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The effects of a parent intervention on the phonological awareness skills of kindergarten students

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Material Information

Title:
The effects of a parent intervention on the phonological awareness skills of kindergarten students
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Ofiara, Andrea
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Reading
Parent tutoring
Phonemic awareness
Early literacy
Multiple baseline
Dissertations, Academic -- School Psychology -- Specialist -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: This study examined the efficacy of the Sound Foundations program, implemented by parents, for increasing phonological awareness (PA). Three kindergarten students identified with PA deficits and their mothers served as participants. Parents implemented Sound Foundations twice per week for five and a half weeks. The effects of the intervention were evaluated using a multiple baseline across participants design. PA was measured using the Phoneme Segmentation Fluency measure of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills. Results showed that two students showed increases over time in phonemes per minute after the parent intervention. A third student did not show substantial mprovement. None of the students reached established levels of PA. Treatment integrity and social validity data also were collected.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ed.S.)--University of South Florida, 2005.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Andrea Ofiara.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 123 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001681019
oclc - 62586329
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001109
usfldc handle - e14.1109
System ID:
SFS0025430:00001


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T he E f f e c t s of a P a r e nt I nt e r ve nt i on on t he P honol ogi c a l A w a r e ne s s S ki l l s of K i nde r ga r t e n S t ude nt s by A ndr e a O f i a r a A t he s i s s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he de g r e e of E duc a t i on S pe c i a l i s t D e pa r t m e nt of S c hool P s yc ho l ogy C ol l e ge of E duc a t i on U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : K e l l y A P ow e l l S m i t h P h. D K a t hy B r a dl e y K l ug. P h. D L i nda R a f f a e l e M e nde z P h D D a t e of A ppr ova l : M a r c h 8, 2005 K e yw or ds : r e a di ng, pa r e nt t ut or i ng, phone m i c a w a r e ne s s e a r l y l i t e r a c y, m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne C opyr i ght 2005, A ndr e a O f i a r a

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i T a bl e of C ont e nt s L i s t of T a bl e s i v L i s t of F i gur e s v A bs t r a c t vi C ha pt e r O ne 1 I m por t a nc e of E a r l y L i t e r a c y S ki l l s 2 P honol ogi c a l A w a r e ne s s a s a n E a r l y L i t e r a c y S k i l l 3 P a r e nt I nvol ve m e nt i n L i t e r a c y D e ve l opm e nt 7 P ur pos e a nd R a t i ona l e of t he S t udy 8 H ypot he s i s 9 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on 9 C ha pt e r T w o 10 P honol ogi c a l A w a r e ne s s I nt e r ve nt i ons 10 P hone m i c A w a r e ne s s i n Y oung C hi l dr e n 11 L a dde r s t o L i t e r a c y 14 K i nde r ga r t e n s t udy 15 F i r s t gr a de f o l l ow up 16 R oa d t o t he C ode 17 S ound F ounda t i ons 20 I ni t i a l t r a i ni ng s t udy 21 K i nde r ga r t e n f ol l ow up 23 F i r s t gr a de f o l l ow up 25 S e c ond gr a de f ol l ow up 26 T hi r d g r a de f ol l ow up 27 F i f t h gr a de f ol l ow up 27 T r i a l p r e s c ho ol e va l ua t i on 28 P a r e nt i m pl e m e nt a t i on of S ound F ounda t i ons 29 C onc l us i ons 30 P a r e nt I nvol ve m e nt i n E a r l y L i t e r a c y D e ve l opm e n t 31 E a r l y L i t e r a c y E xpe r i e nc e s a nd t he H om e E nvi r on m e nt 31 P a r e nt B a s e d R e a di ng I nt e r ve nt i ons 35 P a r e nt B a s e d P honol ogi c a l A w a r e ne s s I nt e r ve nt i ons 40 C onc l us i ons R e c om m e nda t i ons a nd S t a t e m e nt of P ur pos e 43

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i i C ha pt e r T hr e e 45 P a r t i c i pa nt s 45 I ns t r um e nt s 47 I nde pe nde nt V a r i a bl e 47 D e pe nde nt V a r i a bl e 48 S oc i a l V a l i di t y M e a s ur e s 49 D e s i gn 50 P r oc e dur e s 52 P a r t i c i pa nt R e c r ui t m e nt a nd S e l e c t i on 52 S c r e e ni ng 53 D a t a C ol l e c t i on 54 B a s e l i ne 55 P a r e nt T r a i ni ng 55 I nt e r ve nt i on 56 P r oc e dur a l i nt e gr i t y 58 F ol l ow up P ha s e 58 D a t a A na l ys i s 59 C ha pt e r F our 62 P a r t i c i pa nt s P honol ogi c a l A w a r e ne s s D e ve l opm e nt 62 S t ude nt 1 64 S t ude nt 2 66 S t ude nt 3 68 T r e a t m e nt I n t e gr i t y 70 S oc i a l V a l i di t y 72 C ha pt e r F i ve 74 S um m a r y of R e s ul t s a nd R e l a t i on t o E xi s t i ng L i t e r a t ur e 74 S t ude nt out c om e s 74 D e s i gn 80 S oc i a l va l i di t y a nd t r e a t m e nt i n t e gr i t y 81 I m pl i c a t i ons f or P r a c t i c e 81 L i m i t a t i ons 84 D i r e c t i ons f or F ut ur e R e s e a r c h 86 C onc l us i on 88 R e f e r e nc e s 89 A ppe ndi c e s 95 A ppe ndi x A : P a r e nt S oc i a l V a l i di t y S c a l e 96 A ppe ndi x B : C hi l d S oc i a l V a l i di t y S c a l e 98 A ppe ndi x C : P a r t i c i pa nt R e c r ui t m e nt a nd C ons e nt f or S c r e e ni ng L e t t e r 99 A ppe ndi x D : P a r e nt a l I nf o r m e d C ons e nt 104 A ppe ndi x E : A ge nda f or P a r e nt I ns t r uc t i on S e s s i on 109 A ppe ndi x F : P a r t i c i pa nt D e m ogr a phi c I nf o r m a t i on 110

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i i i A ppe ndi x G : I nt e r ve nt i o n S c he dul e 112 A ppe ndi x H : I nt e r ve nt i o n A c t i vi t i e s C he c kl i s t 114 A ppe ndi x I : T e l e phone C he c kl i s t 115

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i v L i s t of T a bl e s T a bl e 1 D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s f or P hone m e s P e r M i nut e f o r S t ude nt 1 65 T a bl e 2 S l ope a nd L e ve l C ha nge f or P hone m e s P e r M i nut e f or S t ude nt 1 65 T a bl e 3 D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s f or P hone m e s P e r M i nut e f o r S t ude nt 2 67 T a bl e 4 S l ope a nd L e ve l C ha nge f or P hone m e s P e r M i nut e f or S t ude nt 2 67 T a bl e 5 D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s f or P hone m e s P e r M i nut e f o r S t ude nt 3 69 T a bl e 6 S l ope a nd L e ve l C ha nge f or P hone m e s P e r M i nut e f or S t ude nt 3 69

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v L i s t of F i gur e s F i gur e 1 P hone m e s C or r e c t P e r M i nut e A c r os s P a r t i c i pa nt s 63

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vi T he E f f e c t s of a P a r e nt I nt e r ve nt i on on t he P honol ogi c a l A w a r e ne s s S ki l l s of K i nde r ga r t e n S t ude nt s A ndr e a O f i a r a A B S T R A C T T hi s s t udy e xa m i ne d t he e f f i c a c y of t he Sound F ou ndat i ons pr ogr a m i m p l e m e nt e d by pa r e nt s f or i nc r e a s i ng phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s ( P A ) T h r e e ki nde r ga r t e n s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h P A de f i c i t s a nd t he i r m ot he r s s e r ve d a s pa r t i c i pa nt s P a r e nt s i m pl e m e nt e d Sound F oundat i ons t w i c e pe r w e e k f or f i ve a nd a ha l f w e e ks T he e f f e c t s of t he i nt e r ve nt i on w e r e e va l ua t e d us i ng a m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne a c r os s pa r t i c i pa nt s de s i gn. P A w a s m e a s ur e d us i ng t he P hone m e S e gm e nt a t i on F l ue nc y m e a s ur e of t he D yna m i c I ndi c a t or s of B a s i c E a r l y L i t e r a c y S ki l l s R e s ul t s s how e d t ha t t w o s t ude nt s s how e d i n c r e a s e s ove r t i m e i n phone m e s pe r m i nut e a f t e r t he pa r e nt i nt e r ve nt i on. A t hi r d s t ude nt di d not s how s ubs t a nt i a l i m p r ove m e nt N o ne of t he s t ude nt s r e a c he d e s t a bl i s he d l e ve l s of P A T r e a t m e nt i n t e gr i t y a nd s oc i a l va l i di t y da t a a l s o w e r e c ol l e c t e d. T he s e da t a i ndi c a t e d t ha t pa r e nt pa r t i c i pa nt s c a r r i e d ou t t he i nt e r ve nt i on a ppr opr i a t e l y a nd t ha t bot h pa r e nt s a nd s t ude nt l i ke d t he i nt e r ve nt i on p r ogr a m

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1 C ha pt e r O ne I nt r oduc t i on T he a bi l i t y t o r e a d i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd t hr oug hout t he w or l d ha s be c om e a ne c e s s i t y of l i f e M a ny s i m pl e r out i ne t a s ks r e qui r e r e a di ng p r of i c i e nc y: i nt e r pr e t i ng r oa d s i gns r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i ons f i ndi ng i n f or m a t i o n on t he i nt e r ne t l e a r ni ng f r om i nf or m a t i on p r e s e nt e d i n t e xt books e t c T he i na bi l i t y t o c om pl e t e s uc h t a s ks ha l t e r s pe r f or m a nc e i n e ve r y a s pe c t of l i f e m os t i m po r t a n t l y i n s c hool a nd j ob pe r f or m a nc e I t be c om e s c l e a r t ha t t o s uc c e e d i n our c ul t ur e one m us t be a bl e t o r e a d. H ow e ve r t he r e i s r e a s on t o be l i e ve t ha t a l a r ge po r t i on o f ou r na t i on s c hi l dr e n w i l l be una bl e t o ke e p up w i t h our l i t e r a t e s oc i e t y. B a s e d on t he r e s ul t s of t h e N a t i ona l A s s e s s m e nt of E duc a t i ona l P r ogr e s s ( N A E P ) a na t i onw i de a s s e s s m e nt t e s t t he N a t i ona l E duc a t i ona l G oa l s P a ne l r e por t e d t ha t on l y 31% of 4 t h gr a de r s a nd 32 % of 8 t h gr a de r s s c or e d a t t he p r of i c i e nt l e ve l or hi ghe r i n r e a di ng ( N a t i ona l C e nt e r f or E duc a t i o na l S t a t i s t i c s 2003) T he N a t i ona l I ns t i t ut e of C hi l d H e a l t h a nd H um a n D e ve l opm e nt ( N I C H D ) r e por t e d t ha t a bout 20 30% of our na t i on s c hi l d r e n ha ve s i gni f i c a nt d i f f i c ul t i e s l e a r ni ng t o r e a d ( L yon, 1998) T ha t e qua t e s t o 10 m i l l i on c hi l dr e n w ho c a nnot m a s t e r t he t a s k of r e a di ng T he N I C H D a l s o r e por t e d t ha t o f t hos e c hi l d r e n w ho ha ve di f f i c ul t y w i t h r e a di ng, f r om 10 15 pe r c e nt e ve nt ua l l y dr op out of hi gh s c hool ; onl y 2 pe r c e nt c om pl e t e a f our ye a r c ol l e ge p r ogr a m ( B oc k, 1998, p. 1)

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2 I m por t anc e of E ar l y L i t e r ac y Sk i l l s B e c a us e of t he s e r i ous i m pl i c a t i ons t ha t f a i l u r e t o l e a r n t o r e a d ha s on a c hi l d s f ut ur e m uc h e f f or t ha s be e n f oc us e d on t he p r oc e s s by w hi c h c hi l dr e n de ve l op l i t e r a c y s ki l l s R e s e a r c h by J ue l ( 1988) de m ons t r a t e d t he e xi s t e nc e of r e a di ng t r a j e c t or i e s or s t a bl e pa t hs of r e a di ng p r ogr e s s J ue l f ound t ha t t h e pr oba bi l i t y t ha t a poo r r e a de r i n t he f i r s t gr a de w oul d r e m a i n a poor r e a de r i n t he f our t h gr a de w a s 88 F ur t he r m or e G ood, S i m m ons a nd S m i t h ( 1998) e xa m i ne d c ur r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt ( C B M ) r e a di ng da t a of f i r s t t hr oug h f i f t h g r a de s t ude nt s i n a M i nn e s ot a s c hool di s t r i c t F or a n e nt i r e s c hool ye a r s t ude nt s i n g r a de s one t hr ough f i ve w e r e a s s e s s e d w i t h C B M m a t e r i a l s m ont hl y. A s s e s s m e nt i nvol ve d m e a s ur i ng or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y by ha vi ng t he s t ude nt s r e a d or a l l y f or one m i nut e f r om a w or d l i s t T he s e or a l r e a di ng f l ue nc y da t a pr ovi de d a pi c t ur e of t he r e a di ng t r a j e c t or i e s of t he a ve r a ge ( m i ddl e 10% ) a nd l ow ( l ow e s t 10% ) r e a de r s f or a l l f i ve gr a de s A t t he be gi nni ng of f i r s t gr a de t he r a t e s of pr og r e s s of a ve r a ge a nd l ow r e a de r s w e r e a ppr oxi m a t e l y t he s a m e H ow e ve r by t he e nd o f f i r s t gr a de a nd be gi nni ng o f s e c ond gr a de t he a ve r a ge r e a de r s r a t e of pr ogr e s s i nc r e a s e d m or e r a pi dl y t ha n t he l ow r e a de r s r a t e o f pr og r e s s T hi s di s c r e pa nc y a ppe a r e d t o i nc r e a s e ove r t i m e B y t he e nd of f i f t h g r a de t he r e w a s a l a r ge di s c r e pa nc y be t w e e n t he m i ddl e a nd l ow r e a de r s r a t e of p r ogr e s s L i ke w i s e a l o ngi t ud i na l s t udy by B a di a n ( 1988) f ol l ow e d c hi l dr e n s r e a di ng p r ogr e s s f r om f i r s t t hr ough e i ght h g r a de T hi s s t udy de t e r m i ne d t ha t a l t hough a l l of t he c hi l dr e n s how e d s i m i l a r p r ogr e s s i n f i r s t gr a de r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e f or poor r e a de r s w a s de t e r m i ne d by t hi r d gr a de B y e i ght h gr a de t he poor r e a de r s w e r e pe r f o r m i ng a t f ou r t o f i ve g r a de l e ve l s be l ow t he i r pe e r s

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3 R e s e a r c h on s t a bl e r e a di ng t r a j e c t or i e s a nd on t he s ki l l di s c r e pa nc y be t w e e n a ve r a ge a nd poor r e a de r s s uppor t s t he i de a o f t he M a t t he w E f f e c t t ha t c hi l dr e n w ho a r e i ni t i a l l y poor r e a de r s r e m a i n poor r e a de r s t hr ougho ut t he c our s e of t he i r s c hool i ng a nd do not c a t c h up t o t he i r pe e r s w ho a r e good r e a de r s ( G ood e t a l 1998; S t a novi c h, 1986) A n e xpl a na t i on of t hi s e f f e c t i s t ha t poo r r e a de r s a r e e xpos e d t o l e s s r e a di ng m a t e r i a l a nd e xpe r i e nc e l e s s m ot i va t i on t o r e a d ( G ood e t a l 19 98; S t a novi c h, 1986) I n s uppor t of t hi s e xpl a na t i on, J ue l ( 1988 ) f ound t ha t good r e a de r s ha d be e n e xpos e d t o a n a ve r a ge of 18, 681 w or ds i n t he i r ba s a l r e a de r w h e r e a s poor r e a de r s ha d be e n e xpos e d t o onl y 9 975 w or ds T he da t a c ol l e c t e d on t he s t ude nt s i n t he M i nne s ot a s c hool di s t r i c t i ndi c a t e t ha t poor r e a de r s do m a ke pr og r e s s i n r e a di ng; how e ve r poo r r e a de r s be gi n w i t h l ow e r s ki l l s a nd i m pr ove t he i r s ki l l s a t a s l ow e r r a t e t ha n a ve r a ge r e a de r s ( G ood e t a l 1998) F ur t he r m or e M a r i l yn J A da m s ( 1990 ) s t a t e s t he l i ke l i hood t ha t a c hi l d w i l l s uc c e e d i n f i r s t gr a de de pe nds m os t o f a l l on how m uc h he o r s he l e a r ne d be f or e ge t t i ng t he r e ( p 82) A c hi l d s ul t i m a t e a bi l i t y t o r e a d i s hi ghl y de pe nde nt on t he i r e a r l y l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s a nd s ki l l s T he r e f or e t he r e i s a ne e d t o t a r ge t c hi l d r e n w ho a r e e xpe r i e nc i ng di f f i c ul t y w he n f i r s t l e a r ni ng t o r e a d i n or de r t o c ha nge t he c our s e of t he i r r e a di ng t r a j e c t or y a n d t o pr e ve nt i r r e pa r a bl e f ut ur e i m pa i r m e nt T he s ol ut i on t he n t o our na t i on s r e a di ng w oe s m a y be t o i nt e r ve ne e a r l y t o i de nt i f y t hos e s t ude nt s w ho a r e l a ggi ng be hi nd a nd t o pr ovi de t he m w i t h t he e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s ne c e s s a r y t o be c om e be t t e r r e a de r s ( G ood e t a l 1998 ) P honol ogi c al A w ar e ne s s as an E ar l y L i t e r ac y Sk i l l T he f i r s t s t e p i n de ve l opi ng e f f e c t i ve p r e ve nt i on a n d i nt e r ve nt i on p r ogr a m s i n e a r l y l i t e r a c y i s t o e xpl i c a t e w ha t s ki l l s a r e i nvol ve d i n e a r l y l i t e r a c y a nd pr om ot e f ut ur e

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4 r e a di ng s uc c e s s A n a bunda nc e of r e s e a r c h a nd i nt e r e s t e xi s t s i n t hi s a r e a ( e g. A da m s 1990; F oor m a n F r a nc i s S ha yw i t z S ha yw i t z & F l e t c he r 1997; G ood e t a l 1998; N a t i ona l R e a di ng P a ne l 2000; S now B ur ns & G r i f f i n, 1998; S t r i c kl a nd & S ha na ha n, 2004) A c ul m i na t i on of t he m a j o r f i ndi ngs s ugge s t s t ha t t he r e a r e s e ve r a l f ounda t i on l i t e r a c y s ki l l s t ha t pr e di c t s uc c e s s f ul r e a di ng, i nc l u di ng phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s t he a l pha be t i c pr i nc i pl e a w a r e ne s s of p r i nt voc a bul a r y know l e dge a nd t he a bi l i t y t o r e a d w i t h f l u e nc y a nd a c c ur a c y. T he N a t i ona l E a r l y L i t e r a c y P a ne l ( N E L P ) de l i ne a t e d 11 pr e s c hool s ki l l s t ha t c or r e l a t e hi gh l y w i t h s uc c e s s f ul e a r l y l i t e r a c y de ve l opm e nt : a l pha be t i c know l e dge pr i nt know l e dge e nvi r onm e nt a l pr i nt i nve nt e d s pe l l i ng, l i s t e ni ng c om pr e he n s i on, or a l l a ngua ge / voc a bul a r y phone m i c a w a r e ne s s phonol ogi c a l s hor t t e r m m e m or y, r a pi d na m i ng vi s ua l m e m o r y, a nd vi s ua l pe r c e pt ua l s ki l l s ( S t r i c kl a nd & S ha na ha n, 2004) O f t he s e f ounda t i on s ki l l s phon ol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i s t he s ki l l c or r e l a t e d m os t c o ns i s t e nt l y w i t h r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ( F oor m a n e t a l 1997; M a c D ona l d & C or nw a l l 1995; M ut e r & S now l i ng, 1998) P honol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s ha s be e n de f i ne d a s t he ge ne r a l a bi l i t y t o a t t e nd t o t he s ounds of l a ngua ge a s di s t i nc t f r om m e a ni ng ( S no w e t a l 199 8 p 52 ) a nd a s s e ns i t i vi t y t o t he s ound s t r uc t ur e o f w o r ds ( F oor m a n e t a l 1997 p 250 ) B e gi nni ng r e a de r s ha ve t o m e e t t he c r uc i a l m i l e s t one of unde r s t a ndi ng t ha t t he w or ds t he y he a r c a n be br oke n dow n i nt o s m a l l e r s ounds ( S ha yw i t z 20 03) C hi l dr e n w ho ha ve f ul l y de ve l ope d phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s c a n r e c ogni z e s poke n w or ds t ha t be gi n a nd e nd w i t h t he s a m e s ounds s e gm e nt w or ds i nt o t he i r s ounds a dd or r e m ove c e r t a i n s ounds f r om w or ds t o m a ke ne w w o r ds a nd r e c ogni z e r hym i ng w or ds I n unde r s t a ndi ng t he r ol e of

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5 phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i n t he pr oc e s s of l e a r ni ng t o r e a d, t he f ol l ow i ng e xpl a na t i on i s us e f ul : T he pr ope r a na l ogy f o r l e a r ni ng t o r e a d i s l e a r ni ng m us i c not a t i on, o r M or s e c ode or B r a i l l e i n w hi c h m a s t e r y of a s e t of s ym bol s c o m e s f i r s t C hi l dr e n s houl d f i r s t l e a r n t he l e t t e r s a nd l e t t e r c om bi na t i ons t ha t c onve y t he E ng l i s h s l a ngua ge s f or t y f ou r s ounds ; t he n t he y c a n r e a d w hol e w or ds by de c odi ng t he m f r om t he i r c om pone nt phone m e s ( L e m a nn, 1997, p. 129) A phone m e c a n be de f i ne d a s t he s m a l l e s t f unc t i o na l uni t of s ound. T he r e a r e 44 phone m e s i n t he E ngl i s h l a ngua ge i nc l udi ng l e t t e r c om bi na t i ons s uc h a s / t h/ ( B e hr m a n, 2002) I t i s i m po r t a nt t o not e t ha t phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i s a ne c e s s a r y s ki l l but i t i s not t he onl y s ki l l t ha t c ont r i but e s t o t he pr oc e s s of r e a di ng. C ons i s t e nt w i t h t he r e s e a r c h t ha t s how e d t he e xi s t e nc e of s t a bl e r e a di ng t r a j e c t or i e s ( J ue l 1988 ) phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a l s o ha s be e n f ound t o be a s t a bl e r e a di ng s ki l l t ha t pr e di c t s f ut u r e r e a di ng a bi l i t y. C hi l dr e n w ho e xpe r i e nc e di f f i c ul t y l e a r ni ng t o r e a d di s pl a y t w o c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s : ( a ) s t a bl e r e a di ng t r a j e c t or i e s t ha t s how a s l ow e r r a t e of pr ogr e s s t ha n t he i r pe e r s a s m e nt i on e d pr e vi ous l y, a nd ( b) di f f i c ul t y w i t h t he s ound s t r uc t ur e of l a ngua ge ( G ood e t a l 199 8) A da m s ( 1990) a s s e r t e d t ha t t he c hi l d s l e ve l of phone m i c a w a r e ne s s on e nt e r i ng s c hool m a y be t he s i ngl e m os t pow e r f ul de t e r m i na nt of t he s uc c e s s s he or he w i l l e xpe r i e nc e i n l e a r ni ng t o r e a d a nd of t he l i ke l i hood t ha t s he o r he w i l l f a i l ( p 304) F o r e x a m pl e W a gne r T or ge s e n, a nd R a s hot t e ( 1994) r e por t e d t ha t t he ye a r t o ye a r s t a bi l i t y c oe f f i c i e nt s f or phono l ogi c a l s e ns i t i vi t y w a s 83 f r o m ki nde r ga r t e n t o f i r s t g r a de a nd 95 f r om s e c ond gr a de t o t hi r d gr a de a nd f r o m t hi r d g r a de t o f our t h gr a de A l s o, i t w a s r e por t e d by F oor m a n e t a l

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6 ( 1997) t ha t c hi l dr e n s de c odi ng s ki l l s c om pr i s e d o f phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a nd f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h l e t t e r s i n f i r s t a nd s e c ond gr a de s w e r e c or r e l a t e d s i gni f i c a nt l y w i t h t he i r r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on a bi l i t y t hr oughout t h e i r s c h ool ye a r s t hr ough t he ni nt h gr a de T he y a l s o r e por t e d t ha t be t w e e n 25% a nd 36% of t he va r i a bi l i t y i n gr a de 9 c om pr e he ns i on w a s a c c ount e d f or by e a r l y de c odi ng s ki l l s ( p. 249) I n f u r t he r s uppor t of t hi s i de a M a c D ona l d a nd C or nw a l l ( 1995) c ond uc t e d a f ol l ow up s t udy w i t h t e e na ge r s w ho ha d t a ke n pa r t i n a s t udy i n ki nde r ga r t e n. T hi s f ol l ow up s t udy r e e va l ua t e d 24 o f t he or i gi na l pa r t i c i pa nt s w i t h va r i ous m e a s ur e s of r e a di ng, s pe l l i ng, a nd phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a bi l i t i e s I t w a s f ound t ha t a t a ge 17 ye a r s t he s t ude nt s s c or e s on t he phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s m e a s ur e s c or r e l a t e d s i gni f i c a nt l y w i t h t he i r s c or e s on t he r e a di ng a nd s pe l l i ng m e a s ur e s M or e i m por t a nt l y, t hi s r e s e a r c h r e ve a l e d t ha t t he s t ude nt s phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s c or e s a t ki nde r ga r t e n s e r ve d a s pr e di c t or s of t he i r w o r d i de nt i f i c a t i on a nd s pe l l i ng s ki l l s a t a ge 17 ye a r s A f t e r c ont r ol l i ng f o r s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us a nd s c or e s on a not he r m e a s ur e us e d i n t he c or r e l a t i on, i t w a s f ound t ha t t he s c or e s on t he pho nol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s m e a s ur e a dm i ni s t e r e d i n ki nde r ga r t e n c or r e l a t e d s i gni f i c a nt l y w i t h r e a di ng a nd s pe l l i ng s c or e s e a r ne d a t a ge 17 ye a r s S c or e s on t he ki nde r ga r t e n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s m e a s ur e a c c ount e d f or a ppr oxi m a t e l y 25% of t he va r i a nc e i n r e a di ng a nd s pe l l i ng s ki l l s a t a ge 17 A l ongi t udi na l s t udy c onduc t e d by M ut e r a nd S no w l i ng ( 1998) f ound s i m i l a r r e s ul t s I n t hi s s t udy, 34 c hi l d r e n w e r e f ol l ow e d f r om a ge f our t o a ge ni ne ye a r s A t a ge s f our f i ve a nd s i x ye a r s t he c hi l d r e n c om pl e t e d va r i ous m e a s ur e s of phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s A t a ge ni ne ye a r s t he y w e r e a ga i n a s s e s s e d w i t h t he phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s t a s ks a s w e l l a s w i t h a m e a s ur e of r e a di ng a c c ur a c y. T he r e s ul t s bol s t e r e d t he i de a t ha t

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7 phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s r e m a i n s t a bl e ove r t he c our s e of de ve l opm e nt P honol ogi c a l s ki l l s a s m e a s ur e d a t a ge s f i ve a nd s i x ye a r s s uc c e s s f ul l y pr e di c t e d r e a di ng a c c ur a c y a t a ge ni ne ye a r s a nd di s c r i m i na t e d w i t h 80% pr e c i s i on, a m ongs t good a nd poor r e a de r s I n t e r e s t i ngl y, t he m e a s ur e s a t a ge f o ur ye a r s di d not s e r ve a s l on g t e r m pr e di c t or s of r e a di ng a bi l i t y T he f i ndi ngs s e r ve t o a l e r t e duc a t or s t o t he m os t a pp r opr i a t e a ge a t w hi c h t o s c r e e n f or r e a di ng di f f i c ul t i e s F r o m t hi s s t udy, i t a ppe a r s t o be be ne f i c i a l t o de l a y s c r e e ni ng unt i l t he e nd o f t he pr e s c hool ye a r s A s de m ons t r a t e d r e pe a t e dl y by t he r e s e a r c h, phono l ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s of young c hi l dr e n a r e hi ghl y p r e di c t i ve of r e a di ng a nd s pe l l i ng a bi l i t i e s i n t he i r l a t e r ye a r s T he e a r l y de ve l opm e nt of phono l ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s pr e di c t s c hi l dr e n s l i ke l i hood of s u c c e e di ng or f a i l i ng t o de ve l op a de qua t e l i t e r a c y s ki l l s I t c a n be c onc l ude d t ha t e a r l y i nt e r ve nt i on i n r e a di ng w oul d be m os t be ne f i c i a l w he n c hi l dr e n w i t h phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s de f i c i t s a r e t a r ge t e d f or r e m e di a t i on. P ar e nt I nv ol v e m e nt i n L i t e r ac y D e v e l o pm e nt E a r l y r e a di ng pr og r a m s a r e f r e que nt l y pr o m ot e d a s one of t he be s t w a ys f or pa r e nt s t o e nc our a ge r e a di ng de ve l opm e nt a nd i nt e r e s t i n t he i r c hi l d. I t i s n ot unc om m on t o w i t ne s s a publ i c s e r vi c e a nnounc e m e nt i n w hi c h a not e d c e l e br i t y a ppe a l s t o pa r e n t s s ugge s t i ng t ha t r e a di ng t o a c hi l d a t be dt i m e or t hr oughout t he da y w i l l he l p t he c hi l d de ve l op a l a s t i ng c om m i t m e nt t o r e a di ng. H ow e ve r pa r e nt r e a di ng pr ogr a m s t e nd t o be f oc us e d t ow a r ds he l pi ng c hi l dr e n de ve l op a f unda m e nt a l i nt e r e s t i n t he r e a di ng p r oc e s s L e s s c om m on a r e pr og r a m s t ha t w or k t o he l p c r e a t e a n i nt e r ve nt i on t ha t pa r e nt s c a n us e t o pr om ot e r e a di ng i n c hi l dr e n w ho ha ve m a ni f e s t e d r e a di ng di f f i c ul t i e s ( A da m s 1990; P ow e l l S m i t h, S t one r S hi nn, & G ood 2000) O f t e n, onc e a r e a di ng di s or de r ha s

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8 de ve l ope d, pa r e nt s f or m a m i nds e t t ha t t hi s di s or de r i s be yond t he i r a bi l i t y t o s uc c e s s f ul l y a ddr e s s a nd t r e a t t he m s e l ve s a nd t he c hi l d s r e a di ng pr ogr e s s i s l e f t i n t he ha nds of t e a c he r s a nd r e a di ng s pe c i a l i s t s ( D ua ne 1999) S t udi e s i ndi c a t e t h a t t hi s p r e c onc e i ve d a ve r s i on by a pa r e nt he l pi ng t he i r c hi l dr e n w i t h r e a di ng di f f i c ul t i e s i s i l l i nf o r m e d. R e a di ng s t r a t e gi e s t ha t i de nt i f y t he s t ude nt s r e a di ng di f f i c ul t y a nd he l p t r a i n pa r e nt s i n m e t hods t ha t w i l l a l l e vi a t e t he pr obl e m ha ve pr ove n s uc c e s s f ul ( e g. F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y & P ur di e 2003; L e a c h & S i dda l l 1990; P ow e l l S m i t h e t a l 2000; W i l ks & C l a r ke 1988) I nde e d, one of t he f e a t ur e s not e d by t he m a j or i t y of t he s e r e s e a r c he r s i s t ha t pa r e nt f a c i l i t a t e d r e a di ng s t r a t e gi e s a r e a c t ua l l y m or e e f f e c t i ve due t o t he pr oxi m i t y of t he pa r e nt t o t he c hi l d, t he e s t a bl i s hm e nt of a r out i ne a nd t he a w a r e ne s s t ha t a pa r e nt ha s r e ga r di ng t he i r c hi l d s r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e a nd a ve r s i on s t r a t e gi e s ( e g. m e t hods us e d by t he c hi l d t o a voi d r e a di ng s e s s i ons ) P ur pos e and R at i onal e of t he St udy W hi l e i nf or m a t i on e xi s t s w hi c h i ndi c a t e s t ha t pa r e nt i nt e r ve nt i on a ppr oa c he s c a n a i d t he de ve l opm e nt of e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s t he r e i s not m uc h i nf or m a t i on t o i de nt i f y t he s uc c e s s f ul a ppl i c a t i on of a phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a ppr oa c h w i t h pa r e nt s T he i n t e nt i on of t hi s s t udy i s t o i de nt i f y w he t he r a pa r e nt a ppl i e d r e a di ng pr og r a m i n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s he l ps t o i m pr ove s t ude nt a c qui s i t i on of phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s T he e f f i c a c y of t he phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s p r ogr a m S ound F oundat i ons ( B yr ne & F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y, 1991) f o r us e w i t h pa r e nt s w i l l be e xa m i ne d. T hr e e ki nde r ga r t e n s t ude nt s w ho a r e a t r i s k f or r e a di ng f a i l u r e a nd w ho ha ve de f i c i t s i n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s w i l l be t a r ge t e d f or t he pa r e nt i nt e r ve nt i on B e c a us e s t r ong e vi de nc e e xi s t s on t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he Sound F oundat i ons pr ogr a m w i t h g r oups of c hi l dr e n, t he pr e s e nt s t udy w i l l us e a

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9 m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne de s i gn t o m e a s ur e t he e f f e c t s of t he Sound F oundat i ons pr ogr a m i m pl e m e nt e d by pa r e nt s on i ndi vi du a l c hi l d r e n ove r t i m e H y pot he s i s T hi s s t udy w a s de s i gne d t o a ddr e s s t h e f ol l ow i ng hypo t he s i s : S t ude nt s r e c e i vi ng Sound F oundat i ons t r a i ni ng i m pl e m e nt e d by t he i r pa r e nt s w i l l s how a n i nc r e a s e i n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s a s m e a s ur e d by t he D yna m i c I nd i c a t or s of B a s i c E a r l y L i t e r a c y S ki l l s ( D I B E L S ) c om pa r e d t o ba s e l i ne s c or e s on t he s e m e a s ur e s R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on. T hi s s t udy i nt e nds t o e xa m i ne t he f ol l ow i n g que s t i on: W i l l ki nde r ga r t e n s t ude nt s r e c e i vi ng Sound F oundat i on s t r a i ni ng i m pl e m e nt e d by t he i r pa r e nt s s how a n i nc r e a s e i n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s a s m e a s ur e d by t he D yna m i c I ndi c a t or s of B a s i c E a r l y L i t e r a c y S ki l l s ( D I B E L S ) c om pa r e d t o ba s e l i ne s c or e s on t he s e m e a s ur e s ?

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10 C ha pt e r T w o L i t e r a t ur e R e vi e w T he pur pos e of t hi s c ha pt e r i s t o e xa m i ne t he l i t e r a t ur e on phonol og i c a l a w a r e ne s s i nt e r ve nt i on pr og r a m s ge ne r a l pa r e nt ba s e d r e a di n g i nt e r ve nt i ons a nd pa r e nt ba s e d phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i nt e r ve nt i ons T hi s c ha pt e r ha s be e n di vi de d i nt o t w o m a j or s e c t i ons T he f i r s t s e c t i on w i l l r e v i e w t he e f f i c a c y of f ou r r e s e a r c h ba s e d phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i nt e r ve nt i ons T he s e c ond s e c t i on w i l l di s c us s w hy hom e l i t e r a c y a c t i vi t i e s a r e i m por t a nt a nd w i l l r e vi e w ge ne r a l pa r e nt ba s e d r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i ons a nd, l e s s c om m on, phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s pa r e nt ba s e d i nt e r ve nt i ons C onc l us i ons r e c om m e nda t i ons a nd a s t a t e m e nt of t he pur pos e of t he pr e s e nt s t udy w i l l f ol l ow t he r e vi e w o f t he l i t e r a t ur e P honol ogi c al A w ar e ne s s I nt e r v e nt i ons T he r e a r e f i ve f e a t u r e s t ha t e xe m pl i f y e f f e c t i ve ph onol ogi c a l a w a r e n e s s i nt e r ve nt i ons ( G ood e t a l 1998) F or a phonol og i c a l a w a r e ne s s pr ogr a m t o be s uc c e s s f ul i t m us t i nc l ude t he f ol l ow i ng c r i t e r i a : ( a ) be gi n i ns t r uc t i on w i t h phone m e s r a t he r t ha n w i t h l a r ge r uni t s s uc h a s w or ds ; ( b) pr o vi de m ul t i pl e e xa m pl e s f o r i de nt i f yi ng a s i ngl e phone m e be f or e t e a c hi ng a di f f e r e nt phon e m e ; ( c ) m ode l phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s be f or e s t ude nt s pr a c t i c e a nd a l l ow s t ude nt s t o pr a c t i c e phone m e s or a l l y; ( d ) i nc l ude i ns t r uc t i on i n s ound i de nt i f i c a t i on, bl e ndi ng a nd s e gm e nt i ng, a nd e nd w i t h t he i nt e gr a t i on of l e t t e r s ound c o r r e s ponde nc e ; a nd ( e ) us e c onc r e t e m a t e r i a l s t o p r ovi de a v i s ua l f oc us

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11 a nd a i d t he m e m o r y. A ddi t i ona l l y e f f e c t i ve pr og r a m s s houl d ha ve r e s e a r c h ba s e d e vi de nc e of t he pr og r a m s e f f i c a c y ( G ood e t a l 19 98) A va r i e t y of e a r l y i nt e r ve nt i on r e a di ng pr og r a m s h a ve be e n de ve l ope d t o f oc us on t e a c hi ng c hi l dr e n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s F our of t he s e pr ogr a m s w hi c h e a c h de m ons t r a t e r e s e a r c h ba s e d e vi de nc e of e f f e c t i ve ne s s w i t h t a r ge t c hi l dr e n a nd pos s e s s a t l e a s t f our of t he f i ve c r i t e r i a of e f f e c t i ve phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s pr ogr a m s w i l l be i nc l ude d i n t hi s l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w T he pr ogr a m s t h a t w i l l be d i s c us s e d a r e : ( a ) P hone m i c A w ar e ne s s i n Y oung C hi l dr e n a c l a s s r oom c ur r i c u l um or i gi na l l y de ve l ope d i n S w e de n ( L undbe r g, F r os t & P e t e r s e n, 1988 ) a nd a da pt e d f or us e i n A m e r i c a c l a s s r oom ( A da m s F oor m a n, L undbe r g & B e e l e r 1998) ; ( b ) L adde r s t o L i t e r ac y a p r e s c hool a nd ki nde r ga r t e n pr og r a m ( N ot a r i S yve r s on e t a l 199 8; O C onnor N ot a r i S yve r s on, & V a da s y, 1998b) ; ( c ) R oa d t o t he C ode a c l a s s r oom c ur r i c ul um de s i gne d f or ki nde r ga r t e n t e a c he r s us e ( B l a c hm a n, B a l l B l a c k, & T a nge l 2 000) ; a nd ( d) Soun d F ounda t i ons a pr ogr a m de ve l ope d a nd t e s t e d i n A us t r a l i a f or us e w i t h s m a l l gr oups o f c hi l dr e n ( B yr ne & F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y, 1991 ) P h one m i c A w ar e ne s s i n Y oung C hi l dr e n I n 1997, a r e s e a r c h t e a m r e l e a s e d t he ne w l y upda t e d ve r s i on of P hone m i c A w ar e ne s s i n Y oung C hi l dr e n: A C l as s r oom C ur r i c ul um ( A da m s e t a l 1998 ) T hi s pr ogr a m t a ke s t he pos i t i on t ha t a n a w a r e ne s s of ph one m e s a nd t he a b i l i t y t o a ppl y phone m i c a w a r e ne s s a c c ur a t e l y i s f unda m e nt a l t o r e a di ng, w r i t t e n l a ngua ge de ve l opm e nt a nd c om pr e he ns i on. H ow e ve r t he r e s e a r c he r s a r gue t ha t a ppr oxi m a t e l y 25% o f A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s do not r e a c h a n a de qua t e a w a r e ne s s of phone m e s by t he t i m e t he y e nt e r t hi r d gr a de W or s e t he s e s t ude nt s a r e ge ne r a l l y a l l ow e d t o s l i p t hr ough t he

