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The effect of chromium vi on the production and behavior of lytechinus variegatus (echinodermata

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Title:
The effect of chromium vi on the production and behavior of lytechinus variegatus (echinodermata echinoidea)
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Rhora, Jennifer
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Sea grass
Algae
Pollution
Heavy metals
Toxicology
Dissertations, Academic -- Biology -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
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government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
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Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Small amounts of chromium (VI) are carcinogenic in mammals. Concentrations of Cr in marine algae and seagrasses range from 0.06-7.17 /g DW and 0.1-30.6 g/g DW respectively. To test for an effect of these concentrations, production (change in organic material), righting response, feeding rates, absorption efficiency and fecal production were measured in Lytechinus variegatus from Sarasota fed prepared diets containing 0, 4.1, and 32g Cr/ g DW and individuals from Ft. DeSoto fed diets containing 0, 41 and 82g Cr/ g DW. The urchins were fed for 4-5 weeks, with weekly measurements of their feeding rates, absorption efficiency and fecal production. At the end of the experiment the urchins were righted to note any changes in behavior. Their gonads, gut, lantern and test with spines were weighed and ashed to calculate gonadal and gut indices and inorganic and organic percentage and content.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of South Florida, 2005.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Mode of access: World Wide Web.
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by Jennifer Rhora.
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Effect of Chromium VI on the Production and Behavior of Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echiniodea) by Jennifer Rhora A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science Department of Biology College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: John Lawrence, Ph.D. James Garey, Ph.D. Gordon Fox, Ph.D. Date of Approval: March 25, 2005 Keywords: Sea grass, Algae, Pollution, Heavy Metals, Toxicology Copyright 2005, Jennifer Rhora

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Dedication I would like to dedicate this thesis in honor of Lotte Geller who initially inspired me to pursue a career in the sciences. Without her encouragement and example I would not have chosen this path. Thank you Lotte. I would also like to honor my parents Carol and Gerald Rhora for their steadfast belief in me and their encouragement in pursuing my dreams. Lastly I would like to honor my professor Dr. John Lawrence and my committee Dr. James Garey and Dr. Gordon Fox for being so understanding and helpful throughout this entire endeavor.

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i Table of Contents List of Tables.........................................................................................................ii List of Fi gures.......................................................................................................iv Abstract................................................................................................................vi Introduction...........................................................................................................1 Materials and Methods.........................................................................................7 Experiment 1.............................................................................................7 Experiment 2.............................................................................................9 Statistics....................................................................................................9 Results...............................................................................................................11 Experiment 1...........................................................................................11 Experiment 2...........................................................................................14 Discussion..........................................................................................................32 Experiment 1...........................................................................................32 Experiment 2...........................................................................................34 Summary............................................................................................................37 References.........................................................................................................39

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ii List of Tables Table 1 A comparison of the heavy metal concentrations found in the sea grass, algae and echinoids.......................................................2 Table 2 Non-significant results from experiment one after exposure to 0, 4.1 and 32 g chromium/g dry weight for five weeks. (mean + standard error 0 g/g n=15, 4.1 g/g n=13, 32 g/g n=16).................................................................................12 Table 3 Analysis of variance for the net difference of the wet and dry weights of the gut, gonads, lantern and test and spines after exposure to 0, 4.1 and 32 g Cr/ g DW for five weeks..................17 Table 4 Analysis of variance for the net difference of the percent inorganic and organic material of the gut, gonads, lantern and test and spines after exposure to 0, 4.1 and 32 g Cr/ g DW for five weeks. .......................................................................18 Table 5 Analysis of variance for the net difference of the total organic content of the gut, gonads, lantern and test and spines after exposure to 0, 4.1 and 32 g Cr/ g DW for five weeks..................19 Table 6 Repeated measures analysis of variance for the feeding rate of the urchins after exposure to 0, 4.1 and 32 g Cr/ g DW for five weeks.....................................................................................19 Table 7 Repeated measures analysis of variance for the dry weight of feces produced, total organic content of feces produced by urchins and absorption efficiency of urchins exposed to 0, 4.1 and 32 g Cr/ g DW for five weeks................................................20 Table 8 Non-significant results from experiment two after exposure to 0, 41 and 82 Cr/ g DW for four weeks (means + standard error n=15 except for 41 g Cr/ g DW where n=13).......................23 Table 9 Net difference of percent inorganic material in the gonads after exposure to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/ g DW (means + standard error n=14 except for 41 g Cr/ g DW where n=13)........24 Table 10 Analysis of variance for the net difference of wet and dry weights of the gut, gonads, lantern and test and spines after exposure to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/ g DW for four weeks. .................24

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iii Table 11 Analysis of variance for the net difference of percent inorganic and organic material in the gut, gonads, lantern and test and spines after exposure to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/ g DW for four weeks.....................................................................................28 Table 12 Analysis of variance for the net difference of total organic content in the gut, gonads, lantern and test and spines after exposure to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/ g DW for four weeks...................29 Table 13 Repeated measures analysis of variance for the amount eaten by the urchins exposed to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/ g DW for four weeks.....................................................................................29 Table 14 Repeated measures analysis of variance for the dry weight of feces produced, total organic content of feces produced by urchins and absorption efficiency of urchins exposed to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/ g DW for four weeks................................................30

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iv List of Figures Figure 1 Amount of ffod eaten per urchin per treatment during exposure to 0, 4.1 and 32 g Cr/ g DW for five weeks (means + standard error n=15, except for 32 g Cr/ g DW where n=16).............................................................................................13 Figure 2 Dry weight of feces during exposure to 0, 4.1 and 32 g Cr/ g DW for five weeks. (means + standard error 0 g Cr/ g DW n=15, 4.1 g Cr/ g DW n=13, 32 g Cr/ g DW n=16)......................13 Figure 3 Total organic content of feces during exposure to 0, 4.1 and 32 g Cr/ g DW for five weeks. (means + standard error 0 g Cr/ g DW n=15, 4.1 g Cr/ g DW n=13, 32 g Cr/ g DW n=16)......15 Figure 4 Absorption efficiency of organic material by the urchins during exposure to 0, 4.1 and 32 g Cr/ g DW for five weeks. (means + standard error 0 g Cr/ g DW n=15, 4.1 g Cr/ g DW n=13, 32 g Cr/ g DW n=16)....................................................................15 Figure 5 A sea urchin exhibiting unusual spine formation...........................16 Figure 6 The occurrence of the unusual spine behavior within treatments during exposure to 0, 4.1 and 32 g Cr/ g DW measured as presenc e/ absence. (means + standard error 0 g Cr/ g DW n=15, 4.1 g Cr/ g DW n=13, 32 g Cr/ g DW n=16). ...........................................................................................16 Figure 7 Net change in the wet weight of the gut after exposure to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/ g DW for four weeks (means + standard error n=15 except for 41 g Cr/ g DW where n=13).......................21 Figure 8 Net change in the dry weight of the gut after exposure to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/ g DW for four weeks (means + standard error n=13 except for 41 g Cr/ g DW where n=13).......................21 Figure 9 Net change in the total organic content of the gut after exposure to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/ g DW for four weeks (means + standard error n=13 except for 41 g Cr/ g DW where n=13).....22

