t y i n da t a de m ons t ra t e d s t a bl e pe rfor m a n c e t h e n one c ou l d i nfe r t ha t t he da t a w e re a n a c c ura t e re pr e s e nt a t i on o f t he s t ude nt s pe rfor m a n c e A ddi t i ona l l y, t he de gre e of non ov e rl a pp i ng da t a poi nt s pri or t o a nd fol l ow i ng t he i n t e rve n t i on w e r e a na l yz e d t o d e t e r m i ne e ffe c t i ve n e s s of t he i nt e rve n t i on. T h e pe r c e nt a ge s of non ove rl a ppi ng d a t a po i nt s w e re c a l c ul a t e d us i ng t he fol l ow i ng form ul a : t h e num be r of da t a poi nt s t ha t f e l l a bove t h e hi ghe s t b a s e l i ne da t a poi n t di vi d e d by t he t ot a l num b e r of da t a poi nt s duri ng t he i nt e rv e nt i on ph a s e m ul t i pl i e d by 100 (S t a p e 2000) L a s t l y, s t ude n t pe rform a nc e w a s s um m a r i z e d a c c ord i ng t o m e di a n of w ords re a d c orre c t a nd e rrors w i t hi n e a c h pha s e T he re for e t he m e di a n for w ords re a d c orre c t duri ng ba s e l i ne w a s c om pa re d t o t he m e d i a n of w ords re a d c or re c t duri ng t he i n t e rv e nt i on ph a s e If pe rform a nc e i n c re a s e d dur i ng t he i nt e rv e n t i on pha s e s e que n t i a l l y a s t h e i n t e rve n t i on w a s a ppl i e d t o e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt t he n one c a n i nfe r t ha t t he i n t e rv e nt i on i nfl ue n c e d t h e c h a nge i n pe rform a n c e

PAGE 56

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 49 Cha pt e r F our Re s ul t s T hi s c ha pt e r provi d e s t he re s ul t s of t he pe e r t ut ori ng a nd s e l f m on i t ori ng i nt e rve n t i on on pa r t i c i pa n t s ora l re a di ng f l ue nc y. F i rs t s urve y l e ve l a s s e s s m e nt da t a w hi c h w e re c ol l e c t e d t o de t e rm i n e e a c h pa rt i c i p a nt s goa l a re d i s c us s e d. N e xt e a c h pa rt i c i pa nt s progr e s s m oni t ori ng d a t a c ol l e c t e d dur i ng t he i nt e rve nt i on pha s e a r e a na l yz e d a nd c om pa r e d t o ba s e l i ne d a t a G ra phe d re s ul t s a r e e xa m i ne d a c c ord i ng t o l e ve l t re n d, va ri a b i l i t y, a nd non ove r l a ppi ng da t a poi n t s L a s t l y qu a l i t a t i ve d a t a fro m t he i nt e rve nt i on ra t i ng profi l e s (CIRP a nd IRP ) c om pl e t e d by t he t ut e e s a nd t e a c h e rs a re provi d e d t o de t e rm i ne t h e pe r c e i v e d a c c e p t a bi l i t y a nd e ffe c t i v e ne s s of t hi s i nt e rve nt i o n Sur v e y L e v e l A s s e s s m e nt D at a S urve y l e ve l a s s e s s m e nt (S L A ) da t a w e re c ol l e c t e d for a l l four pa rt i c i p a nt s duri ng t he fi rs t w e e k of b a s e l i n e da t a c o l l e c t i on. S urve y l e ve l d a t a a re r e port e d i n T a b l e 6 T he m e di a n nu m be r of w ords re a d c orre c t pe r m i nut e fro m t hre e re a di ng probe s a t e a c h pa rt i c i pa nt s i ns t ru c t i on a l l e ve l w a s us e d a s t he fi rs t ba s e l i ne da t a poi n t P a rt i c i p a nt 1 obt a i ne d a m e d i a n s c or e of 31 w ords c orre c t w i t h 5 e rrors on t h e s e c ond gr a de re a di n g probe s t ha t w e re a dm i ni s t e r e d for S L A P a rt i c i pa nt 2 s c or e d a m e di a n of 55 w ords re a d c orre c t w i t h 4 e rrors on s e c ond gr a de prob e s P a rt i c i p a nt 3 e a rne d a m e d i a n s c ore of 27 w ords re a d c orre c t w i t h 6 e rrors a nd P a r t i c i pa nt 4 ob t a i n e d a m e di a n s c ore of 54 w o rds c orre c t w i t h 5 e rrors S urve y l e ve l a s s e s s m e nt da t a i n c onj unc t i on w i t h ora l re a di ng fl u e nc y be nc hm a rks (G ood, S i m m ons K a m e e nu i K a m i ns ki & W a l l i ns 2002) a nd re a l i s t i c

PAGE 57

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 50 s t a nda rds for grow t h w e re us e d t o d e t e r m i ne a goa l a nd a i m l i n e for e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt A c c ordi ng t o G ood, S i m m ons K a m e e nui K a m i ns ki a nd W a l l i ns (2002), a be n c hm a rk goa l for S pri ng of s e c ond gra d e i s 90 w ords re a d c orre c t pe r m i nut e i n gra d e l e v e l m a t e r i a l E a c h pa rt i c i p a nt s s urve y l e v e l a s s e s s m e nt m e di a n s c ore s fe l l w e l l be l ow t hi s be nc hm a rk ; t he re fore go a l s w e re e s t a bl i s he d a t a 3 w ord ga i n pe r w e e k, w hi c h fe l l be t w e e n t h e be n c hm a rk a nd re a l i s t i c s t a nd a rds for grow t h a c c ord i ng t o F uc hs F uc hs H a m l e t t W a l z a nd G e rm a nn (1993) F or P a rt i c i p a nt 1, a go a l of 52 w ords re a d c or re c t pe r m i nut e w a s e s t a bl i s he d ba s e d upon a 3 w ord ga i n pe r w e e k a c ros s 7 w e e ks A goa l of 76 w ords c orre c t w a s de ve l ope d for P a rt i c i pa nt 2 ba s e d upon a 3 w ord ga i n p e r w e e k a c ros s 7 w e e ks F ort y e i ght w ords re a d c orre c t pe r m i nut e w a s t he go a l a t t he e nd o f t he 7 w e e ks for P a rt i c i p a nt 3. L a s t l y, a goa l o f 7 5 w ords re a d c orre c t w a s e s t a bl i s he d fo r P a rt i c i p a nt 4.

PAGE 58

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 51 T a bl e 6 Sur v e y L e v e l A s s e s s m e nt D at a G ra de 1 G ra de 1 G ra de 2 G ra de 2 W CM E rrors W CM E rrors P a rt i c i p a nt 1 50 5 20 7 43 a 4 31 a 4 42 2 44 5 P a rt i c i p a nt 2 55 a 6 67 3 52 4 P a rt i c i p a nt 3 40 5 27 a 5 51 a 5 47 6 78 1 22 9 P a rt i c i p a nt 4 69 5 54 a 4 42 10 Not e I ndi c a t e s s urve y l e ve l a s s e s s m e nt da t a w e re no t c o l l e c t e d a M e di a n w ords re a d c orr e c t pe r m i nut e D at a A nal y s i s P ar t i c i pan t 1. F or P a rt i c i pa nt 1, b a s e l i n e da t a w e re c ol l e c t e d for 1 w e e k a nd t he i nt e rve n t i on w a s i m p l e m e nt e d for 6 w e e ks P rogre s s m oni t ori ng da t a for P a rt i c i p a nt 1 a re re port e d i n A ppe n d i x F G ra phe d da t a for a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s a re pre s e n t e d i n F i gur e 1. D uri ng ba s e l i ne P a r t i c i pa n t 1 obt a i ne d a m e di a n of 32 w ords re a d c orre c t pe r m i nu t e s

PAGE 59

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 52 w i t h 5 e rrors c om pa r e d t o a m e d i a n of 41. 5 w ords re a d c orre c t w i t h 4.5 e rrors duri n g t he i nt e rve n t i o n pha s e A n a l ys i s of t he gr a ph e d da t a i ndi c a t e s a ve ry s l i gh t i nc r e a s e i n l e ve l a nd t re nd be t w e e n b a s e l i n e a nd i n t e rve n t i on pha s e s D a t a from ba s e l i n e de m ons t r a t e a fl a t t r e nd; w he re a s da t a duri ng t h e i nt e rve nt i on pha s e i nd i c a t e a s l i ght i n c re a s e i n t r e nd of t he num be r of w ords re a d c orre c t l y. F o rt y t w o pe rc e n t of t h e da t a poi nt s duri ng i nt e rve n t i on pha s e w e re a bov e t hi s pa r t i c i pa nt s a i m l i ne ; w he re a s 58% of t he da t a p oi nt s w e re be l ow t he a i m l i n e A l t hough t h e m a j ori t y of t h i s pa rt i c i pa n t s s c ore s w e r e be l ow t he a i m l i n e four of hi s s c ore s w e re a t or a bove hi s goa l of 52 w ords re a d c orre c t pe r m i nut e dur i ng t he i nt e rv e nt i on ph a s e T h i s pa rt i c i p a nt s pe rform a nc e duri ng t h e i nt e rve n t i on pha s e w a s hi ghl y va r i a bl e w i t h s c ore s ra ngi ng from 20 t o 58 w ords r e a d c orre c t l y. F i ft y e i ght p e rc e n t of t he d a t a p oi nt s from t he i nt e rv e nt i on ph a s e di d not ove rl a p w i t h b a s e l i n e da t a P ar t i c i pan t 2 Ba s e l i ne da t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d for 2 w e e ks for P a rt i c i p a nt 2. Int e rve nt i ons w e re i m pl e m e nt e d w i t h t h i s pa rt i c i pa nt for 4 w e e ks due t o t he pa r t i c i p a nt s a bs e nc e duri ng t he fi n a l w e e k of i nt e rve nt i on. T hi s pa rt i c i p a nt s progre s s m oni t or i n g da t a a r e re por t e d i n A ppe nd i x G P a rt i c i p a nt 2 obt a i ne d a m e di a n of 56 w ords re a d c orre c t p e r m i nut e w i t h 4 e rrors duri ng ba s e l i ne c o m pa r e d t o a m e di a n of 64.5 w ords re a d c orre c t w i t h 4.5 e rrors duri ng t he i n t e rve n t i on pha s e T he gr a phe d d a t a i l l us t r a t e s a s l i ght i nc re a s e i n l e ve l a nd t re nd fro m ba s e l i ne t o i nt e rve n t i on pha s e D uri ng b a s e l i ne t h i s pa rt i c i pa nt s pe rform a n c e de m ons t ra t e s a de c re a s e i n t r e nd. U pon i nt e rv e nt i on i m pl e m e nt a t i on, a s l i ght i nc r e a s e i n l e ve l i s e vi de nt ; how e v e r t h e ge ne r a l t r e nd t hroughout t hi s pha s e i s fl a t D uri ng t he i nt e rve nt i on pha s e 50% of t h e da t a poi n t s w e re a bove t he a i m l i ne a nd 50% of t h e da t a poi nt s w e re be l ow t he a i m l i n e T hre e of t he e i ght

PAGE 60

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 53 da t a poi n t s c ol l e c t e d duri ng t he i n t e rve n t i on pha s e w e re a bov e t hi s pa r t i c i pa nt s goa l of 76 w ords re a d c orre c t pe r m i nut e D uri ng t he i nt e rve nt i on pha s e P a r t i c i pa nt 2s pe rform a nc e w a s hi ghl y v a ri a b l e w i t h d a t a poi nt s ra ngi ng fro m 44 t o 83 w ords re a d c orre c t l y. In a dd i t i on, 38% of t he i n t e rve nt i on da t a poi nt s di d no t ove rl a p w i t h ba s e l i ne da t a P ar t i c i pan t 3 Ba s e l i ne da t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d for 3 w e e ks due t o t hi s pa rt i c i pa nt s a bs e nc e on on e of t he d a t a c o l l e c t i on da ys duri ng w e e k t hr e e of ba s e l i n e T he i nt e rve nt i on a l s o w a s i m p l e m e nt e d fo r t hre e a nd a ha l f w e e ks P rogre s s m oni t o ri ng da t a for P a rt i c i p a nt 3 c a n be found i n A ppe ndi x H T hi s pa rt i c i p a nt w a s a bs e n t for o ne of t he da t a c ol l e c t i on d a ys duri ng t he i nt e rv e nt i on pha s e a s w e l l D uri ng ba s e l i ne P a rt i c i p a nt 3 obt a i ne d a m e di a n s c or e of 3 6 w ords re a d c orre c t w i t h 7 e rrors a nd a m e di a n of 50.5 w ords re a d c orre c t w i t h 5 e rrors duri ng t he i n t e rv e nt i on ph a s e A c c ordi ng t o t he gra ph e d da t a a s l i ght i n c re a s e i n t re nd i s i ndi c a t e d duri ng t he ba s e l i n e pha s e w he re a s t he t r e nd duri ng i nt e rv e nt i on i s re l a t i v e l y fl a t A s l i ght i nc re a s e i n l e ve l be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne a nd t he i nt e rv e nt i on ph a s e s i s e vi de nt S i x t y s e ve n pe r c e n t of t he i nt e rve n t i on da t a poi n t s w e re a bov e t he a i m l i ne w hi l e 33% w e r e be l ow t h e a i m l i n e In a ddi t i on, 67% of t he i n t e rve n t i on d a t a po i nt s fe l l a bov e t hi s p a r t i c i pa nt s ye a r e nd g oa l of 48 w ords re a d c orre c t pe r m i nut e D a t a p oi nt s ra nge d from 31 t o 59 w ords re a d c or re c t l y w i t h four of t he s i x t o t a l d a t a po i nt s c ol l e c t e d duri ng t h e i nt e rve nt i on pha s e i n t he r a nge of 50 t o 59. L a s t l y, 17 % of t he i n t e rve n t i on da t a poi n t s di d not ove r l a p w i t h b a s e l i n e da t a P ar t i c i pan t 4. Ba s e l i ne da t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d for 4 w e e ks for P a rt i c i p a nt 4 w hi l e t he pe e r t ut ori ng a nd s e l f m oni t or i ng i nt e r ve nt i ons w e re i m pl e m e nt e d for 3 w e e ks

PAGE 61

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 54 P rogre s s m oni t ori ng da t a for P a rt i c i p a nt 4 a re re port e d i n A ppe nd i x I T hi s pa r t i c i pa nt s c ore d a m e d i a n of 54 w ords re a d c orre c t pe r m i nut e duri ng bot h b a s e l i n e a nd i nt e rv e n t i on pha s e s H ow e ve r, t he m e di a n num be r of e rrors duri ng b a s e l i n e w a s 9 a nd t he m e d i a n num b e r of e rrors w a s 4.5 duri n g t he i nt e rve nt i on pha s e i nd i c a t i ng a de c r e a s e i n t he num b e r of m e d i a n e rrors from ba s e l i ne t o i n t e rve n t i on pha s e A n a l ys i s of t he gra ph e d da t a i ndi c a t e no c h a nge i n l e ve l b e t w e e n t h e ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e rve nt i on pha s e s In a ddi t i on, t he ge n e ra l t re nd i n bot h pha s e s i s re l a t i v e l y fl a t It s houl d b e not e d t ha t t hi s pa rt i c i pa nt s da t a po i nt s a re h i ghl y va r i a bl y w i t h i nt e rv e nt i on d a t a po i nt s r a ng i ng fro m 46 t o 98. W i t hou t t he ou t l yi ng s c or e of 98, t hi s pa rt i c i pa nt s i n t e rv e nt i on d a t a po i nt s w oul d ra nge from 45 t o 66. D uri ng t he d a t a c ol l e c t i on s e s s i on t h a t P a rt i c i p a nt 4 r e a d 98 W CM he w a s obs e rve d s pe e d re a di ng t h e CBM pa s s a ge W he n s pe e d r e a d i ng oc c urs duri ng CBM da t a c ol l e c t i on, i t i s re c om m e nde d t ha t t he s t ud e nt i s (a ) i nform e d t ha t t he a s s e s s m e nt i s not a s pe e d r e a d i ng t e s t (b) gi ve n a di ff e re nt CBM re a di ng prob e a nd (c ) e nc oura ge d t o do hi s be s t r e a di ng (S hi nn, J ohns t on, M a l m qui s t & S w e e t l a nd Ba k e r, 1993). H ow e ve r, a s e c ond probe w a s not provi de d t o t h i s pa rt i c i pa n t be c a us e t h e pri nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or d i d not h a ve a c c e s s t o a ddi t i on a l probe s a t t he t i m e of t h i s CBM da t a c o l l e c t i on s e s s i on. A s w i t h P a rt i c i p a nt 3, 17% of t hi s pa rt i c i p a n t s i nt e rve n t i on da t a poi nt s di d not ove r l a p w i t h b a s e l i n e da t a In s um m a ry, t he gr a phe d r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e s om e e vi d e nc e for e s t a b l i s hi ng e xpe ri m e nt a l c on t rol M ore s pe c i fi c a l l y, w he n t he i nt e rve nt i on w a s i m pl e m e nt e d f or P a rt i c i p a nt 1, t h i s pa rt i c i p a nt s how e d a n i nc re a s e i n l e v e l w hi l e t he o t he r t hr e e pa rt i c i pa nt s di d no t s how i m prove m e nt s i n w ords re a d c orre c t l y. H ow e ve r, w he n i nt e rve n t i on w a s i m p l e m e nt e d i ni t i a l l y w i t h P a rt i c i p a nt 2, P a rt i c i p a nt 3 w a s a bs e n t a nd

