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Third grade retention and the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test

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Material Information

Title:
Third grade retention and the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test an exploratory study
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Powell, Heather A
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Reading
Achievement
Remediation
Progression
Policy
Dissertations, Academic -- School Psychology -- Specialist -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: Literacy is a growing national concern, resulting in federal legislation (e.g., No Child Left Behind Act) instituting higher accountability for states and schools with regard to reading instruction and remediation. As a result, Floridas statewide measure of achievement, the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) is now tied to retention decisions in third grade as part of the new pupil progression plan in the state. In its first year of implementation (2003), 23% of third-grade students failed the FCAT and over 28,000 were retained. Research has consistently shown retention to be a negative experience for children; even when academic gains are made, within two to three years, their achievement is equal to or lower than that of both same-grade and same-age regularly promoted students. However, these findings cannot be generalized to the current student progression plan in Florida, which mandates specific remediation activities during the retention year.Therefore, holding negative beliefs about grade retention in Florida is premature as no research exists to date evaluating the outcomes of the plan. The present study examined the student progression plan in Florida at it relates to high-stakes testing and mandated third-grade retention. More specifically, this study examined the relationship between the effects of retention and various student demographic characteristics (e.g., gender, SES, race/ethnicity), as well as the future performance on the FCAT-Reading of low-performing students who were promoted through good cause exemptions. Descriptive analyses revealed that of 20,617 third-grade retainees, 38% again scored at Level 1 in 2004. In addition, future success of retainees was significantly associated with gender, race, and SES.With regard to students who were promoted due to a good cause exemption, findings indicated that a higher percentage of those who demonstrated reading proficiency through an alternative procedure (65%) achieved success in fourth grade compared to those who did not demonstrate proficiency (23%). This study contributes to the literature by examining the outcomes of grade retention within a context of high-stakes testing and mandated remediation activities. Implications for future research include controlling for the quality of interventions and identifying strategies that target specific populations of at-risk students.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ed.S.)--University of South Florida, 2005.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Heather A. Powell.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 80 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001709549
oclc - 69172391
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001300
usfldc handle - e14.1300
System ID:
SFS0025621:00001


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T hi r d G r a de R e t e nt i on A nd T he F l o r i da C om pr e he ns i ve A s s e s s m e nt T e s t : A n E xpl or a t o r y S t udy by H e a t he r A P ow e l l A t he s i s s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt O f t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he de gr e e of E duc a t i on S pe c i a l i s t D e pa r t m e nt of P s yc hol ogi c a l a nd S oc i a l F ounda t i o ns C ol l e ge of E duc a t i on U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : M i c ha e l C ur t i s P h. D G e or ge B a t s c he P h. D C ons t a nc e H i ne s P h. D D a t e of A ppr ova l : S e pt e m be r 29, 2005 K e yw or ds : r e a di ng, a c hi e ve m e nt r e m e di a t i on, pr o gr e s s i on, pol i c y C opyr i ght 2005 H e a t he r P ow e l l

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i T a bl e of C ont e nt s L i s t of T a bl e s i i i A bs t r a c t i v C ha pt e r I : I nt r oduc t i on 1 P ur pos e of t he S t udy 6 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on s 6 S i gni f i c a nc e of S t udy 7 D e f i ni t i on of T e r m s 8 L i m i t a t i ons 10 D e l i m i t a t i ons 10 C ha pt e r I I : L i t e r a t u r e R e vi e w 12 E na c t m e nt of F e de r a l a nd S t a t e L e gi s l a t ur e 12 C ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of R e t a i ne d C hi l dr e n 18 E vi de nc e of P os i t i ve O ut c om e s of R e t e nt i on 19 E vi de nc e of N e ga t i ve O ut c om e s o f R e t e nt i on 25 F a c t or s t ha t D e t e r m i ne R e t e nt i on O ut c om e s 30 M e t hodol ogi c a l I s s ue s t o C ons i de r 31 F ut ur e D i r e c t i ons i n R e t e nt i on R e s e a r c h 31 C ha pt e r I I I : M e t hod 34 P ur pos e of t he S t udy 34 P a r t i c i pa nt s 34 F l or i da C om pr e he ns i ve A s s e s s m e nt T e s t 35 P r oc e dur e s 36 D a t a A na l ys i s 37 C ha pt e r I V : R e s ul t s 39 D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s 39 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on s 41 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on 1 41 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on 2 42 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on 3 45 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on 4 49 C ha pt e r V : D i s c us s i on 54

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i i S um m a r y of F i ndi ngs 55 L i m i t a t i o ns 58 I m pl i c a t i ons f or P r a c t i c e a nd F ut ur e R e s e a r c h 61 C onc l us i on 63 R e f e r e nc e s 65 A ppe ndi c e s 70

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i i i L i s t of T a bl e s T a bl e 1 S t ude nt s S c or i ng L e ve l 1 on t he 2003 F C A T R e a d i ng a nd R e t e nt i on/ P r o m ot i on S t a t us by G e nde r R a c e / E t hni c i t y, a nd S E S 42 T a bl e 2 P e r f or m a nc e of R e t a i ne d S t ude nt s on t he 3 rd gr a de F C A T R e a di ng i n 2004 by L e ve l 43 T a bl e 3 N um be r a nd P e r c e nt of R e t a i ne d S t ude nt s by P e r f o r m a nc e L e ve l on t he 3 rd gr a de F C A T R e a di ng i n 2004 by G e nde r 45 T a bl e 4 N um be r a nd P e r c e nt of R e t a i ne d S t ude nt s by P e r f o r m a nc e L e ve l on t he 3 rd G r a de F C A T R e a di ng i n 2004 by R a c e / E t hni c i t y 46 T a bl e 5 N um be r a nd P e r c e nt of R e t a i ne d S t ude nt s by P e r f o r m a nc e L e ve l on t he 3 rd G r a de F C A T R e a di ng i n 2004 b y S E S S t a t us 47 T a bl e 6 N um be r a nd P e r c e nt of S t ude nt s P r om o t e d t o 4 t h G r a de due t o G ood C a us e E xe m pt i on by T ype of E xe m p t i on 48 T a bl e 7 L e ve l 1 P r om ot e d S t ude nt s P e r f or m a nc e on t he 2 004 4 t h gr a de F C A T R e a di ng by G ood C a us e E xe m pt i on 49 T a bl e 8 S t ude nt s P r om ot e d t hr ough G ood C a us e E xe m pt i o n i n 2003 S c or i ng a t L e ve l s 2 5 on t he 2004 F C A T R e a di ng by P r of i c i e nc y S t a t us 50 T a bl e 9 L ogi s t i c R e gr e s s i on A na l ys i s of R e t a i ne d S t ude nt s A c hi e vi ng S uc c e s s on t he 2004 F C A T R e a di ng 52 T a bl e 10 O bs e r ve d a nd P r e di c t e d F r e que nc i e s f or S uc c e s s by L ogi s t i c R e gr e s s i on w i t h a C ut of f o f 50 54

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i v T H I R D G R A D E R E T E N T I O N A N D T H E F L O R I D A C O M P R E H E N S I V E A S S E S S M E N T T E S T : A N E X P L O R A T O R Y S T U D Y H e a t he r A P ow e l l A B S T R A C T L i t e r a c y i s a g r ow i ng na t i ona l c onc e r n, r e s ul t i ng i n f e de r a l l e gi s l a t i on ( e g N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t ) i ns t i t ut i ng hi ghe r a c c ount a bi l i t y f o r s t a t e s a nd s c hool s w i t h r e ga r d t o r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd r e m e di a t i on. A s a r e s ul t F l or i da s s t a t e w i de m e a s ur e of a c hi e ve m e nt t he F l or i da C om pr e he ns i ve A s s e s s m e nt T e s t ( F C A T ) i s now t i e d t o r e t e nt i on de c i s i ons i n t hi r d gr a de a s pa r t of t he ne w pupi l pr og r e s s i on pl a n i n t he s t a t e I n i t s f i r s t ye a r of i m pl e m e nt a t i on ( 2003) 23% of t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s f a i l e d t he F C A T a nd ove r 28, 000 w e r e r e t a i ne d R e s e a r c h ha s c ons i s t e nt l y s how n r e t e nt i on t o be a ne ga t i ve e xpe r i e nc e f or c hi l dr e n; e ve n w he n a c a de m i c ga i ns a r e m a de w i t hi n t w o t o t hr e e ye a r s t he i r a c hi e ve m e nt i s e qua l t o or l ow e r t ha n t ha t o f bot h s a m e gr a de a nd s a m e a ge r e gul a r l y pr om ot e d s t ude nt s H ow e ve r t he s e f i ndi ngs c a nno t be ge ne r a l i z e d t o t he c ur r e nt s t ude nt pr ogr e s s i on pl a n i n F l or i da w hi c h m a nda t e s s pe c i f i c r e m e di a t i on a c t i vi t i e s du r i ng t he r e t e nt i on ye a r T he r e f or e hol di ng ne ga t i ve be l i e f s a bout gr a de r e t e nt i on i n F l or i da i s pr e m a t ur e a s no r e s e a r c h e xi s t s t o da t e e va l ua t i ng t he out c om e s of t he p l a n. T he pr e s e nt s t udy e xa m i ne d t he s t ude nt pr ogr e s s i on pl a n i n F l or i da a t i t r e l a t e s t o hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng a nd m a nda t e d t hi r d g r a de r e t e n t i on. M or e s pe c i f i c a l l y t hi s s t udy

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v e xa m i ne d t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he e f f e c t s of r e t e nt i on a nd va r i ous s t ude nt de m ogr a phi c c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s ( e g. ge nde r S E S r a c e / e t hni c i t y) a s w e l l a s t he f u t ur e pe r f or m a nc e on t he F C A T R e a di ng o f l ow pe r f or m i ng s t ude nt s w ho w e r e p r om ot e d t hr ough good c a us e e xe m pt i ons D e s c r i pt i ve a na l ys e s r e ve a l e d t ha t of 20, 617 t hi r d gr a de r e t a i ne e s 38% a ga i n s c or e d a t L e ve l 1 i n 2004 I n a ddi t i on f ut ur e s uc c e s s of r e t a i ne e s w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h ge nde r r a c e a nd S E S W i t h r e ga r d t o s t ude nt s w ho w e r e pr om ot e d due t o a good c a us e e xe m pt i on, f i ndi ngs i ndi c a t e d t ha t a hi ghe r pe r c e nt a ge of t hos e w ho de m ons t r a t e d r e a di ng pr of i c i e n c y t hr ough a n a l t e r na t i ve pr oc e dur e ( 65 % ) a c hi e ve d s uc c e s s i n f our t h g r a de c om pa r e d t o t hos e w ho d i d not de m ons t r a t e p r of i c i e nc y ( 23 % ) T hi s s t udy c ont r i but e s t o t he l i t e r a t ur e by e xa m i ni n g t he out c om e s of gr a de r e t e nt i on w i t hi n a c ont e xt o f hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng a n d m a nda t e d r e m e di a t i on a c t i vi t i e s I m pl i c a t i ons f or f ut u r e r e s e a r c h i nc l ude c ont r ol l i ng f or t he qua l i t y of i nt e r ve nt i ons a nd i de nt i f yi ng s t r a t e gi e s t ha t t a r ge t s pe c i f i c popul a t i o ns of a t r i s k s t ude nt s