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v Figure 10 Amount of food eaten per urchin per treatment during exposure to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/ g DW for four weeks. (means + standard error n=15 except for 41 g Cr/ g DW where n=13)..................................................................................26 Figure 11 Dry weight of feces during exposure to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/ g DW for four weeks. (means + standard error n=15 except for 41 g Cr/ g DW where n=13).........................................................26 Figure 12 Total organic content of the feces during exposure to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/ g DW for four weeks. (means + standard error n=15 except for 41 g Cr/ g DW where n=13)...............................27 Figure 13 Absorption efficiency of organic material by the urchins during exposure to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/ g DW for four weeks. (means + standard error n=15 except for 41 g Cr/ g DW where n=13)..................................................................................27

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vi Effect of Chromium VI on the Production and Behavior of Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) Jennifer Rhora ABSTRACT Small amounts of chromium (VI) are carcinogenic in mammals Concentrations of Cr in marine algae and seagrasses range from 0.06-7.17 g/g DW and 0.1-30.6 g/g DW respectively. To test for an effect of these concentrations, production (change in organic material), righting response, feeding rates, absorption efficiency and fecal production were measured in Lytechinus variegatus from Sarasota fed prepared diets containing 0, 4.1, and 32 g Cr/ g DW and individuals from Ft. DeSoto fed diets containing 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/ g DW. The urchins were fed for 4-5 weeks, with weekly measurements of their feeding rates, absorption efficiency and fecal production. At the end of the experiment the urchins were righted to note any changes in behavior. Their gonads, gut, lantern and test with spines were weighed and ashed to calculate gonadal and gut indices and inorganic and organic percentage and content. After five weeks individuals in all treatments from experiment one showed no significant results. Urchins in all treatments from experiment two showed a significant decrease Individuals in all treatments had a significant increase in wet (P<0.001) and dry (P=0.005) weights as well as total organic material (P<0.001) in the gut of the urchins recieveing 82 g Cr/ g DW. There was significant decrease in the feeding rate (P<0.001) and absorption efficiency (P<0.001), countered by a significant increase in fecal production. The righting times were significantly different between the 0 g Cr/ g dry weight, 82 g Cr/ g DW and initial (P=0.031), but not the 41 g Cr/ g DW. Chromium in the feed at the concentrations used in this experiment does not affect the production or absorption efficiency of Lytechinus variegatus but it does affect feeding rates, fecal production and righting response

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1 INTRODUCTION Pollution in the ocean is contamination with man-made waste at levels that cause measurable and deleterious effects on the marine biota (Kennish, 1998). Pollutants include heavy metals, such as cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These heavy metals are in the water column and sediment (Temara et al. 1996; Warnau et al., 1999; Gounin et al., 1995). Most information about the effect of heavy metals on aquatic organisms concerns metals in solution. For example, exposure of the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina to cadmium results in reduction of gamete quality (Au et al. 2001). Skeletogenesis is reduced in the starfish Asterias rubens exposed to lead (Temara et al. 1997). Heavy metals also accumulate in organisms (Table 1) where they enter the trophic chain and affect consumers (Temara et al., 1996; Pelletier and Larocque, 1987; Sadiq et al., 1996). Asterias rubens takes up cadmium (Temara et al. 1996) and lead (Boisson et al. 2002) and the starfish Leptasterias polaris (Bkri and Pelletier, 2004) takes up tributyltin from contaminated mussels. Tributyltin is transferred from macroalgae to the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (Mamelona and Pelletier 2003). None of these studies have assessed the effect on the consumer. Grabe (1997) measured the concentrations of eight heavy metals in the sediment in Tampa Bay because “… they have been associated with reductions in the numbers of species as well as numbers of animals, or, alternatively, with the proliferation of ‘pollution tolerant’ animals”. He found most of the metals were only of marginal concentration (Grabe, 1997), meaning that there is a low probability these metals are toxic to aquat ic life. These are arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, silver and zinc. Chromium and nickel are at levels that have a higher probability than the other heavy meta ls of being toxic to aquatic life (Grabe, 1997). Toxic effects of the metals at the concentrations observed have not been demonstrated.

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2 Table 1: A comparison of the heavy metal concentrations found in the sea grass, algae and echinoids. Organism Section Cr concentrations Source Algae Cystseria barbata <0.06-7.76 + 0.55 ug/g dry wt. Topcuoglu et al. 2002 Ulva lactuca <0.06 ug/g dry wt. Ulva lactuca 0.33 + 0.021.56 + 0.08 ug/g dry wt. Muse et al. 1999 Enteromorpha prolifera 3.05 + 0.084.60 + 0.08 ug/g dry wt. Porphyra columbia 0.30 + 0.180.49 + 0.12 ug/g dry wt. Padina pavonica 2.20 + 0.40 3.55 + 0.05 ug/g dry wt. Campanella et al. 2001 Padina durvillaei 2.55-4.63 ug/g dry wt. SanchezRodriguez et al. 2001 Codium cuneatum 0.992.44 ug/g dry wt. Sargassum sinicola 2.6336.2 ug/g dry wt. Gracilaria pachidermatica 7.17 ug/g dry wt. Hypnea pannosa 5.25 ug/g dry wt. Laurencia johnstonii 2.19 ug/g dry wt. Laurencia papillosa 3.02 ug/g dry wt. Fucus vesiculosus 0.8 + 0.15.0 + 0.6 ug/g dry wt. Giusti, 2001 Fucus vesiculosus 0.17123 ug/g dry wt. Rigit et al. 1997. Ascophyllum nodosum 0.6 ug/g dry wt. Enteromorpha spp. 1.45 + 0.39993.00 + 2.40 ug/g dry wt. Villares et al. 2002 Enteromorpha linza 3.73 + 0.641 ug/g dry wt. Haritonidis and Malea 1995 Ulva rigida 2.60 + 0.536 ug/g dry wt.

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3 Cystoseira barbata 0.60 + 0.020.95 + 0.05 Topcuoglu et al. 2001 Pterocladia capillacea 1.05 + 0.081.15 + 0.01 Phyllophora nervosa 0.90 + 0.071.20 + 0.03 Corallina granifera 1.05 + 0.085.50 + 0.02 Ceramium rubrum 1.45 + 0.08 Ulva lactuca 0.50 + 0.03 Seagrass Zostera capricorni Leaf 5.030.6 ug/g dry wt. Prange and Dennison 2000 Root-Rhizome 4.729.7 ug/g dry wt. Posidonia oceanica Rhizome 0.91 + 0.031.38 + 0.02 ug/g dry wt. Campanella et al. 2001 Leaf tip 0.61 + 0.021.51 + 0.18 ug/g dry wt. Leaf 0.31 + 0.110.94 + 0.08 ug/g dry wt. Leaf basal 0.10 + 0.010.36 + 0.05 ug/g dry wt. Leafepiphyte complexes 0.96 + 0.641.67+ 1.68 ug/g dry wt. Warnau et al. 1995 Rhizomes 1.96 + 1.243.27+ 2.48 ug/g dry wt. Roots 1.52 + 0.891.97+ 1.25 ug/g dry wt. Echinoid Paracentrotus lividus Digestive wall 0.86 + 0.171.23 + 0.75 ug/g dry wt. Warnau et al. 1995 Gonads 0.88 + 0.341.59 + 0.92 ug/g dry wt. Body wall 0.73 + 0.640.89 + 0.77 ug/g dry wt. Digestive wall 0.78 + 0.121.74 + 1.54 Warnau et al. 1998 Gonads 0.67 + 0.202.16 + 1.13 Body wall 0.24 + 0.052.05 + 0.15 Skeleton 0.03 + 0.041.35 + 0.19 Aristotle's lantern 0.09 + 0.051.33 + 0.09 Echinometra mathaei Gonad nd-4.73 mg/kg wet wt. Sadiq et al ., 1996 Intestine .26-2.36 mg/kg wet wt. Aristotles' lantern nd-.19 mg/kg wet wt. Spine nd-.94 mg/kg wet wt. Test nd-.44 mg/kg wet wt.