PAGE 62

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 55 P a rt i c i p a nt 4 de m ons t ra t e d a s l i ght ga i n i n w ords re a d c orre c t W he n t he i n t e rve n t i o n w a s i m pl e m e nt e d for P a r t i c i pa n t 3, t hi s pa rt i c i p a nt de m ons t ra t e d a n i nc re a s e i n l e ve l w hi l e P a rt i c i pa n t 4 s how e d a de c re a s e i n w ords re a d c orre c t l y. A l t hough t he re s ul t s s how s om e e vi de n c e of e xpe ri m e nt a l c on t rol a d di t i ona l da t a poi nt s s e pa r a t i ng i nt e rve nt i o n i m pl e m e nt a t i on b e t w e e n e a c h pa rt i c i p a nt pa rt i c u l a rl y b e t w e e n P a rt i c i pa n t s 3 a nd 4, w oul d provi de m ore i nform a t i on a s t o w he t he r e xp e ri m e nt a l c on t rol w a s e s t a b l i s he d O ve ra l l t h e pe e r t ut or i ng a nd s e l f m oni t or i ng i nt e rv e nt i on w e r e not e ffe c t i ve i n i m provi ng pa r t i c i pa nt s or a l re a di ng fl u e n c y. T he ge n e ra l t re nd i n pe rform a nc e a m o ng pa rt i c i pa nt s re m a i ne d re l a t i ve l y f l a t d e m o ns t ra t i ng m i ni m a l c h a nge P a r t i c i pa nt s 1, 2, a nd 3 de m ons t ra t e d a ve ry s l i gh t c ha ng e i n l e ve l upon i nt e rv e nt i on i m pl e m e nt a t i on, w hi l e P a rt i c i p a nt 4 de m ons t ra t e d no c h a nge i n l e ve l In a ddi t i on, i n t e rve n t i on d a t a po i nt s a c ros s P a rt i c i p a nt s 1, 2, a nd 4 w e r e hi ghl y va ri a bl e F or P a rt i c i pa n t s 2, 3, a nd 4, t he pe rc e nt a ge of i nt e rv e nt i on d a t a po i nt s t ha t ove rl a ppe d b a s e l i ne da t a w a s hi ghe r t ha n t he pe rc e nt a ge of non ov e rl a pp i ng da t a poi nt s H ow e ve r, i t i s i m por t a nt t o not e t ha t t he m e di a n nu m be r w ords re a d c orre c t l y i n c re a s e d for t hre e of t he four p a rt i c i pa n t s In a ddi t i on, t he pe r c e n t a ge of d a t a po i nt s a bo ve t he a i m l i ne w a s e qu a l t o or gr e a t e r t ha n t he pe rc e nt a ge of d a t a po i nt s be l ow t h e a i m l i n e for P a rt i c i pa nt s 2 a nd 3. Soc i al V a l i di t y T he t ut e e pa rt i c i pa n t s c om pl e t e d t he CIRP a nd t he i r t e a c he rs c o m pl e t e d t h e IRP t o provi de i npu t on t he p e rc e i ve d a c c e pt a b i l i t y a nd e ffe c t i v e ne s s of t hi s i nt e rve n t i on. Re s ul t s from t he i nput re c e i v e d i ndi c a t e t h a t t hi s i n t e rve n t i on w a s c ons i de re d bot h a c c e p t a b l e a nd e ffe c t i ve a t e nh a nc i ng re a d i ng s ki l l s O n t he CIRP a l l of t he p a rt i c i p a nt s a gre e d t h a t p e e r t u t ori ng t o pr a c t i c e r e a di n g w a s a fa i r i nt e rve n t i on, a nd a l l p a rt i c i pa nt s

PAGE 63

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 56 a gre e d t h a t t h i s i nt e rve nt i on w oul d be goo d t o us e w i t h ot he r c hi l dr e n (S e e T a bl e 7 ). In a ddi t i on, t hre e of t he four t u t e e pa rt i c i p a nt s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he y l i k e d pe e r t ut ori ng t o he l p pra c t i c e r e a di ng. O n t h e IRP bot h t e a c he rs s t rongl y a gre e d t h a t t h i s i nt e rve nt i on w a s a n a c c e p t a b l e i n t e rve n t i on for t h e s t ude nt s r e a di ng di ff i c ul t i e s (S e e T a b l e 8 ). Bot h t e a c he rs a l s o i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he y w oul d s ugge s t t he us e of t hi s i nt e rv e n t i on t o ot he r t e a c he rs L a s t l y, bot h t e a c he rs s t rongl y a gre e d t ha t t he i nt e rv e nt i on w oul d b e a ppropr i a t e w i t h a va ri e t y of c hi l dr e n a nd bo t h l i k e d t he pro c e dure s us e d i n t hi s i n t e rve n t i on.

PAGE 64

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 57 T a bl e 7 CIR P R e s ul t s Q ue s t i ons P 1 P 2 P 3 P 4 1. P e e r t ut ori ng t o pra c t i c e re a di ng w a s fa i r. A gre e A gre e A gre e A gre e 2. P e e r t ut ori ng t o pra c t i c e re a di ng m a y c a us e probl e m s w i t h m y fr i e nds D i s a gre e D i s a gre e D i s a gre e D i s a gre e 3. T he re a r e be t t e r w a ys t o pra c t i c e r e a d i ng t ha n pe e r t ut ori ng. A gre e D i s a gre e N e ut ra l N e ut ra l 4. P e e r t ut ori ng w oul d b e a good m e t hod t o us e w i t h ot he r c hi l dre n. A gre e A gre e A gre e A gre e 5. I l i ke pe e r t ut or i ng for pra c t i c i ng r e a di ng. A gre e A gre e A gre e N e ut ra l 6. I t hi nk t ha t pe e r t ut ori ng i n re a di ng w oul d h e l p m e do be t t e r i n s c hool A gre e A gre e A gre e A gre e

PAGE 65

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 58 T a bl e 8 IR P R e s ul t s Q ue s t i ons T e a c h e r 1 T e a c h e r 2 1. T he c hi l d' s re a d i ng probl e m i s s e ve re e nough t o w a rra nt us e of t hi s i n t e rv e nt i on. S t ron gl y A gre e S t rongl y A gre e 2. T hi s i nt e rv e nt i on s houl d prov e e ffe c t i ve i n e nha nc i ng t he c hi l d' s re a di ng pe rfor m a n c e S t rongl y A gre e S t rongl y A gre e 3. T hi s w oul d be a n a c c e pt a b l e i n t e rve n t i o n for t he c hi l d' s re a d i ng probl e m S t rongl y A gre e S t rongl y A gre e 4. O ve ra l l t h e i nt e rve n t i on w oul d be b e ne fi c i a l for t he c hi l d. S t rongl y A gre e S t rongl y A gre e 5. T hi s i nt e rv e nt i on w oul d no t re s ul t i n ne ga t i ve s i de e ffe c t s for t he c h i l d. S t rongl y A gre e S t rongl y A gre e 6. I w oul d s ugge s t t he us e of t hi s i n t e rve n t i on t o ot he r t e a c h e rs S t rongl y A gre e S t rongl y A gre e 7. M os t t e a c he rs w oul d fi nd t hi s i nt e rve nt i on a ppropri a t e for e nh a nc i ng a c a d e m i c a c h i e ve m e nt S l i ght l y A gre e S t rongl y A gre e 8. M os t t e a c he rs w oul d fi nd t hi s i nt e rve nt i on s ui t a bl e for t he a c a d e m i c probl e m de s c ri b e d. S l i ght l y A gre e S t rongl y A gre e 9. I w oul d be w i l l i ng t o us e t hi s i n t e rve n t i on i n t he c l a s s room s e t t i ng. S t rongl y A gre e S t rongl y A gre e 10. T hi s i nt e rv e nt i on i s c ons i s t e nt w i t h t h os e I ha ve us e d i n t h e c l a s s room s e t t i ng. S l i ght l y A gre e A gre e 11. T hi s i nt e rv e nt i on w oul d b e a ppropr i a t e for a va ri e t y of c hi l dr e n. S t rongl y A gre e S t rongl y A gre e 12. I l i ke d t h e proc e dure s us e d i n t h i s i nt e rve n t i on. S t rongl y A gre e S t rongl y A gre e

PAGE 66

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 59 Cha pt e r F i ve D i s c us s i on T he pre s e nt s t udy e xa m i ne d t he e ff e c t i ve n e s s of pe e r t ut ori ng c om bi n e d w i t h s e l f m oni t ori ng s t r a t e g i e s on t he or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y of e l e m e nt a ry a ge d c hi l dr e n e xhi b i t i ng s ym pt om s of A t t e nt i on D e fi c i t / H ype r a c t i v i t y; P re dom i na nt l y Ina t t e nt i ve T yp e T h e s e i nt e rve n t i ons w e re i m pl e m e n t e d us i ng a m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne de s i gn a c ros s pa rt i c i p a nt s T ut e e p a rt i c i p a nt s i nc l ude d four s e c ond gr a de s t ude nt s i d e nt i f i e d a s l ow a c hi e ve rs i n re a di ng. T u t e e pa rt i c i p a nt s w e re pa i re d w i t h fourt h gra d e t ut or p a rt i c i p a nt s t hre e t i m e s pe r w e e k for fi ft e e n m i nut e pe e r t ut ori ng s e s s i ons T ut e e pa r t i c i pa n t s re a d s t ori e s a l oud from t he i r r e a di ng c urri c ul um w hi l e t u t or pa rt i c i pa nt s us e d a n e rror c orr e c t i on proc e dure de s c ri be d by H ook a nd D uP a ul (1999) t o c orre c t t ut e e s re a d i ng m i s t a k e s CBM re a di ng probe s w e re a dm i n i s t e r e d t w i c e pe r w e e k a c ros s s e ve n w e e ks t o e a c h t u t e e p a rt i c i pa nt t o m e a s ure t h e num b e r of w ords re a d c orre c t l y pe r m i nu t e A ft e r e a c h CBM da t a c ol l e c t i on s e s s i on, t ut e e s gra phe d t he num b e r of w or ds re a d c orre c t l y. T he e ff e c t i ve ne s s of t he pe e r t ut ori ng a nd s e l f m oni t ori ng i n t e rve n t i ons w a s a s s e s s e d by vi s ua l l y i ns pe c t i ng gra ph e d da t a D a t a w e re e xa m i ne d a c c ordi ng t o c h a nge i n l e ve l c ha ng e i n ge n e ra l t re nd of pe rform a nc e a nd t he pe r c e nt a ge of non o ve rl a ppi ng d a t a po i nt s T he fol l ow i ng t hre e r e s e a r c h que s t i ons w e re i nve s t i g a t e d i n t hi s s t udy: ( a ) d i d pe e r t ut or i ng c om b i ne d w i t h s e l f m on i t ori ng s t ra t e gi e s i n t he g e ne r a l e du c a t i on c l a s s room i m prove ora l re a di ng fl u e nc y for e l e m e nt a ry a ge d c hi l dre n w i t h s ym pt om s of A D H D w ho w e re i de nt i f i e d a s l ow a c hi e ve rs i n re a di ng; (b) di d t e a c he rs fi nd p e e r t u t ori ng t o be e ffe c t i ve a nd a c c e pt a bl e i nt e rv e nt i ons for c hi l dre n w i t h s ym pt om s of A D H D i n t he

PAGE 67

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 60 ge ne ra l e duc a t i on c l a s s room ; a nd (c ) di d s t ude nt s fi nd pe e r t ut or i ng t o be e ffe c t i v e a nd a c c e p t a b l e for i m provi ng t h e i r re a di ng pe r form a nc e ? Re s pons e s t o t h e s e re s e a r c h que s t i ons a re di s c us s e d i n t he fol l ow i ng p a ra gra phs Re ga rdi ng t h e fi rs t que s t i on, re s ul t s w e r e i nc onc l us i ve w he t he r or no t t he p e e r t ut ori ng a nd s e l f m oni t ori ng i n t e r ve n t i ons i m prove d ora l re a di ng fl u e nc y. A l t hough t he m e di a n nu m be r of w ords re a d c orre c t l y a s m e a s ure d by CBM re a d i ng probe s i n c re a s e d for t hre e of t h e four pa r t i c i pa nt s t h e ge ne r a l t re nd i n pe rform a nc e a c ros s pa rt i c i p a nt s re m a i n e d re l a t i ve l y f l a t w i t h m i n i m a l c ha nge A c ha nge i n l e v e l be t w e e n ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e rve n t i on i m pl e m e nt a t i on ra nge d fro m no c ha nge i n l e v e l t o a ve ry s l i gh t c ha ng e i n l e ve l a c ros s pa rt i c i p a nt s In a ddi t i on, da t a poi nt s for pa rt i c i pa n t s de m ons t ra t e d h i gh va ri a bi l i t y i n re a d i ng pe rf or m a nc e on CB M probe s A s di s c us s e d pre vi ous l y, pri or re s e a r c h de m ons t ra t e s t h e e ffe c t i v e ne s s s e l f m a na ge m e nt s t r a t e gi e s w i t h s t ud e nt s di a g nos e d w i t h A D H D (A j i bol a & Cl e m e nt 1 995; E dw a rds S a l a nt H ow a rd, Broughe r, & M c L a ughl i n, 1995; S ha pi ro, D uP a ul & Bra dl e y K l ug, 1998; S hi m a bukur, P ra t e r, J e nki ns & E de l e n S m i t h, 1999). S pe c i fi c a l l y, A j i bol a a nd Cl e m e nt (1995) de m ons t ra t e d t h a t s e l f re i nforc e m e n t proc e dur e s i m prove d t he a m ount of a c a de m i c pe rform a nc e i n re a d i ng a m ong s t ude nt s w i t h A D H D E dw a rds e t a l (1995) found t ha t s e l f m oni t or i ng a t t e nt i o n t o t a s k i m prov e d t he r e a d i ng c om pr e he n s i on of c hi l dre n w i t h A D H D S ha pi ro, D uP a ul a nd Bra dl e y K l ug (1998) found t ha t s e l f m oni t ori ng c om bi n e d w i t h s e l f e va l u a t i on t e c hni qu e s re s ul t e d i n i m prov e d on t a s k be h a vi or a nd a c a de m i c pe rfor m a nc e a m on g a dol e s c e n t m a l e s i d e nt i f i e d w i t h a l e a rni ng di s a bi l i t y a nd A D H D Re s ul t s from t he S hi m a bukuro e t a l (1999) s t udy i ndi c a t e t h a t s e l f m oni t or i ng i m prov e d a c a de m i c produ c t i vi t y a nd a c c ur a c y i n r e a di ng c om pre h e n s i on,