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C H A P T E R O N E I nt r oduc t i on L i t e r a c y i s a g r ow i ng na t i ona l c onc e r n, j us t i f i e d by s t a t i s t i c s r e por t i ng t ha t onl y 32% of our na t i on s f ou r t h g r a de c hi l dr e n r e a d pr o f i c i e nt l y ( U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on, 2002 ) I n a ddi t i on, t he r e i s a gr ow i ng a c hi e ve m e nt ga p, s uc h t ha t t he pe r f or m a nc e of t op a c hi e ve r s ha s i nc r e a s e d ove r t i m e w hi l e t ha t o f t he poor e s t a c hi e ve r s ha s de c l i ne d ( U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on, 2002) T he s e de ve l opm e nt s ha ve be e n a l a r m i ng, p r ovoki ng ne w f e de r a l l e gi s l a t i on ( e g. N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t ) t he e f f e c t s of w hi c h ha ve pr ove n t o be f a r r e a c hi ng ( U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on 2003a ) S i nc e t he N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t w a s e na c t e d o n J a nua r y 8, 2002, i ni t i a t i ve s ha ve be e n unde r t a ke n a c r os s t he c ount r y t o r e s t r u c t ur e m a ny a s pe c t s of t he A m e r i c a n e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m ( N C L B 2002) T he l a w w a s de s i gne d t o a ddr e s s t he c ount r y s r e a di ng c r i s i s ; i t s ove r r i di ng goa l i s f or e ve r y c hi l d t o be r e a di ng a t a pr of i c i e nt l e ve l by t he 2013 2014 s c hool ye a r ( U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003b) T o t hi s e nd, t he l a w i nc l ude s s t r i c t gui de l i ne s r e ga r di ng s c hool a nd s t a t e a c c ount a bi l i t y, i nc l udi ng pr oc e dur e s t o m e a s ur e s t ude nt pr og r e s s T he l a w m a nda t e s de m ons t r a t i on of A de qua t e Y e a r l y P r ogr e s s ( A Y P ) i n s t ude nt pe r f o r m a nc e b y e ve r y s t a t e ; t hus e a c h s t a t e i s r e qui r e d t o s e t a nnua l goa l s f or i t s s c hool s a nd pr opos e a w a y t o s ys t e m a t i c a l l y m e a s ur e pr ogr e s s t ow a r d t hos e goa l s ( U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003c ) I n or de r t o a ddr e s s

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2 t he w i de ni ng a c hi e ve m e nt ga p, s t a t e s a r e no l onge r a l l ow e d t o a gg r e ga t e a c hi e ve m e nt da t a a c r os s e c onom i c ba c kgr ound, r a c e / e t hni c i t y E ngl i s h pr of i c i e nc y or d i s a bi l i t y s t a t us ; s c hool s now m us t di s a ggr e ga t e pe r f or m a nc e da t a a nd de m ons t r a t e t ha t a l l of t he i r s t ude nt s a r e l e a r ni ng a nd t ha t t he i r di s a dva nt a ge d or a t r i s k s t ude nt s a r e not be i ng l e f t be hi nd A l t hough t he A c t ha s be e n c r i t i c i z e d i n s om e qua r t e r s f or t he f a i l u r e t o f i na nc i a l l y s uppor t i t s m a nda t e s f unds ha ve be e n a l l oc a t e d t o s uppor t s om e s pe c i f i c pr ogr a m s F or e xa m pl e f unds a r e a va i l a bl e t o a s s i s t s t a t e s i n t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of e m pi r i c a l l y ba s e d r e a di ng pr ogr a m s S t a t e s a ppl y f or t he f unds t h r ou gh t he e s t a bl i s he d R e a di ng F i r s t pr ogr a m a nd f undi ng i s gr a nt e d ba s e d on t he num b e r of c hi l dr e n a ge d 5 17 ye a r s w ho a r e c ons i de r e d l ow i nc om e i n e a c h s t a t e ( U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003d) T he a c qui s i t i on of R e a di ng F i r s t f unds i s a l a r ge pa r t of F l or i da s r e s pons e t o t he N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t T he s t a t e ha s e s t a bl i s he d goa l s w hi c h s t a t e t ha t 31 % of i t s s t ude nt s a r e t o be r e a di ng pr of i c i e nt l y by t he 2003 04 s c hool ye a r 48 % by 2006 07 65% by 2009 10, 82% by 2012 13 a nd 100% b y 2013 14 ( F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on, 2003a ) W i t h R e a di ng F i r s t f unds ( $52 m i l l i on a nn ua l l y, f o r s i x ye a r s ) s c hool s a r ound t he s t a t e w i l l be i ns t r uc t i ng c hi l dr e n us i ng r e s e a r c h ba s e d r e a di ng pr ogr a m s ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003b) I n a ddi t i on t o pr e ve nt a t i ve pr ogr a m s s uc h a s R e a di ng F i r s t t he S t a t e of F l or i da a l s o e na c t e d a ne w r e t e nt i on pol i c y e f f e c t i ve J a nua r y 7, 2003 ( T he F l or i da S e na t e 2003) D e s i gne d t o a l i gn F l o r i da pol i c i e s w i t h f e de r a l l a w t hi s ne w po l i c y pl a c e s he a vy e m pha s i s on r e m e di a t i on of r e a di ng de f i c i e nc i e s a nd i s s t r ongl y t i e d t o t he s t a nda r di z e d t e s t us e d t o qua nt i f y s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e t he F l or i da C om pr e he ns i ve A s s e s s m e nt T e s t

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3 ( F C A T ) T he r e a di ng po r t i on o f t he F C A T i s a dm i ni s t e r e d e ve r y ye a r i n gr a de s 3 10 a nd pur por t s t o m e a s ur e s t ude nt s pr ogr e s s t ow a r ds a t t a i nm e nt of p r e de f i ne d a c a de m i c be nc hm a r ks i n r e a di ng a c c or di ng t o f i ve l e ve l s de f i ne d a c c or di ng t o t he f ol l ow i ng s c a l e d s c or e s : 1) 100 258, 2) 259 283 3) 284 331 4 ) 332 393, a nd 5) 394 500 ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003c ) W i t h r e ga r ds t o r e a di ng, i t i s i m pe r a t i ve t ha t s t ude nt s m a s t e r t he ba s i c s ki l l s a t t he l ow e r gr a de l e ve l s ( gr a de s K 3) a s i n f our t h gr a de a nd be yond s t ude nt s a r e e xpe c t e d t o ut i l i z e r e a di ng s ki l l s i n a l l a c a de m i c a r e a s W i t hou t t he s e ba s i c s ki l l s t he c ha nc e s of s t ude nt s uc c e s s a r e s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d, s i nc e t he a ppr oa c h t o t e a c hi ng r e a di ng s hi f t s a t t h i s c r i t i c a l j unc t u r e ( J us t R e a d, F l or i da 2003 ) T he s t a t e c ont e nds t ha t t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s w ho a r e a c hi e vi ng a t L e ve l 1 ha ve not m a s t e r e d t he m os t ba s i c r e a di ng s ki l l s i ndi c a t i ng t ha t t he y a r e n ot r e a dy t o m ove on t o t he m or e c ha l l e ngi ng m a t e r i a l of t he f our t h gr a de ; c ons e qu e nt l y, s t ude nt s w ho s c or e a t L e ve l 1 on t he F C A T a nd a r e not e l i gi bl e f o r p r om ot i on a c c or di ng t o p r e de f i ne d good c a us e e xe m pt i ons a r e t o be r e t a i ne d i n t h i r d g r a de ( T he F l or i da S e na t e 2003) T hough pe r c e i ve d by s om e a s pe j or a t i ve r e t e nt i on i n t hi s c ont e xt i s vi e w e d a s a n e f f o r t t ow a r ds t he r e m e di a t i on o f c ur r e nt a c a de m i c di f f i c ul t i e s a nd t he pr e ve nt i on of a ddi t i ona l di f f i c ul t i e s i n t he s t ude nt s f ut u r e a c a de m i c c a r e e r s T he 2003 F C A T w a s a dm i ni s t e r e d s e ve r a l m ont hs a f t e r t he ne w r e t e nt i on pol i c y w e nt i n t o e f f e c t r e s ul t i ng i n a t ot a l o f 28 028 ( 14. 6 % ) t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s be i ng r e t a i ne d i n gr a de f o r t he 2003 2004 s c hool ye a r ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003d) T he t r e m e ndous num be r s of s t ude nt s be i ng a f f e c t e d by t he pol i c y c om bi ne d w i t h l ongs t a ndi n g a s s um pt i ons t ha t gr a de r e t e nt i on i s o ve r w he l m i ngl y de t r i m e nt a l t o s t ude nt s

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4 a c a de m i c pr ogr e s s c a l l f or a c a r e f ul r e e xa m i na t i o n of t he l i t e r a t u r e r e ga r di ng gr a de r e t e nt i on, a s w e l l a s e m pi r i c a l e xa m i na t i on of t he i m pa c t of t hi s ne w pol i c y. T he pr a c t i c e o f gr a de r e t e nt i on i s not a ne w phe nom e non; i n f a c t r e t e nt i on l i t e r a t ur e s pa ns s e ve r a l de c a de s D e s pi t e pr e va i l i ng ne ga t i ve be l i e f s s om e s t udi e s ( e g. M a nt z i c opoul os 1997; A l e xa nde r E nt w i s l e & D a ube r 1994; G ot t f r e ds on, F i nk & G r a ha m 1994) ha ve r e po r t e d pos i t i ve e f f e c t s of r e t e nt i on, t o va r yi ng de gr e e s I n s om e c a s e s s m a l l a c a de m i c ga i ns m a y be s e e n ( M a nt z i c opoul os 1997) pa r t i c ul a r l y w he n c om pa r i ng r e t a i ne e s w i t h younge r s a m e gr a de pe e r s ( A l e xa nde r e t a l 1994 ) H ow e ve r a l a r ge r num be r of s t ud i e s ha ve f ound be ne f i t s t o b e s hor t t e r m ; w i t hi n t w o t o t hr e e ye a r s t he a c hi e ve m e nt of r e t a i ne e s i s e qua l t o or l ow e r t h a n t ha t of bot h s a m e gr a de a nd s a m e a ge pe e r s ( J i m e r s on, 1999; J i m e r s on, C a r l s on, R ot e r t E ge l a nd, & S r ou f e 1997; M a nt z i c opoul os 1997 M a nt z i c opoul os & M or r i s o n, 1992; M c C oy & R e ynol ds 1999) I n a ddi t i on i t i s i nt e r e s t i ng t o not e t ha t i nc r e a s e s i n pe r f or m a nc e a r e m os t of t e n f ound onl y i n m a t h; r e a di ng r e m a i ns a c ons i s t e nt de f i c i t i n r e t a i ne d c hi l dr e n ( J i m e r s on e t a l 1997; M a nt z i c opo ul os 1997) D e s pi t e a f e w s t udi e s i n w hi c h pos i t i ve r e s ul t s ha ve be e n r e por t e d, t he ove r w he l m i ng m a j or i t y of r e s e a r c h i ndi c a t e s t ha t g r a de r e t e nt i on doe s not ha ve a r e m e di a l e f f e c t ; r a t he r i t ope r a t e s t o p r oduc e t he d i r e c t oppos i t e of de s i r e d e f f e c t s R e por t e d out c om e s ha ve i nc l ude d l ow e r r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s m e a s ur e d by s t a nda r di z e d t e s t s ( M c C oy & R e ynol ds 1999; J i m e r s on, 1999) i nc r e a s e d s oc i a l a nd be ha vi or pr obl e m s ( P a ga ni T r e m bl a y, V i t a r o B ou l e r i c e & M c D uf f 2001 ) a nd i nc r e a s e d dr opout r a t e s ( J i m e r s on, 1999) T he s e t ype s of r e s ul t s w e r e c ons i s t e nt a c r os s m a ny s t udi e s us i ng a va r i e t y o f de s i gns a nd a na l ys e s

