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The effect of conducting gesture on expressive-interpretive performance of college music majors

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Title:
The effect of conducting gesture on expressive-interpretive performance of college music majors
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Gallops, Ronald Wayne
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Music
Conducting
Gesture
Interpretation
Perception
Dissertations, Academic -- Music Education -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of non-verbal conducting gesture on musicians stylistic response and whether conducting gestures alone elicit consistent musical responses from musicians. Through an analysis that utilized a Gestural Response Instrument (GRI) it was determined that, even if the use of verbal and facialcues were eliminated, some experienced conductors successfully utilized non-verbal conducting gestures to communicate specific musical interpretations. It appeared that musicians responded in specific ways to the musical interpretation of conductors who had command of a variety of conducting gestures. The results illustrated the existence of a perceptual contract that facilitates the non-verbal communication expressed through gestural conducting. As demonstrated through this study, some experienced conductor slacked the gestural technique and vocabulary necessary to convey prescribed musical decisions while others were proficient in this area.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2005.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Ronald Wayne Gallops.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 103 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001670413
oclc - 62381421
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001289
usfldc handle - e14.1289
System ID:
SFS0025610:00001


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T he E f f e c t of C onduc t i ng G e s t ur e on E xpr e s s i ve I nt e r pr e t i ve P e r f o r m a nc e of C ol l e ge M us i c M a j or s by R ona l d W a yne G a l l ops A di s s e r t a t i on s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f u l f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he de g r e e of D oc t or of P hi l os ophy S c hool of M us i c C ol l e ge of V i s ua l a nd P e r f or m i ng A r t s U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : J a c k H e l l e r P h D D a vi d W i l l i a m s P h D M i c ha e l R obi ns on, D M A S he i l a W oodw a r d, P h. D D a t e of A ppr ova l : J une 16, 2005 K e yw or ds : M us i c C onduc t i ng, G e s t ur e I n t e r pr e t a t i on, P e r c e pt i on C opyr i ght 2005, R W a yne G a l l ops

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D e di c a t i on T he r e a r e nu m e r ous f r i e nds m e nt or s a nd c ol l e a gu e s w ho ha ve c ont r i but e d t o m y m us i c a l a nd a c a de m i c gr ow t h. I a m i nde bt e d t o c o unt l e s s m us i c t e a c he r s a nd s t ude nt s of t he H i l l s bor ough C ount y P ubl i c S c hool s t he U ni v e r s i t y of T a m pa H i l l s bor ough C om m uni t y C ol l e ge F l o r i da S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y, t he U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da a nd R a df or d U ni ve r s i t y w ho ha ve of f e r e d e nc our a ge m e nt a nd s uppor t I n pa r t i c ul a r I t ha nk J e a ni ne R om a no a nd D r J us t i n A s ki ns f or t he i r s t a t i s t i c a l a nd e di t or i a l a s s i s t a nc e I a m a l s o gr a t e f ul t o t he l a t e D r V i r gi ni a B r i dge s w ho pr ovi de d a n oppor t uni t y t o pur s ue doc t or a l s t udi e s i n m us i c e duc a t i on t h r ough a f e l l o w s hi p of f e r e d i n he r na m e W i t hout t he c r e a t i ve vi s i on of D r J ohn R i c hm ond a nd t he di l i g e nt gui da nc e of D r J a c k H e l l e r D r S he i l a W oodw a r d, D r D a vi d W i l l i a m s a nd D r M i c ha e l R obi ns on, t hi s s t udy w oul d no t e xi s t I a m bl e s s e d w i t h w onde r f ul f a m i l y m e m be r s w ho ha ve on m a ny oc c a s i ons pr ovi de d m or a l a nd f i na nc i a l s uppor t f o r m y a c a de m i c e nde a vor s I n pa r t i c ul a r m y w i f e D onna m ot he r J a ni c e a nd gr a ndm ot he r A nni e L oi s L e e I w i s h t o de di c a t e t hi s di s s e r t a t i on t o t he m e m or y of m y l a t e gr a ndm ot he r A nni e L oi s L e e i n hono r of he r ge ne r os i t y a nd l ove of m us i c

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i T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S L I S T O F T A B L E S i i i L I S T O F F I G U R E S v A B S T R A C T vi C H A P T E R I : I nt r oduc t i on 1 P e r c e pt i on of M us i c a l E xpr e s s i on a nd S t yl i s t i c I nt e r pr e t a t i on 4 C H A P T E R I I : R e vi e w of L i t e r a t ur e 12 T he P e r c e pt i on C ont r a c t 12 C onduc t or E f f e c t on M us i c i a n E xp r e s s i on 16 C onduc t i ng G e s t ur e S t udi e s 20 A s s e s s i ng C onduc t i ng G e s t ur e 25 C H A P T E R I I I : R e s e a r c h P r oc e dur e s 29 T he R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on 29 S a m pl i ng P r oc e dur e s 31 P r oc e dur e 32 D a t a A na l y s i s 34 M e a s ur e m e nt 36 C H A P T E R I V : D a t a A na l ys i s 38 I nt r oduc t i on 38 P r oc e s s 38 P a r t i c i pa nt s 39 D a t a C ol l e c t i on 41 P a ne l E va l ua t i on 44 I nt e r r a t e r R e l i a bi l i t y 49 A na l ys i s of D a t a 50 O t he r O bs e r va t i ons 65 S um m a r y 67

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i i C H A P T E R V : D i s c us s i on 68 E duc a t i ona l I m pa c t 71 F ut ur e R e s e a r c h 73 S ynt he s i s of C onduc t i ng D om a i ns 75 R E F E R E N C E S 77 A P P E N D I C E S A ppe ndi x A : D e m ogr a phi c s of C o nduc t i ng P a r t i c i pa nt s i A ppe ndi x B : M us i c i a n N e s t i ng W i t h C onduc t or V i de os i i A ppe ndi x C : U nm a r ke d M us i c a l E xc e r pt i i i A ppe ndi x D : M a r ke d V e r s i ons A & B of t he e xc e r pt i v A ppe ndi x E : S a m pl e of M a r ke d a nd E va l ua t e d E x c e r pt s A & B a nd D e s c r i pt i on v A ppe ndi x F : M us i c i a n R e s pons e S c or e s f or e a c h C onduc t or N e s t vi A ppe ndi x G : E va l ua t i on of P os t ( W / C onduc t or ) M us i c i a n R e s pon s e s i x A B O U T T H E A U T H O R E nd P a ge

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i i i L I S T O F T A B L E S T a bl e 1 M e a n pe r f or m a nc e r a t i ngs a nd s t a nda r d de vi a t i ons by body t ype a nd e va l ua t or ge nde r 18 T a bl e 2 M e a n s c or e s of i ns t r uc t i ona l c ondi t i ons a nd dyna m i c i ns t r uc t i on by g r oup 20 T a bl e 3 C onduc t i ng pa r t i c i pa nt de m ogr a phi c s 40 T a bl e 4 C onduc t or vi de o pe r f or m a nc e e va l ua t i ons of t he f our m e m be r pa ne l 46 T a bl e 5 E va l ua t i ons of m us i c i a n ba s e l i ne pe r f or m a nc e s 47 T a bl e 6 M us i c i a n m e a n r e s pons e s c or e s f or e a c h c onduc t or 48 T a bl e 7 G R I t ot a l s c or e s 49 T a bl e 8 C onduc t or R a nki ng: c a t e gor i z e d ba s e d on G R I ge s t ur e s c or e 51 T a bl e 9 C onduc t or l e ve l a nd G R I r e s pons e s c or e s 54 T a bl e 10 C onduc t or l e ve l a nd G R I r e s pons e s c or e s f or e a c h ve r s i on ( A & B ) 54 T a bl e 11 G R I M us i c i a n R e s pon s e : A N O V A P r oc e dur e f or c onduc t or l e ve l a nd e xc e r pt 55 T a bl e 12 G r oup m e a ns f or c onduc t or l e ve l a nd ba s e l i ne pos t pe r f or m a nc e s f or e a c h e xc e r pt ve r s i on 58 T a bl e 13 A N O V A pr oc e dur e f or ba s e l i ne w i t h c onduc t or c onduc t or l e ve l a nd e xc e r pt 58 T a bl e 14 B a s e l i ne a nd P os t G R I r e s pons e s c or e s f or hi gh a n d l ow l e ve l c onduc t or s 59

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i v T a bl e 15 A N O V A pr oc e dur e f or ba s e l i ne w i t h c onduc t or c onduc t or l e ve l a nd e xc e r pt 60 T a bl e 16 G R I G e s t ur e : A N O V A pr oc e dur e f or c onduc t or l e ve l a nd e xc e r pt ( A & B ) 63 T a bl e 17 G R I T ot a l : r a nk o f c onduc t or s hi gh t o l ow 64 T a bl e 18 M e a ns f or i ns t r um e nt t ype a nd r e s pons e pe r e xc e r p t 64 T a bl e 19 A N O V A pr oc e dur e f or i ns t r um e nt t ype 65

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v L I S T O F F I G U R E S F i gur e 1. G R I s c or i ng box 27 F i gur e 2. N e s t i ng pr oc e dur e 34 F i gur e 3. C r e a t i on of t he G R I S c or e s 36 F i gur e 4. M e l odi c e xc e r pt ( unm a r ke d) 42 F i gur e 5. T he E va l ua t i on P r oc e s s : s a m pl e of a hi ghl i ght e d c opy of e xc e r pt A 45 F i gur e 6. C onduc t or a nd e xc e r pt i nt e r a c t i on f o r m us i c i a n G R I r e s pons e S c or e 56 F i gur e 7. G R I R e s pons e s c or e of hi gh a nd l ow a bi l i t y c ondu c t or s w i t h e xc e r pt 57 F i gur e 8. E xc e r pt A : m us i c i a n ba s e l i ne a nd pos t pe r f o r m a nc e r e s pons e s 61 F i gur e 9. E xc e r pt B : m us i c i a n ba s e l i ne a nd pos t pe r f or m a nc e r e s pons e s 62

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vi T he E f f e c t of C onduc t i ng G e s t ur e on E xp r e s s i ve I nt e r pr e t i ve P e r f or m a nc e of C ol l e ge M us i c M a j or s R ona l d W a yne G a l l ops A B S T R A C T T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o e xa m i ne t he e f f e c t of non ve r ba l c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e on m us i c i a ns s t yl i s t i c r e s pons e a nd w he t he r c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s a l one e l i c i t c ons i s t e nt m us i c a l r e s pons e s f r om m us i c i a ns T hr o ugh a n a na l ys i s t ha t ut i l i z e d a G e s t ur a l R e s pons e I ns t r um e nt ( G R I ) i t w a s de t e r m i ne d t ha t e ve n i f t he us e of ve r ba l a nd f a c i a l c ue s w e r e e l i m i na t e d, s om e e xpe r i e nc e d c onduc t or s s uc c e s s f ul l y ut i l i z e d n on ve r ba l c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s t o c om m uni c a t e s pe c i f i c m us i c a l i nt e r pr e t a t i ons I t a ppe a r e d t ha t m us i c i a ns r e s ponde d i n s pe c i f i c w a ys t o t he m us i c a l i nt e r pr e t a t i on of c onduc t o r s w ho ha d c om m a nd of a va r i e t y o f c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s T he r e s ul t s i l l us t r a t e d t h e e xi s t e nc e of a pe r c e pt ua l c ont r a c t t ha t f a c i l i t a t e s t he non ve r ba l c om m uni c a t i on e xpr e s s e d t hr ough ge s t ur a l c onduc t i ng. A s de m ons t r a t e d t h r ough t hi s s t udy, s om e e xpe r i e nc e d c onduc t or s l a c ke d t he ge s t ur a l t e c hni que a nd voc a bul a r y ne c e s s a r y t o c onve y pr e s c r i be d m us i c a l de c i s i ons w hi l e ot he r s w e r e pr of i c i e nt i n t h i s a r e a

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 1 C H A P T E R I I N T R O D U C T I O N T hi s s t udy e xa m i ne s how c onduc t or s ut i l i z e non v e r ba l ge s t ur e t o c om m un i c a t e s t yl i s t i c i nt e r pr e t a t i on t ha t e xt e nds be yond a c c ur a t e pe r f or m a nc e o f not e s a nd r hyt hm s M a ny f a c t or s i nf l ue nc e a c onduc t or s a bi l i t y t o c o m m uni c a t e s t yl i s t i c i nt e r pr e t a t i on a nd t he m us i c i a n s r e s pons e t o t he c onduc t or s c om m u ni c a t i on. M us i c i a ns r e s pond t o t he m us i c a l i nt e r pr e t a t i on o f c onduc t or s be yond pr e c i s i on of no t e s a nd r hyt hm s t hr ough a pr oc e s s t ha t i nvol ve s nonve r ba l c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s T hi s m us i c a l r e s pons e t o nonve r ba l c om m uni c a t i on m a y i l l us t r a t e a t ype o f s oc i a l c ul t ur a l c ont r a c t a m ong m us i c i a ns M ode r n c onduc t i ng t e c hni que i nc l udi ng t he us e o f a ba t on, i s a c om pa r a t i ve l y r e c e nt m us i c a l de ve l opm e nt M us i c a l c om pos i t i ons of t he l a t e ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y a nd t he c ont i nue d i nc r e a s e i n c om pl e xi t y a nd s i z e of s ym p honi c s c or e s c r e a t e d a n e vol ut i on o f m ode r n c onduc t i ng t e c hni que f r om m e r e t i m e be a t i ng t o a hi ghl y c om pl e x a nd di ve r s e c r a f t T he pr obl e m s t ha t t he c ont e m po r a r y c onduc t or ha s t o f a c e a r e ve r y di f f e r e nt f r om t hos e of s a y, f i f t y ye a r s a go. . [ t he r e i s ] ge ne r a l de m a nd f or a de gr e e o f c l a r i t y p r e c i s i on, a nd s m oot hne s s of or c he s t r a l pe r f o r m a nc e undr e a m e d of e ve n a s r e c e nt l y a s R i c ha r d W a gne r s t i m e ( S z e l l i n R udol f 1950 p vi i )

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 2 T he ba t on i n i t s pr e s e nt f or m i s t he e nd r e s ul t of hu ndr e ds of ye a r s of c onduc t or i a l e xpe r i m e nt a t i on. T he e a r l i e s t c onduc t i ng w a s done w i t h ge s t ur e s of t he ha nd a l one de s c r i bi ng m e l od i c c on t our a nd pi t c he s l e ngt hs of not e s a nd ph r a s e s P a s s i ng t hr ough s t a ge s w he r e t he l e a de r s a t a t t he or ga n w i t h hi s f i gur e d ba s s pa r t a nd di r e c t e d [ t he r e f r om ] ; w he r e t he be a t w a s a n a udi bl e [ pr one ] t hum pi ng a l ong w i t h t he m us i c ; w he r e t he c onc e r t m a s t e r of t he o r c he s t r a s t ood up a nd di r e c t e d w i t h hi s bow a nd f i na l l y w he r e t he s i l e nt be a t w i t h t he ba t on a r r i ve d c onduc t i ng ha s now be c om e t hr ough t he us e of t he s t i c k a nd i t s s ki l l e d s i gn l a ngua ge a n a r t o f ul t i m a t e r e f i ne m e nt ( G r e e n, 1961, p. 7 ) T hr e e i m po r t a nt dom a i ns t ha t c ont r i but e t o e f f e c t i ve c onduc t i ng c a n be i de nt i f i e d: 1) know l e dge a nd c onc e pt ua l i z a t i on o f t he s c or e 2 ) pe da gogi c a l a bi l i t y t o c oa c h t ow a r d a c om m on i nt e r pr e t a t i on a nd 3) c om m un i c a t i on of i nt e r pr e t a t i on t h r ough ve r ba l a nd non v e r ba l m e a ns ( W i l c ox, 2003) A l l t hr e e o f t he s e do m a i ns a r e pe r c e i ve d t hr ough t he m ut ua l unde r s t a ndi ng of a c om m on m us i c a l pe r c e pt i on f r a m e w or k a s oc i a l c ul t ur a l c ont r a c t ( H e l l e r & C a m pbe l l 1981) T he hi s t or i c a l a nd de c l a r a t i ve e l e m e nt s of t he s c or e c on t r i but e t o a m us i c a l f r a m e w or k of i nf or m e d i nt ui t i on P e da gogi c a l know l e dge a nd t he a bi l i t y t o pe r c e i ve a nd s ha pe m us i c a l s ounds ba s e d on a p r e c onc e i ve d not i on of t he s c or e c ont r i but e t o c onduc t i ng e f f e c t i ve ne s s T he c onduc t or s a bi l i t y t o c om m uni c a t e hi s or he r de s i r e s t hr ough a c om bi na t i on of ve r ba l a nd nonve r ba l l a ngua ge c om pl e t e s t he c onduc t or s c ha r ge S t r e ngt h i n a l l t h r e e dom a i ns s houl d be t he goa l o f a f i ne c onduc t or R a r e l y i s t hi s goa l a c hi e ve d. T he hi s t or i c a l a nd t he or e t i c a l r e qui r e m e nt s of s c or e s t udy, t he t e c hni c a l know l e dge r e qui r e d of pe da gogy t he pe r s ona l i t y a s pe c t s of ve r ba l c om m uni c a t i on, a nd t he phys i c a l a bi l i t y t o c om m u ni c a t e m us i c a l m e a ni ng t hr ough a voc a bul a r y of ge s t ur e s a r e t he e l e m e nt s t ha t bl e nd t oge t he r on t he c onduc t or s podi u m

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 3 I m a gi ne a c l a r i ne t i s t p r e s e nt i ng a l e c t ur e / c l i ni c a t a pr of e s s i ona l m e e t i ng. A f t e r a l e ngt hy a nd r i go r ous di s c us s i on of t he M oz a r t C l a r i ne t C onc e r t o K 622 t he i ndi vi dua l be gi ns t o pe r f or m t he p i e c e G i ve n t he pe r f o r m e r s va s t know l e dge of t he pi e c e t he a udi e nc e a nt i c i pa t e s a n e xt r a or di na r y a nd be a ut i f ul pe r f or m a nc e I ns t e a d, t he y a r e t r e a t e d t o s que a ks a nd s qua w ks i ndi c a t i ve of a be gi nni ng c l a r i ne t i s t T hi s c l a r i ne t i s t pr oba bl y ha s not de ve l ope d t he t e c hni c a l a nd pr oc e dur a l a bi l i t i e s ne c e s s a r y f or c om m un i c a t i ng a pr of e s s i ona l m us i c a l i nt e r pr e t a t i on. H ow t ypi c a l i t i s t ha t a pe r f or m e r know s m uc h a bout a m us i c a l w or k but c a nnot pe r f or m i t ve r y w e l l H ow o f t e n a r e f i ne m us i c i a ns s ubj e c t e d t o t he f r um ps a nd f l a ps of a n e xt r e m e l y know l e dge a bl e ye t ge s t ur a l l y de f i c i e nt c onduc t or ? M a ny s ugge s t t ha t be c a us e t he r e a r e s o m a ny ge s t ur a l l y de f i c i e nt c onduc t or s m us i c i a ns t e nd not t o l ook t ow a r d t he podi um ( B e r l i oz 1970) S o m e ha ve i m pl i e d t ha t c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s ha ve l i t t l e or no m e a ni ng, pa r t i c ul a r l y f o r pr of e s s i ona l m us i c i a ns A s i t i s m us i c i a ns t e nd t o de c l a r e t he m s e l ve s c onduc t or s by m e r e l y a nnounc i ng a s m uc h t o t he w or l d a nd i r oni c a l l y s a dl y, t he w or l d ge ne r a l l y a c c e pt s t he pr onounc e m e nt w i t hout que s t i on, r e ga r dl e s s of w he t he r t he pa r t i c ul a r i ndi vi dua l ha s c onduc t i ng t a l e nt s r e ga r d l e s s of w he t he r t he i ndi vi dua l ha s t e c hni c a l i nt e l l e c t ua l a nd e m o t i ona l c a pa c i t i e s t o t r a ns l a t e a m us i c a l s c or e i nt o a n a pp r opr i a t e i nt e r pr e t a t i on v i a a ppr opr i a t e c onduc t or i a l ge s t ur e s ( S c hul l e r 1997 p 5 6) A n oppos i ng vi e w a s di s s e m i na t e d by m a ny c ond uc t i ng pe da gogue s i s t ha t a w e l l r ounde d c onduc t or w ho pos s e s s e s a non ve r ba l ge s t ur a l voc a bul a r y t ha t i s

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 4 c ons i s t e nt w i t h a n unde r l yi ng a g r e e m e nt a m ong m us i c i a ns i s a bl e t o e ne r gi z e a nd b r i ng t o t he e ns e m bl e pe r f o r m a nc e a he i ght e ne d a nd c on s i s t e nt i nt e r pr e t a t i on. N ot e d c onduc t i ng t e a c he r E l i z a be t h G r e e n s ugge s t s t ha t w he n a c onduc t or 's i m pul s e of w i l l i s s t r ong a nd t he t e c hni que i s s e c ur e t he n t he e ns e m bl e t r ul y ha s a l e a de r w ho c a n uni f y t he m us i c i a ns hi p of a l l i nt o one s e c ur e i nt e r pr e t a t i on S uc h a c onduc t or ha s t he f i ne l y de ve l ope d t e c hni c a l s ki l l a nd t he c on f i de nt dr i ve t o c onve y by hi s ge s t ur e s e xa c t l y w ha t he w a nt s w i t hout c on f us i on or m i s unde r s t a ndi ng on t he pa r t of t he pl a ye r s ( 1961, p 60 ) A bs e nt t he dom a i ns of s c or e s t udy, pe da gogy, a nd t he s ub dom a i n of ve r ba l c om m uni c a t i on, one c a n c onc l ude t ha t i t i s t he a bi l i t y t o c om m un i c a t e t hr ough nonve r ba l ge s t ur e t ha t s e pa r a t e s t he c onduc t or f r om t he m us i c hi s t or i a n, t he o r i s t i ns t r um e nt a l i s t voc a l i s t or t e a c he r T hi s s t udy w i l l f oc us on t he e f f e c t of non ve r ba l c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s a bs e nt f a c i a l c ue s on t he i n t e r pr e t i ve r e s pons e s of i ns t r um e nt a l pe r f or m e r s P e r c e pt i on of M us i c al E x pr e s s i on and St y l i s t i c I nt e r pr e t at i on T he c om m on g r ound t h a t t he pe r f or m e r ( m us i c i a n a nd c onduc t or ) a nd l i s t e ne r ha ve i n t e r m s o f pe r c e pt i on i s t he s oc i a l c ul t ur a l c ont r a c t T hi s s oc i a l c ul t ur a l c ont r a c t i s t he m us i c a l e nvi r onm e nt i n w hi c h one i s r a i s e d. A c om m on pe r c e pt i on of m us i c a l s ounds w i t hi n t hi s m us i c a l e nvi r onm e nt i s t he f oun da t i on upon w hi c h c onduc t or s m a ke i nt e r pr e t i ve de c i s i ons I t i s a l s o t he f ounda t i on f r o m w hi c h c onduc t or s c a n e f f e c t i ve l y c om m uni c a t e w i t h ot he r m us i c i a ns i n t e r m s o f s t yl i s t i c i nt e r pr e t a t i on. A bs e nt t hi s

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 5 c om m on gr ound, t r a ns m i s s i on of m us i c a l i de a s a nd t he t r a ns l a t i on o f t hos e i de a s i nt o ge s t ur e m i ght be i m pos s i bl e A di s c us s i on of c ond uc t or a bi l i t y t o c onve y e xpr e s s i ve i nt e r pr e t i ve e l e m e nt s s houl d be f r a m e d w i t h i n a n e xa m i na t i on of t hi s pe r c e pt i on c ont r a c t A c c or di ng t o D ow l i ng i n T i ghe ( 1993) m us i c a l un de r s t a ndi ng i s a pr oc e dur al pr oc e s s de ve l ope d t hr ough t he c ul t ur a l hi s t or i c a l c ont e xt of one s s oc i e t y. T ha t i s t o s a y, w e l e a r n a bout a nd c om e t o unde r s t a nd m us i c t hr o ugh a c t s of l i s t e ni ng a nd pe r f o r m i ng ( E l l i ot t 1995 ) T he s oc i a l c ul t ur a l c ont r a c t de t e r m i ne s c om pr e he ns i on of m us i c a l pa t t e r ns t hr ough a s e t of i m pl i c i t r ul e s ( H e l l e r a nd C a m pbe l l 1981) T he s e i m pl i c i t r u l e s a r e s oc i a l l y a nd c ul t ur a l l y ba s e d, f o r m i ng a c om m on s ur f a c e or ga ni z a t i on. T he i m pl i c i t r ul e s e na bl e pe r f o r m e r s a nd l i s t e ne r s t o o r ga ni z e m us i c a l s ounds i n a m e a ni ngf ul w a y a nd c ol l e c t i ve l y pe r c e i ve nua nc e a nd i nt e r p r e t s t yl e C om pr e he ns i on of di f f e r e nt m us i c a l l a ngua ge s a nd t he i r r e s pe c t i ve nua nc e s r e qui r e l i s t e ne r s w ho a r e e qui ppe d w i t h di f f e r e nt s e t s of i m pl i c i t r ul e s f or r e c ogni z i ng a nd de a l i ng w i t h t he s ur f a c e s t r uc t u r e f e a t ur e s a nd c ul t ur a l pe r f o r m a nc e c onve nt i ons uni que t o e a c h o f t hos e l a ngua ge s ( F i s ke 1990 p 6) T hr ough t he s oc i a l c ul t ur a l c ont r a c t m us i c i a ns a r e a bl e t o e voke a m us i c a l s t yl e I f t he l i s t e ne r i s a l s o s t e e pe d i n t he s a m e s oc i a l c ul t ur a l m i l i e u, t he n pe r c e pt i on a nd m us i c a l s t yl e c a n be r e a l i z e d a s ne a r l y t he s a m e T he i m pl i c i t or pr oc e dur al na t ur e t h r ough w hi c h w e pe r f or m a nd pe r c e i ve m us i c i s e l a bo r a t e d i n t he w or k o f H e l l e r a nd C a m pbe l l : P e r c e pt ua l l e a r ni ng i n m us i c pr oba bl y i nvol ve s a n a bi l i t y ( s i m i l a r t o t ha t of s pe e c h) t o de t e c t t hos e s pe c i f i c pr ope r t i e s pa t t e r ns a nd di s t i nc t i ve f e a t ur e s of t he m us i c a l e nvi r onm e nt t ha t a r e ne c e s s a r y f or c om m uni c a t i on. A s i n l a ngua ge pe r c e pt i on, t he r u l e s ne c e s s a r y f or s uc c e s s of t hi s a c t i ve c ont e nt de pe nde nt pe r c e pt ua l pr oc e s s a r e i m pl i c i t . a nd f or m a s oc i a l / c ul t ur a l c ont r a c t be t w e e n pe r f or m e r a nd

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 6 l i s t e ne r [ t ha t p r ovi de s t he c ont e xt i n w hi c h t he a c ous t i c s i gna l i s de c ode d] ( 1981, p 21) I f t he unde r s t a ndi ng a nd pe r c e pt i on of m us i c i s s o s t r ongl y ba s e d i n a n i nt e r na l i z e d ( p r oc e dur a l ) s oc i a l c ul t ur a l c ont r a c t w ha t i s t he r ol e of s c or e s t udy or t he or e t i c a l a na l ys i s i n t he pr e pa r a t i on of m us i c a l i n t e r pr e t a t i on? P e r ha ps t he ge ne r a l p r i nc i pl e s of f or m ha r m oni c s t r uc t ur e e t c t ha t c ons um e t he or e t i c a l a na l ys i s a r e not ke y, or a s ke y, a s one m i ght t hi nk. F or L e ona r d M e ye r i t i s s t y l e a nd t he m us i c i a n s g r a s p of s t yl e t ha t de t e r m i ne s t he f r a m e w or k ( 1974, p. 30) P e r ha ps i t i s t he e x pe r i e nt i al know i ng t hr ough i nt e r a c t i on w i t h m us i c a l s ounds t ha t de ve l ops e xpr e s s i on a nd s t yl i s t i c i nt ui t i on i n t he m us i c i a n. T he a r t i s t e m pl oys t he r ul e s a nd r e gul a r i t i e s of a pr e va l e nt pa r a di gm t he gr a m m a r s ynt a x, a nd f or m a l pr oc e dur e s of a n e xi s t i ng s t yl e i n or de r t o c r e a t e a n or i gi na l pa t t e r n of pa r t i c ul a r s : a w o r k o f a r t ( M e ye r 1974 p13 ) U nde r s t a ndi ng m us i c i s a pr oc e s s t ha t m a y not be c ons t r a i ne d by e xt e r na l ( non m us i c a l ) f a c t or s A c c or di ng t o M e ye r t he a r t i s t s ne e d not ha ve c onc e pt ua l i z e d t he r ul e s he us e s l e t a l one be a bl e t o e xpl a i n t he m H i s kno w l e dge ba s e d on p r a c t i c e a nd e xpe r i e nc e m a y be t a c i t ( 1974, p13) S t yl e i s t he r e f or e pr e di c a t e d t h r ough i nt ui t i on t ha t i s de ve l ope d w i t hi n, a nd i s t he e nd pr oduc t o f t he s oc i a l c ul t ur a l hi s t or i c a l e xpe r i e nc e I nf or m a t i on a bout f o r m dyna m i c c ont r a s t t ona l a nd ha r m oni c r e l a t i ons hi ps a nd t he c or r e c t c om bi na t i on o f pi t c h a nd r hy t hm a r e de c i phe r e d f r om t he m us i c a l s c or e H ow e ve r t he s e a r e not t he c om pl e t e e l e m e nt s o f s t yl e i n pe r f or m a nc e H ow c r uc i a l i s i t