PAGE 68

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 61 m a t h a nd w ri t t e n e xpre s s i on for s i xt h a nd s e ve nt h gra de s t ud e nt s di a gnos e d w i t h A D H D A c c ordi ng t o Ba rk l e y (1998), s e l f m oni t or i ng s t ra t e g i e s ha ve d e m ons t r a t e d s uc c e s s w i t h s t ude nt s di a gnos e d w i t h A D H D In a ddi t i on, t he l i t e ra t ure s upport s t h e e ffe c t i v e ne s s of pe e r t ut or i ng for s t ude nt s w i t h A D H D (D uP a ul E rvi n, H ook, & M c G oe y, 1998; D uP a ul & H e nni ngs on, 1993). D uP a ul a nd S t one r (1994) re port t ha t pe e r t ut or i ng i s a n e m pi ri c a l l y s upport e d i ns t ru c t i ona l s t r a t e g y for c hi l dre n. T he r e fore a l t hough t h e re s ul t s of t hi s s t udy s how i nc onc l us i ve e vi de n c e a s t o t he e ff e c t i ve n e s s of t he pe e r t ut ori ng a nd s e l f m oni t or i ng i nt e rve nt i ons i m pl e m e n t e d, pri or re s e a r c h i ndi c a t e s t he pot e nt i a l e ffe c t i ve ne s s of t he s e i nt e rve nt i ons on t he a c a de m i c pe rform a nc e of s t ud e nt s w i t h A D H D It i s i m port a nt t o no t e t h e di ffe r e nc e s i n t h i s s t udy c om pa re d t o pri or s t udi e s i nvol vi ng pe e r t ut or i ng a nd/ or s e l f m oni t o ri ng t ha t m a y a c c oun t for di ffe r e nc e s i n r e s ul t s F or e xa m pl e i n t he s t udy c onduc t e d by A j i bol a a nd C l e m e nt (1995) p a rt i c i pa n t s de ve l ope d t he i r go a l s a nd s i gn e d pe rform a nc e c ont r a c t s In a ddi t i on, t he t a rge t be ha vi or m e a s ure d w a s a m oun t of a c a de m i c p e rfor m a nc e v e rs us a c c ur a c y In t h e pre s e nt s t u dy, goa l s w e re e s t a b l i s he d for t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd no pe rform a n c e c ont ra c t s w e re us e d. In a ddi t i on, t he pre s e n t s t udy e m ph a s i z e d a c c ura c y i n w ords re a d c orre c t l y on c urri c u l um ba s e d m e a s ure s A c o m m on fa c t or i n pr e vi ous s e l f m oni t or i ng a nd/ or p e e r t u t ori n g s t udi e s i nvol ve s t h e i nc l us i on of a w a rdi ng poi nt s pri vi l e ge s a nd/ or r e w a rds a s re i nforc e rs A l t hough t he s e l f m a n a ge m e n t i nc e n t i ve progr a m i n t he E dw a rds e t a l (1995) s t udy m e a s ure d a c c ur a c y on re a di n g c om pre he ns i on prob e s pa rt i c i p a nt s w e r e a w a rde d poi nt s for m e e t i ng s e t c ri t e ri a P oi nt s w e re e xc h a nge d for pr i vi l e ge s pre vi ous l y de t e rm i ne d by pa rt i c i pa n t s a nd t he i r t e a c h e rs I n a c l a s s w i de p e e r t u t ori ng s t udy

PAGE 69

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 62 c onduc t e d by D uP a ul a nd H e nni ngs on (19 93), t ut e e s w e re a w a rde d po i nt s for a c c ura t e re s pons e s t o m a t h probl e m s a nd t e a c he rs a w a rde d t ut or pa i rs bonus poi nt s for fol l ow i ng pe e r t ut or i ng proc e dure s T he c l a s s w a s di vi de d i n t o t w o t e a m s T he t e a m w i t h t he m os t poi nt s pa rt i c i pa t e d i n a c l a s s l ot t e ry for re i nfo rc e rs In t h e S hi m a buk u r o e t a l (19 99) s t udy, re i nforc e rs w e r e not i n c l ude d ; how e ve r, t he a ut hors s ugge s t t h a t i n c orpora t i n g re i nforc e rs w he n pr e de t e rm i n e d pe rform a nc e c ri t e r i a w e re m e t m a y ha v e re s ul t e d i n m ore c ons i s t e n t a c a de m i c i m prove m e nt a m ong pa rt i c i pa n t s T he pr e s e nt s t udy di d not i nc l ude r e i nforc e rs w hi c h m a y ha ve i m pa c t e d t h e e ffe c t s of t h e i nt e rve nt i on. In t he pre s e nt s t udy, t e a c he rs of t h e t ut e e pa rt i c i pa nt s c o m pl e t e d t he Int e rve nt i on Ra t i ng P rofi l e (IRP ) t o prov i de qua l i t a t i ve i nfor m a t i on on t h e i r pe r c e pt i ons of t he a c c e pt a bi l i t y a nd e ffe c t i v e ne s s of t h e pe e r t u t ori ng i n t e rv e nt i on. Bo t h t e a c he r pa rt i c i pa nt s ra t e d 9 of t he 12 i t e m s on t h e IRP a s s t rongl y a gre e M ore s pe c i fi c a l l y, bot h t e a c h e rs s t rongl y a gr e e d t h a t t h e i nt e rve nt i on w oul d prove e ffe c t i v e for e nha n c i ng pa rt i c i pa nt s r e a di ng p e rform a n c e a nd w a s a n a c c e pt a bl e i nt e rv e nt i on for i m provi ng pa rt i c i pa nt s r e a di ng p e rform a n c e In a dd i t i on, bot h t e a c he rs s t rongl y a g re e d t ha t p e e r t ut ori ng w oul d be b e ne fi c i a l for t h e pa rt i c i pa nt s t ha t t he i n t e rve n t i on w oul d not re s u l t i n ne ga t i v e s i de e ff e c t s t ha t t he y w oul d s ugg e s t t he i n t e rve n t i on t o o t he r t e a c he rs t ha t t he y w oul d be w i l l i ng t o us e t hi s i n t e rve n t i on i n t he c l a s s room s e t t i ng, t ha t t he i n t e rv e nt i on w oul d be a ppropri a t e for a va ri e t y of c h i l d re n, a nd t ha t t he y l i k e d t he i nt e rv e nt i on proc e dure s us e d. T h e re fore a l t hough t he i nt e rve n t i on di d no t d e m ons t r a t e s i gni fi c a nt c ha nge i n t he p a rt i c i pa n t s ora l re a di ng fl u e nc y, a nd t h e t e a c h e rs w e re a w a r e of t he va ri a bi l i t y i n pa rt i c i p a nt s pe rfor m a nc e t h e y s t i l l v i e w e d a nd r a t e d t hi s i n t e rve n t i on pos i t i ve l y. T hi s fi ndi ng i ndi c a t e s t h a t t h e s e t e a c he rs pos i t i ve pe r c e pt i ons of t hi s

PAGE 70

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 63 i nt e rve n t i on w e r e not ba s e d on t he l a c k of e ffe c t s on t h e pa rt i c i pa nt s re a di ng pe rform a nc e T h i s i s s ue ra i s e s t he c onc e r n t ha t t e a c h e rs m a y a c c e pt c l a s s room i nt e rve n t i ons t ha t fa i l t o de m ons t ra t e pos i t i ve c ha ng e i n s t ude n t pe rfo r m a nc e It i s hypot he s i z e d t ha t bo t h t e a c h e rs ra t e d t hi s i nt e rve nt i on pos i t i v e l y due t o t he m i ni m a l t e a c h e r t i m e n e e de d, t he one on on e re a di ng i ns t ruc t i on prov i de d, t h e a c a de m i c e ng a ge d re a di ng t i m e r e qui r e d of t he t ut e e pa rt i c i p a nt s a nd t he i m m e di a t e f e e dba c k t ut e e s re c e i v e d from t h e i r four t h gra de t ut ors T ut e e p a rt i c i p a nt s c om p l e t e d t he Ch i l dre n s Int e rve nt i on R a t i ng P rofi l e (CIRP ) t o provi de qua l i t a t i ve d a t a on t he i r pe rc e pt i o ns of t he pe e r t u t ori ng i n t e rv e nt i on. A l l fo ur pa rt i c i pa nt s a gr e e d t ha t p e e r t u t ori ng t o pr a c t i c e r e a di ng w a s fa i r, t ha t pe e r t ut ori ng w oul d be a good m e t hod t o us e w i t h o t he r c hi l dr e n, a nd t ha t pe e r t ut or i ng i n re a di ng w oul d he l p t he m do be t t e r i n s c hool In a ddi t i on, a l l p a rt i c i pa nt s di s a gr e e d t ha t p e e r t u t ori ng i n re a di ng m a y c a us e probl e m s w i t h t he i r fri e nds T he s e re s ul t s i nd i c a t e t ha t t ut e e pa rt i c i pa nt s found pe e r t u t ori ng t o b e a n a c c e pt a bl e a nd e ff e c t i ve i n t e rve n t i on for i m provi ng t h e i r re a di ng p e rform a n c e It i s hypot he s i z e d t h a t t u t e e p a rt i c i p a nt s vi e w e d pe e r t ut o r i ng pos i t i v e l y be c a us e i t provi d e d t he m w i t h on e on one i ns t ru c t i on w i t h o l de r fourt h gra de s t ude n t s w hom t he y a d m i r e d a nd a l l ow e d t he m t o be a c t i ve l y e nga ge d i n re a di ng w hi l e re c e i v i ng i m m e di a t e f e e dba c k. P r ac t i c a l Im pl i c a t i ons Re a di ng i s a n a c a de m i c s ki l l t ha t i s c ri t i c a l for s uc c e s s ful a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt M a ny s t ude nt s w i t h A D H D s t ruggl e i n re a di ng ( D uP a ul & S t one r, 1994, 1998 ). T h i s s t udy provi de d i nt e rve nt i ons us e d i n t he g e ne ra l e duc a t i on c l a s s room t o a s s i s t i n i m provi ng re a di ng pe rfor m a n c e fo r s t ude n t s e xhi bi t i ng s ym pt om s of A D H D A l t hough

PAGE 71

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 64 t he pa rt i c i p a nt s i n t h i s s t udy di d not s how s i gni fi c a n t i m prov e m e n t s i n ora l r e a d i ng fl ue nc y, i t i s hypot he s i z e d t h a t t h e s e i n t e r ve nt i ons m a y prov e be n e fi c i a l i f t he l i m i t a t i ons di s c us s e d i n t he fol l ow i ng s e c t i on a r e a ddr e s s e d (e .g., i nc r e a s e d dura t i on a nd fr e que n c y of t he i nt e rve nt i ons ). S t ude nt s w i t h A D H D a re know n t o be ne fi t from on e on one s e l f pa c e d i ns t ru c t i on t ha t p rovi de s i m m e d i a t e fe e dba c k (D uP a ul & S t one r, 1998). P e e r t ut ori ng i s a pr a c t i c a l i n s t ru c t i on a l s t ra t e g y t ha t provi d e s t he s e be n e fi t s t o s t ude nt s a nd re qui re s m i n i m a l t e a c h e r t i m e In a ddi t i on t o pe e r t ut ori ng, p a rt i c i p a nt s i n t hi s s t udy e nga ge d i n s e l f m on i t ori ng. E a c h t u t e e p a rt i c i p a nt gra ph e d t he i r ow n pe rform a nc e on CBM re a d i ng pro be s S e l f gra phi ng provi de d t ut e e pa r t i c i pa nt s w i t h a vi s ua l di s pl a y of t he i r re a di ng pe rfor m a n c e ove r t he c ours e of t he s e v e n w e e ks A l t ho ugh not a s s e s s e d di re c t l y i n t h i s s t udy, w he n s t ude nt s m oni t or t he i r ow n pe rfor m a n c e t hrough s e l f gra phi ng, t h e y m a y b e m o t i va t e d t o gi ve t he i r be s t e ffor t (F i a l a & S he r i da n, 20 03). W i t h t h e re c e nt r e a ut hor i z a t i on of ID E A t he e duc a t i on s ys t e m i s a dopt i ng a m ode l t h a t e m pha s i z e s s t ude nt s re s pons e s t o e m pi ri c a l l y s upport e d i n t e rv e nt i ons T he re fore t he n e e d for e du c a t ors t o b e fa m i l i a r w i t h s uc h i n t e rve n t i ons i s e vi d e nt T hi s s t udy provi de s e duc a t ors w i t h a d e t a i l e d d e s c ri pt i on of how pe e r t ut or i ng a nd s e l f m oni t ori ng i nt e rv e nt i ons c a n be i m pl e m e n t e d a nd progre s s m oni t ore d i n t he g e ne ra l e duc a t i on c l a s s room In or de r t o d e t e r m i n e t he e ff e c t i ve n e s s of i nt e rve n t i ons e duc a t ors m us t be fa m i l i a r w i t h a ppropr i a t e progre s s m oni t ori ng t e c hn i que s T hi s s t udy de m ons t ra t e s how c urri c u l um ba s e d m e a s ure m e nt prob e s a nd s e l f gr a phi ng c a n be u s e d t o m oni t or i nt e rv e nt i ons t o d e t e r m i n e e ffe c t i ve n e s s w i t h i ndi vi du a l s t ude n t s M oni t ori ng i nt e rve n t i on e ff e c t s i s c ruc i a l i n c a s e s w he re s t ude nt s m i gh t not re s pond t o i ni t i a l

PAGE 72

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 65 i nt e rve n t i on a t t e m p t s a nd a dj us t i ng t h e i nt e rve nt i on m i ght b e ne e de d. A l t hough i ni t i a l t e a c h e r t i m e i s ne e de d fo r t ra i n i ng s t ude nt s for i ni t i a l i m p l e m e nt a t i on of t h e s e i nt e rve n t i ons onc e s t ud e nt s l e a rn t h e s t e p s i nvol ve d, l e s s t e a c he r t i m e i s re qu i re d, m a ki ng i t a pra c t i c a l i nt e rve nt i on for t he g e ne ra l e duc a t i on c l a s s room L i m i t at i ons S e ve ra l l i m i t a t i ons s houl d be c ons i de re d w he n e xa m i n i ng t he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy. F ut ure re s e a r c h t ha t a ddre s s e s t he s e l i m i t a t i ons c oul d re s ul t i n m or e fa vor a bl e r e s ul t s F i rs t l e ngt he n i ng t he dur a t i on of p e e r t ut o ri ng s e s s i ons m a y ha ve a m ore pos i t i ve i m pa c t on re a di ng pe rfor m a n c e Inc r e a s i ng t h e n um be r of w e e ks or t he nu m be r of d a ys pe r w e e k t he i nt e rve nt i on w a s i m pl e m e nt e d c oul d h a ve a pos i t i ve i nf l ue n c e on ga i ns i n ora l r e a di ng fl ue nc y a l s o. T hi s s t udy w a s c onduc t e d o ve r t he c ours e of s e ve n w e e ks O f t hos e s e ve n w e e ks P a r t i c i p a nt 1 r e c e i ve d 6 w e e ks of i nt e rve nt i on; P a rt i c i p a nt 2 r e c e i ve d 4 w e e k s of i nt e rve n t i on; P a r t i c i pa nt 3 re c e i ve d 3 w e e ks of i nt e rv e nt i on ; P a rt i c i p a nt 4 re c e i v e d 3 w e e ks of i nt e rve n t i on. Id e a l l y, t he i nt e rv e nt i on w oul d ha ve b e e n i m pl e m e n t e d for a m i ni m u m of t e n w e e ks a s i ni t i a l l y propos e d t o de m ons t ra t e s i gni f i c a n t grow t h i n r e a di ng pe rform a nc e H ow e ve r, due t o t he t i m e n e e d e d t o i de nt i fy t ut e e p a rt i c i pa n t s w ho m e t t he i nc l us i on c r i t e r i a t h e t i m e l a ps e be t w e e n s e ndi ng hom e c ons e nt form s a nd r e t r i e vi n g s i gne d c ons e nt form s a nd t he l i m i t e d num be r of w e e ks l e ft i n t he s c hool ye a r t he i nt e rve n t i on w a s not i m pl e m e nt e d for t e n w e e ks A not he r l i m i t a t i on of t h i s s t udy i s t ha t t he t ut e e p a rt i c i p a nt s w e re not i nform e d of t he i r s pe c i fi c go a l for t h e num b e r of w ords re a d c orre c t for t h e e nd of t h e s e ve n w e e k pe ri od. P a rt i c i pa n t s w e re e xp e c t e d t o m a k e a t hre e w ord ga i n p e r w e e k; how e v e r, t h e pa rt i c i pa nt s w e r e not i nfor m e d of t h i s Ins t e a d, pa r t i c i pa n t s w e re i nform e d t ha t t he s e