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5 S t udi e s de s c r i bi ng ne ga t i ve out c om e s a nd w a r ni ng a ga i ns t t he pr a c t i c e of r e t e nt i on a r e pl e nt i f ul ; how e ve r i t i s i m pe r a t i ve t h a t w e i nt e r p r e t t he s e out c om e s c a r e f ul l y, a s i t i s ve r y di f f i c ul t t o de s i gn a m e t hodo l ogi c a l l y s ound s t udy w he n l ooki ng a t out c om e s of gr a de r e t e nt i on. T he g r a de r e t e nt i on l i t e r a t ur e a bounds w i t h m e t hodo l ogi c a l pr obl e m s i nc l udi ng t he a bs e nc e of c om pa r i s on g r o ups ( M c C oy & R e ynol ds 1999; M e i s e l s & L i a w 1993) a l a c k of c ons i de r a t i on of s oc i o e c onom i c va r i a bl e s ( M a nt z i c opoul os 1997; M a nt z i c opoul os & M or r i s on, 1992) a nd a l a c k o f l ongi t ud i na l da t a ( B unt a i ne & C os t e nba de r 1997) P e r ha ps m o s t r e l e va nt t o t he c ur r e nt s t udy, a l l pr e vi ous s t udi e s ha ve f a i l e d t o i ndi c a t e w ha t i f a n y, r e m e di a t i on e f f o r t s w e r e m a de i n c onj unc t i on w i t h gr a de r e t e nt i on ( e g A r m i s t e a d, K e m pt on, L ync h & F or ha nd, 1992; G ot t f r e ds on e t a l 1994; J i m e r s on, 2001) T h i s r a i s e s que s t i ons a bout t he a ppl i c a t i on of pa s t r e s ul t s t o t he e duc a t i ona l c l i m a t e i n F l o r i da a s F l or i da s pol i c y doe s not a l l ow a c hi l d t o r e pe a t a gr a de w i t hou t a ddi t i ona l i nt e ns i v e r e m e di a t i on i n pl a c e S t a t e l a w m a nda t e s r e m e di a t i on i n t he f or m of a n A c a de m i c I m pr ove m e nt P l a n ( A I P ) f or e a c h c hi l d w ho i s r e t a i ne d i n g r a de T he s e pl a ns c ons i s t of i ns t r uc t i ona l m odi f i c a t i ons a s w e l l a s c l e a r a nd m e a s ur a bl e a c a de m i c goa l s t ha t r e l a t e t o i ndi vi dua l s ki l l de f i c i e nc i e s E xa m pl e s of i ns t r uc t i ona l m odi f i c a t i ons r e f l e c t e d i n A I P s i nc l ude pul l out s e r vi c e s one on one t ut or i ns t r uc t i on, pe e r t u t or s a nd t he e m pl o ym e nt of r e a di ng c oa c he s A I P s i nc l ude pe r i odi c e va l ua t i on t o de t e r m i ne i f r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s a r e m a ki ng p r ogr e s s t ow a r ds t he i r a c a de m i c goa l s I t s houl d be not e d t ha t w hi l e s t a t e l a w i s qui t e c l e a r r e ga r di ng r e m e di a t i on r e qui r e m e nt s s pe c i f i c da t a ve r i f yi ng t r e a t m e nt i nt e gr i t y i s l a c ki ng a t t hi s t i m e R e ga r dl e s s due t o r e m e di a t i on r e qui r e m e nt s s uc h a s A I P s hol di ng ne ga t i ve be l i e f s

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6 a bout t he e f f i c a c y o f t he c ur r e nt s t ude nt pr ogr e s s i on pl a n i n F l or i da i s pr e m a t ur e a s no r e s e a r c h e xi s t s t o da t e e va l ua t i ng t he out c om e s of t he pl a n. P ur pos e of t he St udy T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o e va l ua t e t he e f f e c t s of r e t e nt i on pr a c t i c e s i n t he S t a t e of F l or i da a s m e a s ur e d by s c or e s on t he s t a t e m a nda t e d s t a nda r di z e d t e s t ( F C A T R e a di ng) P r e vi ous r e s e a r c h ha s not e xa m i ne d r e t e nt i on w i t hi n t he c ont e xt o f a s t a t e m a nda t e d r e m e di a t i on pr og r a m a s i s pa r t o f F l or i d a s pol i c y. M or e s pe c i f i c a l l y i t e xa m i ne d t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he e f f e c t s of r e t e nt i on a nd va r i ous s t ude nt de m ogr a phi c c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s na m e l y ge nde r r a c e / e t hni c i t y, a nd S E S I n a ddi t i on t he f ut ur e pe r f or m a nc e of l ow pe r f or m i ng t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s w ho w e r e pr om ot e d t o t he f our t h g r a de t hr ough good c a us e e xe m pt i ons w a s i nve s t i ga t e d. R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i ons I n or de r t o e xpl o r e t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t hi r d gr a de r e t e nt i on, t h i s s t udy ut i l i z e d F C A T R e a di ng s c or e s f r om t he 2003 a nd 2004 a d m i ni s t r a t i ons t o a ddr e s s t he f ol l ow i ng r e s e a r c h que s t i ons : 1) W ha t pr opor t i on of F l or i da s t ude nt s w ho s c or e d a t L e ve l 1 a nd w e r e r e t a i ne d a t t he e nd o f t he t hi r d gr a de i n 2003 s c or e d a t L e ve l 2 or hi ghe r on t he 3 r d gr a de F C A T R e a di ng i n 2004 a ) a t t he ove r a l l s t a t e l e ve l a nd b ) by s c hool di s t r i c t ? 2) F or F l o r i da s t ude nt s w ho s c or e d a t L e ve l 1 a nd w e r e r e t a i ne d a t t h e e nd o f t hi r d gr a de i n 2003 w ha t i s t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n r e a di ng pe r f o r m a nc e l e ve l s on t he 3 r d gr a de F C A T R e a di ng i n 20 04 a nd a ) ge nde r b) r a c e / e t hni c i t y, a nd c ) S E S ?

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7 3) F or F l o r i da s t ude nt s w ho s c or e d a t L e ve l 1 on t he t hi r d gr a de F C A T R e a di ng i n 2003 but w e r e pr om ot e d due t o good c a us e e xe m pt i ons w ha t p r opor t i on f or e a c h e xe m pt i on s c or e d a t L e ve l 2 o r hi ghe r on t he f our t h gr a de F C A T R e a di ng i n 2004 a ) a t t he ove r a l l s t a t e l e ve l a nd b ) by s c hool di s t r i c t ? 4) W ha t i s t he l i ke l i hood t ha t a 2003 t hi r d gr a de r e t a i ne e s a t t a i nm e nt of L e ve l 2 or hi ghe r on t he 2004 t hi r d g r a de F C A T R e a di ng i s r e l a t e d t o ge nde r S E S a nd r a c e / e t hni c i t y? Si gni f i c anc e of St udy A r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t ur e r e ve a l s t ha t no s t udy e xi s t s i n w hi c h a c a de m i c m odi f i c a t i ons i m pl e m e nt e d dur i ng t he r e t a i ne d ye a r a r e c l e a r l y i de nt i f i e d or de l i ne a t e d. I t i s unknow n w he t he r t he s t ude nt s i nc l ude d i n pr e vi ous s t udi e s r e c e i ve d i ns t r uc t i on dur i ng t he r e t a i ne d ye a r t ha t w a s qua nt i t a t i ve l y a nd/ o r qua l i t a t i ve l y di f f e r e nt f r om t ha t of t he pr e vi ous ye a r S i m i l a r l y pa s t r e s e a r c h ha s not c on s i de r e d va r i a bl e s i nvol vi ng r e m e di a t i on s t r a t e gi e s i n t he e va l ua t i on of r e t e nt i on out c om e s ; t he r e f or e i t i s not pos s i bl e t o unde r s t a nd t he e f f e c t s of goa l s e t t i ng o r m oni t o r i n g dur i ng t he r e t a i ne d ye a r B e c a us e t he S t a t e of F l or i da m a nda t e s a s ys t e m a t i c pl a n of r e m e di a t i on f or e ve r y c hi l d w ho i s r e t a i ne d i n t he t hi r d gr a de ( F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i o n, 2003f ) t he c ur r e nt s t udy w i l l e xa m i ne t he out c om e s of r e t e nt i on a m ong s t ude nt s w ho a r e r e qui r e d t o r e c e i ve i nt e ns e r e m e di a l i ns t r uc t i on du r i ng t he r e t a i ne d ye a r T he f i ndi ngs of t hi s s t udy c oul d m a ke a n i m por t a nt c ont r i but i on t o t he l i t e r a t ur e on r e t e nt i on i n a ddr e s s i ng a n a r e a t ha t ha s he r e t of or e gone une xa m i ne d

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8 D e f i ni t i on of T e r m s F l or i da C om pr e he ns i v e A s s e s s m e nt T e s t ( F C A T ) T he F C A T i s a s t a nda r di z e d t e s t de s i gne d t o m e a s ur e s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e p r og r e s s i n r e a di ng, w r i t i ng a nd m a t he m a t i c s i n a c c or da nc e w i t h t he S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r ds I t a l s o r e p r e s e nt s t he f ounda t i on of t he f e de r a l l y m a nda t e d a nd s t a t e c r e a t e d a c c ount a bi l i t y s ys t e m ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003c ) Suns hi ne St at e St andar ds T he S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r ds a r e a s e t of be nc hm a r ks de ve l ope d by t he F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on a nd a dopt e d i n 1996. T he s e s t a nda r ds i de nt i f y t he a c a de m i c s k i l l s t ha t t he S t a t e of F l or i d a w a nt s i t s s t ude nt s t o ha ve a t t a i ne d a t e a c h gr a de l e ve l ( F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on 2003c ) R e t e nt i on i n gr ade T hi s r e f e r s t o t he a c t of r e pe a t i ng a gr a de l e ve l T hi s s t udy f oc us e s onl y on s t ude nt s w ho w e r e r e t a i ne d i n t hi r d gr a de a f t e r f a i l i ng t o s c or e L e ve l 2 or a bove on t he F C A T I n F l o r i da r e t e nt i on i s t o be a c c om pa ni e d by i nt e ns i ve r e m e di a t i on e f f or t s A c ade m i c I m pr ov e m e nt P l ans ( A I P ) A n A I P i s a s e t of f or m a l i z e d i ns t r uc t i ona l m odi f i c a t i ons a nd r e l a t e d goa l s t ha t a r e de s i gne d t o a ddr e s s s pe c i f i c s ki l l de f i c i t s i n a ny c hi l d w ho i s not m e e t i ng a c a de m i c be nc hm a r ks i n a t i m e l y m a nne r ; A I P s a r e s t a t e m a nda t e d i n F l or i da ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2002 ) G ood c aus e e x e m pt i ons T he s e e xe m pt i ons a r e s i x gui de l i ne s i ndi c a t i ng t he c i r c um s t a nc e s unde r w hi c h a s t ude nt s c or i ng L e ve l 1 on t he F C A T c a n s t i l l be pr om ot e d t o t he f ou r t h g r a de T he y i nc l ude [ a ] l i m i t e d E ngl i s h pr of i c i e nt ( L E P ) s t ude nt s w i t h l e s s t ha n t w o ye a r s i n a n E ngl i s h f or S pe a ke r s of O t he r L a ngua ge s ( E S O L ) pr ogr a m [ b] s t ude nt s w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s w hos e i ndi vi dua l e duc a t i ona l pl a n ( I E P ) i ndi c a t e d t ha t

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9 pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he F C A T w a s not a ppr opr i a t e [ c ] de m ons t r a t i on of a n a c c e pt a bl e l e ve l of pe r f or m a nc e on a n a l t e r na t e a s s e s s m e nt or s c or i ng a t t he 51s t pe r c e n t i l e or hi ghe r on t he nor m r e f e r e nc e d t e s t por t i on o f t he F C A T [ d] d e m ons t r a t i on of p r of i c i e nc y i n S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r ds t h r ough a s t ude nt po r t f ol i o, [ e ] s t ude nt s w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he F C A T ( but ) s t i l l de m ons t r a t e a de f i c i e nc y i n r e a di ng a f t e r m or e t ha n t w o ye a r s of i n t e ns i ve r e m e di a t i on a nd w e r e pr e vi ous l y r e t a i ne d i n ki nde r ga r t e n, f i r s t s e c ond, or t hi r d gr a de a nd [ f ] s t ude nt s w ho s t i l l de m ons t r a t e a de f i c i e nc y i n r e a di ng a f t e r t w o or m o r e ye a r s o f i nt e ns i ve r e m e di a t i on a nd w e r e pr e vi ous l y r e t a i ne d i n ki nde r ga r t e n, f i r s t s e c ond, or t hi r d gr a de f o r a t ot a l o f t w o ye a r s ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on, 2003e ) N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t T he N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t i s a pi e c e o f f e de r a l l e gi s l a t i on pa s s e d on J a nua r y 8, 2002 di r e c t l y a dd r e s s i ng t he r e a di ng c r i s i s i n t hi s c ount r y; i t e s t a bl i s he d s t r i c t gui de l i ne s f or s c hool a nd s t a t e a c c ount a bi l i t y. T he A c t w a nt s e ve r y c hi l d t o be r e a di ng pr of i c i e nt l y by t he ye a r 2 013 2014 ( N C L B 2002) A de quat e Y e ar l y P r ogr e s s S t a t e s a r e r e qui r e d by N C L B t o s e t a nnua l goa l s f o r a de qua t e pr ogr e s s f or t he i r s c hool s a nd t o m e a s ur e pr ogr e s s t ow a r d t he a t t a i nm e nt o f t hos e goa l s i n a s ys t e m a t i c w a y e a c h ye a r t hr ough s t a nda r di z e d t e s t s ; f undi ng i s s e c ur e d on t he ba s i s of s t a t e s s uc c e s s i n m e e t i ng t hos e goa l s ( U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003c ) R e adi ng F i r s t R e a di ng F i r s t i s a f e de r a l pr ogr a m e s t a bl i s he d t hr ough N C L B t ha t di s t r i but e s a ddi t i ona l f unds t o a s s i s t s t a t e s i n t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of e m pi r i c a l l y ba s e d r e a di ng pr ogr a m s F undi ng i s gr a nt e d ba s e d on t he num be r o f c hi l d r e n a ge d 5 17 ye a r s