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 7 t ha t pe r f or m e r s ha ve c om m a nd o f s uc h de c l a r a t i v e know l e dge ( D ow l i ng i n T i ghe 1993) of t he s c or e ? B ut w e r e e xpl a na t i on a p r e r e qui s i t e f or unde r s t a nd i ng, B a c h m i ght not ha ve be e n a bl e t o c om pos e or S ha ke s pe a r e t o w r i t e F o r w hi l e bot h s upr e m e l y unde r s t ood w ha t t he y w e r e doi ng t he y m i ght not ha ve be e n a bl e t o e x pl ai n i t I n s hor t c om pos e r s w r i t e r s a nd a r t i s t s a r e e s pe c i a l l y s e ns i t i ve s ki l l f ul a nd i m a gi na t i ve unde r s t a nde r s o f t ona l ve r ba l a nd vi s ua l r e l a t i ons hi ps B ut m uc h o f t he i r know l e dge i s t a c i t r a t he r t ha n c onc e pt ua l ( M e ye r 1974, p. 29 ) H i s t or i c a l i nf or m a t i on m i ght of f e r he l pf ul a ne c dot e s t ha t c ont r i but e t o t he pe r f or m e r s ove r a l l know l e dge o f a pa r t i c ul a r m us i c a l c om pos i t i on. T hi s i nf or m a t i on ha s l i t t l e t o do w i t h s t yl e ot he r t ha n r e c ogni z i ng a n a l r e a dy de f i ne d s t yl e pe r i od i n w hi c h t he c om pos i t i on w a s c ons t r uc t e d. S t yl e i s t he a r t i s t s poi nt o f de pa r t u r e I t gui de s bu t doe s not de t e r m i ne t he c hoi c e s he [ t he c om pos e r ] m a ke s S t yl e s a r e c om pl e x pr oba bi l i t y s ys t e m s w i t hi n w hi c h t he a r t i s t c hoos e s a m ong a l t e r na t i ve pos s i bi l i t i e s t ha t i s i n t e r m s of w hi c h he i nve nt s a nd c om bi ne s pa t t e r ns de ve l ops a nd r e s ol ve s t e ns i ons de vi s e s a nd e l a bor a t e s f or m a l r e l a t i ons hi ps F or i f t he r ul e s s pe c i f i e d pr e c i s e l y w ha t w a s t o be done a l l c hoi c e s w oul d be pr e or da i ne d, a nd or i gi na l i t y w oul d be i m pos s i bl e ( M e ye r 1974, p. 13) T he que s t i on be gs doe s t he s c or e s pe c i f y pr e c i s e l y w ha t i s t o be done ? T hr ough a na l ys i s m us i c i a ns a r e a bl e t o de ve l op de c l a r a t i ve ( t he or e t i c a l ) know l e dge a bout m us i c W hi l e M e ye r a nd ot he r s a s s e r t t ha t t hi s know l e dge ha s s om e but no t c om pl e t e i m pa c t on s t yl i s t i c i nt e r pr e t a t i on, de ve l opi ng de c l a r a t i ve kno w l e dge doe s c ont r i but e t o r e f i ne m e nt of one s pr oc e dur a l know l e dge D e c l a r a t i ve know l e dge de ve l ops i nf or m e d i nt ui t i on. T hi s

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 8 i nf or m e d i nt u i t i on e na bl e s t he m us i c i a n t o pe r c e i v e c om pl e x r e l a t i ons hi ps a nd e l e m e nt s w i t hi n t he s c or e a nd i n m us i c a l s ound. T he or e t i c a l e f f o r t s t o e xpl a i n m us i c t e nd t o de f i ne t he ge ne r al a s pe c t s of c om pos i t i ona l s t r uc t ur e a nd s t yl e T hr e e k i nds of hypot he s e s us e d t o e xpl a i n w or ks of a r t m a y be di s t i ngui s he d: ( a ) ge ne r a l l a w s w hi c h a r e pr e s um e d t o be c ons t a nt ove r t i m e a nd s pa c e ; ( b) r e s t r i c t e d pr i nc i pl e s de r i ve d f r om a nd a ppl i c a bl e t o t he nor m s a nd pr oc e dur e s of a s pe c i f i c s t yl e ; a nd ( c ) ad hoc r e a s ons w hi c h a r e ne c e s s a r y a dj unc t s t o t he f i r s t t w o t ype s w he n pa r t i c ul a r w or ks of a r t a r e be i ng e xpl a i ne d ( M e ye r 1974 p 32) S o, t he r e a r e ge ne r a l a s pe c t s t o s t yl e t ha t c a n be r e a di l y i de nt i f i e d t hr ough s c or e s t udy T hos e a s pe c t s of t he m us i c a l s c or e c ons t i t ut e t he d i m e ns i ons t ha t c om bi ne t o f or m a n ove r a l l i m pr e s s i on of t he pi e c e but not t he de t a i l e d s t yl i s t i c i nt e r pr e t a t i ve d i m e ns i ons t ha t c r e a t e e xc e pt i ona l pe r f o r m a nc e T hi s ge ne r a l or m a c r o d i m e ns i on of t he s c or e d oe s not i n i t s e l f pr opa ga t e t he m us i c i a n / c onduc t or s s t yl i s t i c i nt e r pr e t a t i on T he r e m us t be a m i c r o a s pe c t of s t yl e t ha t i s not f o und i n t he s c or e but r a t he r t hr ough pr oc e dur a l know l e dge t he s oc i a l c ul t ur a l c ont r a c t a nd a c ous t i c s ound i t s e l f I t i s t hr ough t he m i c r o a s pe c t s of t he s c or e t ha t c ond uc t or s s e e k pe r s ona l i nt e r pr e t a t i on, c onve r t i ng t hos e m us i c a l not i ons i nt o phys i c a l ge s t ur e S t yl e i s not onl y m a ni pul a t e d i n t he pa t t e r ns t ha t l i e on t he ve r y s ur f a c e ( m a c r o) but a t a de e pe r l e ve l ( m i c r o) T he f or m u l a t i ons of s t yl e a na l ys i s a r e t o ge ne r a l pr i nc i pl e s a s t he t a xonom y of s pe c i e s i s t o a n hypot he s i s a bout t he i r e vol ut i on o r a t he o r y of t he i r phys i ol ogy ( M e ye r 1974 p 13)

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 9 O nc e a m us i c a l w o r k i s pl a c e d i n i t s ge ne r a l t a xonom y, t he i s s ue s qui c kl y be c om e m i c r o. T he r e f o r e m us i c i a ns m a ni pul a t e t he a c ous t i c s ounds t he m s e l ve s i n or de r t o c r e a t e a n i nt e r pr e t a t i on t ha t ha s be e n f o r m ul a t e d t h r ough i nf or m e d i nt u i t i on. D e c i s i ons m us i c i a ns m a ke i n t e r m s of s ha pi ng not e s a nd f r a gm e nt s of ph r a s e s c r e a t e s t yl i s t i c i nt e r pr e t a t i ons t ha t c a n be pe r c e i ve d by a udi e nc e s of s i m i l a r c ul t ur a l s t yl i s t i c e xpe r i e nc e s L e w i s a gr e e s w i t h M e ye r s i de a s on h ow m us i c a l s t yl e i s r e a l i z e d. S he poi nt s out t ha t : A va r i e t y of de t a i l e d nua nc e i n a m us i c a l c om pos i t i on i s pr ovi de d by l ooki ng t o t he i nt e r na l s ubl e ve l s of i nt e r p r e t a t i ons a nd ke e pi ng t he m i n r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h t he w hol e T he s e i nt e r na l s ubl e ve l s of i nt e r p r e t a t i on a r e t he m i nus c ul e l e ve l s of de t a i l i ns i de t he ph r a s e i n t he m e a s ur e T he y a r e t he t i ni e s t l e ve l s of s t r e s s a nd r e s t r a i nt : a c c e l e r a t i o n a nd he s i t a t i on; w e i ght gi ve n a pa r t i c ul a r e nt r a nc e or a f i na l c ons ona nt ; dy na m i c c ont our gi ve n t he l i t t l e m e l odi c m ot i f r hyt hm i c t w i s t o r ha r m oni c de t a i l ; a nd a t t e nt i on gi ve n t o s a l i e nt c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s ( L e w i s 1999, p. 79 ) T he l e ve l s of de t a i l di s c us s e d i n L e w i s ( 1999) w o r k ( s t r e s s r e s t r a i nt w e i ght c ont our e t c ) a c t ua l i z e t hr ough t he m a ni pul a t i on o f not e e nt r a nc e body, a nd r e l e a s e T he m us i c i a ns a nd l i s t e ne r s a bi l i t y t o pe r c e i ve s ubt l e i nf l e c t i on s a nd de not e s i m i l a r m e a ni ngs t o t hos e i nf l e c t i ons m a y be t he e s s e nc e of s t yl e T he pe r c e pt i on o f m i c r os t r uc t ur e s i n t he m i nu t e s t de t a i l i s ve r i f i e d t h r ough C a m pbe l l a nd H e l l e r s w or k C a m pbe l l a nd H e l l e r ( 1979) de m ons t r a t e t ha t t he hum a n m i nd c a n qu i c kl y c l a s s i f y t he t i m br a l e l e m e nt s of s ound. T he y ( C a m pbe l l a nd H e l l e r ) ut i l i z e d t hi s c onc e pt of m i c r os t r uc t ur e s i n a s s e s s i n g l i s t e ne r i de nt i f i c a t i on of m us i c a l i ns t r um e nt s ( t i m br e ) T he t r a di t i ona l s e gm e nt a t i on of a m us i c a l t one c ons i s t s of t he

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 10 a t t a c k t r a ns i e nt t he s t e a dy s t a t e [ body ] a nd t he de c a y t r a ns i e nt [ r e l e a s e ] W e [ C a m pbe l l a nd H e l l e r ] ha ve f ound i t ne c e s s a r y t o a dd t he l e gat o t r ans i e nt t o t hi s l i s t s o t ha t t he di s t i nc t c ha r a c t e r of t he j unc t ur e i n t he t w o not e s e que nc e . c a n be i ndi c a t e d ( 1979 p. 21) H ow t hos e f unda m e nt a l va r i a bl e s of m us i c a l s ound a r e m a ni pul a t e d a nd pe r c e i ve d i s t he e m bodi m e nt o f s t yl i s t i c i nt e r p r e t a t i on. T he c ha l l e nge f or t he c onduc t or i s t o c om m uni c a t e how he or s he w i s he s t o m a ni pul a t e s ubt l e c ha nge s i n t he s e f unda m e nt a l va r i a bl e s T he c om m uni c a t i on o f m us i c a l e xpr e s s i on f r om c o nduc t or t o pe r f or m e r m a y be r e l i a nt on t he m ut ua l pe r c e pt i on of m us i c a l m e a ni n g a s r e l a ye d t hr ough t e ns i on, r e l e a s e w e i ght a nd c ont ou r of not e e nt r a nc e body r e l e a s e a nd l e ga t o t r a ns i e nt ( be t w e e n not e s ) C onduc t or s t r a ns l a t e t he s e pe r c e i ve d m us i c a l m e a ni ngs i nt o vi s ua l r e p r e s e nt a t i ons t ha t a r e i n t ur n pe r c e i ve d by pe r f o r m e r s t hr ough a n i m pl i c i t m ut ua l s oc i a l a gr e e m e nt T hi s s oc i a l a gr e e m e nt m a y be r e f e r r e d t o a s a m us i c i an c onduc t or pe r c e pt i on c ont r ac t T hr ough t h i s pe r f or m a nc e a gr e e m e nt be t w e e n c on duc t or s a nd m us i c i a ns a c om m on pe r c e pt i on of m us i c a l m e a ni ng ( s t yl e ) a nd vi s ua l r e pr e s e nt a t i on t hr ough c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e c ons i s t e nt l y m a ni f e s t s i t s e l f a m ong t r a i ne d m us i c i a ns T he a g r e e m e nt o f c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e m a y e xi s t a t a hi ghe r ( or l e s s e r ) de gr e e t ha n c om m onl y a c know l e dge d. C onduc t i ng pe da gogue E l i z a be t h G r e e n a ppl i e d t he t e r m ps y c hol ogi c al c onduc t i ng t o t he i de a t ha t c onduc t i ng i nvol ve s a t r a ns f e r of i de a s f r om t he c onduc t or s m i nd t o t he pe r f o r m e r s m i nd t h r ough t he m e di um of c or r e c t a nd pr e c i s e c onduc t or i a l

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 11 t e c hni que w i t hout t he us e o f ve r ba l di r e c t i ons or w r i t t e n not a t i on ( 1961, p. 241 ) T hr ough a n e xpe r i m e nt a l de s i gn, t hi s s t udy w i l l i n ve s t i ga t e c onduc t or a bi l i t y t o c om m uni c a t e s t yl i s t i c i nt e r pr e t a t i on t h r ough c ondu c t i ng ge s t ur e s a l one ( ps yc hol ogi c a l c onduc t i ng) a nd e xa m i ne pos s i bl e c om m ona l i t i e s t ha t c ont r i but e t o e f f e c t i ve c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 12 C H A P T E R I I R E V I E W O F L I T E R A T U R E T he t r a ns f or m a t i on of m us i c a l m e a ni ng i nt o vi s u a l r e pr e s e nt a t i on i s t he pu r pos e of t he e f f e c t i ve c onduc t or A s i m pl e de f i ni t i on o f t he a r t o f c onduc t i ng c oul d be t ha t i t i nvol ve s e l i c i t i ng f r o m t he or c he s t r a [ a ny e ns e m bl e ] w i t h t he m os t a ppr op r i a t e m i ni m um of c onduc t or i a l ( i f you w i l l c hor e ogr a phi c ) ge s t ur e s a m a xi m um of a c c ur a t e a c ous t i c a l r e s ul t s ( S c hul l e r 1997, p. 9) T hi s t r a ns f or m a t i on of m us i c a l m e a ni ng i nt o vi s ua l r e pr e s e nt a t i on m a y hi nge on t he e xi s t e nc e of a pe r c e pt i on c ont r ac t t ha t de ve l ops out o f t he s oc i a l c ul t ur a l c on t r a c t of t he l i s t e ne r R e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t t hr ough m us i c a l t r a i ni ng, m us i c a l / a c ous t i c a l pe r c e pt i on i s i nc r e a s e d, t he r e by e na bl i ng t he de ve l opm e nt of a pe r c e pt i on c ont r a c t a m ong m us i c i a ns ( B ur ns e d, 2001; D ow l i ng, 1993; F i s ke 1990; F r e dr i c ks on, 1997; H ol a ha n & S a unde r s 1997 ) T he P e r c e pt i on C ont r ac t T he e xi s t e nc e of c om m ona l i t i e s i n l i s t e ne r pe r c e pt i on of t he i nt e r p r e t i ve a s pe c t s of m us i c a l pe r f o r m a nc e ha s be e n e xa m i ne d t hr oug h num e r ous s t udi e s T he c om m uni c a t i on of i n t e r pr e t i ve a nd s t yl i s t i c de c i s i ons t hr ough c onduc t i ng t e c hni que m a y be r e l i a nt on a c om m on m us i c pe r c e pt i on f r a m e w or k. F r e de r i c ks on ( 1997 ) e xpl or e d que s t i ons of m us i c pe r c e pt i on i n a n e xpe r i m e nt i nv ol vi ng e l e m e nt a r y, m i ddl e a nd hi gh

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 13 s c hool s t ude nt s I n pa r t i c ul a r do younge r a nd ol d e r popul a t i ons r e s pond s i m i l a r l y t o pe r c e i ve d t e ns i on i n m us i c ? P a r t i c i pa nt s i n t he s t u dy w e r e 2nd, 5t h 8t h 11t h a nd 12t h gr a de r s P a r t i c i pa nt s f r om gr a de s t w o a nd f i ve w e r e s e l e c t e d r a ndom l y f r o m i nt a c t c l a s s e s a t a s ubur ba n e l e m e nt a r y s c hool i n a M i dw e s t m e t r opol i t a n a r e a G r a de e i ght pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e r a ndom l y s e l e c t e d f r o m a m i ddl e s c hool c hoi r of t he s a m e m e t r o a r e a T hos e f r om gr a de s 11 a nd 12 w e r e r a ndom l y s e l e c t e d f r om a hi gh s c hool ba nd of t he s a m e m e t r o a r e a T he C ont i nuous R e s pons e D i gi t a l I n t e r f a c e ( C R D I ) a de vi c e f or m e a s ur i ng e l e c t r om ot i ve f or c e s m ount e d on a di a l a nd i nt e r f a c e d w i t h a c om put e r w a s us e d t o c ol l e c t da t a P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d t o t u r n t he di a l t o t he r i ght a s t he y pe r c e i ve d a n i nc r e a s e i n de gr e e s of t e ns i on i n t he m us i c l i s t e ni n g e xa m pl e M e a n gr oup r e s pons e s w e r e c a l c ul a t e d f or e a c h gr a de l e ve l onc e pe r s e c ond. O nc e t he s e da t a w e r e c a l c ul a t e d, P e a r s on c or r e l a t i ons w e r e c a l c ul a t e d t o c om pa r e t he a ge gr oups t o e a c h ot he r T he da t a f r om t hi s s t udy w e r e a l s o c om pa r e d t o d a t a of p r e vi ous s t udi e s t ha t e xa m i ne d pe r c e i ve d t e ns i on i n m us i c a nd ut i l i z e d t he s a m e pr oc e dur e s w i t h a dul t l i s t e ne r s T he r e s ul t s s how e d hi gh pos i t i ve c o r r e l a t i ons be t w e e n gr oups of a l l a ge l e ve l s a s t he y r e s ponde d t o t e ns i on i n m us i c ( r = 8 6 98) W h e n t he s e r e s ul t s w e r e c om pa r e d w i t h a p r e vi ous s t udy ( M a ds e n & F r e dr i c ks on, 1993) us i ng a dul t s ubj e c t s ( ut i l i z i ng t he s a m e m e t hods a nd pr oc e dur e s ) hi gh c or r e l a t i ons w e r e obs e r ve d. T he l ow e s t c or r e l a t i on w a s be t w e e n t he 2 n d g r a de r s a nd a dul t m us i c i a ns ( r = 71, p 001 )

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 14 W hi l e F r e dr i c ks on's s t udy doe s not i de nt i f y s pe c i f i c va r i a bl e s t ha t e l i c i t pe r c e pt i ons of t e ns i on i n m us i c s uc h a s dyna m i c c ha nge ha r m oni c s t r uc t u r e d i s s ona nc e e t c i t i s i nt e r e s t i ng t o not e t ha t e ve n young c hi l dr e n ha ve t he c a pa bi l i t y o f pe r c e i vi ng i nt e r pr e t i ve va r i a bl e s be yond no t e s a nd r hyt hm a n d t ha t t he i r a bi l i t y t o do s o be c om e s m or e pr of ound w i t h a ge a nd m us i c a l t r a i ni ng. O ne m us t e xa m i ne t he r e s ul t s of t he s e s t udi e s w i t h c a ut i on. W i t hout r e por t i ng t he va r i a bi l i t y of s ubj e c t r e s pons e s t he C R D I M e a ns c oul d be m i s l e a di ng. T he s t a nda r d de vi a t i ons of s c or e s a s w e l l a s t he m e a ns s houl d a l w a ys be r e por t e d. W i t hout t he s t a nda r d d e vi a t i ons c or r e l a t i ons m i ght gi ve t he i m pr e s s i on of m uc h hi ghe r r e l a t i ons hi ps t ha n w a r r a nt e d. E xpe r i m e nt s r e por t e d by D ow l i ng ( 1993 ) f oc us e d on a bi l i t y t o pe r c e i ve t ona l t r a ns pos i t i on a nd pr e s e r ve i nt e r va l pa t t e r ns i n s e m i t one s M us i c a l l y e xpe r i e nc e d ( ol de r ) a nd m us i c a l l y i ne xpe r i e nc e d ( younge r ) pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e s e l e c t e d a nd r e s ul t s of t he i r r e s pons e s t o l i s t e ni ng pa t t e r ns w e r e r e c or de d a nd c om pa r e d t o a ge / a bi l i t y t hr ough A N C O V A T he pa r t i c i pa nt s a bi l i t y t o i de nt i f y i nt e r va l pa t t e r ns a nd t one s a s r e c or de d t one r ow s w e r e a l t e r e d w a s m e a s ur e d a s t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e I t w a s c onc l ude d t ha t f i ve ye a r s of m us i c l e s s ons a t a n e a r l y a ge w a s s u f f i c i e nt t o i nc r e a s e l i s t e ni ng a bi l i t y i n t e r m s of i de nt i f yi ng t ona l i t y a nd t ona l s c a l e va l ue s T he M ode r a t e l y a nd P r of e s s i ona l l y t r a i ne d gr oup di d not di s pl a y e no ugh di f f e r e nc e t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt D ow l i ng s r e s ul t s s ugge s t t ha t m us i c e duc a t or s s houl d e m pha s i z e pr oc e dur a l l e a r ni ng s o t ha t s t ude nt s c a n ga i n a c qui r e d l i s t e ni n g s ki l l s i n t he do m a i n f unc t i ons ne e de d f or m us i c c ogni t i on

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 15 I f a pe r c e pt i on c ont r a c t e xi s t s a m ong l i s t e ne r s w ho hol d a s i m i l a r s oc i a l c ul t ur a l c ont r a c t m us i c i a ns w ho gr ow f r o m w i t hi n t he s a m e c ont r a c t m a y de ve l op a r e f i ne d pe r c e pt i on of s t yl i s t i c i n t e r pr e t a t i ons I f m us i c a l t r a i ni ng f ur t he r de ve l ops t he m us i c pe r c e pt i on c ont r a c t c onduc t or s m i ght ga i n a c c e s s t o t ha t pe r c e pt i on c ont r a c t t h r ough t a r ge t e d m e t hods A s m us i c i a ns i nc r e a s e t he i r a bi l i t y t o pe r c e i ve i nt e r pr e t i ve va r i a bl e s c onduc t or s m a y ga i n s t r onge r i nf l ue nc e ove r t he i n t e r pr e t i ve pe r f o r m a nc e of m us i c i a ns C om m on i nt e r pr e t i ve de c i s i ons c om m uni c a t e d t h r ough c om m on ge s t ur e s t ha t ha ve m e a ni ng t o c onduc t or s a nd m us i c i a ns m i ght be i ns t i l l e d t hr ough t he m us i c t r a i ni ng pr oc e s s D ow l i ng s s t udy ( 1993) s ugge s t s t ha t t he a bi l i t y t o i n t e r pr e t s ubt l e e xpr e s s i ve c ha nge s i n m us i c s e e m s t o be e nha nc e d w i t h m us i c a l t r a i ni ng. L i ke a phone t i c a l pha be t c om m on l i s t e ni ng s ki l l s e na bl e t he c onduc t or t o e l i c i t c ons i s t e nt a nd s ubt l e r e s pons e s f r om m us i c i a ns A l t hough f unda m e nt a l c om m ona l i t i e s of m us i c pe r c e pt i on c a n be de m ons t r a t e d, B ur ns e d ( 2 001) a l s o f ound t ha t i t i s de ve l ope d w i t h a ge a nd m us i c a l t r a i ni ng. T he pu r pos e of B ur ns e d s s t udy w a s t o de t e r m i ne t he e f f e c t s of e xpr e s s i ve va r i a t i on i n dyna m i c s on t he m us i c a l pr e f e r e nc e s of m i ddl e s c hool a nd e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s t ude nt s T he popul a t i ons f r om w hi c h s ubj e c t s w e r e s a m pl e d i nc l ude d e l e m e nt a r y s t ude nt s m i ddl e s c hool s t ude nt s a nd m us i c t e a c he r s T w o g r oups w e r e c r e a t e d a nd c om pa r e d i n t hi s s t udy. G r oup on e i nc l ude d 288 s t ude nt s r a ndom l y s e l e c t e d f r om gr a de s 1 5 i n a n e l e m e nt a r y s c hool i n V i r gi ni a G r oup t w o i nc l ude d 78 m i ddl e s c hool m u s i c s t ude nt s a nd 22 c hor a l a nd ba nd d i r e c t or s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n a s um m e r m us i c c a m p

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 16 D a t a r e f l e c t i ng s ubj e c t pr e f e r e nc e f or dyna m i c ve r s us non dyna m i c nua nc e w e r e r e por t e d t hr ough r e l i a bi l i t y c oe f f i c i e nt s ( a l pha ) a n d C hi S qua r e p r e f e r e nc e s i gni f i c a nc e t e s t s T he s e a na l ys e s s how e d t ha t e l e m e nt a r y s t ude nt s di d not pe r c e i ve a di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n s ubt l e e xpr e s s i ons a nd non e xpr e s s i ve ve r s i ons T he ni nt h gr a de s t ude nt s w e r e m uc h m or e c ons i s t e nt i n t he i r p r e f e r e nc e s a s w e r e t he m us i c t e a c he r s W hi l e s pe c i f i c m us i c a l va r i a bl e s w e r e not i de nt i f i e d, t he r e s ul t s s ugge s t t ha t a ge a nd m us i c a l t r a i ni ng ha ve i m pa c t a n on pe r c e pt i on of s ubt l e e x pr e s s i on i n m us i c I t c oul d be how e ve r t ha t c hi l d r e n m a y be a bl e t o di s c r i m i na t e but t he y c a nnot l a be l or e f f e c t i ve l y us e t h e C R D I B ur ns e d s ( 2001) s t udy, a nd t he w o r k o f F r e dr i c ks on ( 1997) a nd D ow l i ng ( 1993 ) r e l a t e t o t he de gr e e t ha t c onduc t or s a r e a bl e t o c ont r ol t he e xp r e s s i ve e l e m e nt s of a m us i c i a n s pe r f or m a nc e a nd t he de gr e e t o w hi c h l i s t e ne r s pe r c e i ve e l e m e nt s of e xpr e s s i on i n m us i c pe r f or m a nc e A t e c hni c a l l y s k i l l e d c onduc t or m a y pr e s e nt a f i ne vi s ua l r e pr e s e nt a t i on of a m us i c a l pa s s a ge but i f t h e m us i c i a n pe r f or m i ng t he pa s s a ge ha s not de ve l ope d a n a bi l i t y t o pe r c e i ve a nd pe r f o r m s ubt l e e xpr e s s i on, t he i nt e r pr e t a t i o n, a s c om m uni c a t e d by t he c onduc t or m a y not t r a ns pi r e C onduc t or E f f e c t on M us i c i an E x pr e s s i on V a nW e e l de n ( 2002) i nve s t i ga t e d t he i m pa c t of c on duc t or pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e on t he pe r c e i ve d qua l i t y o f e ns e m bl e pe r f o r m a nc e U nde r gr a dua t e m us i c m a j or s ( N = 1 63 ) w e r e a s ke d t o c om pl e t e a c onduc t or e f f e c t i ve ne s s que s t i onna i r e a f t e r vi e w i ng a s e r i e s of