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4 There are two main species of chromium, chromium III (Cr(III)) and chromium VI (Cr(VI)). Cr(III) is the more stable of the two species and as a micronutrient in mammals aids in the met abolism of glucose, cholesterol, lipids, and insulin (Burrows, 1983; Barceloux, 1999; Kota and Stasicka, 2000). It occurs naturally from the weathering of chromite as well as run-off from tanneries and is found in pigments such as chrome yellow (Cohen et al., 1993; Kota and Stasicka, 2000; Barceloux, 1999). Cr(VI) is a strong oxidizer, which has been shown to damage DNA and to be carcinogenic in mammals. (Bagchi et al. 2001) It passes readily through cell membranes whereas Cr(III) does not. Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III), which generates free radicals, theorized to be the cause of the toxicity of Cr(VI). This process can be reversed by manganese oxide causing Cr(III) to oxidize into Cr(VI) (Kotas and Stasicka, 2000). These two species occur in equilibrium in the water column (Schroeder and Lee, 1975). Cr(VI) is introduced to the environment via oxidation of Cr(III) and anthropogenically discharged as liquid, solid and gaseous waste from a variety of industries. Refractory industries use it as a catalyst to form bricks; metallurgical industries use it to harden steel, manufacture stainless steel and other alloys; textile industries use it in mordants and pigments; aircraft industries use it to anodize aluminum and chemical laboratories use it as a catalyst for quantitative analyses. It is also used to create green glass (Barceloux, 1999, Bagchi et al., 2001; Cohen et al. 1993). Heavy metals have deleterious effects on aquatic life. Some of these occur at the molecular level, which can have physiological and behavioral consequences. Cadmium and PCBs accu mulate in the gonads and cause embryological abnormalities in the sea star Asterias rubens (den Besten et al. 1989). Sublethal levels of nickel in the lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush affect the blood glucose and electrolyte concentrations. Lake trout fed high dose diets of nickel in the laboratory lost a considerable amount of weight (Ptashynski et al. 2001).

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5 Dallinger and Rainbow (1992) stated, “…trace metal uptake via food has been largely ignored”. Research has focused on whether metals in the water column accumulate in organisms or what effect these metals have on the embryonic stages, not on what effect the metals accumulated in food have on the organisms which ingest them. Sea urchins accumulate the majority of ingested heavy metals in their gut and gonads (Sadiq et al., 1996). Lead accumulation in the skeleton of the sea star Asterias rubens disrupts the growth and regeneration of the skeleton (Temara et al., 1997). Mercury accumulation in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius causes embryonic and gametogenic abnormalities that result in a marked decrease in viable embryos (Vashchenko et al. 1995). Accumulation of cadmium in the blue mussel, Mytilis edulis, and the soft-shelled clam, Mya arenaria, causes a slower filtration rate and slower, more erra tic movement of the gills (Capuzzo et al., 1977). Heavy metals accumulated by the limpet Crepidula fornicata are trophically transferred to their predator, Asterias rubens (Temara et al., 1997). Duquesne and Riddle (2001) showed that lead is trophically transferred from the bivalve, Laternula elliptica to its predator, the sea star Notasterias armata No studies have investigated the sublethal effects of heavy metals in food on the behavior or production of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. Sea urchins are important in maintaining system integrity (Vadas et al., 1992; Vadas and Steneck, 1995; Edmunds and Carpenter, 2001). If, for example, the algae on coral reefs are allowed to grow unchecked the corals die and an algal reef is formed. This is the case in the Florida Keys where a massive die off of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum has resulted in an overgrowth of algae (Williams et al., 2001; Lessios et al., 2001). Lytechinus variegatus is a major herbivore, detritivore and food source where it occurs (Valentine et al., 2000 ; Vadas and Elner, 2000; Ruitton et al., 2000). Lytechinus variegatus is common in the Gulf of Mexico and from South Carolina to Brazil and Bermuda on rocky outcroppings, sandy bottom and seagrass beds (Serafy, 1979) It ranges in depth from 0-250m, but is mostly found

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6 at depths of 50m and less (Hendler et al., 1995) Lytechinus variegatus feeds mostly on drift algae and seagrasses, but also encrusting algae on rocks (Maci, 2000; Rose et al., 1999; Valentine et al., 2000). Many types of fish, shore birds, helmet shells and crabs eat L. variegatus (Hendler, et al. 1995) which in turn are themselves predated upon by other predators, including sharks, whales and humans. Humans also eat sea urchin gonads, including those of L. variegatus (Lawrence, 2001). In some cultures they are a common food source, whereas in others they are considered a delicacy (Lawrence, 2001). The gonads are a long-term storage organ for sea urchins (Lares and Pomory, 1998) and accumulate metals and other toxins (Sadiq et al., 1996; Warnau et al., 1995, 1998). By feeding on sea urchin gonads the chromium and other bioaccumulating pollutants are transferred up the food chain. I hypothesize that chromium at concentrations reported to occur in the natural food will have del eterious effects on t he behavior and production of Lytechinus variegatus Behavior and production have been used to indicate whether a sea urchin is under stress (Lawrence, 1990; Bttger et al., 2001).

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7 MATERIALS AND METHODS Experiment 1 Eighty-three sea urchins were collected at Lido Key, FL on April 26, 2003. The urchins were kept without feeding in 8 aquaria with re-circulating filters at a salinity of 35 + 2 ppt and temperature of 22C for a week before beginning the experiment. Salinity and temperature were kept constant throughout the experiment. A total of forty-eight urchins were used with sixteen individuals per treatment. Six urchins were placed into each of eight aquaria, each in a 1028 mL plastic container suspended on a plastic grating in the tank with water flow provided by a tube extending from the filter at a flow rate of 102 + 2 mL/min. Air was bubbled into the aquaria through a suspended air stone. These containers were cleaned and the water changed at each feeding, resulting in one-quarter water change three times a week. The concentration of ammonia and nitrate was measured by the methods given in Strickland and Parsons (1968) for the first three weeks. The concentrations were consistently less than 0.3 mol for ammonia and less than 0.5 mol for nitrate during this period. Two urchins in each aquarium were fed feed with a chromium concentration of 0, 4.1 or 32 ug Cr/g feed (4.1 ug Cr/ g dry weight being approximately the maximum observed concentration of chromium in both algae and seagrass). The feed was prepared from 5% formulated meal and 4% agar in seawater. The feeds containing 4.1 and 32 ug Cr/g dry weight were made using 1% and 8% respectively of a stock solution of potassium dichromate (0.05 mg Cr/mL). 0.05 g potassium dichromate was weighed on an OHAUS balance with readability of 0.01 g and an accuracy of + 0.01 g. This was then added to 1 L of DI water. This solution was serial diluted from 0.05 g Cr/mL to 0.05 mg Cr/ mL before being added to the feed. A coin was tossed to randomly select which level of chromium each urchin was fed. The urchins were fed 6-7 g feed every other

