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Design and fabrication of a re-configurable micromirror array for an optical microspectrometer

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Title:
Design and fabrication of a re-configurable micromirror array for an optical microspectrometer
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Upadhyay, Vandana
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Thermal actuator
Polymumps
Anodic bonding
Gear
Pirl
Dissertations, Academic -- Electrical Engineering -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: This thesis presents the design and fabrication of a re-configurable micromirror array which can be used as a component of an optical microspectrometer. In an optical microspectrometer, an array of mechanically positionable micromirrors can be implemented as a reconfigurable exit slit to selectively focus particular wavelengths of a diffracted spectrum onto the detector stage. The signal to noise ratio and response time of an optical microspectrometer can be vastly improved by this technique. In the approach presented here, a hybrid bulk- and surface- micromachining process is demonstrated for fabrication of a 1XN array of micromirrors. The reconfigurable micromirrors presented here comprise of two elements, a surfacemicromachined positioning mechanism, and a bulk-micromachined mirror. These elements are finally integrated using a flip-chip bonding technique.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.E.E.)--University of South Florida, 2005.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Vandana Upadhyay.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 123 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001680987
oclc - 62497528
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001138
usfldc handle - e14.1138
System ID:
SFS0025459:00001


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Design and fabrication of a re-configurable micromirror array for an optical microspectrometer
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ABSTRACT: This thesis presents the design and fabrication of a re-configurable micromirror array which can be used as a component of an optical microspectrometer. In an optical microspectrometer, an array of mechanically positionable micromirrors can be implemented as a reconfigurable exit slit to selectively focus particular wavelengths of a diffracted spectrum onto the detector stage. The signal to noise ratio and response time of an optical microspectrometer can be vastly improved by this technique. In the approach presented here, a hybrid bulk- and surface- micromachining process is demonstrated for fabrication of a 1XN array of micromirrors. The reconfigurable micromirrors presented here comprise of two elements, a surfacemicromachined positioning mechanism, and a bulk-micromachined mirror. These elements are finally integrated using a flip-chip bonding technique.
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PAGE 1

Design and Fabrication of a Re-C onfigurable Micromirror Array for an Optical Microspectrometer by Vandana Upadhyay A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering College of Engineering University of South Florida Co-Major Professor: Shekhar Bhansali, Ph.D. Co-Major Professor: Scott Samson, Ph.D. Weidong Wang, Ph.D. Date of Approval: March 29, 2005 Keywords: Thermal actuator, PolyMUMPs, Anodic bonding, Gear, PiRL Copyright 2005, Vandana Upadhyay

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corresponding to PolyMUMPs that form the structure of the gear are: poly1, hole1, anchor1, dimple, poly1_poly2_via, poly2, metal, holem, and anchor2. Both rack and pinion gears are designed using a special poly1 poly2 stacked layer arrangement suggested by PolyMUMPs for producing polysilicon structures made of poly1 and poly2. This arrangement provides a thicker material stack (2.0 m + 1.5 m) for the gear body which improves gear meshing and stiffens the rotary stage structure. However this is not a guaranteed process. A description of the poly1-poly2 stacking process is given in Appendix B. A metallization area was designed on the spokes of the gear wheel for attaching the bulk-micromachined mirrors. Dimples were placed on the inside periphery of the gear wheel in order to eliminate stiction of the gear to the substrate after release. Metallization for attaching micromirror Dimple p ol y 1 p ol y 2 p 1 _p 2 via metal holem hole2 dim p le Figure 1. Mask layout for rotary stage. 20

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Figure 1. Micromirror positioning mechanism chip layout. metal p1_p2_via poly2 poly1 poly0 Figure 2 below shows the layout of a chip designed for testing the modified thermal actuators. This chip was also included in the design submitted for PolyMUMPs run. Figure 2. Layout of thermal actuator chip sent for PolyMUMPs run 65. p 1 p 2 via metal p ol y 2 p ol y 1 p ol y 0 37

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voltage (200 1200 V) to a silicon-Pyrex wafer stack for a short time (10 20 min) in atmosphere or vacuum conditions. Figure 1 presents a schematic of a typical anodic bonding set-up. The silicon wafer is biased positive with respect to the Pyrex wafer. At high temperatures, the Na + ions present in the Pyrex wafer migrate to the cathode. As a result of this phenomenon, a space charge region develops at the glass/Si interface. The electrostatic forces built across this space charge region due to the applied high voltage act to pull the silicon and Pyrex wafers into intimate contact thereby initiating the bonding process. The process stops when a depletion region is formed at the mating interface. An irreversible chemical bond is formed at the Si-glass interface due to a combination of electrostatic, electrochemical and thermal mechanisms [1]. SiliconGlassV HeaterHeater SiliconGlassV HeaterHeater Figure 1. Schematic of a typical anodic bonding set-up. Anodic bonding produces very strong bonds and is generally not pursued as a temporary bonding process. However in the complete micromirror fabrication process, the final release of the surface micromachined devices needs to be carried out in a 49% HF solution. The pyrex wafer cap can be etched away simultaneously at this step ensuring release of the bulk micromirror device from the handle wafer. In view of above, 59

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