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 17 vi de ot a pe d c onduc t or pe r f o r m a nc e s S i xt y e i ght of t he m us i c m a j or pa r t i c i pa nt s ( e va l ua t or s ) w e r e c hor a l m a j or s a nd n i ne t y e i ght w e r e i ns t r um e nt a l m a j or s T he c o nduc t or e f f e c t i ve ne s s que s t i onna i r e us e d a L i ke r t t ype s c a l e ( 1 5 poi nt r e s pons e ) a nd a s ke d s ubj e c t s t o e va l ua t e a s pe c t s of c onduc t or e f f e c t i ve ne s s t hr ough e ye c ont a c t f a c i a l e xpr e s s i on, pos t ur e a nd ove r a l l i m pr e s s i on. V i de ot a pe s of s i x f e m a l e c onduc t or s r e pr e s e nt i ng t w o di f f e r e nt body t ype s e c t om or phi c / t hi n a nd e ndom o r phi c / l a r ge f unc t i one d a s t he i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e T he s e c onduc t or s w e r e vi de ot a pe d i n va r i ous pe r f or m a nc e ve nue s E a c h c onduc t or p r e s e nt e d he r be s t e f f or t a t c onduc t i ng a pr of e s s i ona l r e c or di ng of a voc a l w o r k ( T he C ool i n by S a m ue l B a r be r ) A n a na l ys i s of va r i a nc e ( A N O V A ) of t he pa r t i c i pa nt r e s pons e s de t e r m i ne d t ha t t he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n e ndom or phi c a nd e c t om or phi c c onduc t or s a s j udge d by t he s t ude nt s T a bl e 1 di s p l a ys t he m e a n pe r f or m a nc e r a t i ngs a nd s t a nda r d de vi a t i ons by body t ype f ound i n V a nW e e l de n s s t udy. T he s e pe r f o r m a nc e r a t i ngs r e f l e c t s c or e s f r om t he s e ve n que s t i ons t ha t pe r t a i n t o e ns e m bl e c onduc t i ng e f f e c t i ve ne s s E a c h m a l e a nd f e m a l e e va l ua t or pr oduc e d s c or e s w i t hi n t he r a nge o f 7 t o 35 poi nt s f or e a c h e ndom or phi c or e c t om or phi c c onduc t or

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 18 T a bl e 1 M e an P e r f or m anc e R at i ngs and S t andar d D e v i at i ons by B ody T y pe and E v al uat or G e nde r E n d o m o r p h i c C o n d u c t o r s M e a n S D E c t o m o r p h i c C o n d u c t o r s M e a n S D M a l e e v a l u a t o r s 2 4 1 2 3 0 8 2 4 2 9 3 3 6 F e m a l e e v a l u a t o r s 2 3 6 4 2 5 1 2 4 5 1 2 7 6 T he s e f i ndi ngs s ugge s t t ha t m us i c i a ns do not pe r c e i ve c onduc t or e f f e c t i ve ne s s ba s e d on a ppe a r a nc e m or e s pe c i f i c a l l y, body t ype W i t h t hi s i n m i nd, t he a s s e s s m e nt of c onduc t or c om m uni c a t i on a nd e f f e c t i ve ne s s s houl d m ove be y ond pe r s ona l a ppe a r a nc e a nd f oc us on ve r ba l a nd non ve r ba l be ha vi or s S ka ds e m 's ( 1997) s t udy c onc e r ni ng t he e f f e c t o f c onduc t or c om m uni c a t i on a ddr e s s e d s i nge r s r e s pons e s t o ve r ba l w r i t t e n, a n d ge s t ur a l c onduc t i ng s t i m ul i T he popul a t i ons of i nt e r e s t f or t hi s s t udy w e r e c ho r a l c onduc t or s c ol l e ge l e ve l s i nge r s a nd hi gh s c hool l e ve l s i nge r s N i ne t y s i x gr a dua t e a nd unde r gr a dua t e m us i c s t ude nt s a nd 48 hi gh s c hool m us i c s t ude nt s f r om t h r e e m e t r opol i t a n hi gh s c hool s s ur r oundi ng a uni ve r s i t y w e r e pool e d a s pa r t i c i pa nt s D a t a f or t he s t udy w e r e r e c or de d on a udi o t a pe vi de ot a pe a nd on a w r i t t e n r e s pons e que s t i onna i r e S i nge r s w e r e a s ke d t o pe r f or m a f ol k s ong ( M i c ha e l R ow Y our B oat T o Sho r e ) onc e w i t h no c onduc t or / w r i t t e n / a udi o c ue s a nd e i ght t i m e s w hi l e vi e w i ng a c onduc t or

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 19 a nd c hoi r on a vi de o m on i t or O nc e a n i ni t i a l pe r f o r m a nc e of t he s ong ( i n i t s unm a r ke d ve r s i on) w a s r e c or de d, i ns t r uc t i ons r e ga r di ng dyna m i c l e ve l w e r e gi ve n f or t he r e m a i ni ng e i ght pe r f or m a nc e s T he dyna m i c l e ve l i ns t r uc t i on s w e r e pr ovi de d on t he vi de o s c r e e n e i t he r t hr ough w r i t t e n c ue s ve r ba l c om m a nds c on duc t i ng ge s t ur e s or i nc r e a s e de c r e a s e i n vi de o a udi o vo l um e ( c hoi r ) I n a n e f f or t t o qua nt i f y t he dyna m i c c ont r a s t s e xhi bi t e d i n e a c h pe r f or m a nc e a pa ne l of t hr e e e xpe r t c onduc t or s us e d t he C R D I ( C ont i nuous R e s pons e D i gi t a l I nt e r f a c e ) t o a na l yz e a udi ot a pe s of i ndi vi dua l voc a l pe r f o r m a nc e s A n a ve r a ge s c or e f or e a c h e xc e r pt pe r f o r m a nc e w a s c om put e d a c r os s t he t hr e e j udge s C R D I da t a f or t he ba s e l i ne ( f i r s t pe r f o r m a nc e w i t h no c u e s ) a nd t he e i ght c ue d pe r f or m a nc e s w e r e t he n c om pa r e d i n or de r t o c a l c ul a t e a t ot a l c h a nge s c or e A l l o f t he s e da t a w e r e a na l yz e d us i ng a n a na l ys i s of va r i a nc e ( A N O V A ) a nd a pos t hoc T uke y m ul t i pl e c om pa r i s on t e s t T he s e pr oc e dur e s o f qua nt i t a t i ve a na l ys i s e na bl e d t he r e s e a r c he r s t o de t e r m i ne di f f e r e nc e s a m ong gr oups a nd pe r f or m a nc e s T he da t a s ugge s t e d t ha t s i nge r s di d r e s pond di f f e r e nt l y t o t he f our i ns t r uc t i ona l c ondi t i ons t ha t w e r e pr e s e nt e d: ve r ba l c om m a nds c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s w r i t t e n c ue s a nd i nc r e a s e de c r e a s e of t he c hor a l a udi o. I t w a s f ound t ha t ve r ba l c om m a nds m a de t he l a r ge s t di f f e r e nc e i n s ol i c i t i ng dyna m i c r e s pons e R e s ul t s s ugge s t e d t ha t s i nge r s r e s pond di f f e r e nt l y i n l oud a nd s of t pa s s a ge s m or e s t r ongl y r e a c t i ng t o i ns t r uc t i ons r e ga r di ng l oud dyna m i c s T he da t a a l s o s how e d t ha t t he t hr e e gr oups ( c onduc t or s c ol l e ge s t ude nt s a nd hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s ) r e s ponde d di f f e r e nt l y t o i ns t r uc t i ons a bout dyna m i c s T he m e a n s c or e s of a l l i ns t r uc t i ona l c ondi t i ons by g r oup a r e i l l us t r a t e d i n T a bl e 2.

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 20 T a bl e 2 M e an Sc or e s of I ns t r uc t i onal C ondi t i ons and D y na m i c I ns t r uc t i on by G r oup ( Sk ads e m 1997) C o n d i t i o n C o n d u c t o r s C o l l e g e S i n g e r s H S S i n g e r s V e r b a l s o f t V e r b a l l o u d 5 4 6 3 5 1 3 8 4 9 0 4 4 7 3 8 5 6 4 8 5 0 6 7 W r i t t e n s o f t W r i t t e n l o u d 3 6 8 1 1 8 5 4 2 1 5 6 1 2 1 7 3 4 5 8 2 0 4 8 G e s t u r e s o f t G e s t u r e l o u d 4 6 0 6 3 9 2 3 2 9 0 6 2 1 1 0 3 4 4 4 4 0 6 C h o r u s s o f t C h o r u s l o u d 3 5 0 4 1 4 0 4 2 7 6 5 2 4 8 3 4 6 0 4 2 8 7 1 T he S ka ds e m s t udy hi ghl i ght s t he pos s i bi l i t y t ha t v e r ba l c om m uni c a t i on m a y be t he m os t e f f e c t i ve f or m of c onduc t o r c om m uni c a t i on. H ow e ve r f or m or e a dva nc e d m us i c i a ns c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e w a s a c l os e s e c ond. T he s t udy s ugge s t s t ha t a bi l i t y t o c om m uni c a t e ve r ba l l y i s a n i m por t a nt c onduc t i ng s ki l l a nd n on ve r ba l be ha vi or s s pe c i f i c a l l y c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s a l s o c om m uni c a t e m us i c a l i de a s w i t hi n t he f r a m e w or k of a m us i c a l s oc i a l c ul t ur a l c ont r a c t C onduc t i ng G e s t ur e St udi e s N onve r ba l c om m uni c a t i on ha s be e n a n a r e a of ps y c hol ogi c a l a nd e duc a t i ona l s t udy f or s om e t i m e B ul w e r s ( 1654) s t udy of ge s t ur e s us e d i n publ i c s pe a ki ng i s c i t e d a s t he e a r l i e s t doc um e nt a t i on of e f f e c t i ve nonve r ba l c om m uni c a t i on. N um e r ous ps yc hol ogi c a l / e duc a t i ona l s t udi e s a f f i r m t he ne e d f or e f f e c t i ve non ve r ba l c om m uni c a t i on s ki l l s i n t he c l a s s r oom a nd m us i c r e he a r s a l A m o r e f oc us e d a s pe c t of m us i c e duc a t i on

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 21 r e s e a r c h, a s i t r e l a t e s t o nonve r ba l c om m un i c a t i on, a t t e m pt s t o de f i ne c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e be yond ve r ba l c om m uni c a t i on a s nonve r ba l f a c i a l body, ha nd a nd f i nge r m ove m e nt E f f or t s ha ve be e n i ni t i a t e d t o c l a s s i f y s pe c i f i c non ve r ba l c onduc t i ng be ha vi or s S ous a ( 1988) i nve s t i ga t e d t he us e of e m bl e m s i n nonve r ba l c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e B y a s ki ng hi gh s c hool a nd j uni or hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s t o de s c r i be vi de o t a pe d c onduc t or ge s t ur e s S ous a w a s a bl e t o l a be l 38 out o f 55 ge s t ur e s a s e m bl e m s S ous a l a be l e d a s pe c i f i c ge s t ur e w i t h e m bl e m s t a t us i f 70% of t he s ubj e c t s w e r e a bl e t o e f f e c t i ve l y m a t c h on a pa pe r a nd pe nc i l t e s t t he c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e w i t h i t s c or r e c t m us i c a l m e a ni ng. T he s t udy de t e r m i ne d t ha t t he l e ve l of ge s t ur e r e c ogni t i on i nc r e a s e d w i t h e xpe r i e nc e H i gh s c hool m us i c s t ude nt s s uc c e s s f ul l y r e c ogni z e d 37 of t he 55 ge s t ur e s w hi l e j uni or hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s r e c ogni z e d onl y 19 of 55 ge s t ur e s T he s t udy f ound t ha t i n m os t c a s e s m us i c a l e xpe r i e nc e i nc r e a s e d a bi l i t y t o c l a s s i f y c o nduc t i ng ge s t ur e s C of e r ( 1998) e xt e nde d t he w o r k of S ous a ( 1988 ) b y i nve s t i ga t i ng t he e f f e c t of l i m i t e d i ns t r uc t i on i n c onduc t i ng ge s t ur a l m e a ni ng on t he m us i c a l r e s pons e of s e ve nt h gr a de ba nd s t ud e nt s P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e ba nd s t ude n t s dr a w n f r o m a n u r ba n publ i c s c hool di s t r i c t ( N = 60) w ho ha d t w o t o t hr e e ye a r s of w i n d i ns t r um e nt pe r f or m a nc e e xpe r i e nc e T hr ough r a ndom s e l e c t i on, a n e xpe r i m e nt a l g r oup ( n = 30 ) a nd a c ont r ol gr oup ( n = 30) w e r e e s t a bl i s he d. P a r t i c i pa nt s i n t he e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup r e c e i ve d i ns t r uc t i on on t he m e a ni ngs of e i ght e e n c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s i de nt i f i e d a s e m bl e m s i n t he S ous a ( 1988) s t udy: pi a no, f or t e s ubi t o pi a no s ubi t o f or t e t w o t ype s of c r e s c e ndo, t w o t ype s o f de c r e s c e nd o, s t a c c a t o, l e ga t o, t e nut o, t w o t ype s of m a r c a t o, a c c e l e r a ndo, r i t a r da ndo, a nd t w o t ype s of f e r m a t a

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 22 A f our ba r m e l ody w a s c ons t r uc t e d t hr ough w hi c h a l l of t he m us i c a l e xpr e s s i ons c oul d be de m ons t r a t e d. P a r t i c i pa nt s i n t he c ont r ol gr oup r e he a r s e d t he f our ba r m e l ody w i t h a n i ns t r uc t or w ho us e d no c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s T he i ns t r uc t o r o f t he c ont r ol g r oup a l s o r e vi e w e d w i t h s t ude nt s t e r m s t ha t c or r e s pond e d w i t h s pe c i f i c m us i c a l e xpr e s s i ons i de nt i f i e d f o r t he s t udy. D ur i ng t he pr e pa r a t i on pr oc e s s t he i ns t r uc t or of t he c ont r ol gr oup t a ppe d hi s ba t on on a m us i c s t a nd w hi l e s t ud e nt s a t t e m pt e d t o pe r f o r m t he m e l ody us i ng t he pr e s c r i be d m us i c a l e xpr e s s i ons P a r t i c i pa nt s of t he t r e a t m e nt g r oup w e r e i ns t r uc t e d i n t he t e r m i nol ogy of t he m us i c a l e xpr e s s i ons a nd c or r e s pondi ng c onduc t i ng e m bl e m s w e r e de m ons t r a t e d. C onduc t i ng ge s t ur e r e c ogni t i on of bot h g r oups ( t r e a t m e nt a nd c ont r ol ) w a s a s s e s s e d t hr ough i ndi vi dua l pe r f o r m a nc e of t he m e l odi e s w hi l e s i m ul t a ne ous l y f ol l ow i ng t he ba t on of a c onduc t or on a t e l e vi s i on m o ni t or a nd a pa pe r a nd pe nc i l t e s t R e s ul t s of a n i nde pe nde nt s a m pl e t t e s t s how e d a s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n gr oups on t he pa pe r a nd pe nc i l m e a s ur e of c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e r e c ogni t i on ( t = 6. 97 p 001) a nd t he i ndi vi dua l pe r f o r m a nc e m e a s ur e ( F = 39. 26, p 0 001) T he m e a n d i f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he t r e a t m e nt gr oup ( M = 16 40, S D = 2. 68 ) a nd t he c o nt r ol gr oup ( M = 12. 50 S D = 2 68) on t he pa pe r a nd pe nc i l t e s t r e f l e c t s t hi s r e s ul t T he B onf e r r oni m e t hod, a s t a t i s t i c a l a dj us t m e nt t ha t e f f e c t i ve l y r a i s e s t he s t a nda r d of p r oof ne e de d w he n e xa m i ni ng m ul t i pl e hypot he s e s s i m ul t a ne ous l y, ve r i f i e d t ha t s ubj e c t s i n t he t r e a t m e nt gr oup pe r f or m e d ni ne of t he e i ght e e n c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s s i gni f i c a nt l y b e t t e r t ha n s ubj e c t s i n t he c ont r ol g r oup ( p < 05) B a s e d on t he s e r e s ul t s C of e r c onc l ude d t ha t s e ve nt h gr a de ba nd s t ude nt s of t he

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 23 t r e a t m e nt gr oup w e r e a bl e t o c ons i s t e nt l y r e s pond t o ni ne of e i ght e e n c onduc t i ng e m bl e m s a f t e r s hor t t e r m c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e i ns t r uc t i on w hi l e t hos e of t he c ont r ol gr oup w e r e onl y a bl e t o r e s pond t o t hr e e of t he e m bl e m s I t i s i nt e r e s t i ng t o not e t ha t e ve n w i t hout i ns t r uc t i on, t he c ont r ol g r oup pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e i nt ui t i ve l y a bl e t o c or r e c t l y r e s pond t o t hr e e o f t he 18 e m bl e m s S i dot i ( 1991 ) a l s o e xpl o r e d t he e f f e c t of e xpr e s s i ve a nd non e xpr e s s i ve c onduc t i ng on t he pe r f or m a nc e a c c ur a c y of hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s S ubj e c t s i n t he e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup w e r e a s ke d t o pe r f or m m e l odi e s w hi l e vi e w i ng a vi de ot a pe o f a c onduc t or ut i l i z i ng e xp r e s s i ve c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s t ha t vi s ua l l y r e i nf or c e d e xp r e s s i on m a r ki ngs on t he pa ge S ubj e c t s i n t he c ont r o l gr ou p pe r f or m e d t he s a m e m e l odi e s w hi l e w a t c hi ng a c onduc t or w ho us e d non e xpr e s s i ve ( b e a t i ng t i m e ) c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d a s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n s ubj e c t gr oups ( p < 0001) S t ude nt s i n t he e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oup ( M = 2. 99 S D = 88 ) pe r f o r m e d w i t h g r e a t e r a c c ur a c y, i n t e r m s of s e l e c t e d e xpr e s s i on m a r ki ngs t ha n d i d s t ude nt s of t he c ont r ol g r oup ( M = 2. 78 S D = 80) I t i s i nt e r e s t i ng t o not e t ha t t he S i dot i s t udy u t i l i z e d a n uppe r body vi de o of t he c onduc t or s w i t h no i s ol a t i on of f a c i a l or body l a ng ua ge c ue s a nd t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r f or m e d f r om c opy t ha t i nc l ude d e xpr e s s i ve m a r ki ngs H ous e ( 1998) a ppr oa c he d t he que s t i on of c onduc t o r i nf l ue nc e on t he e xpr e s s i ve pe r f or m a nc e of m us i c i a ns i n a s i m i l a r w a y. C ol l e ge t r um pe t s t ude nt s w e r e i ns t r uc t e d t o pe r f or m a n e xc e r pt w hi l e f ol l ow i ng a c onduc t or on vi de o. A l e a di ng i ns t r um e nt a l c onduc t or ( J ohn W hi t w e l l ) w a s vi de o t a pe d w hi l e c onduc t i ng t he e xc e r pt i n a n e xpr e s s i ve

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 24 w a y a nd onc e a ga i n i n a non e xpr e s s i ve w a y. T he e xpr e s s i ve a ppr oa c h m a de a n a t t e m pt t o c onve y t he i nt e r pr e t i ve m a r ki ngs of t he e xc e r pt I n c ont r a s t t he non e xp r e s s i ve c onduc t i ng a ppr oa c h ut i l i z e d s i m pl e be a t pa t t e r ns M us i c i a n s pe r f or m e d t he e xc e r pt w hi l e vi e w i ng t he c onduc t or vi de os A t hr e e m e m be r pa ne l t he n e va l ua t e d t he e xpr e s s i ve ne s s of t hos e pe r f or m a nc e s E ve n t hough t he m us i c i a ns pe r f or m e d f r om a c opy of t he e xc e r pt w hi c h c ont a i ne d e xpr e s s i ve a r t i c ul a t i ve a nd phr a s e m a r ki ngs a s i gni f i c a nt ye t s m a l l d i f f e r e nc e i n t he e xpr e s s i ve ne s s be t w e e n m us i c i a n pe r f or m a nc e s r e c or de d w hi l e vi e w i ng t he non e xpr e s s i ve c on duc t i ng ( M = 4. 896 S D = 1 606) ve r s us t he e xpr e s s i ve c onduc t i ng ( M = 5. 287 S D = 1 732) w a s e vi de nt ( p < 01 ) T he us e of v i de ot a pe d c onduc t i ng a s a t w o di m e ns i ona l m e di um f or i s ol a t i ng c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e pr e s e nt a t i ons ha s be e n i m pl e m e nt e d not onl y i n t he H ous e s t udy, but a l s o i n m a ny ot he r s t udi e s ( C of e r 1996; F r e dr i c ks on, 1992; S i dot i 1990; S ka ds e m 1997; S ous a 1988) E ve n t hough r e s pondi ng t o a l i ve c o nduc t or i s opt i m a l i n t e r m s of e c ol ogi c a l va l i di t y, t he us e of v i de ot a pe d c onduc t i ng e ns ur e s t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s a r e e xpos e d t o a c ons i s t e nt i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e G r a ve s ( 1984) i s ol a t e d ve r ba l c om m uni c a t i on a nd f a c i a l / body l a ngua ge c ue s f r om t e c hni c a l c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s T he G r a ve s s t udy a ppl i e d s i x e xpe r i m e nt a l c ondi t i ons i n a c hor a l r e he a r s a l c ont e xt A n unus ua l a nd i nt e r e s t i ng, de pe nde nt m e a s ur e w a s us e d i n t he G r a ve s s t udy. T he pe r f o r m a nc e s of a B a c h c hor a l e w e r e r e c or de d unde r t he d i f f e r e nt c onduc t i ng c ondi t i ons a nd t he n p r e s e nt e d t o hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s t o de t e r m i ne i f t he y

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 25 he a r d a ny di f f e r e nc e s i n t he pe r f or m a nc e s C onduc t or s w e r e a s ke d t o p r e pa r e t he B a c h c hor a l e us i ng ve r ba l a nd no nve r ba l c onduc t i ng t e c hni que s nonve r ba l t e c hni que s a l one a nd nonve r ba l t e c hni que s w hi l e w e a r i ng a f a c i a l m a s k. R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he nonve r ba l c ondi t i ons a nd t he nonve r ba l / m a s ke d c ondi t i ons T hi s out c om e s ugge s t s t ha t w hi l e f a c i a l e xpr e s s i on i s a va l ua bl e e l e m e nt of nonve r ba l c om m uni c a t i on, i t i s not a c r uc i a l va r i a bl e on i t s ow n or w he n r e m ove d f r om nonve r ba l c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e A s s e s s i ng C onduc t i ng G e s t ur e H e r be r t K a r pi c ke s s t udy ( 1987) i nve s t i ga t e d c onduc t or s t hr ough t he de ve l opm e nt of a n i ns t r um e nt t ha t m e a s ur e s t he pe r f or m a nc e r e s pons e of m us i c i a ns t o a va r i e t y of nonve r ba l c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s K a r p i c ke de f i ne s c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e a s a n obs e r va bl e m ove m e nt of t he ha nds or ha nds a nd a r m s o r a c ha nge i n vi s ua l di r e c t i on i n a ddi t i on t o or out s i de of a n ongoi ng be a t pa t t e r n w hi c h r e s ul t s i n obs e r va bl e m us i c a l r e s pons e i n pe r f or m a nc e c ont e xt ( 1987, p. 3 ) T he pur pos e of h i s s t udy w a s t o de ve l op a r e l i a bl e a nd va l i d i ns t r um e nt f or e va l ua t i ng a nd m e a s ur i ng c on duc t or ge s t ur e a nd s ubs e que nt pe r f or m a nc e ( m us i c i a n) r e s pons e

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 26 T w o s ubj e c t gr oups w e r e s e l e c t e d f or e xpe r i m e nt s t ha t w oul d va l i da t e K a r p i c ke s G e s t ur a l R e s pons e I ns t r um e nt ( G R I ) T w e nt y f i ve hi gh s c hool or c he s t r a c onduc t or s f r om t he H ous t on a nd D a l l a s T e xa s a r e a s w e r e c ont a c t e d f or pa r t i c i pa t i on T w e nt y ( n = 20) c onduc t or s a gr e e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he e xpe r i m e nt s A l t hough t hi s w a s a c onve ni e nc e s a m pl e t he r e s e a r c he r w a s a bl e t o obt a i n a g r e a t d e a l of de m ogr a phi c a nd pe r f o r m a nc e r e l a t e d i nf or m a t i on on t he s e s ubj e c t s E a c h c ondu c t or ha d a r e c or d o f pa r t i c i pa t i on i n T e xa s pe r f or m a nc e e va l ua t i on f e s t i va l s T he i r r e s p e c t i ve m us i c s upe r vi s or s ve r i f i e d t hi s i nf or m a t i on. C onduc t i ng s ubj e c t s w e r e pl a c e d i nt o t w o c a t e gor i e s s t r ong or w e a k, ba s e d on pr e vi ous f e s t i va l r a t i ngs a nd m us i c s upe r vi s or know l e dge of t he s ubj e c t s c onduc t i ng pe r f or m a nc e a bi l i t y. T he c onduc t or s w e r e t he n r a nk or de r e d ( s t r on ge s t t o w e a ke s t ) by t he i r m us i c s upe r vi s or s C onduc t i ng s ubj e c t s c onduc t e d a vol unt e e r or c he s t r a t hr ough a s e r i e s of m us i c a l e xc e r pt s P r i or t o t he e xpe r i m e nt t he r e s e a r c he r r e he a r s e d t he pi e c e t ha t i nc l ude d t he s e e xc e r pt s T he c onduc t or s w e r e i ns t r uc t e d t o us e no ve r ba l c u e s or c om m uni c a t i on du r i ng t he pe r f or m a nc e / r e c or di ng s e s s i ons O nl y f a c i a l a n d ha nd/ a r m c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s w e r e ut i l i z e d. P a r t i c i pa nt s c onduc t e d t he pi e c e w hi l e s i m ul t a ne ous vi de o r e c or di ng t ook pl a c e E xc e r pt s w e r e c ue d a t c ons i s t e nt pl a c e s i n t he m us i c S i x of t he s e e xc e r pt s w e r e s e l e c t e d f r om e a c h c onduc t or or c he s t r a pe r f o r m a nc e F our e xpe r t obs e r ve r s w e r e t r a i ne d i n us i ng t he G R I a nd w e r e a s ke d t o vi e w a r a ndom m i x of vi de o e xc e r pt s f r o m e a c h c onduc t o r s pe r f o r m a nc e t ot a l i ng 560

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 27 obs e r va t i ons U s i ng a 1 5 L i ke r t s c a l e obs e r ve r s w e r e a s ke d t o r a t e t he pe r c e i ve d e f f e c t i ve ne s s of e a c h c onduc t or ge s t ur e ( t op box o f t he G R I ) a nd t he c or r e s pondi ng m us i c a l r e s pons e of t he or c he s t r a ( F i gu r e 1) F i gur e 1. G R I s c or i ng box G e s t ur e ( t op) a nd r e s pons e ( bot t om ) s c or e s f or e a c h e xc e r pt w e r e m u l t i pl i e d a nd a ve r a ge d, c r e a t i ng a n ove r a l l G e s t ur a l R e s pons e S c or e T he s e s c or e s w e r e t he n a l i gne d w i t h t he i r r e s pe c t i ve c onduc t or s A N O V A ( A na l ys i s of V a r i a nc e ) w a s us e d t o ve r i f y c ons i s t e nc y a m ong c onduc t or s obs e r ve r s m us i c a l e xc e r pt s ge s t ur e s r e s pons e s a nd ge s t ur e / r e s pons e va r i a nc e A c c or di ng t o K a r pi c ke t hi s s c or i ng m e t hod a l l ow s bot h t he ge s t ur e a nd i t s a s s oc i a t e d r e s pon s e t o be s c or e d a s c ont i nge nc i e s ( 1987, p 59) W he n f our obs e r ve r s a r e us e d, t he G R I T ot a l s c or e s yi e l d a s ubs t a nt i a l r e l i a bi l i t y ( r = 80) I t w a s a l s o not e d t ha t obs e r ve r c ons i s t e nc y r e m a i ne d s t a bl e e ve n t hough m us i c a l c ont e nt ( e xc e r pt s ) va r i e d B e c a us e t he s a m e or c he s t r a pe r f or m e d t he s a m e e x c e r pt s w i t h e a c h c onduc t or i t i s i m por t a nt t o know w hi c h f a c e t w a s ha vi ng a s t r on ge r e f f e c t t he c onduc t or or m a t ur a t i on of t he o r c he s t r a I n t hi s s t udy, no s ys t e m i c or c he s t r a r e s pons e w a s f ound: how e ve r i t