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8 day. Uneaten food and feces were removed before the urchins were fed and collected and measured once a week. At the beginning of the experiment and after five weeks, the righting time of the urchins was measured to ascertain the well-being of the sea urchins (B ttger et al., 2001) The urchins were placed on their aboral surface in a clean glass aquarium and the time it took them to half right themselves was measured. The times were converted into seconds and the righting coefficient was calculated by dividing 1000 by righting time (Percy, 1973). At the end of the experiment each sea urchin was weighed, its diameter measured and dissected into the gut, gonads, Aristotles lantern, and test and spines. These were weighed, dried at 60 C for 48 hours and then reweighed. Approximately 50 mg of each dried component was combusted at 400 C for 5 hours. The amount of organic matter was calculated by subtracting the weight of the ash from the weight of the dry component (Paine, 1971). The percent organic matter was calculated as (mg organic matter/mg dry component)(100). The total amount of organic matter in each body component was calculated by multiplying the percent organic matter in the body component by the dry weight of the body component: (percent organic matter)(d ry weight of body component. The gonadal, gut and lantern indices were calculated as [(dry weight of body component/ diameter of urchin) 100]. The in it ial va lues for the wet and dry weights, and total organic content were subtracted from the end results to calculate the net change per treatment for the experiment. A peculiar spine behavior was first observed after two weeks. This behavior consisted of the urchins spreading their spines away from the ambulacral grooves and towards each other, creating the appearance of spikes around the test. The occurrence of this behavior, which urchin was performing it and the treatment were recorded by presence/absence. The urchins were fed every two days. Uneaten feed and feces were collected and dried weekly. The feed and feces were dried and ashed by the same methods used for the body components. The amount eaten was calculated

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9 by subtracting the uneaten food, which was removed and patted dry with a paper towel and then weighed, from the amount originally fed to the urchin. To calculate the organic absorption efficiency the food and feces were dried and ashed at 400 C for 5 hours (Lowe and Lawrence, 1976). The organic material and remaining ash were entered into the following equation: U’ N =100 ((N’f / A’f) (N’e / A’e) / (N’f / A’f)) Where U’N is the absorption efficiency for the nutrient, N’f and N’e are the nutrient levels in the food and feces, respectively and A’f and A’e are the levels of ash in the food and feces. Experiment 2 Eighty-three sea urchins were collected by SCUBA from Ft. DeSoto state park in St. Petersburg, FL on July 19, 2003. The experimental design was the same as that of experiment 1, except that each aquarium contained a different treatment and the experiment continued fo r four weeks. There were still 16 urchins per treatment. This design contrasts with experiment 1 in which all treatments were present in each aquarium. This change was made to eliminate the possibility that leaching of chromium from the feeds affected exposure. The treatments contained the following concentrations of chromium in the feed: 0, 41 or 82 ug Cr/g DW. These higher conc entrations were chosen because no effects were found at the lower concentrations in experiment 1. The urchins were fed three times a week. The same observations as made in experiment 1 were made at the beginning and end of experiment 2. Statistics A one-way ANOVA was used to test for significant differences in wet and dry weight, body indices, and total organic content between chromium concentrations (Zar, 1999). The ANOVA tests were conducted after testing for normality and homogeneity of variance. 2-way repeated ANOVAS were used for feces production, feeding activity, and absorption efficiency. Unusual spine

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10 behavior was analyzed using linear regression. Righting behavior was tested using K-M probability, Cox and parametric models.

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11 RESULTS Experiment 1 The dry and wet weights, respectively, of the gut, gonads, lantern and the test and spines did not change significantly (Table 3). The total organic content of the lantern (P=0.612), test and spines (P=0.458), gonads (P=0.593) and gut (P=0.360) of the sea urchins did not change significantly in any treatment (Table 5). The concentration of organic (P=0.275, P=0.356, P=0.623 and P=0.113) and inorganic (P=0.275, P=0.356, P=0.623 and P=0.113) material did not differ significantly for the gonad, gut, lantern or test and spines, respectively (Table 4). Although the wet weight of the gut increased from 2.5 to 3.5 g the percent water in the gut did not change. These non-significant results are listed in Table 2 and the ANOVAs are listed in Table 5. The mean feeding rates of urchins in the 0 and 4.1 g/g treatments decreased as the experiment progressed, but the variance increased (Figure 1). The feeding rates of the urchins in the 32 g/g treatment remained constant throughout the experiment. There was a significant difference in feeding rate over time (P=0.009) but not between treatments (P= 0.661) or treatments over time (P=0.845) (Table 6). There was no significant difference in the righting times of the urchins between treatments (P=0.901). The dry weight of the feces differed significantly between treatments (P=0.011), over time (P<0.001) but not between treatments over time (P=0.283) (Table 7). The dry weight of the feces in the 0 and 32 gCr/g dry weight treatments was not significantly different until week five. The dry weight of feces in the 4.1 gCr/g dry weight treatment was significantly lower than the other treatments until the fourth week when it was not significantly different from the other treatments. In the fifth week the dry weight of the feces in the 32 gCr/g dry

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12 Table 2: Non-significant results from experiment one after exposure to 0, 4.1 and 32 g chromium/g dry weight for five weeks. (mean + standard error 0 g/g n=15, 4.1 g/g n=13, 32 g/g n=16) Gut Gonad 0 4.1 32 0 4.1 32 Wet Weight 3.56 + 0.10 3.48 + 0.20 3.70 + 0.13 10.60 + 1.02 10.32 + 1.07 10.31 + 1.02 Dry Weight 0.65 + 003 0.58 + 0.04 0.63 + 0.03 2.79 + 0.362 2.87 + 0.36 2.42 + 0.26 Percent Inorganic material 11.45 + 0.41 12.97 + 1.78 11.35 + 0.50 10.40 + 0.94 12.92 + 1.08 11.81 + 0.91 Percent Organic Material 88.55 + 0.41 87.03 + 1.78 88.65 + 0.50 89.61 + 0.94 87.08 + 1.08 88.19 + 0.91 Total Organic Material 34.96 + 1.77 31.13 + 2.34 32.71 + 1.49 145.89 + 21.97 155.24 + 20.87 128.12 + 15.14 Lantern Test and Spines 0 4.1 32 0 4.1 32 Wet Weight N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Dry Weight 3.07 + 0.13 2.95 + 0.10 2.98 + 0.08 N/A N/A N/A Percent Inorganic material 76.02 + 1.86 77.83 + 1.65 75.27 + 1.22 82.12 + 1.18 81.14 + 1.19 78.93 + 1.32 Percent Organic Material 23.98 + 1.86 22.17 + 1.65 24.73 + 1.22 17.86 + 1.18 18.86 + 1.19 21.07 + 1.32 Total Organic Material 43.97 + 3.57 39.87 + 3.19 43.39 + 2.33 352.71 + 26.61 379.91 + 24.13 395.48 + 23.44

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13 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9Week 1Week 2Week 3Week 4Week 5g/ Individual 0 ug Cr/ g DW 4.1 ug Cr/ g DW 32 ug Cr/ g DW Figure 1: Amount of food eaten per urchin per treatment during exposure to 0, 4.1 and 32 g Cr/g DW for five weeks. (means + standard error 0 g/g n=15, 4.1 g/g n=14, 32 g/g n=16). 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 week 1week 2week 3week 4week 5Dry Weight (g) 0 ug Cr/ g DW 4.1 ug Cr/g DW 32 ug Cr/ g DW Figure 2: Dry weight of the feces during exposure to 0, 4.1 and 32 g Cr/g DW for five weeks. (mean + standard error 0 g/g n=15, 4.1 g/g n=13, 32 g/g n=16)