PAGE 73

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 66 i nt e rve n t i ons w e re i m pl e m e n t e d t o h e l p i m prove t he i r re a di ng s ki l l s a nd t ha t t he go a l w a s t o i nc re a s e t h e num be r of w ords t he y r e a d c orre c t l y. Re s e a rc h s ugge s t s t ha t pa i r i ng s e l f m oni t ori ng w i t h s e l f gra ph i ng or s e l f de v e l ope d goa l s m a y ha ve a gre a t e r i m pa c t on i nt e rve n t i on out c om e s t h a n i n c e nt i ve s (E d w a rds S a l a nt H ow a rd, Broughe r, & M c L a ughl i n, 1995). In t he pr e s e nt s t udy, s e l f m oni t or i ng i nvol v e d s e l f gra ph i ng; how e ve r, t he goa l s de ve l ope d w e re b a s e d on s urve y l e ve l a s s e s s m e nt da t a T h e re for e pa rt i c i pa nt s w e r e not i nvo l ve d i n t he de c i s i on m a ki ng pro c e s s for de ve l opi ng goa l s T hi rdl y, t h e i nt e rve nt i on m a y not ha v e be e n t a i l ore d t o e a c h s t ude nt s s pe c i fi c re a di ng s ki l l de fi c i t T he N a t i ona l Re a d i n g P a ne l (N RP ) i de nt i f i e s fi ve e s s e nt i a l c om pone nt s t o r e a di ng i ns t ruc t i on (L a n ge nbe rg e t a l 2000). T h e s e c om pon e nt s i nc l ude : phone m i c a w a re n e s s phoni c s fl ue nc y, vo c a bul a ry, a nd c o m pre he ns i on. R e a di ng pra c t i c e h a s be e n i d e nt i f i e d a s a n i m port a nt c ont ri bu t or t o fl u e nc y (L a nge nb e rg e t a l ., 2000). T he pe e r t ut or i ng i nt e rve nt i on us e d i n t hi s s t udy provi de d oppor t uni t i e s for pa rt i c i pa nt s t o pr a c t i c e re a d i ng w i t h a p e e r w ho provi de d e rror c orr e c t i on a nd fe e dba c k. T he re fore t he i nt e rv e nt i on w a s ge a re d t o w a rds s t ude nt s ora l re a di ng fl u e nc y. H o w e ve r, pa rt i c i pa nt s m a y ha v e ha d re a di ng s ki l l de fi c i t s i n o t he r a r e a s i d e nt i f i e d by t h e N RP a s ne c e s s a ry c om pon e nt s t o r e a di ng, w hi c h w e re not a ddr e s s e d i n t hi s s t udy. F ourt hl y, t he re a di ng m a t e ri a l s us e d i n t he pe e r t ut or i ng s e s s i ons w e re l i m i t e d t o s t ori e s from t he r e a di ng c urri c ul um i ns t ru c t e d i n t he c l a s s room T h e s e t ut e e pa r t i c i pa nt s re c e i v e d re a di ng i ns t ru c t i on on on e s t ory f rom t he i r M a c m i l l a n r e a d i ng books pe r w e e k. P e r t e a c h e r pa r t i c i pa nt s re qu e s t t ut e e pa r t i c i p a nt s w e re t u t ore d us i ng t h e s e s a m e s t ori e s e a c h w e e k. A l t hough re s e a rc h s uppo rt s t h e us e of i ns t ruc t i ng s t ude nt s w i t h r e a di ng m a t e r i a l s w i t h i n t he i r c urr i c ul u m a nd i ns t r uc t i ona l l e v e l t h i s re s e a r c he r be l i e v e s t ha t

PAGE 74

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 67 re a di ng m a t e ri a l s us e d i n t hi s s t udy w e re l i m i t e d. M ore s pe c i f i c a l l y, r e a di ng m a t e ri a l s us e d i n pe e r t u t or i ng s e s s i on s w e re t h e s a m e s t ori e s t h e s e s t ude nt s w e r e re a d i ng t ha t w e e k i n t he i r g e ne r a l e du c a t i on c l a s s room s T he re fore p a rt i c i pa n t s pra c t i c e d r e a di ng t he s a m e w e e kl y s t ory t hre e t i m e s It i s hypot he s i z e d t ha t a dd i t i on a l re a di ng m a t e ri a l s a t t h e pa rt i c i pa nt s i ns t ru c t i on a l l e ve l w oul d ha v e provi de d t h e s e s t ude nt s w i t h e xpos ure t o a l a rge r va r i e t y of w ords w hi c h c oul d ha v e i m pa c t e d t h e i r p e rform a n c e on CBM re a d i ng probe s A not he r l i m i t a t i on of t h i s s t udy i nvol ve s s c hool a bs e nc e s a nd a s c h e dul e d c l a s s e ve nt A l t hou gh t hi s re s e a rc he r r e que s t e d t ha t t e a c h e rs c ons i de r good s c hoo l a t t e nd a nc e w he n i de nt i fy i ng pot e n t i a l pa rt i c i pa nt s for t hi s s t udy, s c hool a bs e nc e s s t i l l o c c urr e d i ne vi t a bl y. M ore s pe c i fi c a l l y, P a rt i c i pa n t 2 w a s a bs e nt for t w o of t he t hr e e p e e r t u t o ri ng s e s s i ons t ha t oc c urre d dur i ng t h e l a s t w e e k of i nt e rve n t i on. In a dd i t i on, CBM da t a c ol l e c t i on d i d not oc c ur on t h e s e da ys for t hi s pa rt i c i pa nt du e t o hi s a bs e n c e s P a rt i c i pa nt 3 re c e i v e d t w o pe e r t ut or i ng s e s s i ons duri ng t he fi na l w e e k of i n t e rv e nt i on du e t o hi s s c hool a bs e nc e on on e of t h e pe e r t ut ori ng s e s s i on da ys t ha t w e e k. L a s t l y, P a rt i c i pa nt s 2 a nd 4 re c e i ve d t w o ve rs us t hre e pe e r t ut or i ng s e s s i ons duri ng t he s i xt h w e e k of t h i s s t udy due t o a s c he du l e d c l a s s e ve n t oc c urr i ng d uri ng t he de s i gn a t e d p e e r t ut ori ng t i m e S c hool a t t e nd a nc e i s re qui r e d for pa rt i c i p a nt s t o r e c e i v e t h e s e i nt e rve nt i ons ; t he r e fore w he n pa rt i c i pa nt s w e r e a bs e nt t he y di d no t re c e i ve t he i n t e rve n t i on, w hi c h m a y h a ve i m pa c t e d t he out c o m e s of t hi s s t udy. A l t hough c ons um e r s a t i s fa c t i on ra t i ngs of t he pe e r t ut ori ng i nt e rve nt i on w e re c om pl e t e d by t u t e e a nd t e a c h e r pa rt i c i p a nt s e va l ua t i ons of t he s e l f m oni t or i ng c om pone nt of t hi s i nt e rve nt i on w e re no t i n c l ude d on t h e ra t i ng profi l e s T he r e fore i nput

PAGE 75

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 68 re c e i v e d from t e a c he rs a nd t u t e e p a rt i c i p a nt s w e re ba s e d on t he i r vi e w s of pe e r t ut or i ng onl y. T o ga t h e r qua l i t a t i v e da t a on t e a c he r a nd t ut e e pe r c e pt i ons of s e l f gra phi ng proc e dure s us e d i n t h i s s t udy, s e l f m oni t or i ng i t e m s s houl d ha ve be e n i nc l ude d on t h e c ons um e r s a t i s fa c t i on r a t i ng pr ofi l e s P ot e nt i a l t ut e e pa r t i c i pa n t s for t hi s s t udy w e re s e nt hom e p a re n t c ons e nt for m s w hi c h offe re d pa r e nt s t h e opport uni t y t o m e e t w i t h t he pr i nc i p l e i nve s t i g a t or t o a s s i s t i n c om pl e t i ng t h e A D H D IV Ra t i ng s c a l e H om e V e rs i on (D uP a ul e t a l ., 1998). H o w e ve r, none of t he pa r e nt s of t he po t e n t i a l t ut e e p a rt i c i pa nt s c hos e t o m e e t w i t h t he p r i nc i p a l i nve s t i ga t or It i s hypot h e s i z e d t ha t m ore a c c ura t e r e s pons e s t o t he A D H D ra t i ng s c a l e H om e V e rs i on (D uP a ul e t a l ., 1998) w oul d ha ve re s ul t e d from a n opport uni t y for t h e re s e a rc h e r t o c l a ri fy p a re nt s que s t i ons re g a rdi ng i t e m s from t h e ra t i ng s c a l e F or P a rt i c i p a nt 3, pa r e nt r e s pons e s on t he A D H D ra t i ng s c a l e d i ffe r e d s ubs t a nt i a l l y fro m t e a c h e r re s pons e s E ngl i s h i s t hi s pa rt i c i p a nt s s e c ond l a ngu a ge ; t he r e fore s e c ond l a ngua ge i s s ue s m a y ha v e i m p a c t e d t he r e s ul t s of t he A D H D IV Ra t i ng S c a l e H o m e V e rs i on (D uP a ul e t a l ., 1998 ) for t hi s pa r t i c i pa nt P a r e nt i nvo l ve m e nt i s be ne fi c i a l t o i nt e rve n t i on s uc c e s s It i s hypot he s i z e d t h a t pa re n t i nvol v e m e nt m a y ha v e h a d a pos i t i ve i nfl ue nc e on t he e ffe c t i v e ne s s of t hi s i nt e r ve nt i on. P a re n t i nvol v e m e n t c ou l d ha ve i nc l ude d t ut e e pa r t i c i pa nt s s how i ng t he i r s e l f m oni t ori ng gra phs t o t he i r p a re n t s R e c om m e ndat i ons f or F u t ur e R e s e ar c h T he l i m i t a t i ons di s c us s e d pre v i ous l y s houl d be a ddre s s e d i n fut ur e s t udi e s re l a t e d t o pe e r t u t ori ng a nd s e l f m oni t ori ng i n t he ge ne ra l e duc a t i on c l a s s room i n a t t e m pt s t o produc e m ore pos i t i ve ou t c o m e s T he fo l l ow i ng re c om m e nda t i ons a re s ugge s t e d t o a s s i s t fut ure re s e a rc he rs i n a ddre s s i ng t he l i m i t a t i ons of t hi s s t udy. F i rs t t he pri n c i pa l

PAGE 76

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 69 i nve s t i ga t or re c o m m e nds t ha t t he dura t i on of t he pe e r t ut ori ng s e s s i ons be l e ngt h e ne d t o 20 m i nut e s t hr e e t i m e s pe r w e e k. In a dd i t i on, t hi s i nve s t i ga t o r s ugge s t s t h a t t h e i nt e rve n t i on s houl d be i m pl e m e n t e d for a m i ni m u m of t e n w e e ks t o a l l ow s uffi c i e n t t i m e for s t ude nt s t o be ne f i t from t he pe e r t u t ori ng a nd t o de m ons t r a t e g a i ns i n t h e num b e r of w ords re a d c orre c t l y. T o be t t e r i de n t i fy s pe c i fi c re a d i ng s ki l l d e fi c i t s i t i s s ugge s t e d t h a t a dd i t i on a l re a d i ng a s s e s s m e nt s be i nc l ude d i n fu t ure s t udi e s i nvol vi ng r e a di ng i nt e rv e nt i ons W he n c ons i de ri ng a dd i t i on a l r e a di ng a s s e s s m e nt s fut ure re s e a r c he rs s houl d i nc orpor a t e a s s e s s m e nt s w hi c h m e a s ure t he f i ve e s s e n t i a l c om pone n t s of re a di ng i de n t i fi e d by t h e N a t i ona l R e a di ng P a n e l Int e rve n t i ons s houl d be s e l e c t e d b a s e d upon e a c h s t ude n t s s pe c i fi c r e a di ng s ki l l d e fi c i t T o a ddre s s t he i s s ue of t h e l i m i t e d s e l e c t i o n of re a di ng m a t e r i a l s provi de d i n t he c urre nt s t udy, i t i s re c o m m e nde d t h a t onc e pa rt i c i pa nt s i ns t ru c t i on a l l e ve l s i n re a d i n g a re de t e rm i ne d t h a t a va ri e t y of re a di ng m a t e r i a l s a re m a d e a va i l a b l e for t u t e e s t o c hoos e t o re a d duri ng t u t ori ng s e s s i ons F ut ure re s e a rc h t ha t i nc o rpora t e s a w i de r ra ng e of s t o ri e s m a y e xpos e pa r t i c i pa n t s t o a w i de r v a ri e t y of w ords If pa rt i c i pa n t s a re e xpos e d t o a w i de r va ri e t y of w ords t he pa r t i c i pa nt s ha ve a n opport uni t y t o l e a rn m o re w ords w hi c h c oul d ha ve a pos i t i v e i m p a c t on re a d i ng p e rform a nc e T o ga t he r qu a l i t a t i ve d a t a on t he pe r c e pt i o ns of t he s e l f m oni t ori ng c o m pone nt of t hi s i nt e rv e nt i on, fu t ure i nv e s t i ga t ors c oul d m odi fy t he CIRP a nd IRP t o i nc l ud e t hi s c om pone nt E a c h i t e m from t he CIRP a nd IRP c oul d be e xpa nd e d by a dd i ng t he s e l f m oni t ori ng i nt e rv e nt i on ; t he r e fore t e a c he r a nd t ut e e pa rt i c i pa nt s w oul d ra t e i t e m s ba s e d upon bot h t he pe e r t ut or i ng a nd s e l f m oni t ori ng i nt e rv e nt i ons A not he r a l t e rna t i ve t o

PAGE 77

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 70 i nc orpora t i ng pe r c e pt i ons on t he s e l f m oni t ori ng i nt e rve nt i on w oul d be t o h a ve a s e p a ra t e ra t i ng s c a l e w i t h i t e m s s pe c i f i c t o t he s e l f m oni t ori ng i nt e rv e nt i on. T hi s a l t e rn a t i v e w oul d a l l ow re s e a r c he rs t o a s s e s s a nd c om pa re c ons um e r s a t i s fa c t i on of e a c h i nt e rve n t i on s e pa r a t e l y. L a s t l y, a no t he r c ons i de ra t i on r e l a t e d t o c ons um e r s a t i s fa c t i on i s t o ha ve t h e t ut ors c o m pl e t e a n i nt e rve nt i o n ra t i ng s c a l e t o g a t h e r t he i r vi e w s on t he e ffe c t i ve ne s s a nd a c c e pt a b i l i t y of t he s e i nt e rve nt i ons T h i s proc e s s i s re c o m m e nd e d due t o t he fa c t t h a t pe e r t u t ors pl a y a n i nt e gr a l rol e i n t h e pe e r t ut or i ng proc e s s Input ga t he re d fro m t he t ut ors c ou l d provi de v a l ua bl e i nfor m a t i on for e v a l ua t i ng a nd m odi fyi ng t he s e i nt e rve nt i ons It i s s ugge s t e d by t hi s i nv e s t i ga t or t ha t m o re e ffort i s m a de t o i nvol ve p a re n t s of t ut e e p a rt i c i p a nt s i n fut ur e re s e a r c h e nde a vors In t hi s s t udy, t he pri nc i pa l i nve s t i g a t or offe re d t o m e e t w i t h pa r e nt s pri or t o i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t h e s t udy t o provi d e c l a ri f i c a t i on of t he s t udy proc e dur e s a nd a s s i s t i n a ns w e ri ng que s t i ons re l a t e d t o t h e A D H D Ra t i ng s c a l e H om e v e rs i on. H ow e ve r, none of t he pa rt i c i p a nt s pa r e nt s c hos e t o t a ke a dva nt a g e of t hi s offe r. P a re nt i nvol v e m e n t c a n ha ve a pos i t i v e i m pa c t on s t ude n t s a c a de m i c s uc c e s s Re s e a rc h i nd i c a t e s t h a t pa r e nt s c hool i nvo l ve m e n t i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h m a s t e ry of e a r l y ba s i c s c hool s ubj e c t s (M a rc on, 1999). A s t hi s re l a t e s t o t h e c urr e nt s t udy, t h e pri nc i pa l i nv e s t i ga t o r hypot he s i z e s t ha t pa r e nt s c oul d ha ve pl a y e d a m ot i v a t i ng ro l e i n p a rt i c i p a nt s pe rform a nc e F or e xa m pl e t ut e e s c oul d h a ve s how n t he i r gra phs t o t he i r pa re n t s t o s ha re t he i r progre s s A fi na l re c o m m e nd a t i on for fut ure r e s e a rc h i nvol ve s c a r e ful m on i t ori ng of t he pe e r t ut or i ng s e s s i ons It i s c ri t i c a l t h a t t h e t ut ori ng pro c e dur e s a re fol l ow e d w i t h