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10 w ho a r e c ons i de r e d l ow i nc om e i n e a c h s t a t e ( U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on 2003d)

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11 C H A P T E R T W O L i t e r a t ur e R e vi e w I n t hi s i n f or m a t i on a ge c ons i s t i ng of c ons t a nt t e c h nol ogi c a l di s c ove r i e s i t i s a s t o ni s hi ng t o r e a l i z e t ha t onl y 32% of A m e r i c a s f our t h gr a de r s r e a d pr o f i c i e nt l y ( U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2002) S i nc e t he i ni t i a l pa s s a ge of t he E l e m e nt a r y a nd S e c onda r y E duc a t i on A c t i n 1965 t a xpa ye r s ha ve i nve s t e d ove r $321 bi l l i on i n publ i c e duc a t i on; ye t t he a ve r a ge r e a di ng s c or e s f or 17 ye a r ol ds ha ve not s how n i m pr ove m e nt s i nc e t he 1970 s ( U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of E du c a t i on, 2002) W hi l e s c or e s of t he t op a c hi e ve r s ha ve i m pr ove d ove r t i m e t hos e of t he po or e s t pe r f or m e r s ha ve de c l i ne d ( U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on, 2002) M os t of t he c hi l d r e n w ho a r e nonpr of i c i e nt i n r e a di ng a r e m i nor i t y s t ude nt s w ho l i ve i n pove r t y, c r e a t i ng a di s t ur bi ng a c hi e ve m e nt ga p. R e c e nt f e de r a l l e gi s l a t i on ( e g N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t ) i s r e f l e c t i ng a c know l e dge m e nt of a s w e l l a s c onc e r n ove r t hi s f a c t by c r e a t i ng a nd i m pl e m e nt i ng s t a nda r ds r e ga r di ng s t ude nt pr ogr e s s i on ( U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003a ) T he y a r e not onl y m or e r i gor ous f o r e ve r y c hi l d bu t a l s o i nc l ude ne w a c c ount a bi l i t y pr oc e dur e s de s i gne d t o e ns ur e t ha t s ubs t a nda r d pe r f or m a nc e by a ny c hi l d i s not t ol e r a t e d a s i t w a s i n t he pa s t E nac t m e nt of F e de r al and St at e L e gi s l at i on T he N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t w a s e na c t e d on J a n ua r y 8, 2002 a nd ha s c ha nge d t he f a c e of e duc a t i on a c r os s t he c ount r y ( N C L B 2 002) T he l a w d i r e c t l y a ddr e s s e s t he

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12 c ount r y s r e a di ng c r i s i s by e s t a bl i s hi ng s t r i c t gui de l i ne s f or bot h s t ude nt pe r f o r m a nc e a s w e l l a s s c hool a nd s t a t e a c c ount a bi l i t y. T he ove r r i di ng goa l of t he l a w i s f or e ve r y c hi l d t o be r e a di ng a t a p r of i c i e nt l e ve l by t he 2013 201 4 s c hool ye a r ( U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003b) T o t hi s e nd e a c h s t a t e i s r e qui r e d t o de m ons t r a t e A de qua t e Y e a r l y P r ogr e s s ( A Y P ) i n e duc a t i ng i t s s t ude nt s t hough s t a t e s a r e a l l ow e d s om e f r e e dom i n t he a dopt i on of p r oc e dur e s us e d t o m oni t or t hi s pr og r e s s S t a t e s a r e r e qui r e d t o s e t a nnua l goa l s f or a de qua t e pr og r e s s f or t he i r s c hool s a nd m e a s ur e pr ogr e s s t ow a r d t he a t t a i nm e nt of t he s e goa l s i n a s ys t e m a t i c w a y e a c h ye a r t hr ough s t a nda r di z e d t e s t s ; f un di ng w i l l be s e c ur e d on t he ba s i s of s t a t e s s uc c e s s i n m e e t i ng t hos e goa l s I n a ddi t i on, s c hool s t ha t do not m e e t t he s e a c a de m i c s t a nda r ds w i l l be i de nt i f i e d a s ne e di ng i m pr ove m e nt ; pa r e nt s o f c hi l dr e n e nr ol l e d i n t he s e s c hool s c a n, w i t h t he a i d of d i s t r i c t f unds c hoos e t o s e nd t he i r c hi l d t o a be t t e r pe r f or m i ng publ i c s c hool o r s e c ur e a ddi t i ona l t ut or i ng ( U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2 003c ) M oni t or i ng of a c a de m i c pr ogr e s s i s not a ne w c on c e pt i n t hi s c ount r y ; how e ve r t he N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t ha s i de nt i f i e d a nd a d dr e s s e d s om e a c c ount a bi l i t y i s s ue s I n t he pa s t s c hool s a s w e l l a s s t a t e s c oul d r e por t a ggr e ga t e d da t a a c r os s t he t ot a l popul a t i on of s t ude nt s ; hi gh s c or e s c oul d ba l a nc e out ve r y l o w s c or e s gi vi ng t he i m pr e s s i on t ha t t he s c hool w a s e f f e c t i ve l y t e a c hi ng a l l o f i t s s t ude nt s H ow e ve r m a ny s c hool s w e r e onl y e f f e c t i ve l y r e a c hi ng a c e r t a i n s ubs e t of s t ude nt s ; m i nor i t y, poor a nd c hi l dr e n w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s or l i m i t e d E ngl i s h p r of i c i e nc y ( L E P ) w e r e c ons i s t e nt l y be i ng l e f t be hi nd I n r e s pons e t o t hi s pr obl e m da t a c a n no l onge r be a g gr e ga t e d a c r os s s t ude nt s s c hool s di s t r i c t s or s t a t e s ; t e s t s c or e s a r e r e qui r e d t o be di s a ggr e ga t e d a nd r e por t e d by s ubgr oups ba s e d on e c onom i c ba c kgr ound, r a c e / e t hni c i t y, E n gl i s h pr of i c i e nc y, a nd di s a bi l i t y s t a t us

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13 I t i s hope d t ha t w i t h t he s e pr oc e dur e s i n pl a c e t he a c hi e ve m e nt ga ps t ha t e xi s t be t w e e n di s a dva nt a ge d s t ude nt s a nd ot he r s t ude nt s w i l l be di m i ni s he d ( U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on 2003a ) I n a ddi t i on t o l o f t y a c hi e ve m e nt goa l s a nd s t r i n ge nt a c c ount a bi l i t y pl a ns t he A c t a l l ow s f or a ddi t i ona l f e de r a l f unds t o be di s t r i but e d t o s t a t e s f or t he pu r pos e s of i m pl e m e nt i ng s c i e nt i f i c a l l y pr ove n e m pi r i c a l l y ba s e d r e a di ng pr ogr a m s T he N a t i ona l R e a di ng P a ne l ( 2000) ha s i de nt i f i e d f i ve ba s i c s ki l l s i m por t a nt t o e a r l y r e a di ng s uc c e s s i nc l udi ng phone m i c a w a r e ne s s phoni c s f l ue nc y, v oc a bul a r y a nd c om pr e he ns i on. S t a t e s c a n a ppl y f or f unds t h r ough t he f e de r a l R e a di ng F i r s t pr ogr a m a nd f undi ng w i l l be gr a nt e d t he m ba s e d on t he num be r of t he i r c hi l d r e n a ge d 5 17 ye a r s w ho a r e c ons i de r e d l ow i nc om e ( U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003d) T he f unds w i l l be us e d t o t e a c h t he f i ve ba s i c s ki l l s i n a s ys t e m a t i c a nd e vi de nc e ba s e d m a nne r a nd t he s t ude nt s w i l l be m oni t o r e d c l os e l y ( ye a r l y s t a t e a s s e s s m e nt s ) t o e ns ur e t ha t t he y a r e m ovi ng t ow a r d s uc c e s s ( U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003d) S i nc e e a c h s t a t e c a n e s t a bl i s h a nd e nf or c e i t s ow n s t a nda r ds a nd de s i gn i t s ow n t e s t s i t i s he l pf ul t o l ook m o r e s pe c i f i c a l l y a t F l or i da s r e s pons e t o t he N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t T he S t a t e o f F l o r i da i s c om m i t t e d t o c om pl i a nc e w i t h t he ne w f e de r a l l a w a nd ha s s e t i nt e r m e di a t e goa l s t o t hi s e nd. T he s t a t e ha s e s t a bl i s he d goa l s a c c or di ng t o w hi c h 31% of i t s s t ude nt s a r e t o be r e a di ng pr o f i c i e nt l y by t he 200 3 04 s c hool ye a r 48 % by 2006 07, 65% by 2009 10 82 % by 2012 13, a n d 100% by 2013 14 ( F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003a ) T he S t a t e ha s a p pl i e d f or a nd r e c e i ve d $52 m i l l i on i n a nnua l f undi ng ( ove r $300 m i l l i on a c r os s s i x ye a r s ) i n R e a di ng F i r s t f unds a nd pl a ns t o us e t he m one y i n s c hool s a r ound t he s t a t e w i t h l a r g e num be r s of a t r i s k c hi l d r e n ( F l or i da

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14 D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003b) T he s e s c hool s m us t de m ons t r a t e t hr ough a c om pe t i t i ve a ppl i c a t i on pr oc e s s t ha t t he y a r e c om m i t t e d t o pr o vi di ng not onl y t he r e qui r e d r e s e a r c h ba s e d r e a di ng pr ogr a m s bu t a n a ddi t i ona l bl oc k o f t i m e de vot e d on l y t o t he us e of t he s e t e c hni que s a s w e l l C hi l dr e n i n t he s e s c hool s a r e t o r e c e i ve ne a r l y t w i c e t he a m ount of r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a s c hi l d r e n i n t ypi c a l s c hool s T he h ope i s t ha t i nt e ns i ve r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i on w i l l ha ve a pr e ve nt a t i ve e f f e c t P r e ve nt i on pr og r a m s s uc h a s t he s e ha ve r e c e i ve d a t r e m e ndous a m ount o f a t t e nt i on a nd a r e a r gue d t o be ke y i n s ol vi ng t he r e a di ng c r i s i s i n t he S t a t e I n a ddi t i on t o pr e ve nt i on, t he S t a t e o f F l o r i da ha s i m pl e m e nt e d w ha t s om e w oul d c ons i de r t o be r a t he r dr a s t i c i nt e r ve nt i on s t r a t e gi e s t o a ddr e s s ot he r c ur r e nt e duc a t i ona l i s s ue s N e w r e t e nt i on pol i c i e s w e nt i nt o e f f e c t on J a nua r y 7 2003 t he c o ns e que nc e s of w hi c h c ont i nue t o s w e e p t he s t a t e ( T he F l o r i da S e na t e 2003) T he s e pol i c i e s i nc l ude m a nda t or y r e t e nt i on a t t he e nd of gr a de 3 f or s t ude nt s w hos e r e a di ng de f i c i e nc i e s a r e not s uc c e s s f ul l y r e m e di a t e d, a s m e a s ur e d by pe r f or m a nc e on t he F l or i da C om pr e he ns i ve A c hi e ve m e nt T e s t ( F C A T ) T h i s pol i c y i s de s i gne d t o a l i gn F l or i da pol i c i e s w i t h f e de r a l l a w a nd i ndi c a t e t ha t t he e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m i n t hi s s t a t e w i l l not l e t a ny c hi l d f a i l t o l e a r n t o r e a d; i t w i l l i ns t e a d c ont i nue i t s e f f o r t s i n a s s i s t i ng a l l c hi l dr e n t o a c hi e ve a c a de m i c s uc c e s s I nhe r e nt i n t he r e t e nt i on pol i c y i s a n e m pha s i s on p r e ve nt i on a nd/ or r e m e di a t i on o f r e a di ng de f i c i e nc i e s w hi c h w i l l be a ddr e s s e d l a t e r a s w e l l a s s t r ong t i e s t o t he s t a nda r di z e d t e s t us e d t o qua nt i f y t hos e de f i c i e nc i e s t he F C A T I n l ooki ng a t F l o r i da s s t a nda r di z e d t e s t t he s t a nda r ds t ha t i t pur por t s t o m e a s ur e c a nnot be i gnor e d. T he S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r ds de ve l ope d by t he F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on a nd a dopt e d i n 1996, i de nt i f y t he a c a de m i c s ki l l s t ha t t he S t a t e of F l or i da