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14 weight treatment was significantly higher than those of the 0 and 4.1 gCr/g dry weight (Figure 2). The total organic content of the feces differed significantly between treatments (P=0.018) and over time (P<0.001) but not between treatments over time (P=0.409) (Table 7). The total organic content of the feces of urchins fed 0 and 32 gCr/g dry weight did not significantly differ from each other at any time during the experiment. The total organic content of the feces of urchins in the 4.1 gCr/g dry weight treatment was significantly lower than those of the other treatments until week five, when it increased. The treatments were not significantly different from each other at the end of the experiment (Figure 3). The absorption efficiency (AE) of the urchins differed significantly over time (P=0.025), but not between treatments (P=0.415) or between treatments over time (P=0.900) (Figure 4) (Table 7). During week 2 some urchins began exhibiting an unusual spine behavior. The spines were moved away from the ambulacra to touch each other over the interambulacra (Figure 5). This behavior did not differ significantly between the treatments (P=0.884) (Figure 6). Experiment 2 The wet weight (P=0.039), dry weight (P=0.025) and total organic content (P=0.037) of the gut significantly increased in the urchins receiving 82 gCr/g. (Figures 7, 8 and 9 respectively). Neither the wet and dry weights nor the total organic content of the gonad, lantern, and test and spines significantly differ between treatments. These data are shown in Table 8. The ANOVAs for the wet and dry weights are shown in Table 10. The ANOVAs for the total organic content are in Table 11. There was a significant decrease (P=0.050) in the concentration of inorganic material, but not in the organic material (P=0.403) of the gonad between the urchins that received 0 and 82 gCr/g dry weight and those who received 41 gCr/g dry weight (Table 9). The concentrations of inorganic

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15 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35week 1week 2week 3week 4week 5Organic Material (g) 0 ug Cr/g DW 4.1 ug Cr/g DW 32 ug Cr/g DW Figure 3: Total organic content of feces during exposure to 0, 4.1 and 32 g Cr/g feed for five weeks. (mean + standard error, 0 g/g n=15, 4.1 g/g n=13, 32 g/g n=16) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80Week1Week 2Week 3Week 4Week 5Percent Absorbed 0ug Cr/g DW 4.1 ug Cr/g DW 32 ug Cr/g DW Figure 4: Absorption efficiency of organic material by the urchins during exposure to 0, 4.1 and 32 g /g feed for five weeks. (mean + standard error, 0 g/g n=15, 4.1 g/g n=13, 32 g/g n=16)

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16 Figure 5: A sea urchin exhibiting unusual spine formation. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 123456789101112ObservationPercentage 0 ugCr/ g DW 4.1 ug Cr/ g DW 32 ug Cr/ g DW Figure 6: The occurrence of the unusual spine behavior within treatments during exposure to 0,4.1 and 32 g Cr/g feed for five weeks measured as presence/absence. (means + standard error 0 g/g n=15, 4.1 g/g n=13, 32 g/g n=16).

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17 Table 3: Analysis of variance for the net difference of the wet and dry weights of the gut, gonads, lantern and test and spines after exposure to 0, 4.1 and 32 g Cr/ g DW for five weeks. Source df SS F P Wet Weight Gut Treatment2 0.378 0.611 0.548 Error 41 12.676 Gonad Treatment2 0.806 0.026 0.975 Error 41 646.288 Dry Weight Gut Treatment2 0.033 1.195 0.313 Error 41 0.571 Gonad Treatment2 1.679 0.543 0.585 Error 41 63.36 Lantern Treatment2 0.113 0.361 0.699 Error 41 6.444

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18 Table 4: Analysis of variance for the net difference of the percent inorganic and organic material in the gut, gonads, lantern and test and spines after exposure to 0, 4.1 and 32 g Cr/ g DW for five weeks. Source df SS F P Percent Inorganic Material Gut Treatment2 30.049 1.059 0.356 Error 41 581.503 Gonad Treatment2 34.122 1.338 0.275 Error 37 471.683 Lantern Treatment2 35.492 0.478 0.623 Error 41 1522.228 Test and Spines Treatment2 102.468 2.304 0.113 Error 41 911.704 Percent Organic Material Gut Treatment2 30.049 1.059 0.356 Error 41 581.503 Gonad Treatment2 34.122 1.338 0.275 Error 37 471.683 Lantern Treatment2 35.492 0.478 0.623 Error 41 1522.228 Test and Spines Treatment2 102.468 2.304 0.113 Error 41 911.704

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19 Table 5 : Analysis of variance for the net difference of the total organic content of the gut, gonads, lantern and test and spines after exposure to 0, 4.1 and 32 g Cr/ g DW for five weeks. Source df SS F P Total Organic Content Gut Treatment2 104.292 1.047 0.36 Error 41 2042.912 Gonad Treatment2 5191.18 0.531 0.593 Error 37 180933.2 Lantern Treatment2 134.869 Error 41 5564.336 0.497 0.612 Test and Spines Treatment2 14400.67 0.795 0.458 Error 41 371400.7 Table 6: Repeated measures analysis of variance for the feeding rate of the urchins after exposure to 0, 4.1 and 32 g Cr/ g DW for five weeks. Source df SS F P G-G H-F Between Subjects Treatment 20.6880.4190.661N/A N/A Error 4234.527 Within Subjects Time 49.6195.2920.0000.0110.009 Between subjects over time81.1510.3170.9590.8300.845 Error 16876.34

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20 Table 7: Repeated measures analysis of variance for the dry weight of feces produced, total organic content of feces produced by urchins and absorption efficiency of urchins exposed to 0, 4.1 and 32 g Cr/ g DW for five weeks. Source df SS F P G-G H-F Dry Weight of Feces Between Subjects Treatment 20.2575.5810.011N/A N/A Error 210.484 Dry Weight of Feces Within Subjects Time 40.2998.3910.0000.0000.000 Between subjects over time80.0891.2450.2830.2930.283 Error 840.749 Total Organic Content of Feces Between Subjects Treatment 2876.0294.8720.018N/A N/A Error 211887.962 Total Organic Content of Feces Within Subjects Time 41108.9159.1720.0000.0000.000 Between subjects over time8252.8971.0460.4090.4050.409 Error 842538.980 Absorption Efficiency Between Subjects Treatment 2820.0450.9170.415N/A N/A Error 219392.537 Absorption Efficiency Within Subjects Time 44909.4463.3460.0140.0350.025 Between subjects over time81064.4310.3630.9370.8660.900 Error 8430809.276

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21 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 0 ug/g dry wt.41 ug/g dry wt.82 ug/g dry wt. TreatmentWet Weight (g) Figure 7: Net change in the wet weight of the gut after exposure to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/ g DW for four weeks (means + standard error n=15 except for 41 g/g where n=13). -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 0 ug/g dry wt.41 ug/g dry wt.82 ug/g dry wt. TreatmentDry Weight (g) Figure 8: Net change in dry weight of the gut after exposure to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/g dry weight for four weeks. (means + standard error n=15 except for 41 g/g where n=13).

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22 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 0 ug/g dry wt.41 ug/g dry wt.82 ug/g dry wt. TreatmentOrganic Content Figure 9: Net change in total organic content of the gut after exposure to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/g dry weight for four weeks. (means + standard error n=15, except for 41 g/g where n=13).