PAGE 78

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 71 i nt e gri t y. In t hi s s t udy, c h e c kl i s t s w e re us e d t o m oni t or pe e r t ut ori ng s e s s i ons ra ndo m l y. T he i nform a t i on fro m t he s e c he c kl i s t s i nd i c a t e s t h a t ve rba l pr a i s e for t u t e e s e rror c orre c t i ons w e re l i m i t e d. In a dd i t i on, t hi s i nve s t i ga t o r not i c e d on one o c c a s i on t ha t one of t he t ut ors di d no t e nga g e i n t h e e rror c o rre c t i on pro c e dur e s for a l l of t he t u t e e s e r rors M ore s pe c i fi c a l l y, t he t ut or m i s s e d t w o of t he t ut e e s e rrors T o e ns ure t ha t t he t ut e e s e rrors w e re c orre c t e d, t hi s i nve s t i ga t or e n ga ge d i n t h e e rror c orre c t i on proc e dure s f or t he t w o m i s s e d e rrors T hi s t ut or r e c e i ve d a boos t e r t ra i ni ng s e s s i on i n pe e r t u t ori ng proc e dure s onc e t he t ut ori ng s e s s i on e nd e d. S i nc e onl y 4 0% of t h e t ut or i ng s e s s i ons w e re m oni t ore d us i ng t he proc e dura l i nt e gri t y c he c kl i s t s t h e fre que n c y t h a t t h i s t ut or di d not e nga ge i n t he e rror c orre c t i on pro c e dur e s w i t h 100% a c c ur a c y i s unknow n. T o a ddr e s s t hi s i s s ue fut ure i nv e s t i ga t ors s houl d c ons i de r m oni t ori ng a l l pe e r t u t ori ng s e s s i ons In a ddi t i on, r e s e a r c he rs m a y c ons i de r provi d i ng t ut ors w i t h i ne xp e ns i ve a c a d e m i c re l a t e d i nc e nt i ve s (i .e p e nc i l s e ra s e rs s t i c ke rs ) f or fol l ow i ng t ut or i ng proc e dur e s w i t h 100 % a c c ura c y L a s t l y, re s e a rc he rs s houl d c ons i de r ve ri fy i ng pot e n t i a l t ut or p a rt i c i p a nt s re a di ng s ki l l l e v e l s us i ng c urri c ul u m ba s e d m e a s ure m e nt b e fore s e l e c t i ng t ut or pa rt i c i pa nt s Conc l us i ons In c onc l us i on, t h i s s t udy i nve s t i g a t e d t he i m pa c t of p e e r t u t ori ng a nd s e l f m oni t ori ng s t r a t e g i e s on t he r e a d i ng pe rfo rm a nc e of c hi l dr e n w ho e xhi b i t s ym pt o m s of A D H D : P re dom i na nt l y Ina t t e nt i ve T ype T he purpos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o e xp a nd u pon t he c urre n t pe e r t ut or i ng l i t e ra t ure t h a t foc us e s on s t ude nt s w i t h A D H D P ri m a ri l y t he l i t e r a t ure e xa m i ne s pe e r t ut or i ng w i t h t h i s popul a t i on i n m a t h. T hi s s t udy i nv e s t i ga t e d t he i m p a c t of p e e r t ut ori ng i n re a d i ng for s t ude nt s e xhi b i t i ng s ym p t om s of A D H D ;

PAGE 79

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 72 t he re fore e xpa nd i ng upon t he c urre nt l i t e r a t ure i n t hi s a re a T h e re s ul t s i nd i c a t e t h a t pa rt i c i pa nt s de m ons t ra t e d s om e i m prove m e nt i n t h e m e d i a n num b e r of w ords re a d c orre c t a s a re s ul t of t he s e i nt e rv e nt i ons ; h ow e ve r, m ore r e s e a rc h i s ne e de d t o de t e r m i ne t he e ffe c t i v e ne s s of t he s e i nt e rv e nt i ons T he t e a c he r a nd t ut e e pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t u dy ra t e d t h e i nt e rve n t i ons a s bot h a c c e p t a bl e a nd e ffe c t i ve for i m prov i ng re a d i ng a c hi e v e m e nt for c h i l dre n s how i ng s ym pt o m s of A D H D S e ve ra l l i m i t a t i ons w hi c h m a y ha ve ha d a n i m p a c t on t he out c om e s of t h i s s t udy, w e re di s c us s e d. Ba s e d upon t he s e l i m i t a t i ons s e ve ra l r e c o m m e nd a t i ons w e r e s ugge s t e d for fut ure r e s e a r c he rs t o c ons i de r w he n e xa m i n i ng t he s e i nt e rve nt i ons w i t h t hi s popul a t i on. T hi s s t udy c ont r i but e s t o t he l i m i t e d re s e a rc h a va i l a bl e on re a d i ng i nt e r ve nt i ons for s t ude nt s e xh i bi t i ng s y m pt om s of A D H D ; P re dom i na nt l y Ina t t e nt i ve t yp e i n ge ne ra l e duc a t i on c l a s s room s

PAGE 80

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 73 Re fe re nc e s A j i bol a O ., & Cl e m e n t P W (1995). D i f fe re nt i a l e ff e c t s of m e t hy l phe ni d a t e a nd s e l f re i nforc e m e nt on a t t e nt i on de fi c i t hyp e ra c t i vi t y d i s orde r. B e h a v i or Modi f i c at i on, 19 (2), 211 233. A m e ri c a n P s yc hi a t ri c A s s oc i a t i on. (2000). D i agnos t i c and s t at i s t i c al m anual o f m e nt al di s or de r s (4 t h e d. t e xt re vi s i on). W a s hi ngt on, D C: A ut hor. A nde rs on, J C., W i l l i a m s S ., M c G e e R., & S i l va P A (1987). D S M III di s orde rs i n pre a dol e s c e nt c hi l dr e n. P re va l e nc e i n a l a r ge s a m pl e fro m t he g e ne r a l popul a t i on. A r c hi v e s of G e n e r al P s y c hi at r y 44 69 79 Ba rkl e y, R. A (1990). A t t e nt i on de f i c i t hy pe r ac t i v i t y d i s or de r s : A handbook f or di agnos i s and t r e at m e nt N e w Y ork: G ui l f ord. Ba rkl e y, R. A (1998). A t t e nt i on de f i c i t hy pe r ac t i v i t y d i s or de r s : A handbook f or di agnos i s and t r e at m e nt (2 nd e d.). N e w Y o rk: G ui l ford. D unn, L ., & M a rkw a rdt F (1970). P e abo dy i ndi v i dual ac h i e v e m e nt t e s t Ci r c l e P i n e s M N : A m e ri c a n G ui da n c e S e rv i c e D uP a ul G J ., & E c ke rt T L (1998). A c a de m i c i nt e rv e nt i ons for s t ude n t s w i t h a t t e nt i on de fi c i t / hype r a c t i vi t y d i s orde r: A re v i e w of t he l i t e ra t ure R e adi ng and Wr i t i ng Q uar t e r l y : O v e r c om i ng L e ar ni ng D i f f i c ul t i e s 14 (1), 59 82. D uP a ul G J ., & E c ke rt T L (1997). T h e e ffe c t s of s c hool b a s e d i nt e rve n t i ons for a t t e n t i on de f i c i t hype r a c t i vi t y d i s orde r: A m e t a a na l ys i s Sc hoo l P s y c hol ogy R e v i e w, 26 (1), 5 27.

PAGE 81

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 74 D uP a ul G J ., E c ke rt T L ., & M c G oe y, K E (1997). Int e rve nt i ons for s t ude nt s w i t h a t t e n t i on de f i c i t / hype ra c t i vi t y di s orde r: O ne s i z e doe s not f i t a l l Sc hoo l P s y c hol ogy R e v i e w, 26 (3), 369 381. D uP a ul G J ., E rvi n, R. A ., H ook, C. L ., & M c G oe y, K E (1998). P e e r t ut o ri ng fo r c hi l dre n w i t h a t t e nt i on de fi c i t hype ra c t i v i t y di s orde r: E ffe c t s o n c l a s s room be ha vi or a nd a c a de m i c pe rfor m a nc e J our nal of A ppl i e d B e hav i or A na l y s i s 31 (4), 579 592. D uP a ul G J ., & H e nni ngs on, P N (1993 ). P e e r t ut ori ng e ffe c t s on t he c l a s s room pe rform a nc e of c h i l dre n w i t h a t t e nt i on de f i c i t hyp e ra c t i vi t y di s orde r. S c hool P s y c hol ogy R e v i e w, 22 (1), 134 143. D uP a ul G J ., P ow e r, T P ., A na s t opoul os A D ., & Re i d, R. (1998). A D H D R at i ng S c a l e IV : c h e c k l i s t s norm s a nd c l i ni c a l i nt e rpre t a t i on. N e w Y ork: G ui l ford P re s s D uP a ul G J ., & S t one r, G (1994). A D H D i n t he s c hool s : A s s e s s m e nt and i nt e r v e n t i on s t r at e gi e s N e w Y ork: T he G ui l ford P re s s D uP a ul G J ., & S t one r, G (2003). A D H D i n t he s c hool s : A s s e s s m e nt and i nt e r v e n t i on St r at e gi e s (2nd e d.) N e w Y ork: T he G ui l f ord P re s s E dw a rds L ., S a l a nt V ., H ow a rd, V F ., B roughe r, J ., & M c L a ughl i n, T F (1995). E ffe c t i ve ne s s of s e l f m a na g e m e n t on a t t e n t i ona l b e ha vi or a nd re a di ng c om pre he ns i on for c hi l dr e n w i t h a t t e nt i on de fi c i t di s orde r. Chi l d & F am i l y B e hav i or T he r apy 17 (2), 1 17. F e rgus s on, D M ., & H or w oood, L J (19 9 2). A t t e nt i on d e fi c i t a nd r e a d i ng a c h i e ve m e nt J our nal of Chi l d P s y c hol og y & P s y c hi at r y 33 (2), 375 385.

PAGE 82

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 75 F i a l a C. L ., & S he ri da n, S M (2003). P a r e nt i nvol v e m e n t a nd r e a di ng : U s i ng c urri c ul u m ba s e d m e a s ure m e nt t o a s s e s s t he e ffe c t s of pa i r e d re a d i ng. P s y c ho l ogy i n t he Sc hoo l s 40 (6), 613 626. F uc hs L S ., & D e no, S L (1982). D e v e l opi ng goal s and obj e c t i v e s f or e duc at i ona l pr ogr am s [T e a c hi ng gui de ]. M i nne a pol i s : Ins t i t ut e for R e s e a rc h i n L e a rni ng D i s a bi l i t i e s U ni ve rs i t y of M i nn e s ot a F uc hs L S ., & D e no, S L (1992). E ffe c t s of c urri c ul um w i t hi n c urr i c u l um ba s e d m e a s ure m e nt E x c e pt i ona l Chi l dr e n, 58, 2 32 242. F uc hs L S ., & D e no, S L (1994). M us t i ns t ruc t i ona l l y us e ful p e rform a n c e a s s e s s m e nt be ba s e d i n t h e c urr i c ul u m ? E x c e p t i onal C hi l dr e n, 61 (1 ), 15 24. G ood, R. H ., S i m m ons D S ., K a m e e nui E J ., K a m i ni s ki R. A ., & W a l l i n, J (2002). Sum m ar y of de c i s i on r ul e s f or i nt e ns i v e s t r at e gi c and be n c hm ar k i ns t r uc t i ona l r e c om m e ndat i ons i n k i nd e r gar t e n t hr ough t hi r d gr ade (T e c hn i c a l Re por t N o. 11). E uge ne O R: U ni ve rs i t y of O re gon. G oye t t e C. H ., Conne rs C. K ., & U l ri c h, R. F (1978). N orm a t i ve da t a on r e vi s e d c onne rs pa re nt a nd t e a c h e r ra t i ng s c a l e s J our nal of A bnor m al Chi l d P s y c hol ogy 6, 317 326. G re e nw ood, C. R., Ca rt a J J ., & H a l l R. V (1 988). T he us e of pe e r t ut ori ng s t r a t e g i e s i n c l a s s room m a n a ge m e nt a nd e duc a t i on a l i n s t ruc t i on. Sc hoo l P s y c ho l ogy R e v i e w, 17 (2), 258 275. G re e nw ood, C. R., Ca rt a J J ., & M a he a d y, L (1991). P e e r t ut or i ng progra m s i n t he re gul a r e du c a t i on c l a s s room In G S t one r, M R. S hi nn, & H M W a l ke r (E ds .), Int e r v e nt i ons f or ac hi e v e m e n t and be hav i or pr obl e m s (pp. 179 200). S i l ve r S pri ng, M D : N a t i ona l A s s oc i a t i on of S c ho ol P s yc hol ogi s t s

PAGE 83

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 76 G re e nw ood, C. R., D e l qua dri J ., & Ca r t a J J (1997). T oge t he r we c an! Cl as s wi de pe e r t ut or i ng f or bas i c ac ad e m i c s k i l l s L ongm ont CO : S opri s W e s t G re e nw ood, C. R., M a he a dy, L ., & D e l qu a dri J (2002). In S hi nn, M R., W a l ke r, H M ., & S t one r, G E ds .), Int e r v e n t i ons f or ac ad e m i c and be hav i or pr obl e m s II: P r e v e nt i v e and r e m e di al a ppr oac h e s (2 nd e d., pp. 611 649) W a s hi ngt on, D C: N a t i ona l A s s oc i a t i on of S c hool P s yc hol og i s t s G re s ha m F M (1989). A s s e s s m e nt of t re a t m e n t i nt e gri t y i n s c hool c ons ul t a t i on a n d pre re fe rr a l i n t e rve n t i on. Sc hoo l P s y c ho l og y R e v i e w, 18 (1), 37 50. H ook, C. L & D uP a ul G J (1999). P a re nt t ut ori ng for s t ud e nt s w i t h a t t e n t i on de fi c i t / hype r a c t i vi t y d i s orde r: E ffe c t s on re a di ng pe rfor m a n c e a t hom e a nd s c hool Sc hool P s y c hol ogy R e v i e w, 28 60 75. H ow e K B. & S hi nn, M M (2001). St an dar d r e adi ng as s e s s m e nt p as s age s f or u s e i n ge ne r al out c om e m e as ur e m e n t : A m anual de s c r i bi ng de v e l opm e n t and t e c hni c a l f e at ur e s E de n P ra i ri e M N : E dfor m a t i on. K a z di n, A E (1982). Si ngl e c as e r e s e ar c h de s i gns : Me t hods f or c l i n i c al and app l i e d s e t t i ngs N e w Y ork: O xford U ni ve rs i t y P re s s L a nge nbe rg, D N ., Corre ro, G ., E hr i L ., F e rgus on, G ., G a rz a N ., K a m i l M L ., M a rre t t C. B., S a m ue l s S J ., S ha na ha n, T ., S ha y w i t z S E ., T ra b a s s o, T ., W i l l i a m s J ., W i l l ow s D ., & Y a t vi n, J (2000). T e a c hi n g c hi l dre n t o re a d: A n e vi d e nc e b a s e d a s s e s s m e nt of t he s c i e nt i f i c r e s e a rc h l i t e ra t ure on re a d i ngs a nd i t s i m pl i c a t i o ns for re a di ng i ns t ru c t i on. R e por t of t he Nat i onal R e adi ng P an e l [O n l i n e ]. A va i l a bl e : ht t p: / / w w w .na t i ona l r e a di ngp a ne l .org/ D oc um e nt s /

PAGE 84

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 77 M a rc on, R. (1999). P os i t i ve re l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n pa r e nt s c hoo l i nvol v e m e n t a nd publ i c s c hool i nne r c i t y pr e s c hool e rs de v e l opm e n t a nd a c a d e m i c pe rform a nc e Sc hool P s y c ho l ogy R e v i e w, 28 (3), 395 41 2. M a rs t on, D B. (1989). A c urr i c ul um b a s e d m e a s ure m e nt a pproa c h t o a s s e s s i ng a c a de m i c pe rform a nc e : W ha t i t i s a nd w hy do i t In M .R. S hi nn (E d.), Cur r i c ul um bas e d m e as ur e m e nt : A s s e s s i ng s pe c i al c hi l dr e n ( pp.18 78). N e w Y ork: G ui l ford P re s s M a rt e ns B. K ., & W i t t J C. (1982). T he i n t e r v e nt i on r at i ng pr of i l e Copyri gh t e d m a nus c ri pt U ni v e rs i t y of N e br a s ka L i n c o l n. Copyri ght e d. P ow e l l S m i t h, K & Bra d l e y K l ug, K (20 01). A not he r l ook a t t he C i n CBM : D o e s i t re a l l y m a t t e r i f c urri c ul um b a s e d m e a s ure m e nt re a di ng prob e s a re c urr i c ul u m ba s e d. P s y c hol og y i n t h e Sc hoo l s 38 (4), 299 312. Rhode G ., M orga n, D P ., & Y oung, K R (1983). G e ne ra l i z a t i on a nd m a i n t e na n c e of t re a t m e nt g a i ns of be h a vi ora l l y ha nd i c a pp e d s t ude nt s from re s ourc e room s t o re gul a r c l a s s room s us i ng s e l f e v a l ua t i on p roc e dure s J our nal of A ppl i e d B e hav i or A nal y s i s 17 171 188. Row e K J ., & Row e K S (1992). T he re l a t i ons hi p b e t w e e n i na t t e n t i ve n e s s i n t he c l a s s room a nd re a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt (pa r t b): A n e xpl a na t ory s t udy. J our nal of t he A m e r i c an A c ad e m y of Ch i l d & A do l e s c e nt P s y c hi at r y 31 (2), 357 368. S a t t l e r, J M (2001). A s s e s s m e nt of c hi l dr e n: Cogni t i v e appl i c at i ons (4t h e d.) S a n D i e go, CA : J e rom e M S a t t l e r, P ubl i s he r, Inc S a unde rs B., & Cha m be rs S M (1996). A re vi e w of t he l i t e r a t ur e on a t t e nt i on de fi c i t h ype ra c t i vi t y d i s orde r c h i l dre n : P e e r i n t e r a c t i ons a nd c ol l a bora t i ve l e a rn i ng. P s y c hol ogy i n Sc hool s 33 (4), 333 340.