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15 w a nt s i t s s t ude nt s t o ha ve a t t a i ne d a t e a c h g r a de l e ve l ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on, 2003c ) F o r e a c h g r a de a s e r i e s of be nc hm a r ks ha ve be e n i de nt i f i e d w hi c h w he n m e t m ove a c hi l d t ow a r d m e e t i ng t he s t a nda r ds f or t ha t gr a de W i t hi n t he S t a t e of F l o r i da t he F C A T r e pr e s e nt s t he f ounda t i on of t he f e de r a l l y m a nda t e d a nd s t a t e c r e a t e d a c c ount a bi l i t y s ys t e m ; i t pur po r t s t o di r e c t l y m e a s ur e s t ude nt s pr ogr e s s i n r e a di ng, w r i t i ng, a nd m a t he m a t i c s a s out l i ne d i n t he S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r ds T he r e a di ng por t i on of t hi s t e s t i s a dm i n i s t e r e d e ve r y ye a r i n g r a de s 3 10. S t ude nt s r e c e i ve a s c a l e s c or e f or e a c h s ubj e c t a nd f r om t ha t s c a l e s c or e t he y a r e c a t e gor i z e d a s pe r f o r m i ng a t one of f i ve l e ve l s w i t h L e ve l 1 be i ng t he l ow e s t a nd L e ve l 5 be i ng t he hi ghe s t A gr e a t de a l of a t t e nt i on i s gi ve n t o t he l ow e s t t w o l e ve l s ; a t L e ve l 1, s t ude nt s a r e ha vi ng l i t t l e s uc c e s s w i t h t he c ha l l e ngi ng c ont e nt o f t he S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r ds S t ude nt s w ho a c hi e ve L e ve l 2 a r e a s s um e d t o be ha vi ng l i m i t e d s uc c e s s w i t h t he s a m e c ont e nt S t a t e w i de pol i c y m a nda t e s t ha t unl e s s a good c a u s e e xe m pt i on c a n be de m ons t r a t e d, a l l s t ude nt s a c hi e vi ng a t L e ve l 1 w i l l be r e t a i ne d a t t h e t hi r d g r a de l e ve l ( T he F l or i da S e na t e 2003) T he s e s t ude nt s a r e a s s um e d t o be s t r uggl i ng w i t h l e a r ni ng t o r e a d s uc h t ha t t he y ha ve not m a s t e r e d t he m os t ba s i c s ki l l s a t t he m os t ba s i c l e ve l s W i t hout t he s e ba s i c s ki l l s c ha nc e s of s uc c e s s i n s ubs e qu e nt gr a de s a r e s e ve r e l y l i m i t e d, a s t he a ppr oa c h t o t e a c hi ng r e a di ng s hi f t s a t t h i s c r i t i c a l j unc t u r e P r i o r t o a nd t hr ough t he t hi r d g r a de ye a r s t ude nt s a r e l e a r ni ng t o r e a d; be gi nni ng i n f our t h g r a de s t ude nt s a r e i ns t e a d e xpe c t e d t o ut i l i z e r e a di ng s ki l l s i n a l l a r e a s of t he i r s c hool i ng. I n e s s e nc e t he y a r e now r e a di ng t o l e a r n ( J us t R e a d, F l or i da 2003 ) A w a ve of c onc e r n f l oode d t he s t a t e a s t he 2003 F C A T r e s ul t s w e r e di s s e m i na t e d. A c c or di ng t o t he s c or e s r e por t e d, a l m os t one out o f f ou r ( 23 % ) o f F l or i da s t h i r d g r a de

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16 s t ude nt s w e r e r e a di ng a t L e ve l 1, i ndi c a t i ng pot e nt i a l r e t e nt i on f or t he f ol l ow i ng s c hool ye a r of a ppr ox i m a t e l y 47 000 s t ude nt s ( F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003d) S i x gui de l i ne s or good c a us e e xe m pt i ons i ndi c a t e d t hos e c i r c um s t a nc e s unde r w hi c h a s t ude nt s c or i ng L e ve l 1 on t he F C A T c oul d s t i l l be pr om ot e d t o t he f our t h gr a de T he s e i nc l ude d [ a ] l i m i t e d E ngl i s h p r of i c i e nt ( L E P ) s t ude nt s w i t h l e s s t ha n t w o ye a r s i n a n E ngl i s h f or S pe a ke r s of O t he r L a ngua ge s ( E S O L ) pr ogr a m [ b] s t ude nt s w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s w hos e i ndi vi dua l e duc a t i ona l pl a n ( I E P ) i ndi c a t e d t ha t pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he F C A T w a s not a ppr opr i a t e [ c ] de m ons t r a t i on o f a n a c c e pt a bl e l e ve l of pe r f or m a nc e on a n a l t e r na t e a s s e s s m e nt or s c or i ng a t t he 51s t pe r c e nt i l e o r hi ghe r on t he nor m r e f e r e nc e d t e s t por t i on of t he F C A T [ d] de m ons t r a t i on of pr of i c i e nc y i n S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r ds t hr ough a s t ude nt po r t f ol i o [ e ] s t ude nt s w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he F C A T ( but ) s t i l l de m ons t r a t e a de f i c i e nc y i n r e a di ng a f t e r m o r e t ha n t w o ye a r s of i nt e ns i ve r e m e di a t i on a nd w e r e p r e vi ous l y r e t a i ne d i n ki nde r ga r t e n, f i r s t s e c ond, or t hi r d gr a de a nd [ f ] s t ude nt s w ho s t i l l de m ons t r a t e a de f i c i e nc y i n r e a di ng a f t e r t w o or m or e ye a r s of i nt e ns i ve r e m e di a t i on a nd w e r e p r e vi ous l y r e t a i ne d i n ki nde r ga r t e n f i r s t s e c ond, or t hi r d gr a de f or a t ot a l of t w o ye a r s ( F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003e ) H i s t or i c a l l y, gr a de r e t e nt i on ha s be e n vi e w e d i n e d uc a t i on a s t he e xc e pt i on, r a t he r t ha n t he nor m ye t ha s be e n a w i de s pr e a d pr a c t i c e de s pi t e pe r s i s t i ng e m pi r i c a l e vi de nc e t ha t i t i s no t t ypi c a l l y a s uc c e s s f ul i nt e r ve nt i on s t r a t e gy ( J i m e r s on, 2001; P he l ps D ow de l l R i z z o, E hr l i c h & W i l c z e ns ki 1992) D e s pi t e t he pr om ot i on of 12, 403 ( 6. 5 % ) s t ude nt s due t o good c a us e a t ot a l of 2 8, 028 ( 14 6% ) t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s w e r e r e t a i ne d a f t e r t he 2002 2003 s c hool ye a r due t o L e ve l 1 s c or e s on t he F C A T ( F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on 2003d ) I n v i e w of t he t r e m e ndous n um be r s of a f f e c t e d c hi l dr e n, i t i s

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17 i m por t a nt t o r e t ur n t o t he r e s e a r c h t o e xa m i ne t he s e i s s ue s l ooki ng pa s t t he l ongs t a ndi ng a s s um pt i ons a nd obj e c t i ve l y r e e xa m i ni ng t he l i t e r a t ur e w i t h r e ga r ds t o t he i nt e nt s f u nc t i ons a nd out c om e s of r e t e nt i on. T he body of r e t e nt i on l i t e r a t ur e i s e xt e ns i ve a nd s pa ns s e ve r a l de c a de s ; how e ve r m uc h of t he e a r l i e s t r e s e a r c h i s s a ddl e d w i t h s ubs t a nt i a l m e t hodol ogi c a l f l a w s i nc l udi ng a l a c k o f c om pa r i s on gr oup ( S i m m ons & B l yt h 1987 ) a n i ns uf f i c i e nt s a m pl e i n t e r m s of s i z e a nd di ve r s i t y ( J a c ks on, 1975) I n a ddi t i on, m uc h o f t he e a r l i e r w o r k i n t hi s a r e a w a s unpubl i s he d. I n a n e a r l y r e vi e w ( H ol m e s 1989 ) o f 63 r e t e nt i on s t udi e s onl y 20 ha d gone t hr ough t he r i g or ous publ i c a t i on pr oc e s s T hi s s pe a ks t o t he qua l i t y of t he e a r l i e s t s t udi e s a s t he s c i e nt i f i c qua l i t y c oul d no t be m on i t or e d. D ue t o t he s e i s s ue s t hi s r e vi e w w i l l no t a t t e m pt t o be e xha us t i ve ; r a t he r i t w i l l f oc us on t he m os t r e c e nt a nd r e l e va nt r e s e a r c h t o da t e a nd w i l l pr ovi de a s ynt he s i s of t he f i ndi ngs T hi s r e vi e w i s o r ga ni z e d by t he f ol l ow i ng c a t e gor i e s : ( a ) c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e t a i ne d c hi l dr e n, ( b) e vi de nc e o f pos i t i ve out c om e s o f r e t e nt i on, ( c ) e vi de nc e of ne ga t i ve out c om e s of r e t e nt i on ( d ) f a c t or s t ha t de t e r m i ne / c o nt r i but e t o r e t e nt i on ou t c om e s ( e ) m e t hodol ogi c a l i s s ue s t o c ons i de r a nd ( f ) f ut ur e di r e c t i ons i n r e t e nt i on r e s e a r c h. C har ac t e r i s t i c s of R e t ai ne d C hi l dr e n W hi l e l ow a c a de m i c pe r f or m a nc e ha s be e n a s s um e d t o be t he pr i m a r y r e a s on t o r e t a i n a c hi l d i n g r a d e s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n a c hi e ve m e nt be t w e e n r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s a nd l ow a c hi e vi ng but pr om o t e d s t ude nt s ha ve not be e n f ound, s ugge s t i ng t ha t s oc i a l a nd/ or be ha vi or a l f a c t or s i nf l ue nc e de c i s i ons t o r e t a i n ( J i m e r s on, C a r l s on, R ot e r t E ge l a nd, & S r ouf e 1 997 ) O ve r t he ye a r s c e r t a i n f a c t or s ha ve be e n i de nt i f i e d t ha t c ons i s t e nt l y c ha r a c t e r i z e r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s e na bl i ng us t o p r e di c t w ho i s m or e l i ke l y t o be r e t a i ne d i n t he f ut ur e T he s e f a c t or s i nc l ude be i ng m a l e a n e t hni c m i nor i t y a nd s oc i a l l y