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12 c r a c ks i n t he e duc a t i on s ys t e m t hus s e t t i ng t he m s e l ve s up f or f a i l ur e i n r e a di ng a nd l a ngua ge c om pr e he ns i on l a t e r i n t he i r a c a de m i c c a r e e r s T he pr ogr a m i s i nt e nde d f or i m pl e m e nt a t i on i n ki n de r ga r t e n, f i r s t gr a de a nd s pe c i a l e duc a t i on c l a s s r oom s W hi l e t he a ut hor s i ndi c a t e t ha t i t c a n be us e d up t h r ough t he t hi r d gr a de i t i s m os t s uc c e s s f ul w he n a ppl i e d i n c l a s s r oom s w i t h younge r s t ude nt s T he pr ogr a m i t s e l f i s di r e c t e d t ow a r ds e duc a t or s ( t he r e a r e c a ut i ons a ga i ns t pa r e nt s us i ng t he pr ogr a m w i t hout e duc a t or s uppor t ) T he e xe r c i s e s i n t he pr og r a m a r e de s i gne d t o e nc o ur a ge phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s t hr ough ga m e s or pl a y or i e nt e d s t r a t e gi e s T he a ut hor s de ve l op a nd out l i ne s t r a t e gi e s a nd a s e que nc e i n w hi c h t he s t ude nt s c a n a c qui r e phon e m i c a w a r e ne s s t hr ough l a ngua ge ga m e s l i s t e ni ng ga m e s r hym i ng s yl l a bl e s a w a r e n e s s a nd s ound i de nt i f i c a t i on. A l l a c t i vi t i e s l e a d t o a s t e p by s t e p p r ogr e s s i on t o ove r a l l a w a r e ne s s of phone m e s O ne o f t he poi nt s t ha t s houl d be s t r e s s e d i s t ha t m a ny of t h e s e ga m e s a r e a l r e a dy us e d i n c l a s s r oom s a c r os s t he c ount r y, but a s t he a ut hor s s ugge s t a r e not i de nt i f i e d s pe c i f i c a l l y a s phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s t r a t e gi e s T he pr ogr a m w a s s ynt he s i z e d a s t he r e s ul t of a c u m ul a t i ve s e r i e s of e xpe r i e nc e s by t he a ut hor s i nvo l ve d. W hi l e t he a ut hor s t he m s e l ve s di d not c onduc t a c t i ve r e s e a r c h w i t h t he pr og r a m t he y di d pr e pa r e a n e xc e l l e nt s ynt he s i s of i nf or m a t i on pe r t a i ni ng t o t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of pho ne m i c a w a r e ne s s i n t he ge n e r a l l i t e r a t ur e T hi s r e s e a r c h s ynt he s i s a ppe a r s i n t he f i r s t c ha pt e r o f t he pr ogr a m s m a nua l A ny e duc a t or o r pa r e nt s e e ki ng t o e xpa nd t he i r unde r s t a ndi ng o f w ha t phono l ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s t r a t e gi e s a r e a nd how t he y a r e be s t a ppl i e d i n a l e a r ni ng c ont e xt w oul d do w e l l t o r e a d t he r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t u r e pr e s e nt e d i n t hi s m a nua l

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13 F oor m a n e t a l ( 1997) us e d t he P hone m i c A w ar e ne s s i n Y oung C hi l dr e n c ur r i c ul um i n t he i r s t udy of ki nde r ga r t e n c l a s s e s T he ki nde r ga r t e n c hi l dr e n t ha t w e r e t a r ge t e d w e r e e i t he r a t r i s k f or r e a di ng f a i l u r e be c a us e of s oc i a l a nd e c onom i c di s a dva nt a ge i de nt i f i e d w i t h a r e a di ng d i s a bi l i t y t hr ough s pe c i a l e duc a t i on, o r i de nt i f i e d a t r i s k t hr ough T i t l e I pr ogr a m s f or c hi l dr e n w i t h r e duc e d s oc i a l a nd e c onom i c c i r c um s t a nc e s S e ve n ki nde r ga r t e n t e a c he r s i n t w o T i t l e I s c hool s w e r e t r a i ne d i n how t o i m pl e m e nt t hi s pr og r a m i n t he i r c l a s s r oom F our k i nde r ga r t e n c l a s s r oom s t ha t w e r e not i m pl e m e nt i ng t he phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s c ur r i c ul um s e r ve d a s t he c ont r ol gr oup C hi l dr e n f r om e a c h of t he gr oups 100 f r om t he e x pe r i m e nt a l a nd 81 f r om t he c ont r ol w e r e s e l e c t e d r a ndom l y a nd a s s e s s e d f our t i m e s du r i ng t he s c hool ye a r T he c hi l dr e n w e r e a s s e s s e d w i t h W a gne r e t a l 's ( 1994) phono l o gi c a l s ynt he s i s a nd a na l ys i s t a s k s w hi c h m e a s ur e bl e ndi ng ons e t r hym e uni t s i nt o w or ds bl e ndi ng phone m e s i nt o w or ds bl e ndi ng phone m e s i nt o nonw or ds f i r s t s ound c o m pa r i s on ( e g W hi c h of t he s e pi c t ur e s d r um t i e a nd c up s t a r t w i t h t he s a m e s ound a s t hi s pi c t ur e t ool ? ) phone m e e l i s i on ( e g S a y m e e t w i t hou t s a yi ng / t / ) s ound c a t e gor i z a t i on ( e g. W hi c h w or d doe s not s ound l i ke t he ot he r one s i n ` hop t a p l op'? ) a nd phone m e s e gm e nt a t i on ( e g. T e l l m e e a c h s ound i n t he w or d at e i n t he o r de r t ha t you he a r i t ) T he r e s ul t s s h ow e d t ha t a l t hough bot h g r oups e vi de nc e d gr ow t h i n phonol ogi c a l a na l ys i s t he gr ow t h of t he e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup w a s gr e a t e r by t he e nd o f t he ye a r c om pa r e d t o t he g r ow t h of t he c ont r ol g r oup. T he e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup s g r ow t h w a s a t t r i but e d t o t he e f f e c t s of t he i nt e r ve nt i on w hi l e t he c ont r ol gr oup s g r ow t h, w hi c h w a s not a s gr e a t w a s a t t r i but e d t o m a t ur a t i on. T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy a r e p r om i s i ng but l ong t e r m f ol l ow up i s ne e de d t o m e a s ur e w he t he r gr ow t h i s m a i nt a i ne d a nd w he t he r i nc r e a s e d phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s

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14 t r a ns f e r s t o i m p r ove d r e a di ng a bi l i t y a nd r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on. A ddi t i ona l l y, ba s e d on t he a ut hor s ow n c a ut i ons t hi s p r ogr a m i s not e a s i l y a da pt a bl e f or us e w i t h non e duc a t or s due i n pa r t t o i t s t i m e i nt e ns i t y L adde r s t o L i t e r ac y W hi l e a f or m of e duc a t i on t ha t i s not s pe c i f i c a l l y b a s e d i n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s t he L adde r s t o L i t e r ac y a ppr oa c h i s a p r ogr a m s pa nni ng t he pr e s c hool a nd ki nde r ga r t e n ye a r s ( N ot a r i S yve r s on e t a l 1998; O C onnor e t a l 1998b) T hi s pr og r a m i s s t i l l c om pa r a t i ve l y ne w a nd w a s de ve l ope d a s a r e s pons e t o t he w hol e l a ngua ge m e t hod of i ns t r uc t i on. T he m a i n pu r pos e of t he L a dde r s t o L i t e r ac y c ur r i c ul um i s t o i nt e gr a t e l i t e r a c y a nd l a ngua ge i nt o t he da i l y hom e s c hool a nd c om m uni t y e nvi r onm e nt s of young c hi l d r e n. T he c ur r i c ul um pr ovi de s a gui d e f or t e a c he r s t o i nt e gr a t e e a r l y l i t e r a c y a c t i vi t i e s w i t hi n t he da i l y c l a s s r oom r out i n e E a c h a c t i vi t y i s de s i gne d t o f oc us on a s pe c i f i c e a r l y l i t e r a c y or l a ngua ge s ki l l s uc h a s pr i nt a w a r e ne s s m e t a l i ngui s t i c a w a r e ne s s or or a l l a ngua ge T he a ut hor s de ve l ope d t hi s c ur r i c ul um f o r t he i nc l us i ve c l a s s r oom w hi c h s ugge s t s t ha t t he l e s s on pl a ns a r e hi ghl y a da pt i ve t o t he e duc a t i ona l c ons t r a i nt s pl a c e d on t e a c he r s by t he s t ude nt s i n t h e c l a s s T e a c he r s a r e p r ovi de d w a ys t o i m pl e m e nt e a r l y l i t e r a c y a c t i vi t i e s t o m e e t t he ne e d s of c hi l dr e n a t va r yi ng de ve l opm e nt a l l e ve l s L adde r s t o L i t e r ac y a l s o pr ovi de s s ugge s t i ons f or hom e a c t i vi t i e s t o e nc our a ge pa r e nt a l i nvol ve m e nt i n bui l di ng e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s a nd t o r e i n f or c e s ki l l s t a ught i n t he c l a s s r oom A n e xa m pl e o f a n a c t i vi t y pr ov i de d i n L adde r s t o L i t e r ac y i s C l a p t he S yl l a bl e s T h r ough c l a ppi ng t he s yl l a bl e s of t he c hi l dr e n s na m e s or ob j e c t s i n t he c l a s s r oom c hi l dr e n l e a r n t ha t w or ds a r e m a de up o f s ound pa r t s T w o s t udi e s ha ve e xa m i ne d t he e f f i c a c y of L adde r s t o L i t e r ac y

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15 K i nde r gar t e n s t udy K i nde r ga r t e n c hi l dr e n e nr ol l e d i n t h r e e di f f e r e nt t ype s of pr ogr a m s pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t hi s s t udy ( O C onnor N o t a r i S yve r s on, & V a da s y, 1996) T he t hr e e t ype s of p r ogr a m s i nc l u de d ge ne r a l e duc a t i o n c l a s s e s c l a s s e s c om pr i s e d of c hi l dr e n r e pe a t i ng ki nde r ga r t e n, a nd s e l f c ont a i ne d c l a s s e s f or c hi l d r e n w i t h m i l d di s a bi l i t i e s ( i nc l udi ng m i l d m e nt a l r e t a r da t i on, be ha vi or di s or de r a nd l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y) T he e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup c l a s s r oom s r e c e i ve d i ns t r uc t i o n by t he t e a c he r w i t h phonol og i c a l a w a r e ne s s a c t i vi t i e s f r om L adde r s t o L i t e r ac y f or s i x m ont hs T e a c he r t r a i ni ng c ons i s t e d of t e n i ns e r vi c e t r a i ni ngs a c r os s t he s c hool ye a r T he t e a c he r s i n e a c h of t he t hr e e di f f e r e nt t ype s o f p r ogr a m s w e r e t a ught t o i m pl e m e nt t he s a m e a c t i vi t i e s a t t he s a m e pa c e T he c ont r ol gr oup c l a s s r oom s us e d t he r e gul a r r e a di ng c ur r i c ul um a l r e a dy be i ng us e d i n t he c l a s s r oom C hi l dr e n w e r e a s s e s s e d pr e t e s t a nd pos t t e s t w i t h t he f ol l ow i ng m e a s ur e s : ( a ) r e c e pt i ve voc a bul a r y ( P e abody P i c t ur e V oc abul ar y T e s t R e v i s e d ) ; ( b) phonol ogi c a l m e a s ur e s i nc l udi ng a s s e s s m e nt of s yl l a bl e de l e t i on, bl e ndi ng f i r s t s ound i de nt i f i c a t i on, s e gm e nt i ng, a nd r hym e pr oduc t i on; a nd ( c ) t he L e t t e r W or d I de nt i f i c a t i on a nd D i c t a t i on s ubt e s t s f r om t he W oodc oc k J ohns on T e s t s of A c hi e v e m e nt R e v i s e d t o m e a s ur e r e a di ng a nd w r i t i ng de ve l opm e nt T he r e w e r e s e ve r a l f i nd i ngs f r om t hi s s t udy. F i r s t c hi l d r e n w ho r e c e i ve d i ns t r uc t i on w i t h t he phonol og i c a l a w a r e ne s s a c t i vi t i e s f r om L adde r s t o L i t e r ac y s c or e d hi ghe r on t he bl e ndi ng t e s t s t he s e gm e nt i ng t e s t s a nd t he r e a di ng a nd w r i t i ng m e a s ur e s on t he W oodc oc k J ohns on T e s t o f A c hi e v e m e nt R e v i s e d r e ga r dl e s s of pr ogr a m i n w hi c h t he y w e r e e nr ol l e d ( i e ge ne r a l e duc a t i on vs s pe c i a l e du c a t i on) H ow e ve r i t i s c a ut i one d t ha t t he ga i ns t he c hi l d r e n w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s m a de di d not b r i ng t he m up t o t he l e ve l o f t yp i c a l pe e r s T he c hi l dr e n w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s m a de s m a l l e r ga i ns

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16 a nd ha d l ow e r s ki l l s a t t he e nd o f t he s c hool ye a r a s c om pa r e d t o t he i r t ypi c a l pe e r s S e c ond, c hi l dr e n w ho w e r e r e pe a t i ng ki nde r ga r t e n m a de m or e ga i ns t ha n c hi l d r e n w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s a l t hough t hi s di f f e r e nc e c oul d be due t o t he r e pe a t i ng k i nde r ga r t e n s t ude nt s ol de r a ge a nd s e c ond e xpos ur e t o ki nde r ga r t e n. T h i r d, pho no l ogi c a l s ki l l s f r om p r e t e s t t o pos t t e s t w e r e not a f f e c t e d by c l a s s pl a c e m e nt ( i e s e l f c ont a i ne d or i nc l us i on) o r by t ype of di s a bi l i t y f or c hi l dr e n w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s F i r s t gr ade f ol l ow up. A s e c ond s t udy w a s c om pl e t e d t o e xa m i ne t he l ong t e r m e f f e c t s of i nt e r ve nt i on w i t h L adde r s t o L i t e r ac y ( O C onnor N ot a r i S yve r s on, & V a da s y, 1998a ) A t t he e nd of t he i r f i r s t g r a de ye a r 80 o f t he or i gi na l 90 c hi l dr e n f r om t he or i gi na l t r e a t m e nt a nd c ont r ol gr oups a nd 16 o f t he 17 c hi l dr e n i n s e l f c ont a i ne d c l a s s e s w e r e r e e va l ua t e d. T he m e a s ur e s us e d dur i ng t hi s f i r s t gr a de f ol l ow up i nc l ude d: ( a ) phone m e s e gm e nt a t i on f l ue nc y; ( b ) t he L e t t e r W o r d I de nt i f i c a t i on W or d A t t a c k, a nd D i c t a t i on s ubt e s t s f r om t he W oodc oc k J ohns on T e s t s of A c hi e v e m e nt R e v i s e d m e a s ur i ng r e a di ng a nd w r i t i ng; ( c ) o r a l r e a di ng f l u e nc y; a nd ( d) s pe l l i ng ( t he P r e di c t a bl e W or d por t i on of t he T e s t of W r i t t e n Spe l l i ng 2 ) R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d di f f e r e nt i a l e f f e c t s f or c hi l d r e n w i t h a nd w i t hout di s a bi l i t i e s C hi l dr e n w i t hout di s a bi l i t i e s no l ong e r s how e d di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he e xpe r i m e nt a l a nd c ont r ol gr oup on a ny of t he m e a s ur e s C hi l d r e n w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s w ho r e c e i ve d t r e a t m e nt s c or e d hi ghe r t ha n unt r e a t e d c hi l dr e n on t he m e a s ur e s of w or d i de nt i f i c a t i on di c t a t i on w or d a t t a c k, a nd s pe l l i ng. A s i n t he f i r s t s t udy, out c om e s f or c hi l dr e n w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s w e r e not a f f e c t e d by c l a s s pl a c e m e nt ( i e s e l f c on t a i ne d or i nc l us i on) A m ongs t t he a ut hor s c onc l us i ons i t w a s s ugge s t e d t ha t phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i nt e r ve nt i on m a y

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17 pr ove be ne f i c i a l dur i ng e a r l y l i t e r a c y de ve l opm e nt i n ki nde r ga r t e n a nd t ha t c hi l dr e n w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s m a y r e qui r e m o r e i nt e ns e a nd f r e que nt i ns t r uc t i on t ha n t he i r t ypi c a l pe e r s R oad t o t he C ode R oad t o t he C ode ( B l a c hm a n e t a l 2000 ) i s a n 11 w e e k pr ogr a m f or t e a c hi ng phon e m i c a w a r e ne s s a nd l e t t e r s ound c or r e s ponde nc e D e ve l opm e nt a l l y s e que nc e d, e a c h of t he 44 15 20 m i nut e l e s s ons f e a t ur e s t hr e e a c t i v i t i e s S a y I t a nd M ove I t L e t t e r N a m e a nd S ound I ns t r uc t i on a nd P honol ogi c a l A w a r e ne s s P r a c t i c e t ha t gi ve s t ude nt s r e pe a t e d oppor t uni t i e s t o p r a c t i c e a nd e nha nc e t he i r be gi nni ng r e a di ng a nd s pe l l i ng a bi l i t i e s A f t e r a br i e f i nt r oduc t i on t o t he t he or e t i c a l p r a c t i c e s of p honi c s a w a r e ne s s a s w e l l a s a r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t ur e t ha t i s us e d t o j us t i f y t he i r a ppr oa c h, t he p r ogr a m m a nua l pr ovi de s a s e r i e s of l e s s on pl a ns f or t he e duc a t or T he s e pl a n s a r e r e m a r ka bl y s i m pl e F or e xa m pl e t he f i r s t l e s s on pl a n i de nt i f i e s t he S a y I t a nd M ove I t s t r a t e gy i n w hi c h t he t e a c he r m ode l s t he c or r e c t w a y t o s e gm e nt t he t a r ge t w or d T he t a r ge t w o r d i s s poke n a nd t he n e a c h s ound of t he w o r d i s e l onga t e d w hi l e a di s k i s m ove d f o r e a c h s ound. T he m a j or i t y of t he l e s s on pl a ns w i t hi n t hi s c ur r i c ul um a r e a s s i m pl e a s t hi s S a y I t a nd M ove I t s t r a t e gy. R oad t o t he C ode i nvol ve s a pr ogr e s s i on of ph oni c s e l e m e nt s r a t he r t ha n a l a r ge s c a l e i nt r oduc t i on t o t he f or t y f our phone m e s O ve r t i m e t he s t ude nt s a r e pr ovi de d t he s m a l l e s t bi t s a nd p i e c e s of l a ngua ge a nd a s ke d t o gr a dua l l y bui l d upon w ha t phoni c s e l e m e nt s t he y ha ve a l r e a dy l e a r ne d t o e nr i c h t he i r p r ogr e s s S i nc e be i ng publ i s he d i n 2000, t he r e ha ve not be e n a ny s t udi e s e xpl or i ng t he e f f i c a c y of t he R oad t o t he C ode c ur r i c ul um H ow e ve r R oad t o t he C ode i s ba s e d on m or e t ha n 10 ye a r s of r e s e a r c h i n ki nde r ga r t e n a nd f i r s t g r a de c l a s s r oom s ( e g B a l l &

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18 B l a c hm a n, 1991; B l a c hm a n, B a l l B l a c k, & T a nge l 1994; T a nge l & B l a c hm a n, 1992; T a nge l & B l a c hm a n, 1995 ) T he l e s s ons a nd a c t i vi t i e s t ha t m a ke up t he R oad t o t he C ode pr og r a m w e r e f i r s t de ve l ope d a nd t e s t e d by B a l l a nd B l a c hm a n ( 1988 ) A t ot a l of 151 ki nde r ga r t e n c hi l dr e n pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t hi s s t udy w hi c h c om pa r e d phone m i c a w a r e ne s s t r a i ni ng ( e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup) t o l a ngua ge ba s e d a c t i vi t i e s ( c ont r ol gr oup 1) a nd no i nt e r ve nt i on ( c ont r ol gr oup 2) A t t h i s t i m e t he i nt e r ve nt i on w a s a s e ve n w e e k pr ogr a m c ons i s t i ng of 20 m i nut e phone m e s e gm e nt a t i on l e s s ons a nd de s i gne d f or us e w i t h s m a l l gr oups of c hi l d r e n. T he f ounda t i on a c t i vi t i e s us e d w e r e vi r t ua l l y t he s a m e a s t he a c t i vi t i e s t ha t c om pr i s e t he c ur r e nt pr og r a m : s a y i t a nd m ove i t s e gm e nt a t i on a c t i vi t i e s s e gm e nt a t i on r e l a t e d a c t i vi t i e s a nd l e t t e r na m e / s ound t r a i ni ng P r i o r t o i nt e r ve nt i on, t he s t ude nt s w e r e a s s e s s e d w i t h m e a s ur e s of voc a bul a r y ( P e abody P i c t ur e V oc abul ar y T e s t R e v i s e d ) w or d i de nt i f i c a t i on ( t he W o r d I de nt i f i c a t i on s ubt e s t f r o m t he W oodc oc k R e adi ng M as t e r y T e s t ) phone m e s e gm e nt a t i on s ki l l s a nd l e t t e r na m e a nd s ound know l e dge T he s t ude nt s s e l e c t e d di d not di f f e r on t he i r pr e i nt e r ve nt i on voc a bul a r y a nd w or d i de nt i f i c a t i on s ki l l s A r e gul a r w o r d l i s t w a s a dde d t o t he t e s t i ng ba t t e r y pos t i nt e r ve nt i on. A n a na l ys i s of c ova r i a nc e i ndi c a t e d s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s on t he phone m e s e gm e nt a t i on t e s t T he e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup pe r f or m e d s i gni f i c a nt l y be t t e r on t he phone m e s e gm e nt a t i on t e s t t ha n bot h c ont r ol gr oups T he r e w e r e no di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n gr oups f or l e t t e r na m e know l e dge A n a na l ys i s of c ova r i a nc e i ndi c a t e d s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s f or l e t t e r s ounds know l e dge B ot h t he e xpe r i m e nt a l g r oup a nd c ont r ol gr oup 1 ( l a ngua ge ba s e d i nt e r ve nt i on) pe r f or m e d hi ghe r f or l e t t e r s ounds kn ow l e dge t ha n c ont r ol g r oup 2 ( no

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19 t r e a t m e nt ) A ddi t i ona l l y t he e xpe r i m e nt a l g r oup s how e d s upe r i or a bi l i t y t o r e a d w or ds a s m e a s ur e d by t he W or d I de nt i f i c a t i on s ubt e s t a nd t he r e gul a r w or d l i s t A s t he phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a c t i vi t i e s w e r e e xpa nde d a nd de ve l ope d f ur t he r s t udi e s t o t e s t t he i r e f f e c t i ve ne s s w i t h t e a c he r i m pl e m e nt a t i on w e r e c onduc t e d. F or e xa m pl e B l a c hm a n e t a l ( 1994 ) t r a i ne d ki nde r ga r t e n t e a c he r s a nd t he i r i ns t r uc t i ona l a s s i s t a nt s t o i m pl e m e nt phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a c t i vi t i e s t o s m a l l g r oups of c hi l dr e n i n t he i r c l a s s r oom s T he t e a c he r s a nd s t ude nt s w e r e c hos e n f r om f our l ow i nc om e i nne r c i t y s c hool s ( 84 c hi l dr e n i n t he e xpe r i m e nt a l g r oup a nd 75 c hi l d r e n i n t he c ont r ol gr oup ) T e a c he r s a nd a s s i s t a nt s w e r e t r a i ne d t o i m pl e m e nt t he ph onol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s pr ogr a m ove r a s e r i e s of s e ve n, t w o hour i ns e r vi c e s T he e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup s t ude nt s r e c e i ve d l e s s ons i n s m a l l gr oups of f ou r t o f i ve s t ude nt s 15 t o 20 m i nut e s da i l y f our t i m e s pe r w e e k. T he pr og r a m ha d be e n e xpa nde d t o e l e ve n w e e k s a l t hough i t c ons i s t e d of t he s a m e t ype s of a c t i vi t i e s a s t he i ni t i a l s t udy. T he m e a s ur e s us e d t o a s s e s s t he s t ude nt s i n t hi s s t udy w e r e t he s a m e a t t he i ni t i a l s t udy, w i t h t he a ddi t i on of a r e gul a r nonw or ds r e a di ng t e s t a nd a f i ve w or d s pe l l i ng t e s t R e s ul t s w e r e ove r w he l m i ngl y pos i t i ve C hi l dr e n w ho r e c e i ve d i nt e r ve nt i on pe r f or m e d be t t e r on t he m e a s ur e s of phone m e s e gm e nt a t i on, l e t t e r na m e s l e t t e r s ounds r e a di ng r e gul a r w or ds r e a di ng r e gul a r nonw or ds a nd s pe l l i ng. C l e a r l y, r e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t t he a c t i vi t i e s t ha t c om pr i s e R oad t o t he C ode c a n i m pr ove ki nde r ga r t e n s t ude nt s phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s a nd c a n be i m pl e m e nt e d s uc c e s s f ul l y i n c l a s s r oom s by t e a c he r s a nd t e a c he r s a s s i s t a nt s

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20 Sound F oundat i ons Sound F oundat i ons w a s de ve l ope d i n A us t r a l i a a s a pr ogr a m de s i gne d t o t e a c h phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s t o young c hi l dr e n. O ne of t he m os t c r i t i c a l e l e m e nt s of t he pr ogr a m i s t he c r e a t i on o f phone m e i de nt i t y, i n w h i c h s t ude nt s a r e t r a i ne d t o i de nt i f y s pe c i f i c phone m e s i n gr a phi c w r i t t e n, a nd ve r ba l i z e d f or m a t s Sound F oundat i ons f oc us e s on t e a c hi ng phone m e r e c ogni t i on a c r os s w or ds ( e g poi nt i ng ou t t w o w or ds t ha t s t a r t or e nd w i t h t he s a m e s ounds ) T he phone m e s t ha t r e c e i ve t he m os t a t t e nt i on dur i ng t he c our s e of t he i nt e r ve nt i on a r e t he c ons ona nt s ounds / s / / l / / s h/ / m / / p / / t / a nd / g/ a nd t he vow e l s ounds / e / ( a s i n b e t ) a nd / / ( a s i n b a t ) T he pr ogr a m s m a t e r i a l s i nc l ude a t a pe w i t h s ongs a nd j i ngl e s c ont a i ni ng t he t a r ge t e d phone m e s pos t e r s w i t h pi c t u r e s of i t e m s be gi nni ng a nd e ndi ng w i t h t he s e s ounds w o r ks he e t s t ha t ha ve t he c hi l dr e n l oc a t e a nd c ol or i n obj e c t s di s pl a yi ng t he de s i r e d s ounds a nd c a r d ga m e s t ha t a l l ow c hi l dr e n t o a ppl y t he i r know l e dge A n e xa m pl e of t he Sound F oundat i ons m e t hodol ogy i s t o p r ovi de p i c t or i a l r e pr e s e nt a t i on o f m ul t i pl e e l e m e nt s f r o m t he s a m e ge ne r a l c ont e xt s uc h a s pi c t ur e s of gr oups of f ood on a pos t e r T he s t ude nt s a r e a s ke d t o a ppr oa c h t he pos t e r a nd i de nt i f y t he f oods w hi c h s t a r t w i t h t he / s / s ound, s uc h a s s pa ghe t t i or s a us a ge T he w or ks he e t s r e i nf or c e t hi s s a m e c onc e pt Sound F oundat i ons ha s unde r gone m uc h r e s e a r c h by i s de ve l ope r s ( B yr ne 1998; B yr ne & F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y, 1991, 1993, 1995; B y r ne F i e l d i ng B a r ns l e y, & A s hl e y, 2000) I n a ddi t i on t o t he i ni t i a l s t udy o f t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of Sound F oundat i ons w i t h pr e s c hool s t ude nt s ( 1991) B yr ne a nd F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y c onduc t e d s e ve r a l f ol l ow up s t udi e s t o a s s e s s t he l ong t e r m e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he i r pr og r a m T he c hi l dr e n i nvol ve d i n t he i ni t i a l t r a i ni ng p r ogr a m w e r e r e e va l ua t e d a t t h e e nd of k i nde r ga r t e n ( B yr ne &

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21 F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y, 1993) f i r s t g r a de ( B yr ne & F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y, 1995) s e c ond gr a de ( B yr ne & F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y, 1995) t h i r d g r a de ( B yr ne 1998 ) a nd f i f t h g r a de ( B yr ne e t a l 2000 ) T hi s e xt e ns i ve l ong t e r m f ol l ow up i s w ha t di s t i ngui s he s t he Sound F oundat i ons pr ogr a m f r om ot he r e a r l y l i t e r a c y a nd phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s pr ogr a m s T o m e a s ur e e f f e c t s of t he p r ogr a m w he n i m pl e m e n t e d by pe r s ons ot he r t he n t he a ut ho r s t he m s e l ve s a t r i a l e va l ua t i on o f i t s i m pl e m e nt a t i o n by pr e s c hool t e a c he r s w a s c onduc t e d ( B yr ne & F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y, 1995) A ddi t i ona l l y e xpl or a t i on i nt o t he us e of t he pr ogr a m w i t h pa r e nt s i s c ur r e nt l y unde r w a y ( U ni v e r s i t y of N e w E ngl a nd a t A us t r a l i a 2003) I ni t i al t r ai ni ng s t udy I n B yr ne a nd F i e l d i n g B a r n s l e y s ( 1991) f i r s t e va l ua t i on o f t he pr ogr a m 64 pr e s c hool c hi l dr e n w e r e t a ught by t he e xpe r i m e nt e r s w i t h t he m e t hods of Sound F oundat i ons a nd 62 pr e s c hool c hi l dr e n, s e r vi ng a s t he c ont r ol gr oup w e r e t a ught us i ng t he pr ogr a m s m a t e r i a l s f oc us i ng o n s e m a nt i c r a t he r t ha n phone t i c a c t i vi t i e s T he c hi l dr e n w e r e di vi de d up i nt o s m a l l gr oups o f f our t o s i x a nd t r a i ne d ove r t he c our s e of t w e l ve w e e ks D ue t o t i m e c ons t r a i nt s onl y f i ve c ons ona nt s ounds ( / s / / m / / t / / l / a nd / p/ ) a nd one vow e l s ound / / w e r e t a ught t o t he c hi l dr e n i n t he e xpe r i m e nt a l g r oup. F o r t he e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup t r a i ni ng s e s s i ons a s ound i n t he i ni t i a l pos i t i on o f w or ds w a s i nt r oduc e d one w e e k, f ol l ow e d by t he s a m e s ound t he ne xt w e e k i n t he f i na l pos i t i on o f w or ds S e s s i ons l a s t e d be t w e e n 25 a nd 30 m i nut e s T he e xpe r i m e nt e r be ga n e a c h s e s s i on by r e c i t i ng s hor t s ongs t ha t c ont a i ne d t he t a r ge t e d phone m e a nd by d i s c us s i ng how t he s ound i s m a de E a c h c hi l d w a s t he n r e qui r e d t o i de nt i f y s om e t hi ng on t he c or r e s pondi ng pos t e r be gi nn i ng ( or e ndi ng) w i t h t h e t a r ge t e d phone m e E a c h s e s s i on e nde d w i t h t he c hi l d r e n c om pl e t i ng a w or ks he e t r e qui r i ng t he m t o c ol o r i n pi c t ur e s

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22 be gi nni ng ( or e ndi ng) w i t h t he t a r ge t e d phone m e I n t he l a s t w e e k o f t he i nt e r ve nt i on ( t he 12 t h w e e k) t he c a r d ga m e s w e r e i nt r oduc e d t o t he c hi l dr e n. F o r t he c ont r ol gr oup s e s s i ons t he c hi l dr e n w e r e r e a d s t or i e s a nd a s ke d t o i de nt i f y c a t e gor i e s of i t e m s ( e g a ni m a l s c ol or s ) on t he pos t e r s a nd w o r ks he e t s P r e t e s t i ng of a l l c hi l dr e n i n t hi s f i r s t s t udy i nc l ude d a s s e s s m e nt s of t he f ol l ow i ng dom a i ns : ( a ) ve r ba l de ve l opm e nt ( b) know l e dge o f book a nd pr i nt c onve nt i ons ( c ) i de nt i f i c a t i on of s i x c om m on s i gns ( d) know l e dge of 26 l e t t e r na m e s a nd t he i r c om m on s ounds ( e ) r hy m e r e c ogni t i on a nd ( f ) i ni t i a l a nd f i na l s oun d phone m e i de nt i t y. F ur t he r e xpl a na t i on of how s e ve r a l of t he s e dom a i ns w e r e m e a s ur e d f ol l ow s V e r ba l de ve l opm e nt w a s m e a s ur e d w i t h t he P e abody P i c t ur e V oc abul ar y T e s t K now l e dge o f book a nd pr i nt c onve nt i ons w a s m e a s ur e d w i t h t he C onc e pt s about P r i nt T e s t S i gn i de nt i f i c a t i on w a s m e a s ur e d by a s ki ng c hi l d r e n t o i de nt i f y c om m on s i gns ( i e C oc a C ol a M c D ona l d s S t op, T a xi E xi t G i ve W a y) R hym e r e c ogni t i on w a s m e a s ur e d by r e qui r i ng t he c hi l d t o c i r c l e t he pi c t ur e t ha t r hym e d w i t h t he w or d p r e s e nt e d b y t he e xa m i ne r I ni t i a l a nd f i na l s ound phone m e i de nt i t y w a s m e a s ur e d by r e qui r i ng t he c hi l d t o c i r c l e t he pi c t ur e t ha t be ga n or e nde d w i t h t he s a m e s ound a s t he w or d pr e s e nt e d by t he e xa m i ne r P os t t e s t i ng i nc l ude d r e a dm i ni s t r a t i on o f t he phone m e i de nt i t y t e s t t e s t i ng of know l e dge of t he s ounds pr e s e nt e d dur i ng t r a i ni ng a nd t e s t i ng of a f or m of r e a di ng ( w or d c hoi c e ) T hi s w or d c hoi c e pos t t e s t c ons i s t e d of t e n w or ds pr e s e nt e d on c a r ds a nd c ons t r uc t e d of t he l e t t e r s i nt r oduc e d du r i ng t r a i ni n g. W he n p r e s e nt e d w i t h a w or d on a c a r d, t he c hi l d w a s a s ke d, D oe s t hi s c a r d ( e g. s a t ) s a y s a t or m a t ?

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23 T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy r e ve a l e d t ha t t he e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup s how e d s i gni f i c a nt i nc r e a s e s on phone m e i de nt i t y s c or e s f r om pr e t e s t t o pos t t e s t a s c om pa r e d t o t he c ont r ol gr oup. T hi s i nc r e a s e ge ne r a l i z e d t o i de nt i f y i ng f o ur s ounds t ha t t he c hi l d r e n w e r e not t a ught i n t r a i ni ng. O ve r a l l bot h gr oups ha d a n e a s i e r t i m e i de nt i f yi ng w or ds t ha t s t a r t e d w i t h t he s a m e s ounds c om pa r e d t o i de nt i f yi ng f i na l w or d s ounds A l s o, c hi l dr e n t r a i ne d w i t h Sound F oundat i ons r e c e i ve d a h i ghe r m e a n s c or e on t he w or d c hoi c e pos t t e s t T he s e r e s ul t s s how t ha t Sound F oundat i ons c a n be s uc c e s s f ul i n t e a c hi ng c hi l dr e n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s O ne m a j or l i m i t a t i on of t h i s s t udy i s t ha t t he i nt e r ve nt i on w a s c onduc t e d by t he e xpe r i m e nt e r s r a t he r t ha n b y c l a s s r oom t e a c he r s or pa r e nt s T hus t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of us i ng Sound F oundat i ons i n a p pl i e d s e t t i ngs s uc h a s t he c l a s s r oom or a t hom e w a s unknow n. K i nde r gar t e n f ol l ow up. I n t he ki nde r ga r t e n f o l l o w up s t udy ( 1993 ) 63 c hi l dr e n f r om t he or i gi na l e xpe r i m e nt a l g r oup a nd 56 c hi l dr e n f r om t he or i gi na l c ont r ol gr oup w e r e t e s t e d a t t he e nd o f t he i r ki nde r ga r t e n ye a r T he s e c hi l dr e n w e r e or i gi na l l y f r om f our p r e s c hool s a nd w e r e now di s pe r s e d a m ongs t 1 0 e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s T he c hi l d r e n w e r e a dm i ni s t e r e d s i x t e s t s F our of t he t e s t s pho ne m e i de nt i f y, phone m e e l i s i on, a l pha be t know l e dge a nd w or d i de nt i f i c a t i on w e r e a dm i ni s t e r e d t o t he c hi l dr e n i ndi vi dua l l y. T he ot he r t w o t e s t s ps e udow or d i de nt i f i c a t i on a nd s pe l l i ng w e r e a dm i ni s t e r e d i n s m a l l gr oups O n t he phone m e i de nt i t y t e s t t he c hi l dr e n w e r e r e qui r e d t o i de nt i f y w hi c h o f t he pi c t ur e s of obj e c t s be ga n w i t h t he s a m e s ound a s a t a r ge t obj e c t T hi s t a s k w a s r e pe a t e d w i t h e ndi ng s ounds a s w e l l S ounds i nc l ude d w e r e onl y t hos e t he c hi l dr e n w e r e t r a i ne d w i t h i n pr e s c hool O n t he ph one m e e l i s i on t e s t c hi l dr e n w e r e r e qui r e d t o s a y a w or d w i t h e i t he r t he be gi nni ng or e ndi ng s ound r e m ove d T he r e w e r e

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24 10 i t e m s r e qui r i ng r e m o va l of i ni t i a l s ounds 5 r e q ui r i ng r e m ova l of a s i ngl e s ound a nd 5 r e qui r i ng r e m ova l of a c l us t e r o f s ounds T hi s p r o c e s s w a s t he s a m e f or t he 10 e ndi ng s ounds T he a l pha be t know l e dge t e s t s c ons i s t e d of t he s a m e pr oc e s s us e d dur i ng t he or i gi na l s t udy; c h i l d r e n w e r e s how n c a r ds a nd a s ke d t o poi nt t o t he one t ha t r e pr e s e nt e d t he t a r ge t e d s ound. W or d i de nt i f i c a t i on w a s m e a s ur e d w i t h t he W or d I de nt i f i c a t i on s ubt e s t of t he W oodc oc k R e adi ng M as t e r y T e s t R e v i s e d O n t he s ubt e s t t he c hi l dr e n r e a d i ndi vi dua l w o r ds unt i l s i x e r r or s w e r e m a de i n a r ow O n t he ps e udow or d i de nt i f i c a t i on t e s t c hi l dr e n w e r e r e qui r e d t o c i r c l e one w or d out of t hr e e pos s i bi l i t i e s t ha t m a t c he d t he ps e udow or d r e a d t o t he m O n t he s pe l l i ng t e s t c hi l d r e n w e r e r e qui r e d t o s pe l l t e n w or ds a nd f ou r ps e udow or ds R e s ul t s r e ve a l e d t ha t c hi l dr e n f r o m t he o r i gi na l e x pe r i m e nt a l gr oup w e r e m or e pr of i c i e nt t ha n c hi l dr e n f r om t he c ont r ol gr oup a t p s e udow or d i de nt i f i c a t i on. A l s o, s i gni f i c a nt m a i n e f f e c t s w e r e f ound f a vor i ng t he e x pe r i m e nt a l gr ou p on t he phone m e i de nt i t y t e s t a nd on i de nt i f yi ng w or ds w i t h t he s a m e e ndi ng s ounds on t he phone m e i de nt i t y t e s t D i s r e ga r di ng g r oup a f f i l i a t i on t he r e s e a r c he r s e xa m i ne d t he di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he ki nde r ga r t e n s t ude nt s w ho pa s s e d a nd f a i l e d t he phone m e i de nt i t y t a s k i n pr e s c hool P a s s i ng m e a nt r e c e i vi ng a m e a n o f 32 or m or e on t he 48 i t e m pr e s c hool phone m e i de nt i t y t a s k. T h i s r e c l a s s i f i c a t i on w a s done f or t w o r e a s ons : ( a ) B yr ne a nd F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y f ound t ha t i t w a s i m m a t e r i a l w he t he r c hi l dr e n l e a r ne d a bout phone m e i de nt i t y f r o m t he p r ogr a m or f r om ot he r s our c e s ( p. 107) ; a nd ( b) t o a ns w e r t he que s t i on D o c hi l dr e n w ho e nt e r e l e m e nt a r y s c hool unde r s t a ndi ng t he pr i nc i pa l of phone m e i de nt i t y s how a n a dva nt a ge i n r e a di ng a nd s pe l l i ng a t t he e nd of t he i r f i r s t ye a r of s c hool i ng? ( p. 107) A l l of t he e xpe r i m e nt a l g r ou p c hi l dr e n pa s s e d t he pr e s c hool

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25 phone m e i de nt i t y t a s k w hi l e on l y 16 of t he 62 c ont r ol gr oup c hi l dr e n pa s s e d t he t a s k. T he c hi l dr e n c l a s s i f i e d a s pa s s e r s i n pr e s c hool r e c e i ve d hi ghe r s c or e s on t he ki nde r ga r t e n m e a s ur e s of w or d i de nt i f i c a t i on, ps e udow or d i de nt i f i c a t i on, s pe l l i ng i ni t i a l phone m e i de nt i t y, a nd f i na l phone m e i de nt i t y. A l s o c or r e l a t i ons r e ve a l e d a r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pr e s c hool phone m e i de nt i t y a nd k i nde r ga r t e n phon ol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s ps e udo w or d i de nt i f i c a t i on, a nd s pe l l i ng of r e a l a nd nons e ns e w or ds A l t hough t hi s s t udy d i d not f i nd e nt i r e l y c onc l us i ve e vi de nc e t ha t Sound F oundat i o ns ha d s i gni f i c a nt e f f e c t s on t he c hi l dr e n s l i t e r a c y s ki l l s a ye a r l a t e r t he r e s ul t s s uppor t e d t he i de a t ha t c hi l dr e n w ho ha ve e a r l y s ki l l i n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a r e a he a d of t he i r pe e r s i n l a t e r ye a r s i n a va r i e t y of r e a di ng s ki l l s F i r s t gr ade f ol l ow up. A t f ol l ow up a t t he e nd of f i r s t gr a de ( 1995 ) a l l 64 c hi l dr e n f r o m t he e xpe r i m e nt a l g r oup a nd 54 c hi l d r e n f r om t he c ont r ol g r oup w e r e t e s t e d a ga i n. C hi l dr e n w e r e a dm i ni s t e r e d f i ve t e s t s m e a s ur i ng t he f ol l ow i ng a r e a s : ( a ) w o r d i de nt i f i c a t i on ( t w o l i s t s w i t h 20 w or ds one w i t h r e gul a r w or ds a nd one w i t h i r r e gul a r w or ds ) ( b ) s pe l l i ng ( c ont a i ne d 18 w or ds of w hi c h s i x w e r e r e gul a r s i x w e r e i r r e gul a r a nd s i x w e r e ps e udow or ds ) ( c ) a l pha be t ( r e qui r e d t he c hi l dr e n t o w r i t e t he l e t t e r di c t a t e d t o t he m ) ( d ) phone m e i de nt i t y ( 20 i t e m s i n w hi c h t he c hi l d w a s a s ke d t o c hoos e w hi c h of t w o w or ds ha d t he s a m e i ni t i a l s ound a s t he w or d pr e s e nt e d or a l l y t o t he m ) a nd ( e ) r a pi d na m i ng ( r e qui r e d t he c hi l d t o na m e 30 di gi t s a r r a n ge d i n r ow s o f f i ve a s qui c kl y a s t he y c oul d) R e s ul t s r e ve a l e d t ha t c hi l dr e n or i gi na l l y t r a i ne d w i t h Sound F oundat i ons s how e d g r e a t e r ps e udow or d r e a di ng s ki l l s t ha n di d c ont r ol gr oup c hi l dr e n A l s o, a l t hough t he