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 28 w oul d s e e m t ha t c ons i s t e nc y of m us i c i a n r e s pons e a nd l e a r ni ng e f f e c t s ( hi s t or y, m a t ur a t i on, p r a c t i c e e f f e c t e t c ) s houl d be a c c ount e d f or w i t h us e of t he G R I i n a gr oup pe r f or m a nc e s e t t i ng. D a t a s ugge s t t ha t w i t h f ou r or m or e obs e r ve r s t he G R I i s c ons i de r e d a r e l i a bl e i ns t r um e nt f or a s s e s s i ng c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e / m us i c i a n r e s pons e e ve nt s T he G R I i s a l s o a bl e t o di s c r i m i na t e be t w e e n s t r onge r a nd w e a ke r c onduc t or s a bi l i t y t o e l i c i t m us i c a l r e s pons e s t hr ough ge s t ur e I t s houl d be not e d t ha t r e s pons e s c or e r e l i a bi l i t y ( r = 50 ) w a s l ow e r t ha n ge s t ur e s c or e r e l i a bi l i t y ( r = 85) T h i s di s c r e pa nc y s ugge s t s t ha t obs e r ve r s s houl d r e c e i ve f ur t he r t r a i ni ng i n how t o c ons i s t e nt l y a s s e s s t he a ur a l / r e s pons e a s pe c t of t he G R I i ns t r um e nt P e r ha ps a udi o of t he m us i c a l r e s pons e s houl d be e va l ua t e d s e pa r a t e l y r a t he r t ha n s i m ul t a ne ous l y w i t h vi de o o f t he c or r e s pondi ng ge s t ur e T he us e of a f ul l e ns e m bl e br i ngs a nu m be r o f c onf oundi ng va r i a bl e s i nt o K a r pi c ke s s t udy. C e r t a i n va r i a bl e s m a y be c ont r ol l e d ( hi s t or y, m a t ur a t i on bi a s a bi l i t y f ol l ow i ng t he pr i nc i pa l pl a ye r e t c ) us i ng i ndi vi du a l m us i c i a ns a nd r e c or di ng i ndi v i dua l r e s pons e s K a r pi c ke s G e s t ur a l R e s pons e I ns t r um e nt ( G R I ) s t udy i s a s ubs t a nt i ve e f f or t t o de ve l op a s ubj e c t i ve a s s e s s m e nt of c onduc t or pe r f or m a nc e U s e of t he G R I a nd ot he r m e t hods of c onduc t or a s s e s s m e nt m a y e nha nc e c onduc t or t r a i ni ng a nd e xa m i ne m us i c i a n pe r c e pt i on of c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 29 C H A P T E R I I I R E S E A R C H P R O C E D U R E S T he R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on F or m us i c i a ns i t i s w i de l y be l i e ve d t ha t t he a bi l i t y t o unde r s t a nd a nd m a ni pul a t e s e gm e nt s of m us i c a l s ound, s uc h a s e nt r a nc e body a nd r e l e a s e a r e c r uc i a l f or m us i c a l e xpr e s s i on ( L e w i s 1999; G a l l ops 1999) S t yl i s t i c i nt e r pr e t i ve de c i s i ons a r e m a de t hr ough t he m us i c i a n s i nf or m e d i nt ui t i on of a pp r o pr i a t e m us i c a l s ha pe a nd a bi l i t y t o c ont r ol t he be gi nni ng m i dd l e a nd e nd of not e s ( G a l l ops 1999, p. 35) F or c onduc t o r s pe r c e pt i on a nd m a ni pul a t i on of t he s e s e gm e nt s of m us i c a l t one ( e nt r a nc e body, r e l e a s e ) m a y be c r uc i a l w he n t r a ns l a t i ng m us i c a l i nt e r p r e t a t i on i nt o v i s ua l r e pr e s e nt a t i on. E l l i ot t a r t i c ul a t e s t he pr oc e dur a l p r oc e s s of i nf or m e d i nt ui t i on i nvol ve d i n m us i c m a ki ng a s a n a c t i on i nvol vi ng nonve r ba l f or m s o f t h i nki ng a nd know i ng i n a nd o f t he m s e l ve s ( E l l i ot t 1995 p 55) A s di s c us s e d i n pr e vi ous c ha p t e r s s t yl i s t i c e xpr e s s i ve i nt e r pr e t i ve de c i s i on s a r e ge ne r a t e d t hr ough t he c onduc t or s i n f or m e d i nt ui t i on o f a ppr op r i a t e m us i c a l s ha pe T he a bi l i t y t o t r a ns l a t e m us i c a l i nt e r pr e t a t i on i nt o vi s ua l r e pr e s e nt a t i ons t he pe r c e pt i on a nd a bi l i t y t o m a ni pul a t e e nt r a nc e body r e l e a s e a nd t he i n f or m e d i nt ui t i on de ve l ope d t hr ough e xpe r i e nc e a nd know l e dge a r e t ool s t ha t e nga ge c onduc t or s i n a pe r c e pt i on c ont r ac t T hi s pe r c e pt i on c ont r a c t a m o ng m us i c i a ns m a y a l l ow nonve r ba l c om m uni c a t i on of ve r y s pe c i f i c i nt e r p r e t i ve de c i s i ons A c c or di ng t o t hi s vi e w t he c onduc t or s i nt ui t i on a nd l e a r ne d a bi l i t y t o c om m u ni c a t e t hos e s t yl i s t i c i nt e r pr e t i ve de c i s i ons t hr ough ge s t ur e i s w ha t ul t i m a t e l y de t e r m i ne s c onduc t i ng s uc c e s s ( G r a ve s 1984; G r e c he s ky, 1985; G r e e n, 1961 ; L e w i s 1999 ; M a yne 1992; M i l l e r 1988 ;

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 30 S t r ous e 1987) I n o r de r t o e s t a bl i s h t he e xi s t e nc e of a pe r c e pt i on c ont r a c t be t w e e n m us i c i a ns a nd c onduc t or s t hi s s t udy i nve s t i ga t e d di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n pe r f or m a nc e s of m us i c a l e xc e r pt s ( ba s e l i ne pos t w / c onduc t or ) t hr o ugh a n e xpe r i m e nt a l de s i gn us i ng a G e s t ur a l R e s pon s e I ns t r um e nt G R I ( K a r pi c ke 19 87) a s t he de pe nde nt m e a s ur e I n a n e f f or t t o m i ni m i z e c on f oundi ng a nd e xt r a ne ous va r i a bl e s a G e s t ur a l R e s pons e I ns t r um e nt ( G R I ) f o r m a t w a s us e d i n t h i s s t udy w i t h t hr e e m odi f i c a t i ons ; 1) i ndi vi dua l m us i c i a ns pe r f or m e d t he m us i c a l e xc e r p t s r a t he r t ha n a f ul l or c he s t r a 2) e a c h c onduc t or s pe r f or m a nc e w a s vi de o t a pe d, f oc us i ng onl y on t he ha nds / a r m s 3 ) pa ne l s of e xpe r t s e va l ua t e d t he c onduc t i ng vi de os s e pa r a t e l y f r om t he a udi o r e c or d of m us i c i a n r e s pons e s a nd 4) a ne s t e d s a m pl i ng pr oc e dur e w a s ut i l i z e d i n a n e f f o r t t o i nc r e a s e obs e r va t i on r e s pons e s w hi l e m i ni m i z i ng or de r e f f e c t a nd pr a c t i c e e f f e c t D e s c r i pt i ve da t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d a nd e xa m i ne d. E f f e c t s i z e s be t w e e n pe r f or m a nc e s de m ons t r a t e d t he de gr e e t o w hi c h c om m uni c a t i on oc c ur r e d t hr ough nonve r ba l c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s D e m ogr a phi c i nf o r m a t i on pe r t a i ni ng t o e a c h c onduc t or w a s ga t he r e d. T hi s i nf or m a t i on i nc l ude d ge nde r a ge c onduc t i ng ba c kgr ound ( ba nd or or c he s t r a ) e xpe r i e nc e t ype of t r a i ni ng m a j or i ns t r um e nt a nd l e ve l of pr of e s s i ona l i nvol ve m e nt ( hi gh s c hool c ol l e ge uni ve r s i t y, a nd pr of e s s i ona l ) A f t e r da t a a na l ys i s t r e nds a ppe a r e d i n i ndi vi dua l c onduc t or s T he s e t r e nds w i l l be di s c us s e d i n C ha pt e r I V a nd C ha pt e r V a nd m a y w a r r a nt f u r t he r r e s e a r c h. I ns t r um e nt a l i s t s ga t he r t he i r m us i c a l e xpe r i e nc e s f r om va r i e d e ns e m bl e t r a di t i ons T hus t he s t r i ng m us i c i a n m i ght be m or e r e s pons i ve t o e xpr e s s i ve i nt e r pr e t i ve c onduc t i ng t ha n t he br a s s pl a ye r M or e ove r t he w i nd pl a ye r m i ght c r e a t e c l e a r e r i nt e r pr e t i ve a r t i c ul a t i ons I f t hi s i s t he c a s e di f f e r e nc e s i n br a s s w oodw i nd, a nd s t r i ng m us i c i a n r e s pons e s c or e s m a y a ppe a r T he s a m pl e s i z e of br a s s w oodw i nd, or s t r i ng

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 31 m us i c i a ns f or t hi s e xpe r i m e nt w a s not l a r ge e nough t o ge ne r a l i z e s i gni f i c a nc e f r om a n A N O V A i n ne s t e d s a m pl i ng ( K r om r e y & D i c ke ns on, 1996) H ow e ve r r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy m i ght di s pl a y a t r e nd t ha t w a r r a nt s f u r t he r r e s e a r c h w i t h a l a r ge r ge ne r a l i z a bl e s a m pl e Sam pl i ng P r oc e dur e s T w o pool s of pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e s a m pl e d f or t hi s s t udy: e xpe r i e nc e d i ns t r um e nt a l c onduc t or s a nd c ol l e ge m us i c i a ns w ho pe r f or m e d m us i c a l e xc e r pt s w hi l e w a t c hi ng t he c onduc t or s C onduc t or s ha d e qua l oppo r t uni t y t o b e s e l e c t e d f r om a poo l of 50 e xpe r i e nc e d hi gh s c hool c ol l e ge uni ve r s i t y, a nd p r of e s s i ona l i ns t r um e nt a l c onduc t or s T hr ough s i m pl e r a ndom s a m pl i ng f i f t e e n c onduc t or s w e r e s e l e c t e d f r om t he pool of 50 T hi s s t udy f oc us e d on e xpe r i e nc e d i ns t r u m e nt a l c o nduc t or s pa r t i c ul a r l y t hos e w ho ha ve de m ons t r a t e d s uc c e s s a s a hi gh s c hool c ol l e ge or pr of e s s i ona l c onduc t or I n or de r t o e xa m i ne t r e nds f or f ut ur e r e s e a r c h a nd t o c l a r i f y r e s ul t s a s r e l a t e d t o i ndi vi dua l c onduc t or s pr e l i m i na r y i nf o r m a t i on w a s ga t he r e d f r om e a c h c onduc t or t ha t i nc l ude d ge nde r s pe c i f i c a ge c onduc t or ba c kgr ound ( ba nd or or c he s t r a l c onduc t i ng) t ype of c onduc t i n g e xpe r i e nc e s t r a i ni ng, m a j or i ns t r um e nt a nd c ur r e nt a r e a of p r of e s s i ona l i nvol ve m e nt : hi gh s c hool c ol l e ge un i ve r s i t y or pr of e s s i ona l ( s e e A ppe ndi x A ) W oodw i nd, br a s s a nd s t r i ng i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s w e r e s e l e c t e d f r om a pool o f f i f t y c ol l e ge / uni ve r s i t y l e ve l m us i c m a j or s A m us i c m a j or w a s de f i ne d a s s om e one w ho i s pur s ui ng a n unde r gr a dua t e c ou r s e of s t udy i n m us i c pe r f or m a nc e m us i c e duc a t i on, o r c om pos i t i on a t a c ol l e ge o r uni ve r s i t y T w e nt y f i v e pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e s e l e c t e d t hr ough s t r a t i f i e d r a ndom s a m pl i ng, p r ovi di ng nu m be r s of w oodw i nd br a s s s t r i ng i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s ( br a s s n= 10 / w oodw i nd n= 10 / s t r i ng n= 5)

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 32 P r oc e dur e O ne m e l odi c e xc e r pt w a s s e l e c t e d. T he e xc e r pt di d not c ont a i n e xt r e m e l y c om pl e x r hyt hm s or t e c hni c a l c ha l l e nge s a nd t he e xc e r pt w a s not e a s i l y r e c ogni z e d f r om s t a nda r d c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t ur e T ha t i s t o s a y, i t w a s not f a m i l i a r t o t he pe r f o r m i ng m us i c i a ns a s c om m onpl a c e a m ong i ns t r um e nt a l pe r f or m a nc e l i t e r a t ur e o r num e r ous r e c or di ngs O nc e a n a pp r opr i a t e e xc e r pt w a s i de nt i f i e d, i t w a s dupl i c a t e d t hr e e t i m e s O ne c opy of t he e xc e r pt c ont a i ne d no e xpr e s s i ve i nt e r pr e t i ve m a r ki ngs D i s t i nc t e xpr e s s i ve i nt e r pr e t i ve m a r ki ngs w e r e c r e a t e d f or e a c h of t he t w o r e m a i ni ng c opi e s of t he e xc e r pt T he s e m a r ke d ve r s i ons of t he m e l odi c e xc e r pt w e r e l a be l e d a s ve r s i on A a nd ve r s i on B r e s pe c t i ve l y. A n e xpr e s s i ve i nt e r pr e t i v e m a r ki ng w a s de f i ne d a s s t a c c a t o, t e nut o, a c c e nt s l ur dyna m i c c r e s c e ndo, de c r e s c e ndo, a c c e l e r a ndo, r i t a r da ndo, a nd t e m po. ( A ppe ndi x D ) C onduc t or s s e l e c t e d f or pa r t i c i pa t i on p r a c t i c e d a nd c onduc t e d e a c h of t he m a r ke d e xc e r pt ve r s i ons ( A & B ) I n p r e pa r a t i on, c ond uc t or s us e d w ha t e ve r a m ount of t i m e t he y ne e de d t o pr e pa r e a nd pr a c t i c e e a c h ve r s i on o f t he e xc e r pt C onduc t i ng pe r f or m a nc e s w e r e vi de o r e c or de d w hi l e pa r t i c i pa nt s c onduc t e d, us i ng ge s t ur e s be l i e ve d t o r e pr e s e nt t he e xp r e s s i ve i nt e r pr e t i ve m a r ki ngs o f e a c h e xc e r pt W hi l e r e c or di ng t he ge s t ur e s c onduc t or s w e r e a l l ow e d t o s i ng a s t he y c onduc t e d a nd w e r e a s ke d t o us e a ba t on a nd bot h ha nds a s t he y s a w f i t T h r ough us e of di gi t a l vi de o t e c hnol ogy, t he f a c e w a s bl ur r e d a nd a ny voc a l i z a t i on w a s r e m ove d f r o m t he r e c or di ng O nl y ha nds / uppe r c he s t w e r e vi s i bl e on t he vi de o t he r e by e l i m i na t i n g ove r t body l a ngua ge a nd f a c i a l or voc a l c ue s E a c h e xc e r pt w a s dupl i c a t e d w i t h a f i f t e e n s e c ond pa us e be t w e e n r e pe a t e d c onduc t or pe r f or m a nc e s of t he e xc e r pt A l l vi de os w e r e c ode d a nd t i m e d, i de nt i f y i ng t he

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 33 c onduc t or a nd t he e xc e r pt ( A & B ) t ha t w a s on t he vi de o. A s e pa r a t e V H S vi de ot a pe w a s ge ne r a t e d f or e a c h c onduc t or F r om t h e s e l e c t e d m us i c i a ns ( n= 25) r a ndom l y s e l e c t e d ne s t s of 5 pa r t i c i pa nt s w a t c he d a nd pe r f or m e d i ndi vi dua l l y t o m i xe d s e t s of c onduc t i ng vi de os E a c h ne s t i nc l ude d 2 br a s s 2 w oodw i nd, a nd 1 s t r i ng m us i c i a ns N e s t s w e r e pr e a s s i gne d t o s e t s of s i x vi de o c ondu c t i ng e xc e r pt s T hi s pr oc e s s w a s dupl i c a t e d, t he r e by c r e a t i ng e nough ne s t s t o pe r f or m a l l of t he v i de o e xc e r pt s T hr ough t he ne s t i ng pr oc e dur e a n i nc r e a s e d num be r of r e s pons e s w a s ge ne r a t e d w i t h l i m i t e d d upl i c a t i on of pe r s onne l L i m i t i ng t he num be r of t i m e s t ha t a pa r t i c i pa nt pe r f or m e d t he e xc e r pt s ye t ge ne r a t i ng a l a r ge s e t o f r e s pons e s w a s a n i m por t a nt r e s ul t of ne s t i ng. V a n W e e l de n ( 2002) f ound t ha t c onduc t or pe r f or m a nc e r a t i ngs w e r e a f f e c t e d w he n pa r t i c i pa n t s vi e w e d c onduc t or s i n a c e r t a i n or de r S up pr e s s i on of p r a c t i c e e f f e c t a nd or de r e f f e c t i n pa r t i c i pa nt r e s pons e w a s a n i m por t a nt de s i gn a s pe c t of t hi s s t udy ( A ppe ndi x B ) T he ne s t i ng pr oc e dur e a ppl i e d i n t hi s s t udy c ont r ol l e d f o r s uppr e s s i on of m ul t i pl e r e s pons e ( pr a c t i c e e f f e c t ) a nd c r e a t e d a m i xe d or de r of v i de os ( D unha m L e m ke & M or a n, 1991; H ol a ha n & S a unde r s 1997; V a nW e e l de n, 2002) C a r e w a s t a ke n i n de t e r m i ni n g t he uni t of m e a s ur e a s t he m e a n of e a c h ne s t S om e r e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t pow e r i s l os t w he n ne s t e d s a m pl i ng i s a ppl i e d, pa r t i c ul a r l y w he n i nd i vi dua l s c or e s a r e t he uni t o f m e a s ur e ( K r om r e y, 1996) P a r t i c i pa nt s r e c e i ve d a nd pr a c t i c e d t he unm a r ke d c opy of t he e xc e r pt f oc us i ng s i m pl y on a c c ur a c y of not e s a nd r hyt h m s T he m us i c i a ns pe r f or m e d i ndi v i dua l l y i n c ons i s t e nt a c ous t i c a l e nvi r onm e nt s w i t h no ot he r pa r t i c i pa nt s pr e s e nt E a c h m us i c i a n w a s i ns t r uc t e d t o e xpr e s s i ve l y pe r f or m t he m e l ody us i n g a pe r s ona l i nt e r p r e t a t i on. T hi s i n i t i a l pe r f or m a nc e w a s l a be l e d a s t ha t pa r t i c ul a r m us i c i a n s bas e l i ne r e s pons e T he m us i c i a ns w e r e t he n a s ke d t o f o l l ow t he c onduc t o r s vi de o t a pe d ge s t ur e s a s he / s he pe r f or m e d e a c h

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 34 e xc e r pt T he m us i c i a n ha d a n oppo r t uni t y t o pe r f or m e a c h e xc e r pt t w i c e w hi l e vi e w i ng t he c onduc t or vi de o ( pa us i ng f i f t e e n s e c onds be t w e e n e a c h pe r f or m a nc e ) T he s e t w o pe r f or m a nc e s c r e a t e d a pr e p os t ( w i t h c onduc t or ) s e t of pe r f or m a nc e r e c or di ngs f or e a c h ve r s i on of t he e xc e r pt ( F i gur e 2 ) F i gur e 2 i l l us t r a t e s t he m i xe d a s s i gnm e nt of c onduc t or vi de os a s t he y w e r e a s s i gne d t o r a ndom l y s e l e c t e d ne s t s of m us i c i a ns F i gur e 2. N e s t i ng P r oc e dur e 11 15 A B B A A B A A A B Pre b1 b5 w6 w10 s8 b6 b2 w2 w5 s6 b 1 = b r a s s 1 ; w 6 = w o o d w i n d 6 ; s 8 = s t r i n g 8 D at a A nal y s i s U s i ng t he f or m a t of K a r pi c ke s G e s t ur a l R e s pons e I ns t r um e nt ( G R I ) pa ne l s of e xpe r t s e va l ua t e d t he c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e e f f e c t i ve ne s s a nd t he m us i c i a n pe r f or m a nc e r e s pons e s ( ba s e l i ne a nd po s t w / c onduc t or ) a s c om pa r e d t o t he e xpr e s s i on m a r ki ngs of t he

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 35 A a nd B ve r s i ons of t he e xc e r pt F or t he c ondu c t or e va l ua t or s a n e xpe r t w a s de f i ne d a s a m us i c i a n w i t h gr a dua t e t r a i ni ng i n i ns t r um e nt a l c onduc t i ng a nd p r of e s s i ona l pe r f or m a nc e e xpe r i e n c e a s a m us i c i a n a nd c onduc t or F or t he m us i c i a n r e s pons e e va l ua t or s a n e xpe r t w a s de f i ne d a s a m us i c i a n w i t h unde r gr a dua t e t r a i ni ng i n i ns t r um e nt a l m us i c a nd pr o f e s s i ona l pe r f or m a nc e e xpe r i e nc e E a c h pa ne l i s t r e c e i ve d t r a i ni ng a nd p r a c t i c e i n hi gh l i ght i ng ( m a r ke r pe n) pe r c e i ve d e xpr e s s i ve i nt e r pr e t i ve pe r f or m a nc e us i ng a f i ve poi nt L i ke r t S c a l e a nd u t i l i z i ng t he G R I ge s t ur e or r e s pons e s c or i ng boxe s T he c onduc t or e va l ua t i on pa ne l i s t s a ppl i e d a L i ke r t S c a l e t o e va l ua t e e a c h c onduc t or vi de o r e c or di ng ( N = 15 30 e xc e r pt s ) i n t e r m s of ge s t ur a l c onduc t i ng e f f e c t i ve ne s s ( G R I G e s t ur e ) T he L i ke r t S c a l e c a t e gor i e s w e r e ( 5) de f i ni t e ge s t ur e s ( 4 ) s om e w ha t de f i ni t e ge s t ur e s ( 3) i nc ons i s t e nt ge s t ur e s ( 2) not ve r y de f i ni t e ge s t ur e s a nd ( 1) poo r ge s t ur e s T he t a s k of e a c h pa ne l i s t w a s t o r at e t he c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s as t he y at t e m pt t o e x pr e s s t hr ough t he i r pe r f or m anc e of t he phr as e t he e x pr e s s i v e and i nt e r pr e t i v e m ar k i ng s of t he e x c e r pt T he s e G R I r a t i ngs w e r e a s s i gne d w i t hout l i s t e ni ng t o a ny pe r f o r m a nc e T he de c i s i ons of t he pa ne l i s t s w e r e ba s e d on how w e l l t he c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s s e e m e d t o r e pr e s e nt t he t w o w r i t t e n ve r s i ons of t he e xc e r pt A udi o r e c or di ngs w e r e c ol l e c t e d a s m us i c i a ns pe r f or m e d t he e xc e r pt s T he a udi o r e c or di ngs w e r e l a be l e d a nd s or t e d a c c or di ng t o e x c e r pt ( A & B ) ba s e l i ne or pos t pe r f or m a nc e ( w / c onduc t or ) a nd c onduc t or ( N = 15) W he n c om pa r i ng t he pe r f or m a nc e s t o t he m a r ke d e xc e r pt t he m us i c i a n r e s pons e pa ne l i s t s e va l ua t e d t he pe r f or m a nc e s i n t e r m s of e xpr e s s i ve i nt e r pr e t i ve a c c ur a c y. T he pa ne l i s t s w e r e a s ke d t o m a r k w i t h a h i ghl i ght e r pe n w hi l e l i s t e ni ng t o t he r e c or d i ngs t hos e i nt e r p r e t i ve m a r ki ngs t ha t t he m us i c i a ns a dhe r e d t o i n t he pe r f o r m a nc e A f i ve poi nt L i ke r t S c a l e w a s us e d t o qua nt i f y e a c h

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 36 pa ne l i s t s e va l ua t i on of t he m us i c i a n r e s pons e s ( G R I R e s pons e ) T he L i ke r t S c a l e c a t e gor i e s f or m us i c i a n r e s pons e w e r e de f i ne d a s ( 5) de f i ni t e r e s pons e s ( 4) s om e w ha t de f i ni t e r e s pons e s ( 3) i nc ons i s t e nt r e s pons e s ( 2) n ot ve r y de f i ni t e r e s pons e s a nd ( 1 ) poor r e s pons e s M e as ur e m e nt G e s t ur e a nd R e s pons e s c or e s w e r e obs e r ve d i ndi vi dua l l y a nd w e r e m ul t i pl i e d t o c r e a t e a G R I s c or e f o r e a c h pe r f or m a nc e ( a s r e c om m e nde d by K a r pi c ke ) G R I s c or e s w e r e a l i gne d w i t h c onduc t or s a nd a t ot a l G R I s c or e w a s c a l c ul a t e d ( a ve r a ge d) f or e a c h of t he e xc e r pt s A C onduc t or G R I s c or e w a s c a l c ul a t e d ( a ve r a ge d) f r om t he e xc e r pt s c or e s t o gi ve e a c h c onduc t or a n ove r a l l G R I ge s t ur e r e s pons e a nd t ot a l s c or e ( F i gur e 3) F i gur e 3. C r e a t i on o f t he G R I S c or e s G R I G e s t u r e G R I R e s p o n s e G R I T O T A L S o v e r a l l t o t a l s c o n d u c t o r e x c e r p t s c o r e B A S E L I N E P O S T ( w / c o n d u c t o r ) B A S E L I N E P O S T ( w / c o n d u c t o r ) B a s e l i n e P o s t 1 1 a 1 b 4 3 w 3 b 3 s 4 w 3 b 2 s 3 w 4 b 4 s 5 w 3 b 3 s 3 4 / 3 3 3 3 / 2 6 7 4 / 4 3 / 3 1 3 3 3 8 0 0 1 6 9 N = 1 5 c o n d u c t o r s w = w o o d w i n d b = b r a s s s = s t r i n g O nc e t he s e de s c r i pt i ve da t a w e r e a c qui r e d, di f f e r e nc e s i n G R I s c or e s be t w e e n pe r f or m a nc e s of t he e xc e r pt s ( ba s e l i ne pos t w / c on duc t or ) w e r e e xa m i ne d. I f non ve r ba l c om m uni c a t i on t ook pl a c e G R I r e s pons e s c or e s s houl d i nc r e a s e e a c h t i m e a m us i c i a n

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 37 pe r f or m e d a n e xc e r pt w i t h a s pe c i f i c c onduc t or A n A N O V A c a l c ul a t e d di f f e r e nc e s i n t he a ve r a ge G R I s c or e s be t w e e n ba s e l i ne a nd pos t pe r f or m a nc e s ( w / c onduc t or ) o f t he e xc e r pt s C ha pt e r I V d i s pl a ys t hos e di f f e r e nc e s c o nc l udi ng t ha t s t r ong a nd s pe c i f i c non ve r ba l ge s t ur a l c om m uni c a t i on c a n t a ke pl a c e be t w e e n c onduc t or a nd pe r f o r m e r