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18 i m m a t ur e A ddi t i ona l l y, ha vi ng poor e m ot i ona l he a l t h, m a l a da pt i ve o r a ggr e s s i ve be ha vi or s a nd r e a di ng or m a t h pr obl e m s ha ve be e n f ound t o put a c hi l d a t hi ghe r r i s k ( J i m e r s on, 1999; J i m e r s on e t a l 1997; M c C oy & R e ynol ds 1999; R e ynol ds 1992) C hi l dr e n a l s o a r e m or e l i ke l y t o be r e t a i ne d i f t he y l i ve i n pove r t y c ha nge s c hool s f r e que nt l y, or ha ve pa r e nt s w ho a r e not i nvol ve d i n s c hool do n ot va l ue e duc a t i on or ha ve a l ow l e ve l o f e duc a t i on t he m s e l ve s ( M c C oy & R e ynol ds 1999; R e ynol ds 1992 ) I t i s unc l e a r w he t he r t he s e f a c t or s pa r t i c ul a r l y t he de m ogr a phi c c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e t he m s e l ve s de c r e a s i ng t he odds of a c a de m i c s uc c e s s or i f t he y a r e s e r vi ng a s m e d i a t or s on a n uni de nt i f i e d va r i a bl e t o put t hos e c hi l dr e n a t a hi ghe r r i s k of be i ng r e t a i ne d. A s r e t a i ne d c hi l dr e n ge ne r a l l y l a g be hi nd t he i r pe e r s a c a de m i c a l l y a nd of t e n f a c e num e r ous ot he r s oc i a l a nd be ha vi or a l di s a dva nt a ge s i t f ol l ow s l ogi c a l l y t ha t on e goa l of r e t e nt i on w oul d be r e m e di a t i on. T he r e f or e c hi l dr e n w ho a r e r e t a i ne d s houl d s how a n i m pr ove m e nt i n a c a de m i c pe r f or m a nc e f ol l ow i ng a ddi t i ona l t i m e i n t he s a m e gr a de ; w i t hout t hi s i m p r ove m e nt i t w oul d be ha r d t o j us t i f y s uc h a f i na nc i a l l y a s w e l l a s e m ot i ona l l y c os t l y m e t hod o f i nt e r ve nt i on. T hough out c om e r e s e a r c h ha s yi e l de d m i xe d r e s ul t s i n t hi s a r e a w i t h f i ndi ngs ge ne r a l l y i ndi c a t i ng ne ga t i ve e f f e c t s s e ve r a l s t udi e s i ndi c a t e t ha t e a r l y r e t e nt i on c a n be ne f i t t he f ut ur e a c a de m i c c a r e e r s of l ow a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s E v i de nc e of P os i t i v e O ut c om e s of R e t e nt i on A r e c e nt s t udy by M a nt z i c opoul os ( 1997 ) s e r ve s a s a n e xa m pl e of pos i t i ve out c om e s r e s ul t i ng f r om r e t e nt i on T he 40 c hi l d r e n i n t hi s s t udy w e r e s e l e c t e d i n t he s pr i ng of t he i r ki nde r ga r t e n ye a r ba s e d on hi gh i na t t e nt i on s t a t us ( a s m e a s ur e d by t e a c he r r a t i ng us i ng t he R e vi s e d P r ob l e m B e ha vi or s C he c kl i s t ) f r o m a m a t c he d gr oup o f 62

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19 c hi l dr e n w ho ha d pa r t i c i pa t e d i n a pr e vi ous s t udy ( M a nt z i c opoul os & M or r i s on, 1992) T hi s l a r ge r gr oup ha d be e n m a t c he d o n de m ogr a ph i c a nd a c a de m i c va r i a bl e s i nc l udi ng s e x, a ge a t r i s k s t a t us a nd r e a di ng/ m a t h a c hi e ve m e nt O f t he 40 c hi l dr e n i nc l ude d i n t h i s s t udy, 25 ha d be e n r e t a i ne d i n ki nde r ga r t e n a nd 15 w e r e pr om ot e d; a l l c hi l d r e n w e r e f ol l ow e d t hr ough t he s e c ond gr a de M e a s ur e s i nc l ude d t he S E A R C H i ns t r um e nt w hi c h i s c om pos e d of 10 s ubs c a l e s de s i gne d t o a s s e s s s pa t i a l a nd t e m por a l or i e nt a t i on s ki l l s de e m e d ne c e s s a r y t o be gi nni ng r e a di ng, t he R e vi s e d P r obl e m B e ha vi or C he c kl i s t ( R P B C ) t o m e a s ur e t he s e ve r i t y of p r obl e m b e ha vi or s a nd t he T ot a l R e a di ng a nd T ot a l M a t h s ubt e s t s f r om one of t w o s t a nda r di z e d a c hi e v e m e nt t e s t s ( S t a nf or d A c hi e ve m e nt T e s t or C a l i f o r ni a T e s t of B a s i c S ki l l s ) C hi l dr e n w e r e gi ve n t he S E A R C H s c r e e ni ng dur i ng t he i r ki nde r ga r t e n ye a r a nd w e r e r a t e d w i t h t he R P B C e a c h ye a r A c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t s w e r e a dm i ni s t e r e d ne a r t he e nd of e a c h s c hool ye a r R e pe a t e d m e a s ur e s m ul t i va r i a t e a na l ys e s of c ova r i a nc e w e r e pe r f or m e d f or bot h s a m e a ge a nd s a m e gr a de c om pa r i s ons T he r e s ul t s f or t he s a m e gr a de c om pa r i s ons i ndi c a t e d a s i gni f i c a nt m a i n e f f e c t f or m a t h a c hi e v e m e nt f a vor i ng t he r e t a i ne d gr oup ( F = 5. 63, p< 05) I n a ddi t i on t he a dj us t e d m e a n di f f e r e nc e s s how e d t ha t r e t a i ne d c hi l dr e n pe r f or m e d a bove t he na t i ona l m e a n i n m a t h w hi l e pr om ot e d c hi l dr e n r e m a i ne d be l ow t he na t i ona l m e a n a t f i r s t a nd s e c ond gr a de s ( M A d j = 0 25 a nd 0 18) r e s pe c t i ve l y. N o s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound i n r e a di ng pe r f o r m a nc e S a m e a ge c om pa r i s ons yi e l de d s i m i l a r r e s ul t s ; r e t a i ne d c hi l dr e n pe r f or m e d s i gni f i c a nt l y be t t e r t ha n pr om ot e d c hi l dr e n i n m a t h w hi l e t he r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e o f bot h gr oups s how e d a s l i ght de c l i ne ove r t i m e w i t h c om pa r a bl e l e ve l s a t t he e nd of s e c ond gr a de T he a ut ho r c onc l ude s t ha t r e t e nt i on i s not a be ne f i c i a l e duc a t i ona l

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20 i nt e r ve nt i on due t o t he l a c k o f c ons i s t e nt f i ndi ngs i n r e a di ng; how e ve r f o r t he pur pos e s of t hi s r e vi e w t he c l e a r i nc r e a s e i n m a t h pe r f o r m a nc e c a nnot be ove r l ooke d. A l e xa nde r E nt w i s l e & D a ube r ( 1994) of f e r m o r e c onc l us i ve e vi de nc e of r e t e nt i on a s a pos i t i ve i nt e r ve nt i on t ool T houg h ne ve r a c hi e vi ng a t t he s a m e l e ve l a s ne ve r r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s t he r e t a i ne e s i n t he i r s t udy s how m a r ke d i m p r ove m e nt s ove r t i m e T he a ut hor s ut i l i z e d a s t r a t i f i e d r a ndom s a m pl e of 800 B a l t i m or e c hi l d r e n e nt e r i ng f i r s t gr a de a nd m oni t or e d t he i r s c hool pr ogr e s s f or e i ght s ubs e que nt ye a r s T he de s i gn w a s l ongi t udi na l l e a di ng t o s ubj e c t gr oups t ha t w e r e t oo c om pl e x t o be s e pa r a t e d i nt o di s t i nc t r e t a i ne d ve r s us pr om ot e d g r oups ba s e d on one poi nt of t i m e F o r i ns t a nc e 127 f i r s t gr a de r s w e r e r e t a i ne d i n ye a r 1 o f t he s t udy. O ve r t he ne xt e i ght ye a r s be c a us e of e r r a t i c gr a de l e ve l p r ogr e s s i ons s uc h a s doubl e r e t e nt i ons ( 49) t r i pl e r e t e nt i ons ( 3) m i d ye a r r e t e nt i ons ( 1 ) m i d ye a r pr om ot i ons ( 17) a nd doubl e pr om ot i ons ( 12) onl y ni ne of t he or i gi na l 127 s t ude nt s w ho ha d be e n r e t a i ne d i n ye a r 1 w e r e on gr a de l e ve l a f t e r e i ght ye a r s I n a s i m i l a r ve i n by ye a r 8 of t he s t udy, 142 c hi l dr e n w e r e i n t he s e ve nt h gr a de one ye a r be hi nd t he pr ogr e s s i on s c he dul e t ha t w ou l d be e xpe c t e d i f t he r e w e r e no de vi a t i ons ; how e ve r onl y 22 w e r e a c t ua l l y s e ve nt h gr a de r e pe a t e r s ; t he va s t m a j or i t y a r e a ye a r be hi nd be c a us e of r e t e nt i on( s ) e a r l i e r i n t he i r s c hool c a r e e r s T hi s de s i gn r e s ul t e d i n a t r e m e ndous a m ount of l ong t e r m da t a ga r ne r e d m a i nl y f r om s c hool r e c or ds ( i nc l udi ng t e s t s c or e s a nd gr a de r e por t s ) one on o ne i nt e r vi e w s w i t h t he c hi l dr e n a nd t he i r pa r e nt s a nd s e l f a dm i ni s t e r e d que s t i onna i r e s by t e a c he r s T hi s s t udy w a s uni que i n c om pa r i s on t o ot he r r e c e nt r e t e nt i on r e s e a r c h i n t h a t i t di d not e m pl oy a ny t ype of m a t c he d c o nt r ol gr oup A s w i l l be d i s c us s e d l a t e r a n a ppr opr i a t e l y m a t c he d c om pa r i s on gr oup i s ve r y di f f i c ul t t o c ons t r uc t a nd de f i ne c ons i s t e nt l y a c r os s s t udi e s l e a vi ng t he

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21 pos s i bi l i t y t ha t a n unde t e r m i ne d va r i a bl e c oul d s ke w t he r e s ul t s ; t he s e a ut hor s c hos e t o c i r c um ve nt t he s e i s s ue s by us i ng s t a t i s t i c a l m e t hods t o a dj us t f or pr i o r pe r f or m a nc e a s w e l l a s de m ogr a phi c r i s k f a c t or s s uc h a s l ow s oc i o e c onom i c s t a t us l ow pa r e nt e duc a t i on m i nor i t y s t a t us a nd l ow s c hool r e a di ne s s T he s t a t i s t i c a l a dj us t m e nt s a l l ow e d t he m t o m a ke a ppr opr i a t e c om pa r i s ons be t w e e n r e t a i ne e s t hos e w ho pe r f or m e d s i m i l a r l y but w e r e pr om ot e d, a nd a l l r e m a i ni ng ne ve r r e t a i ne d c hi l dr e n. I n a ddi t i on t he r e s e a r c he r s c om pa r e d s t ude nt s pos t r e t e nt i on pe r f or m a nc e t o t he i r ow n p r e r e t e nt i on pe r f or m a nc e i n or de r t o e xa m i ne a c ha nge i n t r a j e c t or y T o m e a s ur e a c hi e ve m e nt t he r e s e a r c he r s a dm i ni s t e r e d t w o s ubt e s t s f r om t he C a l i f or ni a A c hi e ve m e nt T e s t ba t t e r y ( r e a di ng a nd m a t h) t w i c e a nnua l l y. T he r e a di ng po r t i on c ons i s t s of 20 40 i t e m s ( 20 i t e m s i n f i r s t a nd s e c ond gr a de ve r s i ons 27 i t e m s i n t hi r d gr a de ve r s i on, a nd 40 i t e m s f o r a l l s ubs e que nt ve r s i ons ) w hi l e t he m a t h s ubt e s t c ons i s t s of 36 45 i t e m s ( 36 i t e m s i n f i r s t gr a de 40 i t e m s i n s e c ond gr a de a nd 45 t he r e a f t e r ) T he a ut hor s r e por t s c a l e s c or e s t ha t ha ve be e n c a l i br a t e d t o a c c ount f o r a l l ve r s i ons of t he t e s t a l l ow i ng f or m e a ni ngf ul i nt e r pr e t a t i ons a c r os s gr a de l e ve l s W i t h r e ga r d t o t he C A T R ( r e a di ng) c hi l dr e n w ho w e r e r e t a i ne d a t t he e nd of f i r s t gr a de ( n = 127 ) l a gge d s i gni f i c a nt l y be hi nd t he i r s a m e a ge ne ve r r e t a i ne d pe e r s a t t he be gi nni ng a s w e l l a s a t t he e nd of t he f i r s t gr a de ( 33 5 po i nt s l ow e r i n t he f a l l ; 59. 5 poi nt s l ow e r i n t he s pr i ng; p< 01) bu t w he n c om pa r e d t o t hos e s a m e pe e r s a f t e r t he r e t a i ne d ye a r ha d m a de up s e ve n poi nt s i n r e a di ng a nd f ou r i n m a t h ( p< 01) G a i ns w e r e l a r ge r w he n c om pa r i ng t he c hi l d r e n r e t a i ne d i n f i r s t gr a de t o younge r s a m e gr a de pe e r s ; t he y s c or e d 17 poi nt s hi ghe r i n m a t h ( p< 01) U n f o r t una t e l y, t he s e ga i ns w e r e no t m a i nt a i ne d pa s t t hi s f i r s t f ol l ow up ( i e a f t e r one ye a r of r e t e nt i on i n f i r s t gr a de ) ; t he s e c hi l dr e n s s c or e s i n l a t e r ye a r s r e m a i ne d s i m i l a r t o w ha t t he y ha d be e n i n t he p r e