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26 di f f e r e nc e w a s not s i gni f i c a nt t he e xpe r i m e nt a l g r oup ha d hi ghe r m e a n s c or e s on r e a di ng r e gul a r w or ds A s i n t he ki nde r ga r t e n f ol l ow up s t udy ( 1993) t he s t ude nt s w e r e r e c l a s s i f i e d a s pa s s e r s or f a i l e r s ba s e d on t he i r pe r f or m a nc e on t h e pr e s c hool phone m e i de nt i t y t a s k. T he c hi l dr e n i de nt i f i e d a s pa s s e r s pr e s c hool ( a s de s c r i be d i n t he ki nde r ga r t e n f o l l ow up s t udy) pe r f or m e d be t t e r t ha n f a i l e r s w he n r e a di ng r e gul a r i r r e gul a r a nd ps e udow or ds Se c ond gr ade f ol l ow up. A t s e c ond gr a de f o l l ow up ( 1995) 62 c hi l dr e n f r om t he e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup a nd 53 f r om t he c ont r ol gr oup w e r e a ga i n t e s t e d w i t h s e ve n c om put e r ba s e d t e s t s T he t e s t s r e qui r e d t he c hi l dr e n t o na m e s i ngl e di gi t num be r s i n di gi t ( e g 7) a nd w r i t t e n ( e g. s e ve n ) f o r m a t s t o r e a di ng one a nd t w o s yl l a bl e ps e udow or ds t o r e a d r e gul a r a nd i r r e gul a r w or ds o f hi gh f r e que nc y, t o r e a d t w o s t or i e s a nd a ns w e r 10 c om pr e he ns i on que s t i on f o r e a c h s t or y, a nd t o i de nt i f y r e c ogni z e d book t i t l e s f r om a l i s t o f 20 r e a l book t i t l e s a nd 12 f a ke book t i t l e s U pon e xa m i ni ng t he c hi l dr e n s m e a n s c or e s on e a c h t e s t i t w a s f ound t ha t t he e xpe r i m e nt a l g r oup c hi l d r e n w e r e be t t e r a bl e t o r e a d t hr e e l e t t e r ps e udow or ds one a nd t w o s yl l a bl e ps e udow or ds a nd i r r e gul a r ps e udow or ds T he s e c hi l dr e n a l s o ha d g r e a t e r s ki l l s i n r e a di ng unc om m on, but phone t i c a l l y r e gul a r w o r ds a s w a s de t e r m i ne d by i de nt i f yi ng t he f i ve l e a s t f r e que nt w or ds f r om t he r e gul a r w or d l i s t T he e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup r e a d m or e of t he s e w or ds c or r e c t l y t ha n t he c ont r ol gr oup. A ddi t i ona l l y, a nd pe r ha ps m os t i m por t a nt l y, t he e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup pe r f or m e d be t t e r on t he m e a s u r e of r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on. A m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on a na l ys i s r e ve a l e d t ha t hi gh l e ve l s of r e a di ng c om p r e he ns i on w e r e r e l a t e d t o hi gh l e ve l s of bo t h de c odi ng a nd l i s t e ni ng c om pr e he ns i on. T he r e w a s no di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he g r oups on t he book t i t l e t a s k. T he e xpe r i m e nt e r s c onc l ude d t ha t

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27 c hi l dr e n t r a i ne d w i t h Sound F oundat i ons i n pr e s c hool s how e d s i gni f i c a nt ga i ns i n de c odi ng s ki l l s a nd r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on t h r e e y e a r s l a t e r T hi r d gr ade f ol l ow up. T he gr a de t h r e e s t udy r e m a i ns unpubl i s he d but i s s um m a r i z e d br i e f l y i n B yr ne s book ( 1998) P a r t i c i pa nt s i nc l ude d 57 c hi l dr e n f r om t he e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup a nd 48 f r om t he c ont r ol gr oup R e s ul t s r e ve a l e d s i m i l a r i n f or m a t i on a s w ha t w a s f ound i n p r e vi ous s t udi e s T he e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup s de c odi ng s ki l l s ( 24. 5 w or ds out of 30) a s m e a s ur e d by t he nonw or d r e a di ng t e s t w e r e be t t e r t ha n t he c ont r o l gr oup s de c odi ng s ki l l s ( 20 8 w o r ds out o f 30) N e w i nf or m a t i on w a s a l s o r e ve a l e d i n s uppor t of t he M a t t he w E f f e c t W he n c om pa r i n g pr e s c hool pa s s i ng a nd f a i l i ng g r oups ( r e ga r dl e s s of i nt e r ve nt i on r e c e i ve d) t he pa s s i ng g r oup r e c e i ve d hi ghe r m e a n s c or e s on t he m e a s ur e of p r i nt e xpos ur e t ha n t he f a i l i ng g r ou p. A s s uppor t e d by ot he r r e s e a r c h ( G ood e t a l 1998; J ue l 1988; S t a novi c h, 1986 ) c hi l dr e n w ho s t a r t out a s good r e a de r s r e a d m or e l a t e r on i n l i f e F i f t h gr ade f ol l ow up I n t he f i na l f ol l ow up s t udy ( B yr ne e t a l 2000) 103 c hi l dr e n ( 56 f r om t he e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup a nd 47 f r om t he c ont r ol gr oup ) t ha t ha d or i gi na l l y pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he 1991 s t udy w e r e r e e v a l ua t e d i n f i f t h g r a de ( m e a n a ge 11 ye a r s 0 m ont hs ) T he c hi l d r e n w e r e a dm i ni s t e r e d a t ot a l of f i ve r e a di ng t e s t s T he f i r s t t w o t e s t s w e r e t he W or d A t t a c k a nd W or d I de nt i f i c a t i on s ubt e s t s of t he W oodc oc k R e adi ng M as t e r y T e s t s R e v i s e d A l s o, t hr e e r e a d i ng l i s t s a 70 i t e m s pe l l i ng t e s t ( Sout h A us t r al i an T e s t of W r i t t e n Spe l l i ng ) a nd a t i t l e r e c ogni t i o n t e s t w e r e a dm i ni s t e r e d T he t hr e e r e a di ng l i s t s c ons i s t e d of 30 w or ds e a c h. O n e l i s t w a s c om pr i s e d of nonw or ds a nd t he ot he r t w o l i s t s w e r e c om pr i s e d o f r e gul a r w or d s a nd i r r e gul a r w or ds T he t i t l e r e c ogni t i on t e s t c ons i s t e d of 25 book t i t l e s a l ong w i t h 15 ps e udo t i t l e s

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28 W he n t he m e a n s c or e s of a l l t e s t s w e r e c om pa r e d, i t w a s f ound t ha t t he e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup s m e a n s c or e s w e r e hi ghe r t ha n t he c ont r ol gr oup s m e a n s c or e s on t he W or d A t t a c k t e s t on t he i r r e gul a r w or d l i s t a n d on a c om pos i t e m e a s ur e o f a l l t hr e e w or d l i s t s B yr ne a t a l w e r e a l s o i nt e r e s t e d i n e xa m i ni ng t he num be r of poor r e a de r s i n bot h gr oups t o de m ons t r a t e t ha t e a r l y phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s t r a i ni ng pr e ve nt s l a t e r r e a di ng pr obl e m s H ow e ve r ni ne o f t he 56 e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup c hi l d r e n a nd 13 of t he c ont r ol gr oup c hi l dr e n de m ons t r a t e d s c or e s be l ow t he f i f t h pe r c e nt i l e on a l l f i ve r e a di ng s ubt e s t s a dm i ni s t e r e d. T hi s i ndi c a t e s t ha t phono l o gi c a l a w a r e ne s s t r a i ni ng i n pr e s c hool c a nnot e nt i r e l y pr e ve nt l a t e r r e a di ng pr obl e m s i n a l l c hi l dr e n W he n t he ni ne l ow pe r f or m i ng s t ude nt s pr ogr e s s dur i ng pr e s c hool t r a i ni ng w i t h Sound F oundat i ons w a s e xa m i ne d f ur t he r i t w a s f ound t ha t a l t hough t he s e c hi l dr e n w e r e s uc c e s s f ul l y t a ught t o i de nt i f y phone m e s t he c hi l dr e n w e r e not e d t o be s l ow e r a t ga i ni ng a n unde r s t a ndi ng of t he t a r ge t e d phone m e s T o e xpl a i n t hi s f a i l ur e t o p r e ve nt r e a di ng di f f i c ul t y i n s om e e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup c hi l d r e n, t he hypot he s i s w a s de ve l ope d t ha t phone m e i de nt i f i c a t i on ( on w hi c h Sound F oundat i ons s ol e l y f oc us e s ) t r a i n i ng i s i ns uf f i c i e nt w i t h s om e c hi l d r e n. I t w a s s ugge s t e d by t he a ut hor s a nd s uppor t e d b y M ur r a y ( 1998) t ha t t he a ddi t i on of phone m e m a ni pul a t i on t r a i ni ng ( e g. s e gm e nt a t i on a nd bl e ndi ng) c oul d i nc r e a s e e f f e c t i ve ne s s I t w a s a l s o s ugge s t e d t ha t c hi l dr e n t ha t a r e s l ow e r a t gr a s pi ng a nd de ve l opi ng e a r l y r e a di ng c onc e pt s s uc h a s phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s w i l l be s l ow e r a t gr a s pi ng a nd de ve l opi ng l a t e r r e a di ng s ki l l s T r i al pr e s c hool e v al uat i on. I n or de r t o e va l ua t e t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of Sound F oundat i ons w he n i m pl e m e n t e d by pr e s c hool t e a c he r s B yr ne a nd F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y ( 1995) c onduc t e d a s uppl e m e nt a r y e xpe r i m e nt I n t hi s t r i a l t hr e e p r e s c hool s c ont a i ni ng a

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29 t ot a l of 93 c hi l dr e n a gr e e d t o us e Sound F ounda t i o ns i n t he i r c l a s s r oom s T e a c he r s di d not r e c e i ve t r a i ni ng b ut w e r e a s ke d t o f o l l ow t he pr ogr a m s m a nua l i n w ha t e ve r w a y w a s c onve ni e nt f or t he i ndi vi dua l s c hool A l l t h r e e s c hool s c ove r e d a l l t w e l ve phone m e s t a ught i n t he pr ogr a m but a t di f f e r e nt pa c e s ( t w o s c hool us e d 12 w e e ks a nd one us e d 6 w e e ks ) T w o s c hool s di d not i ns t r uc t t he c hi l dr e n on i de nt i f i c a t i on o f f i na l s ounds A l l s c hool s us e d t he pos t e r s a nd w or ks he e t s but va r i e d on t he us e o f t he c a r d ga m e s C hi l dr e n w e r e a s s e s s e d pr e a nd pos t t e s t w i t h m e a s ur e s of phone m e i de nt i t y ( s e e i ni t i a l t r a i ni ng s t udy f or a de s c r i pt i on) T he p r e s c hool c hi l dr e n s pe r f o r m a nc e i n t he ne w gr oup w a s c om pa r e d t o t he o r i gi na l e xpe r i m e nt a l a nd c on t r ol gr oups pe r f o r m a nc e i n t he i ni t i a l s t udy ( 1991) F or i ni t i a l phone m e i de nt i t y, t he ne w gr oup o f pr e s c hool e r s out pe r f or m e d t he or i gi na l c ont r ol c ondi t i on T he or i gi na l e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup, how e ve r out pe r f o r m e d t he ne w pr e s c hool gr oup f or i ni t i a l phone m e i de nt i t y. I n t he one p r e s c hool t ha t t a ught f i na l s ound i de nt i f i c a t i on t he s e c hi l dr e n s f i na l ph one m e i de nt i t y s c or e s i nc r e a s e d a m e a n of 5 83 poi nt s w hi l e t he c hi l dr e n i n t he p r e s c hool s t ha t di d not t e a c h f i na l s ounds onl y e a r ne d a m e a n i nc r e a s e of 1 poi nt U l t i m a t e l y, t hi s s t udy de m ons t r a t e d t ha t a l ow i nt e ns i t y i nt e r ve nt i on ( i e no t e a c he r t r a i ni ng, l a r g e gr oups of c hi l dr e n) r e s ul t e d i n s om e i m pr ove m e nt s i n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s O ne of t he s t udy s l i m i t a t i ons i s t ha t i t i s not c l e a r w ha t f a c t or s c ont r i but e d t o t he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n or i gi na l e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup s s c or e s a nd t he ne w pr e s c hool gr oup s s c or e s A no t he r l i m i t a t i on s t e m s f r om t he l a c k o f c ont r ol f o r pr e t e s t di f f e r e nc e s i n t he c ohor t s i n t he a na l ys e s us e d i n t he s t udy. P ar e nt i m pl e m e nt at i on of Sound F oundat i ons C ur r e nt l y, t he Sound F oundat i ons pr ogr a m i s i n a not he r pha s e of t e s t i ng ( U ni ve r s i t y of N e w E ng l a nd a t A us t r a l i a 2003) T he U ni ve r s i t y o f N e w E ngl a nd a t A us t r a l i a of f e r e d a n ope n t r i a l t o pa r e nt s of

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30 pr e s c hool e r s i n w hi c h bot h t he i r c hi l d r e n a nd t he m s e l ve s w oul d be e nr ol l e d i n t he s t udy. W ha t s e pa r a t e s t hi s c ur r e nt t r i a l f r o m t he pa s t c l i n i c a l s t udi e s how e ve r i s a f oc us on t he s oc i oc ul t ur a l e nvi r onm e nt i n w hi c h s t ude nt s l e a r n t o r e a d. B yr ne i s now s e e ki ng t o i de nt i f y t he i m pa c t t ha t pa r e nt a l l i t e r a c y l e ve l ha s upon t he a c qui s i t i on of l i t e r a c y i n t he i r c hi l dr e n. B yr ne s t a t e d t he f ol l ow i ng: T he m or e w e c a n di s c ove r a bout w hy t hi s i s s o, t he be t t e r pl a c e d w e l l be t o de s i gn e f f e c t i ve r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on t o he l p t he s e c hi l dr e n [ a nd] w e w a nt t o f i nd out w hy r e a di ng s ki l l s t e nd t o r un i n f a m i l i e s s o w e r e hopi ng t o ge t i n t ouc h w i t h f a m i l i e s w i t hout a n y hi s t or y of r e a di ng pr obl e m s a s w e l l a s one s w he r e t he r e ha ve be e n s uc h pr obl e m s ( U ni ve r s i t y of N e w E ngl a nd a t A us t r a l i a 2003 pa r a 2 3 ) T hi s r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s t i e s i nt o t he m e t hods de ve l ope d by t he Sound F oundat i ons a ut hor s i n t he i r s t udi e s w hi c h de m o ns t r a t e d not onl y t ha t s t ude nt s w e r e a bl e t o a c qui r e phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s but a l s o t ha t t he y w e r e m o r e l i ke l y t o a c qui r e l i t e r a c y i f t he y w e r e a l r e a dy e xpos e d t o w or d s t r uc t ur e s pr i o r t o i n vol ve m e nt i n t he Sound F oundat i ons pr ogr a m W hi l e no i nf o r m a t i on on t he p r ogr e s s of t hi s ne w s t udy c yc l e ha ve be e n publ i c l y r e l e a s e d a s of t he w r i t i ng of t hi s pa pe r i t i s hi ghl y l i ke l y t ha t ne w s r e ga r di ng t he ne xt pha s e of Sound F oundat i ons w i l l e m e r ge a t s om e poi nt i n t he ne a r f ut ur e C onc l us i ons T he f our phonol ogi c a l p r ogr a m s r e vi e w e d he r e di f f e r on a va r i e t y of c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s s uc h a s l e ngt h of t r a i ni ng t ype s o f a c t i vi t i e s t a ught a nd w ha t i s m e a s ur e d, w ho c a n pr ovi de i ns t r uc t i on m e t hod of de l i ve r y ( e g. s m a l l g r oups w hol e c l a s s one t o one ) c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of pa r t i c i pa nt s a m ount of r e s e a r c h c onduc t e d, e xi s t e nc e of l ong t e r m f ol l ow up da t a e t c D e s pi t e t he s e di f f e r e nc e s e a c h pr og r a m i s s uppor t e d by

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31 e vi de nc e t ha t t he i nt e r ve nt i on c a n i nc r e a s e young l e a r ne r s phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s F r om t he s t udi e s r e vi e w e d he r e i t a ppe a r s t ha t Sou nd F oundat i ons ha s t he m os t e vi de nc e of l ong t e r m e f f e c t i ve ne s s a nd i s t he onl y one a t t e m pt e d w i t h pa r e nt s t hus f a r H ow e ve r l i ke m a ny of t he p r ogr a m s m or e r e s e a r c h i s ne e de d on t he us e o f t he s e pr og r a m s i n a ppl i e d s e t t i n gs s uc h a s i n t he c l a s s r oom or i n t he hom e P ar e nt I nv ol v e m e nt i n E ar l y L i t e r ac y D e v e l opm e nt P a r e nt s ha ve a s t r ong i n f l ue nc e on c hi l d r e n s de ve l opm e nt of a nd i nt e r e s t i n r e a di ng be f or e t he i r c hi l d r e n e ve r e nt e r s c hool P a r e nt s c a n ut i l i z e t hi s i n f l ue nc e t o s uppor t s pe c i f i c s ki l l de ve l opm e nt ( e g. l e t t e r na m e know l e dge l e t t e r s ound know l e dge phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s r e a di ng f l ue nc y, r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on, e t c ) i n a ddi t i on t o a ge ne r a l pr om ot i on of r e a di ng a ppr e c i a t i on. T hi s e a r l y s ki l l de ve l opm e nt i s c r uc i a l f o r c hi l dr e n w ho a r e a t r i s k f or f ut ur e r e a di ng f a i l ur e P a r e nt s c a n a nd s houl d be a pa r t o f t he e a r l y i nt e r ve nt i on pr oc e s s T he f ol l ow i ng i s a d i s c us s i on a nd r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t u r e c onc e r ni ng w hy pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt i n l i t e r a c y de v e l opm e nt i s i m por t a nt a nd of s pe c i f i c pa r e nt ba s e d r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i ons E ar l y L i t e r ac y E x pe r i e nc e s and t he H om e E nv i r on m e nt G i ve n t he i m pa c t o f c hi l dr e n s e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s on t he i r f ut ur e r e a di ng s uc c e s s e xa m i ni ng t he t ype s of l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s c hi l d r e n ha ve be f or e t he y e nt e r s c hool a nd dur i ng t he i r e a r l y ye a r s o f s c hool i ng i s i m por t a nt R e s e a r c h ha s f ound t ha t t he l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s t ha t c hi l dr e n e nc ount e r a t hom e i n f l ue nc e t he i r r e a di ng s uc c e s s a t s c hool ( e g. C hr i s t i a n, M or r i s on, & B r ya nt 1998 ; E va ns S ha w & B e l l 2000; R us h, 1999; S c a r bor ough, D obr i c h, & H a ge r 1991; S m i t h & D i xon, 1995) F o r e xa m pl e a s t udy by S c a r bor ough e t a l ( 1991) r e ve a l e d t ha t c hi l d r e n w ho w e r e de t e r m i ne d t o be poo r r e a de r s

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32 i n s e c ond gr a de i nt e r a c t e d w i t h books l e s s f r e que nt l y i n t he i r pr e s c hool ye a r s a c c or di ng t o m a t e r na l r e por t t ha n c hi l d r e n de t e r m i ne d t o be good r e a de r s i n s e c ond gr a de P oor r e a de r s a l s o s pe nt l e s s t i m e e nga ge d i n pa r e nt c hi l d r e a di ng a s pr e s c hool e r s C hr i s t i a n e t a l ( 1998) i nve s t i ga t e d, a m ong ot he r v a r i a bl e s t he e f f e c t s o f t he f a m i l y l i t e r a c y e nvi r onm e nt on 538 k i nde r ga r t e n c hi l dr e n s a c a de m i c s ki l l s P a r e nt s c om pl e t e d a m e a s ur e t ha t s e pa r a t e d f a m i l y l i t e r a c y i nt o t he f ol l ow i ng c om pone nt s : ( a ) r e a di ng ha bi t s of t he m ot he r ( b) r e a di ng ha bi t s o f t he f a t he r ( c ) w ho r e a ds t o t he c hi l d a nd how of t e n, ( d ) num be r of books t he c hi l d ow n s ( e ) how of t e n s om e one i n t he f a m i l y bor r ow s books f r o m t he l i br a r y ( f ) a m ount o f t e l e vi s i on w a t c he d, a nd ( g ) num be r of s ubs c r i pt i ons t o ne w s pa pe r s I t w a s f ound t ha t t he f a m i l y l i t e r a c y e nvi r onm e nt a s a s s e s s e d by t hi s m e a s ur e w a s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he c hi l dr e n s i nt e l l i ge nc e l e ve l a nd w i t h t he i r s c or e s on m e a s ur e of r e a di ng, r e c e pt i ve voc a bul a r y, a nd know l e dge f or ge ne r a l i nf or m a t i on. I n a ddi t i on i t w a s f ound t ha t r e ga r dl e s s of t he f a m i l y s s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us or t he m ot he r s e duc a t i ona l l e ve l c hi l dr e n f r om f a m i l i e s s c or i ng h i gh on f a m i l y l i t e r a c y e nvi r onm e nt s c or e d h i ghe r on t he a c a de m i c m e a s ur e s t ha n c hi l dr e n f r om f a m i l i e s w ho s c or e d l ow on f a m i l y l i t e r a c y e nvi r onm e nt T o e l a bor a t e on t he i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n l i t e r a c y e nvi r onm e nt a nd e c onom i c s t a t us S m i t h a nd D i xon ( 1995 ) s t udi e d t he di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n 33 f our ye a r ol d c hi l dr e n i n H e a d S t a r t pr e s c hool pr og r a m s a nd 31 c hi l d r e n e nr ol l e d i n p r i va t e pr e s c hool s T he pa r e nt s of t he c hi l d r e n c om pl e t e d a que s t i onna i r e i nqui r i ng a bout t he qua l i t y of t he hom e l i t e r a c y e nvi r onm e nt T he c hi l d r e n w e r e a s s e s s e d w i t h ni ne di f f e r e nt m e a s ur e s of l i t e r a c y know l e dge i nc l udi ng unde r s t a ndi ng t he f unc t i on o f pr i nt know l e dge of l i t e r a c y obj e c t s a bi l i t y t o w r i t e w or ds i de nt i f y i ng l e t t e r na m e s a nd s ounds a nd a bi l i t y t o c om bi ne

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33 s yl l a bl e a nd phone m e s e gm e nt s i nt o w or ds O ve r a l l t he f i ndi ngs s ugge s t t ha t t hos e c hi l dr e n w ho r e c e i ve d t he l ow e s t s c or e s w e r e f r om f a m i l i e s of l ow s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us I t w a s a l s o f ound t ha t t he m i ddl e c l a s s pa r e nt s e nga ge d m or e f r e que nt l y i n l i t e r a c y pr om ot i ng a c t i vi t i e s s uc h a s r e a di ng t o t he i r c hi l d, t ha n t he l ow e r c l a s s pa r e nt s H e nc e i t s e e m s t ha t c hi l dr e n f r om i m pove r i s he d f a m i l i e s a r e a t a di s a dva nt a ge be c a us e of t he l ow qua l i t y o f hom e l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s H ow e ve r i t i s i m po r t a nt t o not e t ha t f u r t he r e xa m i na t i on of t he m i ddl e c l a s s c hi l dr e n i n t he s t u dy w ho pe r f o r m e d poo r l y on t he a s s e s s m e nt m e a s ur e s s how e d a t r e nd of poor l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s a t hom e A not he r i nt e r e s t i ng t r e nd w a s f ound w he n e xa m i ni ng t he h om e l i t e r a c y e nvi r onm e nt s o f t he l ow e r c l a s s c hi l dr e n w ho pe r f o r m e d w e l l T he s e c hi l dr e n, de s pi t e pove r t y, w e r e e xpos e d t o e nr i c hi ng hom e e xpe r i e nc e s T he r e f or e a s w a s f ound i n t h e s t udy by C hr i s t i a n e t a l ( 1998) t hi s s t udy s uppor t s t he i de a t ha t m e a ni ngf u l l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s c a n ove r r i de t he de t r i m e nt a l e f f e c t s of pove r t y R us h ( 1999) f u r t he r e xa m i ne d H e a d S t a r t c hi l dr e n a nd t he i r f a m i l y e nvi r on m e nt s by f oc us i ng onl y on l ow i nc om e f a m i l i e s A f t e r a s s e s s i ng pr e s c hool c hi l dr e n s e xpr e s s i ve a nd r e c e pt i ve voc a bul a r y a nd t he i r s pe c i f i c e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s m e a s ur e d by t a s ks of l e t t e r na m i ng f l ue nc y, ons e t r e c ogni t i on f l ue nc y, a nd phone m e bl e ndi ng a gr e a t de a l of va r i a bi l i t y w a s f ound a m ong t he c hi l dr e n. B a s e d on hom e obs e r va t i on a nd hom e l i t e r a c y s ur ve ys c om pl e t e d by t he pa r e nt s i t w a s f ound t ha t t he c hi l dr e n w ho pe r f or m e d t he be s t ha d pa r e nt s w ho e nga ge d t he c hi l dr e n i n c onve r s a t i on of t e n, s t r uc t ur e d t he c hi l dr e n s pl a y, a nd r e por t e d hi gh r a t e s of l i t e r a c y a c t i vi t i e s I n t e r e s t i ngl y, t he a ut hor of t hi s s t udy c onc l ude d by r e c om m e ndi ng t he ne e d f o r t he de ve l opm e nt o f e m pi r i c a l l y

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34 s uppor t e d hom e ba s e d i nt e r ve nt i ons ( p. 12) pa r t i c ul a r l y phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i nt e r ve nt i ons L i ke w i s e i n a s t udy by E va ns e t a l ( 2000 ) i t w a s s ugge s t e d t ha t l i t t l e r e s e a r c h ha s be e n c onduc t e d on t he e f f e c t s o f hom e r e a di ng e xpe r i e nc e s on phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s T hi s s t udy a t t e m pt e d t o br i dge t h i s ga p. A s s e s s m e nt of 67 f i ve a nd s i x ye a r ol d c hi l dr e n w a s c onduc t e d w i t h m e a s ur e s of ( a ) f r e que nc y of r e a di ng c hi l dr e n s books ( book t i t l e t e s t ) ; ( b) f r e que nc y of r e a di ng a c t i vi t i e s a t hom e ( c hi l d i nt e r v i e w ) ; ( c ) i nt e l l i ge nc e ( W e c hs l e r P r e s c hool and P r i m ar y Sc al e s of I nt e l l i ge nc e R e v i s e d ) ; ( d ) r a pi d na m i ng; ( e ) phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s ( T e s t of P hon ol ogi c al A w ar e ne s s K i nde r gar t e n V e r s i on ) ; ( f ) l a ngua ge ( P e abody P i c t ur e V oc abul a r y T e s t R e v i s e d ) ; ( g ) l e t t e r know l e dge ; ( h) l i t e r a c y s ki l l s i n f i r s t a nd s e c ond g r a de ( t he W or d I de nt i f i c a t i on, W or d A t t a c k, a nd P a s s a ge C om pr e he ns i on s ubt e s t s of t he W oodc oc k R e adi ng M as t e r y T e s t s R e v i s e d ) ; ( i ) f i r s t gr a de s pe l l i ng; a nd ( j ) s e c ond gr a de s pe l l i ng ( W i de R ange A c hi e v e m e nt T e s t 3 ) T he i nt e l l i ge nc e a nd r a pi d na m i ng m e a s ur e s s e r ve d a s c ont r ol va r i a bl e s I nt e r vi e w s w e r e c onduc t e d w i t h t he c hi l dr e n s pa r e nt s on hom e l i t e r a c y pr a c t i c e s a nd hom e vi s i t s w e r e c onduc t e d e a c h ye a r i n w hi c h a p a r e nt c hi l d r e a di ng s e s s i on w a s obs e r ve d. I t w a s de t e r m i ne d t ha t e ve r y da y book r e a di ng di d not p r e di c t l e t t e r na m e know l e dge l e t t e r s ound know l e dge phonol ogi c a l s e ns i t i vi t y, or r e c e pt i ve voc a bul a r y. H ow e ve r t he s e s ki l l s w e r e pr e di c t e d by pa r e nt r e p or t of s pe c i f i c l i t e r a c y a c t i vi t i e s s uc h a s l e a r ni ng l e t t e r na m e s a nd s ounds I t w a s s ugge s t e d t ha t pa r e nt s be t r a i ne d s o t ha t t he y m a y he l p de ve l op t he i r c hi l dr e n s m os t i m por t a nt f ounda t i on r e a di ng s ki l l s T he f i ndi ngs o f t he s t udi e s di s c us s e d i n t hi s r e vi e w a r e not a bl e be c a us e t he y de m ons t r a t e t he i m por t a nc e o f c hi l dr e n s e xpos ur e t o l i t e r a c y r e l a t e d a c t i vi t i e s i n t he

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35 hom e P a r e nt s a nd t he hom e l i t e r a c y e nvi r onm e nt t ha t t he y c r e a t e c a n ha ve a pr of ound e f f e c t on t he i r c hi l dr e n s l i t e r a c y s ki l l s T he s t udi e s by R us h ( 1999) a nd E va ns e t a l ( 2000) a ddr e s s t he i de a t ha t t ypi c a l ho m e l i t e r a c y e nvi r onm e nt s m a y not be s uf f i c i e n t f or c hi l dr e n w ho a r e a t r i s k f or f a i l i ng t o l e a r n t o r e a d. I t i s s ugge s t e d t ha t r e s e a r c h s uppor t e d hom e a c t i vi t i e s i n a ddi t i on t o s ha r e d bo ok r e a di ng, m a y be m os t be ne f i c i a l P ar e nt B as e d R e adi ng I nt e r v e nt i ons T he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pa r e nt s a nd c h i l dr e n i n r e s pe c t t o a ppr opr i a t e de ve l opm e nt of l i t e r a c y ha s be e n w e l l doc um e nt e d T he e nd r e s ul t i n e ve r y s our c e c ons ul t e d f or t hi s l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w s t r ongl y s ugge s t s t ha t t he i nvol ve m e nt of t he pa r e nt i n t he c hi l d s e duc a t i ona l pr og r e s s w i l l i m pr ove t h e s t ude nt s r e a di ng pe r f o r m a nc e T he hom e c a n be a n e xc e l l e nt s our c e o f e duc a t i ona l e nr i c hm e nt a nd pa r e nt s ha ve t he a bi l i t y t o e nha nc e t he i r c hi l d r e n s a c a de m i c s ki l l s W i t h t hi s know l e dge m uc h r e s e a r c h ha s s t udi e d pa r e nt ba s e d r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i ons T he m a j or i t y of t he s e i nt e r ve nt i ons ha ve c e nt e r e d on nons pe c i f i c i nt e r ve nt i ons s uc h a s pa r e nt c hi l d s ha r e d r e a di ng H ow e ve r a n a bunda nc e of r e c e nt r e s e a r c h s ugge s t s t ha t pa r e nt s c a n a nd s houl d a ddr e s s m or e s pe c i f i c r e a di ng s ki l l s T he r ol e of t r a i ni ng pa r e nt s i n f or m a l a nd s pe c i f i c hom e r e a di ng a c t i vi t i e s a s c om pa r e d t o t ypi c a l pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt ha s be e n c l a r i f i e d i n a nu m be r o f s t udi e s S i x s t udi e s w e r e r e vi e w e d t ha t a r e r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of t h e f i ndi ngs i n t he r e s e a r c h on f or m a l s t r uc t ur e d, pa r e nt ba s e d r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i ons S e ve r a l s t udi e s ha ve e xa m i ne d t he us e of s pe c i f i c e r r or c o r r e c t i on a nd pr a i s i ng pr oc e dur e s w i t h pa r e nt s a t t e ndi ng t o t he i r c hi l dr e n r e a di ng a l oud. I n a s t udy by W i l ks a nd C l a r ke ( 1988) 42 m ot he r c hi l d dya ds w e r e di vi de d i nt o t h r e e gr oups : a c ont r ol gr oup, a n e nc our a ge d gr oup a nd a t r a i ne d gr oup. T he c ont r ol gr oup pa r e nt s c om pl e t e d

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36 r e l e va nt que s t i onna i r e s a nd t he c hi l dr e n c om pl e t e d t he pr e a nd pos t t e s t ( N e al e A nal y s i s of R e adi ng A bi l i t y a nor m r e f e r e nc e d m e a s ur e of r e a d i ng a c c ur a c y a nd c om pr e he ns i on) T he pa r e nt s i n t he e nc our a ge d gr oup w e r e t a ught i n t w o s e s s i ons a bout good r e a di ng ha bi t s a nd s e l e c t i ng a ppr opr i a t e books f o r t he i r c hi l dr e n. T he pa r e nt s i n t he t r a i ne d g r oup w e r e pr e s e nt e d w i t h t he s a m e i n f or m a t i on a s t h e e nc our a ge d pa r e nt s but w e r e a l s o t a ught i n t w o a ddi t i ona l s e s s i ons how t o i m pl e m e nt t he us e of p r a i s e a nd t he c or r e c t i on of e r r o r s T he y r e c e i ve d a m pl e t i m e t o pr a c t i c e t he s e s ki l l s b e f or e us i ng t he m a t hom e I n e xa m i ni ng t he t r a i ne d m ot he r s i t w a s f ound t ha t t h e y c ha nge d t he i r be ha vi or s a s a r e s ul t of t he t r a i ni ng; t he y ga ve t he i r c hi l d m o r e p r a i s e a nd a l l ow e d t he i r c hi l d m o r e t i m e f or s e l f c or r e c t i on be f or e pr ovi di ng c or r e c t i on I n e xa m i ni ng t he c hi l d r e n s s c or e s i t w a s di s c ove r e d t ha t t he t r a i ne d gr oup m a de s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r ga i ns t ha n t he ot he r t w o gr oups f or r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on. K e e p i n m i nd how e ve r t ha t t he onl y m e a s ur e us e d t o m e a s ur e c ha nge i n s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e i n t hi s s t udy w a s a nor m r e f e r e nc e d a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t w hi c h i s not w e l l de s i gne d f or m e a s ur i ng c ha nge ove r s hor t pe r i ods of t i m e O f t he s t udi e s e va l ua t i ng e r r or c o r r e c t i on p r oc e dur e s s e ve r a l ha ve e m pl oye d m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne de s i gns T he s e s t udi e s ha ve f oc us e d on e m pl oyi ng pa r e nt s t o i nc r e a s e s t ude nt s r e a di ng f l ue nc y r a t e a nd t o de c r e a s e t he num be r of e r r or s m a de w hi l e r e a di ng. I n a s t udy by T hu r s t on a nd D a s t a ( 1990 ) pa r e nt s o f e i ght c hi l d r e n w e r e t r a i ne d t o i nc r e a s e t he us e of pr a i s e t o us e a s pe c i f i c c o r r e c t i on pr oc e dur e w he n t he c hi l dr e n m a de r e a di ng e r r or s a nd t o a s k c om pr e he ns i on que s t i ons a f t e r r e a di ng A m ul t i p l e ba s e l i ne de s i gn w a s us e d t o m e a s ur e i nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s C hi l dr e n w e r e a s s e s s e d be f or e a nd a f t e r ba s e l i ne a nd be f or e a nd a f t e r t he pa r e nt i nt e r ve nt i o n. T he m e a s ur e s us e d i nc l ude d t he

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37 Sl os s on O r al R e adi ng T e s t t he r e a di ng c om p r e he ns i on a nd w or d r e c ogni t i on s ubt e s t s of t he P e abody I nd i v i dual A c hi e v e m e nt T e s t a m e a s ur e of or a l r e a di ng r a t e a nd a m e a s ur e of pe r c e nt a ge of w or ds c or r e c t I t w a s f ound, by r e vi e w i ng a udi ot a pe s of pa r e nt c hi l d r e a di ng s e s s i ons t ha t pa r e nt s di d i nde e d c ha nge t h e i r be ha vi or s a s e nc our a ge d i n t he t r a i ni ng s e s s i on. A l s o, t he c hi l dr e n s how e d i m pr o ve m e nt on va r i ous r e a di ng m e a s ur e s a s c om pa r e d t o a m a t c he d c ont r ol g r oup. C hi l d r e n r e por t e d e nj oyi ng r e a di ng w i t h t he i r pa r e nt s m or e a f t e r t he hom e i nt e r ve nt i on A not he r e r r o r c or r e c t i on pr oc e dur e w a s e va l ua t e d by D uva l l D e l qua dr i E l l i ot & H a l l ( 1992) M ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne r e ve r s a l a nd p r e t e s t / pos t t e s t c om pa r i s on de s i gns w e r e us e d t o e va l ua t e e f f e c t s F our s t ude nt s w ho w e r e e x pe r i e nc i ng di f f i c ul t y i n r e a di ng pa r t i c i pa t e d. P a r e nt s c onduc t e d t ut o r i ng du r i ng t w o t r e a t m e nt pha s e s s e pa r a t e d by a s e c ond ba s e l i ne dur i ng w hi c h t ut or i ng w a s s t oppe d. P a r e nt t u t or i ng c ons i s t e d of i ns t r uc t i ng t he i r c hi l d t o r e a d o r a l l y, i nt e r ve ni ng t o c or r e c t e r r or s a nd pr ovi d i ng s ys t e m a t i c pr a i s e a s w e l l a s f a c i l i t a t i ng r e pe a t e d r e a di ngs of t he pa s s a ge s f or gr e a t e r pr a c t i c e D a t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d a t hom e a nd a t s c hool t o m e a s ur e ge ne r a l i z a t i on of ho m e de ve l ope d s ki l l s t o s c hool r e l a t e d s ki l l s R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he pa r e nt t ut or i ng i nc r e a s e d r a t e s of c or r e c t r e a di ng ( de t e r m i ne d by a na l yz i ng t he gr a phs of e a c h s t ude nt ) t he e f f e c t s ge ne r a l i z e d t o un t ut or e d pa s s a ge s a t hom e t he e f f e c t s ge ne r a l i z e d a nd m a i nt a i ne d a t s c hool on t u t or e d a nd unt ut or e d pa s s a ge s a nd t ha t t he s t ude nt s e vi de nc e d ga i ns a s m e a s ur e d by gr a de e qui va l e nt s c or e s on a s t a nda r di z e d, nor m r e f e r e nc e d a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t T h i s s t udy s r e s ul t s a r e l i m i t e d by t he us e of gr a de e qui va l e nt s c or e s w hi c h a r e not a c c ur a t e i n m e a s ur i ng s t ude nt p r ogr e s s

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38 L ove a nd V a n B i e r vl i e t ( 1984 ) not onl y us e d a m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne de s i gn but a l s o a na l yz e d t he e f f e c t s of a n e r r o r c or r e c t i on pr oc e du r e w i t h s t ude nt s w i t h m i l d m e nt a l ha ndi c a ps ( i e i nt e l l e c t ua l s c or e s r a ngi ng f r om 60 t o 70) F ou r s t ude nt s r e c e i v e d t r a i ni ng i n w hi c h pa r e nt s l i s t e ne d t o t he s t ude nt r e a d a l oud, pa us e d w he n t he c hi l d m a de a n e r r or t o a l l ow t i m e f or s e l f c or r e c t i on pr om pt e d a c or r e c t r e s pons e a f t e r a t e n s e c ond de l a y pe r i od, a nd pr ovi de d s ys t e m a t i c pr a i s e C hi l dr e n s s ki l l s w e r e e va l ua t e d by obs e r vi ng t he i r o r a l r e a di ng a t hom e a nd a t s c hool T he s t ude nt s num be r of w o r ds r e a d c or r e c t l y di d no t c ha nge m uc h a c r os s pha s e s w hi c h t he r e s e a r c he r s hypot he s i z e d w a s due t o t he i nc r e a s i ng di f f i c ul t y l e ve l o f t he r e a di ng t e xt ove r t he c our s e o f t he s t udy T he s t ude nt s how e ve r di d i nc r e a s e t he i r r a t e s of s e l f c or r e c t i on on unt ut or e d a nd t ut or e d r e a di ng t e xt dur i ng t he t r a i ni ng pha s e T hr e e of t h e s e s t ude nt s m a i nt a i ne d i m pr ove d s e l f c or r e c t i on r a t e s dur i ng t he m a i nt e na nc e pha s e D i a l o gi c r e a di ng i s a not he r t e c hni que t ha t ha s be e n us e d s uc c e s s f ul l y w i t h pa r e nt s ( e g. F i e l di n g B a r ns l e y & P ur d i e 2003 ; L oni ga n & W hi t e hur s t 1998 ) W ha t i s un i que a bout di a l ogi c r e a di ng i s i t s e m pha s i s on t he pa r e n t s a c t i ve r ol e a nd a f oc us on a ddi ng i nf or m a t i on t o t he r e a di ng s e s s i on, s uc h a s by e nc o ur a gi ng a w a r e ne s s of r hym e c onc e pt s a bout pr i nt or a l pha be t i c know l e dge I t i s t hought by s om e t ha t a f oc us on a va r i e t y of r e a di ng s ki l l s i s s upe r i or t o a f oc us on j us t one F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y & P ur di e ( 2 003) t r a i ne d t he pa r e nt s o f 26 pr e s c hool c hi l dr e n t o i m p l e m e nt a n e i ght w e e k di a l ogi c r e a di ng t ut or i ng p r ogr a m T he s e s t ude nt s pe r f or m a nc e w a s c om pa r e d t o a c ont r o l gr oup c ons i s t i ng of 23 c hi l dr e n T he s t ude nt s pe r f or m a nc e w a s e va l ua t e d dur i ng t he i r f i r s t t w o w e e ks of ki nde r ga r t e n a nd t he n a ga i n a t t he e nd o f t he i r ki nde r ga r t e n ye a r E va l ua t i on o f t he s t ude nt s m e a s ur e d r e c e pt i ve voc a bul a r y, r hym e a w a r e ne s s c onc e pt s a bout pr i nt