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 38 C H A P T E R I V D A T A A N A L Y S I S I nt r oduc t i on T hi s c ha pt e r w i l l i l l us t r a t e a nd e l uc i da t e da t a t ha t w e r e c ol l e c t e d f r o m c onduc t or vi de os m us i c i a n r e s pons e s a nd t he e va l ua t i on of t hos e pe r f or m a nc e s r e s pons e s T he a na l ys i s w i l l be gui de d t hr ough a di s c us s i on of p r o c e s s pa r t i c i pa nt s c ol l e c t i on of da t a r e s ul t s a nd r e l i a bi l i t y of t he r e s ul t s P r oc e s s T he G e s t ur a l R e s po ns e I ns t r um e nt ( G R I ) a s de s c r i be d i n t he p r e vi ous c ha pt e r w a s ut i l i z e d i n t hi s s t udy. T he pr oduc t o f a ge s t ur e s c or e a nd r e s pons e s c or e c r e a t e s a t ot a l s c or e t ha t r e f l e c t s t he a bi l i t y of a c onduc t or t o c om m uni c a t e a m us i c a l i nt e r p r e t a t i on t hr ough c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e a nd t he c or r e s pondi ng r e s pons e of m us i c i a ns t o t hos e ge s t ur e s I t i s i m por t a nt t o unde r s t a nd w ha t e a c h o f t he s e s c or e s r e pr e s e nt s T he G R I ge s t ur e s c or e i s t he a ve r a ge s c or e o f a f o ur m e m be r pa ne l e va l ua t i on of t he c onduc t or a s he / s he c ondu c t s a pa s s a ge t ha t i s m a r ke d w i t h s pe c i f i c i nt e r pr e t i ve m a r ki ngs E va l ua t o r s r a t e d e a c h c onduc t or s a bi l i t y t o c om m uni c a t e t he i nt e r p r e t i ve m a r ki ngs of t he pa s s a ge w i t h a 1 5 num e r i c a l L i ke r t s c or e T w o c ont r a s t i ng ve r s i ons of t he e xc e r pt w e r e c r e a t e d i n o r de r t o ve r i f y r e s ul t s w e r e not obt a i ne d due t o m us i c i a n i nt ui t i on or i nna t e p r ope r t i e s of a ny pa r t i c ul a r e xpr e s s i ve i nt e r pr e t i ve a ppr oa c h. W i t h t hi s

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 39 i n m i nd, t w o G R I ge s t ur e s c or e s w e r e c a l c ul a t e d: o ne f or a n A ve r s i on o f a m e l odi c e xc e r pt a nd one f o r a B ve r s i on of t he s a m e e xc e r pt T hos e t w o s c or e s w e r e a ve r a ge d, c r e a t i ng a G R I ge s t ur e t o t a l T he G R I r e s pons e s c or e i s t he a ve r a ge s c or e of f i v e m us i c i a n pe r f or m a nc e s ( r e s pons e s ) A t hr e e m e m be r pa ne l e va l ua t e d t he s e pe r f or m a nc e s E a c h e va l ua t or a s s i gne d a L i ke r t S c or e of 1 5 ba s e d on how c l os e l y t he pe r f o r m a nc e m a t c he d t he s pe c i f i c i nt e r pr e t i ve m a r k i ngs of t he A or B ve r s i on of t he m e l odi c e xc e r pt T he ge s t ur e s c or e a nd r e s pons e s c or e f or e a c h c on duc t or w a s m ul t i pl i e d c r e a t i ng a G R I t ot al s c or e F o r e xa m pl e i f a c onduc t or r e c e i ve d a n ove r a l l ge s t ur e s c or e of 4 a nd a m us i c i a n r e s pons e s c or e of 3, t he G R I t ot a l s c or e f or t ha t c onduc t or w a s 12. A s de s c r i be d i n t he K a r pi c ke ( 1987) s t udy, t he G R I t o t a l s c or e c a n t he r e f or e r a nge f r om 1 t o 25. I f t he t w o s c or e s w e r e a dde d i ns t e a d of m ul t i p l i e d, t he t o t a l pos s i bl e s c or e w oul d be 10. T he m ul t i pl i e d s c or e a l l ow s a gr e a t e r r a nge ( 25 i ns t e a d of 10 ) P ar t i c i pant s T he pa r t i c i pa nt s i nvol ve d i n t hi s s t udy w e r e c a t e go r i z e d a s c onduc t or s a nd m us i c i a ns A s d i s c us s e d i n t he pr e vi ous c ha pt e r c onduc t or pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e r a ndom l y s e l e c t e d f r om a pool of e xpe r i e nc e d c onduc t or s I n or de r t o de t e r m i ne t he e f f e c t of ge s t ur e on t he pe r f or m a nc e of m us i c i a ns i t w a s i m por t a nt t o c ont r ol f or e xpe r i e nc e a nd t r a i ni ng of c onduc t or t he r e f o r e a l l of t he c onduc t o r s r e pr e s e nt e d s uc c e s s f ul t r a i ne d, i ns t r um e nt a l c onduc t or s T he c onduc t or s w ho a c t ua l l y pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t hi s s t udy r e f l e c t t he f ol l ow i ng de m ogr a phi c s ( T a bl e 3)

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 40 T a bl e 3 C onduc t i ng P ar t i c i pant D e m ogr aphi c s ( N = 15) N u m b e r o f C o n d u c t o r s o u t o f N = 1 5 G E N D E R F e m a l e 3 M a l e 1 2 E X P E R I E N C E H i g h S c h o o l C o n d u c t i n g 1 4 C o l l e g e U n i v e r s i t y C o n d u c t i n g 9 C o m m u n i t y E n s e m b l e C o n d u c t i n g 7 P r o f e s s i o n a l C o n d u c t i n g 3 T R A I N I N G U n d e r g r a d u a t e D e g r e e i n M u s i c 1 5 M a s t e r s D e g r e e i n M u s i c 9 D o c t o r a t e P o s t M a s t e r s D e g r e e o r s t u d y 3 N u m b e r s r e f l e c t h o w m a n y o f t h e c o n d u c t o r s ( N = 1 5 ) f i t i n t o e a c h c a t e g o r y F o r d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n o n e a c h c o n d u c t o r : s e e a p p e n d i x A T he m us i c i a ns w ho pe r f o r m e d t he m e l odi c e xc e r pt s w e r e c ol l e ge uni ve r s i t y unde r gr a dua t e m us i c m a j or s r e p r e s e nt i ng br a s s w oodw i nd, a nd s t r i ng i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s ( N = 10 br a s s / 10 w oodw i nd / 5 s t r i ng) T he G R I r e s pons e s c or e a s s i gne d t o e a c h c onduc t or w a s a n a ve r a ge of f i ve m us i c i a n r e s pons e s c or e s M us i c i a n s w e r e a s s i gne d s pe c i f i c c onduc t or s a nd e xc e r pt s t hr ough a ne s t i ng pr oc e dur e A ne s t of f i ve m us i c i a ns r e pr e s e nt i ng t w o br a s s t w o w oodw i nd a nd one s t r i ng pl a ye r vi e w e d e a c h c onduc t i ng pe r f o r m a nc e T he r a ndom ne s s of m us i c i a n a s s i gnm e nt l i m i t e d or de r e f f e c t a nd c r e a t e d 75 r e c or di ngs f or e a c h ve r s i on of t he e xc e r pt pl us 25 ba s e l i ne pe r f or m a nc e s t o t a l i ng 175 r e c or d e d pe r f or m a nc e s F o r a de t a i l e d l i s t i ng of m us i c i a n a s s i gnm e nt s s e e A ppe ndi x B

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 41 A f our m e m be r pa ne l o f e xpe r t e v a l ua t or s r a t e d t h e vi de o t a pe d pe r f o r m a nc e s of e a c h c onduc t or T he c onduc t or e va l ua t or s w e r e e x pe r t m us i c i a ns w ho ha ve e xt e ns i ve e xpe r i e nc e a s c onduc t or s pr of e s s i ona l pe r f o r m e r s a nd uni ve r s i t y m us i c p r of e s s or s D ue t o t he l a r ge num be r of pe r f or m a nc e r e c or di ng s ge ne r a t e d, t w o t h r e e m e m be r pa ne l s e va l ua t e d t he r e c or de d r e s pons e s of t he m us i c i a ns E a c h pa ne l w a s c om pr i s e d o f e xpe r i e nc e d pr of e s s i ona l m us i c i a ns P a ne l A r a t e d t he pe r f o r m a nc e s of t he f i r s t ha l f o f r e c or di ngs a nd pa ne l B e va l ua t e d t he r e m a i ni ng ha l f D at a C ol l e c t i on A s di s c us s e d i n C ha pt e r T h r e e t hi s s t udy ut i l i z e d di gi t a l vi de o a nd a udi o t e c hnol ogy t hr oughout t he da t a c ol l e c t i on pha s e A f e w da ys be f or e t he y w e r e t o pe r f or m f or t he c a m e r a c onduc t or pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e pr ovi d e d w i t h t w o d i s t i nc t ve r s i ons of t he m e l odi c e xc e r pt s e l e c t e d f or t he s t udy ( D e r J ungl i ng A m B ac he by S c hube r t ) : ve r s i on A a nd ve r s i on B ( A ppe ndi x D ) E a c h c onduc t or w a s i ns t r uc t e d t o r e vi e w a nd pr a c t i c e bot h ve r s i ons of t he m e l odi c e xc e r pt ke e pi ng i n m i nd t ha t t he goa l w a s t o c ond uc t i n s uc h a w a y t o e l i c i t a n i nt e r pr e t i ve r e s pons e f r om a m us i c i a n a s c l os e a s p os s i bl e t o t he i nt e r pr e t a t i ve m a r ki ngs on t he w r i t t e n e xc e r pt T he c onduc t or w a s a s ke d t o us e a ba t on a nd w a s i n f or m e d t ha t f a c i a l c ue s w oul d be di gi t a l l y r e m ove d f r om t he vi de o. A bl a nk w a l l w a s us e d a s a ba c kgr ound a nd t he di gi t a l vi de o c a m e r a w a s pl a c e d a ppr oxi m a t e l y 12 15 f e e t a w a y. T he c a m e r a vi e w w a s f r a m e d a bove t he c onduc t or s w a i s t s o t ha t a l l o f t he be a t pa t t e r ns a nd

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 42 ge s t ur e s c oul d be r e c or de d. C onduc t i ng pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a l s o i ns t r uc t e d t ha t t he y c oul d s i ng, w hi s t l e o r hum a s t he y c onduc t e d i f t he y w i s he d, a nd t ha t t he a udi o w oul d be t ur ne d of f w he n t he m us i c i a ns vi e w e d t he vi de o. A c onduc t or c ode ( 1 t o 15) a nd a n e xc e r pt c ode ( A or B ) w e r e ve r ba l l y c ue d a t t he be gi nni ng of e a c h vi de ot a pe d c onduc t i ng pe r f or m a nc e O nc e e a c h c onduc t or r e n de r e d pe r f or m a nc e s of bot h ve r s i ons of t he e xc e r pt a di gi t a l vi de o bl u r w a s pl a c e d ove r t he f a c e o f e a c h c onduc t or T he di gi t a l bl ur pr ohi b i t e d m u s i c i a n pa r t i c i pa nt s f r om de c i phe r i ng f a c i a l ge s t ur e s t ha t m i ght r e l a t e t o t he m us i c T h i s pr oc e s s a l s o i nhi bi t e d t he i de nt i f i c a t i on of t he c onduc t i ng pa r t i c i pa nt s T he pr oduc t w a s a m a s t e r vi de o o f f i f t e e n c onduc t or s c onduc t i ng bot h ve r s i ons of t he e xc e r pt i n a w a y t ha t a t l e a s t i n t he m i nd of t he c o nduc t or c om m uni c a t e d a s m uc h of t he i nt e r pr e t i ve de t a i l s a s pos s i bl e M us i c i a n pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e r e c or de d w hi l e pe r f or m i ng f r o m a n unm a r ke d c opy o f t he m e l odi c e xc e r pt ( F i gur e 4) A l t hough i t r e t a i ns r hyt hm i c a nd m e l odi c e l e m e nt s t he unm a r ke d c opy of t he e xc e r pt i s voi d o f a ny i nt e r p r e t i ve phr a s e m a r ki ngs F i gur e 4. M e l odi c E xc e r pt ( unm a r ke d)

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 43 T he r e c or di ng e qui pm e nt c ons i s t e d of a dua l c a s s e t t e r e c or de r t w o o m ni di r e c t i ona l m i c r ophone s a nd a 20 t e l e v i s i on m oni t or w i t h V C R pl a yba c k. T he m i c r ophone s w e r e pl a c e d a t t he opt i m um di s t a nc e a ppr opr i a t e f o r e a c h i ns t r um e nt E a c h m us i c i a n w a s gi ve n t he opt i on o f pe r f or m i ng w hi l e s e a t e d or s t a ndi ng w i t h t he t e l e vi s i on m oni t or pl a c e d a t e ye l e ve l t w o a nd o ne ha l f f e e t a w a y. M us i c i a n s w e r e gi ve n t he unm a r ke d c opy of t he e x c e r pt i n a dva nc e a nd w e r e a bl e t o pr a c t i c e t he e xc e r pt unt i l i t w a s w e l l unde r ha nd O nc e w a r m e d up a nd f a m i l i a r i z e d w i t h t he r e c or di ng s ur r oundi ngs t he m us i c i a n w a s a s ke d t o pe r f or m t he e xc e r pt ut i l i z i ng hi s / he r ow n pe r s ona l i nt e r p r e t a t i on. T hi s i n i t i a l or bas e l i ne pe r f or m a nc e w a s r e c or de d t o pr ovi de a r e f e r e nc e f r om w hi c h c ha nge s i n f ut ur e pe r f or m a nc e s c oul d be m e a s ur e d. T he ba s e l i ne pe r f or m a nc e de m ons t r a t e d a m us i c i a n s i nt ui t i ve i nt e r p r e t a t i on pr i o r t o t he c onduc t or i ni t i a t e d pe r f or m a nc e s O nc e t he ba s e l i ne pe r f or m a nc e w a s r e c or de d, t he m us i c i a n w a s i ns t r uc t e d t o pe r f or m t he e xc e r pt w hi l e vi e w i ng s i x vi de o r e c or di ngs s e l e c t e d f r om t he t hi r t y c onduc t or vi de o pe r f or m a nc e s T he m us i c i a n w a s a s ke d t o i n t e r pr e t t he e xc e r pt i n t he w a y t ha t he / s he f e l t t he c onduc t or w a s c om m uni c a t i ng m us i c a l i nt e r pr e t a t i on t hr ough c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e T he m us i c i a n s pe r f or m a nc e r e s pons e w a s r e c or de d on a udi o c a s s e t t e t a pe a nd l a be l e d w i t h t he c or r e s pondi ng c onduc t or e xc e r pt c ode T hi s p r oc e s s c r e a t e d a ba s e l i ne a nd s i x c onduc t or i ni t i a t e d pe r f o r m a nc e s f or e a c h m us i c i a n ( N = 25) A de t a i l e d l i s t i ng of m us i c i a n c ode s a nd t he c or r e s pondi ng ne s t i ng of c onduc t or vi de os c a n be f ound i n A ppe ndi x B

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 44 I t i s i m po r t a nt t o not e t ha t m us i c i a ns pe r f or m e d a l ong w i t h e a c h c onduc t i ng v i de o t w i c e w i t h f i f t e e n s e c ond i nt e r va l s be t w e e n e a c h; f i r s t a s a pr a c t i c e r e c or d i ng ( p r e ) a nd s e c ondl y a s a pos t ( w / C onduc t or ) r e c or di ng T he pos t ( w / C onduc t or ) r e c or di ng w a s us e d a s da t a f or t he e va l ua t i on pr oc e dur e T he r e c o r di ng pr oc e s s w a s not ha l t e d, e ve n i n t hos e c a s e s w he r e t he m us i c i a n c oul d not f ol l ow t h e c onduc t or s ge s t ur e s P ane l E v al uat i on P a ne l s of qua l i f i e d pr of e s s i ona l m us i c i a ns e va l ua t e d t he vi de o a nd a udi o r e c or di ngs pr oduc e d by t he c onduc t or s a nd m us i c i a ns T he e va l ua t i on p r oc e s s ut i l i z e d a 1 5 L i ke r t s c a l e s c or i ng s ys t e m a nd a p r oc e dur e t h a t i nvol ve d hi ghl i ght i ng i nt e r p r e t i ve a r t i c ul a t i ve m a r ki ngs on c opi e s of t he m e l odi c e xc e r pt T he c onduc t or e va l ua t i on pa ne l w a s i ns t r uc t e d t o v i e w e a c h c onduc t or c onduc t e a c h ve r s i on of t he e xc e r pt ( A & B ) w hi l e f ol l ow i n g a l ong w i t h t he m a t c hi ng m a r ke d ve r s i on of t he e xc e r pt A s t he c onduc t or u t i l i z e d pa t t e r ns a nd ge s t ur e s t ha t t he e va l ua t or r e ga r de d a s e f f e c t i ve c om m uni c a t i on of a n i nt e r p r e t a t i ve m a r k on t he s c or e t he e va l ua t or w a s t o hi ghl i ght ( w i t h a m a r ke r pe n) t he s pe c i f i c i n t e r pr e t i ve a r t i c ul a t i ve m a r ki ngs ( F i gur e 5 )

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 45 F i gur e 5. T he E va l ua t i on P r oc e s s : S a m pl e of a H i g hl i ght e d C opy of E xc e r pt A O nc e t he e va l ua t or vi e w e d t h e c onduc t or s vi de ot a pe d pe r f or m a nc e s a nd hi ghl i ght e d t he i nt e r pr e t i ve a r t i c ul a t i ve m a r ki ngs t ha t i n t he vi e w o f t he e va l ua t or w e r e e f f e c t i ve l y c om m uni c a t e d, a 1 5 L i ke r t s c or e w a s a s s i gne d. A s di s c us s e d i n C ha pt e r T hr e e t he L i ke r t s c or i ng s ys t e m w a s de f i ne d i n t h e f ol l ow i ng w a y: ( 5) de f i ni t e ge s t ur e s ( 4) s om e w ha t de f i ni t e ge s t ur e s ( 3 ) i nc ons i s t e nt ge s t ur e s ( 2) not ve r y de f i ni t e ge s t ur e s ( 1) poo r ge s t ur e s T he t a s k of t he e va l ua t or w a s t o r a t e t he c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s a s t he y a t t e m pt e d t o e xpr e s s t he a r t i c ul a t i ve a nd i nt e r p r e t i ve m a r ki ngs of t he e xc e r pt A s i l l us t r a t e d i n T a bl e 4, t hi s s c or i ng pr oc e s s a s s i gne d f our r a t i ngs t o e a c h c onduc t or ( N = 15) f or e a c h ve r s i on o f t he e xc e r pt ( A & B ) A m e a n s c or e f or e a c h c onduc t or w a s c a l c ul a t e d a nd t e r m e d a s t he G R I G e s t ur e s c or e

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 46 T a bl e 4 C onduc t or V i de o P e r f or m anc e E v al uat i ons of t he f our m e m be r pane l : G R I G e s t ur e Sc or e E v a l u a t o r ( I I V ) A o r B v e r s i o n o f t h e e x c e r p t I A I B I I A I I B I I I A I I I B I V A I V B M e a n = G R I G e s t u r e s c o r e C O N D U C T O R 1 3 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 2 5 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 3 3 2 0 0 3 4 4 2 2 4 4 4 4 3 5 0 4 2 2 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 1 2 5 4 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 7 6 3 3 3 2 3 1 1 1 2 1 2 7 2 2 1 2 3 2 4 4 2 5 0 8 3 3 2 2 3 2 3 3 2 6 2 9 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 7 5 1 0 4 4 3 3 4 4 2 3 3 3 7 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 5 1 2 3 2 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 6 2 1 3 2 2 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 0 0 1 4 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 3 7 1 5 5 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 3 7 A s i m i l a r pr oc e s s w a s us e d t o e va l ua t e m us i c i a n r e s pons e s t o t he c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s D ue t o t he nu m be r o f r e c or d i ngs c r e a t e d ( 175) t w o t h r e e m e m be r pa ne l s o f m us i c i a n e va l ua t or s l i s t e ne d t o t he m us i c i a n pe r f or m a nc e s T he s e e va l ua t or s w e r e i ns t r uc t e d t o t r a c k t he pe r f o r m a nc e s w i t h t he c or r e s pondi ng ve r s i on of t he e xc e r pt m a r ki ng t he i n t e r pr e t i ve a r t i c ul a t i ons t ha t w e r e pe r c e i ve d by t he e va l ua t or A 1 5 L i ke r t s c or e w a s a s s i gne d t o t he m us i c i a n r e s pons e ( pe r f or m a nc e ) r e f l e c t i ng t he e va l ua t or s pe r c e pt i on o f t he de gr e e t o w hi c h t he m us i c i a n pe r f or m e d t he s pe c i f i c i nt e r pr e t i ve a r t i c ul a t i ve m a r ki ngs of t he e xc e r pt T he L i ke r t S c a l e c a t e gor i e s f or m us i c i a n r e s pons e w e r e ; ( 5) de f i ni t e r e s pons e s ( 4) s om e w ha t de f i ni t e r e s pons e s ( 3) i nc ons i s t e nt r e s pons e s ( 2) not ve r y de f i ni t e r e s pons e s ( 1) poor r e s pons e s

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 47 T he B as e l i ne pe r f or m a nc e s c r e a t e d by e a c h m us i c i a n w e r e s c or e d a ga i ns t t he A a nd B ve r s i ons of t he e xc e r pt S i nc e t he ba s e l i ne p e r f or m a nc e w a s t he m us i c i a n s ow n pe r s ona l i nt e r pr e t a t i on o f t he e xc e r pt a nd be c a us e t he ba s e l i ne pe r f or m a nc e w a s c om pa r e d t o t he A a nd B m a r ke d ve r s i on of t he e xc e r pt t he e va l ua t or s L i ke r t r a t i ng w a s t ypi c a l l y l ow ( 1 0 < 2. 66) T he L i ke r t r a t i ngs f or ba s e l i ne pe r f or m a nc e s a s t he y w e r e e va l ua t e d a ga i ns t t he A a nd B ve r s i ons of t he e xc e r pt a r e di s pl a ye d i n T a bl e 5. T a bl e 5 E v al uat i ons of M us i c i an B as e l i ne P e r f or m anc e s M u s i c i a n C o d e E x c e r p t A / B M e a n s c o r e B 1 ( 1 ) 1 3 3 / 1 3 3 B 2 ( 2 ) 2 0 / 1 6 6 B 3 ( 3 ) 1 6 6 / 1 6 6 B 4 ( 4 ) 1 0 / 1 0 B 5 ( 5 ) 1 6 6 / 1 3 3 B 6 ( 6 ) 2 3 3 / 2 0 B 7 ( 7 ) 1 6 6 / 1 6 6 B 8 ( 8 ) 2 6 6 / 2 0 B 9 ( 9 ) 2 3 3 / 2 6 6 B 1 0 ( 1 0 ) 2 0 / 2 0 W 1 ( 1 1 ) 2 0 / 2 0 W 2 ( 1 2 ) 2 3 3 / 2 3 3 W 3 ( 1 3 ) 2 3 3 / 1 3 3 W 4 ( 1 4 ) 1 6 6 / 1 3 3 W 5 ( 1 5 ) 3 0 / 3 0 W 6 ( 1 6 ) 2 0 / 2 0 W 7 ( 1 7 ) 2 0 / 2 0 W 8 ( 1 8 ) 1 6 6 / 1 6 6 W 9 ( 1 9 ) 2 0 / 2 3 3 W 1 0 ( 2 0 ) 2 3 3 / 3 0 S 1 ( 2 1 ) 1 6 6 / 1 6 6 S 2 ( 2 2 ) 2 0 / 1 3 3 S 3 ( 2 3 ) 2 3 3 / 2 0 S 4 ( 2 4 ) 1 3 3 / 2 3 3 S 5 ( 2 5 ) 2 0 / 2 0 B = B r a s s M u s i c i a n C o d e / W = W o o d w i n d M u s i c i a n C o d e / S = S t r i n g M u s i c i a n C o d e

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 48 T he m us i c i a n r e s pons e s c or e s w e r e a l i gne d w i t h e a c h c onduc t or T he m e a n f or t he P os t ( w / C onduc t or ) m us i c i a n r e s pons e s of e a c h ne s t w a s c a l c ul a t e d i n or de r t o c r e a t e a G R I R e s pons e s c or e f or e a c h c onduc t or T a bl e 6 di s pl a ys t he m us i c i a n m e a n r e s pons e s c or e s f or e a c h c onduc t or s ne s t o f m us i c i a ns T a bl e 6 M us i c i an M e an R e s pons e Sc or e s f or E ac h C onduc t or C O N D U C T O R G R I R e s p o n s e S c o r e 1 3 1 5 2 2 5 3 3 2 8 7 4 2 9 7 5 3 2 0 6 2 6 6 7 2 6 0 8 2 7 7 9 2 2 3 1 0 3 4 1 1 2 4 3 1 2 2 9 7 1 3 2 7 0 1 4 2 2 3 1 5 3 4 3 T h e G R I R e s p o n s e s c o r e i s t h e m e a n o f t h e m u s i c i a n r e s p o n s e s c o r e o f t h e n e s t t h a t v i e w t h e c o n d u c t o r T a bl e 7 r e f l e c t s t he G R I T O T A L s c or e s f or e a c h c onduc t or T hi s s c or e i s t he pr oduc t o f t he G R I R e s pons e a nd G R I G e s t ur e s c or e T h e G R I T O T A L s c or e qua nt i f i e s t he e f f e c t of t he c onduc t or s ge s t ur e s on t he m us i c i a n s r e s pons e s ( K a r pi c ke 1987)

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 49 T a bl e 7 G R I T o t al Sc or e s C O N D U C T O R G R I G e s t u r e S c o r e ( G R I G ) G R I R e s p o n s e S c o r e ( G R I R ) G R I T O T A L ( G R I G x G R I R ) 1 3 2 5 3 1 5 1 0 2 4 2 2 2 5 3 5 0 7 3 3 5 2 8 7 1 0 0 3 4 3 1 2 2 9 7 9 2 7 5 3 3 7 3 2 0 1 0 8 6 2 1 2 2 6 6 5 6 5 7 2 1 5 2 6 0 6 5 8 2 6 2 2 7 7 7 2 6 9 1 7 5 2 2 3 3 9 1 1 0 3 3 7 3 4 0 1 1 4 7 1 1 2 2 5 2 4 3 5 4 7 1 2 2 6 2 2 9 7 7 7 8 1 3 3 2 7 0 8 1 1 4 1 3 7 2 2 3 3 0 7 1 5 4 3 7 3 4 3 1 5 0 2 R a n g e = 3 0 7 < 1 5 0 2 I nt e r r at e r R e l i abi l i t y T hr e a t s t o va l i di t y c a n a r i s e i n s t udi e s t ha t i nvol ve s ubj e c t i ve a s s e s s m e nt i f i nt e r r a t e r r e l i a bi l i t y i s not e s t i m a t e d a nd a c c ount e d f o r T hi s s t udy i nvo l ve d t he e va l ua t i on of c onduc t or s by one pa ne l o f r a t e r s a nd t he e va l ua t i on of m us i c i a n r e s pons e s by t w o ot he r pa ne l s of e va l ua t or s I t i s i m por t a nt t o r e m e m be r t ha t s ubj e c t i ve r a t i ng, e s pe c i a l l y f or m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e w i l l t ypi c a l l y ge ne r a t e m e di um hi gh r e l i a bi l i t y e s t i m a t e s ( r = 55 80) I t i s i m po r t a nt t o e xa m i ne r e l i a bi l i t y quot i e nt s a s t he y r e l a t e t o l i t e r a t u r e i n t he f i e l d T hi s pa r t i c ul a r s t udy ut i l i z e s t he G e s t ur a l R e s pons e I ns t r um e nt ( G R I ) de ve l ope d i n t he K a r pi c ke s t udy of 1987 R e l i a bi l i t y quot i e nt s of t h e K a r pi c ke s t udy r a nge d f r om r = 50 t o r = 80

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 50 T he f i r s t e xa m i na t i on of i nt e r r a t e r r e l i a bi l i t y i nvol ve d a n e va l ua t i on of t he c onduc t or s a s t he y c onduc t e d t he t w o ve r s i ons of t he e xc e r pt T he e s t i m a t e d r e l i a bi l i t y of t he pa ne l w he n t he y e va l ua t e d a l l c onduc t or s on t h e A ve r s i on of t he e xc e r p t w a s r = 38 T he r e l i a bi l i t y e s t i m a t e f o r t he e va l ua t i ons of t he B ve r s i on w a s r = 55 T he r e l i a bi l i t y of t he A ve r s i on ( r = 38 ) e va l ua t i ons i s qui t e l ow T he B e va l ua t i ons f a l l w i t hi n t he m e di um r a nge o f r e l i a bi l i t y ( r = 55) S i nc e t he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e f ound be t w e e n ve r s i ons of t he e xc e r pt a nd c onduc t or G R I G e s t ur e s c or e s a nd gi ve n t he r e s ul t s of t he i ni t i a l r e l i a bi l i t y e s t i m a t e s f or t he G R I G e s t ur e s c or e s t he r e s e a r c he r e xt r a c t e d t he M i d a bi l i t y c onduc t or s a nd c a l c ul a t e d r e l i a bi l i t y e s t i m a t e s f or t he H i gh a nd L o w c onduc t or e va l ua t i ons T he e s t i m a t e d r e l i a bi l i t y of t he pa ne l w he n t he y e va l ua t e d H i gh a nd L ow a bi l i t y c onduc t or s on t he A ve r s i on o f t he e xc e r pt w a s r = 56. T he r e l i a bi l i t y e s t i m a t e f or t he e va l ua t i ons of H i gh a nd L o w c onduc t or s on t he B ve r s i on w a s r = 68 E xt r a c t i ng t he m i d a bi l i t y c onduc t or s i nc r e a s e d t he i nt e r r a t e r r e l i a bi l i t y e s t i m a t e s R e l i a bi l i t y w a s a l s o m e a s ur e d be t w e e n r a t e r s of t h e m us i c i a n r e s pons e s O nc e a ga i n, t he s e e s t i m a t e s r e f l e c t t he e va l ua t i on o f r e s pons e s t o t he A ve r s i on a nd t he B ve r s i on of t he e t ude T he r e l i a bi l i t y f or t he e va l ua t i ons of m us i c i a n r e s pons e s f or t he A ve r s i on of t he e t ude w a s r = 51. E va l ua t i ons o f m u s i c i a n r e s pons e s f or t he B ve r s i on of t he e t ude w a s i n t he m e di um h i gh r a nge ( r = 67) O nc e a ga i n, e s t i m a t e d r e l i a bi l i t y s c or e s w e r e hi ghe r f o r t he B ve r s i on t ha n t ha t of t he A ve r s i on.