PAGE 85

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 78 S c hra nk, F A ., & W oodc oc k, R. W (200 1). W J III Com pus c ore a nd P rofi l e s P rogra m [Com put e r s oft w a re ]. Wood c oc k J ohns on III It a s c a I L : Ri v e rs i de P ubl i s hi ng. S ha pi ro, E S ., D uP a ul G J ., & Bra dl e y K l ug, K L (1998). S e l f m a na g e m e nt a s a s t ra t e gy t o i m prove t he c l a s s room be h a vi o r of a dol e s c e n t s w i t h A D H D J our nal of L e ar ni ng D i s abi l i t i e s 31 (6), 545 555. S hi m a bukuro, S M ., P ra t e r, M A ., J e nki ns A ., & E de l e n S m i t h, P (1999). T he e ff e c t s of s e l f m oni t or i ng of a c a de m i c p e rform a n c e on s t ude nt s w i t h l e a rn i ng di s a bi l i t i e s a nd A D D / A D H D E duc at i on & T r e at m e nt of Chi l dr e n, 22 (4), 397 411. S hi nn, M (E d.). (1989). Cur r i c ul um bas e d m e as ur e m e nt : A s s e s s i ng s pe c i al c hi l dr e n N e w Y ork: G ui l ford P re s s S hi nn, M (2002). Be s t pra c t i c e s i n us i ng c urri c ul u m ba s e d m e a s ure m e nt i n a probl e m s ol vi ng m ode l In A T ho m a s & J G ri m e s (E ds .), B e s t pr ac t i c e s i n s c hool ps y c hol ogy IV (pp. 671 697 ). Be t h e s da M D : N A S P S hi nn, M R., G ood, R. H ., K nut s on, N ., T i l l y III, W D ., & Co l l i ns V L (1992). Curri c ul um b a s e d m e a s ure m e nt of ora l re a di ng fl ue n c y: A c onfi r m a t o ry a na l ys i s of i t s re l a t i on t o r e a di ng. S c hool P s y c hol o gy R e v i e w, 21, 459 479. S hi nn, M R., G ood, R. H ., III, & S t e i n, S (1989). S um m a ri z i ng t re nd i n s t ude nt a c hi e v e m e nt : A c o m pa ri s on of m e t hods S c hool P s y c ho l ogy R e v i e w, 18 (3), 356 370. S hi nn, M ., J ohns t on, D ., M a l m qui s t S ., & S w e e t l a nd Ba k e r, M (E ds .). (1993). CB M t r ai ni ng m odul e : A dm i n i s t r at i on and s c or i ng of c ur r i c ul um bas e d m e as ur e m e nt U npubl i s he d m a nus c ri p t U ni ve rs i t y of O r e gon.

PAGE 86

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 79 S t a pe S (2000). T he i m pac t of c l as s r oom bas e d pe e r t ut or i ng on t h e aut om at i z at i o n of bas i c addi t i on and s ubt r ac t i on f a c t s f or c h i l dr e n wi t h a t t e n t i on de f i c i t / h y pe r ac t i v i t y d i s or de r U npubl i s he d e duc a t i on s pe c i a l i s t t he s i s U ni ve rs i t y of S out h F l ori da T a m pa U t l e y, C. A ., M ort w e e t S L ., & G re e nw ood, C. R. (1997). P e e r m e di a t e d i ns t ruc t i o n a nd i nt e rve n t i ons F oc us on E x c e pt i ona l Chi l d r e n, 29 (5), 1 23. W e i s s G ., & H e c ht m a n, L (1986). H y p e r ac t i v e c hi l dr e n gr own up N e w Y ork: G ui l ford P re s s W i t t J C. & E l l i ot t S N (1985). A c c e p t a bi l i t y of c l a s s room m a na g e m e nt s t ra t e gi e s In T R. K ra t oc hw i l l (E d.), A d v anc e s i n s c ho ol ps y c hol ogy : V ol 4. (pp. 251 288). H i l l s da l e N J : E r l ba um W i t t J C., & M a r t e ns B. K (1983). A s s e s s i ng t he a c c e pt a bi l i t y of be h a vi ora l i nt e rve n t i ons us e d i n c l a s s room s P s y c ho l ogy i n t he S c hool s 20 510 517. W oodc oc k, R. W ., M c G r e w K S ., & M a t he r, N (2001). Woodc oc k J ohns on III T e s t s of A c hi e v e m e n t It a s c a IL : R i ve rs i de P ubl i s hi ng Com pa ny.

PAGE 87

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 80 A p p e n d i c e s

PAGE 88

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 81 A p p e n d i x A C o n s e n t F o r m s P ar e n tal I n for me d C on s e n t S o c i a l a n d B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h F l o r i d a I n fo r m a t i on f o r P ar e n ts Wh o ar e b e i n g as k e d to al l ow t h e i r c h i l d to tak e p ar t i n a r e s e ar c h s tu d y T he fol l ow i ng i nform a t i on i s be i ng pre s e n t e d t o he l p you de c i de w he t he r or not you w a nt t o a l l ow your c h i l d t o b e a p a rt of a m i ni m a l ri s k re s e a r c h s t udy. P l e a s e re a d t hi s c a re ful l y. If you do not unde rs t a nd a ny t hi ng, a s k t he pe rs on i n c h a rge of t he s t udy. Ti tl e of r e s e ar c h s tu d y: T he Im pac t of Se l f m oni t or i ng and P e e r T ut or i ng on O r al R e adi ng F l ue nc y f or Chi l dr e n w i t h Inat t e nt i on P r obl e m s P e r s on i n c h ar ge of s tu d y: P ri nc i pa l Inv e s t i ga t or : S ha nnon M L e i s M A F a c ul t y A dvi s or: K e l l y P ow e l l S m i t h, P h.D Wh e r e th e s tu d y w i l l b e d on e : J e s s e K e e n E l e m e nt a ry Y our c hi l d i s be i ng a s ke d t o pa rt i c i pa t e be c a us e your c hi l d ha s be e n re c o m m e nd e d t o re c e i v e i ndi v i dua l one on one r e a di ng t ut ori ng. It i s be l i e ve d t ha t your c hi l d w i l l b e ne fi t from re c e i vi ng pe e r t u t ori ng i n r e a di ng. G e n e r al I n for mati on ab ou t th e R e s e ar c h S tu d y T he purpos e of t hi s re s e a rc h s t udy i s t o e x a m i ne t he e ff e c t s of s e l f m oni t ori ng a nd p e e r t ut ori ng on t h e re a d i ng a c hi e v e m e n t for c h i l dre n w i t h i na t t e nt i on probl e m s P l an of S tu d y Y our c hi l ds pa rt i c i p a t i on i n t hi s s t udy w i l l l a s t a m a xi m um of 10 w e e ks H e / s h e w i l l re c e i v e pe e r t ut or i ng 3 t i m e s pe r w e e k for a pproxi m a t e l y 15 m i nut e s T he s e s s i on w i l l t a ke pl a c e i n t h e ba c k of your c hi l ds c l a s s room

PAGE 89

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 82 A ppe ndi x A (Cont i nue d) P r oc e d u r e s D uri ng t hi s s t udy, t he fol l ow i ng proc e dur e s w i l l oc c ur: 1. Y our c hi l d w i l l b e pa i r e d w i t h a fourt h gra de pe e r t u t or. 2. Y our c hi l d w i l l p a rt i c i pa t e i n pe e r t ut ori ng for re a di ng for 15 m i nut e s 3 t i m e s pe r w e e k. Y our c hi l d w i l l re a d from re a di ng m a t e r i a l s us e d i n h i s / he r c l a s s room w hi l e t he pe e r t ut or provi d e s your c hi l d w i t h c or re c t i v e fe e dba c k t o a ddre s s e rrors your c hi l d m a y m a k e w hi l e re a d i ng. Y our c hi l d w i l l ha ve t he opport un i t y t o c orre c t hi s / he r e rrors a nd w i l l re c e i v e pos i t i v e pra i s e for c orre c t i ons m a de 3. Y our c hi l d w i l l c om pl e t e a t i m e d or a l re a d i ng t a s k t ha t w i l l b e a dm i ni s t e r e d by t he e xa m i ne r t w i c e w e e kl y. T he s e re a di ng t a s ks w i l l be a ud i ot a p e d for s c ori ng purpos e s Y our c hi l d w i l l gra ph t he num b e r of w ords re a d c orre c t a nd e rrors T he e xa m i n e r w i l l s how your c hi l d how t o gra ph t hi s i nform a t i on. 4. T he e xa m i ne r w i l l gi v e your c h i l d a s urve y, w hi c h w i l l t a ke a pprox i m a t e l y 5 m i nut e s t o c om pl e t e I t e m s on t h e s urve y re qui re a r e s pons e from a 5 po i nt s c a l e (1= I a gre e a nd 5 = I do not a gre e ). E xa m pl e s of i t e m s on t he s urve y i n c l ude : P e e r t ut or i ng t o pra c t i c e r e a di ng w a s fa i r; a nd P e e r t ut ori ng w oul d b e a good m e t hod t o us e w i t h ot he r c hi l dr e n. 5. T he e xa m i ne r w i l l a s s e s s your c hi l ds re a d i ng s ki l l s us i ng t he W oodc oc k J ohns on III T e s t s of A c hi e v e m e n t w hi c h w i l l t a k e a pproxi m a t e l y 15 m i nut e s t o a dm i ni s t e r. 6. T he e xa m i ne r i s re que s t i ng t ha t you, t he p a re nt c o m pl e t e t he e n c l os e d hom e ve rs i on of t he A D H D Ra t i ng S c a l e IV w hi c h s houl d t a k e a pproxi m a t e l y 1 0 m i nut e s t o c om pl e t e In a ddi t i on, t h e e xa m i ne r i s offe r i ng t o m e e t w i t h you a t a m ut ua l l y a gre e d upon t i m e a t J e s s e K e e n E l e m e nt a ry pr i or t o c onduc t i ng t he s t udy t o a ns w e r que s t i ons you m a y h a ve 7. Y our c hi l ds t e a c he r w i l l c o m pl e t e t h e s c h ool ve rs i on of t he A D H D Ra t i ng S c a l e IV 8. T he e xa m i ne r w i l l r e vi e w your c h i l ds c u m ul a t i ve s c hool r e c ord a nd s c hool m e di c a t i on r e c ords 9. T he e xa m i ne r i s offe ri ng t o s how pa re nt s how t o c onduc t t h e t ut or i ng a t t he c onc l us i on of t h e s t udy s houl d i t a ppe a r t o be he l pful P ay me n t for P ar ti c i p ati on A t t he e nd of t h i s s t udy, your c hi l d w i l l re c e i ve a M c D ona l ds gi f t c e r t i fi c a t e for hi s / he r pa rt i c i pa t i on i n t h i s s t udy.

PAGE 90

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 83 A ppe ndi x A (Cont i nue d) Be n e fi ts of Tak i n g P ar t i n th i s R e s e ar c h S tu d y T he pot e n t i a l be n e fi t s for pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t hi s s t udy i nc l ude your c hi l d r e c e i vi ng i ndi vi dua l a t t e nt i on a nd one on one i ns t ru c t i on from t he pe e r t ut o r. In a ddi t i on, you r c hi l d w i l l re c e i v e a ddi t i ona l pra c t i c e i n re a di ng. If t he f i ndi ngs from t h i s s t udy i ndi c a t e t ha t s e l f m oni t or i ng (gra phi n g r e a d i ng pe r form a nc e ) a nd pe e r t ut or i ng i s e ffe c t i v e a t i m provi ng re a di ng for c h i l dr e n w i t h i n a t t e nt i on probl e m s s c hool pe rs onne l c oul d i nc orpora t e t h e s e s t ra t e gi e s i n t he ge n e ra l e duc a t i on c l a s s room S e l f m oni t ori ng a nd pe e r t ut ori ng ha v e t he po t e nt i a l for i m prov i ng t he a c a d e m i c i ns t ru c t i on a nd a c h i e ve m e nt of c hi l dre n w i t h i na t t e n t i on probl e m s R i s k s of Be i n g a P ar t of th i s R e s e ar c h S tu d y Y our c hi l d w i l l p a rt i c i pa t e i n t ut or i ng s e s s i ons t hre e t i m e s e a c h w e e k duri ng a t i m e de t e rm i ne d by t h e c l a s s room t e a c he r. T he re fore your c hi l d a nd t he t u t or m a y m i s s s om e c l a s s i ns t ruc t i on. H ow e ve r, t h e re s e a r c he r a nd t he t e a c he r w i l l w ork t oge t h e r t o m i ni m i z e t he a m oun t of c l a s s i ns t ruc t i on t ha t i s m i s s e d. C on fi d e n ti al i ty of Y ou r C h i l d s R e c or d s Y ou a nd your c h i l ds pri va c y a nd r e s e a rc h re c ords w i l l be k e pt c onfi de n t i a l t o t h e ful l e xt e nt r e qui r e d by l a w A ut hori z e d re s e a r c h pe rs onne l e m pl oy e e s of t he D e p a rt m e nt of H e a l t h a nd H um a n S e rvi c e s a nd t h e U S F Ins t i t ut i on a l Re v i e w Boa rd a nd i t s s t a ff, a nd ot he r i ndi v i dua l s a c t i ng on b e ha l f of U S F m a y i ns pe c t t he r e c ords from t hi s re s e a r c h proj e c t T he re s ul t s of t h i s s t udy m a y be pub l i s he d T he publ i s he d r e s ul t s w i l l no t i nc l ude y our c hi l ds na m e or a ny ot h e r i nfor m a t i on t ha t w oul d pe rs ona l l y i d e nt i fy your c hi l d i n a ny w a y. D a t a obt a i ne d from t he t e a c he rs a nd pa r e n t s re ga rdi ng s e c ond a nd t h i rd gra de p a rt i c i pa nt s w i l l be ke p t i n a l oc ke d f i l e c a b i ne t a t J e s s e K e e n E l e m e nt a ry. R e t urne d c ons e nt for m s t ha t i n c l ude t he na m e s of e a c h c h i l d (t u t or s a nd t ut e e s ) pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t hi s s t udy w i l l be ke pt i n t h e s a m e l oc k e d fi l e c a b i ne t T he r e s e a rc h e r, fa c u l t y a dv i s or, s t ude nt s t e a c h e r, a nd s c hool ps yc hol ogi s t a t J e s s e K e e n E l e m e nt a ry w i l l be t he onl y on e s w ho ha ve a c c e s s t o t hi s da t a T hi s i nfor m a t i on w i l l no t be pl a c e d i n t he s t ud e nt s s c hool r e c ords A s um m a ry of t he r e s ul t s from t h i s s t udy w i l l be provi de d t o a ny i n t e r e s t e d pa r t i c i pa nt T he s um m a ry w i l l b e bri e f a nd w i l l i nc l ud e w h e t he r or not t he i n t e rv e nt i on w a s e ff e c t i ve a t i nc re a s i ng t he r e a di ng s ki l l s of c hi l dre n w i t h i na t t e nt i on probl e m s