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39 r e c ogni t i on of i ni t i a l c ons ona nt s ounds l e t t e r r e c ogni t i on, w o r d i de nt i f i c a t i on ( e nd of ki nde r ga r t e n onl y) a nd s pe l l i ng ( e nd of ki nde r ga r t e n onl y) A f t e r p r e s c hool pa r e nt t ut or i ng a t t he be gi nni ng of t he i r ki nde r ga r t e n ye a r t he e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup s c or e d hi ghe r t ha n t he c ont r ol gr oup on m e a s ur e s of r e c e pt i ve vo c a bul a r y, i ni t i a l c ons ona nt s ounds r e c ogni t i on, r hym e a w a r e ne s s a nd c onc e pt s a bout pr i nt A t t he e nd o f t he i r ki nde r ga r t e n ye a r bot h gr oups i m p r ove d i n a l l a r e a s bu t t he e x pe r i m e nt a l gr oup s c or e d hi ghe r on t he c ons ona nt s ounds a nd c onc e pt s a bout pr i nt m e a s ur e s W ha t m a ke s t hi s s t udy di f f e r e nt t ha n t he ot he r s r e vi e w e d he r e i s a f oc us on p r e s c hool i nt e r ve nt i on a f f e c t i ng l a t e r s c hool pe r f or m a nc e T hi s s t udy s r e s ul t s a r e l i m i t e d by t h e s m a l l s a m pl e s i z e a nd by t he f a c t t ha t t he pa r e nt pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e s e l f nom i na t e d ( i e t he y w e r e m ot i va t e d a nd w e r e e nt hus i a s t i c a bout pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he s t udy) a nd m a y not be r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of a l l pa r e nt s O ne r e c e nt s t udy t ha t ha s i m p r ove d upon t he de s i g n f l a w s of m uc h pa r e nt t u t or i ng r e s e a r c h ( e g. no r a ndom a s s i gnm e nt no c ont r ol g r oup, que s t i ona bl e us e of nor m r e f e r e nc e d a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t s a s m e a s ur e s of i ndi vi dua l gr ow t h, e t c ) w a s c onduc t e d by P ow e l l S m i t h e t a l ( 2000) T he r e s e a r c he r s i nve s t i ga t e d t w o hom e ba s e d r e a di ng t ut or i ng p r ogr a m s de s i gne d t o i m p r ove t he s t ude n t s pe r f or m a nc e i n r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt T hi r t y s i x s t ude nt s i n t he s e c ond gr a de a nd t he i r pa r e nt s w e r e r a ndom l y a s s i gne d t o one of t h r e e gr oups : l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d ho m e t ut or i ng c ur r i c ul um ba s e d hom e t ut or i ng, a nd a c ont r ol g r oup. T he pa r e nt t ut or i ng pr oc e dur e s w e r e t he s a m e f or bot h t r e a t m e nt gr oups ; how e ve r w ha t d i f f e r e d w a s t he t ype of r e a di ng m a t e r i a l s pa r e nt s w e r e t a ught t o s e l e c t T he l i t e r a t ur e ba s e d p r ogr a m us e d a ge a nd s ubj e c t a pp r opr i a t e r e a di ng m a t e r i a l s i n t he f or m of c hi l d r e n s books w hi l e t h e s e c ond pr ogr a m us e d ba s a l r e a de r s f r om t he s c hool s s t a nda r d c ur r i c ul um T he pa r e nt s w e r e s uppl i e d t r a i ni ng a nd s uppor t i n

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40 de l i ve r i ng t he p r ogr a m t o t he i r c hi l dr e n a nd t ut or i ng s e s s i ons w e r e a ppl i e d f our t i m e s e a c h w e e k f or t w e nt y m i nut e s pe r s e s s i on f or f i ve w e e ks T he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he pr ogr a m s w a s e va l ua t e d t hr ough C ur r i c ul um B a s e d M e a s ur e m e nt R e a di ng ( R C B M ) us i ng pr obe s f r om t w o s our c e s T e s t s of R e a di ng F l ue nc y ( T O R F ) a nd t he c u r r i c ul um i n w hi c h t he s t ude nt w a s be i ng i ns t r uc t e d. D a t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d f or e a c h s t ude nt t w o t i m e s pe r w e e k dur i ng ba s e l i ne t r e a t m e nt a nd f ol l ow up T he r e s ul t s of t he P ow e l l S m i t h e t a l ( 2000) s t udy w e r e m i xe d: N e i t he r of t he pr ogr a m s s how e d m a r ke d ove r a l l pr ogr e s s ( i e r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e n t l e ve l or r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt s l ope ) f or a l l s t ude nt s i nvol ve d. H ow e ve r w he n t he r e s e a r c he r s e xa m i ne d i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt gr a phs i t w a s di s c ove r e d t ha t s t ude nt s w ho w e r e not r e s pondi ng t o t he r e gul a r s c hool c ur r i c ul um ( a s m e a s ur e d by ba s e l i ne s l ope l e s s t ha n or e qua l t o 1. 0 ) i m pr ove d m or e t ha n s t ude nt s w ho w e r e r e s pondi ng t o t he r e gul a r s c hool c u r r i c ul um A ddi t i ona l l y, s t ude nt s t ha t r e c e i ve d pa r e nt t ut o r i ng m a de m or e ga i ns t ha n t he c ont r ol gr oup s t ude nt s T he r e s ul t s of t he s e s t udi e s pr ovi de s uppor t f o r t he i de a t ha t pa r e nt t r a i ni ng i n r e a di ng a c t i vi t i e s r e s ul t s i n be ne f i t s f or c hi l dr e n. P ar e nt B as e d P honol ogi c al A w ar e ne s s I nt e r v e nt i o ns S e ve r a l r e s e a r c he r s ha ve r a i s e d t he que s t i on of w h e t he r t he r e a r e hom e e xpe r i e nc e s t ha t a r e r e l a t e d t o t he de ve l opm e nt o f phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s ( e g. E va ns e t a l 2000 ; R us h, 1999; S e ne c ha l & L e F e vr e 2002) T he r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a a ppe a r s t o be l i m i t e d. T hr e e s t udi e s ha ve be e n i de nt i f i e d t ha t i nc l ude a pa r e nt t ut or i ng gr oup f oc us e d on phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s ba s e d s ki l l s

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41 A l t hough not s pe c i f i c a l l y i de nt i f i e d a s a phono l ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i nt e r ve nt i on, G a ng a nd P oc he s s t udy ( 1982 ) e s s e nt i a l l y t a ught pa r e nt s t o t e a c h t he i r c hi l dr e n s ounds s ound c om bi na t i ons a nd s ound bl e ndi ng w i t h a hi ghl y s t r uc t ur e d a ppr oa c h T hr e e s t ude nt s a nd t he i r m ot he r s pa r t i c i pa t e d. P a r e nt t r a i ni ng w a s i nt e ns i ve S i x pa r e nt t r a i ni ng s e s s i ons l a s t i ng t w o a nd one ha l f hour s e a c h w e r e c onduc t e d i n w hi c h pa r e nt s w e r e t a ught a bout p r ope r t u t or i ng e nvi r onm e nt s p r ovi de d a c our s e on l e a r ni ng t h e or y gi ve n a qui z on t he c our s e r e qui r e d t o m a s t e r p r on unc i a t i on of a l l of t he s ounds of t he pr ogr a m r e vi e w e d t he e nt i r e pr og r a m m a nua l e t c T he pr ogr a m us e d w a s c a l l e d t he S ound S ym bol s a nd B l e ndi ng P r og r a m a nd c ons i s t e d of s i x uni t s a l t hough t he m e a ns by w hi c h l e s s ons w e r e t a ught w e r e not e xpl a i ne d i n t h e s t udy P a r e nt s i m pl e m e nt e d t he pr ogr a m f ou r t i m e s pe r w e e k f or 25 m i nut e s pe r s e s s i on f or s e ve n w e e ks A m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne de s i gn w a s us e d. T w o no r m r e f e r e nc e d t e s t s a n i nf or m a l r e a di ng i nve nt o r y, a nd c r i t e r i on r e f e r e nc e d t e s t s of l e t t e r s ounds l e t t e r c o m bi na t i ons a nd w or d bl e ndi ng w e r e us e d t o m oni t or s t ude nt pr ogr e s s A l l t hr e e s t ude nt s s how e d i nc r e a s e d pe r c e nt a ge of s ounds pr onounc e d c or r e c t l y ( a s m e a s ur e d by t he c r i t e r i on r e f e r e nc e d t e s t s ) ove r t he c our s e of t he s t udy. C onf i de nc e i n t he s e r e s ul t s i s w e a ke ne d c ons i de r e d t ha t t he r e i s no r e l i a bi l i t y o r va l i di t y da t a r e po r t e d f o r t he c r i t e r i on r e f e r e nc e d t e s t s us e d. A l l t hr e e s t ude nt s a l s o di s pl a ye d i nc r e a s e s on t he nor m r e f e r e nc e d m e a s ur e s A s e c ond pr ogr a m hi ghl i ght i ng phoni c s s ki l l s w i t h a pr e c i s i on t e a c hi ng a ppr oa c h w a s e xa m i ne d by W hi t e S o l i t y, a nd R e e ve ( 1984) P r e c i s i on t e a c hi ng i nvol ve d da i l y pr obi ng, c ha r t i ng o f da t a s e t t i ng t a r ge t s c ha ngi ng t a s ks a nd s e l e c t i ng r e a di ng m a t e r i a l a t a n a ppr opr i a t e l e ve l P a r t i c i pa nt s i nc l ude d t hi r t e e n c hi l dr e n, s e ve n of w hom r e c e i ve d i nt e r ve nt i on f o r t w e l ve m on t hs a nd s i x of w hom r e c e i ve d i nt e r ve nt i on f o r l e s s t ha n

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42 t w e l ve m ont hs T he r e w a s no c ont r ol gr oup. T ut o r i ng w a s c onduc t e d da i l y f or 1 0 m i nut e s pe r da y. T he s ki l l s t a ught by t he pa r e nt s i nc l ude d l e t t e r s ounds bl e ndi ng s ki l l s i ni t i a l a nd f i na l bl e nds a nd di s c r i m i na t i on s ki l l s M e a s ur e s i nc l ude d pa r e nt a dm i ni s t e r e d da i l y pr obe s a nd a s t a nda r di z e d m e a s ur e o f r e a di n g a c hi e ve m e nt R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he c hi l dr e n s how e d ga i ns i n r e a di ng a c c ur a c y ( a s m e a s ur e d by t he s t a nda r di z e d a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t ) B a s e d on r e s ul t s f r om t he pa r e n t pr obe s a l l c hi l dr e n s how e d ga i ns f or e a c h s ki l l c ove r e d f r om t he be gi nni ng t o t he e nd o f t he pr og r a m A l t hough t he r e s ul t s a r e pr om i s i ng, t he s t udy de s i gn di d no t a l l ow f or c ont r ol s of i nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t ( e g no c ont r ol gr oup or m ul t i pl e r e pl i c a t i ons ) T hus i t i s i nc onc l us i ve a s t o w ha t va r i a bl e l e a d t o t he s t ude nt s ga i ns ( e g. i nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s m a t ur a t i on, e t c ) M or e r e c e nt l y, L e a c h a nd S i dda l l ( 1990 ) c om pa r e d t he e f f e c t s o f f ou r di f f e r e nt pa r e nt t r a i ni ng g r oups on 40 f i r s t gr a de s t ude nt s r e a di ng pr ogr e s s O ne gr oup o f pa r e nt s di d not r e c e i ve f or m a l t r a i ni ng a l t hough i m pl e m e n t e d a H e a r i ng R e a di ng ( H R ) a ppr oa c h ( ha vi ng pa r e nt s l i s t e n t o t he i r c hi l dr e n r e a d) A s e c ond gr oup w a s t r a i ne d i n P a i r e d R e a di ng ( P R ) a s ha r e d r e a di ng m e t hod t ha t t e a c he s pa r e nt s t o m oni t o r t he i r c hi l d s r e a di ng a nd a t t he s a m e t i m e t e a c he s t he c hi l d t o c hoos e books a t t he a ppr opr i a t e r e a di ng l e ve l A t hi r d gr oup w a s t r a i ne d w i t h P a us e P r om pt a nd P r a i s e ( P P P ) t he s a m e e r r or c or r e c t i on a nd p r a i s e m e t hod e m pl oye d i n t he s t ud y by T hu r s t on a nd D a s t a ( 1990 ) de s c r i be d pr e vi ous l y. T he f i na l gr oup r e c e i v e d t r a i ni ng i n D i r e c t I ns t r uc t i on ( D I ) a pr ogr a m t ha t f oc us e s on t e a c hi ng l e t t e r s ound i de nt i f i c a t i on, bl e ndi ng s ounds a nd r hym i ng ( a l l phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s ) P a r e nt t r a i ni ng i n D I w a s t he m os t t i m e c ons um i ng of t he m e t hods s t udi e d T r a i ni ng t ook f our a nd a ha l f hour s A f t e r t e n w e e ks of t he pa r e nt i nt e r ve nt i on ( 10 15 m i nut e da i l y s e s s i ons ) r e s ul t s s how e d s i gni f i c a nt

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43 e f f e c t s i n t he P R a nd D I gr oups C hi l dr e n i n t he s e gr oups i m pr ove d i n r e a di ng a c c ur a c y a nd c om pr e he ns i on. A l t hough t he r e w a s no di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he P R a nd D I gr oups t hi s s t udy pr ovi de s one of t he m os t r e c e nt a t t e m pt s t o s how t he out c om e of a hom e ba s e d phoni c s i nt e r ve nt i on. E a c h of t he s t udi e s di s c us s e d ha s pr ovi de d i ni t i a l e vi de nc e of t he s t r e ngt h of pa r e nt ba s e d phonol o gi c a l a w a r e ne s s i nt e r ve nt i ons M or e r e s e a r c h w i t h s t r onge r de s i gns be t t e r m e a s ur e m e nt t ool s a nd m or e c os t e f f e c t i ve a nd l e s s t i m e i nt e ns i ve t r e a t m e nt s a r e ne e de d t o pr ovi de a c l e a r e r pi c t u r e of t he e f f i c a c y of t hi s t ype of pa r e nt i nt e r ve nt i on C o nc l us i ons R e c om m e ndat i ons and St at e m e nt of P ur pos e T he m os t not e w or t hy f i ndi ngs f r om a r e vi e w of t h e l i t e r a t ur e on e a r l y l i t e r a c y a r e a s f ol l ow s : ( a ) phono l ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i s a ne c e s s a r y c om pone nt i n t he de ve l opm e nt of e a r l y l i t e r a c y a nd i s hi ghl y r e l a t e d t o f ut ur e r e a di n g s uc c e s s ( b) a va r i e t y of r e s e a r c h ba s e d phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i nt e r ve nt i ons e xi s t ( c ) l i t e r a c y a c t i vi t i e s c onduc t e d i n t he hom e a f f e c t c hi l d r e n s l i t e r a c y de ve l opm e nt a nd ( d) pa r e nt ba s e d l i t e r a c y i nt e r ve nt i ons a r e s uc c e s s f ul i n i m pr ovi ng c hi l d r e n s l i t e r a c y s ki l l s I n r e vi e w i ng t h e r e s e a r c h, i t i s c l e a r t ha t t he r e i s a de a r t h o f r e s e a r c h on pa r e nt t r a i ni ng i n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i nt e r ve nt i ons S o f a r l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h e xi s t s de m ons t r a t i ng t he e f f e c t i ve s of t e a c hi ng phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i n t he hom e ( e g. L e a c h & S i dda l l 1990) A c onc e r n w i t h t he e xi s t i ng s t udi e s i s t he i nt e ns i ve t i m e c ons um i ng t r a i ni ng pr oc e dur e s a nd/ or e xpe ns i ve m a t e r i a l s ( F i t t on & G r e dl e r 1996 ) T he pr e s e nt s t udy w i l l f oc us on t r a i ni ng pa r e nt s w i t h So und F oundat i ons ( B yr ne & F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y, 1 991) a l e s s t i m e i nt e ns i ve a nd m or e c os t e f f e c t i ve i nt e r ve nt i on p r ogr a m t ha t c a n be e a s i l y a da pt e d f or pa r e nt us e A ddi t i ona l l y, a m e a s ur e m e nt t ool w i t h s uppor t i ng t e c hni c a l a de qua c y da t a t ha t ha s be e n

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44 de s i gne d t o be s e ns i t i ve t o c ha nge ove r s hor t pe r i o ds of t i m e w i l l be us e d. F i na l l y, t he pr e s e nt s t udy w i l l a t t e m pt t o a dd t o pa s t r e s e a r c h b y e m pl oyi ng a s i ngl e c a s e m u l t i pl e ba s e l i ne de s i gn. T he m a j or i t y of r e s e a r c h r e vi e w e d i n t hi s a r e a e m pl oye d gr oup de s i g ns e va l ua t e d w i t h qua nt i t a t i ve s t a t i s t i c s W hi l e t hi s t y pe of de s i gn pr ov i de s ove r a l l i nf or m a t i on on t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of i nt e r ve nt i ons i t doe s not s how out c om e s of i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt s ove r t i m e T h i s s t udy w i l l us e a m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne de s i gn t o de m ons t r a t e e f f e c t s of t he pa r e nt pr og r a m on i ndi vi dua l c hi l d r e n.

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45 C ha pt e r T hr e e M e t hod T hi s c ha pt e r de f i ne s t he m e t hods t ha t w e r e e m pl oy e d i n c onduc t i ng t he pr e s e nt s t udy. F i r s t t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i ns t r um e nt s a nd de s i gn a r e de s c r i be d. N e xt t he p r oc e du r e s a r e di s c us s e d i n de t a i l S pe c i f i c a l l y, t he f o l l ow i ng t opi c s a r e a ddr e s s e d i n t he de s c r i pt i on of pr oc e dur e s : pa r t i c i pa nt r e c r ui t m e nt a nd s e l e c t i o n, s c r e e ni ng, da t a c ol l e c t i on, ba s e l i ne pa r e nt t r a i ni ng i nt e r ve nt i on, a nd f ol l ow up. L a s t l y, da t a a na l ys i s pr oc e dur e s a r e pr e s e nt e d a nd e xpl a i ne d. P a r t i c i pa nt s T he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he s t udy w e r e t hr e e s t ude nt s a t t he e nd o f t he i r ki nde r ga r t e n ye a r a nd one pa r e nt f or e a c h s t ude nt ( i e t h r e e pa r e nt s t ude nt dya ds ) P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e s e l e c t e d f r om a ki nde r ga r t e n c l a s s r oom i n a n e l e m e nt a r y s c hool i n a l a r ge s c hool di s t r i c t i n s out hw e s t F l or i da T he c hi l dr e n w e r e i de nt i f i e d by t he i r t e a c he r a s t ypi c a l s t ude nt s w i t h a de f i c i t i n phonol og i c a l a w a r e ne s s ( P A ) S t u de nt s w i t h i de nt i f i e d l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s l a ngu a ge i m pa i r m e nt s or m e nt a l ha ndi c a ps w e r e not c ons i de r e d f or pa r t i c i pa t i on. R e c r ui t m e nt a nd s e l e c t i on c r i t e r i a a r e di s c us s e d i n m or e de t a i l l a t e r i n t h i s c ha pt e r P a r e nt pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e f l ue nt s pe a ke r s of t he E ngl i s h l a ngua ge P r i or t o s e l e c t i on of t h e pa r t i c i pa nt s a ppr ova l w a s obt a i ne d f r om t he I ns t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w B oa r d of t he p r i nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or s un i ve r s i t y, f r om t he pa r t i c i pa t i ng s c hool di s t r i c t a nd f r om t he pr i nc i pa l o f t he s e l e c t e d s c hool

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46 A l l s t ude nt s w e r e s e l e c t e d f r om t he s a m e ge ne r a l e duc a t i on ki nde r ga r t e n c l a s s r oom T he c l a s s r oom t e a c he r i de nt i f i e d H oug ht on M i f f l i n a s t he r e a di ng p r ogr a m us e d i n t he c l a s s r oom T he t e a c he r a l s o i ndi c a t e d t ha t t hi s c ur r i c ul um w a s s uppl e m e nt e d w i t h phoni c s a c t i vi t i e s S t ude nt 1 w a s a f i ve ye a r ol d f e m a l e s t ude nt of N a t i ve A m e r i c a n e t hni c i t y A t t he e nd of he r ki nde r ga r t e n ye a r a c c or di ng t o t e a c he r r e por t s he w a s r e c om m e nde d f or r e t e nt i on. S he ne ve r r e c e i ve d e xc e pt i ona l s t ude nt e duc a t i on s e r vi c e s H e r m ot he r w ho s e r ve d a s t he pa r e nt pa r t i c i pa n t f e l l w i t hi n t he 25 35 ye a r ol d a ge r a nge a nd w a s of N a t i ve A m e r i c a n de s c e nt S t ude nt 1 s m ot he r i de n t i f i e d he r s e l f a s a hom e m a ke r w ho c om pl e t e d gr a dua t e or pr of e s s i ona l s c hool S t ude nt 2 w a s a s i x ye a r ol d m a l e s t ude nt i de nt i f i e d a s N on H i s pa ni c W hi t e A c c or di ng t o t e a c he r r e por t S t ude nt 2 m a de s l ow pr ogr e s s i n r e a di ng t h r oughout m os t of hi s ki nde r ga r t e n ye a r but s t a r t e d t o m a ke g r e a t e r g a i ns i n r e a di ng t ow a r ds t he e nd of t he s c hool ye a r H e w a s r e c om m e nde d f or pr om o t i on t o f i r s t gr a de H e ne ve r r e c e i ve d e xc e pt i ona l s t ude nt e duc a t i on s e r vi c e s S t ude nt 2 s m ot he r s e r ve d a s t he pa r e nt pa r t i c i pa nt S he w a s of N on H i s pa ni c W hi t e de s c e nt f e l l w i t hi n t he 35 44 ye a r o l d a ge r a nge c om pl e t e d a f our ye a r c ol l e ge de gr e e a nd w or ke d f ul l t i m e a s a n i n s ur a nc e a ge nt S t ude nt 3 w a s a s i x ye a r ol d f e m a l e s t ude nt of N on H i s pa ni c W hi t e de s c e nt A c c or di ng t o t e a c he r a nd pa r e nt r e por t S t ude nt 3 r e c e i ve d s pe e c h t he r a py r e s our c e s e r vi c e s a t s c hool s i nc e t he be gi nni ng of he r ki nde r ga r t e n ye a r due t o a r t i c u l a t i on di f f i c ul t i e s A l t hough he r t e a c he r r e c om m e nde d h e r f or r e t e nt i on S t ude nt 3 w a s goi ng t o c ont i nue on t o f i r s t g r a de a t he r m ot he r s r e que s t S t ude nt 3 s pa r e nt pa r t i c i pa nt w a s he r m ot he r S t ude nt 3 s m ot he r w a s of N on H i s pa ni c W hi t e de s c e nt f e l l w i t h i n t he 45 54

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47 ye a r ol d a ge r a nge c om pl e t e d a hi gh s c hool de g r e e a nd w or ke d f ul l t i m e a s a s a l e s a s s oc i a t e a t a m a j or r e t a i l s t or e I ns t r um e nt s I nde pe nde nt V ar i abl e I n t hi s s t udy, t he i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e w a s t he pa r e nt r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i on A va r i e t y of P A i nt e r ve nt i ons e xi s t ; how e ve r Sound F oundat i ons ( B yr ne & F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y, 1991) w a s c hos e n be c a us e of e xt e ns i ve e va l ua t i on of i t s e f f e c t i ve ne s s a nd e a s e of a da pt a bi l i t y f or pa r e nt us e Sound F oundat i ons e m pha s i z e s r e c ogni z i ng phone m e s a c r o s s w or ds s uc h a s by poi nt i ng ou t t w o w or ds t h a t s t a r t or e nd w i t h t he s a m e s ounds T he phone m e s t ha t r e c e i ve t he m os t a t t e nt i on dur i ng t he c our s e of t he i nt e r ve nt i on a r e t he c ont i nua nt c ons ona nt s ounds ( i e s ounds m a de w hi l e a i r c ont i nue s t o f l ow out o f t he m out h) / s / / l / a nd / s h/ ; t he s t op s ounds ( i e s ounds m a de w hi l e a i r f l ow f r om t he l ungs i s c om pl e t e l y s t oppe d) / m / / p/ / t / a nd / g/ ; a nd t he v ow e l s ounds / e / ( a s i n b e t ) a nd / / ( a s i n b a t ) T he r a t i ona l e be hi nd t he pr og r a m s f oc us on a s m a l l s ubs e t of phone m e s or i gi na t e s f r om i ni t i a l e vi de nc e t ha t onc e i ni t i a l P A i s de ve l ope d f or s om e phone m e s t he a w a r e ne s s w i l l ge ne r a l i z e t o ot he r phone m e s not s pe c i f i c a l l y t a ught ( B yr ne & F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y, 1991) T he m a t e r i a l s of Sound F oundat i ons i nc l ud e a c a s s e t t e t a pe w i t h poe m s a nd s t or i e s pos t e r s r e qui r i ng t he c hi l d t o poi nt t o pi c t u r e s of obj e c t s di s pl a yi ng t he de s i r e d s ounds w or ks he e t s r e qui r i ng t he s t ude nt t o l oc a t e a nd c ol or i n obj e c t s di s pl a yi ng de s i r e d s ounds a nd t w o c a r d ga m e s t ha t a l l ow t h e c hi l dr e n t o a ppl y t he i r know l e dge T he r e a r e t w o pos t e r s f or e a c h of t he s e ve n c ons ona nt s one w i t h pi c t ur e s of w or ds t ha t ha ve t he c ons ona nt a s t he be gi nni ng s ound a nd one w i t h pi c t ur e s of w or ds t ha t ha ve t he c ons ona nt

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48 a s t he e ndi ng s ound. O nl y one po s t e r i s f o r e a c h v ow e l s how i ng pi c t ur e s of w or ds t ha t ha ve t he vow e l a s t he be gi nni ng s ound. T h r e e w or ks he e t s a r e pr ovi de d f or e a c h of t he phone m e s t a r ge t e d i n t hi s p r ogr a m a nd f or t he r e m a i ni ng phone m e s r e pr e s e nt e d i n t he m a i n l e t t e r s of t he a l pha be t T he c a r d ga m e s t ypi c a l l y us e d a t t he e nd of t he pr og r a m f oc us on t he s ounds / s / / p / / t / a nd / l / O ne ga m e i s a f or m of d om i nos a nd t he ot he r i s a c a r d ga m e pl a ye d w i t h t he s a m e r ul e s a s t he ga m e S na p. I n B yr ne a nd F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y s ( 1991) f i r s t e va l ua t i on of Sound F ound at i ons e a c h t r a i ni ng s e s s i on f oc us e d on one s ound i n one pos i t i on ( e g. t he f i r s t s e s s i on t a ught / s / a s a be gi nni ng s ound w hi l e t he ne xt s e s s i on f oc us e d on / s / a s a n e ndi ng s ound) E a c h s e s s i on be ga n w i t h a s ong o r j i ngl e us i ng t he phone m e t he n us e d t he pos t e r f o r t he s ound, a nd f i na l l y us e d t he w or ks he e t s T he c a r d ga m e s w e r e i nt r oduc e d i n t h e l a s t t r a i ni ng s e s s i on. I n t h i s s t udy, pa r e nt s w e r e t r a i ne d t o us e t he m a t e r i a l s i n t he s a m e or de r D e pe nde nt V ar i abl e T he de pe nde n t va r i a bl e w a s t he s t ude nt s phonol o gi c a l a w a r e ne s s a s m e a s ur e d by t he D I B E L S ( D yna m i c I ndi c a t or s of B a s i c E a r l y L i t e r a c y S ki l l s ) T he D I B E L S a r e s t a nda r di z e d a nd i ndi vi dua l l y a dm i ni s t e r e d m e a s ur e s of e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s i nc l udi ng phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s t he a l pha be t i c pr i nc i pl e a nd a c c ur a c y a nd f l ue nc y i n r e a di ng t e xt F or t hi s s t udy, t he D I B E L S w a s p r e f e r a bl e t o ot he r s t a nda r di z e d m e a s ur e s of P A be c a us e i t i s s e ns i t i ve t o c ha nge s i n s t ude nt s s ki l l s ove r s hor t pe r i ods of t i m e c a n be us e d t o m oni t or t he e f f e c t s of a n i nt e r ve nt i on, i s e a s y t o a dm i ni s t e r a nd i s t i m e e f f i c i e nt a nd c os t e f f e c t i ve ( G ood S i m m ons & S m i t h 199 8; K a m i ns ki & G ood, 1998) T he P hone m e S e ge m e nt a t i on F l ue nc y ( P S F ) m e a s ur e o f t he D I B E L S w a s us e d i n t hi s s t udy.

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49 P hone m e S e gm e nt a t i on F l ue nc y ( P S F ) i s a P A m e a s ur e t ha t r e qui r e s s t ude nt s t o s e gm e nt f l ue nt l y a s poke n w or d ( of e i t he r t hr e e o r f our s ound s e gm e nt s ) i nt o i ndi vi dua l phone m e s F or e xa m pl e i f t he s poke n w or d w a s dog, t he s t ude nt w oul d s a y t he s ounds / d/ / o/ / g/ T he s t ude nt r e c e i ve s c r e di t f or e a c h c or r e c t s ound s e gm e nt pr ovi de d. T he f i na l s c or e i s t he t ot a l num be r of phone m e s pr ovi d e d i n one m i nu t e T he P S F m e a s ur e t a ke s a ppr oxi m a t e l y t w o m i nut e s t o a dm i ni s t e r P S F ha s ove r 20 a l t e r na t e f or m s f or us e i n pr ogr e s s m on i t or i ng. I n i t i a l e vi de nc e s how s t ha t a s i ngl e P S F pr obe ha s a r e l i a bi l i t y of 88 a nd t he a ve r a ge of t hr e e p r obe s ha s a r e l i a bi l i t y of 96 ( ba s e d on a S pe a r m a n B r ow n pr ophe c y f or m ul a ) O ne ye a r pr e di c t i ve va l i di t y w i t h r e a di ng c r i t e r i on m e a s ur e s r a nge s f r om 73 t o 91 ( K a m i ns ki & G ood, 1998) A l t e r n a t e f or m r e l i a bi l i t y f or ki nde r ga r t e n s t ude nt s ove r t w o w e e ks i s 88 ( K a m i ns ki & G ood 1996) a nd a l t e r na t e f o r m r e l i a bi l i t y ove r one m ont h i s 79 ( G ood e t a l 2003 ) C onc ur r e nt c r i t e r i on r e l a t e d va l i di t y of P S F w i t h t he r e a di ne s s c l us t e r of t he W oodc oc k J ohns on P s yc ho E duc a t i ona l B a t t e r y i s 54 ( i n s pr i ng o f ki nde r ga r t e n) ( G ood e t a l 2003) Soc i al V al i di t y M e as ur e s P a r e nt s a t i s f a c t i on w i t h t he i nt e r ve nt i on w a s m e a s ur e d us i ng a pa r e nt s oc i a l va l i di t y s c a l e ba s e d on t he I nt e r ve nt i on R a t i ng P r o f i l e ( I R P 15) ( W i t t & M a r t e ns 1983) A l t hough de ve l ope d f or t e a c he r us e t he I R P 15 w a s a da pt e d f or pa r e nt us e F or e xa m pl e a n i t e m s t a t i ng, I w oul d s ugge s t t he us e of t hi s i nt e r ve nt i on t o ot he r t e a c he r s w a s c ha ng e d t o, I w ou l d s ugge s t t he us e of t hi s i n t e r ve nt i on t o o t he r pa r e nt s T he pa r e nt s oc i a l va l i di t y s c a l e c ont a i ne d 12 i t e m s r a t e d on a 6 poi nt L i ke r t t ype s c a l e f r om s t r ongl y di s a gr e e t o s t r ongl y a gr e e A s a m pl e pa r e nt s oc i a l va l i di t y s c a l e c a n be f o und i n A ppe ndi x A C hi l dr e n s pe r c e pt i ons of t h e i nt e r ve nt i on w e r e m e a s ur e d us i ng a

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50 c hi l d s oc i a l va l i di t y s c a l e ba s e d on t he C hi l d r e n s I nt e r ve nt i on R a t i ng P r of i l e ( C I R P ) T he c hi l d s oc i a l va l i di t y s c a l e c ont a i ne d s i x i t e m s on a 3 poi nt s c a l e T he c hi l d r e n w e r e s how n a c a r d c ont a i ni ng pi c t u r e c ue s of t hr e e f a c e s : one ha ppy f a c e ( 3 poi n t s ) o ne ne ut r a l f a c e ( 2 poi nt s ) a nd one s a d f a c e ( 1 poi nt ) T he c hi l d w a s a s ke d t o poi n t t o t he pi c t ur e t ha t r e pr e s e nt e d t he i r r e s pons e t o e a c h i t e m T he c hi l d r e n s s c a l e w a s r e a d t o e a c h c hi l d by t he i nve s t i ga t or A s a m pl e c hi l d s oc i a l va l i di t y s c a l e c a n be f ound i n A ppe ndi x B D e s i gn A m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne a c r os s s ubj e c t s de s i gn w a s us e d i n t hi s s t udy A l l pa r e nt s t ude nt dya ds be ga n ba s e l i ne a t t he s a m e t i m e T h e pa r t i c i pa t i on o f t hr e e pa r e nt s t ude nt dya ds a l l ow e d f or t h r e e ba s e l i ne s A m i ni m um of t hr e e ba s e l i ne s i s ge ne r a l l y r e c om m e nde d ( B a r l ow & H e r s e n, 1973; B a r l ow & H e r s e n, 1984; K a z di n, 1982 ) D a t a c ol l e c t i on t hr oughout a l l pha s e s c ons i s t e d of m oni t or i ng pr og r e s s w i t h t he D I B E L S P S F m e a s ur e O nc e a l l ba s e l i ne s w e r e s t a bl e one pa r e nt s t ude nt dya d w a s s e l e c t e d t o be gi n t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e S t a bi l i t y de c i s i ons w e r e m a de ba s e d on a vi s ua l a na l ys i s of t he da t a poi nt s by t he p r i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or a nd a gr a du a t e p r of e s s or i n t he S c hool P s yc hol ogy P r ogr a m a t t he p r i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or s uni ve r s i t y. T ypi c a l l y, s t a bl e pe r f or m a nc e i s c ha r a c t e r i z e d by t he a bs e nc e of t r e nd ( s l ope ) i n t he da t a a nd onl y s l i ght or m ode r a t e va r i a bi l i t y i n pe r f o r m a nc e ( K a z di n, 1978 p 630) A c a de m i c da t a do not a l w a ys c onf or m t o t hi s t ypi c a l t r e nd, how e ve r T hus t he de c i s i on c r i t e r i on w a s de f i ne d by s l i ght or m ode r a t e va r i a bi l i t y. I f t hi s de c i s i on c r i t e r i on w a s not m e t a f t e r t w o w e e ks of da t a c ol l e c t i on ( i e s i x da t a poi nt s ) one pa r e nt s t ude nt dya d w a s s e l e c t e d t o be gi n t he

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51 i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e K a z di n ( 1982) r e por t s m i ni m u m gui de l i ne s f or t he du r a t i on of pha s e s r a ngi ng f r o m t h r e e da t a poi nt s t o f i ve S i x da t a poi nt s a r e m or e t ha n s uf f i c i e nt B a s e l i ne da t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d on t he r e m a i ni ng t w o pa r e nt s t ude nt dya ds a f t e r t he f i r s t dya d be ga n i nt e r ve nt i on. T he i nve s t i ga t or e xpe c t e d t o s e e c ha nge s i n t he da t a c ol l e c t e d ( e g. i nc r e a s i ng s c or e s on t he D I B E L S P S F m e a s ur e ) f or t he dya d be gi nni ng i nt e r ve nt i on, w hi l e t he ba s e l i ne s of t he r e m a i ni ng pa i r s r e m a i ne d s t a bl e ( i e s l i ght o r m ode r a t e va r i a bi l i t y) T hi s pa t t e r n w oul d s ugge s t t ha t c ha nge s oc c ur r i ng w i t h t he f i r s t dya d w e r e i nf l ue nc e d by t he i nt e r ve nt i on be c a us e t he f i r s t dya d w a s t he onl y one e xpos e d t o t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd t he onl y o ne e vi de nc i ng c h a nge O nc e t he f i r s t dya d be ga n t o s how e f f e c t s of t he i nt e r ve nt i on, t he ne xt dya d w i t h t he l e a s t va r i a bi l i t y i n ba s e l i ne da t a w a s s e l e c t e d t o be gi n i nt e r ve nt i on. I nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s w e r e de f i ne d by a va r i e t y of f a c t or s i nc l udi ng e vi de nc e of a n i nc r e a s i ng ba s e l i n e t r e nd, e vi de nc e of a s m a l l a m ount o f va r i a bi l i t y i n t he da t a a nd t he pr e s e nc e of nonove r l a ppi ng da t a poi nt s ( e g. da t a po i nt s i n t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e hi ghe r t ha n da t a poi nt s i n t h e ba s e l i ne pha s e ) T h i s s a m e pr oc e dur e w a s u s e d i n de t e r m i ni ng w he n t he t hi r d dya d be ga n i nt e r ve nt i on. I f a ny dya d di d not s how c l e a r i nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s t he f ol l ow i ng gui de l i ne w a s us e d: t he ne xt dya d w oul d be gi n i nt e r ve nt i on t w o w e e ks a f t e r t he p r e vi ous dya d. T he m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne de s i gn w a s c hos e n f or a va r i e t y of r e a s ons T he m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne de s i gn i s s t r onge r t ha n a s i m pl e A B de s i gn be c a us e i t r e duc e s t hr e a t s t o i nt e r na l va l i di t y ( B a r l ow H a ye s & N e l s on, 1984) T he t h r e a t s t o i nt e r na l va l i di t y i nc l ude hi s t or y t hr e a t ( s om e t hi ng ot he r t ha n t he i m pl e m e nt e d i nt e r ve nt i on c a us e d t he out c om e ) m a t ur a t i on t hr e a t ( t he ou t c om e w oul d ha ve be e n t h e s a m e e ve n i f t he pa r t i c i pa nt s ha d not r e c e i ve d t he i nt e r ve nt i on due t o nor m a l m a t ur a t i on a l gr ow t h) t e s t i ng t h r e a t ( t a ki ng t he

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52 pr e t e s t a f f e c t s how pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r f or m on t he po s t t e s t ) a nd i ns t r um e nt a t i on t hr e a t ( c ha nge s i n pe r f or m a nc e due t o c ha nge s i n t he t e s t ) T he m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne de s i gn a l l ow s f or m o r e c ont r ol t ha n a n A B de s i gn, t hus r e duc i ng i nt e r na l va l i di t y t h r e a t s be c a us e i t us e s e a c h ba s e l i ne a s a c ont r ol f o r t he e a r l i e r ba s e l i ne E a c h t i m e a be ha vi or c ha nge s a s a r e s ul t of i nt e r ve nt i on w hi l e t he be ha vi or of pa r t i c i p a nt s not e xpos e d t o i nt e r ve nt i on doe s not c ha nge c onf i de nc e i n t he i n t e r ve nt i on s e f f e c t i s i nc r e a s e d ( C oope r H e r on & H e w a r d, 1987) T he m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne de s i gn i s w e a ke r t ha n a r e ve r s a l de s i gn ( e g. t he A B A de s i gn) be c a us e t he e f f e c t s of i nt e r ve nt i on on e a c h of t he s ubj e c t s a r e not di r e c t l y de m ons t r a t e d but i nf e r r e d f r om t he unt r e a t e d pa r t i c i pa nt s ( B a r l ow & H e r s e n, 1 984 ) H ow e ve r t he m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne de s i gn, c om pa r e d w i t h t he r e ve r s a l de s i gn, i s m os t a ppr opr i a t e f o r t hi s s t udy be c a us e t he t a r ge t be ha vi or phonol og i c a l a w a r e ne s s i s i r r e ve r s i bl e a nd c a nnot be r e t ur ne d t o ba s e l i ne O n c e de ve l ope d a nd i m pr ove d, P A s k i l l s c a nnot be r e m ove d f r om t he pa r t i c i pa nt s P r oc e dur e s P ar t i c i pant R e c r ui t m e nt and Se l e c t i on O nc e a ppr ova l w a s obt a i ne d f r o m t he ne c e s s a r y s our c e s t he pr i nc i pa l a t t he s e l e c t e d s c hool i de nt i f i e d a ki nde r ga r t e n t e a c he r w i l l i ng t o a s s i s t i n s e l e c t i on of s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa nt s T hi s ki nde r ga r t e n t e a c he r a t t he s e l e c t e d s c hool i de nt i f i e d t h r e e s t ude nt s w ho w e r e pr e r e a de r s w ho s how e d de l a ye d de ve l o pm e nt of l i t e r a c y s ki l l s a nd w ho ha d pa r e nt s i nt e r e s t e d i n he l pi ng t he i r c hi l d r e n a t hom e O nc e t hi s s t e p w a s c om pl e t e d, l e t t e r s t o t he pa r e nt s o f t he t e a c he r i de nt i f i e d c hi l d r e n w e r e s e nt hom e T he l e t t e r s pe c i f i e d t ha t t he i r c hi l d w a s i de nt i f i e d t o be s c r e e ne d f or a pa r e nt c hi l d r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i on, r e que s t e d pa r e nt a l c ons e nt f or t he i r c hi l d t o be s c r e e ne d, a nd s ur ve ye d i nt e r e s t i n pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n