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 51 G i ve n t ha t t he s e r e l i a bi l i t y c oe f f i c i e nt s w e r e ga t he r e d f r om s m a l l g r oups ( n = 5) of c onduc t or e va l ua t i ons t he r = 51 67 r a nge m i ght be c ons i de r e d a c c e pt a bl e r e l i a bi l i t y. A nal y s i s of D at a A s de s c r i be d a bove t he e va l ua t or s c r e a t e d a hi ghl i ght e d r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he i nt e r pr e t i ve a s pe c t s of t he pe r f or m a nc e s a s t he y s t u di e d t he c or r e s pondi ng m a r ki ngs on t he A or B ve r s i on of t he e xc e r pt A 1 5 L i ke r t S c or e w a s a s s i gne d f or e a c h pe r f or m a nc e T he c onduc t or s c or e s ( G R I G e s t ur e ) a nd m us i c i a n r e s pons e s c or e s ( G R I R e s pons e ) w e r e m a t c he d a nd l i s t e d i n a n e xc e l f i l e W he n e xa m i ni ng H i e r a r c hi c a l L i ne a r M ode l s t he uni t of m e a s ur e m us t r e m a i n i nde pe nde nt s o a s not t o vi o l a t e a s s um pt i ons W i t h t hi s i n m i nd, t he m e a n s c or e o f t he pa ne l e va l ua t i ons w a s us e d a s t he uni t of m e a s ur e f or G R I G e s t ur e a nd G R I R e s pons e s c or e s E a c h c onduc t or s G R I G e s t ur e s c or e r e f l e c t s t he a ve r a ge s c or e of t he f ou r m e m be r pa ne l t ha t e va l ua t e d c onduc t o r vi de o pe r f or m a nc e s ( T a bl e 4) T he s e G R I G e s t ur e s c or e s w e r e us e d t o s e pa r a t e t he c onduc t or s i nt o L ow ( n = 5) M e di um ( n = 5 ) or H i gh ( n = 5) c a t e gor i e s T a bl e 8 di s pl a ys t hi s r a nki ng.

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 52 T a bl e 8 C onduc t o r R ank i ng: c at e gor i z e d bas e d on G R I G e s t ur e s c o r e G R I g e s t u r e s c o r e C O N D U C T O R M E A N 1 5 4 3 7 5 3 3 5 1 0 3 3 7 5 5 3 3 7 5 1 3 2 5 4 3 1 2 5 1 3 3 1 2 2 6 2 5 8 2 6 2 5 7 2 5 1 1 2 2 5 6 2 1 2 5 2 2 9 1 7 5 1 4 1 3 7 5 H i g h C o n d u c t o r G r o u p n = 5 ( M 3 5 8 S D 4 6 ) L o w C o n d u c t o r G r o u p n = 5 ( M 1 9 8 S D 3 5 ) F i ve nul l hypot he s e s w e r e c ons t r uc t e d i n or de r t o a ppl y a n A na l ys i s of V a r i a nc e ( A N O V A ) f or t he s e da t a : H 1 : T he r e i s no di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n c or r e s pondi ng G R I M us i c i a n m e a n R e s pons e s c or e s of c onduc t or s w ho s c or e h i gh o n G R I G e s t ur e a nd t hos e c onduc t or s w ho s c or e l ow on G R I G e s t ur e H 2 : T he r e i s no i n t e r a c t i on be t w e e n B a s e l i ne m us i c i a n m e a n r e s pons e s c or e s a nd c or r e s pondi ng P os t ( w / C onduc t or ) m us i c i a n m e a n r e s pons e s c or e s f or c onduc t or s w i t h H i gh a nd L ow G R I G e s t u r e s c or e s H 3 : T he r e i s no i n t e r a c t i on be t w e e n B a s e l i ne m us i c i a n m e a n r e s pons e s c or e s a nd c or r e s pondi ng P os t ( w / C onduc t or ) m e a n r e s pons e s c or e s f or e a c h e xc e r pt ( A & B )

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 53 H 4 : T he r e i s no di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n G R I c onduc t or m e a n ge s t ur e s c or e s f or t he ( A ) a nd ( B ) ve r s i ons of t he e xc e r pt H 5 : T he r e i s no di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n b r a s s w oodw i nd, a nd s t r i ng m us i c i a n m e a n r e s pons e s c or e s f or t he ( A ) or ( B ) ve r s i ons o f t he e xc e r pt T he nul l hypot he s e s w e r e de ve l ope d i n or de r t o e xa m i ne t he que s t i on of ge s t ur e i nf l ue nc e on m us i c i a n pe r f or m a nc e E a c h nul l hyp ot he s i s w a s e xa m i ne d us i ng t he a ppr opr i a t e A N O V A de s i gn. T he f i r s t que s t i on e xa m i ne d w he t he r c onduc t o r s w ho r e c e i ve d hi ghe r G R I G e s t ur e s c or e s w e r e a c t ua l l y a bl e t o s ol i c i t h i ghe r G R I R e s pons e s c or e s f r om t he m us i c i a ns t ha n t hos e c onduc t or s w ho r e c e i ve d l ow e r G R I G e s t ur e s c or e s A s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n hi gh a nd l ow c onduc t or gr oups i ndi c a t e s t ha t c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s a l one c a n e l i c i t c ons i s t e nt m us i c a l r e s pons e s f r om m us i c i a ns T he f i r s t nul l hypot he s i s i s s t a t e d a s f ol l ow s : H 1 : T he r e i s no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n c or r e s pondi ng G R I M us i c i a n m e a n R e s pon s e s c or e s of c onduc t or s w ho s c or e hi gh on G R I G e s t ur e a nd t hos e c onduc t or s w ho s c or e l ow on G R I G e s t ur e C onduc t or s w e r e c a t e gor i z e d i nt o hi gh m i d l ow l e ve l s ba s e d on t he i r G R I G e s t ur e s c or e s T a bl e 9 di s pl a ys t he m a i n e f f e c t m e a ns f or m us i c i a n r e s pons e s s or t e d by c onduc t or l e ve l

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 54 T a bl e 9 C onduc t or L e v e l ( C O N L E V E L ) and G R I R e s pons e s c or e s C O N L E V E L ( H i M i d L o w ) G R I R e s pons e M e a n ( S D ) H i ( n= 5 ) 3. 10, ( 47 ) M i d ( n= 5) 2. 85, ( 44 ) L o ( n= 5) 2. 47, ( 36 ) S a m p l e m e a n o f a l l r e s p o n s e s & s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s ( S D ) s o r t e d b y c o n d u c t o r l e v e l T w o ve r s i ons of t he e xc e r pt w e r e ut i l i z e d. T a bl e 1 0 di s pl a ys t he m e a ns of m us i c i a n ne s t s t h a t pe r f or m e d f or e a c h c onduc t or gr oup. T a bl e 10 C onduc t or L e v e l and G R I R e s pons e s c or e s f or e ac h v e r s i on ( A & B ) C O N L E V E L ( H i M i d L o ) G R I R e s p 'A M e a n ( S D ) G R I R e s p 'B M e a n ( S D ) H i ( n= 5 ) 2. 86, ( 54) 3. 34, ( 41) M i d ( n= 5) 2. 96, ( 46) 2. 74 ( 42) L o ( n= 5) 2. 26, ( 40) 2. 68, ( 33) S a m p l e m e a n ( M ) & s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n ( S D ) T he A N O V A pr oc e dur e t ha t e xa m i ne d c onduc t or l e ve l ( hi gh, m i ddl e a nd l ow ) a nd e xc e r pt i s i l l us t r a t e d i n T a bl e 11. R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e t ha t c onduc t or s of t he H i gh c l a s s i f i c a t i on ( M 3. 10) w e r e a bl e t o e l i c i t s i gni f i c a nt l y hi ghe r G R I R e s pons e s c or e s f r om m us i c i a ns t ha n c onduc t or s of t he L ow c l a s s i f i c a t i on ( M e a n D i f f e r e nc e = 2. 47) T he r e i s a n i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n C onduc t or l e ve l a nd w he t he r t he c onduc t or w a s a t t e m pt i ng t o i nt e r pr e t t he A or B ve r s i on of t he e xc e r pt C on duc t or s of bot h t he L ow a nd H i gh

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 55 c l a s s i f i c a t i ons e l i c i t e d hi ghe r G R I R e s pons e s c or e s f r om m us i c i a ns w he n a t t e m pt i ng t o i nt e r pr e t t he B ve r s i on of t he e xc e r pt ( T a bl e 10) T a bl e 11 G R I M us i c i an R e s p ons e : A N O V A P r oc e dur e f or C onduc t or L e v e l and E x c e r pt S o u r c e D F F V a l u e P r > F C O N L E V E L 2 2 6 5 7 < 0 0 0 1 E X C E R P T 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 8 C O N L E V E L E X C E R P T 2 1 0 0 9 < 0 0 0 1 C onduc t or s of t he m i d a bi l i t y gr oup ( n= 5) s c or e d s l i ght l y hi ghe r w he n a t t e m pt i ng t o i n t e r pr e t t he A ve r s i on of t he e xc e r pt A pos t h oc T uke y t e s t e xa m i ne d pa i r w i s e c om pa r i s ons be t w e e n c onduc t or gr oups a nd i ndi c a t e s s a s i gni f i c a nt ( p < 05 ) a nd l a r ge e f f e c t s i z e ( 79 ) be t w e e n t he L ow C onduc t or gr oup a nd t he M i ddl e a nd H i gh g r oups on ve r s i on A o f t he e xc e r pt T he r e w a s a l s o a s i gni f i c a nt ( p < 05) a nd l a r ge e f f e c t s i z e ( 61) di s pl a ye d be t w e e n t he L ow C onduc t or gr oup a nd t he H i gh C onduc t or g r oup on ve r s i on B of t he e xc e r pt I t i s i m po r t a nt t o not e t ha t t he d i f f e r e nc e be t w e e n m e a n di f f e r e nc e s of G R I R e s pons e s c or e s f or t he m i d a bi l i t y c onduc t or s a s t he y c onduc t e d t he A ve r s i on ( M = 2. 96 S D 46 ) o r B ve r s i on ( M = 2. 74 S D = 42) i s s m a l l ( M = 22 ) a nd l e d t o a n i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n l e ve l of c onduc t or a nd e xc e r pt ( F = 10 09, p < 0001 ) F i gur e 6 p r e s e nt s t he i nt e r a c t i on e f f e c t f o r G R I R e s pons e s of H i gh M e di um L ow r a t e d c onduc t or s a s t he y i nt e r p r e t e d t he A or B ve r s i on of t he e xc e r pt

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 56 F i gur e 6. C onduc t or & E xc e r pt I n t e r a c t i on f o r G R I R e s pons e S c or e s A V e r s i on B V e r s i on T he G R I R e s pons e s c or e s of m i d a bi l i t y c onduc t or s w i t h r e s pe c t t o e xc e r pt ( A a nd B ) di s pl a y a n oppos i t e e f f e c t T he m i d a bi l i t y l e ve l c onduc t or s s c or e d s l i ght l y hi ghe r w hi l e a t t e m pt i ng t o i nt e r pr e t t he A ve r s i o n of t he e xc e r pt ( 2. 79 v s 2 78) I n F i gur e 7, m i d a bi l i t y l e ve l c onduc t or s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s a m ode r a t i ng va r i a bl e ( J a c c a r d, 1998) a nd a r e r e m ove d f r om t he i nt e r a c t i on gr a ph. F i gur e 7 i l l us t r a t e s t he c onc l us i on t ha t t he r e e xi s t a s i gni f i c a nt d i f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he r e s pons e s of m us i c i a ns t o t he hi gh r a t e d c onduc t or s ( H i gh G R I G e s t ur e ) a nd t hos e c onduc t or s w ho w e r e c l a s s i f i e d i n t he l ow r a t e d gr oup ( L ow G R I G e s t ur e ) ( F = 26. 57, p < 000 1) T he di f f e r e nc e s i n M e a ns w hi l e r e l a t i ve l y s m a l l a r e not due t o c ha nc e T he hi gh c o nduc t or gr o up e l i c i t e d hi ghe r m us i c i a n r e s pons e s c or e s on bot h ve r s i ons of t he e xc e r pt t h a n t he l ow c onduc t or gr oup

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 57 F i gur e 7. G R I R e s pons e S c or e s of H i gh a nd L ow A bi l i t y C onduc t or s w i t h E xc e r pt A V e r s i on B V e r s i on A n e xa m i na t i on of t he G R I R e s pons e s c or e s of t he m us i c i a ns di s pl a ye d a s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he bas e l i ne pe r f or m anc e ( e a c h m us i c i a n s pe r s ona l i nt e r pr e t a t i on) a nd t he pos t pe r f or m anc e ( w hi l e w a t c hi ng t he c onduc t or ) T he nul l hypot he s i s w a s s t a t e d a s f ol l ow s : H 2 : T he r e i s no i n t e r a c t i on b e t w e e n B a s e l i n e m us i c i a n m e a n r e s p o n s e s c or e s a nd c o r r e s p o ndi n g P os t ( w / c ondu c t or ) m us i c i a n m e a n r e s p o n s e s c or e s f or c ondu c t or s w i t h H i g h a nd L ow G R I G e s t ur e s c or e s T a bl e 12 di s pl a ys t he m e a n s c or e s of ba s e l i ne a nd pos t pe r f or m a nc e s w i t h C onduc t or s ( w / C onduc t or ) a s t he y r e l a t e t o t he L ow M e di um a nd H i gh c a t e gor y c onduc t or s T he da t a s ugge s t t ha t t he c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s c ha nge d t he pe r f or m a nc e o f t he m us i c i a ns a nd

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 58 t ha t t he c ha nge d pe r f o r m a nc e c or r e s ponde d t o t he c onduc t or s pr e de t e r m i ne d i nt e r pr e t a t i on ( F = 188. 18 p < 0001 ) T a bl e 12 G r oup m e ans f or C onduc t or L e v e l ( C O N L E V E L ) a nd B as e l i ne P os t pe r f or m anc e s ( w / C onduc t or ) of m us i c i ans f or e ac h e x c e r pt v e r s i on ( A & B ) C O N L E V E L ( H i M i d L o ) B a s e l i ne 'A m e a n ( S D ) w / C onduc t or 'A m e a n ( S D ) B a s e l i ne 'B m e a n ( S D ) w / C onduc t or 'B m e a n ( S D ) H i ( n= 5 ) 1. 79, ( 48) 2. 99, ( 99) 1. 99, ( 50) 3. 42, ( 78) M i d ( n= 5) 2. 14, ( 33) 2. 79, ( 81) 1. 78, ( 54) 2. 78, ( 64) L o ( n= 5) 1. 97, ( 42) 2. 15, ( 42) 2. 05, ( 65) 2. 63, ( 72) S a m p l e m e a n s & s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n ( S D ) T a bl e 13 di s pl a ys r e s ul t s of t he A N O V A pr oc e dur e a ppl i e d t o c onduc t or l e ve l ( C O N L E V E L ) a nd c ha nge s c or e s be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne ( B L ) a nd pos t pe r f or m a nc e s w i t h c onduc t or s ( w / C onduc t or ) T a bl e 13 A N O V A pr o c e dur e f or B as e l i ne w i t h C onduc t or ( B L w / C onduc t or ) C onduc t or L e v e l ( C O N L E V E L ) and E x c e r pt S o u r c e D F F V a l u e P r > F B L w / C o n d u c t o r ( T i m e ) 1 1 8 8 1 8 < 0 0 0 1 B L w / C o n d u c t o r C O N L E V E L 2 1 9 0 2 < 0 0 0 1 B L w / C o n d u c t o r E X C E R P T 1 7 0 0 0 0 0 9 1 E r r o r ( B L w / C o n d u c t o r ) 1 4 6 B L w / C onduc t or *C O N L E V E L r e f e r s t o t he i n t e r a c t i on be t w e e n ba s e l i ne ( B L ) a nd pos t pe r f or m a nc e s c or e s w i t h c onduc t or s ( w / C onduc t or ) a s m us i c i a ns pe r f or m e d w hi l e vi e w i ng H i gh a nd L ow a bi l i t y l e ve l c onduc t or s A N O V A f ound t ha t t he r e w a s a

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 59 s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne pe r f or m a nc e ( B L ) a nd t he pos t pe r f or m a nc e r e s pons e ( w / C onduc t or ) w hi l e w a t c hi ng t he c ondu c t or vi de os ( F 19. 02 p < 0001) A pos t hoc T uke y t e s t de t e r m i ne d t ha t a s i gni f i c a nt d i f f e r e nc e ( p < 05) a nd l a r ge e f f e c t s i z e ( 64) e xi s t e d be t w e e n t he L ow C onduc t or g r oup a n d t he M i d a bi l i t y c onduc t or g r oup a nd a l s o be t w e e n t he L ow a nd H i gh c onduc t or gr oup ( 84) f o r t he A ve r s i on of t he e xc e r pt A s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e ( p < 05 ) a nd l a r ge e f f e c t s i z e ( 79) w a s a l s o e vi de nt be t w e e n t he L ow c onduc t or g r oup a nd t he H i gh c onduc t or g r ou p f or ve r s i on B T he i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n t he M i d a bi l i t y a nd H i gh c onduc t or gr oup w a s a l s o s i gni f i c a nt ( p < 05 ) a nd di s pl a ye d a l a r ge e f f e c t s i z e ( 64 ) H ypot he s i s t hr e e e xa m i ne d i f a s i gni f i c a nt i nt e r a c t i on e xi s t e d be t w e e n c onduc t or s a bi l i t y t o e l i c i t s pe c i f i c m us i c i a n r e s pons e s a nd e a c h e xc e r pt ( A & B ) H 3 : T he r e i s no i n t e r a c t i on be t w e e n B a s e l i ne m us i c i a n m e a n r e s pons e s c or e s a nd c or r e s pondi ng P os t ( w / C onduc t or ) m e a n r e s pons e s c or e s f or e a c h e xc e r pt ( A & B ) T he m us i c i a n s w / C onduc t or ( P os t ) r e s pons e s c or e s i nc r e a s e d s i gni f i c a nt l y de pe ndi ng on w he t he r H i gh M i ddl e o r L ow a bi l i t y c onduc t or s w e r e a t t e m pt i ng t he A or B ve r s i on of t he e xc e r pt ( T a bl e 14) T a bl e 14 B as e l i ne and P O ST G R I R e s pons e Sc or e s of H i gh and L ow L e v e l C onduc t or s C O N D U C T O R L E V E L B a s e l i n e G R I R e s p o n s e A v e r s i o n / B v e r s i o n w / C o n d u c t o r G R I R e s p o n s e A v e r s i o n / B v e r s i o n H i g h 1 7 9 1 9 9 2 9 9 3 4 2 M i d d l e 2 1 4 1 7 8 2 7 9 2 7 8 L o w 1 9 7 2 0 5 2 1 5 2 6 4

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 60 A s r e f l e c t e d t hr ough t he B L w / C onduc t or E xc e r pt i nt e r a c t i on a na l ys i s ( T a bl e 15) t he r e w a s a s i gni f i c a nt d i f f e r e nc e be t w e e n e xc e r pt s : t ha t i s t o s a y, s om e c ond uc t or s e l i c i t e d hi ghe r G R I R e s pons e s c or e s w hi l e a t t e m pt i ng t o c onduc t t he B ve r s i on ( F = 7 0, p = 00091 ) T a bl e 15 A N O V A pr oc e dur e f or B as e l i ne w i t h C onduc t or ( B L w / C onduc t or ) C onduc t or L e v e l ( C O N L E V E L ) and E x c e r pt S o u r c e D F F V a l u e P r > F B L w / C o n d u c t o r ( T i m e ) 1 1 8 8 1 8 < 0 0 0 1 B L w / C o n d u c t o r C O N L E V E L 2 1 9 0 2 < 0 0 0 1 B L w / C o n d u c t o r E X C E R P T 1 7 0 0 0 0 0 9 1 E r r o r ( B L w / C o n d u c t o r ) 1 4 6 A s pr e vi ous l y di s c us s e d, A pos t hoc T uke y t e s t c o m pa r e d t he be t w e e n gr oup m e a ns of t he H i gh M i ddl e a nd L ow a bi l i t y c onduc t or s f or s i gni f i c a nc e f i ndi ng t ha t t he H i gh a nd L ow gr oup c onduc t or s e l i c i t e d s i gni f i c a n t l y hi ghe r G R I R e s pons e s c or e s w hi l e c onduc t i ng t he B ve r s i on of t he e xc e r pt T he M i d dl e a bi l i t y c onduc t or gr oup e l i c i t e d s l i ght l y hi ghe r G R I R e s po ns e s c or e s w hi l e c onduc t i ng t he A ve r s i on of t he e xc e r pt A s i l l us t r a t e d i n F i gu r e 8 a nd F i gu r e 9, i t i s i nt e r e s t i ng t o not e t ha t t he r e w a s a s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne a nd pos t ( w / C onduc t or ) pe r f o r m a nc e of m us i c i a ns a s t he y pe r f or m e d b ot h ve r s i ons of t he e xc e r pt w i t h H i gh M e di um a nd L ow G R I G e s t ur e c l a s s i f i e d c onduc t or s ( F = 19. 02 p < 0001) E ve n t hough t he m us i c i a ns c r e a t e d onl y one ba s e l i ne pe r f o r m a nc e a ga i ns t w hi c h a l l of t he i r s ubs e que nt pe r f or m a nc e

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 61 r e s pons e s w e r e m e a s ur e d, t he ne s t e d m e a ns f or t he ba s e l i ne pe r f or m a nc e s di f f e r e d be t w e e n c onduc t or s a nd e xc e r pt s S i nc e t he ne s t i ng pr oc e dur e p r oduc e d va r i e d c om bi na t i ons of m us i c i a ns m e a n s c or e s f o r t he ba s e l i ne pe r f or m a nc e s of t he ne s t s a l s o va r i e d. A p os t hoc T uke y t e s t r e ve a l e d a s i gni f i c a n t ( p < 05 ) ye t s m a l l e f f e c t s i z e ( 34) be t w e e n t he ne s t e d B a s e l i ne s c or e s w he n c om pa r e d t o t he A ve r s i on of t he e xc e r pt f o r t he H i gh a nd M i ddl e c onduc t or gr oups ( F i gur e 8) B a s e l i ne s c or e s w he n c om pa r e d t o t he B ve r s i on of t he e xc e r p t di s pl a ye d a s i gni f i c a nt ( p < 05 ) ye t s m a l l e f f e c t s i z e ( 26) be t w e e n t he ne s t e d B a s e l i ne s c or e s f or t he M i ddl e a nd L ow c onduc t or gr oups ( F i gur e 9) F i gur e 8. E xc e r p t A : M us i c i a n B a s e l i ne a nd P os t P e r f or m a nc e R e s pons e s BL POST

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 62 F or e xc e r pt A t he l a r ge s t i nc r e a s e be t w e e n ba s e l i ne a nd pos t pe r f o r m a nc e s oc c ur r e d w i t h m us i c i a n ne s t t ha t ha d t he l ow e s t ba s e l i ne s c or e a nd pe r f or m e d f or t he hi gh r a t e d c onduc t or s F i gur e 9. E xc e r p t B : M us i c i a n B a s e l i ne a nd P os t P e r f or m a nc e R e s pons e s BL POST I f a s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e w a s f ound be t w e e n G R I G e s t ur e s c or e s of t he t w o ve r s i ons of t he e xc e r pt ( A & B ) i t m i ght be c onc l u de d t ha t one ve r s i on w a s m uc h e a s i e r t o c onduc t or i nt e r pr e t F or t he pur pos e s of t hi s s t udy, i t w a s i m por t a nt t ha t bot h ve r s i ons of t he e t ude w e r e s i m i l a r i n t e r m s of i nt e r pr e t i ve d e m a nd, ye t r e qui r e d ve r y di f f e r e nt i nt e r pr e t i ve a ppr oa c he s I n or de r t o de t e r m i ne i f t h e r e w a s a di f f e r e nc e i n di f f i c ul t y be t w e e n ve r s i ons of t he e xc e r pt t he f ol l ow i ng nul l hypot he s i s w a s e xa m i ne d:

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 63 H 4 : T he r e i s no di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n G R I c onduc t o r m e a n ge s t ur e s c or e s of t he ( A ) a nd ( B ) ve r s i ons of t he e xc e r pt A s di s pl a ye d i n T a bl e 16 A N O V A c onc l ude d t ha t t he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n ve r s i ons A a nd B of t he e t ude ( E X C E R P T ) i n t e r m s o f G R I C ondu c t or G e s t ur e s c or e s ( C O N L E V E L ) T a bl e 16 G R I G e s t ur e : A N O V A pr oc e dur e f or C onduc t or L e v e l and E x c e r p t ( A & B ) S o u r c e D F F V a l u e P r > F C O N L E V E L 2 5 5 1 0 0 8 0 E X C E R P T 1 2 4 0 1 2 3 8 E r r o r 1 4 6 T he r e w a s no s i g n i f i c a nt di f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t he G R I G e s t ur e s c or e s a s s i g n e d t o e a c h c ondu c t or b y t he pa ne l of c ondu c t or e v a l u a t o r s a nd c ondu c t or s a t t e m p t s t o c ondu c t t he A or B v e r s i ons of t he e x c e r p t T he r e w a s a s a l r e a d y di s c us s e d, s i g n i f i c a nt d i f f e r e n c e s be t w e e n G R I R e s p o n s e s c or e s of m us i c i a ns a s t he y p e r f or m e d w i t h c ondu c t or s ( F = 5. 51, p = 008) A s di s c u s s e d e a r l i e r t he H i g h a nd L ow l e v e l c ondu c t or s a t t e m p t s t o i n t e r pr e t t he B v e r s i on e l i c i t e d a h i g h e r G R I R e s p o n s e f r o m t he m us i c i a ns ( F i g u r e 7) T a bl e 17 di s pl a ys t he r a nke d or de r f or a l l of t he c o nduc t or s ba s e d on t he pr oduc t of t he G R I G e s t ur e a nd G R I R e s pons e s c or e s ( G R I T O T A L )

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 64 T a bl e 17 G R I T O T A L : R ank of C onduc t or s H i gh t o L ow G R I G e s t u r e G R I R e s p o n s e G R I C O N D U C T O R G e s t u r e s c o r e R e s p o n s e s c o r e T O T A L 1 5 4 3 7 3 4 3 1 5 0 2 1 0 3 3 7 3 4 1 1 4 7 5 3 3 7 3 2 1 0 8 1 3 2 5 3 1 5 1 0 2 4 3 3 5 2 8 6 1 0 0 3 4 3 1 2 2 9 7 9 2 7 1 3 3 2 7 8 1 1 2 2 6 2 2 9 7 7 7 8 8 2 6 2 2 7 7 7 2 6 7 2 5 2 6 6 5 6 2 1 2 2 6 6 5 6 5 1 1 2 2 5 2 4 3 5 4 7 2 2 2 5 3 5 0 7 9 1 7 5 2 2 3 3 9 1 1 4 1 3 7 2 2 3 3 0 7 A n e xa m i na t i on of di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he r e s pons e s of br a s s w oodw i nd, a nd s t r i ng i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s w a s i nve s t i ga t e d, e i t he r a s a c onf oundi ng va r i a bl e or a s f odde r f or f ut ur e r e s e a r c h. U s i ng t he f o l l ow i ng nul l hypot he s i s a s a di r e c t i ve no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he r e s pons e s of t he t hr e e i ns t r um e nt t ype s w a s f ound. H 5 : T he r e i s no di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n b r a s s w oodw i nd, a nd s t r i ng m us i c i a n r e s pons e s c or e s f or t he ( A ) or ( B ) ve r s i ons of t he e t ude T a bl e 18 M e ans f or I ns t r um e nt t y pe and r e s pons e pe r e x c e r pt I N S T R E x c e r p t A m e a n ( S D ) E x c e r p t B m e a n ( S D ) b r a s s 2 7 3 ( 1 0 ) 3 1 1 ( 8 7 ) w o o d w i n d 2 5 4 ( 8 8 ) 2 8 6 ( 8 3 ) s t r i n g 2 7 0 ( 7 5 ) 2 7 9 ( 4 1 ) S a m p l e m e a n & s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n ( S D )

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 65 T a bl e 18 di s pl a ys t he m e a ns a nd s t a nda r d de vi a t i o ns f or m us i c i a n r e s pons e s s or t e d by i ns t r um e nt R e s ul t s of t he A N O V A pr oc e dur e ( T a bl e 19) i ndi c a t e t ha t t he r e w a s no i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n i ns t r um e nt T ype ( I N S T R ) a nd e xc e r pt A o r B ( E X C E R P T ) A s di s c us s e d e a r l i e r L ow a nd H i gh gr oup c onduc t or s e l i c i t e d a hi ghe r r e s pons e f r om m us i c i a ns w hi l e a t t e m pt i ng t he B ve r s i on o f t he e xc e r pt ( F = 4. 71 p = 0318) T a bl e 19 A N O V A pr oc e dur e f or I ns t r um e nt T y pe S o u r c e D F F V a l u e P r > F I N S T R 2 1 1 6 3 1 6 9 E X C E R P T 1 4 7 1 0 3 1 8 I N S T R E X C E R P T 2 3 2 7 2 0 9 O t he r O b s e r v at i ons S ubs t a nt i a l qua nt i t i e s of vi s ua l da t a ha ve be e n ge n e r a t e d t hr ough t hi s s t udy. V i de o r e c or di ngs of c onduc t or pe r f or m a nc e s f or b ot h ve r s i ons of t he e xc e r pt a r e qui t e r e ve a l i ng, e s pe c i a l l y c om pa r i s ons of t he H i gh g r ou p ( t op 5 ) t o t he L ow g r oup ( bo t t om 5 ) H i ghl i ght e d e va l ua t i ons of t he e t ude di s pl a ye d t he i nt e r pr e t i ve m a r ki ngs t ha t e va l ua t or s he a r d m us i c i a ns br i ng f o r t h i n t he i r pe r f o r m a nc e s T he r e w e r e c e r t a i n t r e nds t ha t c a n be di s c us s e d.