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23 Table 8: Non-significant results after exposure to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/g DW for four weeks. (means + standard error n=15 except for 41 g Cr/g DW where n=13). Gut Gonad 0 41 82 0 41 82 Wet Weight * 7.24 + 0.8 7.52 + 0.92 8.03 + 0.52 Dry Weight * 11.86 + 1.23 12.41 + 1.43 14.56 + 1.02 Percent Inorganic material 12.93 + 0.90 11.30 + 0.55 10.27 + 0.30 * Percent Organic Material 87.07 + 0.90 88.71 + 0.55 89.74 + 0.30 91.91 + 0.32 90.97 + 0.79 92.55 + 0.45 Total Organic Material * 55.64 + 4.24 60.18 + 6.80 62.99 + 4.49 Lantern Test and Spines 0 41 82 0 41 82 Wet Weight N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Dry Weight 26.41 + 2.25 24.94 + 1.27 26.40 + 1.90 N/A N/A N/A Percent Inorganic material 82.98 + 1.08 80.98 + 1.76 81.07 + 1.34 86.75 + 0.62 86.05 + 0.64 85.96 + 0.61 Percent Organic Material 17.03 + 1.09 19.02 + 1.76 18.93 + 1.34 13.26 + 0.62 13.95 + 0.64 14.04 + 0.61 Total Organic Material 23.83 + 4.37 24.59 + 2.16 23.80 + 3.27 157.45 + 19.48 150.38 + 13.43 168.38 + 14.41 = significant values

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24 Table 9: Net difference of the percent inorganic material in the gonads after exposure to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/ g DW. (means + standard error n=14, except for 41 g Cr/g DW where n=13). Treatment Percent Inorganic Material + Standard Error 0 g Cr/ g dry weight -2.851 + 0.618 41 g Cr/ g dry weight -0.976 + 0.859 82 g Cr/ g dry weight -3.093 + 0.402 Table 10 : Analysis of variance for the net difference of the wet and dry weights of the gut, gonads, lantern and test and spines after exposure to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/ g DW for four weeks. Source df SS F P Wet Weight Gut Treatment 2 8.547 3.523 0.039 Error 40 48.517 Gonad Treatment 2 4.74 0.294 0.747 Error 40 322.785 Dry Weight Gut Treatment 2 18.823 4.048 0.025 Error 40 93.008 Gonad Treatment 2 60.2 1.409 0.256 Error 40 854.4 Lantern Treatment 2 30.769 0.298 0.744 Error 40 2064.054

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25 (P= 0.797, P=0.533 and P=0.518) and organic (P=0.235, P=0.533 and P=0.518) materials were not significantly different for the gut, lantern and test and spines, respectively These data are also shown in Table 8. The ANOVAs are shown in Table 11. The amount of feed eaten significantly differed over time (P<0.001), between treatments (P<0.001) and between treatments over time (P<0.001) (Table 13). There was no significant difference in the amount of food eaten between treatments for the first three weeks. The amount of food eaten by urchins fed 0 and 82 gCr/g dry weight were not significantly different from each other. The amount of food eaten by those fed 41 gCr/g dry weight treatment was significantly lower than those fed 0 and 82 gCr/g dry weight, decreasing significantly from week three to week four (Figure 10). The dry weight of the feces significantly differed between treatments (P=0.003) over time (P<0.001) and between treatments over time (P=0.045) (Table 14). For the first three weeks the three treatments did not significantly differ. In the fourth week dry weight of the feces of urchins fed 0 and 82 gCr/g dry weight significantly increased, though they were not significantly different from each other (Figure 11). The total organic content of the feces significantly increased over time (P<0.001) and between treatments over time (P=0.041), but not between treatments (P=0.209) (Table 14). The treatments did not significantly differ for the first three weeks, but in the fourth week the organic content of the feces in the 0 and 82 gCr/g dry weight treatments were significantly higher than the 41 gCr/g dry weight treatment (Figure 12). There was a significant decrease (P<0.001) in absorption efficiency (AE) of the urchins in all treatments over time. No difference was found between treatments (P=0.895) or between treatments over time (P=0.104) (Table 11). The AE of urchins in the 82 Cr/ g dry weight treatment decreased until week 2, whereas the AE of the urchins in the other two treatments slowly decreased

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26 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8week 1week 2week 3week 4g/ Individual 0ug Cr/g DW 41 ug Cr/g DW 82 ug Cr/g DW Figure 10: Amount of food eaten per urchin per treatment during exposure to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/g DW for four weeks. (means + standard error n=15 except for 41 g/g where n=13). 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25week 1week 2week 3week 4Dry Weight (g) 0 ug Cr/g DW 41 ug Cr/g DW 82 ug Cr/g DW Figure 11: Dry weight of the feces during exposure to 0, 41 and 82 g chromium/g feed for four weeks. (means + standard error n=15 except for 41 g/g where n=13).

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27 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Week 1Week 2Week 3Week 4Organic Content (g) 0 ug Cr/ g DW 41 ug Cr/g DW 82 ug Cr/g DW Figure 12: Total organic content of the feces during exposure to 0, 41 and 82 g chromium/g feed for four weeks. (means + standard error n=15 except for 41 g/g where n=13). 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 week 1week 2week 3week 4Percent Absorbed 0ug Cr/g DW 41ug Cr/g DW 82 ug Cr/g DW Figure 13: Absorption efficiency of organic material by the urchins during exposure to 0, 41 and 82 g chromium/g feed for four weeks. (means + standard error n=15 except for 41 g/g where n=13).

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28 Table 11: Analysis of variance for the net difference of the percent inorganic and organic material in the gut, gonads, lantern and test and spines after exposure to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/ g DW for five weeks. Source df SS F P Percent Organic Material Gut Treatment 2 2003.51 1.501 0.235 Error 40 26692.54 Gonad Treatment 2 374.266 0.93 0.403 Error 40 8050.665 12.748 Lantern Treatment 2 37.673 0.639 0.533 Error 40 1178.924 Test and Spines Treatment 2 7.431 0.669 0.518 Error 40 222.094 Percent Inorganic Material Gut Treatment 2 7.062 0.229 0.797 Error 40 617.362 Gonad Treatment 2 36.57 3.191 0.052 Error 40 229.198 Lantern Treatment 2 37.673 0.639 0.533 Error 40 1178.924 Test and Spines Treatment 2 7.431 0.669 0.518 Error 40 222.094

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29 Table 12: Analysis of variance for the net difference of the total organic content in the gut, gonads, lantern and test and spines after exposure to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/ g DW for five weeks. Source df SS F P Total Organic Content Gut Treatment 2 500.773 3.57 0.037 Error 40 2805.727 Gonad Treatment 2 1893.543 2.096 0.136 Error 40 18070.53 Lantern Treatment 2 1.731 0.005 0.995 Error 40 6670.676 Test and Spines Treatment 2 2580.761 0.345 0.71 Error 40 149711.1 Table 13: Repeated measures analysis of variance for the amount eaten by the urchins exposed to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/ g DW for five weeks. Source df SS F P G-G H-F Between Subjects Treatment 2 18.189 10.221 0.000 N/A N/A Error 42 37.372 Within Subjects Time 3 75.354 33.652 0.000 0.000 0.000 Between subjects over time 6 50.028 11.171 0.000 0.000 0.000 Error 126 94.048