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53 t he i nt e r ve nt i on p r ogr a m T he l e t t e r e xpl a i ne d t he s c r e e ni ng pr oc e s s a nd t ha t not a l l s t ude nt s w i l l be c hos e n t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he pr ogr a m ba s e d on s c r e e ni ng r e s ul t s T he l e t t e r a nd pa r e nt c ons e nt f or s c r e e ni ng a r e f ound i n A ppe ndi x C A di s c us s i on of t he s c r e e ni ng pr oc e dur e s i s pr e s e nt e d l a t e r i n t hi s c ha pt e r P a r e nt s of a l l t hr e e s t ude nt s or i g i na l l y i de nt i f i e d b y t he ki nde r ga r t e n t e a c he r r e t ur ne d t he s c r e e ni ng c ons e nt f o r m pr ovi de d pe r m i s s i on f or s c r e e ni ng a nd i ndi c a t e d i nt e r e s t i n pos s i bl e pa r t i c i pa t i on. T he s e t hr e e s t ud e nt s w e r e s c r e e ne d a nd i de nt i f i e d a s ha vi ng P A de f i c i t s O nc e t he t hr e e s t ude nt s w e r e i de nt i f i e d a nd s c r e e ne d, t he e xa m i ne r m e t w i t h e a c h pa r e nt a nd s t ude nt t oge t he r t o de s c r i be t he pr og r a m i n de t a i l a nd t o obt a i n i nf or m e d c ons e nt f r om t he pa r e nt T he i n f or m e d c ons e nt f or m c a n be f ound i n A ppe ndi x D A l l t hr e e pa r e nt s pr ovi de d i nf or m e d c ons e nt t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy. Sc r e e ni ng A s pa r t of t he s c r e e ni ng f o r pa r t i c i pa nt s s t ude nt s w e r e a dm i ni s t e r e d D I B E L S P S F pr obe s t o i de nt i f y P A de f i c i t s T he P S F m e a s ur e i s t he r e c om m e nde d P A a s s e s s m e nt t ool a t t he e nd o f ki nde r ga r t e n a c c or di ng t he ki nde r ga r t e n D I B E L S be nc hm a r k goa l s T he s e ki nde r ga r t e n D I B E L S be nc hm a r k goa l s i ndi c a t e t h a t a t t h e e nd of t he s c hool ye a r s t ude nt s r e c e i vi ng s c or e s of l e s s t ha n 10 poi nt s on t he P S F m e a s ur e ha ve a de f i c i t i n P A s ki l l s S t ude nt s r e c e i vi ng s c or e s be t w e e n 10 a nd 3 5 poi nt ha ve e m e r g i ng P A a nd s t ude nt s r e c e i vi ng s c or e s of 35 a nd a bove ha ve e s t a bl i s he d P A ( G ood, S i m m ons K a m e e nui K a m i ns ki & W a l l i n, 2002) T hr e e P S F pr obe s w e r e a dm i ni s t e r e d a nd a m e di a n s c or e w a s c a l c ul a t e d t o r e pr e s e nt e a c h s t ud e nt s f i na l s c r e e ni ng s c or e S t ude nt s s c or i ng l ow e r t ha n 10 phone m e s c or r e c t pe r m i nu t e on P S F w e r e c ons i de r e d t o ha ve P A de f i c i t s E a c h s t ude nt t ha t w a s or i gi na l l y i de nt i f i e d by t he k i nde r ga r t e n t e a c he r f e l l

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54 w i t hi n t he de f i c i t r a nge S t ude nt 1 r e c e i ve d a m e di a n s c or e of 9 phone m e s c or r e c t pe r m i nut e S t ude nt 2 a l s o r e c e i ve d a m e di a n s c or e of 9 phone m e s c or r e c t pe r m i nut e S t ude nt 3 r e c e i ve d a m e di a n s c or e of 5 phone m e s c or r e c t pe r m i nut e D at a C ol l e c t i on T he pr i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or a dm i ni s t e r e d t he D I B E L S T he p r i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or w a s t r a i ne d i n D I B E L S a dm i ni s t r a t i on a nd s c or i ng dur i ng a gr a dua t e l e ve l a s s e s s m e nt c our s e i n t he S c hool P s yc hol ogy P r og r a m a t t he pr i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or s uni ve r s i t y a nd a ga i n dur i ng a t r a i ni ng s e s s i on f or s c hool ps yc hol ogi s t s a nd s c hool r e a di ng s pe c i a l i s t s B e f or e be gi nni ng da t a c ol l e c t i on t he pr i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or c he c ke d a c c ur a c y of P S F a dm i ni s t r a t i on w i t h a c ol l e a gue w ho a l s o w a s t r a i n e d i n D I B E L S a dm i ni s t r a t i on. T he i nve s t i ga t or w a s r e qui r e d t o m e e t a c r i t e r i on of a t l e a s t 90% i nt e r obs e r ve r a gr e e m e nt be f or e be gi nni ng da t a c ol l e c t i on. T he pr i m a r y i nv e s t i ga t or a dm i ni s t e r e d t hr e e D I B E L S P S F pr obe s t o a ki nde r ga r t e n s t ude nt ( not one o f t h e pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy ) w hi l e t he c ol l e a gue obs e r ve d a nd s c or e d. A f t e r t h i s a dm i ni s t r a t i on, t he pr i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or a nd t he c ol l e a gue c om pa r e d P S F pr ot oc ol s a nd c a l c ul a t e d i nt e r obs e r ve r a g r e e m e nt T he pe r c e nt of a gr e e m e nt w a s c a l c ul a t e d by di vi di ng t h e num be r of a gr e e m e nt s by t he num be r of a gr e e m e nt s pl us di s a gr e e m e nt s ; t hi s qu ot i e nt w a s t he n by m u l t i pl i e d by 100. T he c r i t e r i on of a t l e a s t 90% a gr e e m e nt w a s m e t o n a l l t h r e e P S F pr obe s a dm i ni s t e r e d. T he a gr e e m e nt pe r c e nt a ge s f or t he P S F p r obe s a dm i ni s t e r e d w e r e 90% 95% a nd 100% i n or de r of a dm i ni s t r a t i on. F or e a c h s t ude nt da t a c ol l e c t i on oc c ur r e d a t t he c h i l d s hom e D a t a c ol l e c t i on oc c ur r e d a t a t i m e t ha t w a s c onve ni e nt f or t he f a m i l y a nd t he p r i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or T he da t a c ol l e c t i on oc c ur r e d on a f a i r l y r e gul a r s c he dul e f or e a c h s t ude nt D a t a c ol l e c t i on

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55 oc c ur r e d f or S t ude nt s 1 a nd 3 on M onda ys W e dne s da ys a nd F r i da ys D a t a c ol l e c t i on f or S t u de nt 2 oc c ur r e d on T ue s da ys T hu r s da y s a nd S a t ur da ys T hi s s c he dul e oc c a s i ona l l y s hi f t e d ba s e d upon c ha nge s i n pl a ns ( e g. f a m i l y or i nve s t i ga t or not a va i l a bl e on one of t he s e t da ys ) w hi c h oc c ur r e d o nc e w i t h t he s c he dul e s of S t ude nt s 1 a nd 2 a nd t w i c e w i t h t he s c he dul e of S t ude nt 3. B a s e l i ne A l l t hr e e s t ude nt s r e c e i ve d ba s e l i ne e va l ua t i on us i ng one P S F pr obe f r om t he D I B E L S e a c h t i m e B a s e l i ne da t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d f or e a c h s t ude nt t hr e e t i m e s pe r w e e k w i t h one pr obe e a c h t i m e P ar e nt T r ai ni ng O nc e ba s e l i ne w a s c om pl e t e d, pa r e nt s w e r e i ns t r uc t e d i n t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on o f Sound F oundat i ons T r a i ni ng oc c ur r e d du r i ng a o ne hour t r a i ni ng s e s s i on. T he pr i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or c om pl e t e d t he pa r e nt t r a i ni ng B e c a us e of t he s t a gge r e d i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s e a c h pa r e nt w a s t r a i ne d i ndi vi dua l l y A n a ge nda o ut l i ni ng t he pa r e nt i ns t r uc t i on s e s s i on c a n be f ound i n A ppe ndi x E D ur i ng t he t r a i ni ng s e s s i on, e a c h c om pone nt of t he Sound F oundat i ons pr ogr a m ( a udi o t a pe pos t e r w or ks he e t s ) w a s r e vi e w e d, f ol l ow e d by r ol e pl a yi ng. T he p r i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or m ode l e d t he us e of e a c h p r ogr a m c om pone nt T he pa r e nt s t he n ha d t he oppo r t uni t y t o p r a c t i c e i m pl e m e nt i ng e a c h pr ogr a m a c t i vi t y a nd r e c e i ve d i m m e di a t e f e e dba c k f r o m t he pr i m a r y i nv e s t i ga t or R ol e pl a yi ng i nc l ude d pr a c t i c e w i t h bot h t he m a t e r i a l s c ove r i ng p hone m e s i n be gi nni ng pos i t i ons of w or ds a nd t he m a t e r i a l s c ove r i ng phone m e s i n e ndi ng pos i t i o ns of w or ds A f t e r r ol e pl a yi ng, t he i nt e r ve nt i on s c he dul e a nd t he t r e a t m e nt i nt e gr i t y c he c kl i s t s w e r e r e vi e w e d. N e xt pa r e nt s w e r e gi ve n a n oppor t uni t y t o a s k q ue s t i ons F i na l l y, t he i nve s t i ga t or a nd pa r e nt

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56 s c he dul e d a t i m e f or t he f i r s t w e e k f ol l ow up phon e c a l l a s w e l l a s t i m e s f o r p r ogr e s s m oni t or i ng da t a c ol l e c t i on w i t h t he s t ude nt s P a r e nt s w e r e gi ve n a l l m a t e r i a l s t ha t t he y ne e de d t hr oughout t he c ou r s e of t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd pa r e nt a nd s t ude nt de m ogr a phi c da t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d ( s e e A ppe ndi x F ) I nt e r v e nt i on I nt e r ve nt i on i m p l e m e nt a t i on w i t h t he pa r e nt i m pl e m e nt e d Sound F oundat i ons pr ogr a m w a s s t a gge r e d a m ongs t t he t h r e e pa r e n t s t ude nt dya ds T he de c i s i on c r i t e r i on w a s c ons i de r e d a nd t he f i r s t dya d w a s s e l e c t e d t o b e gi n i nt e r ve nt i on a f t e r t w o w e e ks I nt e r ve nt i on w a s not s t a r t e d f or t he f i r s t dya d be f or e t he t w o w e e k t i m e f r a m e be c a us e t he t hi r d s t ude nt s ba s e l i ne da t a s how e d a n i nc r e a s i ng t r e nd a nd a ppe a r e d va r i a bl e T he s e c ond dya d be ga n i nt e r ve nt i on t w o w e e ks l a t e r a f t e r t he f i r s t dya d be ga n t o s how i nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s C l e a r i nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s w e r e not a ppa r e nt w i t h t he s e c ond s t ude nt i m m e di a t e l y, s o t he f i na l dya d be ga n i nt e r ve nt i on t w o w e e ks a f t e r t he s e c ond dya d be ga n i nt e r ve nt i on. D a t a c ol l e c t i on w i t h t he D I B E L S oc c ur r e d t w o t i m e s pe r w e e k du r i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e w i t h one P S F pr obe e a c h t i m e T he pa r e nt r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i on w a s a f i ve a nd a h a l f w e e k pr ogr a m t ha t w a s i m pl e m e nt e d by t he pa r e nt w i t h t he i r c hi l d t w i c e p e r w e e k. T he p r ogr a m w a s de s i gne d t o oc c ur dur i ng t he s t ude nt s s um m e r va c a t i on be t w e e n s c hool ye a r s D ue t o t he s e t i m e c ons t r a i nt s t he f ul l Sound F oundat i ons p r ogr a m w a s s hor t e ne d i n t he s a m e w a y t ha t t he pr ogr a m de ve l ope r s di d i n t he i r r e s e a r c h ( B yr ne & F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y, 1991 ) O nl y f i ve c ons ona nt s ounds ( / s / / m / / t / / l / a nd / p/ ) a nd one vow e l s ound ( / / ) w e r e t a ught dur i ng t he pa r e nt i nt e r ve nt i on T he c a r d ga m e s w e r e not us e d be c a us e t he y r e qui r e d a gr oup of a t l e a s t f our s t ude nt s w ho c om pl e t e d t he p r ogr a m t o pl a y. T he pa r e nt s w e r e a bl e t o

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57 c hoos e w hi c h da ys of t he w e e k t o i m pl e m e nt t he i nt e r ve nt i on. T he onl y s pe c i f i c a t i on w a s t ha t t he y s houl d l e a ve one non i nt e r ve nt i on da y be t w e e n da ys of i nt e r ve nt i on ( e g. i f t he pr ogr a m w a s i m pl e m e nt e d on M onda y, t he pa r e nt s houl d w a i t unt i l a t l e a s t W e dne s da y be f or e i m pl e m e nt i ng t he p r ogr a m a ga i n) A ge ne r a l s c he dul e w a s s e t f or t he c our s e of t he i n t e r ve nt i on ( s e e A ppe ndi x G ) D a y one of w e e k on e f oc us e d on t he phone m e / s / a s a be gi nni ng s ound. D a y t w o o f w e e k one f oc us e d on t he phone m e / s / a s a n e ndi ng s ound. W e e ks t w o t hr ough f i ve c onc e nt r a t e d on t he r e m a i ni ng phone m e s ( / m / / t / / l / a nd / p / ) w i t h t he f i r s t t r a i ni ng da y of t he w e e k f oc us e d o n t he s ound i n t he be gi nni ng pos i t i on of w or ds a nd t he s e c ond t r a i ni n g da y of t he w e e k f oc us e d on t he s ound i n t he e ndi ng pos i t i on of w or ds T he l a s t w e e k i nt r oduc e d t he vow e l s ound / / i n t he be gi nni ng pos i t i on o f w or ds E a c h i nt e r ve nt i on s e s s i on w a s i m pl e m e nt e d i n t he s a m e w a y t ha t B yr ne a nd F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y ( 1991) i m pl e m e nt e d t he pr ogr a m i n t he i r f i r s t e va l ua t i on o f Sound F oundat i ons T he s e s s i on be ga n w i t h t he pa r e nt a nd c hi l d l i s t e ni ng t o t he c o r r e s pondi ng poe m s a nd s t or i e s on t he Sound F oundat i o ns c a s s e t t e t a pe t he n m ove d i nt o t he us e of t he c or r e s pondi ng pos t e r a nd f i na l l y e nde d w i t h t he u s e of t he t h r e e c or r e s pondi ng w or ks he e t s W he n c om pl e t i ng t he pos t e r a c t i vi t y, t he pa r e nt a s ke d t he c hi l d t o l ook f or t hi ngs i n t he pos t e r t ha t s t a r t e d o r e n de d w i t h t he s pe c i f i e d phone m e W he n t he c hi l d r a n out of w o r ds t he pa r e nt poi n t e d t o t he one s t he y m i s s e d a nd a s ke d t he c hi l d t o na m e t he pi c t ur e O nc e t he pos t e r a c t i vi t y w a s c om pl e t e d, t he pa r e nt t he n i n t r oduc e d t he t hr e e w or ks he e t s T he f i r s t w o r ks he e t t ype ha s a pi c t ur e of one of t he obj e c t s f r o m t he pos t e r i n a box, t he n f our m or e pi c t u r e s T he obj e c t of t h e f i r s t w o r ks he e t w a s f or t he c hi l dr e n t o c ol or t he pi c t ur e s t ha t ha d t he s a m e be gi nni ng o r e ndi ng s ound a s t he pi c t ur e i n t he

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58 box. T he s e c on d w or ks he e t t ype ha s ni ne pi c t ur e s t hr e e r ow s o f t h r e e pi c t ur e s T he obj e c t of t he s e c ond w or ks he e t w a s t o f i nd t hr e e pi c t ur e s w i t h t he s a m e be gi nni ng or e ndi ng s ound, a l l i n a r ow c ol um n, or a c r os s t he di a gona l T he t hi r d w or ks he e t t ype i s a s m a l l e r v e r s i on of t he pos t e r i n w hi c h t he c hi l dr e n c ol or e d i n t he obj e c t s w i t h t he s a m e be gi nni ng or e ndi ng s ound. P r oc e dur al i nt e gr i t y T w o m e a s ur e s w e r e us e d t o e ns ur e t r e a t m e nt i nt e gr i t y F i r s t pa r e nt s ha d a c he c kl i s t on w hi c h t o r e c or d i n t e r ve nt i on a c t i v i t i e s c om pl e t e d. T he c he c kl i s t r e qui r e d t he pa r e nt t o r e c or d t he f ol l ow i n g i nf or m a t i on a f t e r e a c h i nt e r ve nt i on s e s s i on: da t e t i m e i nt e r ve nt i on a c t i vi t i e s be ga n a nd e nde d, t he i nt e r ve nt i on a c t i vi t i e s c om pl e t e d, a nd how w e l l t he s e s s i on w e nt A s pa c e w a s pr ovi de d f o r t he pa r e nt s t o s pe c i f y a ny que s t i ons t he y m i ght ha ve T he pa r e nt s pr ovi de d t he i nve s t i ga t or w i t h t he c he c kl i s t s e a c h t i m e t he i nve s t i ga t or m e t w i t h t he c hi l d/ pa r e nt f o r da t a c ol l e c t i on. A s a m pl e c he c kl i s t c a n be f ound i n A ppe ndi x H A d di t i o na l l y, pa r e nt s w e r e c a l l e d a f t e r t he f i r s t a nd t hi r d w e e ks of i nt e r ve nt i on t o e va l ua t e i n t e r ve nt i on i m pl e m e nt a t i on. D u r i ng t he s e t e l e phone c a l l s a t e l e phone c he c kl i s t w a s c om pl e t e d a nd a ny pa r e nt c onc e r ns or que s t i ons w e r e a ddr e s s e d. A s a m pl e t e l e phone c h e c kl i s t c a n be f ound i n A ppe ndi x I F ol l ow up P has e O nc e t he f i na l i n t e r ve nt i on s e s s i on w a s c om pl e t e d, t he s t ude nt s w e r e e va l ua t e d t he w e e k f ol l ow i ng i nt e r ve nt i on w i t hdr a w a l M a i n t e na nc e e f f e c t s w e r e e va l ua t e d w i t h t he c ol l e c t i on of D I B E L S P S F da t a t hr e e t i m e s pe r w e e k f or one w e e k w i t h one pr obe e a c h t i m e A ddi t i ona l l y, pa r e nt s a nd s t ude nt s c om pl e t e d t he s oc i a l va l i di t y m e a s ur e s dur i ng t hi s t i m e T he c hi l dr e n s r a t i ng s c a l e w a s r e a d t o t he m by t he p r i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or

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59 D a t a A na l ys i s D a t a w e r e a na l yz e d f r om t he D I B E L S a s s e s s m e nt i nf or m a t i on. D I B E L S a s s e s s m e nt da t a w e r e di s pl a ye d gr a phi c a l l y f or e a c h s t ude nt t o s how pe r f or m a nc e dur i ng ba s e l i ne Sound F oundat i ons pa r e nt i nt e r ve nt i on, a nd f ol l ow up ( s e e F i gur e 1) T he gr a phs c ons i s t of phone m e s pe r m i nut e on t he y a x i s a nd da ys on t he x a xi s V e r t i c a l l i ne s a r e us e d t o s e pa r a t e t he ba s e l i ne i nt e r ve nt i on a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s A na l ys i s of t he gr a phs i nvol ve d vi s ua l i ns pe c t i on o f t he gr a phi c di s pl a y. A c c or di ng t o K a z di n ( 1982) vi s ua l i ns pe c t i on i s t he t ypi c a l m e a ns of da t a e va l ua t i on i n s i ngl e c a s e r e s e a r c h w hi l e s t a t i s t i c a l a na l ys i s i s us e d l e s s f r e que nt l y ( P o l a ha & A l l e n, 1999) T he i nve s t i ga t or e xa m i ne d t he gr a phs t o de t e r m i ne i f t he pe r f or m a n c e l e ve l f or e a c h s t ude nt c ha nge d a f t e r i nt r oduc t i on of t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd i f e f f e c t s of t h e i nt e r ve nt i on w e r e m a i nt a i ne d a f t e r i t w a s w i t hdr a w n. I n vi s ua l i ns pe c t i on, t he m os t i m po r t a nt c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of da t a a s s e s s m e nt a r e t he m a gni t ude of c ha nge a nd t he r a t e of c ha nge ( K a z di n, 1982) M a gni t ude of c ha nge i s m e a s ur e d by de t e r m i ni ng c ha nge s i n m e a n a c r os s pha s e s a nd c ha nge s i n l e ve l T he m e a n l e ve l of pe r f or m a nc e f o r e a c h s t ude nt i n e a c h pha s e w a s c a l c ul a t e d. C ha nge s i n l e ve l a c r os s pha s e s a l s o w e r e e xa m i ne d. A c ha nge i n l e ve l r e f e r s t o t he s hi f t or d i s c ont i nui t y of pe r f o r m a nc e f r o m t he e nd of one pha s e t o t he b e gi nni ng or t he ne xt pha s e ( K a z di n, 1982, p 234) I t i s i m po r t a nt t o not e t ha t i n s t udi e s of a c a de m i c s ki l l s s udde n c ha nge s be t w e e n l e ve l s m a y not oc c ur F or t hi s r e a s on, a n a l t e r na t i ve de f i ni t i on of l e ve l w a s us e d. T he m e di a n of t he da t a po i nt s f r o m t he l a s t w e e k of t he ba s e l i ne pha s e ( i e l a s t t hr e e da t a poi nt s ) w a s c om pa r e d t o t he m e a n of t he da t a poi nt s f r om t he l a s t w e e k of t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( i e l a s t t w o da t a poi nt s ) A d d i t i ona l l y, t he m e a n of t he l a s t t w o da t a

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60 poi nt s f r om t he l a s t w e e k of t he i n t e r ve nt i on pha s e ( i e l a s t t w o da t a poi nt s ) w a s c om pa r e d t o t he m e di a n of t he t h r e e da t a poi nt s f r o m t he f ol l ow up pha s e T he r a t e o f c ha nge i s m e a s ur e d by c ha nge s i n t r e n d a n d t he l a t e nc y o f t he c ha nge S ys t e m a t i c i nc r e a s e s or de c r e a s e s i n t he da t a ove r t i m e i ndi c a t e c ha nge s i n t r e nd or s l ope T he t r e nd of t he da t a w a s e xa m i ne d i n e a c h pha s e t o de t e r m i ne i f t he pa r e nt r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i on r e s ul t e d i n s ys t e m a t i c i nc r e a s e s i n P A T r e nds w e r e c a l c ul a t e d on M i c r os of t E xc e l us i ng l i ne a r r e gr e s s i on. T he c a l c ul a t e d s l op e s r e f l e c t t he da i l y pr ogr e s s of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n e a c h pha s e T he i nve s t i ga t or e xpe c t e d s ys t e m a t i c i nc r e a s e s a f t e r t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e a nd s t a bi l i t y o r pos s i bl e i nc r e a s e s a f t e r t he f ol l ow up pha s e L a t e nc y of c ha nge r e f e r s t o how qui c kl y c ha nge oc c ur s a f t e r a pha s e c ha nge w i t h a c ha nge oc c ur r i ng m or e qui c kl y i nd i c a t i ng c l e a r e r i nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s L a t e nc y o f c ha nge w a s i ns pe c t e d be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne a nd i n t e r ve nt i on ph a s e s I n a ddi t i on t o m a gni t ude a nd r a t e of c ha nge a na l y s i s of va r i a bi l i t y i n e a c h pha s e w a s e xa m i ne d a nd t he pe r c e nt a ge of nonove r l a ppi ng da t a poi nt s be t w e e n pha s e s w a s c a l c ul a t e d. W he n da t a poi nt s be t w e e n pha s e s a r e nonove r l a ppi ng, t he e f f e c t s of t he i nt e r ve nt i on a r e s t r onge r t ha n w he n t he r e i s a hi gh a m ount of ove r l a p be t w e e n da t a poi nt s A l t hough t he s t udy de s i gn c a l l s f o r s t a bl e ba s e l i ne s i t i s i m por t a nt t o not e t ha t a c a de m i c pe r f or m a nc e da t a a r e r a r e l y c om pl e t e l y s t a bl e i n pa r t i c ul a r w he n c l a s s r oom i ns t r uc t i on i s oc c ur r i ng I n f a c t due t o t he na t ur e of a c a de m i c va r i a bl e s i t w a s e xpe c t e d t ha t ba s e l i ne s w oul d s how a n i nc r e a s i ng t r e nd. D a t a a na l ys i s i s m or e di f f i c ul t i f pe r f or m a nc e i s i m p r ovi ng du r i ng ba s e l i ne ; how e ve r K a z di n ( 198 2) s ugge s t s t ha t ba s e l i ne

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61 t r e nds r a r e l y hi nde r t he a bi l i t y t o de t e r m i ne i nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s i n m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne de s i gns w he n t he r e a r e s t r ong e f f e c t s F i na l l y, t he s oc i a l va l i di t y da t a ga t he r e d f r om t he p a r e nt s a nd c hi l dr e n w e r e e xa m i ne d qua l i t a t i ve l y a nd w e r e no t s ubj e c t e d t o s t a t i s t i c a l a na l ys i s

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62 C ha pt e r F our R e s ul t s T he f ol l ow i ng c ha pt e r i nc l ude s a d i s c us s i on of t he m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s da t a f or t he t hr e e s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa nt s a s um m a r y of t he i nt e r ve nt i on i m pl e m e nt a t i on i nt e gr i t y a nd a s um m a r y o f t he s oc i a l va l i di t y out c om e s S pe c i f i c a l l y t hi s c ha pt e r w i l l p r e s e nt t he m ul t i p l e ba s e l i ne da t a r e l a t i ve t o t he r e s e a r c h hypot he s i s t hr ough vi s ua l pr e s e nt a t i on, vi s ua l a na l ys i s a nd w r i t t e n di s c us s i on. P ar t i c i pant s P honol ogi c a l A w ar e ne s s D e v e l opm e nt T he r e s ul t s w e r e a na l yz e d vi s ua l l y a nd a r e pr e s e nt e d w i t h r e ga r d t o t he f ol l ow i ng r e s e a r c h hypot he s i s : St ude nt s r e c e i v i ng Sound F oundat i ons t r ai ni ng i m pl e m e nt e d by t he i r par e nt s w i l l s how an i nc r e as e i n phonol ogi c al aw ar e ne s s s k i l l s as m e as ur e d by t he D y nam i c I ndi c at or s of B as i c E ar l y L i t e r ac y Sk i l l s ( D I B E L S) c om par e d t o bas e l i ne s c or e s on t he s e m e as ur e s F i gur e 1 p r ovi de s a gr a phi c di s pl a y of phone m e s c or r e c t pe r m i nut e on t he D I B E L S P hone m e S e gm e nt a t i on F l ue nc y ( P S F ) m e a s ur e f or e a c h s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa nt a c r os s ba s e l i ne i nt e r ve nt i on, a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s T he r e s ul t s i l l us t r a t e d i n t he f i gu r e a r e di s c us s e d i n m or e de t a i l i n t he f ol l ow i ng s e c t i o ns

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63 F i gur e 1. P hone m e s C or r e c t P e r M i nut e A c r os s P a r t i c i pa nt s

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64 St ude nt 1. S t ude nt 1 di s pl a ye d a s l i ght l y i nc r e a s i n g ba s e l i ne t r e nd of phone m e s pe r m i nut e ( P P M ) w i t h a n i nc r e a s i ng i nt e r ve nt i on t r e nd a s w e l l a nd a de c r e a s i ng f ol l ow up t r e nd ( s e e F i gur e 1 ) D e s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s s um m a r i z i ng t he va r i a bi l i t y o f da t a poi n t s a nd t he m e a n l e v e l o f pe r f or m a nc e i n e a c h pha s e ( i e ba s e l i ne i nt e r ve nt i on a nd f ol l ow up) f o r S t ude nt 1 a r e pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 1 T he s t a nda r d de vi a t i on a nd r a nge of da t a i ndi c a t e d a r e l a t i ve l y s m a l l a m ount of va r i a bi l i t y d ur i ng t he ba s e l i ne pha s e T he da t a c ol l e c t e d dur i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd f ol l ow up ph a s e s w e r e s l i ght l y m or e va r i a bl e W he n c om pa r i ng ba s e l i ne t o i nt e r ve nt i on, t he m e a n l e ve l of P P M f o r S t ude nt 1 i nc r e a s e d i n t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e a s c om pa r e d t o t he ba s e l i ne pha s e S t ude nt 1 a c hi e ve d a ba s e l i ne m e a n of 16 P P M w hi c h i nc r e a s e d t o a n i nt e r ve nt i on m e a n of 25 P P M T hi s i s a n i nc r e a s e i n m e a n da t a o f 9 P P M f r om ba s e l i ne t o i n t e r ve nt i on pha s e A ddi t i ona l l y, f r om t he l a s t w e e k of t he ba s e l i ne ph a s e ( m e di a n of l a s t t h r e e da t a poi nt s : 16 P P M ) t o t he l a s t w e e k o f t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( m e a n of l a s t t w o da t a poi nt s : 28 5 P P M ) t he r e w a s a c ha nge i n l e ve l of 12. 5 P P M C a l c ul a t i ons of l e ve l c ha nge s a c r os s c ondi t i ons a ppe a r i n T a bl e 2. W he n c om pa r i ng t he m e a n l e ve l of pe r f o r m a nc e b e t w e e n i nt e r ve nt i on a nd f o l l ow up, t he m e a n l e ve l of P P M f or S t ude nt 1 i nc r e a s e d i n t he f ol l ow up pha s e a s c om pa r e d t o t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e S t ude nt 1 a c hi e ve d a f ol l o w up m e a n of 26 P P M w hi c h i s a n i nc r e a s e of 1 P P M ove r t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e H o w e ve r f r om t he l a s t w e e k of t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( m e a n o f l a s t t w o da t a poi nt s : 2 8. 5) t o t he f ol l ow up pha s e ( m e di a n of t hr e e da t a poi nt s : 26 ) t he r e w a s a c ha nge i n l e ve l i n t he ne ga t i ve di r e c t i on of 2. 5 P P M A n a na l ys i s of t he l a t e nc y o f c ha nge i n pe r f or m a nc e s ugge s t s t ha t no c l e a r i m pr ove m e nt oc c ur r e d a t t he t i m e t he i nt e r ve nt i on w a s i nt r oduc e d, but t ha t s hor t l y

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65 t he r e a f t e r gr e a t e r i nc r e a s e s be c a m e e vi de nt T he f i r s t da t a poi nt upon i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he i nt e r ve nt i on w a s not s i gni f i c a nt l y g r e a t e r t ha n t he da t a poi nt s c ol l e c t e d d ur i ng ba s e l i ne H ow e ve r t he ne xt s e ve r a l da t a poi nt s w e r e a bove ba s e l i ne da t a poi nt s T a bl e 1. D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s f or P hone m e s P e r M i nut e f o r S t ude nt 1 X SD M i n. M ax B a s e l i ne 16 1 15 18 I nt e r ve nt i on 25 3 17 29 F ol l ow U p 26 2 25 28 T r e ndl i ne s a r e s how n i n F i gur e 1 a s dot t e d l i ne s i n e a c h pha s e T he s l ope of e a c h t r e ndl i ne a nd c a l c ul a t i ons of c ha nge i n s l ope a r e d e pi c t e d i n T a bl e 2 T he s l ope r e f l e c t s t he da i l y pr og r e s s of S t ude nt 1 i n e a c h pha s e T he t r e nd of t he da t a o f S t ude nt 1 w a s i nc r e a s i ng dur i ng bot h t he ba s e l i ne pha s e ( s l ope = 0. 05) a nd i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( s l ope = 0. 19) T he t r e nd dur i ng t he i n t e r ve nt i on pha s e w a s s t e e pe r t ha n t he t r e nd dur i ng t he ba s e l i ne pha s e S pe c i f i c a l l y, t he c ha nge i n s l ope f r om ba s e l i ne t o i nt e r ve nt i on w a s 0. 1 4 A de c r e a s i ng t r e nd w a s obs e r ve d dur i ng t he f o l l ow up pha s e ( s l ope = 0 26) T he c ha nge i n s l ope f r om i nt e r ve nt i on t o f ol l ow up w a s 0. 45 T a bl e 2. S l ope a nd L e ve l C ha nge f or P hone m e s P e r M i nut e f or S t ude nt 1 C ondi t i on S l ope C ha nge i n S l ope L e ve l C ha nge i n L e ve l B a s e l i ne 0. 05 16 ( @ l a s t w e e k) I nt e r ve nt i on 0. 19 0. 14 28. 5 ( @ l a s t w e e k) 12. 5 I nt e r ve nt i on 0. 19 28. 5 ( @ l a s t w e e k) F ol l ow U p 0. 26 0. 45 26 ( @ l a s t w e e k) 2. 5 F or S t ude nt 1, t he pe r c e nt a ge o f nonove r l a ppi ng d a t a poi nt s be t w e e n t h e i nt e r ve nt i on a nd ba s e l i ne pha s e s w a s 91% T he on l y da t a poi nt i n t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e t ha t ove r l a ppe d w a s t he f i r s t da t a poi n t c ol l e c t e d d ur i ng t he f i r s t w e e k o f i nt e r ve nt i on.

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66 A l l da t a poi nt s c ol l e c t e d du r i ng f ol l ow up ove r l a p pe d w i t h t he i n t e r ve nt i o n pha s e da t a poi nt s St ude nt 2. S t ude nt 2 di s pl a ye d a s l i ght l y de c r e a s i ng ba s e l i ne t r e nd, a s l i ght l y i nc r e a s i ng i nt e r ve nt i on t r e nd a nd a s t a bl e f ol l ow u p t r e nd ( s e e F i gur e 1 ) D e s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s s um m a r i z i ng t he m e a n l e ve l of pe r f or m a nc e a nd va r i a bi l i t y i n e a c h pha s e f or S t ude nt 2 a r e pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 3 A s m a l l a m ou nt of va r i a bi l i t y i s pr e s e nt i n t he da t a c ol l e c t e d dur i ng t he ba s e l i ne pha s e T he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e de m ons t r a t e s m or e va r i a bi l i t y i n t he da t a T he f o l l ow up da t a i ndi c a t e d a n a bs e nc e of va r i a bi l i t y i n t he da t a ( a l l da t a poi nt s c ol l e c t e d w e r e t he s a m e ) S t ude nt 2 s m e a n i m pr ove d 3 P P M f r om a ba s e l i ne l e ve l of 11 P P M t o a n i nt e r ve nt i on l e ve l o f 14 P P M A ddi t i ona l l y S t ude nt 2 di s pl a ye d a c ha nge o f l e ve l o f 6 5 P P M f r om t he l a s t w e e k o f ba s e l i ne da t a c ol l e c t i on t o t he l a s t w e e k of i nt e r ve nt i on da t a c ol l e c t i on. C a l c ul a t i ons of l e ve l c ha nge s a c r os s c ondi t i ons a ppe a r i n T a bl e 4. S t ude nt 2 s m e a n l e ve l of pe r f or m a nc e dur i ng f ol l ow up ( 16 P P M ) w a s hi ghe r t ha n t he m e a n l e ve l o f pe r f or m a nc e du r i ng i nt e r ve nt i on ( 14 P P M ) by 2 P P M H ow e ve r t he r e w a s a c ha nge i n l e ve l i n t he ne ga t i ve di r e c t i o n ( 0 5) w he n c om pa r i ng t he m e a n o f t he l a s t t w o da t a poi nt s f r om t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( i e t he l a s t w e e k of i nt e r ve nt i on ) w i t h t he m e di a n o f t he t hr e e d a t a poi nt s f r o m t he f ol l ow up pha s e A n a na l ys i s of t he l a t e nc y o f c ha nge i n pe r f o r m a nc e i ndi c a t e s no i m m e di a t e i m pr ove m e nt a f t e r t he i n t r oduc t i on o f t he i nt e r ve nt i on.