PAGE 91

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 84 A ppe ndi x A (Cont i nue d) V ol u n te e r i n g to Tak e P ar t i n th i s R e s e a r c h S tu d y Y our de c i s i on t o a l l ow your c hi l d t o p a rt i c i pa t e i n t hi s re s e a rc h s t udy i s c om pl e t e l y vol unt a ry. Y ou a re fr e e t o a l l ow your c hi l d t o pa rt i c i pa t e i n t hi s re s e a rc h s t udy or t o w i t hdra w hi m / h e r a t a ny t i m e If you c ho os e not t o a l l ow your c hi l d t o pa rt i c i pa t e o r i f you re m ove your c h i l d from t he s t udy, t h e re w i l l be no p e na l t y or l os s of be ne f i t s t h a t you or your c hi l d a r e e n t i t l e d t o r e c e i ve If yo u s i gn be l ow a l l ow i ng your c hi l d t o pa rt i c i pa t e i n t hi s s t udy a nd your c h i l d m e e t s i n c l us i o n c ri t e r i a your c hi l d m a y be s e l e c t e d for pa rt i c i pa t i on. Q u e s ti on s an d C o n tac ts If you ha ve a ny que s t i ons a bout t h i s re s e a rc h s t udy, c ont a c t S ha nnon L e i s a t (813) 657 8625. If you ha ve que s t i ons a bou t your ri ght s a s a pe rs on w ho i s t a ki ng pa r t i n a re s e a rc h s t udy, you m a y c on t a c t t he D i v i s i on of Re s e a rc h Com p l i a n c e of t he U ni ve rs i t y of S out h F l ori da a t (813) 974 5 638. C on s e n t for C h i l d to Tak e P ar t i n th i s R e s e ar c h S tu d y I fr e e l y gi v e my c on s e n t to l e t my c h i l d t ak e p ar t i n th i s s tu d y. I f my c h i l d me e ts i n c l u s i on c r i te r i a for p ar t i c i p ati on my c h i l d may b e s e l e c t e d for p ar ti c i p ati on i n th i s s tu d y. I u n d e r s tan d th at t h i s i s r e s e ar c h I h ave r e c e i ve d a c op y of th i s c o n s e n t for m. ________________________ ________________________ ___________ S i gna t ure of P a re n t P ri nt e d N a m e of P a r e nt D a t e of c hi l d t a ki ng pa r t i n s t udy I n ve s ti gator S tate me n t: I c e rt i fy t ha t p a rt i c i p a nt s ha ve b e e n provi d e d w i t h a n i nfor m e d c ons e n t f orm t h a t h a s be e n a pprove d by t he U ni v e rs i t y of S out h F l ori da s Ins t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w Boa rd a nd t ha t e xpl a i ns t h e na t ur e de m a nds ri s ks a nd b e ne fi t s i nvo l ve d i n p a rt i c i p a t i ng i n t hi s s t u dy. I furt he r c e r t i fy t h a t a phone num b e r ha s be e n provi de d i n t he e v e nt of a ddi t i ona l que s t i ons ____________________ _____ _________________________ ____________ S i gna t ure of Inve s t i ga t or P ri nt e d N a m e of Inv e s t i ga t or D a t e

PAGE 92

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 85 A ppe ndi x A (Cont i nue d) P ar e n tal I n for me d C on s e n t S o c i a l a n d B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h F l o r i d a I n fo r m a t i on f o r P ar e n ts Wh o ar e b e i n g as k e d to al l ow th e i r c h i l d to tak e p ar t i n a r e s e ar c h s tu d y T he fol l ow i ng i nform a t i on i s be i ng pre s e n t e d t o he l p you de c i de w he t he r or not you w a nt t o a l l ow your c h i l d t o b e a p a rt of a m i ni m a l ri s k re s e a r c h s t udy. P l e a s e re a d t hi s c a re ful l y. If you do not unde rs t a nd a ny t hi ng, a s k t he pe rs on i n c h a rge of t he s t udy. Ti tl e of r e s e ar c h s tu d y: T he Im pac t of Se l f m oni t or i ng and P e e r T ut or i ng on t h e O r al R e adi ng F l ue nc y of Chi l dr e n wi t h I na t t e nt i on P r obl e m s P e r s on i n c h ar ge of s tu d y: P ri nc i pa l Inv e s t i ga t or : S ha nnon M L e i s M A F a c ul t y A dvi s or: K e l l y P ow e l l S m i t h, P h.D Wh e r e th e s tu d y w i l l b e d on e : J e s s e K e e n E l e m e nt a ry Y our c hi l d i s be i ng a s ke d t o pa rt i c i pa t e be c a us e your c hi l d ha s be e n re c o m m e nd e d b y hi s / he r t e a c h e r t o t u t or a s e c ond or t hi rd gr a de r i n re a di ng du e t o your c h i l ds a bove a ve ra ge re a d i ng s ki l l s a nd d i s pl a y of m od e l be ha v i or i n s c hool G e n e r al I n for mati on ab ou t th e R e s e ar c h S tu d y T he purpos e of t hi s re s e a rc h s t udy i s t o e x a m i ne t he e ff e c t s of s e l f m oni t ori ng a nd p e e r t ut ori ng on t h e re a d i ng a c hi e v e m e n t for c h i l dre n w i t h i na t t e nt i on probl e m s P l an of S tu d y Y our c hi l ds pa rt i c i p a t i on i n t hi s s t udy w i l l l a s t a m a xi m um of 10 w e e ks H e / s h e w i l l pe e r t ut or a s e c ond or t hi rd gra d e c hi l d w i t h i na t t e nt i on probl e m s Y our c hi l d w i l l pa rt i c i pa t e i n t hr e e p e e r t u t or t ra i ni ng s e s s i ons for a pproxi m a t e l y 20 m i nut e s e a c h provi de d by t he r e s e a r c he r. D uri ng pe e r t ut ori ng s e s s i ons your c hi l d w i l l fol l ow a l ong w hi l e t he c hi l d r e a ds a nd s t op t he c h i l d w he n a n e rror i s m a de Y our c h i l d w i l l pro vi de t he c orre c t w ord t o t he c h i l d a nd r e que s t t he c hi l d t o re r e a d t h e s e nt e n c e i n w hi c h t h e e rror oc c urr e d us i ng t he c orre c t pronunc i a t i on of t he w ord. T u t ori ng s e s s i ons w i l l oc c ur t hre e t i m e s pe r w e e k for a pprox i m a t e l y 15 m i nut e s T h e s e s s i ons w i l l t a k e pl a c e i n t he ba c k of t he t ut e e s c l a s s room P ayme n t for P ar ti c i p ati on A t t he e nd of t h i s s t udy, your c hi l d w i l l re c e i ve a M c D ona l ds gi f t c e r t i fi c a t e for hi s / he r pa rt i c i pa t i on i n t h i s s t udy.

PAGE 93

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 86 A ppe ndi x A (Cont i nue d) Be n e fi ts of Tak i n g P ar t i n th i s R e s e ar c h S tu d y If t he fi ndi ngs from t hi s s t udy i ndi c a t e t ha t s e l f m oni t ori ng a nd p e e r t u t ori ng i s e ffe c t i ve a t i m prov i ng t he or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y for c hi l dre n w i t h i na t t e nt i on probl e m s s c hool pe rs onne l c oul d i nc orpor a t e t he s e s t ra t e gi e s i n t he ge n e ra l e duc a t i on c l a s s room S e l f m oni t ori ng a nd pe e r t ut ori ng h a ve t he pot e nt i a l for i m prov i ng t he a c a de m i c i ns t ru c t i on a nd a c hi e ve m e nt of c hi l dr e n w i t h i n a t t e nt i on probl e m s R i s k s of Be i n g a P ar t of t h i s R e s e ar c h S tu d y Y our c hi l d w i l l t ut or a s e c ond or t hi rd gra de s t ude nt t hr e e t i m e s p e r w e e k duri ng a t i m e de t e rm i ne d by t h e c l a s s room t e a c he r. T he re fore your c hi l d m a y m i s s s om e c l a s s i ns t ruc t i on. H ow e ve r, t he r e s e a rc h e r a nd t e a c he r w i l l w ork t og e t he r t o m i n i m i z e t h e a m ount of c l a s s i ns t ruc t i on t ha t i s m i s s e d. C on fi d e n ti al i ty of Y ou r C h i l d s R e c or d s Y ou a nd your c hi l ds pri va c y a nd r e s e a rc h re c ords w i l l be k e pt c onfi de n t i a l t o t h e ful l e xt e nt r e qui r e d by l a w A ut hori z e d re s e a r c h pe rs onne l e m pl oy e e s of t he D e p a rt m e nt of H e a l t h a nd H um a n S e rvi c e s a nd t h e U S F Ins t i t ut i on a l Re v i e w Boa rd a nd i t s s t a ff, a nd ot he r i ndi v i dua l s a c t i ng on b e ha l f of U S F m a y i ns pe c t t he r e c ords from t hi s re s e a r c h proj e c t T he re s ul t s of t h i s s t udy m a y be pub l i s he d T he publ i s he d r e s ul t s w i l l no t i nc l ude y our c hi l ds na m e or a ny ot h e r i nfor m a t i on t ha t w oul d pe rs ona l l y i d e nt i fy your c hi l d i n a ny w a y. N o da t a w i l l b e c ol l e c t e d on your c hi l d. A ny da t a obt a i ne d fro m t h e t e a c he rs a nd p a r e nt s re ga rdi ng t h e s e c ond a nd t hi rd gr a de c h i l d re n w i l l be k e pt i n a l o c ke d fi l e c a bi ne t a t J e s s e K e e n E l e m e nt a ry. Re t urne d c ons e n t form s t ha t i nc l ude t h e na m e s of e a c h c hi l d (t ut ors a nd t ut e e s ) pa rt i c i p a t i ng i n t hi s s t udy w i l l be ke pt i n t he s a m e l o c ke d fi l e c a bi ne t T he re s e a rc h e r, fa c u l t y a dv i s or, s t ude nt s t e a c h e r, a nd s c hool ps yc hol og i s t a t J e s s e K e e n E l e m e nt a ry w i l l be t he on l y one s w ho ha v e a c c e s s t o t he s e d a t a V ol u n te e r i n g to Tak e P ar t i n th i s R e s e a r c h S tu d y Y our de c i s i on t o a l l ow your c hi l d t o p a rt i c i pa t e i n t hi s re s e a rc h s t udy i s c om p l e t e l y vol unt a ry. Y ou a re fr e e t o a l l ow your c hi l d t o pa rt i c i pa t e i n t hi s re s e a rc h s t udy or t o w i t hdra w hi m / h e r a t a ny t i m e If you c ho os e not t o a l l ow your c hi l d t o pa rt i c i pa t e o r i f you re m ove your c h i l d from t he s t udy, t h e re w i l l be no p e na l t y or l os s of be ne f i t s t h a t you or your c hi l d a r e e n t i t l e d t o r e c e i ve Q u e s ti on s an d C o n tac ts If you ha ve a ny que s t i ons a bout t h i s re s e a rc h s t udy, c ont a c t S ha nnon L e i s a t (813) 657 8625. If you ha ve que s t i ons a bou t your ri ght s a s a pe rs on w ho i s t a ki ng pa rt i n a re s e a rc h s t udy, you m a y c on t a c t t he D i v i s i on of Re s e a rc h Com p l i a n c e of t he U ni ve rs i t y of S out h F l ori da a t (813) 974 5 638.

PAGE 94

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 87 A ppe ndi x A (Cont i nue d) C on s e n t for C h i l d to Tak e P ar t i n th i s R e s e ar c h S tu d y I fr e e l y gi v e my c on s e n t to l e t my c h i l d t ak e p ar t i n th i s s tu d y. I u n d e r s tan d t h a t th i s i s r e s e ar c h I h ave r e c e i v e d a c op y of th i s c on s e n t for m. ________________________ ________________________ ___________ S i gna t u re of P a re n t P ri nt e d N a m e of P a r e nt D a t e of c hi l d t a ki ng pa r t i n s t udy I n ve s ti gator S tate me n t: I c e rt i fy t ha t p a rt i c i p a nt s ha ve b e e n provi d e d w i t h a n i nfor m e d c ons e n t form t h a t h a s be e n a pprove d by t he U ni v e rs i t y of S out h F l ori da s Ins t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w Boa rd a nd t ha t e xpl a i ns t h e na t ur e de m a nds ri s ks a nd b e ne fi t s i nvo l ve d i n p a rt i c i p a t i ng i n t hi s s t u dy. I furt he r c e r t i fy t h a t a phone num b e r ha s be e n provi de d i n t he e v e nt of a ddi t i ona l que s t i ons ____________________ _____ _________________________ ____________ S i gna t ure of Inve s t i ga t or P ri nt e d N a m e of Inv e s t i ga t or D a t e

PAGE 95

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 88 A ppe ndi x A (Cont i nue d) T he fol l ow i ng i nform a t i on i s be i ng pre s e n t e d t o he l p you de c i de w he t he r or not you w a nt t o pa rt i c i p a t e i n a m i ni m a l r i s k r e s e a rc h s t udy. P l e a s e re a d c a re ful l y. If you do not unde rs t a nd a ny t hi ng, a s k t h e P e rs on i n Cha rge of t he S t udy. Ti tl e of S tu d y: T h e I m pac t of S e l f M on i t or i n g an d P e e r T u t or i n g on O r al Re adi n g Fl u e n c y for Ch i l dr e n wi t h I n at t e n t i on P r obl e m s P r i n c i p al I n ve s ti gator : S ha nnon M L e i s M .A S tu d y Loc ati on (s ): J e s s e K e e n E l e m e nt a ry D e a r T e a c he r, I a m c onduc t i ng a s t udy on t he i m pa c t of s e l f m oni t ori ng a nd p e e r t ut ori ng on or a l re a di ng fl u e nc y for c hi l dr e n e xhi b i t i ng s y m pt om s of A t t e n t i on D e fi c i t / H ype ra c t i v i t y D i s orde r (A D H D ). T he purpos e of t he s t udy i s t o de t e r m i ne t he e ff e c t i ve n e s s of s e l f m oni t ori ng a nd pe e r t ut ori ng on t he r e a di n g s ki l l s of s e c ond a nd/ or t hi rd gra d e s t ude nt s w i t h i na t t e nt i on probl e m s I a m re que s t i ng your pa r t i c i pa t i on, w hi c h w i l l i nvol v e c om p l e t i ng t he s c hoo l ve rs i o n of t he A D H D Ra t i ng S c a l e IV a nd a pa p e r a nd pe nc i l qu e s t i onna i re a bout your pe r c e p t i ons re ga rdi ng t h e e ff e c t i ve ne s s a nd a c c e p t a bi l i t y of s e l f m oni t ori ng a nd p e e r t u t ori ng i nt e rve n t i ons Y ou w i l l onl y b e a s ke d t o c om pl e t e t hi s ra t i ng s c a l e a nd que s t i onn a i r e for s t ude nt (s ) w hos e pa re nt s ha v e c ons e nt e d f or t he m t o p a rt i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy. T he t o t a l t i m e c om m i t m e nt w i l l be a bou t 20 m i nu t e s Y our pa rt i c i p a t i on i n t hi s s t udy i s s t ri c t l y vol unt a ry. If you c hoos e no t t o pa r t i c i pa t e or i f you w i t hdra w from t he s t udy a t a ny t i m e t he re w i l l be no pe n a l t y t o you. Y our j ob s t a t us w i l l not be a ffe c t e d by your d e c i s i on t o pa rt i c i p a t e T he qu e s t i onna i re i s a nony m ous T he re s ul t s of t h e re s e a rc h s t udy m a y be p ubl i s he d, but you r na m e a nd t he n a m e s of your s t ude nt s w i l l not b e re port e d. T he re a r e no fore s e e a bl e ri s ks t o you i f yo u a gre e t o p a rt i c i p a t e Y our pri v a c y a nd re s e a rc h r e c ords w i l l b e ke pt c onfi de n t i a l t o t he e xt e nt of t h e l a w A l l i nform a t i on c ol l e c t e d w i l l be a s s i gne d i d e nt i f i c a t i on n um be rs a nd ke pt s e p a ra t e from i de nt i fyi ng i nform a t i on. Ide nt i fyi ng i nfor m a t i on (e .g. na m e s ) w i l l no t a ppe a r i n a ny re s ul t s O nl y a ut hori z e d re s e a rc h pe rs onne l e m p l oye e s of t he D e pa rt m e nt of H e a l t h a nd H um a n S e rvi c e s t he U S F Ins t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w Bo a rd a nd i t s s t a ff, a nd ot he r i ndi vi du a l s a c t i ng on be ha l f of U S F m a y i ns pe c t t he r e c ords from t hi s re s e a r c h proj e c t D i r e c t b e ne fi t s t o you for pa rt i c i pa t i ng a r e not know n.