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22 r e t e nt i on ye a r T he a ut hor s not e d t ha t r e t e nt i on i n t he f i r s t g r a de s e e m s qua l i t a t i ve l y di f f e r e nt f r om r e t e nt i on i n l a t e r gr a de s ; t he y r e m a i n unc l e a r a s t o w he t he r t hi s i s due t o t he f i r s t g r a de r e t e nt i on i t s e l f o r w he t he r f i r s t g r a d e r e t a i ne e s a c a de m i c di f f i c ul t i e s a r e s o s e ve r e T he y f ound t ha t f or c hi l dr e n r e t a i ne d i n t he s e c ond a nd t hi r d gr a de s r e s ul t s w e r e m or e pos i t i ve S e c ond gr a de c hi l d r e n w e r e f a r t he r be hi nd t he i r pe e r s a t t he e nd of t he ye a r t ha n t he f i r s t g r a de r e t a i ne e s ha d be e n; how e v e r a f t e r r e t e nt i on f o r one ye a r t he y ha d i m pr ove d t he i r s t a ndi ng r e l a t i ve t o s a m e a ge p e e r s A t t he t i m e of r e t e nt i on t h e y s c or e d a n a ve r a ge of 52 0 poi n t s l ow e r t ha n t he i r p e e r s ; a f t e r one ye a r of r e t e nt i on i n s e c ond gr a de t he y s c or e d onl y 34. 7 poi nt s l ow e r ( p< 01) I n a ddi t i on, i t a ppe a r s t ha t t hos e ga i ns w e r e l ong t e r m a s by t he s e ve nt h ye a r of t he s t udy t he y w e r e onl y 24. 8 poi nt s l ow e r t ha n ne ve r r e t a i ne d pe e r s ( p< 01) T hi s pa t t e r n of i m pr ove m e nt w a s e ve n s t r onge r f or c hi l dr e n r e t a i ne d i n t hi r d gr a de w ho l a gge d 28. 4 poi nt s be hi nd t he i r s a m e a ge pe e r s a t t he poi nt of r e t e nt i on, but onl y 9 7 poi nt s be hi nd by ye a r 7 of t he s t udy ( p< 01) T he a ut hor s a r e qui c k t o poi nt ou t t ha t t he s e r e t a i ne e s a r e s t i l l l a ggi ng f a r be hi nd t he i r ne ve r r e t a i ne d pe e r s s e e n i n t he a dj us t e d s c or e s but e s pe c i a l l y i n t he una dj us t e d num be r s T he y f e e l i t i s c r uc i a l how e ve r t o r e m e m be r t he r e t a i ne d c hi l dr e n s p r e r e t e nt i on pr obl e m s W ha t e ve r t he p r obl e m c a us i ng poor a c hi e ve m e nt i t w a s p r e s e nt be f or e t he r e t a i ne d ye a r l e a di ng t he s e a ut hor s t o c onc l ude t ha t t he r e t e nt i on ye a r a c t ua l l y i m pr ove d a p r e vi ous l y c ha r t e d c our s e T he y hypot he s i z e d, ba s e d on e a r l y t e s t s c or e s t ha t w i t hout r e t e nt i on t he s e c hi l dr e n w oul d ha ve c ont i nue d t o f a i l a nd t ha t t he ga p be t w e e n t he i r s c or e s a nd t hos e of ne ve r r e t a i ne d c hi l d r e n w oul d ha ve c ont i nue d t o w i de n. W hi l e t hi s e xpl a na t i on m a ke s c onc e pt ua l s e ns e i t l a c ks e m pi r i c a l ba s i s a s t hi s s t udy l a c ks t he da t a t o pi npoi nt s pe c i f i c va r i a bl e s i nvol ve d i n s c hool f a i l ur e a s w e l l a s de t a i l e d

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23 i nf or m a t i on r e ga r di ng w hi c h a s pe c t s of r e t e nt i on m a de a pos i t i ve i m pa c t on c hi l dr e n s a c a de m i c c a r e e r s T o s um m a r i z e t he s e s t udi e s a nd a s m a l l num be r o f ot he r s ( G ot t f r e ds on, F i nk, & G r a ha m 1994; P e t e r s on, D e G r a c i e & A ya be 198 7) ha ve r e po r t e d pos i t i ve r e s ul t s t o va r yi ng de gr e e s U nf o r t una t e l y, r e s ul t s s uc h a s t he s e a ppe a r t o be i n t he m i no r i t y, a s pa s t r e s e a r c h ha s c ons i s t e nt l y s h ow n r e t e nt i on t o be a n ove r w he l m i ngl y ne ga t i ve e xpe r i e nc e f or c hi l d r e n. S m a l l a c a de m i c ga i ns m a y be s e e n i n c e r t a i n r e t a i ne e s ( M a nt z i c opoul os 1997) e s pe c i a l l y w he n c om pa r i ng t he m w i t h youn ge r s a m e gr a de pe e r s ( A l e xa nde r e t a l 1994 ) ; how e ve r t he s e ga i ns a r e a ppa r e nt l y t e m por a r y a nd a s t he s e a nd ot he r s t udi e s ha ve s how n, w i t hi n t w o t o t hr e e ye a r s t he i r a c hi e v e m e nt i s e qua l t o o r l ow e r t ha n t ha t of bot h s a m e gr a de a nd s a m e a ge r e gul a r l y pr om ot e d s t ude nt s ( J i m e r s on, 1999; J i m e r s on e t a l 1997 ; M a nt z i c opoul os 1997; M a nt z i c opoul os & M or r i s on 1992; M c C oy & R e ynol ds 1999) I nt e r e s t i ngl y, s t udi e s t ha t ha ve f o und m ode s t t e m po r a r y i nc r e a s e s i n pe r f or m a nc e m os t o f t e n f i nd t he m i n m a t h; r e a di ng i s a c ons i s t e nt a nd di s t i nc t de f i c i t i n r e t a i ne d c hi l dr e n ( J i m e r s on e t a l 1997 ; M a nt z i c opoul os 1997) T h i s f i ndi ng i s of pa r t i c ul a r r e l e va nc e w he n c ons i de r i ng t ha t t he r e t e nt i on pol i c y i n t he S t a t e of F l or i da e s t a bl i s he s r e a di ng r e m e di a t i on a s i t s p r i m a r y goa l I t s houl d a l s o be no t e d t ha t a c c or di ng t o t he e xi s t i ng l i t e r a t ur e s oc i o e m ot i ona l a nd be ha vi or de f i c i t s s uc h a s hi gh i na t t e nt i on, i m m a t ur e or a ggr e s s i ve be ha vi or l ow s e l f e s t e e m a nd poor pe e r r e l a t i ons hi ps t e nd t o be e xa c e r ba t e d r a t he r t ha n i m p r ove d by r e t e nt i on ( J i m e r s on, 1999; J i m e r s on e t a l 1997; M a nt z i c opoul os 1997) T he di r e c t e f f e c t s of s oc i o e m ot i ona l / be ha vi or a l he a l t h on a c a de m i c pe r f or m a nc e a r e not t he f oc us of t hi s r e v i e w ; how e ve r i s s ue s s uc h t he s e a r e l i ke l y t o ha ve a ne ga t i ve ove r a l l e f f e c t on a c hi l d s s c hool e xpe r i e nc e

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24 E v i de nc e of N e gat i v e O ut c om e s of R e t e nt i on N um e r ous s t udi e s ha ve a t t e m pt e d t o s t udy bot h be ha vi or a l a nd a c a de m i c f a c t or s i n r e t e nt i on ( F e r gus on e t a l 2001; G ot t f r e ds on e t a l 1994 ; M a nt z i c opoul os 1997; M a nt z i c opoul os & M or r i s on, 1992) P a ga ni T r e m bl a y, V i t a r o B oul e r i c e a nd M c D uf f ( 2001) m a i nt a i ne d t hi s dua l f oc us i n t he i r r e s e a r c h e f f or t s T he i r 1, 830 s ubj e c t s w e r e s e l e c t e d f r om a l a r ge r s a m pl e ( 6 397) of ki nde r ga r t e n s t ude nt s w ho ha d be e n r a ndom l y s e l e c t e d f or a s e pa r a t e s t udy a nd f ol l ow e d t h r ough a ge 12 ( V i t a r o D e s m a r i a i s G e r va i s T r e m bl a y, & G a gnon, 1992) T he i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e w a s gr a de r e t e nt i on ( one ye a r m a xi m um ) a nd t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e s w e r e t e a c h e r r a t i ngs of c hi l dr e n s gl oba l a c a de m i c pe r f or m a nc e a s w e l l a s s c or e s on t he S oc i a l B e ha vi or Q ue s t i onna i r e w hi c h i s ba s e d on t e a c he r r a t i ng a nd c om pr i s e d of i t e m s f r o m t he P r e s c hool B e ha vi or Q ue s t i onna i r e a nd t he P r os oc i a l B e ha vi or Q ue s t i onna i r e I n or de r t o c ont r ol f or di f f e r e nc e s i n na t ur a l l y oc c ur r i ng t r a j e c t or i e s e xpe c t e d f r om c hi l dr e n o f di f f e r i ng a c hi e ve m e nt l e ve l s t he r e s e a r c he r s us e d a s t a t i s t i c r e l a t i ve l y uni que t o r e t e nt i on r e s e a r c h, a ba s i c a ut or e gr e s s i ve m ode l T e s t i ng s e pa r a t e l y f o r boys a nd gi r l s r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t gr a de r e t e nt i on ne ga t i ve l y a f f e c t e d c hi l dr e n s de ve l opm e nt r e ga r dl e s s of pr i o r c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s W i t h r e ga r ds t o a c a de m i c s f or e xa m pl e 10 ye a r ol d boys e xpe r i e nc e d ne ga t i ve de vi a t i ons f r om t he e xpe c t e d t r a j e c t or y a f t e r be i ng r e t a i ne d be t w e e n t he a ge s of 6 a nd 8 ye a r s ( pa t h = 12 p< 01) T h i s ne ga t i ve e f f e c t w a s s t i l l e vi de nt a t a ge 12. I n gi r l s a s w e l l e a r l y g r a de r e t e nt i on ha d a p r of ound a nd l a s t i ng ne ga t i ve e f f e c t on l a t e r a c a de m i c pe r f or m a nc e ( m e a s ur e d a t a ge s 10 a nd 12) a s t he i r t r a j e c t or i e s ha d di ve r t e d ne ga t i ve l y f r om t he e xpe c t e d pa t h a t a ge 10 ( pa t h = 07, p< 0 1) a nd r e m a i ne d o f f c our s e a t a ge 12 ( pa t h = 07, p< 05 ) T hi s m ode l a l s o e vi de nc e d ne ga t i ve be ha vi or a l out c om e s