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67 T a bl e 3. D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s f or P hone m e s P e r M i nut e f o r S t ude nt 2 X SD M i n. M ax B a s e l i ne 11 1 9 13 I nt e r ve nt i on 14 2 12 17 F ol l ow U p 16 0 16 16 T r e ndl i ne s a r e s how n i n F i gur e 1 a s dot t e d l i ne s i n e a c h pha s e T he s l ope of e a c h t r e ndl i ne a nd c a l c ul a t i ons of c ha nge i n s l ope f or S t ude nt 2 a r e de pi c t e d i n T a bl e 4. T he s l ope r e f l e c t s t he da i l y p r ogr e s s of S t ude nt 2 i n e a c h pha s e P r i or t o t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he pa r e nt i nt e r ve nt i on t he t r e nd of t he da t a f o r S t ude nt 2 w a s de c r e a s i ng ( s l ope = 0. 03) T he di r e c t i on o f S t ude nt 2 s pe r f or m a nc e c ha nge d a f t e r i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he pa r e nt i nt e r ve nt i on S pe c i f i c a l l y, S t ude nt 2 s m e a s ur e d l e ve l s of P P M s l i ght l y but s t e a di l y i nc r e a s e d a c r os s t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( s l ope = 0. 13) F r om ba s e l i ne t o i nt e r ve nt i on, t hi s r e pr e s e nt e d a n i nc r e a s e of 0. 16 i n S t ude nt 2 s s l ope A s t a bl e t r e nd w a s obs e r ve d dur i ng t he f ol l ow up pe r i od ( s l ope = 0 ) T a bl e 4. S l ope a nd L e ve l C ha nge f or P hone m e s P e r M i nut e f or S t ude nt 2 C ondi t i on S l ope C ha nge i n S l ope L e ve l C ha nge i n L e ve l B a s e l i ne 0. 03 10 ( @ l a s t w e e k) I nt e r ve nt i on 0. 13 0. 16 16. 5 ( @ l a s t w e e k) 6. 5 I nt e r ve nt i on 0. 13 16. 5 ( @ l a s t w e e k) F ol l ow U p 0 0. 13 16 ( @ l a s t w e e k) 0. 5 F or S t ude nt 2, t he pe r c e nt a ge o f nonove r l a ppi ng d a t a poi nt s be t w e e n t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd ba s e l i ne pha s e s w a s 55% A l l no nove r l a ppi ng da t a poi nt s oc c ur r e d f r o m t he m i ddl e t o t he e nd o f t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e c or r e s pondi ng t o t he t hi r d t hr ough s i xt h w e e ks of i nt e r ve nt i on. A l l da t a poi nt s c ol l e c t e d du r i ng f ol l ow up ove r l a ppe d w i t h t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e da t a poi nt s

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68 St ude nt 3. S t ude nt 3 di s pl a ye d s l i ght l y i n c r e a s i ng ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e r ve nt i on t r e nds a nd a s t a bl e f ol l ow up t r e nd D e s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s s um m a r i z i ng t he m e a n l e ve l of pe r f or m a nc e a nd va r i a bi l i t y i n e a c h pha s e f or S t ud e nt 3 a r e p r e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 5. T he s t a nda r d de vi a t i on a nd r a nge o f da t a i ndi c a t e d a hi gh a m ount of va r i a bi l i t y dur i ng t he ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s S t ude nt 3 s da t a w a s m or e va r i a bl e t ha n t he da t a c ol l e c t e d f or bot h S t ude nt 1 a nd 2 T h i s va r i a bi l i t y i nf l ue nc e d t he de c i s i on t o de l a y i nt e r ve nt i on i m pl e m e nt a t i on f or S t ude nt 3 T he da t a c ol l e c t e d dur i ng f ol l ow up pha s e a ppe a r s l e s s va r i a bl e t ha n t he ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e r ve n t i on pha s e s S t ude nt 3 s m e a n l e ve l of P P M i nc r e a s e d f r o m 12 P P M t o 16 P P M f r om ba s e l i ne t o i nt e r ve nt i on A ddi t i ona l l y, S t ude nt 3 de m ons t r a t e d a c ha nge i n l e v e l of 3 P P M f r om t he l a s t w e e k of ba s e l i ne t o t he l a s t w e e k o f i nt e r ve nt i on. S t ude nt 3 s how e d a m e a n i nc r e a s e i n P P M f r om i nt e r ve nt i on ( m e a n of 16 P P M ) t o f ol l ow up ( m e a n of 18 P P M ) H ow e ve r a n a na l ys i s of t he c ha nge i n l e ve l doe s n ot i ndi c a t e a n i nc r e a s e i n pe r f or m a nc e f r om t he l a s t w e e k of i nt e r ve nt i on t o f ol l ow up C a l c ul a t i ons of l e ve l c ha nge s a c r os s c ondi t i ons a ppe a r i n T a bl e 6. A n a na l ys i s of t he l a t e nc y o f c ha nge f o r S t ude nt 3 w a s di f f i c ul t due t o t he va r i a bi l i t y i n t he da t a T he r e di d not a ppe a r t o be i m m e di a t e i m pr ove m e nt w he n c ons i de r i ng t he f i r s t t w o da t a po i nt s a f t e r t he s t a r t of t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e G r e a t e r c ha nge w a s e vi de nt w i t h t he t hi r d a nd f our t h da t a poi nt s a f t e r t he s t a r t of t he i n t e r ve nt i on pha s e ; how e ve r t hi s i nc r e a s e i n pe r f or m a nc e w a s not m a i nt a i ne d ( i e t he t hi r d a nd f our t h da t a poi nt s a r e t he n f ol l ow e d by a di p i n P P M )

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69 T a bl e 5. D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s f or P hone m e s P e r M i nut e f o r S t ude nt 3 X SD M i n. M ax B a s e l i ne 12 3 6 17 I nt e r ve nt i on 16 3 11 21 F ol l ow U p 18 1 17 1 9 T r e ndl i ne s a r e s how n i n F i gur e 1 a s dot t e d l i ne s i n e a c h pha s e T he s l ope of e a c h t r e ndl i ne a nd c a l c ul a t i ons of c ha nge i n s l ope f or S t ude nt 3 a r e de pi c t e d i n T a bl e 6. T he s l ope r e f l e c t s t he da i l y p r ogr e s s of S t ude nt 3 i n e a c h pha s e P r i or t o t he i m p l e m e nt a t i on of t he pa r e nt i nt e r ve nt i on t he t r e nd of t he da t a f o r S t ude nt 2 w a s i nc r e a s i ng s l i ght l y ( s l ope = 0. 07 ) D e s pi t e t he i nc r e a s i ng t r e nd a nd va r i a bi l i t y i n t he da t a t he i nt e r ve nt i on w a s i m pl e m e nt e d due t o t i m e c ons t r a i nt s A f t e r i n t e r ve nt i on i m p l e m e nt a t i on t he t r e nd o f P P M c ont i nue d t o i nc r e a s e ( s l ope = 0. 11 ) T he i nt e r ve nt i on s l ope w a s gr e a t e r t o s om e e xt e nt t ha n t he ba s e l i ne s l ope ( c ha nge i n s l ope = 0 04) A s t a bl e t r e nd w a s obs e r ve d dur i ng t he f ol l ow up pe r i od ( s l ope = 0) T a bl e 6. S l ope a n d L e ve l C ha nge f or P hone m e s P e r M i nut e f or S t ude nt 3 C ondi t i on S l ope C ha nge i n S l ope L e ve l C ha nge i n L e ve l B a s e l i ne 0. 07 14 ( @ l a s t w e e k) I nt e r ve nt i on 0. 11 0. 04 17 ( @ l a s t w e e k) 3 I nt e r ve nt i on 0. 11 17 ( @ l a s t w e e k) F ol l ow U p 0 0. 11 17 ( @ l a s t w e e k) 0 F or s t ude nt 3 t he pe r c e nt a ge of nonove r l a ppi ng da t a poi nt s be t w e e n t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd ba s e l i ne pha s e s w a s l ow f a l l i ng a t 36% T he pa t t e r n of nonove r l a ppi ng da t a poi nt s w a s not a s r e gul a r a s t he pa t t e r ns f or S t ude nt 1 a nd 2 N onove r l a ppi ng d a t a poi nt s oc c ur r e d a t i r r e gul a r i nt e r va l s t h r oughout t h e i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e A l l da t a poi nt s c ol l e c t e d dur i ng f o l l ow up ove r l a ppe d w i t h t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e da t a poi nt s

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70 T r e at m e nt I nt e gr i t y I nt e r ve nt i on i m p l e m e nt a t i on i nt e gr i t y w a s e xa m i n e d us i ng a n i nt e r ve nt i on a c t i vi t i e s c he c kl i s t t ha t pa r e nt s c om pl e t e d a f t e r e a c h i nt e r ve nt i on s e s s i on a nd a t e l e phone c he c kl i s t t ha t t he i nve s t i ga t or c om pl e t e d on t he ph one w i t h e a c h pa r e nt a f t e r t he f i r s t a nd t hi r d w e e ks of i nt e r ve nt i on. A l l pa r e nt s c om pl e t e d a n i n t e r ve nt i on a c t i vi t i e s c h e c kl i s t a f t e r e a c h i nt e r ve nt i on s e s s i on. E a c h c om pone nt of t he c he c kl i s t w a s not f ul l y c om pl e t e d e a c h t i m e how e ve r T he s e c t i ons of t he f or m t ha t o f t e n w e r e l e f t i nc om pl e t e w e r e t he e ndi ng t i m e o f t he s e s s i on a nd t he be gi nni ng a nd e ndi ng t i m e s o f t he i ndi vi dua l a c t i vi t i e s ( i e c a s s e t t e t a pe pos t e r a c t i vi t y, w o r ks he e t s ) E l e ve n i nt e r ve nt i on a c t i vi t i e s c he c kl i s t s w e r e c om pl e t e d by e a c h pa r e nt f o r a t ot a l o f 33 c he c kl i s t s a c r os s a l l t hr e e pa r e nt s T he e ndi ng t i m e o f t he s e s s i on w a s l e f t i nc om pl e t e on 24% o f t he c he c kl i s t s B e gi nni ng a nd e ndi ng t i m e s o f t he i ndi vi dua l a c t i vi t i e s w e r e l e f t i nc om pl e t e on 46% o f t he c he c kl i s t s T hi s l i ke l y oc c ur r e d due t o t he pa r e nt s f oc us i ng on t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he i nt e r ve nt i on a c t i vi t i e s a nd not c onc e nt r a t i ng a s m uc h a t t e nt i on on t he s pe c i f i c t i m e s pa n of e a c h a c t i vi t y T he i nt e r ve nt i on a c t i vi t i e s c he c kl i s t a l s o c ont a i ne d a s pa c e f or pa r e nt s t o i ndi c a t e t he i r i m pr e s s i ons of t he i nt e r ve nt i on s e s s i on. T hi s s pa c e w a s c om pl e t e d on 5% of t he c he c kl i s t s P a r e nt s w r ot e ge ne r a l c om m e nt s l i ke I t hi nk i t w e nt w e l l I n a ddi t i on, none of t he pa r e nt s w r ot e dow n que s t i ons i n t he s p a c e pr ovi de d on t he f or m s ; a l t hough, t hi s w a s l i ke l y due t o t he gr e a t a m ount o f t i m e t he i nve s t i ga t or s pe nt a t t he hom e s o f e a c h f a m i l y ( f or p r ogr e s s m oni t or i ng ) a l l ow i ng f or a ny que s t i ons t o be a ddr e s s e d i n pe r s on. P a r e nt s a s ke d t he i nve s t i ga t or que s t i ons m os t l y r e g a r di ng t he a ppr op r i a t e ne s s of t he pr oc e dur e s t he y w e r e us i ng. F o r e xa m pl e t he pa r e nt s s how e d t he i nve s t i ga t or t he

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71 c om pl e t e d m a t e r i a l s ( e g pos t e r s a nd w or ks he e t s ) f r om p r e vi ous s e s s i ons t o e ns ur e t he y w e r e c om pl e t i ng t he a c t i vi t i e s a s r e qui r e d. O ve r a l l t he i nt e r ve nt i on a c t i vi t i e s c he c kl i s t s c om pl e t e d de m ons t r a t e d t ha t e a c h pa r e nt c om pl e t e d a l l r e qui r e d c o m pone nt s o f Soun d F oundat i ons du r i ng e a c h i nt e r ve nt i on s e s s i on. T he c he c kl i s t s s how e d t ha t t he pa r e nt s f o c us e d on e a c h r e qui r e d s ound i n bot h t he i ni t i a l a nd f i na l pos i t i ons o f w o r ds a s t he i n t e r ve nt i on s c he dul e r e qui r e d. A ddi t i ona l l y, t he c he c kl i s t s s h ow e d t ha t t he i nt e r v e nt i on w a s c om pl e t e d t w i c e pe r w e e k a nd t ha t a t l e a s t one n on i nt e r ve nt i on da y w a s l e f t be t w e e n i nt e r ve nt i on da ys a s s pe c i f i e d i n t he pr oc e dur e s o f t hi s s t udy P r ovi di ng a ddi t i ona l c onf i de nc e i n t he i nt e r na l va l i di t y of t hi s s t udy, t he t e l e phone c he c kl i s t s a t t he f i r s t a nd t hi r d w e e ks of i nt e r ve nt i on r e ve a l e d f e w c onc e r ns a nd t ha t t he pa r e nt pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e ge ne r a l l y pl e a s e d w i t h t he i nt e r ve nt i on p r oc e s s A t t he f i r s t w e e k f ol l ow up phone c a l l t he pa r e nt o f S t ude nt 3 i nqui r e d a bo ut he r ol de r c hi l d r e n be i ng a bl e t o he l p out w i t h t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he i nt e r ve nt i on. T he i nve s t i ga t or r e m i nde d t hi s pa r e nt of t he goa l o f t he r e s e a r c h s t udy, s pe c i f i c a l l y t ha t dur i ng t he c our s e of t he s t udy pa r e nt i m pl e m e nt a t i on w a s r e qui r e d. O t he r t ha n t hi s c onc e r n a t bot h t he f i r s t a nd t hi r d w e e ks of f ol l ow up e a c h pa r e nt pr o vi de d i nf or m a t i on s uppor t i ng a ppr opr i a t e i nt e r ve nt i on i m pl e m e nt a t i on a nd none of t he pa r e nt s r e qui r e d or r e que s t e d a f ol l ow up t r a i ni ng s e s s i on. B a s e d on t he a va i l a bl e i nf o r m a t i on ( c ons i de r i ng t h a t pa r e nt s di d not a l w a ys pr ovi de t i m e ba s e d i nf o r m a t i on) t he i nt e r ve nt i on s e s s i on l e ngt h r a nge d f r om 25 t o 35 m i nut e s T he a ve r a ge l e ngt h of t i m e of t he c a s s e t t e t a pe a c t i vi t y w a s 5 m i nut e s T he

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72 a ve r a ge l e ngt h of t i m e of t he pos t e r a c t i vi t y w a s 1 0 m i nut e s T he a ve r a ge l e ngt h of t i m e t o c om pl e t e a l l t hr e e w or ks he e t s w a s 15 m i nut e s Soc i al V al i di t y T o e xa m i ne t he pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e pt i ons a nd a c c e pt a bi l i t y of t he Sound F oundat i ons pa r e nt i n t e r ve nt i on, e a c h s t ude nt i n t h i s s t udy a ns w e r e d s i x que s t i ons a bout t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd i t s e f f e c t s A de s c r i pt i on of t h e C hi l d S oc i a l V a l i di t y S c a l e a nd i t s a dm i ni s t r a t i on c a n be f ound i n C ha pt e r T h r e e S t u de nt r e s pons e s t o t hi s r a t i ng s c a l e w e r e e xa m i ne d qua l i t a t i ve l y a nd a r e di s c us s e d he r e na r r a t i ve l y. A l l t h r e e s t ude nt s poi nt e d t o t he ha ppy f a c e w he n p r e s e nt e d w i t h t he que s t i ons r e ga r di ng t he r e a di ng pr ogr a m be i ng good ( Q ue s t i on 1) l i k i ng t he r e a di ng pr og r a m ( Q ue s t i ons 5) t hi nki ng t he r e a di ng pr ogr a m w i l l he l p t he m do be t t e r i n s c hool ( Q ue s t i on 6) a nd i ndi c a t e d t he r e a di ng pr ogr a m w oul d be good f or ot he r c hi l dr e n ( Q ue s t i on 4) S t ude nt s 1 a nd 2 di d not e ndor s e t he i t e m i ndi c a t i ng t ha t t he i r pa r e nt w a s t o o t ough on t he m du r i ng t he pr ogr a m ( Q ue s t i on 2) by poi nt i ng t o t he s a d f a c e S t ud e nt 3 i ndi c a t e d a ne ut r a l r e s pons e t o t ha t i t e m by poi nt i ng t o t he ne ut r a l f a c e A l l t hr e e s t ud e nt s poi nt e d t o t he s a d f a c e w he n pr e s e nt e d w i t h t he i t e m r e ga r di ng t he e xi s t e nc e of be t t e r r e a di ng p r ogr a m s t ha n t he one t he i r pa r e nt us e d ( Q ue s t i on 3) W he n i nt e r pr e t i ng t he s e r e s ul t s i t i s i m po r t a nt t o c ons i de r t ha t t he w or di ng of t w o o f t he i t e m s on t he c hi l d s o c i a l va l i di t y m e a s ur e ( i e t he i t e m s r e ga r di ng pa r e nt s be i ng t ough on t he m du r i ng t he pr ogr a m a nd t he e xi s t e nc e of be t t e r pr ogr a m s ) m a y ha ve be e n di f f i c ul t f o r t he c hi l dr e n t o unde r s t a nd. F o r e xa m pl e no de f i ni t i on of t he t e r m t ough w a s pr ovi de d. T he pa r e nt pa r t i c i pa nt s a l s o w e r e a s ke d t o a ns w e r 12 que s t i ons a bout t he f e a s i bi l i t y a nd pr a c t i c a l i t y of t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd t he out c om e of t he pr og r a m f o r t he i r

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73 c hi l dr e n. A de s c r i pt i on o f t he P a r e nt S oc i a l V a l i di t y S c a l e a nd i t s a dm i n i s t r a t i on c a n be f ound i n C ha pt e r T h r e e P a r e nt r e s pons e s t o t hi s r a t i ng s c a l e w e r e e xa m i ne d qua l i t a t i ve l y a nd a r e di s c us s e d he r e na r r a t i ve l y. A l l pa r e nt r e s pons e s w e r e pos i t i ve i n r e s pons e t o t he Sound F oundat i ons i n t e r ve nt i on. N o i t e m s w e r e e ndor s e d a s S t r ongl y D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e or S l i ght l y D i s a gr e e I n f a c t t he pa r e nt of S t ude nt 1 a ns w e r e d S t r ongl y A gr e e t o a l l 12 i t e m s T he pa r e nt o f S t ude nt 2 a n s w e r e d S t r ongl y A gr e e t o 10 o f t he 12 i t e m s T he pa r e nt of S t ude nt 3 a ns w e r e d S t r o ngl y A gr e e t o 7 of t he 12 i t e m s T he s t r onge s t a m ount of a g r e e m e nt ( i e r e s pons e s of S t r ongl y A g r e e ) f r o m a l l t hr e e pa r e nt s w a s f ound on i t e m s r e ga r di ng s ugge s t i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on t o ot he r pa r e nt s ( Q ue s t i on 3) t he i r c hi l d s r e a di ng di f f i c ul t y be i ng s e ve r e e nough f or t he i nt e r ve nt i on ( Q ue s t i on 4) c ont i nui ng t he us e of t hi s i nt e r ve nt i o n a t hom e ( Q ue s t i on 6) t he i nt e r ve nt i on not r e s ul t i ng i n ne ga t i ve e f f e c t s ( Q ue s t i on 7) t he i nt e r ve nt i on be i ng r e a s ona bl e ( Q ue s t i on 9) l i ki ng t he pr oc e dur e s ( Q u e s t i on 10) a nd t he i nt e r ve nt i on be i ng be ne f i c i a l f or ot he r c hi l d r e n ( Q ue s t i on 12 ) T he pa r e nt s of S t ude nt 2 a nd 3 i ndi c a t e d A gr e e t o t he i t e m s r e ga r di ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on be i ng a c c e pt a bl e f or t he i r c hi l d s r e a di ng di f f i c ul t y ( Q ue s t i on 1) a nd t he i n t e r ve nt i on be i ng a good w a y t o ha ndl e t he i r c hi l d s r e a di ng di f f i c ul t y ( Q ue s t i on 11 ) T he pa r e nt of S t u de nt 3 a l s o i ndi c a t e d A gr e e i n r e s pons e t o t he i t e m s r e ga r di ng t he a ppr op r i a t e ne s s a nd s ui t a bi l i t y of t he i nt e r ve nt i on ( Q ue s t i ons 2, 5, a nd 8 ) O ve r a l l t he r e s pons e t o t h e i nt e r ve nt i on by t he pa r e nt s w a s pos i t i ve a nd i t a ppe a r s t ha t a l l of t he pa r e nt s be l i e ve d t ha t t he p r ogr a m he l pe d t he i r c hi l dr e n s r e a di ng de f i c i e nc i e s I n f or m a l l y one o f t he pa r e nt s m e nt i one d t ha t s he w oul d l i ke t o s e e he r c hi l d e xpos e d t o l e a r n i ng t o r e c ogni z e w or ds i n t he c ou r s e of a n i nt e r ve nt i on s he w oul d p r e f e r t o us e a t ho m e

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74 C ha pt e r F i ve D i s c us s i on P r e vi ous r e s e a r c h ha s de m ons t r a t e d t he i m po r t a nt r ol e t ha t pa r e nt s p l a y i n de ve l opi ng r e a di ng s ki l l s i n t he i r c hi l d r e n a nd t he s uc c e s s t ha t pa r e nt s c a n ha ve w he n us i ng s pe c i f i c i nt e r ve nt i on pr oc e dur e s but l i t t l e r e s e a r c h ha s e xa m i ne d t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of a pa r e nt i m pl e m e nt e d, phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s pr ogr a m T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o i nve s t i ga t e t he i m pa c t o f t he Sound F ounda t i ons pr ogr a m i m pl e m e nt e d by pa r e nt s on t he phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s of ki nde r ga r t e n s t ude nt s w i t h phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s de f i c i t s I t w a s hypot he s i z e d t ha t pa r e nt i m pl e m e nt a t i on o f t he Sound F oundat i ons pr ogr a m w oul d i nc r e a s e t he s t ude nt s phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s T h i s c ha pt e r r e e xa m i ne s t he r e s ul t s r e l a t e d t o t he hypot he s i s a nd t o t he l i t e r a t u r e A ddi t i ona l l y, t hi s c ha pt e r di s c us s e s i m pl i c a t i ons f or pr a c t i c e l i m i t a t i ons o f t he s t udy, a nd di r e c t i ons f or f ut ur e r e s e a r c h. Sum m ar y of R e s ul t s and R e l at i o n t o E x i s t i ng L i t e r at ur e St ude nt out c om e s R e s ul t s w e r e ba s e d on t he e xa m i na t i on of c ha nge s i n m e a n, c ha nge s i n s l ope c ha nge s i n l e ve l l a t e nc y of c ha nge a na l ys i s of va r i a bi l i t y, a nd a na l ys i s of nonove r l a ppi ng da t a poi nt s a c r os s ba s e l i ne i nt e r ve nt i on, a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s f or e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt T he pe r f or m a nc e o f t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a c r os s pha s e s pr ovi de d s om e de gr e e of e vi de nc e a l t hough not s t r ong o r c onc l us i ve t ha t Sound F ounda t i ons r e s ul t e d i n a n i m pr ove m e nt i n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s dur i ng t he c our s e of t he i nt e r ve nt i on.

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75 S pe c i f i c a l l y, t he s t ude nt s pe r f or m a nc e on t he P ho ne m e S e gm e nt a t i on F l ue nc y ( P S F ) m e a s ur e i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he pa r e nt i nt e r ve nt i on w a s e f f e c t i ve t o s om e e xt e nt i n i nc r e a s i ng phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s i n t w o of t he t hr e e c hi l dr e n i nc l ude d i n t hi s s t udy. D u r i ng i nt e r ve nt i on, t he pe r f o r m a nc e of S t ude nt s 1 a nd 2 a ppe a r e d t o s how c l e a r e r i nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s t ha n t he pe r f or m a nc e of S t ude nt 3. T he r e w a s i nc onc l us i ve e vi de nc e ba s e d on t he f ol l ow up da t a c ol l e c t e d, r e ga r di ng t he l ong l a s t i ng e f f e c t s of t he i nt e r ve nt i on a f t e r i t s w i t hdr a w a l A f t e r i nt e r ve nt i on w i t hdr a w a l i t a ppe a r e d t ha t no de t e r i or a t i on of s ki l l oc c ur r e d f or t w o s t ude nt s ( a l t hou gh no c ont i nue d g r ow t h w a s e vi de nt e i t he r ) w hi l e one s t ude nt s s ki l l l e ve l de t e r i or a t e d T he s t r onge s t i nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s w e r e s e e n f o r S t ude nt 1. C ha nge s i n m e a n, l e ve l a nd s l ope ( r e ga r di ng t he num be r of phone m e s c or r e c t on t he P S F m e a s ur e ) w e r e a l l i n t he pos i t i ve hypot he s i z e d di r e c t i on. S t ude nt 1 s pe r f or m a nc e be ga n t o i nc r e a s e s hor t l y a f t e r t he i nt r oduc t i on of t he i n t e r ve nt i on a n d t he da t a r e ve a l e d l ow ove r l a p be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s R e ga r di ng m a i nt e na nc e e f f e c t s t he da t a c ol l e c t e d dur i ng f o l l ow up i s l e s s c onvi nc i ng f or S t ude nt 1. S t ude nt 1 s s ki l l s a ppe a r e d t o de t e r i or a t e a f t e r w i t hd r a w a l of t he i nt e r ve nt i on. A l t hough S t ude nt 1 s how e d a n i nc r e a s e i n m e a n f r om i nt e r ve nt i on t o f ol l ow up t he c ha nge s i n l e ve l a nd s l ope w e r e i n t he ne ga t i ve di r e c t i on f r om i nt e r ve nt i on t o f ol l ow up. B a s e d on t he s e f ol l ow up da t a i t a ppe a r s t ha t w i t hout ongoi ng s uppor t S t ude nt 1 w i l l not m a i nt a i n t he h i ghe r l e ve l s of pe r f or m a nc e ga i ne d du r i ng t he c our s e of t he i nt e r v e nt i on. S t ude nt 2 a l s o s how e d a s om e w ha t pos i t i ve r e a c t i on t o t he pa r e nt i nt e r ve nt i on. S t ude nt 2 s t r e ndl i ne c ha nge d f r om a de c r e a s i ng t r e nd dur i ng ba s e l i ne t o a n i nc r e a s i ng t r e nd a f t e r i nt e r ve nt i on C ha nge s i n l e ve l a nd m e a n w e r e pos i t i ve a l t hough t he c ha nge

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76 w a s not a s gr e a t a s w i t h S t ude nt 1 F or e xa m pl e t he ove r a l l c ha nge i n m e a n ( f r om ba s e l i ne t o i nt e r ve nt i on) w a s a n i nc r e a s e of onl y t h r e e phone m e s pe r m i nut e M a ki ng c onc l us i ons r e ga r di ng i nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s m or e un c e r t a i n, S t ude nt 2 di d not s how i m m e di a t e i m pr ove m e nt s a f t e r t he i n t e r ve nt i on w a s i nt r oduc e d a nd s how e d a hi ghe r a m ount of ove r l a p t ha n S t ude nt 1 T he l a c k of i m m e di a t e c ha nge f or S t ude nt 2 m a y be due t o t he Sound F oundat i ons pr ogr a m s s l ow pa c e a nd i nt r oduc t i on of c ont e nt ( i e one phone m e i n one pos i t i on pe r i nt e r ve nt i on s e s s i on) S t ude nt 2 a l s o di s pl a ye d t he s a m e i nc onc l us i ve da t a r e ga r di ng m a i nt e na nc e of t he ph onol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i m pr ove m e nt s dur i ng f ol l ow up. S t ude nt 2 s m e a n num be r o f ph one m e s pe r m i nut e i nc r e a s e d dur i ng f ol l ow up, but c ha nge s i n s l ope a nd l e ve l de c r e a s e d. M or e e nc our a gi ng, how e ve r i s t ha t S t ude nt 2 m a i nt a i ne d a c ons i s t e nt l e ve l of pe r f o r m a nc e dur i ng f ol l ow up. S t ude nt 2 s s t a bl e s l ope dur i ng f ol l ow up i ndi c a t e d t ha t he ne i t he r i m pr ove d nor w o r s e ne d i n pe r f or m a nc e i m m e di a t e l y a f t e r i nt e r ve nt i on r e m ov a l B a s e d on t he f ol l ow up da t a c ol l e c t e d, i t a ppe a r s t ha t S t ude nt 2 m a i nt a i ne d a s t e a dy l e ve l of pe r f or m a nc e w hi c h i s hi ghe r t ha n ba s e l i ne pe r f o r m a nc e a f t e r t he i nt e r ve nt i on w a s w i t hdr a w n. T he w e a ke s t e f f e c t s w e r e s e e n f or S t ude n t 3 I ni t i a l vi s ua l i ns pe c t i on of S t ude nt 3 s gr a ph pr ov i de d t he i m pr e s s i on t ha t m i ni m a l ga i ns w e r e m a de a f t e r i nt e r ve nt i on T r e ndl i ne s dur i ng bot h ba s e l i ne a nd i n t e r ve nt i on w e r e i nc r e a s i ng, a nd bot h pha s e s c ons i s t e d of hi ghl y va r i a bl e da t a U pon c l os e r i ns pe c t i on of t he da t a S t ude nt 3 di d e vi de nc e s m a l l i nc r e a s e s i n s l ope m e a n, a nd l e ve l ove r t i m e H ow e ve r S t ude nt 3 s i nc r e a s e s i n s l ope a nd l e ve l w e r e t he s m a l l e s t of a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s S t ude nt 3 s i nc r e a s e i n m e a n w a s onl y one poi nt hi ghe r t ha n S t ud e nt 2, a n i nc r e a s e of 4 phone m e s c or r e c t pe r

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77 m i nut e f r om ba s e l i ne m e a n t o i nt e r ve nt i on m e a n. M or e ove r ove r l a p be t w e e n ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e r ve nt i on da t a di d not de m ons t r a t e a ny e vi d e nc e of c ha nge a c r os s t i m e T he m os t obvi ous e xpl a na t i on f or S t ude nt 3 s l a c k of a ny s i gni f i c a nt gr ow t h c a n be f ound w he n c ons i de r i ng S t ude nt 3 s di a gnos e d a r t i c ul a t i on di s or de r R e c e nt r e s e a r c h ha s e xpl or e d a nd c onf i r m e d t ha t c hi l d r e n w i t h a r t i c ul a t i on de l a ys a r e m or e a t r i s k f or l e s s a dva nc e d phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s t ha n c hi l dr e n w i t hout a r t i c ul a t i on de l a ys ( S e ne c ha l O ue l l e t t e & Y oung, 2004; T hom a s & S e ne c ha l 1998, 2004 ) T hi s r e s e a r c h s ugge s t s t ha t m or e i nt e ns i ve a nd c om pr e he ns i ve i n t e r ve nt i ons m a y be ne c e s s a r y f or s t ude nt s w i t h c o m or bi d a r t i c ul a t i on a nd phonol og i c a l a w a r e ne s s de l a ys I t i s l i ke l y t ha t S t ude nt 3 r e s ponde d di f f e r e nt l y t o t h i s pa r e nt i nt e r ve nt i on due t o he r a r t i c ul a t i on di f f i c ul t y a nd i t s r e l a t i ons hi p t o t he de ve l opm e nt o f phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s O ve r a l l t he P S F s c or e s of a l l t hr e e s t ude nt s r a nge d f r om t he de f i c i t a nd l ow e nd of t he e m e r gi ng r a nge du r i ng ba s e l i ne t o t he uppe r l i m i t s of t he e m e r gi ng r a nge a t t he e nd of t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s w he n c ons i de r i ng D I B E L S be nc hm a r k goa l s H ow e ve r e a c h s t ude nt f a i l e d t o r e a c h gr a de l e ve l e xpe c t a t i ons be c a us e e nd of ye a r ki nde r ga r t e n s t ude nt s s houl d be a bl e t o pr oduc e 35 or m or e pho ne m e s pe r m i nut e on t he P S F m e a s ur e t o de m ons t r a t e e s t a bl i s he d phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s N one of t he s t ude nt s pr oduc e d 35 phone m e s pe r m i nut e or m or e dur i ng or a f t e r i nt e r ve nt i on. T hus a l t hough t he pe r f or m a nc e of t w o o f t he pa r t i c i pa nt s ( S t ude nt s 1 a nd 2) i m p r ove d dur i ng i m pl e m e nt a t i on of Sound F oundat i ons t he a m ount of m e a ni ng f ul i m p r ove m e nt i s que s t i ona bl e be c a us e i t di d not r e a c h a pr a c t i c a l a n d r e c om m e nde d l e ve l t o s uppor t f ur t he r r e a di ng de ve l opm e nt

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78 S t ude nt out c om e s a l s o c a n be e xa m i ne d i n t e r m s o f a de qua t e r a t e o f pr og r e s s ( B a ke r K a t z & F i e n 2005) F o r s t ude nt s w ho a r e a t t he i n t e ns i ve l e ve l of i ns t r uc t i on ( hi gh r i s k) a de qua t e p r ogr e s s m e a ns be i ng a t s om e r i s k or l ow r i s k by t he ne xt D I B E L S be nc hm a r k pe r i od. F o r s t ude nt s a t t he s t r a t e gi c i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l ( m ode r a t e r i s k) a de qua t e pr ogr e s s m e a ns t ha t t he y a r e a t l ow r i s k b y t he ne xt be nc hm a r k F or s t ude nt s w ho a r e a t be nc hm a r k ( l ow r i s k) a de qua t e pr o g r e s s m e a ns be i ng l ow r i s k a t t he ne xt be nc hm a r k pe r i od. C ons i de r i ng S t ude nt 1 s r a t e o f pr og r e s s ( 0. 19 P P M pe r da y ) onl y f our a nd a ha l f a ddi t i ona l w e e ks of t he s a m e i nt e r v e nt i on w oul d be ne e de d t o m e e t t he D I B E L S be nc hm a r k l e ve l o f e s t a bl i s he d phonol og i c a l a w a r e ne s s ( 35 or m or e P P M on t he P S F m e a s ur e ) T he r e f or e a t ot a l o f t e n w e e ks of i nt e r ve nt i on w oul d t a ke S t ude nt 1 f r om be i ng hi gh r i s k t o be nc hm a r k S t ude nt 1 s l e ve l of s ki l l de ve l opm e nt c a n be c ons i de r e d t o m e e t t he gu i de l i ne s f or a de qua t e r a t e of pr og r e s s I n r e vi e w i ng t he l i t e r a t u r e i t w a s f ound t ha t m a ny r e s e a r c he r s ha ve c a l l e d f or m or e i nve s t i ga t i on of t r a i ni ng pa r e nt s i n s pe c i f i c h om e ba s e d a c t i vi t i e s t ha t pr om ot e r e a di ng de ve l opm e nt ( e g E va ns e t a l 2000; R us h, 1999) T he r e c ur r e nt l y e xi s t s m uc h pr om i s i ng r e s e a r c h i nt o t hi s a r e a of s pe c i f i c pa r e nt ba s e d i nt e r ve nt i ons ( e g F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y & P ur di e 2003; P ow e l l S m i t h e t a l 200 0; W i l ks & C l a r ke 1988) H ow e ve r m uc h l e s s r e s e a r c h e xi s t s e xa m i ni ng t he e f f e c t i ve n e s s of pa r e nt ba s e d phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i nt e r ve nt i ons ( e g. G a ng & P oc he 198 2; W hi t e S ol i t y, & R e e ve 1984 ) T he r e s ul t s of t he p r e s e nt s t udy c ont r i but e t o t he know l e dge ba s e by he l pi ng t o f i l l i n t he ga p i n t hi s a r e a o f r e s e a r c h. O f t he pa r e nt ba s e d phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i nt e r ve nt i on s t udi e s r e vi e w e d, pa r e nt s t a ught phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s t o t he i r c hi l dr e n i n a num be r o f di f f e r e nt w a ys

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79 O ne s t udy t r a i ne d pa r e nt s t o us e a hi ghl y s t r uc t ur e d a ppr oa c h t o t e a c h s ounds s ound c om bi na t i ons a nd s ound bl e ndi ng ( G a ng & P oc he 1982) A s e c ond s t udy e m pl oye d t he us e of pr e c i s i on t e a c hi ng t o t e a c h l e t t e r s ounds bl e ndi ng s ki l l s i ni t i a l a nd f i na l bl e nds a nd di s c r i m i na t i on s ki l l s ( W hi t e S ol i t y, & R e e ve 1984) A t hi r d a pp r oa c h i nvol ve d t he us e of D i r e c t I ns t r uc t i on ( D I ) t o t e a c h t he i r c hi l d r e n l e t t e r s ound i de nt i f i c a t i on, bl e ndi ng s ounds a nd r hym i ng ( L e a c h & S i dda l l 1990) T h e c ont e nt of t he i nt e r ve nt i ons i n a l l t hr e e of t he s e s t udi e s w a s m or e c om pr e he ns i ve a nd i nt e ns e t he n t he c ont e nt de l i ve r e d by t he pa r e nt s i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy a s pa r t of t he Soun d F oundat i ons p r ogr a m w hi c h f oc us e s s ol e l y on phone m e r e c ogni t i on i n t he i ni t i a l a nd f i na l pos i t i ons of w or ds L i ke t he p r e s e nt s t udy, t he r e s ul t s r e por t e d i n e xi s t i ng l i t e r a t ur e de m ons t r a t e pr om i s i ng but i nc onc l us i ve e v i de nc e r e ga r d i ng t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of pa r e nt ba s e d phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i nt e r ve nt i ons A s s um m a r i z e d pr e vi ous l y, t he c ur r e nt s t udy de m ons t r a t e d l i m i t e d e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he pa r e nt p r ogr a m w i t h s om e o f t he pa r t i c i pa nt s A l l t hr e e s t udi e s i n t he e xi s t i ng l i t e r a t ur e us e d gr o up de s i gns s how i ng t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s i nc r e a s e d pe r f or m a nc e on t he s ki l l s m e a s ur e d. A l l t hr e e s t udi e s i nvol ve d de s i gn f l a w s ( e g. no c ont r ol gr oup, no r e l i a bi l i t y or va l i d i t y da t a r e por t e d f or m e a s ur e us e d, e t c ) l i m i t i ng c onf i de nc e i n t he e f f e c t s of t he s pe c i f i c i nt e r ve nt i ons e m pl oye d. O ne s t udy, t ha t c om pa r e d f our pa r e nt a ppr oa c he s r e ve a l e d t ha t t he phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a ppr oa c h w a s e f f e c t i ve but no m or e e f f e c t i ve t ha n one of t he ot he r pa r e nt i m pl e m e nt e d a ppr oa c he s ( P a i r e d R e a di ng ) ( L e a c h & S i dda l l 1990) I t i s c l e a r ba s e d on e xi s t i ng r e s e a r c h a nd t hi s c ur r e nt s t udy, t ha t e xpl or a t i on of pa r e nt t ut or i ng i n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s i s i n i t s i ni t i a l s t a ge s a nd t ha t m o r e i nf o r m a t i on a nd c l a r i t y i s ne e de d be f or e i r r e f ut a bl e c on c l us i ons c a n be dr a w n.