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30 Table 14: Repeated measures analysis of variance for the dry weight of feces produced, total organic content of feces produced by urchins and absorption efficiency of urchins exposed to 0, 41 and 82 g Cr/ g DW for five weeks. Source df SS F P G-G H-F Dry Weight of Feces Between Subjects Treatment 2 0.042 6.593 0.003 N/A N/A Error 43 0.138 Dry Weight of Feces Within Subjects Time 3 0.311 38.939 0.000 0.000 0.000 Between subjects over time 6 0.038 2.379 0.033 0.051 0.045 Error 129 0.343 Total Organic Content of Feces Between Subjects Treatment 2 23.226 1.689 0.209 N/A N/A Error 21 144.388 Total Organic Content of Feces Within Subjects Time 3 538.846 38.585 0.000 0.000 0.000 Between subjects over time 6 68.082 2.438 0.035 0.055 0.041 Error 63 293.270 Absorption Efficiency Between Subjects Treatment 2 5.048 0.011 0.895 N/A N/A Error 19 431.404 Absorption Efficiency Within Subjects Time 3 1780.983 33.295 0.000 0.000 0.000 Between subjects over time 6 211.849 1.980 0.084 0.121 0.104 Error 57 1016.316

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31 throughout the experiment (Figure 13). The righting time showed no significant difference between treatments. The unusual spine formation observed in experiment one began on the second week of experiment two and did not continue past the third week. 18% of the urchins in the 0 gCr/g dry weight, 37.5% of those in the 41 gCr/g dry weight and 25% of those in the 82 gCr/g dry weight were performing this behavior for one week. None if the urchins in any of the treatments spread their spines again for the duration of the experiment.

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32 Discussion Experiment 1 The average concentration of chromium found in seagrasses and algae is 4 g/g dry wt (Topcuoglu et al. 2002; Muse et al. 1999; Campanella et al. 2001; Sanchez-Rodriguez et al. 2001; Giusti, 2001; Rigit et al. 1997; Villares et al. 2002; Haritonidis and Malea 1995; Topcuoglu et al. 2001; Prange and Dennison 2000; Campanella et al. 2001; and Warnau et al. 1995). Sanchez-Rodriguez et al. reported the highest level of 30.6 g C/g dry weight for Sargassum sinicola This was the basis for the decision to test the effects of 4.1 and 32 g Cr/ g dry weight. Sea urchins have a difficult time breaking down and digesting plant and algal cell walls (Lawrence, 1982). Consequently, chromium in artificial feeds should be more biologically available to the urchins. Even though the concentrations fed the urchins were 4.1 and 32 g Cr/ g dry wt the amount they were actually able to access should be higher There was no significant change in the total organic content of any of the components for the urchins. This indicates production was similar for individuals in all treatments. The gut however had an increase in the wet weight, which suggests the urchins in the 32 g Cr/g dry weight treatments were retaining water in the gut. Lawrence et al. (2003) found that sea urchins in good health maintain a consistent feeding rate, depending on the frequency with which they are fed. The feeding rates for the urchins fed 0 and 4.1 gCr/g dry weight in this experiment decreased by 20 and 17%, respectively, suggesting that these urchins were not in good health. The urchins receiving the 32 gCr/g dry weight treatment had a 6% decrease in feeding rate. Sea urchins fed 0 and 4.1 gCr/g dry weight had lower feeding rates from week 3 until the end of the experiment, though the variation increased with the duration of the experiment.

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33 This decrease in feeding rates does not correlate with a decrease in fecal production. Fecal production for sea urchins fed 0 and 32 gCr/g dry weight treatments were the same, whereas that of sea urchins fed 4.1 gCr/g dry weight was significantly lower throughout the experiment, until week 5 when fecal production was not significantly different from those fed 0 and 32 gCr/g dry weight. The urchins fed 4.1 gCr/g dry weight did not absorb more than the urchins in the other treatments during the experiment, except for week 4, yet they had consistently lower feces production and total organic content. Sea urchins in all treatments showed a large drop in both feces production and organic content of the feces on week 4, but there was no correlating decrease or increase in feeding at that time. There was, however, a significant increase in the absorption efficiency (A.E.) for the urchins fed 4.1 gCr/g dry weight. This was followed by a return to previous weeks’ feces production, total organic content and AE in week 5. The urchins fed 4.1 and 32 gCr/g dry weight were able to digest 5% more of their feed, on average, than those fed 0 gCr/g dry weight. These results suggest that the urchins are better able to digest food when it contains at least 4.1 gCr/g dry weight. Chromium (III) is a micronutrient necessary for the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates in mammals (Vincent 2001, Kota and Stasicka 2000, and Barceloux 1999). The fact that urchins fed 4.1 gCr/g dry weight ate less than the others may also contribute to the lower production of feces (Lowe and Lawrence, 1976; B ttger et al., 2001). I do not know why the total organic content and dry weight of the feces would be lower for the urchins fed food with 4.1 gCr/g dry weight. The difference in the urchins AE’s possibly explains the results for week 4, but not the other weeks. The urchins were not eating less or absorbing more than the urchins in the other treatments. It follows that somehow they were retaining the undigested feed. There was evidence of this. Upon disse ction most of the urchins had undigested food still in their guts, but how much each urchin had and which treatment it was in was not measured The effects may exhibit an inverted u relationship, where the lower concentration has more of an effect t han the higher concentration because the

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34 organism is better able to eliminate or sequester the higher doses. Chromium had no effect on the urchins’ ability to righ t themselves. This indicates that the levels of chromium ingested did not inhibit the neuromuscular system of the tube feet. The urchins in all treatments, including the 0 g/g dry weight, began spreading their spines away from the ambulacrum during the second week. Chromium may have been affecting the musculature associated with their spines causing this abnormal posture. The individuals in the 0 g/g dry weight treatment may have been exposed to chromium leached from the other feeds. Fernandes et al. (2002) found that chromium (VI) interferes with mitochondrial respiration, which decreases the amount of ATP formation and inhibits muscle contraction. Experiment 2 The gonads of urchins in experiment one had 86% more wet weight and 83% more dry weight than the gonads in experiment two. The guts of urchins in experiment two were more comparable to those in experiment one, having only 32% more wet weight and 38% more dry weight. This could be due to the lack of food, the lateness of the season or the urchins having recently spawned. In addition, the urchins from Lido Beach in the first experiment were in a lush seagrass bed and thus had more available food than those in the second experiment, which were from a sand flat at Fort DeSoto Park with little available food. Sea urchins in all treatments had significantly larger gonads at the end of the experiment than at the beginning. The increase in gonad size did not differ significantly between treatments indicating chromium in the feed had no effect on production. The dry and wet weights as well as the total organic content of the guts significantly increased in the urchins fed 82 g Cr/ g DW. Lares and Pomory (1998) found that upon starvation the gut is the first body component of Lytechinus variegatus to decrease in weight and total organic content. The gut also is the first body component to grow after starvation (Bishop and Watts,