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 66 T he ve r t i c a l a nd hor i z ont a l pl a ne s ut i l i z e d by t he H i gh G R I r a t e d c onduc t or s s e e m e d t o c or r e s pond w i t h r hyt hm i c a nd l yr i c a l pa s s a ge s T he pa t t e r ns o f t he H i gh gr oup t e nde d t o be c om e m or e ve r t i c a l w hi l e c onduc t i ng r hyt hm i c pa s s a ge s a nd m or e hor i z ont a l w hi l e c onduc t i ng l yr i c a l pa s s a ge s T he l a t e r a l pl a n e of t he H i gh gr oup c onduc t or s t e nde d t o s hi f t a s t he m us i c i nc r e a s e d a nd de c r e a s e d i n vol um e a nd t e m pi W he n t he r e w a s a n i nc r e a s e i n vol um e or t e m pi t he l a t e r a l c onduc t i ng pl a ne s e e m e d t o m ove f or w a r d W he n t he r e w a s a de c r e a s e i n vol um e o r t e m pi t he pl a ne a ppe a r e d pul l e d ba c k. T he H i gh g r oup c onduc t or s t e nde d t o s hi f t i n a nd o ut of t r a di t i ona l be a t pa t t e r ns c onduc t i ng m or e of a ge ne r a l phr a s e i n s pa c e a nd t i m e T hi s e c onom y of ge s t ur e w a s e vi de nt i n t he r i ght ha nd be a t pa t t e r n a nd i n l e f t ha nd c ue s T he L ow g r oup c onduc t or s t e nde d t o m a i nt a i n t he ba s i c be a t pa t t e r ns t h r ougho ut t he pe r f or m a nc e S om e c ons i s t e nc i e s s e e m e d e vi de nt a nd s houl d be a na l yz e d t hr ough f ut ur e r e s e a r c h de s i gne d t o a ppr opr i a t e l y de a l w i t h t he qua l i t a t i ve da t a ge ne r a t e d t hr ough t h i s s t udy. T he hi ghl i ght e d e va l ua t i ons of t he m us i c i a n r e s pons e s r e ve a l e d t ha t c e r t a i n a r t i c ul a t i on pa t t e r ns a nd dyna m i c t e nde nc i e s m i gh t be i nt ui t i ve T he s e i nt ui t i ve t e nde nc i e s w e r e e vi de nt i n t he ba s e l i ne pe r f or m a n c e s of t he m us i c i a ns none o f w hom c ol l a bo r a t e d i n a ny w a y A r e s e a r c h de s i gn de ve l ope d f or t he a na l ys i s of t he i nt ui t i ve i nt e r pr e t i ve t e nde nc i e s of m us i c i a ns m i ght r e ve a l s t r ong c ons i s t e nc i e s

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 67 Sum m ar y I t i s i m po r t a nt t o r e m e m be r t ha t t he m us i c i a ns ha d no e xpr e s s i ve i nt e r pr e t i ve m a r ki ngs on t he i r e xc e r pt c opy E ve n s o, t he r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e t ha t w he n m us i c i a ns pe r f or m e d t he e xc e r pt w hi l e vi e w i ng hi gh r a t e d c o nduc t or s t he y w e r e a bl e t o r e a l i z e s ubs t a nt i a l l y m or e of t he e xpr e s s i ve i nt e r pr e t i ve m a r ki ngs t ha n w he n t he y pe r f or m e d w hi l e vi e w i ng l ow e r r a t e d c onduc t or s

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 68 C H A P T E R V D I S C U S S I O N T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o e xa m i ne t he e f f e c t of non ve r ba l c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s on m us i c i a ns s t yl i s t i c r e s pons e a nd de t e r m i ne i f c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e a l one c a n e l i c i t c ons i s t e nt a nd a c c ur a t e m us i c a l r e s pons e s f r om m us i c i a ns I t w a s de t e r m i ne d t ha t s om e e xpe r i e nc e d i ns t r um e nt a l c onduc t or s s uc c e s s f ul l y ut i l i z e non ve r ba l c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s t o c om m uni c a t e s pe c i f i c m us i c a l i nt e r pr e t a t i ons I t a ppe a r e d t ha t unde r g r a dua t e i ns t r um e nt a l m us i c m a j or s ( m us i c i a ns ) r e s ponde d i n f a vor a bl e w a ys t o t he m us i c a l i nt e r pr e t a t i on o f c onduc t or s w ho ha d c om m a nd o f a va r i e t y of c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s I t a l s o a ppe a r e d t ha t t hos e c onduc t or s w e r e a bl e t o i l l i c i t s pe c i f i c m us i c a l r e s pons e s f r om t he m us i c i a ns T he r e s ul t s i l l us t r a t e d t he e xi s t e nc e of a t ype of s oc i a l c ul t u r a l c ont r a c t a m ong m us i c i a ns : a c ont r a c t t ha t f a c i l i t a t e s non ve r ba l c om m uni c a t i on e xpr e s s e d t hr ough ge s t ur a l c onduc t i ng. A s di s c us s e d i n C ha pt e r O ne e f f e c t i ve c onduc t i ng r e qui r e s e xt e ns i ve know l e dge of t he m us i c a l s c or e c om bi ne d w i t h a n a bi l i t y t o m a ke m us i c a l de c i s i ons A c c or di ng t o t he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy, s om e of t he e xpe r i e nc e d c onduc t or pa r t i c i pa nt s l a c ke d t he ge s t ur a l t e c hni que a nd voc a bul a r y ne c e s s a r y t o c o nve y m us i c a l de c i s i ons w i t hout ve r ba l i ns t r uc t i on. T he r e w e r e how e ve r c onduc t i ng pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho pos s e s s e d t he t e c hni c a l a bi l i t y r e qui r e d t o e l i c i t a hi gh de gr e e of t a r ge t e d r e s pons e f r om m us i c i a ns w i t hout t he us e of ve r ba l o r f a c i a l c ue s

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 69 T he s t udy of c onduc t i ng ha s f oc us e d pr i m a r i l y o n e f f e c t i ve s c or e s t udy t e c hni que s ve r ba l c om m uni c a t i on, ba s i c c onduc t i ng pa t t e r ns a nd f a c i a l c ue s F e w r e s e a r c he r s ha ve e xa m i ne d t he e f f e c t s of ge s t ur a l t e c hni que on pe r f or m a nc e ( S ous a 1988; C of e r 1998; G r a ve s 1984; H ous e 1998; S i dot i 1991 ) A s di s c us s e d i n C ha pt e r T w o, one s t udy de ve l ope d a n i ns t r um e nt t ha t a s s e s s e s t he e f f e c t of c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s on t he i nt e r p r e t i ve r e s pons e of m us i c i a ns ( K a r pi c ke 1987) U s i ng t he G e s t ur a l R e s pons e I ns t r um e nt de ve l ope d by K a r pi c ke t h i s s t udy ha s c onf i r m e d t ha t t he r e e xi s t s a n uns poke n voc a bul a r y t ha t f i ne c onduc t or s pos s e s s T hi s uns poke n voc a bul a r y, w he n e f f e c t i ve l y a ppl i e d, m a y ha ve p r e c i s e i nf l ue nc e on t he i nt e r p r e t i ve r e s pons e of m us i c i a ns A s de s c r i be d i n t he pr e vi ous c ha pt e r t hi s s t udy i nv ol ve d t w o gr oups o f pe r f or m i ng pa r t i c i pa nt s : c onduc t or s a nd m us i c i a ns C onduc t or s w e r e r a ndom l y s e l e c t e d f r om a pool o f f i f t y e xpe r i e nc e d c onduc t or s a l l r e s i di ng i n C e nt r a l F l or i da T he e xpe r i e nc e s of t he s e i ns t r um e nt a l c onduc t or s r a nge d f r om s uc c e s s f ul hi gh s c hool c onduc t i ng, c ol l e ge uni ve r s i t y c onduc t i ng t o pr o f e s s i ona l ba nd/ or c he s t r a c onduc t i ng. Q ua nt i t a t i ve da t a c ol l e c t e d f r o m t he a s s e s s m e nt of t he c onduc t or a nd m us i c i a n g r oups w e r e a na l yz e d. F i f t e e n c onduc t or s ( N = 15) a gr e e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s s t udy. T w o di s t i nc t i nt e r pr e t a t i ons of a m e l odi c e xc e r pt w e r e c r e a t e d. E a c h c onduc t or w a s a s ke d t o c onduc t bot h i nt e r pr e t i ve ve r s i ons of t he e xc e r pt T he s e c o nduc t i ng pe r f or m a nc e s w e r e vi de ot a pe d a nd c ode d w i t h c onduc t or num be r a nd e xc e r pt ve r s i on ( A o r B )

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 70 D i gi t a l t e c hnol ogy w a s us e d t o bl u r t he f a c e of e a c h c onduc t or t he r e by e l i m i na t i ng f a c i a l e xpr e s s i on a nd i de nt i f i c a t i on. A pa ne l of f our e xpe r t s e va l ua t e d t he c onduc t or vi de o pe r f or m a nc e s T he s e pe r f or m a nc e s w e r e a s s e s s e d i n t w o w a ys F i r s t t he e va l ua t or s us e d a m a r ke r pe n t o hi ghl i ght t hos e i nt e r p r e t i ve i t e m s t ha t t he c onduc t o r c onve ye d a de qua t e l y. T hi s pr oc e s s c r e a t e d a vi s ua l r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he ge s t ur a l e f f e c t i ve ne s s of e a c h c onduc t or on e a c h ve r s i on of t he e xc e r pt S e c ondl y, t he e va l ua t or s a s s i gne d a 1 5 L i ke r t S c or e f or e a c h c onduc t i ng pe r f or m a nc e T hi s s c or e w a s t e r m e d a s t he G R I G e s t ur e s c or e ( G R I : G e s t ur e R e s pons e I ns t r um e nt ) C ol l e ge M us i c i a n s f r om a m ong f our c ol l e ge / uni ve r s i t y m us i c de pa r t m e nt s pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t hi s s t udy T he a bi l i t y of t he m us i c i a ns va r i e d a nd r e pr e s e nt e d br a s s w oodw i nd, a nd s t r i ng i ns t r um e nt s ( N = 25: 10 b r a s s / 10 w oodw i nd / 5 s t r i ng ) T he m us i c i a ns w e r e a s ke d t o pe r f or m f r om a n unm a r ke d e di t i on of t he S c hube r t m e l ody, D e r J ungl i ng A m B ac he E a c h m us i c i a n f i r s t r e c or de d a pe r f or m a nc e t ha t r e pr e s e nt e d a pe r s ona l i nt e r pr e t a t i on of t he e xc e r pt T ha t i ni t i a l r e c or di ng w a s l a be l e d a s t he ba s e l i ne pe r f or m a nc e W hi l e vi e w i ng s e l e c t e d c onduc t or vi de os t he m us i c i a ns w e r e a s ke d t o pe r f or m t he e t ude a s t he y be l i e ve d t he c o nduc t or i nt e r p r e t e d i t E a c h pe r f or m a nc e w a s r e c or de d a nd c ode d w i t h a m us i c i a n num be r c ode a nd t he c or r e s pondi ng c onduc t or e xc e r pt c ode T hi s pr oc e s s c r e a t e d a ba s e l i ne a nd pos t w i t h c onduc t or s e t of pe r f or m a nc e s t ha t c o r r e s ponde d w i t h s pe c i f i c c onduc t or vi de o pe r f or m a nc e s

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 71 T w o pa ne l s of t hr e e e va l ua t or s l i s t e ne d t o t he m us i c i a n r e s pons e s ( pe r f or m a nc e s w i t h c onduc t or s ) T he m us i c i a ns ge ne r a t e d a t ot a l of 175 r e c or di ngs of t he e xc e r pt O ne pa ne l ( P a ne l A ) r e vi e w e d 84 r e c or di ngs ; t he ot he r pa ne l ( P a ne l B ) r e vi e w e d 91 r e c or di ngs T he e va l ua t or s us e d a m a r ke r pe n t o hi ghl i ght t hos e i nt e r p r e t i ve i t e m s t ha t t he y f e l t t he m us i c i a n c onve ye d a de qua t e l y. T hi s p r oc e s s c r e a t e d a vi s ua l r e pr e s e nt a t i on f or t he r e s pons e of e a c h m us i c i a n, on e a c h ve r s i on of t he e t ude T he e va l ua t or s t he n a s s i gne d a 1 5 L i ke r t S c or e f or e a c h of t he s e m us i c i a n r e s pons e s T hi s s c or e w a s t e r m e d a s t he G R I R e s pons e s c or e D a t a w e r e s ubj e c t e d t o a n A na l ys i s of V a r i a nc e ( A N O V A ) t e c hni que t o de t e r m i ne w he t he r or not t he r e w e r e d i f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n ba s e l i ne pe r f or m a nc e s a nd t he m us i c i a n r e s pons e s ge ne r a t e d w hi l e vi e w i ng c onduc t or s E duc at i onal I m pac t B a s e d on s ubs t a nt i a l a c c om pl i s hm e nt s w i t hi n t he i r pe r f o r m a nc e a nd c onduc t i ng r e a l m s a l l o f t he c onduc t or pa r t i c i pa nt s i nvol ve d i n t hi s s t udy w e r e e xpe r i e nc e d m us i c i a ns c onduc t or s H ow e ve r s om e w e r e not a b l e t o c ons i s t e nt l y c onve y pr e c i s e m us i c a l m e s s a ge s T he c onduc t or pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e gi ve n pr e de t e r m i ne d i nt e r pr e t a t i ons of t he m e l odi c e xc e r pt a nd w e r e a s ke d t o c om m uni c a t e t hos e pr e de t e r m i ne d m us i c a l de c i s i ons T he hi gh r a t e d c o nduc t or s w ho pos s e s s e d a hi ghl y de ve l ope d ge s t ur a l voc a bul a r y a s i t f unc t i ons w i t hi n a n a ppa r e nt c ond uc t or m us i c i a n c ont r a c t w e r e a bl e t o c onve y t hos e pr e de t e r m i ne d a r t i c ul a t i ons dyna m i c s a nd phr a s e m a r ki ngs E ve n w i t h t he r e m ova l of ve r ba l a nd f a c i a l c ue s i t a ppe a r s t ha t t h e s e c onduc t or s ha d de ve l ope d t he

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 72 a bi l i t y t o c om m un i c a t e m us i c a l de c i s i ons t hr ough c onduc t i ng ge s t ur a l t e c hni que a l one T he e xi s t e nc e of a s oc i al c ul t ur al c ont r ac t a m ong m us i c i a ns a nd c onduc t or s i nvol vi ng non ve r ba l c om m uni c a t i o n m a y be s upp or t e d t hr ough t he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy. C onduc t or s w ho c ont i nua l l y e xa m i ne de ve l op, a n d e xpl oi t t hi s c onduc t or m us i c i an c ont r ac t m a y be c om e e qui ppe d t o m a na ge r e he a r s a l t i m e w i s e l y a nd ga i n a hi ghe r a nd e f f i c i e nt de gr e e o f i nt e r p r e t i ve r e s p ons e f r om t he m us i c i a ns unde r hi s / he r ba t on. T hr ough c onduc t or a nd m us i c t e a c he r t r a i ni ng c ur r i c ul a m e t hods de s i gne d t o e nha nc e t he c onduc t or m us i c i a n c ont r a c t s houl d b e de ve l ope d. W i t h r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy i n m i nd, t he E l i z a be t h G r e e n ( 1961) m e t hod of ps y c hol ogi c al c onduc t i ng m a y be a m os t a ppr opr i a t e c om pone nt f or c onduc t o r t r a i ni ng a nd c ur r i c ul a T he G e s t ur a l R e s pons e I ns t r um e nt ( K a r pi c ke 1987) u t i l i z e d i n t hi s s t udy w a s a r e a s ona bl e m e a s ur e of c onduc t or e f f e c t i ve ne s s a nd m us i c i a n r e s pons e U s e of t he G R I a s a s ui t a bl e i ns t r uc t i ona l t oo l i n c onduc t or t r a i ni ng i s e nc our a ge d. T r e nds t ha t a ppe a r e d i n t he vi de o a nd e va l ua t i ve p r oc e s s of t hi s s t udy m a y s ugge s t t ha t t he i s ol a t i on of s pe c i f i c e m bl e m s ( S ous a 1988) t he de ve l opm e nt o f a w i de r a ngi ng ge s t ur a l voc a bul a r y a nd p r ope r us e of t he ho r i z ont a l ve r t i c a l a nd l a t e r a l pl a ne s a ppe a r ke y i n t he e f f e c t i ve us e of t he c ondu c t or m us i c i an c ont r ac t F or t he m us i c e duc a t or / c onduc t or t he e xpl oi t a t i on of c onduc t i ng t e c hni que pa i r e d w i t h s t r ong non ve r ba l c om m uni c a t i on m a y e nha n c e a t e a c he r s a bi l i t y t o m a na ge m us i c r e he a r s a l be ha vi or s a nd de ve l op t he c onduc t or m u s i c i a n c ont r a c t i n young

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 73 m us i c i a ns T he r e s e a r c h of C of e r ( 1998) a nd S ous a ( 1988) c onf i r m t ha t i ns t r uc t i on i n t he r e c ogni t i on of s pe c i f i c c ondu c t i ng ge s t ur e s m a y e n ha nc e t he i nt e r pr e t i ve pe r f or m a nc e o f young m us i c i a ns T he c onduc t or m us i c i a n c ont r a c t m a y be t he m i l i e u f r om w hi c h m us i c a l i nt e r pr e t a t i on i s c om m un i c a t e d non ve r ba l l y. M e t hods t ha t e nha nc e t he de ve l opm e nt of t hi s c onduc t or m us i c i a n c ont r a c t s houl d be i nc or po r a t e d a s a di m e ns i on of e ns e m bl e t r a i ni ng F ut ur e R e s e ar c h A s di s c us s e d i n C ha pt e r F our t he vi s ua l da t a ge ne r a t e d t hough t hi s s t udy i s r i pe f or f ur t he r r e s e a r c h. E xa m i na t i on o f t he h i ghl i ght e d e va l ua t i ons f or t he m us i c i a n ba s e l i ne pe r f or m a nc e s a nd r e s pons e s di s pl a ye d i nt e r pr e t i ve t r e nds I t i s pos s i bl e t ha t m us i c i a ns ha ve de ve l ope d i nt ui t i ve i nt e r p r e t i ve a ppr oa c he s c ons i s t e nt w i t h c e r t a i n t ype s of pa s s a ge s a nd m ot i ve s I f t hi s i s t he c a s e one c a n s ur m i s e t h a t t he i nt e r p r e t i v e i nt ui t i on of m us i c i a ns i s a l s o a n a s pe c t of t he c onduc t or m us i c i a n c ont r a c t A s t udy de s i gne d t o e xa m i ne t he i nt ui t i ve a pp r oa c he s of m us i c i a ns w oul d c e r t a i nl y a dd t o r e s e a r c h i n m us i c pe r c e pt i on, i nt e r p r e t a t i on, a nd c onduc t i ng. T hi s pa r t i c ul a r s t udy c a t e gor i z e d c onduc t or s a s H i gh, M e di um a nd L ow ge s t ur a l c om m uni c a t or s C ons i s t e nt di f f e r e nc e s s e e m e d t o e xi s t i n t e r m s of pa t t e r n us e of pl a ne gr a vi t y, a nd e m bl e m s A s t udy de s i gne d t o e xa m i ne t he ge s t ur a l t e nde nc i e s of h i gh s c or i ng c onduc t or s c oul d a i d i n t he de ve l opm e nt o f e f f e c t i ve m e t hods f or t r a i ni ng c onduc t or s i n t he us e of ge s t ur e a nd e xpl oi t a t i on o f t he c onduc t or m us i c i a n c ont r a c t

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 74 T hi s s t udy f oc us e d on non ve r ba l c om m uni c a t i on t hr ough t he ba t on a nd ha nds of c onduc t or s A s t udy, w hi c h f oc us e s on f a c i a l c ue s a s non ve r ba l c om m uni c a t i on, c oul d ut i l i z e a s i m i l a r r e s e a r c h de s i gn a nd t he G e s t ur a l R e s pons e I ns t r um e nt ( G R I ) A c om pa r i s on of G R I s c or e s ge ne r a t e d t hr ough t h i s s t udy a nd t he G R I s c or e s ge ne r a t e d t hr ough a f a c i a l c ue s s t udy w oul d a i d i n t he de ve l opm e nt of r e s e a r c h ba s e d c onduc t i ng c ur r i c ul a a nd f ur t he r e xpl or a t i on o f t he c onduc t or m us i c i a n c ont r a c t A l t hough t he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy a r e i m por t a nt c a ut i on i n t he i nt e r p r e t a t i on of t he s e out c om e s i s r e c om m e nde d. R e s e a r c he r s w ho m i ght r e pl i c a t e t hi s de s i gn a r e a dvi s e d t o pr e pa r e t he e va l ua t or s of c onduc t or vi de os a nd m us i c i a n r e s pons e s t hr ough a m or e r i gor ous pr oc e dur e E va l ua t or s i nvol ve d i n t hi s s t u dy w e r e gi ve n w r i t t e n a nd ve r ba l i ns t r uc t i ons on t he hi ghl i g ht i ng a nd L i ke r t S c a l e s c or i ng pr oc e s s T he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of a m or e s pe c i f i c r ub r i c t ha t c or r obo r a t e s t he num be r of hi ghl i ght e d r e s pons e s w i t h a L i ke r t S c or e r a t i ng i s r e c om m e nde d ( E x: t hr e e hi ghl i gh t s = L i ke r t r a t i ng of 1 ; e i ght hi ghl i ght s = L i ke r t r a t i ng of 3 ; e t c ) A l t hough t he r e l i a bi l i t y quot i e nt s of t hi s s t udy a r e a c c e pt a bl e gi ve n t he num be r of s ubj e c t s i nt e r r a t e r r e l i a bi l i t y c oe f f i c i e nt s m a y r i s e i f e va l ua t or s a r e e xpos e d t o a c t ua l pr a c t i c e s e s s i ons T he m e l odi c e xc e r pt us e d i n t hi s s t udy w a s m a r ke d w i t h t w o di f f e r e nt i nt e r pr e t a t i ons : how e ve r t he na t ur e of bot h i nt e r pr e t a t i ons of t he m e l ody ( D e r J ungl i ng A m B ac he ) w a s l yr i c a l F ut u r e s t udi e s m i ght ut i l i z e a w i de r va r i e t y of l yr i c a l a nd r hyt hm i c i nt e r p r e t a t i ons T he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t h i s r e s e a r c h de s i gn w i t h i ndi vi dua l m us i c i a ns w ho w e r e i ns t r uc t e d t o pa y c a r e f ul a t t e nt i on t o t he c onduc t or s ge s t ur e s m a y

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 75 e xa gge r a t e t he e c ol ogi c a l va l i di t y o f t he r e s ul t s I n di vi dua l m us i c i a n pe r f o r m a nc e s w e r e e va l ua t e d ( r a t he r t ha n e ns e m bl e pe r f or m a nc e s ) s o t ha t t he i nf l ue nc e o f ot he r m us i c i a ns on i ndi vi dua l i nt e r p r e t a t i on c oul d be c ont r ol l e d I n or de r t o i nc r e a s e e c ol ogi c a l va l i di t y, f ut ur e de s i gns m i ght u t i l i z e pa i r i ngs o r s m a l l e ns e m bl e s w i t h one on a pa r t N o s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e w a s f ound be t w e e n t he r e s pons e s of br a s s w oodw i nd, a nd s t r i ng i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s E ve n s o, one s houl d be r e m i nde d t ha t t he s a m pl e s i z e of r e s pe c t i ve i ns t r um e nt t ype s w e r e not l a r ge A s t ud y de s i gne d t o e xa m i ne t he que s t i on of i nt e r pr e t i ve r e s pons e a nd i ns t r um e nt a l i s t t ype m i g ht yi e l d di f f e r e nt r e s ul t s T he s ugge s t i ons out l i ne d i n t hi s c ha pt e r a r e no t i nc l us i ve of a l l pos s i bl e r e l a t e d a r e a s of r e s e a r c h t ha t c oul d a dd t o t he de ve l opm e n t of m or e e f f e c t i ve i ns t r um e nt a l c onduc t i ng m e t hods Sy nt he s i s of C onduc t i ng D om ai ns T he t hr e e dom a i ns t ha t c ont r i bu t e t o e f f e c t i ve c ond uc t i ng m us t f unc t i on i n a uni f i e d w a y: 1 ) know l e dge a nd c onc e pt ua l i z a t i on of t he s c or e 2) pe da gogi c a l a bi l i t y t o c oa c h t ow a r d a c om m on i nt e r pr e t a t i on a nd 3) c om m uni c a t i on of i nt e r pr e t a t i on t hr ough ve r ba l a nd non ve r ba l m e a ns ( W i l c ox, 20 03) C on duc t or s w ho e xc e l i n a l l t hr e e of t he s e dom a i ns ha ve t r e m e ndous i m pa c t on t he m us i c a l e f f e c t of e ns e m bl e s unde r t he i r ba t on. T hi s s t udy ha s f oc us e d on one va r i a bl e of t he c om m uni c a t i on dom a i n; non ve r ba l c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s I t a ppe a r s t ha t t hr oug h ge s t ur e a l one c e r t a i n e xpe r i e nc e d c onduc t or s pos s e s s a n e xt r a or di na r y a bi l i t y t o di r e c t t he e xpr e s s i ve i nt e r pr e t i ve