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80 D e s i gn. A l s o i m por t a nt t o c ons i de r i s t he l e ve l of c onf i de nc e t ha t c a n be pl a c e d i n t he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy ba s e d on t he e xt e nt o f a dhe r e nc e t o t he p r opos e d m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne de s i gn. O ne i nt e nt of t hi s s t udy w a s t o e m pl oy a s i ngl e c a s e de s i gn t o s how out c om e s of i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt s ove r t i m e T he m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne de s i gn pr ovi de s c ont r ol a nd c onf i de nc e i n i nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s be c a us e e a c h ba s e l i ne s e r ve s a s t he c ont r ol f o r t he pr e vi ous ba s e l i ne I de a l c onf i de nc e i n i nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s i s c r e a t e d w he n one pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r f or m a nc e i m pr ove s a f t e r i nt e r ve nt i on i m pl e m e nt a t i on w hi l e t he pe r f or m a nc e of pa r t i c i pa nt s not e xpos e d t o t he i n t e r ve nt i on doe s not c ha nge ( C oope r H e r on, & H e w a r d 1987 ) T hi s s t a gge r e d e f f e c t be c om e s s t r on ge r t he m or e i t i s r e pl i c a t e d a c r os s s ubj e c t s ( K a z di n, 1978) I n t he pr e s e nt s t udy, t he i nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s be t w e e n S t ude nt s 1 a nd 2 w e r e a ppa r e nt ; S t ude nt 2 s ba s e l i ne da t a r e m a i ne d s t a bl e w i t h l i t t l e va r i a bi l i t y w hi l e S t ude nt 1 s l e ve l s of phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i m pr ove d a f t e r t he Sound F oundat i ons p r ogr a m w a s i m p l e m e nt e d. O n t he c ont r a r y t hi s pa t t e r n w a s not r e pl i c a t e d w i t h a t h i r d ba s e l i ne ( S t ude nt 3 ) ; S t ude nt 3 s ba s e l i ne l e ve l s di d not r e m a i n s t a bl e a nd di s pl a ye d e xc e s s i ve va r i a bi l i t y. I n t e r ve nt i on f or S t ude nt s 1 a nd 2 w a s be gun be f or e S t ude nt 3 de m ons t r a t e d a s t a bl e ba s e l i ne A ddi t i ona l l y, S t ude nt 3 di d not e vi de nc e s i gni f i c a nt c ha nge a f t e r i nt r oduc t i on o f t h e Sound F oundat i ons i nt e r ve nt i on T hus be c a us e t he i nt e r ve nt i on w a s i m pl e m e nt e d w i t ho ut s t a bl e ba s e l i ne s a c r os s a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s s om e c ont r ol w a s c om pr om i s e d. F u r t he r be c a us e c ha nge i n pe r f or m a nc e w a s not r e pl i c a t e d a c r os s a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s t he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy a r e not de f i ni t i ve r e ga r di ng t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of Sound F oundat i ons a s a pa r e nt i nt e r ve nt i on a s i m pl e m e nt e d i n t hi s s t udy

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81 Soc i al v al i di t y and t r e at m e nt i nt e gr i t y F i na l l y a br i e f r e vi e w of t r e a t m e nt i nt e gr i t y a nd s oc i a l va l i di t y i n f or m a t i on r e ve a l e d t ha t t he pa r e nt s i n t hi s s t udy w e r e a bl e t o c a r r y ou t t he i nt e r ve nt i on i n t he w a y t ha t i t w a s i nt e nde d a nd t ha t bot h pa r e nt s a nd c hi l dr e n he l d pos i t i ve opi n i ons a bout t he i nt e r ve nt i on pr ogr a m T hi s i n f or m a t i on i s e nc our a gi ng be c a us e one goa l of t h i s s t udy w a s t o i m pr ove on pa s t r e s e a r c h by us i ng a n i nt e r ve nt i on t ha t w a s not i n t r us i ve di d not r e qui r e i nt e ns i ve t r a i ni ng, a nd w a s e a s y f or pa r e nt s t o i m pl e m e nt A l t hough t he r e s e a r c h i s l i m i t e d i n t hi s a r e a p r e vi ous s t udi e s e m pl oyi ng pa r e nt i m p l e m e nt a t i on of phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i nt e r ve nt i ons i nvol ve d t i m e c ons um i ng t r a i ni ng m e t hods a nd c om pl e x i n t e r ve nt i on pr oc e dur e s ( e g. G a ng & P oc he 1982; L e a c h & S i dda l l 1990) F or e xa m pl e G a ng a nd P oc he ( 1982) i nc l ude d s i x pa r e nt t r a i ni ng s e s s i ons l a s t i ng t w o a nd one ha l f h our s e a c h, f o r a t o t a l of 15 hou r s of pa r e nt t r a i ni ng L e a c h a nd S i dda l l ( 1990) t r a i ne d pa r e nt s i n D i r e c t I ns t r uc t i on i n a s e s s i on l a s t i ng f our a nd one ha l f hour s T he c ur r e nt s t udy s uc c e s s f ul l y t r a i ne d t he pa r e nt pa r t i c i pa nt s i n one b r i e f s e s s i on l a s t i ng onl y one h our T he r e s ul t s of t he s t udi e s t ha t e m pl oye d m or e c om pl e x t r a i ni ng a nd i nt e r ve nt i on pr oc e dur e s w e r e pos i t i ve ye t i nc onc l us i ve due t o de s i gn f l a w s a nd c om pa r i s on i nt e r ve nt i ons r e s ul t i ng i n e qua l l e ve l s of e f f e c t i ve ne s s C ons i de r i ng t he out c om e s of t he s e s t udi e s i t r e m a i ns unc l e a r w he t he r a gr e a t e r l e ve l of t r a i ni ng a nd c om pl e xi t y i s ne e de d t o yi e l d s t r onge r e f f e c t s t ha n t he i nt e r ve nt i on pr oc e dur e s r e qui r e d i n t he c ur r e nt s t u dy. I m pl i c at i ons f or P r ac t i c e A l t hough t he r e s ul t s a r e not c onc l us i ve t h i s s t udy ha s a dde d t o t he know l e dge ba s e r e ga r di ng pa r e nt i m pl e m e nt e d i nt e r ve nt i ons a nd ha s i m por t a nt i m pl i c a t i ons f o r

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82 pr a c t i c e a nd a ppl i c a t i on i n t he s c hool s I n t hi s di s c us s i on, t he s e i m pl i c a t i ons w i l l be l i nke d t o t he e ve r yda y pr a c t i c e o f s c hool ps yc hol o gi s t s A ba s i c i m pl i c a t i on s ur f a c i ng f r om t hi s s t udy i s t h a t pa r e nt s c a n be va l ua bl e r e s our c e s i n s c hool s f or pr ov i di ng s uppl e m e nt a l s u ppor t f o r c hi l d r e n a t r i s k f or r e a di ng f a i l ur e P a r e nt i nvol ve m e nt i n e a r l y r e a di ng ha s a l ong hi s t or y o f pr o m ot i on. F or e xa m pl e a dve r t i s e m e nt s on t e l e vi s i on e nc our a ge p a r e nt s t o r e a d w i t h t he i r c hi l dr e n t o de ve l op a c om m i t m e nt t o r e a di ng H ow e ve r s t udi e s s uc h a s t hi s one s ugge s t t ha t pa r e nt s c a n do m or e t o pr o m ot e l i t e r a c y t ha n j us t de ve l opi ng a n i nt e r e s t i n r e a di ng. S pe c i f i c a l l y, i n a ddi t i on t o s ha r e d r e a di ng pa r e nt s c a n l e a r n s pe c i f i c t e c hni que s de s i gne d t o a f f e c t t he i r c hi l dr e n s f ounda t i on l i t e r a c y s ki l l s I n t hi s s t udy, pa r e nt s e a s i l y l e a r ne d a nd i m pl e m e nt e d a phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i nt e r ve nt i o n a c c or di ng t o pr ot oc ol A n i m por t a nt c om pone nt of t hi s s t udy w a s t he s uppor t p r ovi de d by t he r e s e a r c he r i n t e a c hi ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on, m oni t or i ng t he pa r e nt s i m pl e m e nt a t i on i nt e gr i t y a nd a ns w e r i ng pa r e nt que s t i ons T he s c hool ps yc hol ogi s t c a n pl a y t hi s r ol e i n t he s c hool s ys t e m by t r a i ni ng pa r e nt s a nd a s s i s t i ng i n t he i r s uc c e s s of i nt e r ve nt i o n i m pl e m e nt a t i on a nd e f f e c t i ve ne s s T he s pe c i f i c r ol e t he s c hool ps yc hol ogi s t w oul d ha ve i s i l l us t r a t e d i n t he f o l l ow i ng di s c us s i on. P e r ha ps t he m os t i m po r t a nt i m pl i c a t i on i s t ha t t he Sound F oundat i ons p r ogr a m ha s t he pot e nt i a l t o i nc r e a s e phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s i n s om e c hi l dr e n but t ha t t hi s pr ogr a m i m pl e m e nt e d a s i t w a s i n t hi s s t udy m a y n ot be e nough f or m e a ni ngf ul c ha nge A pos s i bl e e xpl a na t i on f or t he l a c k of r obus t a nd c l e a r c ut r e s ul t s c a n be f ound i n r e f e r r i ng t o r e s e a r c h c om pl e t e d by G ood e t a l ( 19 98) G ood e t a l ( 1998) e xpl i c a t e d f i ve f e a t ur e s of e f f e c t i ve phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s pr ogr a m s ( s e e L i t e r a t ur e R e vi e w f or f ur t he r

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83 di s c us s i on) O f t he f i ve f e a t ur e s Sound F oundat i o ns m e e t s a l l of t he s e c r i t e r i a e xc e pt f o r one : i nc l us i on of i ns t r uc t i on i n s ound i de nt i f i c a t i o n, bl e ndi ng a nd s e gm e nt i ng, a nd l e t t e r s ound c or r e s ponde nc e T he Sound F oundat i ons pr ogr a m f oc us e s on s ound i de nt i f i c a t i on but doe s not t e a c h s ound bl e ndi ng s ound s e gm e nt i ng, or l e t t e r s ound c or r e s ponde nc e T he f oc us of t he p r ogr a m m a y be s uf f i c i e nt f or s o m e c hi l dr e n. H ow e ve r a s c onc l ude d by t he a ut hor s o f Sound F oundat i ons t he m s e l ve s s om e c hi l dr e n a l s o m a y r e qui r e m or e di ve r s e i ns t r uc t i on, s uc h a s i n s e gm e nt i ng a nd bl e n di ng s ki l l s ( B yr ne a t a l 2000) T he Sound F oundat i ons pr og r a m w a s c hos e n f or t hi s s t udy be c a us e of t he e xt e ns i ve r e s e a r c h on i t s e f f e c t i ve ne s s a nd, e s pe c i a l l y, f or i t s e a s e of us e a nd a da pt a t i on f or pa r e nt s F or s c hool ps yc hol ogi s t s pl a nni ng pa r e nt t r a i ni ng a nd pa r e nt i n t e r ve nt i on pr ogr a m s t he us e of Sound F oundat i ons f or s ound i de nt i f i c a t i on de ve l opm e nt i s r e c om m e nde d ba s e d on t he c onf i r m a t i on t hi s s t udy pr ovi de s on i t s e a s e of us e f or pa r e nt s a nd ba s e d on pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h c om pl e t e d by t he p r ogr a m de ve l ope r s on i t s e f f e c t i ve ne s s H ow e ve r s c hool ps yc hol ogi s t s s houl d r e c ogni z e t he l i m i t a t i ons of Sound F oundat i ons a nd s houl d c ons i de r t he us e of s uppl e m e nt a l m a t e r i a l s a nd/ or a ddi t i ona l pr ogr a m s de s i gne d t o a ddr e s s bl e ndi ng, s e gm e nt i ng, a nd l e t t e r s ound c or r e s ponde nc e S ound F oundat i ons c oul d be one pi e c e o f a m ul t i c om pone nt i nt e r ve nt i on. T he s c hool ps yc hol ogi s t i s uni que l y pos i t i one d i n t he s c hool s ys t e m t o be a bl e t o i de nt i f y t he i ndi vi dua l ne e ds of s t ude nt s t hus be i n g a bl e t o t a i l or a pa r e nt i nt e r ve nt i on pr ogr a m t o s t ude nt ne e ds S c hool ps yc hol ogi s t s ha ve t he a bi l i t y t o a s s e s s s t ude nt s s ki l l s by us i ng s c r e e ni ng t ool s s uc h a s t he D I B E L S m e a s ur e t ha t w a s us e d i n t hi s s t udy, a nd t o m oni t or s t ude nt p r ogr e s s ove r t i m e ( i e be f or e du r i ng, a nd a f t e r a n i nt e r ve nt i on ) D e c i s i ons r e ga r di ng t he e xt e nt of t he pa r e nt i nt e r v e nt i on r e qui r e d s houl d be ba s e d on t he

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84 i ndi vi dua l ne e ds of t he s t ude nt de t e r m i ne d by t hi s t ype of a s s e s s m e nt a nd pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng. F or e xa m pl e a s c hool ps yc hol ogi s t m a y a dm i ni s t e r t he D I B E L S a nd de t e r m i ne t ha t a pa r t i c ul a r k i nde r ga r t e n s t ude nt s h ow s de f i c i t s i n s ound i de nt i f i c a t i on a nd s ound bl e ndi ng. T he s c hool ps yc hol ogi s t m a y de c i de t o f oc us f i r s t on t he pr e c ur s or s ki l l of s ound i de nt i f i c a t i on by a s s i s t i ng t hi s s t ude nt s p a r e nt s i n i m pl e m e nt a t i o n o f Sound F oundat i ons A s t he pr og r a m p r ogr e s s e s t he s c hool ps yc hol ogi s t w oul d m oni t o r t he s t ude nt s pr ogr e s s i n s ound i de nt i f i c a t i on ove r t i m e W he n t he s t ude nt r e a c he d c r i t e r i a f or e s t a bl i s he d s ound i de nt i f i c a t i on s ki l l s t he s c ho ol ps yc hol ogi s t w oul d t he n i de nt i f y a pr ogr a m f o r t h i s s t ude nt s pa r e nt s t o us e i n or de r t o a ddr e s s t he de f i c i t i n s ound bl e ndi ng T hi s pr oc e s s c oul d be c ont i nue d a s m uc h a s i s ne c e s s a r y ba s e d on t he s t ude nt s de ve l opm e nt of e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s a nd e ve n, r e a d i ng a bi l i t y. L i m i t at i ons S e ve r a l l i m i t a t i ons e xi s t w he n c ons i de r i ng i nt e r na l va l i di t y a nd t he m e t hods of t he s t udy. T he f i r s t one o f t he s e l i m i t a t i ons i nvol ve s t he e qui va l e nc y of t he s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa nt s A n a s s um pt i on of t he m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne de s i gn i s t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s ha ve s i m i l a r c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd a r e e xpos e d t o s i m i l a r e nvi r onm e nt s ( B a r l ow & H e r s e n, 1984) H ow e ve r one of t hi s s t udy s pa r t i c i pa nt s di s pl a ye d a n a r t i c ul a t i on di s or de r m a ki ng i t di f f i c ul t t o de t e r m i ne i f t hi s c ha r a c t e r i s t i c i nt e r f e r e d w i t h i nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s T he s e c ond l i m i t a t i on w a s di s c us s e d pr e vi ous l y. T hi s i s t he l i m i t a t i on i nvol vi ng t he f a i l ur e t o r e pl i c a t e i nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s a c r os s a l l p a r t i c i pa nt s a nd t he f a i l u r e t o e s t a bl i s h s t a bl e ba s e l i ne s w i t h l ow va r i a bi l i t y a c r os s a l l pa r t i c i p a nt s C ont r ol i s c om pr om i s e d be c a us e of t hi s l i m i t a t i on m a ki ng r e s ul t s a m bi guo us A t hi r d l i m i t a t i on i nhe r e nt i n t he s t udy s pr oc e dur e s w a s t he l e ngt h of t he f ol l ow up pha s e A f t e r w i t hd r a w a l of t he

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85 i nt e r ve nt i on, pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e m oni t o r e d f o r one w e e k, a l l ow i ng f o r t he c ol l e c t i on of t hr e e da t a poi nt s T he s hor t l e ngt h of t he pha s e a n d t he s m a l l num be r of da t a poi nt s pos e s a c ha l l e nge t o dr a w i ng r e l i a bl e c onc l us i ons r e ga r di ng m a i nt e na nc e of pe r f or m a nc e a nd l ong t e r m e f f e c t s of t hi s i nt e r ve nt i on A f o ur t h l i m i t a t i on i s t he na r r ow f oc us o f t he Sound F oundat i ons i n t e r ve nt i on. A s m e nt i one d pr e vi ous l y, t hi s i nt e r ve nt i on s c ont e nt f oc us e s on phone m e i de nt i f i c a t i on a nd doe s not a d dr e s s a l l a r e a s of phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s ( e g. s e gm e nt i ng, bl e ndi ng, l e t t e r s oun d a s s oc i a t i on) T hi s l a c k of c om pr e he ns i ve c ont e nt m a y l i m i t t he a bi l i t y t o obs e r ve s i gni f i c a nt c ha nge s i n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s F ur t he r m o r e t he s hor t dur a t i on of t he pr og r a m ( f i ve a nd a ha l f w e e ks ) m a y not ha ve be e n e nough t i m e t o a l l o w f o r s i gni f i c a nt c ha nge i n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s T hr e a t s t o t he e xt e r na l va l i di t y of t hi s s t udy a l s o e xi s t O ne o f t he s e i s t he s m a l l s a m pl e s i z e a nd t he s i ngl e s ubj e c t de s i gn. T he s e f e a t ur e s of t he s t udy l i m i t t he a bi l i t y t o ge ne r a l i z e t he r e s ul t s t o t he popul a t i on, t hr e a t e ni ng e xt e r na l va l i di t y a nd t he a bi l i t y t o i nt e r pr e t r e s ul t s A s e c ond t hr e a t t o t he e xt e r na l va l i di t y of t he s t udy i n vol ve s s e l e c t i on a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he pa r e nt pa r t i c i pa nt s T he pa r e nt s i n t he s t udy vol un t e e r e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e a nd w e r e i nt e r e s t e d i n pr ov i di ng a ddi t i o na l i ns t r uc t i ona l s uppor t i n t he hom e T he s e pa r e nt pa r t i c i pa nt s m a y be di f f e r e nt i n s om e w a y ( e g m ot i va t i on s ki l l l e ve l e nt hus i a s m ) t o pa r e nt s w ho do not vol unt e e r t o pa r t i c i pa t e or w ho a r e not i nt e r e s t e d i n hom e t ut or i ng a c t i vi t i e s T hus t he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy m a y not be a ppl i c a bl e t o a l l pa r e nt s T he e xt e r na l va l i d i t y o f s i ngl e s ubj e c t s t udi e s c a n be i m pr ove d t h r ough r e pl i c a t i on of t he s t udy i n di f f e r e nt s e t t i ngs or w i t h di f f e r e nt pa r t i c i pa nt s ( B a r l ow & H e r s e n, 1984; K a z di n, 1978)

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86 D i r e c t i ons f or F ut ur e R e s e ar c h P e r ha ps t he m os t i m po r t a nt r e c om m e nda t i on f or f u t ur e r e s e a r c h i s t o c ont i nue t he e xpl or a t i on of pa r e nt ba s e d phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s pr ogr a m s e s pe c i a l l y c ons i de r i ng t he pot e nt i a l t ha t t h i s s t udy a nd pr e vi ous s t udi e s ha ve de m ons t r a t e d. T o i m p r ove upon c ur r e nt l y a va i l a bl e r e s e a r c h, s t r onge r de s i gns de m ons t r a t i ng s t r onge r e f f e c t s a r e ne e de d. C ont i nue d us e of s i ngl e c a s e de s i gns i s r e c om m e nde d t o i ndi c a t e e f f e c t s of pa r e nt ba s e d i nt e r ve nt i o ns on i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt s H ow e ve r i t i s c r uc i a l t ha t f u t ur e s t udi e s a r e de s i gne d i n a w a y t ha t c a n i m pr ove upon t he p r e s e nt s t udy. F i r s t of a l l f ut ur e r e s e a r c h ut i l i z i ng m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne s c oul d be s t r e ngt he ne d gr e a t l y by e ns ur i ng c ont r ol a nd r e pl i c a t i ng r e s ul t s a c r os s a l l ba s e l i ne s A c l e a r e r de m ons t r a t i on of i n t e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s a c r os s a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s w oul d s t r e ngt he n t he r e s e a r c h ba s e by a l l ow i ng f or m or e s t r a i ght f or w a r d a nd s t r o ng c onc l us i ons S e c ondl y, f ut u r e r e s e a r c h s houl d f oc us on c om pon e n t s of t he i nt e r ve nt i on p r oc e s s t ha t c a n be a l t e r e d a nd i m pr ove d O ne w a y t o do t hi s w oul d be t o e xpl or e pa r e nt ba s e d c ur r i c ul um t ha t i nvol ve s a l l c om pone nt s o f e f f e c t i ve phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s pr ogr a m s ( G ood e t a l 1998) T o i m pr ove on t he p r oc e dur e s us e d i n t he p r e s e nt s t udy, t he c ont e nt of t he i nt e r ve nt i on us e d i n f ut ur e r e s e a r c h s houl d i nc l ude i ns t r uc t i on i n va r i ous a s pe c t s of phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s de ve l opm e nt i nc l udi ng s o und i de nt i f i c a t i on, bl e ndi ng a nd s e gm e nt i ng, a nd l e t t e r s ound c o r r e s ponde nc e T he ke y w i l l be t o i nc or por a t e t he s e a s pe c t s of phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s t r a i ni ng w hi l e m a i nt a i ni ng e f f i c i e nc y a nd c os t e f f e c t i ve ne s s M a i nt a i ni ng t he s e e l e m e nt s w i l l he l p t o e ns ur e pa r e nt a nd s t ude nt s a t i s f a c t i on w i t h t he pr og r a m a s w e l l a s t o pr e s e r v e t h e f e a s i bi l i t y o f e m pl oyi ng pa r e nt t r a i ni ng pr og r a m s i n s c hool s A s e c ond a ddi t i on t o a nd i m pr ove m e nt of t he i nt e r ve nt i on

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87 pr oc e dur e s us e d i n t hi s s t udy i s i nc o r por a t i ng s t ud e nt s e l f gr a phi ng a nd r e i nf o r c e m e nt c om pone nt s i nt o t he i nt e r ve nt i on. F ut u r e r e s e a r c h c oul d e xa m i ne w he t he r t hi s t ype of s t ude nt s e l f m oni t or i ng e l e m e nt i m pr ove s s t ude nt out c om e s T hi r dl y be c a us e t he r e s ul t s of t he pr e s e nt s t udy i n di c a t e d i nc ons i s t e nt i nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s a c r os s pa r t i c i pa nt s i t w oul d be i m por t a nt t o e xa m i ne t he i nt e r a c t i on of pa r t i c i pa nt s c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd t he s uc c e s s of t he i nt e r ve nt i on. E xa m i ni ng t he s e i s s ue s w oul d he l p r e s e a r c he r s t o i de nt i f y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of s t ude nt s t ha t c ont r i but e t o or r e duc e t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of pa r e nt a ppr oa c he s A f our t h c ons i de r a t i on f o r f ut u r e r e s e a r c h i s e xpl or i ng t he ba r r i e r s pa r e nt s m a y e xpe r i e nc e i n s uc c e s s f ul l y i m pl e m e nt i ng pa r e nt i nt e r ve nt i ons T he s e ba r r i e r s c oul d i nc l ude m a na ge m e nt of s t ude nt be ha vi or dur i ng i nt e r ve nt i on s e s s i ons ; qua l i t a t i ve di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n pa r e nt s s uc h a s pa r e nt s ki l l l e ve l pa r e nt l e ve l of e duc a t i on, a nd pa r e nt l e ve l s of m o t i va t i on; a nd t i m e c ons t r a i nt s pl a c e d on pa r e nt s i n r e l a t i on t o l i f e s t yl e a nd e m pl oym e nt R e s e a r c h i nt o t he s e ba r r i e r s w oul d e xpl i c a t e t he t ype s of t r a i ni ng pr ogr a m s a nd s uppor t m e c ha ni s m s pa r e nt s ne e d t o e nha nc e t he i r s uc c e s s w i t h hom e ba s e d i nt e r ve nt i ons F ut ur e r e s e a r c h a l s o s houl d c ons i de r ga t he r i ng qua l i t a t i ve i nf or m a t i on a bout how pa r e nt s c a n f i t a hom e i nt e r ve nt i o n i nt o t he i r da i l y s c he dul e s T hi s c a n be a c c om pl i s he d by i nc or por a t i ng a pa r e nt i nt e r vi e w i n t o t he s oc i a l va l i di t y da t a c ol l e c t i on p r oc e s s T he s oc i a l va l i di t y da t a c ol l e c t i on p r oc e s s a l s o c a n be i m pr ove d by s how i ng t he pa r e nt s t he da t a a nd pr ogr e s s of t he i r c hi l d dur i ng t he c ou r s e of t he i nt e r ve nt i on. T hi s w o ul d a l l ow pa r e nt s t o ha ve t he i n f or m a t i on ne e de d t o e va l ua t e e f f e c t i ve l y a nd a c c ur a t e l y t he i nt e r ve nt i on pr oc e s s

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88 F i na l l y, f ut ur e r e s e a r c h s houl d pl a n f o r m o r e e xt e n s i ve e xpl or a t i on of t he l ong t e r m e f f e c t s of pa r e nt ba s e d phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i nt e r ve nt i ons by e xa m i ni ng t he m a i nt e na nc e of phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s a f t e r i nt e r ve nt i on w i t hdr a w a l f o r a l onge r pe r i od of t i m e t ha n t he pr e s e nt s t udy a nd a l s o by e va l ua t i ng t he i m pa c t ove r t i m e on pa r t i c i pa nt s de ve l opm e nt of r e a di ng s ki l l s C onc l us i on T h i s s t udy e xpl or e d t he e f f e c t s of a pa r e nt i m pl e m e nt e d phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i nt e r ve nt i on, Sound F ounda t i ons on t he phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s of t hr e e ki nde r ga r t e n c hi l dr e n w i t h phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s de f i c i t s O ve r a l l t he r e s ul t s of t he s t udy i ndi c a t e d i nc ons i s t e nt i nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s a c r os s s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa nt s A ddi t i ona l l y, a l t hough ga i ns w e r e m a de by s om e of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s none of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a c he d a l e ve l of e s t a bl i s he d phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s dur i ng or a f t e r t he i nt e r ve nt i on. O pt i m i s t i c a l l y, pa r e nt s w e r e a bl e t o i m pl e m e nt t he i nt e r ve nt i on a c c e pt a bl y a nd pa r e nt a nd s t ude nt s oc i a l va l i di t y r e s ul t s w e r e ve r y pos i t i ve I n s um m a r y, t he pr e s e nt s t udy p r ovi de s pr e l i m i na r y e vi de nc e t ha t c hi l dr e n m a y be ne f i t f r o m pa r e nt s uppor t i n ph onol og i c a l a w a r e ne s s de ve l opm e nt a nd c l a r i f i e s di r e c t i ons f or f ut ur e r e s e a r c h t ha t w i l l e nha nc e our a bi l i t y t o d r a w m or e de f i ni t i ve c onc l us i ons

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89 R e f e r e nc e s A da m s M J ( 1990) B e gi nni ng t o r e ad: T hi nk i ng and l e ar ni ng about pr i nt C a m br i dge M A : M I T P r e s s A da m s M J F oo r m a n, B R L undbe r g, I & B e e l e r T ( 1998) P hone m i c aw ar e ne s s i n y oung c hi l dr e n: A c l as s r oom c ur r i c ul um B a l t i m or e : B r ooke s B a di a n, N A ( 1988) T he pr e di c a t i on o f good a nd poor r e a di ng be f or e ki nde r ga r t e n e nt r y: A ni ne ye a r f ol l ow up. J our nal of L e ar ni ng D i s abi l i t i e s 21 ( 2) 98 102 123. B a ke r S K K a t z R & F i e n, H ( 2005, M a r c h) U s i ng D I B E L S t o de f i ne a de qua t e r a t e s of r e a di ng p r ogr e s s : A f r a m e w or k a nd e xa m pl e s us i ng da t a f r om O r e gon R e adi ng F i r s t P r e s e nt a t i on m a d e a t t he D I B E L S S um m i t A l buque r que N M B a l l E W & B l a c hm a n, B A ( 1988) P hone m e s e gm e nt a t i on t r a i ni ng: E f f e c t on r e a di ng r e a di ne s s A nnal s of D y s l e x i a, 38, 208 225 B a l l E W & B l a c hm a n, B A ( 1991) D oe s phon e m e a w a r e ne s s t r a i ni ng i n ki nde r g a r t e n m a ke a d i f f e r e nc e i n e a r l y w or d r e c ogni t i on a nd de ve l opm e nt a l s pe l l i ng. R e adi ng R e s e ar c h Q uar t e r l y 26 ( 1) 49 6 6. B a r l ow D H H a ye s S C & N e l s on, R O ( 198 4) T he s c i e nt i s t pr ac t i t i one r : R e s e ar c h and ac c ount abi l i t y i n c l i ni c al and e duc at i ona l s e t t i ngs N e w Y or k: P e r ga m on P r e s s B a r l ow D H & H e r s e n, M ( 1973) S i ng l e c a s e e xpe r i m e nt a l de s i gns A r c hi v e s of G e ne r al P s y c hi at r y 29, 319 325 B a r l ow D H & H e r s e n, M ( 1984) Si ngl e c as e e x pe r i m e nt al de s i gns : St r at e gi e s f or s t udy i ng be hav i o r c hange ( 2 n d e d. ) B os t on: A l l yn a nd B a c on. B e hr m a n, M M ( 2002 ) B e gi nni ng r e a di ng a nd ph onol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s f or s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s R e t r i e ve d M a r c h 31, 200 4, f r om ht t p: / / w w w ki ds our c e c om / ki ds our c e / c ont e nt 2/ di s a bi l i t y. phonol ogi c a l h t m l B l a c hm a n, B A B a l l E W B l a c k, R & T a nge l D M ( 1994 ) K i nde r ga r t e n t e a c he r s de ve l op phone m e a w a r e ne s s i n l ow i nc om e i nne r c i t y c l a s s r oom s R e adi ng and W r i t i ng: A n I n t e r di s c i pl i nar y J our nal 6, 1 18

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90 B l a c hm a n, B A B a l l E W B l a c k, R & T a nge l D M ( 2000 ) R ode t o t he c ode : A phonol ogi c al aw ar e ne s s pr og r am f or y oung c hi l dr e n. B a l t i m or e : B r ooke s B oc k, R ( 1998 ) W hy c hi l dr e n s uc c e e d or f ai l at r e adi ng: R e s e ar c h f r om N I C H D s pr ogr am i n l e ar ni ng di s abi l i t i e s B e t he s da M D : N a t i ona l I ns t i t ut e of C hi l d H e a l t h a nd H um a n D e ve l opm e nt B yr ne B ( 1998) T he f oundat i on of l i t e r ac y : T he c hi l d s ac qui s i t i on of t he al phabe t i c pr i nc i pl e E a s t S us s e x, B N U K : P s yc hol ogy P r e s s B yr ne B & F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y, R ( 1991 ) E va l ua t i on of a pr og r a m t o t e a c h phone m i c a w a r e ne s s t o young c hi l dr e n. J our nal o f E duc at i on al P s y c hol ogy 83 ( 4) 451 455 B yr ne B & F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y, R ( 1993 ) E va l ua t i on of a pr og r a m t o t e a c h phone m i c a w a r e ne s s t o young c hi l dr e n: A 1 ye a r f ol l ow up. J our nal of E duc at i onal P s y c hol ogy 85 ( 1) 104 111. B yr ne B & F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y, R ( 1995 ) E va l ua t i on of a pr og r a m t o t e a c h phone m i c a w a r e ne s s t o young c hi l dr e n: A 2 a nd 3 ye a r f ol l o w up a nd a ne w pr e s c hool t r i a l J our nal of E duc at i onal P s y c hol ogy 87 ( 3) 488 50 3. B yr ne B F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y, R & A s hl e y, L ( 20 00) E f f e c t s o f pr e s c hool phone m e i de nt i t y t r a i ni ng a f t e r s i x ye a r s : O ut c om e l e ve l di s t i ngui s he d f r om r a t e or r e s pons e J our nal of E duc at i onal P s y c hol ogy 92 ( 4 ) 659 667. C hr i s t i a n, K M or r i s on, F J & B r ya nt F B ( 199 8) P r e di c t i ng ki nde r ga r t e n a c a de m i c s ki l l s : I nt e r a c t i ons a m ong c hi l d c a r e m a t e r na l e du c a t i on, a nd f a m i l y l i t e r a c y e nvi r onm e nt s E ar l y C hi l dhood R e s e ar c h Q uar t e r l y 13 ( 3 ) 501 521. C oope r J O H e r on, T E & H e w a r d, W L ( 198 7) A ppl i e d be hav i o r anal y s i s U ppe r S a ddl e R i ve r N J : M e r r i l D ua ne D ( 1999) R e adi ng and at t e nt i on di s or de r s : N e ur obi ol ogi c al c or r e l at e s L ondon: Y or k P r e s s D uva l l S F D e l qua dr i J C E l l i o t M & H a l l R V ( 1992) P a r e nt t ut or i ng pr oc e dur e s : E xpe r i m e nt a l a na l ys i s a nd va l i da t i on o f ge ne r a l i z a t i on i n or a l r e a di ng a c r os s pa s s a ge s s e t t i ngs a nd t i m e J our nal of B e h av i or al E duc at i on, 2 ( 3) 281 303. E va ns M A S ha w D & B e l l M ( 2000) H om e l i t e r a c y a c t i vi t i e s a nd t he i r i nf l ue nc e on e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s C anadi an J our nal o f E x pe r i m e nt al P s y c hol ogy 54 ( 2 ) 65 75.

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91 F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y, R & P ur di e N ( 2003 ) E a r l y i nt e r ve nt i on i n t he hom e f or c hi l dr e n a t r i s k of r e a di ng f a i l u r e Suppor t f or L e ar ni ng, 18 ( 2) 77 82 F i t t on, L & G r e dl e r G ( 1996 ) P a r e nt a l i nvol ve m e nt i n r e a di ng r e m e di a t i on w i t h young c hi l dr e n. P s y c hol ogy i n t he Sc hool s 33 ( 4 ) 325 33 2. F oor m a n, B R F r a nc i s D J S ha yw i t z S E S ha yw i t z B A & F l e t c he r J M ( 1997) T he c a s e f or e a r l y r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i on I n B A B l a c hm a n ( E d. ) F oundat i ons o f r e adi ng ac qui s i t i on and dy s l e x i a: I m pl i c at i ons f or e ar l y i nt e r v e nt i on ( pp. 243 264) M a hw a h, N J : L a w r e nc e E r l ba um A s s oc i a t e s G a ng, D & P oc he C E ( 1982) A n e f f e c t i ve pr o gr a m t o t r a i n pa r e nt s a s r e a di ng t ut or s f or t he i r c hi l dr e n E duc a t i on and T r e at m e nt of C hi l dr e n, 5 ( 3) 211 232 G ood, R H K a m i ns ki R A S hi nn, M B r a t t e n, J S hi nn M & L a i m on L ( 2003) T e c hni c al ade quac y and de c i s i on m ak i ng ut i l i t y of D I B E L S ( T e c hni c a l R e por t ) M a nus c r i pt i n pr e pa r a t i on. E uge ne O R : U ni ve r s i t y of O r e gon. G ood, R H S i m m ons D C K a m e e nui E J K a m i ns ki R A & W a l l i n J ( 2002) Sum m ar y of de c i s i on r ul e s f or i nt e ns i v e s t r at e gi c and be nc hm ar k i ns t r uc t i onal r e c om m e ndat i ons i n k i nde r gar t e n t hr ough t hi r d gr ade ( T e c hni c a l R e por t N o. 11 ) E uge ne O R : U ni ve r s i t y of O r e gon. G ood, R H S i m m ons D C & S m i t h S B ( 199 8) E f f e c t i ve a c a de m i c i nt e r ve nt i ons i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s : E va l ua t i ng a nd e nha nc i ng t he a c qui s i t i on of e a r l y r e a di ng s ki l l s Sc hool P s y c hol ogy R e v i e w 27 ( 1) 45 56. J a c obs e n, N S & T r ua x P ( 1991) C l i ni c a l s i gni f i c a nc e : A s t a t i s t i c a l a ppr oa c h t o de f i ni ng m e a ni ngf ul c ha nge i n ps yc hot he r a py r e s e a r c h. J our nal of C ons ul t i ng and C l i ni c al P s y c hol ogy 59 ( 1 ) 12 19. J ue l C ( 1988 ) L e a r ni ng t o r e a d a nd w r i t e : A l ong i t u di na l s t udy of 54 c hi l d r e n f r om f i r s t t hr ough f ou r t h g r a de s J our nal of E duc at i onal P s y c hol ogy 80, 437 447 K a m i ns ki R A & G ood, R H ( 1996) T ow a r d a t e c hnol ogy f or a s s e s s i ng ba s i c e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s Sc hool P s y c hol ogy R e v i e w 25 215 227. K a m i ns ki R A & G ood, R H ( 1998) A s s e s s i ng e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s i n a pr obl e m s ol vi ng m ode l : D yna m i c I ndi c a t or s of B a s i c E a r l y L i t e r a c y S ki l l s I n M R S hi nn ( E d. ) A dv anc e d appl i c at i ons o f c ur r i c ul um bas e d m e as ur e m e nt ( pp. 113 142) N e w Y or k: G ui l f o r d P r e s s K a z di n, A E ( 1978 ) M e t hodol ogi c a l a nd i nt e r p r e t a t i ve pr obl e m s of s i ngl e c a s e e xpe r i m e nt a l de s i gns J our nal of C ons ul t i ng and C l i ni c al P s y c hol ogy 46 ( 4) 629 642.

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92 K a z di n, A E ( 1982 ) Si ngl e c as e r e s e ar c h de s i gn s : M e t hods f or c l i ni c al and appl i e d s e t t i ngs N e w Y or k: O xf or d. L e a c h, D & S i dda l l S ( 1990) P a r e nt a l i nvol ve m e nt i n t he t e a c hi ng of r e a di ng: A c om pa r i s on of he a r i ng r e a di ng, pa i r e d r e a di ng, pa u s e pr om pt pr a i s e a nd di r e c t i ns t r uc t i on m e t hods B r i t i s h J our nal of E duc at i ona l P s y c hol o gy 60 330 337 L e m a nn, N ( 1997 ) T he r e a di ng w a r s T he A t l ant i c M ont hl y 280 ( 5) 128 134. L oni ga n, C J & W hi t e hu r s t G J ( 1998) R e l a t i v e e f f i c a c y of pa r e nt a nd t e a c he r i nvol ve m e nt i n a s ha r e d r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i on f o r p r e s c hool c hi l dr e n f r om l ow i nc om e ba c kgr ounds E ar l y C hi l dhood R e s e ar c h Q uar t e r l y 13 ( 2) 263 290. L ove J M & V a n B i e r vl i e t A ( 1984) T r a i ni ng pa r e nt s t o be hom e r e a di ng t ut o r s : G e ne r a l i z a t i on of c hi l dr e n s r e a di ng s ki l l s f r om ho m e t o s c hool T he E x c e pt i onal C hi l d, 31 ( 2 ) 114 127. L undbe r g, I F r os t J & P e t e r s e n, O P ( 1988 ) E f f e c t s of a n e xt e ns i ve pr ogr a m f or s t i m ul a t i ng phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i n pr e s c hool c hi l dr e n. R e adi ng R e s e ar c h Q uar t e r l y 23, 263 284 L yon, G R ( 1998 A p r i l ) O v e r v i e w of r e adi ng an d l i t e r ac y i n i t i at i v e s S t a t e m e nt m a de a t t he C om m i t t e e o f L a bo r a nd H u m a n R e s our c e s N a t i ona l I ns t i t ut e of C hi l d H e a l t h a nd H um a n D e ve l opm e nt M a c D ona l d, G W & C or nw a l l A ( 1995) T he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a nd r e a di ng a nd s pe l l i ng a c hi e ve m e n t e l e ve n ye a r s l a t e r J our nal of L e ar ni ng D i s abi l i t i e s 28 ( 8) 523 527. M ur r a y, B A ( 1998) G a i ni ng a l pha be t i c i ns i ght : I s phone m e m a ni pul a t i on s ki l l o r i de nt i t y know l e dge c a us a l J our nal of E duc at i onal P s y c hol ogy 90, 461 475. M ut e r V & S now l i ng, M ( 1998) C onc ur r e nt a n d l ongi t udi na l p r e di c t or s of r e a di ng: T he r ol e of m e t a l i ngu i s t i c a nd s hor t t e r m m e m o r y s ki l l s R e adi ng R e s e ar c h Q uar t e r l y 33 ( 3) 320 337. N a t i ona l C e nt e r f or E duc a t i ona l S t a t i s t i c s ( 2003 ) N at i onal as s e s s m e nt of e duc at i onal pr ogr e s s : T he nat i on s r e por t c ar d. W a s hi ngt on, D C : U S D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on. N a t i ona l R e a di ng P a ne l ( 2000) T e ac hi ng c hi l dr e n t o r e ad: A n e v i de nc e bas e d as s e s s m e nt of t he s c i e nt i f i c r e s e ar c h l i t e r at ur e on r e adi ng and i t s i m pl i c at i ons f or r e adi ng i ns t r uc t i on.