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35 1992). This suggests that the gut is ut ilized for short-term energy storage and would be of a smaller size when the urchin is under nutritive stress. Lawrence et al. (2003) found significant increases in the gut and gonad dry weight and indices of L. variegatus fed everyday but not if fed every 2 or 4 days. The urchins in this experiment were fed every 3 days, including weekends. The weight of the lantern decreased significantly in all treatments. No other studies have reported changes in the lantern with nutritional condition of sea urchins and this difference is probably an artifact. The sea urchins fed less in all treatments as the experiment continued. The urchins fed 0 and 82 gCr/g dry weight showed a 10 and 11 % decrease in feeding rates, respectively. Up until week 4 the urchins in the 41 gCr/g dry weight treatment showed only a 3% decrease in feeding rate. However, in week 4 they had a 50% decrease in feeding rate. This did not correlate with a decrease in feces production, total organic content, or an increase in AE. This suggests that these urchins were under stress and were not in good health at the end of the experiment (Lawrence, 1990). Lytechinus variegatus starved for nine days and then provided with constant food show a marked increase in feeding followed by a plateau. Urchins fed intermittently have a consistently high feeding rate (Lawrence et al., 2003). This occurred in this experiment suggesting that the urchins, up until week 4, were better able to digest and store the feed given to them than those in the previous experiment. Urchins fed 0, 41 and 82 gCr/g dry weight showed an 11, 15 and 10% decrease, respectively, in AE over the length of the experiment. The AE’s were not different from each other throughout the experiment. Fecal production by sea urchins fed 41 gCr/g dry weight did not increase after week 2, but continued to increase in sea urchins fed 0 and 82 gCr/g dry weight. There was a decrease in feeding in week 4 in all treatments, most notably for urchins fed 41 gCr/g dry weight, yet the feces production by urchins fed 0 and 82 gCr/g dry weight showed the highest overall increase in this week. Urchins fed 41 gCr/g dry weight maintained the same output as in weeks 2 and 3. This suggests that they

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36 were digesting less of the feed and this undigested feed was being passed into the feces, which would account for both the increase in feces production as well as the increase in total organic content. There was no significant difference in righting time, again suggesting that the chromium did not affect the neuromusculature associated with the tube feet. The urchins at the end of the experiment seemed to be in much better condition than they were at the beginning of the experiment. The gut and gonads were larger and contained more organic material than they did in the beginning, though there was a significant decrease in the AE from the beginning to the end. The urchins in this experiment exhibited the abnormal spine behavior only in week 2. It is possible chromium was being sequestered or excreted and therefore was no longer affecting the neuromusculature of the spines of the urchins after week 3 but this would not explain the decrease in urchins fed 0 gCr/g dry weight. The amount of chromium in the body components or feces was not measured. Chromium may be an enhancer. At low concentrations chromium III is a micronutrient for mammals. It is utilized in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (Vincent, 2001; Bagchi, et al., 2001; Barceloux, 1999). The sea urchins diet consists mostly of carbohydrates (Lowe and Lawrence, 1976) and it is therefore likely that they also require chromium. It is possible that the urchins were converting chromium VI from the food into chromium III and then utilizing this micronutrient (Kota and Stasicka, 2000).

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37 Summary The urchins in the two experiments showed dramatically different results. The urchins of each experiment can be compared, but their differences in food availability in the field and in season must be taken into account. As the urchins are from two separate populations, collected at two different seasons of the year, physiological state and environmental factors and would have different responses to the chromium based on thes e differences. These differences make using the responses of individuals in the 0 g/g treatments the best way to compare the state of the urchins in the two treatments. The urchins fed 0 g Cr/g dry weight in experiment one had higher wet and dry weights as well as total organic content of all components and overall weight at the end of the experiment than did those in experiment two. The urchins in experiment two, however, ate 8% more over the course of the experiment than did those in experiment one with an AE of 89%. The urchins in experiment one had an AE of only 50%, yet they produced more feces with a higher total organic content than did the urchins in experiment two. The urchins used in experiment one had larger gonads and guts when collected than those in experiment two The gut and gonads of the urchins in experiment two were 86% and 38% smaller than those in experiment one. The smaller size of the gut indicates they had less nutrient reserves that would be expected with a lower availability of food. The smaller size of the gonad could mean they had yet to begin gonadal production associated with the annual reproductive cycle or inadequate food for gonadal production. This suggests these urchins were starved. This would explain the higher feeding rates and AEs in experiment two. An AE of only 50% indicates the urchins in experiment one were not digesting all the food they ingested. Their guts and gonads did not increase throughout the experiment suggesting that they were receiving

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38 adequate amounts of food and the food to maintain themselves but not for production (Lawrence, et al., 2003). Chromium (VI) is readily converted to chromium (III), which is a micronutrient (Kota and Stasicka, 2000; Barceloux, 1999). It is very possible that either the chemical reactions upon making the food, putting it in the water or the urchins made this conversion and so the urchins were not receiving chromium (VI) at all, but chromium (III) which they were able to use to aid in digesting the carbohydrates in their feed. The presence of heavy metals in the environment does not necessarily mean they are pollutants. Under the conditions of this experiment and at the concentrations tested, chromium in food is not a pollutant for adult Lytechinus variegatus This is not to say that it would not affect juveniles or larvae. The embryological stages are the most susceptible to damage by pollutants (Greco et al., 2001; Vashchenko et al., 1995). This is also not to say that water borne or sediment bound chromium would not negatively affect these urchins. Though the trend was not significant, the urchins in experiment two who were fed the highest levels of chromium had a greater increase in the size of the gonads than those fed 0 gCr/g dry weight. Those fed 82 g Cr/ g DW did experience a significant increase in the dry and wet weights and total organic content of their guts. Chromium at the levels and conditions of this experiment has no measurable difference on the behavior or production of the adult sea urchin Lytechinus variegates. The increase in the wet and dry weights and total organic content of the guts of the urchins receiving 82 g Cr/ g DW suggests that chromium is an enhancer for these urchins. Even though it is unknown what effects added chromium in a system would have on the embryological or larval stages of Lytechinus variegatus it may help the adults. It is also unknown how chromium and other heavy metals and pollutants interact with each other and what effects this would have on organisms.

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39 References Au, D.W.T., Lee, C.Y., Chan, K.L., Wu, R.S.S. 2001. Reproductive impairment of sea urchins upon chronic exposure to cadmium. Part I: Effects on gamete quality. Environmental Pollution. 111: 1-9. Bagchi, D., Bagchi, M., and Stohs, S.S. 2001. Chromium (VI)-induced oxidative stress, apoptic cell death and modulation of p53 tumor suppressor gene. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 222:149-158. Barceloux, D.G. 1999. Chromium Journal of Toxicology-Clinical Toxicology. 37: 173-194. Bekri, K., Pelletier, E. 2004. Trophic transfer and in vivo immunotoxicological effects of tributyltin (TBT) in polar sea star Leptasterias polaris. Aquatic Toxicology. 66: 39-53. Bishop, C.D. and Watts, S.A. 1992. Biochemical and morphometric study of growth in the stomach and intestines of the echinoid Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata). Marine Biology. 114: 459-467. Boisson, F., Cotret, O., Fowler, S.W. 2002. Transfer and distribution of lead in the asteroid Asterias rubens following ingestion of contaminated food: a radiotracer study. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 44:1003-1009. Bttger, S.A., McClintock, J.B. and Klinger, T.S. 2001. Effects of inorganic and organic phosphates on feeding, feeding absorption, nutrient allocation, growth

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ABSTRACT: Small amounts of chromium (VI) are carcinogenic in mammals. Concentrations of Cr in marine algae and seagrasses range from 0.06-7.17 /g DW and 0.1-30.6 g/g DW respectively. To test for an effect of these concentrations, production (change in organic material), righting response, feeding rates, absorption efficiency and fecal production were measured in Lytechinus variegatus from Sarasota fed prepared diets containing 0, 4.1, and 32g Cr/ g DW and individuals from Ft. DeSoto fed diets containing 0, 41 and 82g Cr/ g DW. The urchins were fed for 4-5 weeks, with weekly measurements of their feeding rates, absorption efficiency and fecal production. At the end of the experiment the urchins were righted to note any changes in behavior. Their gonads, gut, lantern and test with spines were weighed and ashed to calculate gonadal and gut indices and inorganic and organic percentage and content.
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