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 7 6 pe r f or m a nc e of m us i c i a ns W hi l e a l l of t he c onduc t or s i nvol ve d i n t hi s s t udy w e r e a bl e t o pe r f or m ba s i c c onduc t i ng pa t t e r ns a nd c om m uni c a t e s i m pl e c ha nge s i n t e m pi a nd dyna m i c s t he r e w e r e t hos e w ho c om m uni c a t e d f a r m or e T he c ont i nue d s t udy of e f f e c t i ve c onduc t i ng t e c hni que s a nd ge s t ur e s a nd t he de ve l opm e nt of m e t hods t ha t e xpl oi t t he a ppa r e nt c onduc t o r m us i c i a n c ont r a c t w i l l de ve l op f i ne c onduc t or s w ho e f f e c t i ve l y c om m uni c a t e br oa d a nd a ppr opr i a t e m u s i c a l de c i s i ons

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 77 R e f e r e nc e s B e r l i oz H ( 1970 r e publ i s he d) T he c onduc t or : t he t he or y of hi s ar t L ondon: W i l l i a m R e e ve s B ul w e r J ( 1974 r e publ i s he d) C hi r ol ogi a: or t he nat ur al l anguage of t he hand, and c hi r onom i a. C a r bonda l e : S out he r n I l l i noi s U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s B ur ns e d, V ( 2001) D i f f e r e nc e s i n pr e f e r e nc e f or s ubt l e dyna m i c nua nc e be t w e e n c onduc t or s m i ddl e s c hool m us i c s t ude nt s a nd e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s t ude nt s J our nal of R e s e ar c h i n M us i c E duc at i on 49( 2 ) 49 56. C a m pbe l l W & H e l l e r J ( 1979) C onve r ge nc e p r oc e dur e s f or i nve s t i ga t i ng m us i c l i s t e ni ng t a s ks B ul l e t i n of t he C ounc i l f or R e s e ar c h i n M us i c E duc at i on 59. C of e r R S ( F a l l 1998) E f f e c t s of c on duc t i ng ge s t ur e i ns t r uc t i on on s e ve nt h gr a de ba nd s t ude nt s pe r f or m a nc e r e s pons e t o c onduc t i ng e m b l e m s J our nal of R e s e ar c h i n M us i c E duc at i on 46 ( 3) 360 73 C ohe n, J ( 1988 ) St at i s t i c al pow e r anal y s i s f or t he be hav i or al s c i e nc e s H i l l s da l e N J : E r l ba um A s s oc i a t e s D unha m P L e m ke M & M or a n, P ( 1991 ) E f f e c t of e qua l a nd r a ndom a m ount s of va r i e d pr a c t i c e on t r a ns f e r t a s k pe r f or m a nc e P e r c e pt ual and M ot or Sk i l l s 73, 673 674. E l l i ot t D ( 1995 ) M us i c m at t e r s N e w Y or k: O xf o r d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s F i s ke H ( 1990) M us i c and m i nd L e w i s t on, N Y : M e l l on P r e s s

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 78 F r e dr i c ks on, W E ( 1992 ) A n e xpl or a t o r y s t udy o f ba nd m us i c i a ns e ye c ont a c t a nd pe r f or m a nc e a s i nf l ue nc e d by l os s of vi s ua l a nd/ o r a ur a l s t i m ul i P h. D di s s F l or i da S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y. F r e dr i c ks on, W E ( 1997) E l e m e nt a r y, m i ddl e a n d hi gh s c hool s t ude nt pe r c e pt i ons o f t e ns i on i n m us i c J our nal of R e s e ar c h i n M us i c E d uc at i on 45( 4) 626 635. G a l l ops W ( 1999) T a ki ng not e o f not e s T e ac hi n g M us i c 7( 1 ) 32 35. G r a ve s D ( 1984 ) T he c hor a l c onduc t o r s c om m u ni c a t i on of m us i c a l i n t e r pr e t a t i on P h. D di s s U ni ve r s i t y of C onne c t i c ut G r e c he s ky, R ( 1985 ) A n a na l ys i s of nonve r ba l a n d ve r ba l c onduc t i ng be ha vi o r s a nd t he i r r e l a t i ons hi p t o e xpr e s s i ve m us i c a l pe r f or m a n c e P h D di s s U ni ve r s i t y of W i s c ons i n. G r e e n, E ( 1961) T he m ode r n c onduc t or N e w J e r s e y: P r e nt i c e H a l l H e l l e r J & C a m pbe l l W ( 1981) A t he or e t i c a l m ode l of m us i c pe r c e pt i on a nd t a l e nt B ul l e t i n of t he C ounc i l o f R e s e ar c h i n M us i c E duc at i on 21 2 2. H ol a ha n, J & S a unde r s T C ( 1997) C hi l dr e n s di s c r i m i na t i on of t ona l pa t t e r ns : pa t t e r n c ont our r e s pons e t i m e a nd i t e m di f f i c ul t y l e ve l B ul l e t i n of t he C ounc i l f or R e s e ar c h i n M us i c E duc at i on 132 85 101. H ous e R ( 1998 ) E f f e c t s of e xp r e s s i v e a nd non e xpr e s s i ve c onduc t i ng on t he pe r f or m a nc e a nd a t t i t ude s o f a dva nc e d i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s D M A di s s A r i z ona S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y.

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 79 J a c c a r d, J ( 1998) I nt e r a c t i on e f f e c t s i n f a c t or i a l a na l ys i s of va r i a nc e T hous a nd O a ks C A : S a ge K a r pi c ke H A ( 1987) D e ve l opm e nt of a n i ns t r u m e nt t o a s s e s s c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e a nd va l i da t i on of i t s us e i n o r c he s t r a l pe r f or m a nc e E d D di s s U ni ve r s i t y of H ous t on. L e w i s D ( 1999) C onduc t i ng m us i c a l s ha pe P h D di s s O kl a hom a S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y. K r om r e y, J & D i c ke ns on, W ( 1996) D e t e c t i ng u ni t of a na l ys i s pr obl e m s i n ne s t e d de s i gns : s t a t i s t i c a l pow e r a nd r a t e s of t he F t e s t f or gr oups w i t hi n t r e a t m e nt s e f f e c t s E duc at i onal and P s y c hol ogi c al M e as ur e m e nt 56, 215 231. M a ds e n, C & F r e dr i c ks on, W E ( 1 993 ) T he e xpe r i e nc e of m us i c a l t e ns i on: a r e pl i c a t i on of N i e l s e n s r e s e a r c h us i ng t he c ont i nuous r e s pons e di gi t a l i nt e r f a c e J our nal of M us i c T he r apy 30, 46 63. M a ds e n, C & M a ds e n, C ( 1978) E x pe r i m e nt al r e s e ar c h i n m us i c R a l e i gh, N C : C ont e m por a r y P ubl i s hi ng C o. M a ds e n, C & M oor e R S ( 1978 ) E x pe r i m e nt al r e s e a r c h i n m us i c : w or k book i n de s i gn and s t at i s t i c al t e s t s R a l e i gh, N C : C ont e m p or a r y P ubl i s hi ng C o. M a yne R ( 1992 ) M us i c a l c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s a nd t he i r i nt e r pr e t a t i on P h D di s s O hi o S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y M e ye r L B ( 1991) A pr i de of p r e j udi c e s ; or de l i ght i n di ve r s i t y. M us i c T he or y Spe c t r um 13( 2) 241 51.

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 80 M e ye r L B ( 1976) G r a m m a t i c a l s i m pl i c i t y a nd r e l a t i ona l r i c hne s s C r i t i c al I nqui r y 2( 2) : 693 761. M e ye r L B ( 2000) T he s phe r e s of m us i c : a gat he r i ng of e s s ay s C hi c a go: U ni ve r s i t y of C hi c a go P r e s s M i l l e r S ( 1988) T he e f f e c t o f l a bi a n m ove m e nt t he or y on t he a bi l i t y o f s t ude nt c onduc t or s t o c om m uni c a t e m us i c a l i nt e r p r e t a t i on. P h. D di s s U ni ve r s i t y o f W i s c ons i n. M oe r be e k, M va n B r e uke l e n, J & B e r ge r M ( 200 0) D e s i gn i s s ue s f or e xpe r i m e nt s i n m ul t i l e ve l popul a t i ons J our nal of E duc at i onal an d B e hav i or al St at i s t i c s 25( 3 ) 271 284. R udol f M ( 1950) T he gr am m ar of c onduc t i ng N e w Y or k: S c hi r m e r S c hul l e r G ( 1997) T he c om pl e t e c onduc t or O x f o r d: O xf o r d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s S ka ds e m J A E f f e c t o f c onduc t or ve r ba l i z a t i on, d yna m i c m a r ki ngs c onduc t or ge s t ur e a nd c hoi r dyna m i c l e ve l on s i nge r s dyna m i c r e s po ns e J our nal of R e s e ar c h i n M us i c E duc at i on 45 n4, ( W i nt e r 1997 ) : 508 519. S i dot i V J ( 1990) T he e f f e c t s o f e xpr e s s i ve a nd n on e xpr e s s i ve c onduc t i ng on t he pe r f or m a nc e a c c ur a c y of s e l e c t e d e xpr e s s i on m a r ki ngs by i ndi vi dua l h i gh s c hool i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s P h. D di s s O hi o S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y D i s s e r t at i on A bs t r ac t s I nt e r nat i onal 51 ( 3270A )

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T he E f f e c t of G e s t ur e 81 S ous a G ( 1988) M us i c a l c onduc t i ng e m bl e m s : A n i nve s t i ga t i on of t he us e of s pe c i f i c c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s a nd t he i r i nt e r p r e t a t i on by i ns t r um e nt a l pe r f o r m e r s P h D di s s O hi o S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y D i s s e r t at i on A bs t r ac t s I nt e r nat i onal 49 ( 2143A ) S t r ous e L ( 1987) F r om a na l ys i s t o ge s t ur e : A c o m pr e he ns i ve a ppr oa c h t o t he s c or e P h. D di s s B a l l S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y. T i ghe T & D ow l i ng J ( 1993) P r oc e dur a l a nd d e c l a r a t i ve know l e dge i n m us i c c ogni t i on a nd e duc a t i on. P s y c hol ogy and m us i c : t h e unde r s t andi ng of m e l ody and r hy t hm H i l l s da l e N J : E r l ba um P r e s s V a nW e e l de n, K i m be r l y ( 2002 ) R e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n pe r c e pt i ons of c onduc t i ng e f f e c t i ve ne s s a nd e ns e m bl e pe r f or m a nc e J our na l of R e s e ar c h i n M us i c E duc at i on 50( 2) 165 76 W i l c ox, D ( 2003) U npub l i s he d pa pe r pr e s e nt e d a t t he M i dw e s t B a nd a nd O r c he s t r a C onduc t i ng C l i ni c C hi c a go, I L Z uc ke r D ( 1990) A n a na l ys i s of va r i a nc e pi t f a l l : t he f i xe d e f f e c t s a na l ys i s i n a ne s t e d de s i gn. E duc at i onal and P s y c hol ogi c al M e as ur e m e nt 50 ( W i nt e r ) 731 735

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i A P P E N D I C E

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i A P P E N D I X A : D e m ogr a phi c s of C onduc t i ng P a r t i c i pa nt s C o n d u c t o r e d u c a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e g e n d e r i n s t r u m e n t ( s ) l e v e l e x p e r I B M E B e g / A d v M a l e t r p H S I I B A B e g / A d v M a l e t r o m b / t b a C S e m / P v t I I I B M E / M M B e g / A d v / S e m M a l e t b a / p n o M S / H S / C / C M / P r o D M A I V B M E / M M B e g / S e m / P v t M a l e c l M S / H S / C V B M E / M M E B e g / A d v F e m a l e f l M S / H S V I M M E / M A B e g / A d v M a l e c l / s x / f l M S / H S / C / C M V I I B M E / M A B e g / A d v / S e m / P v t F e m a l e t r o m b H S / C / C M V I I I B M E B e g / A d v M a l e v l a / v l n M S / H S I X B M E B e g / A d v M a l e t r o m b M S / H S X B M E B e g / A d v / S e m / P v t F e m a l e h n M S / H S X I B A / M M B e g / S e m / P v t M a l e t r p M S / H S / C / C M X I I B A / M M B e g / A d v / S e m / P v t M a l e p n o / v o c H S / C / C M / P r o X I I I B M E / M M B e g / A d v / S e m / P v t M a l e t r o m b M S / H S / C / C M P h D X I V B A M u s i c B e g / A d v / S e m / P v t M a l e f l / h n H S X V B A M u s i c / M M E / p o s t B e g / A d v / S e m / P v t M a l e c l a r / p n o / v o c M S / H S / C / C M / P r o M M E / p o s t E d u c a t i o n : B A / B M / B M E = B a c h e l o r s D e g r e e i n M u s i c o r M u s i c E d u c a t i o n M A / M M E / M M = M a s t e r s D e g r e e i n M u s i c o r M u s i c E d u c a t i o n E x p e r i e n c e : B e g = b e g i n n i n g c o n d u c t i n g c o u r s e / A d v = a d v a n c e d c o n d u c t i n g c o u r s e / S e m = s e m i n a r i n c o n d u c t i n g / P v t = p r i v a t e i n s t r u c t i o n i n c o n d u c t i n g L e v e l E x p e r i e n c e : M S = m i d d l e s c h o o l b a n d o r c h e s t r a / H S = h i g h s c h o o l b a n d o r c h e s t r a / C = c o l l e g e b a n d o r c h e s t r a / C M = c o m m u n i t y b a n d o r c h e s t r a / P r o = p r o f e s s i o n a l b a n d o r c h e s t r a

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i i A P P E N D I X B : M us i c i a n N e s t i ng W i t h C onduc t or V i de os C ond uc t or E xc e r pt M us i c i a n s ne s t e d t o e a c h c onduc t or vi de o I A B 1 B 3 W 1 W 3 S 1 B B 5 B 7 W 5 W 7 S 5 I I A B 2 B 9 W 2 W 9 S 2 B B 4 B 6 W 4 W 6 S 4 I I I A B 8 B 10 W 8 W 10 S 3 B B 1 B 3 W 1 W 3 S 1 I V A B 5 B 7 W 5 W 7 S 5 B B 2 B 9 W 2 W 9 S 2 V A B 4 B 6 W 4 W 6 S 4 B B 8 B 10 W 8 W 10 S 3 V I A B 1 B 3 W 1 W 3 S 1 B B 5 B 7 W 5 W 7 S 5 V I I A B 2 B 6 W 2 W 6 S 2 B B 4 B 6 W 4 W 6 S 4 V I I I A B 8 B 10 W 8 W 10 S 3 B B 1 B 3 W 1 W 3 S 1 I X A B 5 B 7 W 5 W 7 S 5 B B 2 B 9 W 2 W 9 S 2 X A B 4 B 6 W 4 W 6 S 4 B B 8 B 10 W 8 W 10 S 3 X I A B 1 B 3 W 1 W 3 S 1 B B 5 B 7 W 5 W 7 S 5 X I I A B 2 B 9 W 2 W 9 S 2 B B 4 B 6 W 4 W 6 S 4 X I I I A B 8 B 10 W 8 W 10 S 3 B B 1 B 3 W 1 W 3 S 1 X I V A B 5 B 7 W 5 W 7 S 5 B B 2 B 9 W 2 W 9 S 2 X V A B 4 B 6 W 4 W 6 S 4 B B 8 B 10 W 8 W 10 S 3

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i i i A P P E N D I X C : U nm a r ke d M us i c a l E xc e r pt us e d i n t he s t udy

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i v A P P E N D I X D : M a r ke d V e r s i ons A a nd B of t h e e xc e r pt us e d i n t he s t udy.

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v A P P E N D I X E : S a m pl e of M a r ke d a nd E va l ua t e d E xc e r pt s A & B a nd D e s c r i pt i on

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vi A P P E N D I X F : M us i c i a n R e s pons e S c or e s f or E a c h C onduc t or N e s t V e r s i o n A V e r s i o n B C O N D U C T O R M U S I C I A N I A I I A I I I A I B I I B I I I B M u s i c i a n R e s p o n s e m e a n G R I R e s p o n s e S c o r e 1 1 2 4 3 5 5 4 3 4 2 8 5 7 1 4 2 9 1 2 2 3 2 3 3 4 2 8 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 2 4 3 3 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 4 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 8 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 5 3 4 2 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 R e s p T O T A L C o n d 1 3 1 5 2 2 1 2 3 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 2 3 2 8 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 5 3 1 2 2 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 2 4 2 2 2 3 4 4 2 8 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 5 1 2 2 3 2 4 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 R e s p T O T A L C o n d 2 2 5 3 3 3 1 3 5 5 1 4 3 3 5 3 2 3 3 3 2 4 2 2 8 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 2 2 1 3 3 2 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 2 4 2 3 4 3 3 R e s p T O T A L C o n d 3 2 8 6 6 4 1 2 4 2 3 4 2 2 8 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 2 1 3 2 3 3 4 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 4 3 1 4 2 5 4 3 3 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 4 4 2 3 2 4 3 4 3 4 5 3 4 4 1 4 3 3 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 R e s p T O T A L C o n d 4 2 9 6 6 5 1 1 1 1 4 4 5 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 5 2 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 5 3 1 3 2 2 2 3 2 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 4 3 5 5 5 3 4 4 3 4 3 3 5 R e s p T O T A L C o n d 5 3 2 6 1 2 4 3 2 3 2 2 4 2 8 5 7 1 4 2 9 6 2 2 4 2 2 3 3 2 5 7 1 4 2 8 5 7 1 6 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 5 7 1 4 2 8 5 7 1 6 4 1 1 2 4 4 3 2 7 1 4 2 8 5 7 1 4 6 5 2 4 2 2 3 3 3 R e s p T O T A L C o n d 6 2 6 5 7

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vi i A P P E N D I X F ( c ont i nue d ) 7 1 3 5 3 1 2 2 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 2 2 3 2 2 3 4 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 7 4 1 3 3 1 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 7 5 2 3 2 4 3 4 3 R e s p T O T A L C o n d 7 2 6 8 1 4 4 4 2 4 3 3 5 8 2 1 4 3 2 4 3 2 8 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 8 3 3 5 3 2 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 8 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 8 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 8 5 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 R e s p T O T A L C o n d 8 2 7 6 6 9 1 1 1 1 4 5 3 2 5 9 2 1 2 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 9 3 2 1 1 5 4 2 2 5 9 4 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 9 5 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 5 R e s p T O T A L C o n d 9 2 2 3 3 1 0 1 1 2 2 5 4 5 3 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 1 0 2 4 4 4 3 5 4 4 1 0 3 1 4 3 1 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 0 4 4 5 4 5 3 5 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 0 5 4 3 4 2 4 2 3 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 R e s p T O T A L C o n d 1 0 3 4 1 1 1 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 5 1 1 2 2 3 1 2 3 2 2 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 1 1 3 1 3 3 4 3 2 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 1 1 4 1 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 5 2 4 2 1 3 3 2 5 R e s p T O T A L C o n d 1 1 2 4 3 3 1 2 1 5 5 3 2 3 1 3 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 5 3 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 1 2 3 4 4 3 1 3 3 3 1 2 4 4 2 3 2 4 3 3 1 2 5 1 3 2 3 2 4 2 5 R e s p T O T A L C o n d 1 2 2 9 6 6 1 3 1 3 5 4 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 2 3 3 4 3 4 2 3 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 1 3 3 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 1 3 4 3 4 3 2 3 3 3 1 3 5 1 3 2 2 4 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

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vi i i A P P E N D I X F ( c ont i nue d ) R e s p T O T A L C o n d 1 3 2 7 1 4 1 1 2 2 2 4 2 2 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 1 4 2 1 3 2 2 3 2 2 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 1 4 3 2 2 2 5 3 3 2 8 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 2 2 2 1 2 3 2 1 4 5 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 R e s p T O T A L C o n d 1 4 2 2 3 3 1 5 1 1 2 2 4 4 5 3 1 5 2 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 1 5 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 1 5 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 4 1 5 5 4 4 4 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 R e s p T O T A L C o n d 1 5 3 4 3 3

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i x A P P E N D I X G : E va l ua t i on of P O S T ( w / C onduc t or ) M us i c i a n R e s pons e s P ane l A : E v al uat i on of M us i c i an R e s pons e s c o n d u c t o r e x c e r p t M U S I C I A N e v a l u a t o r I e v a l u a t o r I I e v a l u a t o r I I I 1 a 1 2 4 3 1 1 a 1 2 4 3 1 6 a 1 3 3 2 3 a 2 2 3 2 1 2 a 2 4 5 3 1 7 a 2 5 5 3 1 a 3 2 3 2 1 1 a 3 2 4 2 1 6 a 3 2 3 1 2 0 a 4 1 2 2 1 0 a 4 1 1 1 1 5 a 4 1 2 2 9 a 5 2 4 2 1 4 a 5 1 1 1 1 9 a 5 1 2 2 8 b 1 2 4 3 1 3 b 1 2 4 3 1 8 b 1 3 3 2 9 b 2 3 4 2 1 4 b 2 5 5 3 1 9 b 2 2 4 2 8 b 3 2 4 2 1 3 b 3 2 4 3 1 8 b 3 3 4 2 3 b 4 1 2 2 1 2 b 4 1 2 2 1 7 b 4 2 3 1 1 b 5 5 5 4 1 1 b 5 2 3 2 1 6 b 5 2 3 2 1 a 1 1 2 4 3 1 1 a 1 1 2 3 3 1 6 a 1 1 1 3 3 3 a 1 2 3 5 3 1 2 a 1 2 3 5 3 1 7 a 1 2 4 4 3 1 a 1 3 2 3 3 1 1 a 1 3 1 1 2

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x A P P E N D I X G ( c ont i nue d) 1 6 a 1 3 1 3 2 2 0 a 1 4 1 3 3 1 0 a 1 4 1 3 2 1 5 a 1 4 1 4 3 9 a 1 5 1 4 2 1 4 a 1 5 2 1 1 1 9 a 1 5 2 2 2 8 b 1 1 1 3 3 1 3 b 1 1 2 3 4 1 8 b 1 1 1 2 2 9 b 1 2 5 4 3 1 4 b 1 2 5 4 2 1 9 b 1 2 5 3 3 8 b 1 3 3 3 3 1 3 b 1 3 2 2 2 1 8 b 1 3 2 3 3 3 b 1 4 1 2 2 1 2 b 1 4 2 3 2 1 7 b 1 4 1 3 3 1 b 1 5 3 5 3 1 1 b 1 5 2 3 2 1 6 b 1 5 4 3 2 1 a 2 1 3 4 2 1 1 a 2 1 2 4 2 1 6 a 2 1 2 4 2 3 a 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 a 2 2 2 3 2 1 7 a 2 2 1 3 2 1 8 a 2 3 1 3 2 8 a 2 3 2 4 2 1 3 a 2 3 2 3 2 8 b 2 1 3 4 3 1 3 b 2 1 2 3 2 1 8 b 2 1 2 4 2 9 b 2 2 1 4 3 1 4 b 2 2 2 3 2 1 9 b 2 2 2 3 2 2 0 b 2 3 2 3 3 1 0 b 2 3 3 4 3 1 5 b 2 3 2 4 2

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xi A P P E N D I X G ( c ont i nue d) P ane l B : E v al uat i on of M us i c i an R e s pons e s c o n d e x c e r p t M U S I C I A N e v a l u a t o r I V e v a l u a t o r V e v a l u a t o r V I 2 0 a 6 4 3 5 1 0 a 6 4 4 5 1 5 a 6 4 4 4 9 a 7 2 3 1 1 4 a 7 2 2 1 1 9 a 7 2 3 1 1 8 a 8 4 5 3 8 a 8 5 5 3 1 3 a 8 4 4 4 3 a 9 3 3 2 1 2 a 9 2 3 2 1 7 a 9 2 2 2 1 8 a 1 0 4 3 3 8 a 1 0 3 3 2 1 3 a 1 0 3 4 1 3 b 6 3 2 4 1 2 b 6 4 3 2 1 7 b 6 5 4 4 1 b 7 4 3 3 1 1 b 7 3 3 2 1 6 b 7 2 3 2 2 0 b 8 5 4 4 1 0 b 8 5 4 4 1 5 b 8 5 4 5 9 b 9 4 3 3 1 4 b 9 3 3 3 1 9 b 9 3 2 1 2 0 b 1 0 4 4 4 1 0 b 1 0 4 4 4 1 5 b 1 0 4 5 3 2 0 a 1 6 4 4 3 1 0 a 1 6 3 4 4 1 5 a 1 6 4 5 4 9 a 1 7 2 3 2 1 4 a 1 7 2 2 1 1 9 a 1 7 2 2 2 1 8 a 1 8 1 2 2 8 a 1 8 2 1 1 1 3 a 1 8 3 2 1

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xi i A P P E N D I X G ( c ont i nue d) 3 a 1 9 2 2 2 1 2 a 1 9 3 3 3 1 7 a 1 9 3 2 4 1 8 a 2 0 3 4 3 8 a 2 0 3 3 3 1 3 a 2 0 2 2 1 3 b 1 6 4 4 3 1 2 b 1 6 3 3 1 1 7 b 1 6 3 4 2 1 b 1 7 3 3 3 1 1 b 1 7 3 4 4 1 6 b 1 7 2 3 3 2 0 b 1 8 3 3 3 1 0 b 1 8 3 2 2 1 5 b 1 8 3 2 1 9 b 1 9 4 3 4 1 4 b 1 9 1 1 1 1 9 b 1 9 3 2 1 2 0 b 2 0 4 5 4 1 0 b 2 0 4 3 3 1 5 b 2 0 5 3 5 2 0 a 2 4 4 4 4 1 0 a 2 4 4 4 3 1 5 a 2 4 4 3 4 9 a 2 5 4 4 3 1 4 a 2 5 3 2 3 1 9 a 2 5 2 2 1 3 b 2 4 4 2 3 1 2 b 2 4 4 3 4 1 7 b 2 4 4 2 3 1 b 2 5 4 4 3 1 1 b 2 5 3 3 2 1 6 b 2 5 3 3 1

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61 A bout t he A ut hor R W a yne G a l l ops s e r ve s a s D i r e c t or of I ns t r um e nt a l M us i c E duc a t i on a nd J a z z S t udi e s a t R a df or d U ni ve r s i t y ( V i r gi ni a ) H i s r e s po ns i bi l i t i e s i nc l ude c our s e s i n m us i c e duc a t i on, c onduc t i ng, j a z z pi a no, a nd di r e c t i o n of t he R U J a z z E ns e m bl e s P r i or t o hi s a ppoi nt m e nt a t R a df or d U ni ve r s i t y, P r o f e s s or G a l l ops s e r ve d on t he m us i c f a c ul t i e s o f t he U ni ve r s i t y of T a m pa a nd H i l l s bor ough C om m uni t y C ol l e ge H e pe r f or m s a nd c onduc t s t hr oughout t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd hi s K 1 2 pu bl i c s c hool t e a c hi ng e xpe r i e nc e s pa ns s i xt e e n ye a r s M r G a l l ops hol ds de gr e e s f r o m H i l l s bor ough C om m uni t y C ol l e ge t he U ni ve r s i t y of T a m pa F l o r i da S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y, a nd e nt e r e d t he P h D pr ogr a m a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da i n 2001.


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Gallops, Ronald Wayne.
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The effect of conducting gesture on expressive-interpretive performance of college music majors
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by Ronald Wayne Gallops.
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[Tampa, Fla.] :
b University of South Florida,
2005.
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Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2005.
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Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of non-verbal conducting gesture on musicians stylistic response and whether conducting gestures alone elicit consistent musical responses from musicians. Through an analysis that utilized a Gestural Response Instrument (GRI) it was determined that, even if the use of verbal and facialcues were eliminated, some experienced conductors successfully utilized non-verbal conducting gestures to communicate specific musical interpretations. It appeared that musicians responded in specific ways to the musical interpretation of conductors who had command of a variety of conducting gestures. The results illustrated the existence of a perceptual contract that facilitates the non-verbal communication expressed through gestural conducting. As demonstrated through this study, some experienced conductor slacked the gestural technique and vocabulary necessary to convey prescribed musical decisions while others were proficient in this area.
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Adviser: Dr. Jack Heller, Ph.D.
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Music.
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Interpretation.
Perception.
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