PAGE 96

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 89 A ppe ndi x A (Cont i nue d) If you ha ve a ny que s t i ons a bout t h i s re s e a rc h s t udy, c ont a c t S h an n on M L e i s at 813 657 8625 or D r Ke l l y A. P owe l l S m i t h at 813 974 9698. If you ha ve que s t i ons a bo ut your ri ght s a s a pe rs on w ho i s t a ki ng p a rt i n a re s e a r c h s t udy, you m a y c ont a c t a m e m be r of t he D i vi s i on of Re s e a rc h Com p l i a n c e o f t he U ni ve rs i t y of S out h F l or i da a t (813) 974 5638 Y ou r C on s e n t By s i gn i n g th i s for m I a gr e e th at: I ha ve fu l l y re a d or h a ve h a d re a d a nd e xpl a i n e d t o m e t hi s i nfor m e d c ons e nt f orm de s c ri bi ng a r e s e a r c h proj e c t I ha ve ha d t he opport un i t y t o qu e s t i on on e of t he pe rs ons i n c ha rge of t hi s re s e a rc h a nd ha ve re c e i v e d s a t i s fa c t ory a ns w e rs I unde rs t a nd t ha t I a m be i ng a s ke d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n re s e a rc h. I und e rs t a nd t h e ri s ks a nd be ne fi t s a nd I fr e e l y gi ve m y c ons e nt t o p a rt i c i pa t e i n t h e re s e a rc h proj e c t ou t l i n e d i n t hi s form unde r t h e c ondi t i ons i ndi c a t e d i n i t I ha ve be e n g i ve n a s i gne d c opy of t hi s i nf orm e d c ons e nt for m w hi c h i s m i ne t o k e e p. S i gna t ure of P a rt i c i p a nt P ri nt e d N a m e of P a r t i c i pa nt D a t e I n ve s ti gator S tate me n t I c e rt i fy t ha t p a rt i c i p a nt s ha ve b e e n provi d e d w i t h a n i nfor m e d c ons e n t form t h a t h a s be e n a pprove d by t he U ni v e rs i t y of S out h F l ori da s Ins t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w Boa rd. T ha t c ont a i ns t h e na t ur e de m a nds ri s ks a nd be ne fi t s i nvol v e d i n pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t h i s s t udy. I furt he r c e r t i fy t h a t a phone num b e r ha s be e n provi de d i n t he e v e nt of a ddi t i ona l que s t i ons S ha nnon M L e i s M A S i gna t ure of Inve s t i ga t or P ri nt e d N a m e of Inv e s t i ga t or D a t e I ha ve c a r e ful l y e xpl a i ne d t o t he s ubj e c t t he na t ur e of t h e a bove prot o c ol I he r e by c e rt i fy t ha t t o t he be s t of m y know l e dg e t h e s u bj e c t s i gni ng t h i s c ons e nt form und e rs t a nds t he na t ure de m a nds ri s ks a nd be n e fi t s i nvo l v e d i n pa rt i c i p a t i ng i n t hi s s t udy. S i gna t ure of Inve s t i ga t or O r A ut hori z e d re s e a rc h i nve s t i ga t ors de s i gna t e d by t he P ri nc i p a l Inve s t i ga t or P ri nt e d N a m e of Inv e s t i ga t or D a t e

PAGE 97

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 90 A ppe ndi x A (Cont i nue d) I n s ti tu ti on al A p p r oval of S tu d y a n d I n f or me d C on s e n t T hi s re s e a r c h proj e c t / s t udy a nd i nform e d c ons e nt form w e r e re vi e w e d a nd a pprove d by t he U ni ve rs i t y of S out h F l ori da Ins t i t ut i o na l Re vi e w Boa rd for t he prot e c t i on of hum a n s ubj e c t s T hi s a pprov a l i s v a l i d unt i l t h e da t e provi d e d be l ow T h e boa rd m a y be c ont a c t e d a t (813) 974 5638.

PAGE 98

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 91 A ppe ndi x B T ut or Re c o m m e nd a t i on F orm Te ac h e r s N ame : __________________ G r ad e Le ve l : ___________ P l e a s e l i s t b e l ow s t ude nt s from your c l a s s r oom t ha t you w oul d l i ke t o re c o m m e nd a s pe e r t ut ors T h e s t u de n t s s h ou l d be abov e av e r age r e ade r s an d we l l be h av e d. S tu d e n t s N ame 1. ____________________________ 2. ____________________________ 3. ____________________________ P l e a s e i ndi c a t e t h e be s t t i m e of d a y for t he s e s t ude nt s t o provi de t ut ori ng on T ue s da y s W e dne s da ys a nd T hu rs da ys (15 m i nut e s e a c h da y). P l e as e r e tu r n th i s for m to th e U S F mai l b ox b y ____________. T ha nk you! S ha nnon L e i s U S F S c hool P s yc hol ogy P ra c t i c um S t ude nt

PAGE 99

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 92 A ppe ndi x C P e e r T ut ori ng T ra i n i ng Che c kl i s t ________ 1. Re s e a rc he r re vi e w e d di re c t i ons w i t h t ut or i n t r a i ni ng for p e e r t ut or i ng i n re a di ng (A ppe ndi x D ). ________ 2. Re s e a rc he r m ode l s rol e of t h e pe e r t u t or. ________ 3. Re s e a rc he r a nd t u t or i n t r a i n i ng rol e pl a y w i t h t h e re s e a rc he r a s t ut or a nd t he t ut or i n t ra i ni ng a s t u t e e ________ 4. Rol e pl a y w i t h t he t ut or i n t r a i ni ng a s t u t or a nd t h e re s e a rc he r a s t ut e e ________ 5. T ut or i n t r a i ni ng i m pl e m e nt s t he proc e dure s a c c ur a t e l y (i n a c c ord a nc e w i t h di re c t i ons i n A ppe ndi x D ).

PAGE 100

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 93 A ppe ndi x D P e e r T ut ori ng I m pl e m e nt a t i on Che c k l i s t T ut or N a m e : _______________________ ______ D a t e : ________________ ________ 1. D i d t he pe e r t ut or a rri ve on t i m e for t h e s e s s i on? ________ 2. D i d t he pe e r t ut or us e t h e a p propri a t e r e a d i ng m a t e ri a l s duri ng t h e s e s s i on? ________ 3. D i d t he pe e r t ut or a dhe re t o t he pe e r t u t ori ng pro c e dure s ? _____ T ut or pre s e nt e d a s t ory fro m t ut e e s re a d i ng c urri c ul u m _____ T ut or i ns t ruc t e d t h e t ut e e s t o b e gi n re a di ng a l oud. T ut or s e t t i m e r for 5 m i nut e s t o be gi n w he n t he t u t e e be g a n re a di ng t he s t o ry. _____ W he n t he t ut e e m a d e e rrors s uc h a s om i s s i on of w ords s ubs t i t ut i on of w ords or m i s pronunc i a t i on s of w ords t he t ut or poi nt e d t o t he pl a c e of t he e rror a nd c orr e c t l y s t a t e d t he e rror w ord. _____ T he t ut or i ns t ruc t e d t he c hi l d t o re s t a t e t he e r ror w ord a nd re re a d t h e s e nt e nc e c orre c t l y. _____ T he t ut or prov i de d pos i t i ve pr a i s e for t ut e e s c orr e c t i ons _____ A t t he e nd of t h e fi ve m i nut e s t h e t ut or re s e t t he t i m e r fo r a not he r fi v e m i nu t e s a nd r e di re c t e d t he t u t e e t o re t urn t o t h e b e gi nni ng of t h e pa s s a ge t o r e a d a l oud. T h e s e proc e dur e s c ont i nue d un t i l t he t u t or c om p l e t e d t hr e e 5 m i nut e r e a di ngs t ot a l i ng 15 m i nu t e s for t he e nt i r e t ut o ri ng s e s s i on ________ 4. D i d t he pe e r t ut or c om pl e t e t he s e s s i on w i t hi n 15 m i nu t e s ?

PAGE 101

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 94 A pp e ndi x E T ut e e G ra ph T ra i ni ng Che c kl i s t _____ 1. Re s e a rc he r pre s e nt s gra ph w i t h l a b e l e d a xe s _____ 2. Re s e a rc he r provi de s t u t e e w i t h 5 s a m pl e s c ore s for W ords Re a d Corr e c t P e r M i nut e (W CM ) a nd e rro rs w i t h fi ve r e s pe c t i ve d a t e s s a m p l e s c or e s w e re obt a i ne d. _____ 3. Re s e a rc he r i nform s t ut e e on gr a phi ng p roc e dure s ve rb a l l y. _____ 4. Re s e a rc he r m ode l s s t e ps for gra phi ng o ne of t he s a m p l e s c or e s by l oc a t i ng t h e da t e s c ore w a s obt a i n e d on t he x a xi s a nd l oc a t i ng s c or e on y a x i s m a ki ng a m a rk w he re t h e s e t w o l i ne s i nt e r s e c t _____ 5. Re s e a rc he r i ns t ruc t s t ut e e on e a c h gra p hi ng s t e p a s t he t ut e e pe rfor m s e a c h s t e p. _____ 6. Re s e a rc he r i ns t ruc t s t ut e e t o gra ph t hre e s a m pl e CBM s c ore s w i t hou t re s e a rc h e rs a s s i s t a nc e _____ 7. T ut e e gr a phs t hre e s a m pl e s c ore s w i t h 1 00% a c c ur a c y.

PAGE 102

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 95 A ppe ndi x F P rogre s s M oni t ori ng D a t a for P a rt i c i pa n t 1 D a t a c ol l e c t i on s e s s i on W CM E rrors 1 53 3 2 32 5 3 36 4 4 20 9 5 47 5 6 36 7 7 58 2 8 36 8 9 55 5 10 52 4 11 41 3 12 42 4

PAGE 103

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 96 A ppe ndi x G P rogre s s M oni t ori ng D a t a for P a rt i c i pa n t 2 D a t a c ol l e c t i on s e s s i on W CM E rrors 1 66 6 2 55 2 3 83 5 4 82 4 5 44 7 6 53 8 7 63 3 8 82 2 9 10 Not e Indi c a t e s d a t a no t c ol l e c t e d due t o pa rt i c i pa nt s a bs e nc e

PAGE 104

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 97 A ppe ndi x H P rogre s s M oni t ori ng D a t a for P a rt i c i pa n t 3 D a t a c ol l e c t i on s e s s i on W CM E rrors 1 50 6 2 31 9 3 53 4 4 51 2 5 59 4 6 7 40 8 Not e Indi c a t e s d a t a no t c ol l e c t e d due t o pa rt i c i pa nt s a bs e nc e

PAGE 105

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 98 A ppe ndi x I P rogre s s M oni t ori ng D a t a for P a rt i c i pa n t 4 D a t a c ol l e c t i on s e s s i on W CM E rrors 1 51 8 2 54 4 3 66 4 4 98 5 5 46 10 6 54 4

PAGE 106

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 99 A ppe ndi x J Chi l dre ns Int e rv e nt i on R a t i ng P rofi l e I A gre e I D o N ot A gre e 1. P e e r t ut ori ng t o pra c t i c e re a di ng w a s fa i r. 1 2 3 4 5 2. P e e r t ut ori ng t o pra c t i c e re a di ng m a y c a us e probl e m s w i t h m y fri e nds 1 2 3 4 5 3. T he re a r e be t t e r w a ys t o pr a c t i c e r e a d i n g t ha n pe e r t ut ori ng. 1 2 3 4 5 4. P e e r t ut ori ng w oul d b e a good m e t hod t o us e w i t h ot he r c hi l dr e n. 1 2 3 4 5 5. I l i ke pe e r t ut or i ng for pra c t i c i ng re a di n g. 1 2 3 4 5 6. I t hi nk t ha t pe e r t ut ori ng i n re a di ng w oul d he l p m e do b e t t e r i n s c hool 1 2 3 4 5

PAGE 107

Im pa c t of S e l f M oni t ori ng a nd P e e r T u t ori ng 100 A ppe ndi x K Int e rve nt i on Ra t i ng P rofi l e T he pur pos e of t hi s que s t i onna i r e i s t o obt a i n i nf or m a t i on t ha t w i l l a i d i n t he s e l e c t i on of c l a s s r oom i nt e r ve n t i ons T he s e i nt e r ve nt i ons w i l l be us e d by t e a c he r s of c hi l dr e n w i t h a c a de m i c a nd be ha vi or pr obl e m s P l e a s e c i r c l e t he num be r w hi c h be s t de s c r i be s your a gr e e m e nt o r di s a gr e e m e nt w i t h e a c h s t a t e m e nt ( e g. 1 = s t r ongl y d i s a gr e e 6 = s t r ongl y a gr e e ) S t r ongl y S l i ght l y S l i gh t l y S t r ongl y D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e A g r e e A gr e e A gr e e 1. T he c hi l d s r e a di ng pr obl e m i s s e ve r e e nough t o w a r r a nt us e of t h i s i nt e r ve nt i on. 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. T h i s i nt e r ve nt i on s houl d pr ove e f f e c t i ve i n e nha nc i ng t he c hi l d s r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e 1 2 3 4 5 6 3. T h i s w oul d be a n a c c e pt a bl e i nt e r ve nt i on f o r t he c hi l d s r e a di ng pr obl e m 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. O ve r a l l t he i nt e r ve nt i on w oul d be be ne f i c i a l f or t he c hi l d 1 2 3 4 5 6 5. T h i s i nt e r ve nt i on w oul d not r e s ul t i n ne ga t i ve s i de e f f e c t s f or t he c hi l d. 1 2 3 4 5 6 6. I w oul d s ugge s t t he us e of t hi s i nt e r ve nt i on t o ot he r t e a c he r s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. M os t t e a c he r s w oul d f i nd t hi s i nt e r ve nt i on a ppr opr i a t e f or e nha nc i ng a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt 1 2 3 4 5 6 8. M os t t e a c he r s w oul d f i nd t hi s i nt e r ve nt i on s ui t a bl e f o r t he a c a de m i c pr obl e m de s c r i be d. 1 2 3 4 5 6 9. I w oul d be w i l l i ng t o us e t hi s i nt e r ve nt i on i n t he c l a s s r oom s e t t i ng 1 2 3 4 5 6 10. T h i s i nt e r ve nt i on i s c ons i s t e nt w i t h t hos e I ha ve us e d i n t he c l a s s r oom s e t t i ng. 1 2 3 4 5 6 11. T h i s i nt e r ve nt i on w oul d be a ppr opr i a t e f o r a va r i e t y of c hi l dr e n 1 2 3 4 5 6 12. I l i ke d t he pr oc e dur e s us e d i n t hi s i nt e r ve nt i on. 1 2 3 4 5 6

PAGE 108

Figure 1. Progress monitoring data for participants 1, 2, 3, and 4 across 7 weeks 0102030405060708090100123456789101112131415 WCM/Errors (Participant 1) Baseline Peer Tutoring Phase 0102030405060708090100123456789101112131415 WCM/Errors (Participant 2) 0102030405060708090100123456789101112131415 WCM/Errors (Participant 3) 0102030405060708090100123456789101112131415 Assessment Sessions WCM/Errors (Participant 4) Aimline Aimline Aimline Aimline Trendline Trendline Trendline Trendline = WCM" = Errors Impact of Self Monitoring and Peer Tutoring 101 Figure Caption


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.loc.govstandardsmarcxmlschemaMARC21slim.xsd
leader nam Ka
controlfield tag 001 001681038
003 fts
005 20060215071141.0
006 m||||e|||d||||||||
007 cr mnu|||uuuuu
008 051219s2005 flu sbm s000 0 eng d
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a E14-SFE0001089
035
(OCoLC)62708579
SFE0001089
040
FHM
c FHM
049
FHMM
090
LB1555 (Online)
1 100
Leis, Shannon M.
4 245
The impact of peer tutoring and self-monitoring on oral reading fluency for children who exhibit symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
h [electronic resource] /
by Shannon M. Leis.
260
[Tampa, Fla.] :
b University of South Florida,
2005.
502
Thesis (Ed.S.)--University of South Florida, 2005.
504
Includes bibliographical references.
516
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
538
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
500
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 108 pages.
3 520
ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of peer tutoring and self-monitoring interventions on the oral reading performance of students exhibiting symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Predominantly Inattentive Type. A multiple baseline across participants design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the peer tutoring and self-monitoring interventions with four second grade students who were tutored by fourth grade students. Results indicated that the median number of words read correct per minute as measured by curriculum-based measurement reading probes increased from baseline to intervention phases for three of the four tutee participants. In addition, the median number of errors from baseline to intervention phases decreased for three of the four participants. However, data were highly variable for three of the four participants.
590
Adviser: Kelly Powell-Smith, Ph.D.
653
Adhd predominantly inattentive type.
Second grade students.
Self-graphing.
Curriculum-based measurement.
Academic interventions.
0 690
Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x Interdisciplinary
Specialist.
773
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.1089