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93 N ot a r i S yve r s on, A O C onnor R & V a da s y, P ( 1998) L adde r s t o l i t e r ac y : A pr e s c hool ac t i v i t y book B a l t i m or e : B r ooke s O C onnor R E N ot a r i S yve r s on, A & V a da s y, P F ( 1996) L a dde r s t o l i t e r a c y: T he e f f e c t s of a t e a c he r l e d phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a c t i vi t i e s f or k i nde r ga r t e n c hi l dr e n w i t h a nd w i t hout d i s a bi l i t i e s E x c e pt i onal C hi l dr e n, 63 ( 1) 117 130 O C onnor R E N ot a r i S yve r s on, A & V a da s y, P F ( 1998a ) F i r s t gr a de e f f e c t s o f t e a c he r l e d phonol ogi c a l a c t i vi t i e s i n ki nde r ga r t e n f or c hi l d w i t h m i l d di s a bi l i t i e s : A f ol l ow up s t udy. L e ar ni ng D i s abi l i t i e s R e s e ar c h and P r ac t i c e 13 ( 1) 43 52. O C onnor R E N ot a r i S yve r s on, A & V a da s y, P F ( 1998b) L adde r s t o l i t e r ac y : A k i nde r gar t e n ac t i v i t y book B a l t i m or e : B r ooke s P ol a ha J A & A l l e n K D ( 1999 ) A t ut o r i a l f o r unde r s t a ndi ng a nd e va l ua t i ng s i nge s ubj e c t m e t hodol ogy. P r ov e n P r ac t i c e 1 ( 2 ) 73 77 P ow e l l S m i t h, K A S t one r G S hi nn M R & G ood, R H ( 2000) P a r e nt t ut o r i ng i n r e a di ng us i ng l i t e r a t u r e a nd c ur r i c u l um m a t e r i a l s : I m pa c t on s t ude nt r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt Sc hool P s y c hol ogy R e v i e w 29 ( 1) 5 27. R us h, K L ( 1999) C a r e gi ve r c hi l d i nt e r a c t i ons a n d e a r l y l i t e r a c y de ve l opm e nt of pr e s c hool c hi l dr e n f r om l ow i nc om e e nvi r onm e nt s T opi c s i n E ar l y C hi l dhood Spe c i al E duc at i on, 19 ( 1 ) 3 14. S c a r bor ough, H S D obr i c h, W & H a ge r M ( 19 91) P r e s c hool l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e a nd l a t e r r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt J our nal of L e ar ni ng D i s abi l i t i e s 24 ( 8) 508 511 S e ne c ha l M & L e F e v r e J ( 2002 ) P a r e nt a l i nvo l ve m e nt i n t h e de ve l opm e nt of c hi l dr e n s r e a di ng s ki l l : A f i ve ye a r l ongi t ud i na l s t udy. C hi l d D e v e l opm e nt 73 ( 2) 445 460. S e ne c ha l M O ue l l e t t e G & Y oung L ( 2004) T e s t i ng t he c onc ur r e nt a nd pr e di c t i ve r e l a t i ons a m ong a r t i c ul a t i on a c c ur a c y, s pe e c h pe r c e pt i on, a nd phone m e a w a r e ne s s J our nal of E x pe r i m e nt al C hi l d P s y c hol ogy 89 ( 3 ) 242 269. S ha yw i t z S E ( 2003) O v e r c om i ng dy s l e x i a. N e w Y or k: K nop f S m i t h, S S & D i xon, R G ( 1995) L i t e r a c y c onc e pt s of l ow a nd m i ddl e c l a s s f our ye a r ol ds e nt e r i ng pr e s c ho ol T he J our nal of E duc at i onal R e s e ar c h, 88 ( 4 ) 243 253. S now C E B ur ns S M & G r i f f i n P ( E ds ) ( 1 998) P r e v e nt i ng r e adi ng di f f i c ul t i e s i n y oung c hi l dr e n. W a s hi ngt on, D C : N a t i ona l A c a de m y P r e s s

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94 S t a novi c h, K E ( 1986) M a t t he w e f f e c t s i n r e a di n g: S om e c ons e que nc e s of i ndi vi dua l di f f e r e nc e s i n t he a c qui s i t i on of l i t e r a c y. R e adi ng R e s e ar c h Q uar t e r l y 21 ( 4) 360 406. S t r i c kl a nd, D S & S ha na ha n, T ( 2004) L a yi ng t he gr oundw or k f or l i t e r a c y. E duc at i onal L e ade r s hi p, 74 77 T a nge l D M & B l a c h m a n, B A ( 1992) E f f e c t of phone m e a w a r e ne s s i ns t r uc t i on on ki nde r ga r t e n c hi l dr e n s i nve nt e d s pe l l i ng. J our nal of R e adi ng B e hav i or 24 ( 2) 233 261. T a nge l D M & B l a c hm a n, B A ( 1995) E f f e c t of phone m e a w a r e ne s s i ns t r uc t i on on t he i nve nt e d s pe l l i ng of f i r s t gr a de c hi l dr e n: A one ye a r f ol l ow u p. J our nal of R e adi ng B e hav i or 27 ( 2) 153 185. T hom a s E & S e ne c ha l M ( 2004) L ong t e r m a s s oc i a t i on be t w e e n a r t i c ul a t i on qua l i t y a nd phone m e s e ns i t i vi t y: A s t udy f r om a ge 3 t o a g e 8. A ppl i e d P s y c hol i ngui s t i c s 25 ( 4) 513 541 T hom a s E M & S e ne c ha l M ( 1998) A r t i c ul a t i o n a nd phone m e a w a r e ne s s of 3 ye a r ol d c hi l dr e n. A ppl i e d P s y c hol i ngui s t i c s 19 ( 3 ) 363 391. T hur s t on, L P & D a s t a K ( 1990 ) A n a na l ys i s o f i n hom e pa r e nt t ut o r i ng p r oc e dur e s : E f f e c t s on c hi l d r e n s a c a de m i c be ha vi or a t hom e a nd i n s c hool a nd on pa r e nt s t ut or i ng be ha vi or s R e m e di al and Spe c i al E duc at i o n, 11 ( 4 ) 41 52 U ni ve r s i t y of N e w E ngl a nd a t A us t r a l i a ( 2003) U N E t e a m s e e ks f a m i l i e s f o r r e a di ng s t udy. R e t r i e ve d M a r c h 31, 2004, f r om ht t p: / / w w w une e du. a u/ ne w s / r e l e a s e s 2003/ J a nua r y / 007 03. ht m l W a gne r R K T o r ge s e n, J K & R a s hot t e C A ( 1994) D e ve l opm e nt of r e a di ng r e l a t e d phonol ogi c a l pr oc e s s i ng a bi l i t i e s : N e w e vi de nc e of bi di r e c t i ona l c a us a l i t y f r om a l a t e nt va r i a bl e l on gi t udi na l s t udy D e v e l op m e nt al P s y c hol ogy 30 73 87 W hi t e P S ol i t y J & R e e ve C ( 1984) T e a c hi ng pa r e nt s t o t e a c h r e a di ng. Spe c i al E duc at i on: F or w ar d T r e nds 11 ( 1) 11 13 W i l ks R T J & C l a r ke V A ( 1988) T r a i ni ng v e r s us nont r a i ni ng of m ot he r s a s hom e r e a di ng t ut or s P e r c e pt ual and M ot or Sk i l l s 67, 13 5 142. W i t t J C & M a r t e ns B K ( 1983 ) A s s e s s i ng t he a c c e pt a bi l i t y of be ha vi o r a l i nt e r ve nt i ons us e d i n c l a s s r oom s P s y c hol ogy i n t h e Sc hool s 20, 510 517

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95 A ppe ndi c e s

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96 A ppe ndi x A : P a r e nt S oc i a l V a l i di t y S c a l e P l e a s e c i r c l e t he a ns w e r w hi c h be s t de s c r i be s your a gr e e m e nt or di s a gr e e m e nt w i t h e a c h s t a t e m e nt 1. T hi s w a s a n a c c e pt a bl e i nt e r ve nt i on f or m y c hi l d s r e a di ng di f f i c ul t y S t r ongl y S l i ght l y S l i ght l y S t r ongl y D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e A gr e e A gr e e A gr e e 2. M os t pa r e nt s w oul d f i nd t h i s i nt e r ve nt i on a ppr opr i a t e f or r e a di ng di f f i c ul t i e s S t r ongl y S l i ght l y S l i ght l y S t r ongl y D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e A gr e e A gr e e A gr e e 3. I w oul d s ugge s t t he us e o f t hi s i n t e r ve nt i on t o ot he r pa r e nt s S t r ongl y S l i ght l y S l i ght l y S t r ongl y D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e A gr e e A gr e e A gr e e 4. M y c hi l d s r e a di ng di f f i c ul t y w a s s e ve r e e nough t o w a r r a nt us e o f t hi s i nt e r ve nt i on. S t r ongl y S l i ght l y S l i ght l y S t r ongl y D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e A gr e e A gr e e A gr e e 5. M os t pa r e nt s w oul d f i nd t h i s i nt e r ve nt i on s ui t a bl e f or r e a di ng di f f i c ul t i e s S t r ongl y S l i ght l y S l i ght l y S t r ongl y D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e A gr e e A gr e e A gr e e 6. I w oul d be w i l l i ng t o c ont i nue us i ng t hi s i nt e r ve nt i on a t hom e S t r ongl y S l i ght l y S l i ght l y S t r ongl y D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e A gr e e A gr e e A gr e e 7. T hi s i nt e r ve nt i on w oul d not r e s ul t i n ne ga t i ve s i de e f f e c t s f or a c hi l d. S t r ongl y S l i ght l y S l i ght l y S t r ongl y D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e A gr e e A gr e e A gr e e

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97 A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) 8. T hi s i nt e r ve nt i on w oul d be a pp r opr i a t e f or a va r i e t y of c hi l d r e n. S t r ongl y S l i ght l y S l i ght l y S t r ongl y D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e A gr e e A gr e e A gr e e 9. T hi s i nt e r ve nt i on i s r e a s ona bl e f or ot he r c hi l d r e n w i t h s i m i l a r r e a di ng di f f i c ul t i e s S t r ongl y S l i ght l y S l i ght l y S t r ongl y D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e A gr e e A gr e e A gr e e 10. I l i ke d t he pr oc e dur e s us e d i n t hi s i nt e r ve nt i on S t r ongl y S l i ght l y S l i ght l y S t r ong l y D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e A gr e e A gr e e A gr e e 11. T hi s i nt e r ve nt i on w a s a good w a y t o ha ndl e m y c hi l d s r e a di ng di f f i c ul t y S t r ongl y S l i ght l y S l i ght l y S t r ongl y D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e A gr e e A gr e e A gr e e 12. O ve r a l l t hi s i n t e r ve nt i on w oul d b e be ne f i c i a l f or o t he r c hi l dr e n. S t r ongl y S l i ght l y S l i ght l y S t r ongl y D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e D i s a gr e e A gr e e A gr e e A gr e e

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98 A ppe ndi x B : C hi l d S oc i a l V a l i di t y S c a l e I a m goi ng t o r e a d you s om e que s t i ons a bout t he r e a di ng pr ogr a m your m om / da d ha s be e n doi ng w i t h you f o r t he pa s t f e w w e e ks A ns w e r e a c h que s t i on a s be s t a s you c a n by poi nt i ng t o t he pi c t ur e t ha t s how s how you f e e l a b out i t ( c a r d w i t h pi c t ur e c ue s w i l l be s how n t o t he c hi l d) 1. T he r e a di ng p r ogr a m m y m om / da d us e d t o he l p w i t h m y r e a di ng di f f i c ul t y w a s good. 1 2 3 2. M y m om / da d w a s t oo t ough on m e dur i ng t he r e a di ng pr ogr a m 1 2 3 3. T he r e a r e be t t e r pr og r a m s t o he l p w i t h m y r e a di ng di f f i c ul t y o t he r t ha n t he one m y m om / da d us e d. 1 2 3 4. T he r e a di ng p r ogr a m us e d by m y m om / da d w oul d be a good one t o us e w i t h ot he r c hi l dr e n. 1 2 3 5. I l i ke d t he r e a di ng p r ogr a m m y m om / da d us e d w i t h m e 1 2 3 6. I t hi nk t ha t t he r e a di ng p r ogr a m us e d f o r m y r e a di ng di f f i c ul t y w i l l he l p m e do be t t e r i n s c hool 1 2 3

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99 A ppe ndi x C : P a r t i c i pa nt R e c r ui t m e nt a nd C ons e nt f or S c r e e ni ng L e t t e r D a t e : ______________ D e a r P a r e nt ( s ) : W e a r e c onduc t i ng a r e s e a r c h pr oj e c t t o e xa m i ne t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of a pa r e nt ba s e d t ut or i ng pr og r a m on c hi l dr e n s e a r l y r e a di ng s ki l l s T hi s w i l l be c om pl e t e d by i nvol vi ng pa r e nt s i n a s pe c i f i c t ut o r i ng p r ogr a m f o c us e d on phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s ( know l e dge of t he s ounds of ou r l a ngua ge ) a nd c a r e f ul l y m oni t o r i ng c hi l d r e n s pr og r e s s ove r t i m e W e w oul d l i ke yo ur pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t hi s pr oj e c t i f your c hi l d m e e t s s e l e c t i on c r i t e r i a Y ou ha ve r e c e i ve d t hi s l e t t e r be c a us e you a r e a pa r e nt of a ki nde r ga r t e n s t ude nt a nd your c hi l d ha s be e n s e l e c t e d by your c hi l d s t e a c he r a s a s t ude nt w ho l i ke l y w oul d be ne f i t f r om t hi s oppo r t uni t y. T hi s pr ogr a m w i l l be t a r ge t i ng c hi l dr e n w i t h de l a y e d phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s a nd w i l l oc c ur ove r t he s um m e r I n or de r t o s e l e c t s t ude nt s w e w oul d l i ke t o a s k f or you r pe r m i s s i on t o s c r e e n your c hi l d s l e ve l o f phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s T hi s s c r e e ni ng w oul d i nvol ve c om pl e t i ng t hr e e b r i e f m e a s ur e s r e qui r i ng your c hi l d e i t he r t o s e gm e nt w or ds i nt o t he i r s ounds ( e g dog w oul d be / d/ / o/ / g/ ) or t o i de nt i f y t he f i r s t s ounds of w or ds ( e g pi g s t a r t s w i t h / p/ ) M os t c hi l dr e n f i nd t he s e a c t i vi t i e s e nj oya bl e a nd t he y c a n be c om pl e t e d w i t h your c hi l d qui c kl y ( 1 3 m i nut e s e a c h) T he i nf or m a t i on t o be c ol l e c t e d w i l l be t he num be r of s ounds i de nt i f i e d c or r e c t l y i n a one m i nut e pe r i od. A n a ve r a ge of t he t h r e e m e a s ur e s w i l l be t a ke n t o de t e r m i ne your c hi l d s s c or e C hi l dr e n s c or i ng be l ow 10 c or r e c t s ounds pe r m i nut e w i l l m e e t t he s e l e c t i on c r i t e r i a a nd c ons i de r e d f or pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t hi s r e s e a r c h pr oj e c t R e ga r dl e s s of w he t he r your c hi l d m e e t s s e l e c t i on c r i t e r i a you w i l l r e c e i v e a s um m a r y of t he s c r e e ni ng r e s ul t s

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100 A ppe ndi x C ( C ont i nue d) I f you i ndi c a t e i nt e r e s t t o pa r t i c i pa t e a nd i f your c hi l d m e e t s s e l e c t i on c r i t e r i a ( be l ow 10 c or r e c t s ounds pe r m i nu t e on t he s c r e e ni ng t ool ) you w i l l be a s ke d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n a ho m e ba s e d pa r e nt t ut o r i ng p r ogr a m t ha t f oc us e s on bui l d i ng c hi l d r e n s a w a r e ne s s of s ounds A s pa r t o f your pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t hi s p r ogr a m you w i l l be a s ke d t o a t t e nd a one hour t r a i ni ng s e s s i on i n or de r t o l e a r n how t o i m pl e m e nt t he pa r e nt t ut or i ng pr ogr a m Y ou w i l l e nga ge i n t he p r ogr a m w i t h yo ur c hi l d f or 25 30 m i n ut e s t w o da ys pe r w e e k. T he p r ogr a m w i l l l a s t f or f i ve a nd a ha l f w e e ks I n a ddi t i on t o t he pr ogr a m you w i l l be c a l l e d a f t e r t he f i r s t a nd t h i r d w e e ks of t he i nt e r ve nt i on t o be a s ke d how t he pr ogr a m i s goi ng a nd i f you ha ve a ny que s t i ons A l s o, you w i l l be a s ke d t o c om pl e t e a s hor t c he c kl i s t of t he hom e t ut or i ng a c t i vi t i e s a f t e r e a c h i nt e r ve nt i on s e s s i on, w hi c h w i l l t a ke no l onge r t ha n 3 5 m i nut e s t o c om pl e t e e a c h t i m e A t t he c onc l us i on o f t he pr oj e c t you w i l l be a s ke d t o c om pl e t e a s hor t s ur ve y a s ki n g i f you l i ke d t he t ut o r i ng pr og r a m a nd i f you t hought i t w a s e f f e c t i ve A ddi t i ona l l y, you w i l l be a s ke d t o a l l ow t he i nve s t i ga t or t o c ol l e c t i nf or m a t i on t o m oni t or you r c hi l d s pr ogr e s s i n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s T he i n f or m a t i on t o be c ol l e c t e d w i l l b e t he s a m e a s t he i nf or m a t i on c ol l e c t e d dur i ng t he s c r e e ni ng, a nd t he s a m e m e a s ur e w i l l be us e d. T hi s i nf or m a t i on w i l l be c ol l e c t e d be f or e du r i ng, a nd a f t e r t he pa r e nt pr ogr a m B e f or e t he pr ogr a m t he i nf o r m a t i on w i l l be c ol l e c t e d t hr e e t i m e s pe r w e e k. B a s e d on w he n you a r e c hos e n t o be gi n t he pa r e nt pr ogr a m t hi s da t a c ol l e c t i on pe r i od c a n l a s t f r om t w o t o s i x w e e ks D ur i ng t he pr ogr a m t he i n f or m a t i on w i l l be c ol l e c t e d t w o t i m e s pe r w e e k f or f i ve a nd a ha l f w e e ks ( t he l e ngt h of t he p r ogr a m ) A f t e r t he pr ogr a m t he i nf or m a t i on w i l l be c ol l e c t e d t h r e e t i m e s pe r w e e k f or one w e e k. T hi s

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101 A ppe ndi x C ( C ont i nue d) i nf or m a t i on c ol l e c t i on w i l l oc c ur e i t he r a t you r ho m e or a t a n a gr e e d upon l oc a t i on ( s uc h a s a l i br a r y o r c om m uni t y c e nt e r ) ba s e d on your p r e f e r e nc e A t t he e nd of t he pr o j e c t your c hi l d w i l l be a s ke d t o c om pl e t e a s hor t s ur ve y r e a d t o hi m o r he r by t he i nve s t i ga t or a s ki ng hi m or he r i f t he y l i ke d t he pr ogr a m I n or d e r t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s pr ogr a m you a nd your c hi l d m us t be a va i l a bl e t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd da t a c ol l e c t i on pe r i ods de s c r i be d pr e vi ous l y. B y t a ki ng pa r t i n t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy, t he po t e nt i a l be ne f i t s f or pa r e nt s i nc l ude but a r e not l i m i t e d t o: ( a ) a n oppor t un i t y t o i nc r e a s e yo ur ove r a l l know l e dge of w a ys t o he l p yo ur c hi l d de ve l op e a r l y r e a di ng s ki l l s a t hom e ( b ) a n i nc r e a s e i n oppo r t uni t i e s t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n you r c hi l d s e duc a t i on ( c ) a n i nc r e a s e d a w a r e ne s s of your c hi l d s e a r l y r e a di ng s ki l l s a nd ( d) a n i nc r e a s e i n pl e a s ur a bl e h om e l i t e r a c y i nt e r a c t i ons Y ou r c hi l d m a y e xpe r i e nc e t he f ol l ow i ng be ne f i t s : ( a ) a n i nc r e a s e i n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s s uc h by l e a r ni ng t o i de nt i f y w or ds t ha t s t a r t or e nd w i t h t he s a m e s ounds ( b ) i nc r e a s e d i nt e r a c t i on t i m e w i t h a pa r e nt ( c ) i nc r e a s e d c onf i de nc e i n t he i r a bi l i t y t o l e a r n t o r e a d ( d ) oppor t uni t y t o r e c e i ve a ddi t i ona l a s s i s t a nc e be yon d w ha t i s r e c e i ve d a t s c hool T he pos s i bl e r i s ks of pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t hi s s t udy a r e m i ni m a l P a r t i c i pa t i on i n t hi s s t udy w i l l not a f f e c t you r c hi l d s s t ude nt s t a t us or gr a de s A l l i nf or m a t i on obt a i ne d du r i ng t hi s s t udy w i l l be he l d i n c onf i de nc e T he da t a w i l l be r e c or de d i n a da t a ba s e on t he pr i nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or 's c om put e r E a c h pa r t i c i pa nt w i l l r e c e i ve a r e s e a r c h I D num be r t ha t w i l l be us e d t o ke e p t r a c k of t he s c or e s T he na m e s of e a c h s ubj e c t w i l l be ke pt i n a s e pa r a t e f i l e on a di s k t ha t w i l l be l oc ke d i n a f i l i ng

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102 A ppe ndi x C ( C ont i nue d) c a bi ne t T he f i l e s w i l l be de l e t e d f r om t he c om put e r a nd di s k a f t e r a m a xi m um of t hr e e ye a r s P l e a s e not e t ha t you a nd your c hi l d w i l l n ot be pa i d f or your c hi l d s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t hi s s t udy. I f you ha ve a ny que s t i ons a bout t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy, c ont a c t A ndr e a O f i a r a o r K e l l y P ow e l l S m i t h P h. D a t t he f ol l ow i ng a dd r e s s e s or t e l e phone num be r s : A ndr e a O f i a r a K e l l y P ow e l l S m i t h P h. D 2405 S pr i ng H ol l ow L oop U S F S c hool P s yc hol ogy P r og r a m W e s l e y C ha pe l F L 33543 4202 E F ow l e r A ve nue E D U 162 ( 813) 991 166 4 T a m pa F L 33620 ( 813) 974 969 8 P l e a s e c om pl e t e a nd r e t ur n t he a t t a c he d f o r m t o A ndr e a O f i a r a a t t he p r e vi ous l y m e nt i one d a ddr e s s by _____________. P l e a s e not e t ha t r e t ur n i ng t hi s f or m doe s not c ons t i t ut e a n obl i ga t i on t o pa r t i c i pa t e o r c ons e nt f o r pa r t i c i pa t i on S i nc e r e l y, A ndr e a O f i a r a K e l l y P ow e l l S m i t h P r i m a r y I nve s t i ga t or A s s oc i a t e P r of e s s or U S F S c hool P s yc ho l ogy P r og r a m

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103 A ppe ndi x C ( C ont i nue d) I a m i n t e r e s t e d i n pot e nt i a l l y pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he pr oj e c t and pr ovi de c ons e nt f or t he s c r e e ni ng of m y c hi l d s phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s I unde r s t a nd t ha t our pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he pr o j e c t i s ba s e d on m y c hi l d m e e t i ng t he s c r e e ni ng c r i t e r i a de s c r i be d p r e vi ous l y. C h e c k on e : ______ Y e s ______ N o S i gn at u r e : _______________________________ D at e : __________________ I f Y E S pl e a s e c om pl e t e t he f o l l ow i ng: Y our na m e : ______________________ ________ A ddr e s s : __________ ________ ________ ______ ____________ _____ _____________________ ________ _________ ____________ P hone N um be r : _______________________ ____ ___ C hi l d s N a m e : _________________ ________ ___ ___ K i nde r ga r t e n T e a c he r s N a m e : ___________________________ ______ P l e as e r e t u r n t h i s f or m t o A n d r e a O f i ar a b y _____________________.

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104 A ppe ndi x D : P a r e nt a l I nf o r m e d C ons e nt T he f ol l ow i ng i nf o r m a t i on i s be i ng pr e s e nt e d t o he l p you de c i de w he t he r or not you w a nt t o a l l ow your c hi l d t o be a pa r t o f a m i ni m a l r i s k r e s e a r c h s t udy. P l e a s e r e a d t hi s c a r e f ul l y. I f you do not unde r s t a nd a nyt hi ng a s k t he pe r s on i n c ha r ge o f t he s t udy. T i t l e of r e s e ar c h s t u d y: T he E f f e c t s of a P a r e nt I nt e r ve nt i on on t he P honol ogi c a l A w a r e ne s s S ki l l s of K i nde r ga r t e n S t ude nt s P e r s on i n c h ar ge o f s t u d y : A ndr e a O f i a r a a gr a d ua t e s t ude nt a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da i n t he S c hool P s yc hol ogy P r og r a m w ho i s c om pl e t i ng t hi s s t udy f or he r t he s i s pr oj e c t Wh e r e t h e s t u d y w i l l b e d on e : T he pa r e nt i nt e r v e nt i on w i l l oc c ur i n you r hom e E va l ua t i on of your c hi l d s phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s ( e g know l e dge of t he s ounds of our l a ngua ge ) w i l l oc c ur e i t he r a t you r hom e or a t a n a gr e e d upon l oc a t i on ( s uc h a s a l oc a l l i br a r y or c om m uni t y c e nt e r ) ba s e d on your pr e f e r e nc e Y ou r c h i l d i s b e i n g as k e d t o p ar t i c i p at e b e c au s e your c hi l d ha s be e n i de nt i f i e d a s ha vi ng a de f i c i t i n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a nd i s l i ke l y t o be ne f i t f r om t h i s oppor t uni t y. A de f i c i t i n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s m e a ns t ha t he or s he ha s not de ve l ope d t he know l e dge of t he s ounds of ou r l a ngua g e t o a n a de qua t e l e ve l f or a c hi l d o f hi s o r he r a ge T he de ve l opm e nt o f phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s pr e di c t s f ut ur e r e a di ng s uc c e s s Y ou ar e b e i n g as k e d t o p ar t i c i p a t e b e c au s e you a r e a pa r e nt o f a ki nde r ga r t e n s t ude nt w ho ha s be e n i de nt i f i e d by your c hi l d s t e a c he r a s a c hi l d l i ke l y t o be ne f i t f r om pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t hi s s t udy. P a r e nt s ha ve a n i m por t a nt r ol e i n he l pi ng t he i r c hi l d r e n de ve l op e a r l y r e a di ng s ki l l s s uc h a s phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s

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105 A ppe ndi x D ( C ont i nue d) G e n e r al I n f or m at i on ab ou t t h e R e s e ar c h S t u d y T he pur pos e of t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy i s t o de t e r m i ne t he e f f e c t s of a pa r e nt i nt e r ve nt i on pr og r a m on t he phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s of ki nde r ga r t e n s t ude nt s w i t h de f i c i t s i n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s P l an of St udy Y ou w i l l be a s ke d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n a hom e ba s e d p a r e nt t ut or i ng pr og r a m t ha t f oc us e s on bui l di ng c hi l dr e n s a w a r e ne s s of s ounds Y ou w i l l be a s ke d t o a t t e nd a one hour t r a i ni ng s e s s i on i n or de r t o l e a r n how t o i m pl e m e nt t he pa r e nt t u t or i ng pr ogr a m Y ou w i l l e nga ge i n t he p r ogr a m w i t h your c hi l d f o r 25 30 m i nut e s t w o da ys pe r w e e k. T he pr ogr a m w i l l l a s t f or f i ve a nd a ha l f w e e ks I n a ddi t i on t o t he p r ogr a m you w i l l be c a l l e d a f t e r t he f i r s t a nd t hi r d w e e ks of t he i nt e r ve n t i on t o be a s ke d how t he p r ogr a m i s goi ng a nd i f you ha ve a ny que s t i ons Y ou c a n e xp e c t t he phone c a l l t o be no m or e t ha n 5 10 m i nut e s A l s o, you w i l l be a s ke d t o c om pl e t e a s hor t c he c kl i s t of t he ho m e t ut or i ng a c t i vi t i e s a f t e r e a c h i nt e r ve nt i on s e s s i on, w hi c h w i l l t a ke no l onge r t ha n 3 5 m i nut e s t o c om pl e t e e a c h t i m e A t t he c onc l us i on of t he pr oj e c t you w i l l be a s ke d t o c om pl e t e a s hor t s ur ve y a s ki ng i f you l i ke d t he t ut o r i ng p r ogr a m a nd i f you t hought i t w a s e f f e c t i ve A l s o, you w i l l be a s ke d t o a l l ow t he i nve s t i ga t or t o c ol l e c t i nf o r m a t i on t o m oni t o r your c hi l d s p r ogr e s s i n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s T he i nf o r m a t i on t o be c ol l e c t e d w i l l be t he num be r o f s ounds i de nt i f i e d c or r e c t l y i n a one m i nut e pe r i od. Y ou r c hi l d w i l l be a s ke d e i t he r t o s e gm e nt w or ds i nt o t he i r s ounds ( e g. dog w oul d be / d/ / o/ / g/ ) or t o i de nt i f y t he f i r s t s ounds of w or ds ( e g. pi g s t a r t s w i t h / p / ) M os t c hi l dr e n f i nd t he s e a c t i vi t i e s e nj oya bl e a nd t he y c a n be c om pl e t e d w i t h your c hi l d qui c kl y ( 1 3 m i nut e s )

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106 A ppe ndi x D ( C ont i nue d) T hi s i nf or m a t i on w i l l be c ol l e c t e d be f o r e dur i ng, a nd a f t e r t he pa r e nt p r ogr a m B e f or e t he pr ogr a m t he i nf or m a t i on w i l l be c ol l e c t e d t h r e e t i m e s pe r w e e k. B a s e d on w he n you a r e c hos e n t o be gi n t he pa r e nt p r ogr a m t hi s da t a c ol l e c t i on pe r i od c a n l a s t f r om t w o t o s i x w e e ks D ur i ng t he pr og r a m t he i n f or m a t i on w i l l be c ol l e c t e d t w o t i m e s pe r w e e k f or f i ve a nd a ha l f w e e ks ( t he l e ngt h of t he p r ogr a m ) A f t e r t he p r ogr a m t he i nf or m a t i on w i l l be c ol l e c t e d t h r e e t i m e s pe r w e e k f or one w e e k. T hi s i n f or m a t i on c ol l e c t i on w i l l oc c ur e i t he r a t your ho m e or a t a n a gr e e d upon l oc a t i on ( s uc h a s a l i br a r y o r c om m uni t y c e nt e r ) ba s e d on you r p r e f e r e nc e A t t he e nd of t h e pr oj e c t your c hi l d w i l l be a s ke d t o c om pl e t e a s hor t s ur ve y r e a d t o h i m o r he r by t he i nve s t i ga t or a s ki ng hi m or he r i f t he y l i ke d t he pr og r a m I n or de r t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s pr og r a m you a nd yo ur c hi l d m us t be a va i l a bl e t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd da t a c ol l e c t i on p e r i ods de s c r i be d pr e vi ous l y. P ay m e nt f or P ar t i c i pat i on Y ou a nd your c hi l d w i l l not be pa i d f or you r c hi l d s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t hi s s t udy. B e ne f i t s of T ak i ng P ar t i n t hi s R e s e ar c h St udy B y t a ki ng pa r t i n t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy, t he po t e nt i a l be ne f i t s f or pa r e nt s i nc l ude but a r e not l i m i t e d t o: ( a ) a n oppor t un i t y t o i nc r e a s e yo ur ove r a l l know l e dge of w a ys t o he l p your c hi l d de ve l op e a r l y r e a di ng s ki l l s a t hom e ( b ) a n i nc r e a s e i n oppo r t uni t i e s t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n you r c hi l d s e duc a t i on ( c ) a n i nc r e a s e d a w a r e ne s s of your c hi l d s e a r l y r e a di ng s ki l l s a nd ( d) a n i nc r e a s e i n pl e a s ur a bl e h om e l i t e r a c y i nt e r a c t i ons Y ou r c hi l d m a y e xpe r i e nc e t he f ol l ow i ng be ne f i t s : ( a ) a n i nc r e a s e i n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s s uc h by l e a r ni ng t o i de nt i f y w or ds t ha t s t a r t or e nd w i t h t he s a m e s ounds ( b ) i nc r e a s e d

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107 A ppe ndi x D ( C ont i nue d) i nt e r a c t i on t i m e w i t h a pa r e nt ( c ) i nc r e a s e d c onf i de nc e i n t he i r a bi l i t y t o l e a r n t o r e a d ( d ) oppor t uni t y t o r e c e i ve a ddi t i ona l a s s i s t a nc e be yon d w ha t i s r e c e i ve d a t s c hool R i s k s of B e i ng a P ar t of t hi s R e s e ar c h St udy T he pos s i bl e r i s ks of pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t hi s s t udy a r e m i ni m a l P a r t i c i pa t i on i n t hi s s t udy w i l l not a f f e c t you r c hi l d s s t ude nt s t a t us or gr a de s C onf i de nt i al i t y of Y our C hi l d s R e c or ds Y ou a nd your c hi l d s pr i va c y a nd r e s e a r c h r e c or ds w i l l be ke pt c on f i de nt i a l t o t he f ul l e xt e nt r e qui r e d by l a w A ut ho r i z e d r e s e a r c h p e r s onne l e m pl oye e s of t he D e pa r t m e nt of H e a l t h a nd H um a n S e r vi c e s t he U S F I ns t i t ut i on a l R e vi e w B oa r d a nd i t s s t a f f a nd ot he r i ndi vi dua l s a c t i ng on be ha l f of U S F m a y i ns pe c t t he r e c or ds f r om t h i s r e s e a r c h pr oj e c t T he r e s ul t s of t h i s s t udy m a y be pub l i s he d. H ow e ve r t he publ i s he d r e s ul t s w i l l not i nc l ude your c hi l d s na m e or a ny ot he r i nf or m a t i on t ha t w oul d pe r s ona l l y i de nt i f y your c hi l d i n a ny w a y T he da t a c ol l e c t e d w i l l be r e c or de d i n a da t a ba s e on t he pr i nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or 's c om put e r E a c h pa r t i c i pa nt w i l l r e c e i ve a r e s e a r c h I D num be r t ha t w i l l be us e d t o ke e p t r a c k of t he s c or e s T he na m e s of e a c h s ubj e c t w i l l be ke pt i n a s e pa r a t e f i l e on a di s k t ha t w i l l be l oc ke d i n a f i l i ng c a bi ne t T he f i l e s w i l l be de l e t e d f r om t he c om put e r a nd di s k a f t e r a m a xi m u m of t hr e e ye a r s V ol unt e e r i ng t o T ak e P ar t i n t hi s R e s e ar c h St udy Y our de c i s i on t o pa r t i c i pa t e a nd t o a l l ow you r c hi l d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t h i s r e s e a r c h s t udy i s c om pl e t e l y vol unt a r y Y ou a r e f r e e t o pa r t i c i pa t e a nd t o a l l ow your c hi l d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy or t o w i t hd r a w yo ur s e l f a nd hi m / he r a t a ny t i m e I f you

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108 A ppe ndi x D ( C ont i nue d) c hoos e not t o a l l ow you r c hi l d t o pa r t i c i pa t e or i f y ou r e m ove your s e l f a nd your c hi l d f r om t he s t udy, t he r e w i l l be no pe na l t y or l os s of be ne f i t s t ha t you o r your c hi l d a r e e nt i t l e d t o r e c e i ve Q ue s t i ons and C ont ac t s I f you ha ve a ny que s t i ons a bout t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy, c ont a c t A ndr e a O f i a r a a t ( 813) 991 166 4 or K e l l y P ow e l l S m i t h P h D a t ( 8 13) 974 9698 I f you ha ve que s t i ons a bout your r i ght s a s a pe r s on w ho i s t a ki ng pa r t i n a r e s e a r c h s t udy, you m a y c ont a c t t he D i vi s i on of R e s e a r c h C om pl i a nc e of t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l o r i da a t ( 813) 974 5638 C ons e nt f or C hi l d t o T ak e P ar t i n t h i s R e s e ar c h St udy I f r e e l y gi ve m y c ons e nt t o l e t m y c hi l d t a ke pa r t i n t hi s s t udy. I unde r s t a nd t ha t t h i s i s r e s e a r c h. I ha ve r e c e i ve d a c opy of t hi s c ons e nt f o r m ____________ _________ ___ ____________ _________ ___ ___________ S i gna t ur e of P a r e nt P r i nt e d N a m e o f P a r e nt D a t e of c hi l d t a ki ng pa r t i n s t udy I nv e s t i gat or St at e m e nt I ha ve c a r e f ul l y e xpl a i ne d t o t he s ubj e c t t he na t u r e of t he a bove p r ot oc ol I he r e by c e r t i f y t ha t t o t he be s t of m y know l e dge t he s ubj e c t s i gni ng t hi s c ons e nt f or m unde r s t a nds t he na t ur e de m a nds r i s ks a nd be ne f i t s i nvol ve d i n pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t hi s s t udy. ____________ _________ ___ ____________ _________ ___ ___________ S i gna t ur e of I nve s t i ga t or P r i nt e d N a m e o f I nve s t i ga t or D a t e

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109 A ppe ndi x E : A ge nda f or P a r e nt I ns t r uc t i on S e s s i on I O bj e c t i ve s of t he t r a i ni ng s e s s i on I I R e vi e w of t he pur pos e o f t he pr oj e c t I I I R e vi e w of t he pa r e nt t ut or i ng pr oc e dur e s A D i s c us s i on of e a c h c om pone nt o f Sound F oundat i ons 1. P oe m s a nd s t or i e s on c a s s e t t e t a pe 2. P os t e r pr oc e dur e s a C hi l d f i nds w or ds c ont a i ni ng c or r e s pondi ng phone m e b. P a r e nt poi nt s out pi c t ur e s t he c hi l d ha s m i s s e d a nd a s ks W ha t i s t hi s a pi c t ur e o f ? 3. C om pl e t i on of t he t hr e e w o r ks he e t s B P r i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or m ode l s a t yp i c a l t ut or i ng s e s s i on 1. P hone m e i n i ni t i a l pos i t i on 2. P hone m e i n f i na l pos i t i on C P a r e nt r ol e pl a y 1. P hone m e i n i ni t i a l pos i t i on 2. P hone m e i n f i na l pos i t i on I V O ve r vi e w of i nt e r ve nt i on s c he dul e V H ow t o c om pl e t e t r e a t m e nt i nt e gr i t y c he c kl i s t s V I Q ue s t i on a nd a ns w e r s e s s i on V I I S c he dul e t i m e f o r f o l l ow up phone c a l l a nd t i m e s f or s t ude nt da t a c ol l e c t i on V I I I M a t e r i a l s di s pe r s e d t o pa r e nt s a nd de m ogr a phi c i n f or m a t i on c ol l e c t e d

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110 A ppe ndi x F : P a r t i c i pa nt D e m ogr a phi c I nf o r m a t i on P l e a s e a ns w e r t he i t e m s on t hi s pa ge a s be s t you c a n. T hi s i n f or m a t i on i s f or r e s e a r c h pur pos e s a nd w i l l be ke pt c onf i de nt i a l A ns w e r i ng t he s e que s t i ons i s vol unt a r y a nd you m a y c hoos e not t o a ns w e r a ny or a l l of t he m H ow e ve r t he i nf or m a t i on w i l l be he l pf ul t o us i n unde r s t a ndi ng t he r e s ul t s of t he r e s e a r c h. T h a nk you f o r your t i m e P l ac e a c h e c k b y you r r e s p on s e or w r i t e i n you r r e s p on s e w h e r e n e e d e d : 1. Y our na m e : ____________________ an d Y our c h i l d s na m e : __________________ 2. Y o ur r e l a t i ons hi p t o your c hi l d ( e g. m ot he r f a t he r ) _________________ 3. Y our s e x ( c i r c l e ) : M F an d Y our c hi l d s s e x ( c i r c l e ) : M F 4. Y our a ge ( c i r c l e ) : 18 24 25 34 35 44 45 54 55 & a bove O t he r : _____ 5. Y our c hi l d s a ge : ____ 6. H a s your c hi l d e ve r r e c e i ve d a ny E xc e pt i ona l S t ude nt E duc a t i on S e r vi c e s ? ( c i r c l e ) : Y N I f ye s w hi c h one ( s ) ? _______________________ ____________ _________ ____ 7. Y our e duc a t i on ( c he c k a l l t ha t a ppl y) : I ha ve c om pl e t e d : ___ gr a de s c hool ___ hi gh s c hool ___ 2 ye a r c ol l e ge ( A A D e gr e e ) ___ 4 ye a r c ol l e ge ( B A / B S D e gr e e ) ___ gr a dua t e or p r of e s s i ona l s c hool ___ s pe c i a l i z e d voc a t i ona l t r a i ni ng

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111 A ppe ndi x F ( C ont i nue d) 8. Y our oc c upa t i on: _________________ ______ ___________ 9. E t hni c ba c kgr oun d: Y ou ( c he c k on e ) Y our C hi l d ( c he c k on e ) ___ A s i a n or P a c i f i c I s l a nde r ___ A s i a n or P a c i f i c I s l a nde r ___ H i s pa ni c ___ H i s pa ni c ___ N a t i ve A m e r i c a n ___ N a t i ve A m e r i c a n ___ N on hi s pa ni c B l a c k ___ N on hi s pa ni c B l a c k ___ N on hi s pa ni c w hi t e ___ N on hi s pa ni c w hi t e

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112 A ppe ndi x G : I nt e r ve nt i o n S c he dul e W E E K 1 D A Y 1 P oe m s / s t or y f or be gi nni ng s B e gi nni ng s pos t e r B e gi nni ng s w or ks he e t s ( 3) W E E K 1 D A Y 2 P oe m s / s t or y f or e ndi ng s E ndi ng s pos t e r E ndi ng s w or ks he e t s ( 3) W E E K 2 D A Y 1 P oe m s / s t or y f or b e gi nni ng m B e gi nni ng m pos t e r B e gi nni ng m w or ks he e t s ( 3) W E E K 2 D A Y 2 P oe m s / s t or y f or e ndi ng m E ndi ng m pos t e r E ndi ng m w or ks he e t s ( 3) W E E K 3 D A Y 1 P oe m s / s t or y f or be gi nni ng t B e gi nni ng t pos t e r B e gi nni ng t w or ks he e t s ( 3) W E E K 3 D A Y 2 P oe m s / s t or y f or e ndi ng t E ndi ng t pos t e r E ndi ng t w or ks he e t s ( 3) W E E K 4 D A Y 1 P oe m s / s t or y f or be gi nni ng l B e gi nni ng l pos t e r B e gi nni ng l w or ks he e t s ( 3)

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113 A ppe ndi x G ( C ont i nue d) W E E K 4 D A Y 2 P oe m s / s t or y f or e ndi ng l E ndi ng l pos t e r E ndi ng l w or ks he e t s ( 3) W E E K 5 D A Y 1 P oe m s / s t or y f or be gi nni ng p B e gi nni ng p pos t e r B e gi nni ng p w or ks he e t s ( 3) W E E K 5 D A Y 2 P oe m s / s t or y f or e ndi ng p E ndi ng p pos t e r E ndi ng p w or ks he e t s ( 3) W E E K 6 D A Y 1 P oe m s / s t or y f or be gi nni ng a B e gi nni ng a po s t e r B e gi nni ng a w or ks he e t s ( 3)

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114 A ppe ndi x H : I nt e r ve nt i o n A c t i vi t i e s C he c kl i s t P a r e nt s N a m e : ____________________ __ C hi l d s N a m e : _______________ ________ D a t e : ____________ B e gi n T i m e : ____________ E nd T i m e : __________ S ound: ___________ P os i t i on ( c i r c l e ) : B e gi nni n g E nd i ng A c t i vi t y C he c k i f C om pl e t e d T i m e B e gi n T i m e E nd C om m e nt s L i s t e n t o c as s e t t e t ap e _____ ________ ________ P os t e r ac t i vi t y _____ ________ ________ Wor k s h e e t s ________ ________ #1 _____ #2 _____ #3 _____ H ow w e l l do you t hi nk t hi s s e s s i on w e nt ? D o you ha ve a ny que s t i ons ? I f s o, pl e a s e not e t he m he r e or c ont a c t A ndr e a O f i a r a a t ( 813) 991 166 4.

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115 A ppe ndi x I : T e l e phone C he c kl i s t P a r e nt s N a m e : __________________ __ ____ C hi l d s N a m e : ___________________ ___ D a t e : ____________ A f t e r t he f i r s t w e e k o f i nt e r ve nt i on, e a c h pa r e nt w i l l be c a l l e d a nd a s ke d t he f ol l ow i ng que s t i ons 1. H ow a r e t hi ngs goi ng? D o you ha ve a ny que s t i ons or c onc e r ns ? 2. H a ve you c om pl e t e d t he t ut o r i ng t w o ni ght s pe r w e e k? Y e s N o I f no a s k w he n t he y a r e c om pl e t i ng t he t ut o r i ng. P r ovi de a r e m i nde r t ha t t he t ut or i ng s houl d be c om pl e t e d t w i c e pe r w e e k w i t h a t l e a s t one da y i n be t w e e n s e s s i ons 3. H ow l ong ha ve t he t ut or i ng s e s s i ons l a s t e d? 4. H a ve you c om pl e t e d t he f ol l ow i ng a c t i vi t i e s dur i n g e a c h t ut or i ng s e s s i on? 1 s t S E S S I O N 2 n d S E S S I O N A c t i vi t y C he c k i f C om pl e t e d C he c k i f C om pl e t e d L i s t e n t o c as s e t t e t ap e _____ _____ P os t e r ac t i vi t y _____ _____ Wor k s h e e t s #1 _____ _____ #2 _____ _____ #3 _____ _____

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116 A ppe ndi x I ( C ont i nue d ) I f a ny a c t i vi t y ha s not be e n c om pl e t e d, a s k w hy 5. D o you f e e l you w oul d be ne f i t f r om a f ol l ow up t r a i ni ng s e s s i on? Y e s N o I f ye s s c he dul e a da t e a nd t i m e f or t he f ol l ow up s e s s i o n. I f no p r ovi de a b r i e f r e m i nde r t o c om pl e t e t he t ut o r i ng t w o t i m e s pe r w e e k a nd t o c om pl e t e e a c h a c t i vi t y e a c h t i m e T ha nk t he pa r e n t f or t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd t he i r t i m e


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Ofiara, Andrea.
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The effects of a parent intervention on the phonological awareness skills of kindergarten students
h [electronic resource] /
by Andrea Ofiara.
260
[Tampa, Fla.] :
b University of South Florida,
2005.
502
Thesis (Ed.S.)--University of South Florida, 2005.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
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System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
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Document formatted into pages; contains 123 pages.
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the efficacy of the Sound Foundations program, implemented by parents, for increasing phonological awareness (PA). Three kindergarten students identified with PA deficits and their mothers served as participants. Parents implemented Sound Foundations twice per week for five and a half weeks. The effects of the intervention were evaluated using a multiple baseline across participants design. PA was measured using the Phoneme Segmentation Fluency measure of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills. Results showed that two students showed increases over time in phonemes per minute after the parent intervention. A third student did not show substantial mprovement. None of the students reached established levels of PA. Treatment integrity and social validity data also were collected.
590
Adviser: Kelly A. Powell-Smith, PhD.
653
Reading.
Parent tutoring.
Phonemic awareness.
Early literacy.
Multiple baseline.
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Dissertations, Academic
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t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
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u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.1109