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25 pa r t i c ul a r l y i n boys f or w hom a pe r s i s t e nt a nd w or s e ni ng of di s r upt i ve be ha vi or w a s r e por t e d. T he a ut hor s hypot he s i z e d t ha t t he s e be ha vi or a l out c om e s a nd t he e m ot i ona l c om pone nt t ha t a c c om pa ni e d t he m c oul d ha ve i nt e r f e r e d w i t h t he l e a r ni ng pr oc e s s a nd c oul d, t he r e f o r e ha ve be e n a c t i ng upon t he a c a de m i c out c om e s t ha t w e r e obs e r ve d. W hi l e t he i r hypot he s i s i s w or t h f u r t he r e xa m i na t i o n, t he m os t s a l i e nt i nf o r m a t i on i nvol ve s t he a ut hor s e vi de nc e ba s e d c onc l us i ons t ha t r e t e nt i on l e a ds t o l ong l a s t i ng ne ga t i ve e f f e c t s M c C oy a nd R e ynol ds ( 1999) pr ovi de d a not he r i l l u s t r a t i on of ne ga t i ve r e t e nt i on out c om e s i n t he f i nd i ngs f r om t he i r C hi c a go L ongi t udi na l S t udy. T h i s s t udy e xa m i ne d s c hool a c hi e ve m e nt of c hi l dr e n w ho w e r e g r a dua t e s of a gove r nm e nt f unde d ki nde r ga r t e n pr ogr a m a nd w ho w e r e a t r i s k f or unde r a c hi e ve m e nt due t o pove r t y. P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e s e ve nt h a nd e i ght h gr a de s t ude nt s ( de pe ndi ng on r e t e nt i on s t a t us ) a t t he t i m e of e nr ol l m e nt t hus e l i m i na t i ng t he oppor t uni t y t o m a t c h s ubj e c t s ba s e d on pr e e xi s t i ng a c hi e ve m e nt or be ha vi or c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s know n t o pr e di c t r e t e nt i on O f 1, 164 c hi l dr e n e nr ol l e d, 315 ha d be e n r e t a i ne d i n g r a de a t l e a s t on c e S t ude nt s w e r e a s s e s s e d us i ng t he r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on a nd m a t he m a t i c s s ubs e c t i ons of t he I ow a T e s t o f B a s i c S ki l l s ( I T B S L e ve l 13 o r 14; x= 145. 06, S D = 22. 38 ) a nd hi e r a r c hi c a l m ul t i pl e r e gr e s s i on w a s us e d t o a na l yz e t he r e s ul t s W he n c om pa r i ng s a m e a ge r e t a i ne d ve r s us non r e t a i ne d c hi l dr e n, g r a de r e t e nt i on w a s f ound t o c ons i s t e nt l y pr e di c t r e a di ng a nd m a t he m a t i c s pe r f or m a nc e ( R 2 = 47, R 2 = 57 r e s pe c t i ve l y) a s m e a s ur e d by t hi s s t a nda r di z e d t e s t R e t e nt i on w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y a nd ne ga t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s ( 10. 6 s t a nda r d s c or e poi nt s l ow e r p< 01 ) e ve n a f t e r t he i nc l us i on o f s oc i ode m ogr a phi c f a c t or s a nd e a r l y a dj us t m e nt i ndi c a t or s i n t he a na l y s i s T he s a m e f i ndi ng w a s t r ue o f

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26 m a t he m a t i c s a c hi e ve m e nt ( 9. 7 s t a nda r d s c or e poi n t s l ow e r p< 01) a l t hough f e w e r s oc i ode m ogr a phi c c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e r e l a t e d. T h e a ut hor s a l s o c onduc t e d a na l ys e s us i ng s a m e gr a de c om pa r i s ons ; a ga i n, r e t e nt i on w a s f ou nd t o pr e di c t ne ga t i ve out c om e s R e t a i ne d s e ve nt h gr a de s t ude nt s s c or e d s i gni f i c a nt l y l ow e r t ha n pr om ot e d s e ve nt h gr a de r s i n r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ( = 4. 6 s t a nda r d s c or e poi nt s p< 001 ) ; t he y a l s o s c or e d l ow e r i n m a t he m a t i c s ( = 1 3 s t a nda r d s c or e poi n t s ) but t he di f f e r e nc e w a s not s i gni f i c a nt T he a c hi e ve m e nt ga p be t w e e n r e t a i ne d a nd pr om ot e d ( s a m e gr a de ) s t ude nt s w a s f ound t o ha ve w i de ne d f our ye a r s l a t e r de s pi t e t he s t a t e d goa l of r e t e nt i on a s de c r e a s i ng t he ga p. T he a ut hor s c onc l ude d, t he r e f o r e t ha t r e t e nt i on w a s i ne f f e c t i ve a s a n i nt e r ve nt i on a nd e ve n ha r m f ul t o s t ude nt s f ut ur e a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt S uc h une qui voc a l c onc l us i ons t ha t r e t e nt i on out c om e s ha ve a ne ga t i ve i m pa c t on c hi l dr e n a r e not uni que ; s t i l l c a ut i on ne e ds t o be u t i l i z e d w he n i nt e r p r e t i ng r e s ul t s a s m e t hodol ogi c a l i s s ue s a bound i n r e t e nt i on r e s e a r c h. B e c a us e of s e ve r a l l i m i t a t i ons f i ndi ng s f r om t he M c C oy a nd R e ynol ds ( 1999 ) s t u dy ne c e s s i t a t e f ur t he r c or r obo r a t i on. T he a ut hor s us e d a c or r e l a t i ona l de s i gn w i t h a l ow i nc om e s a m pl e l i m i t i ng t he ge ne r a l i z a bi l i t y; how e ve r i t i s t he r e t r os pe c t i ve na t ur e of t he s t udy t ha t i s m os t pr obl e m a t i c E n r ol l i ng s ubj e c t s a f t e r t he r e t e nt i on oc c ur r e d di s a l l ow e d a n e xa m i na t i on o f pr e di s pos i ng f a c t or s a s w e l l a s e xa m i na t i on of t he t r a j e c t or i e s of e xpe r i m e nt a l a nd c ont r ol gr oups I n 1997, pa r t l y a s a r e s pons e t o t he s e a nd ot he r de s i gn de f i c i t s J i m e r s on e t a l a t t e m pt e d t o e xa m i ne r e t e nt i on e f f e c t s by ut i l i z i ng a pr os pe c t i ve l ongi t udi na l de s i gn. S i nc e m a t c hi ng i s not t ypi c a l l y f e a s i bl e w h e n l ooki ng a t s t ude nt s onl y a f t e r r e t e nt i on ha s oc c ur r e d, J i m e r s on e t a l ut i l i z e d s ubj e c t s w hos e m ot he r s ha d be e n pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n a not he r l ongi t ud i na l s t udy pr i or t o t he bi r t h of t he i r c hi l d r e n. T he s e

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27 c hi l dr e n w e r e i de nt i f i e d pr e na t a l l y a s be i ng a t r i s k f or s oc i a l a nd e m ot i ona l de ve l opm e nt pr obl e m s due t o m a t e r na l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s T he y w e r e f ol l ow e d t h r ough a ge 16 a nd pl a c e d i nt o one of t hr e e r e s e a r c h gr oups : r e t a i ne d onc e i n gr a de s K 3 ( n = 29) l ow a c hi e vi ng pr om ot e d ( n = 50) a nd c ont r ol ( n = 100 ) T he c hi l d r e n i n t he l ow a c hi e vi ng p r om ot e d gr oup s e r ve d a s a m a t c he d c om pa r i s on gr oup, a s t h e y di d not di f f e r f r om t he r e t a i ne d c hi l dr e n i n t e r m s of a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt or i nt e l l e c t ua l f unc t i oni ng a s m e a s ur e d by s t a nda r di z e d a s s e s s m e nt s ( P e a body I ndi vi dua l A c h i e ve m e nt T e s t W e c hs l e r P r e s c hool a nd P r i m a r y S c a l e of I nt e l l i ge nc e W e c hs l e r I nt e l l i ge nc e S c a l e f or C hi l d r e n R e vi s e d, W ood c oc k J ohns on A c hi e ve m e nt T e s t R e vi s e d) I nt e r e s t i ngl y, t he y d i d di s pl a y f e w e r m a l a dj us t e d be ha vi or s i n t he c l a s s r oom ( p< 05) a nd hi ghe r l e ve l s o f e m ot i ona l he a l t h ( p< 01) t ha n di d r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s ba s e d on t e a c he r i nt e r vi e w t he C hi l d B e ha vi or C he c kl i s t T e a c he r F or m a nd e m ot i ona l he a l t h/ s e l f e s t e e m m e a s ur e s de ve l ope d by t he a ut hor s S hor t t e r m e f f e c t s w e r e e xa m i ne d one ye a r f ol l ow i ng r e t e nt i on; r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s di d not a ppe a r t o di s pl a y a n a dva nt a ge ove r t he c om pa r i s on s t ude nt s i n a c a de m i c f unc t i oni ng o r s c hool a dj us t m e nt W he n pr i or a c hi e ve m e nt l e ve l s w e r e c ova r i e d out t he r e t a i ne d gr oup s how e d a s l i ght a dva nt a ge i n m a t h a c hi e ve m e nt ( p< 01) S t ude nt s w e r e a s s e s s e d i n t he s i xt h gr a de a s w e l l a s a t 1 6 ye a r s of a ge t o e xa m i ne l ong t e r m e f f e c t s of r e t e nt i o n. R e s ul t s f a vor e d t he c om pa r i s on gr oup o n m e a s ur e s of e m ot i ona l he a l t h ( p< 05) but t he t w o gr oups di d not di f f e r i n a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt E s s e nt i a l l y, de s pi t e a n e xt r a ye a r of i ns t r uc t i on t he r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s w e r e c om pa r a bl e t o l ow a c hi e vi ng p r om ot e d s t ude nt s i n t he s hor t t e r m a s w e l l a s ye a r s l a t e r T h ough t hi s i s not a s ne ga t i ve a c onc l us i on a s t he out c om e s f ound by o t he r s t udi e s ne i t he r i s i t e s t a bl i s hi ng r e t e nt i on a s a pos i t i ve s uc c e s s f ul i nt e r ve nt i on f or unde r a c hi e vi n g s t ude nt s

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28 I n a n e f f or t t o e xt e nd t he s e r e s ul t s J i m e r s on ( 1999 ) f ol l ow e d t he s e s a m e s t ude nt s i nt o t he i r 21 s t ye a r of l i f e T he s t ude nt s w e r e a s s e s s e d i n 11 t h gr a de a nd a ga i n a t a ge 19 i n a n e f f or t t o a ns w e r que s t i ons r e ga r di ng a c a de m i c a dj us t m e nt ( a s m e a s ur e d by gr a de po i nt a ve r a ge c r e di t s e a r ne d, be ha vi or a l p r obl e m s a nd a t t e nda nc e ) dr opout s t a t us r e c e i pt o f a c e r t i f i c a t e of hi gh s c hool c om pl e t i on a nd pos t s e c onda r y e duc a t i on. I n r e f e r e nc e t o a c a de m i c a dj us t m e nt i n 11 t h g r a de t he r e t a i ne d g r o up of s t ude nt s a c hi e ve d s i gni f i c a nt l y l ow e r l e ve l s a s c om pa r e d t o bo t h t he c om pa r i s on ( F = 6 59, p< 01) a nd t he c ont r ol ( F = 13. 95, p< 001) gr oups T he l a t t e r t w o gr oups w e r e not s i gni f i c a nt l y di f f e r e nt f r om e a c h ot he r B y a ge 19, a l a r ge r pe r c e nt a ge of r e t a i ne d c h i l dr e n ha d d r oppe d out of h i gh s c hool a s c om pa r e d t o bot h t he c om pa r i s on ( x = 3. 57, p< 05) a nd c ont r o l gr oups ( x = 13. 79 p< 001) w i t h t he c om pa r i s on gr oup ha vi ng a s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r num be r o f d r opout s t ha n t he c ont r ol gr oup ( F = 3. 77 p< 05) B y a ge 2 0, a s i gni f i c a nt l y l ow e r pe r c e nt a ge of t he r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s ha d r e c e i ve d a c e r t i f i c a t e of h i gh s c hool c om pl e t i on a s c om pa r e d t o bot h t he c om pa r i s on ( x = 5. 44, p< 01 ) a nd c ont r ol ( x = 23 66, p< 001) gr oups A s e xpe c t e d, t he num be r of r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s w ho e ve nt ua l l y e nr ol l e d i n pos t s e c onda r y e duc a t i on w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y l ow e r t ha n t he num be r of c ont r ol s t ude nt s ( x = 8. 74 p< 01 ) I nc i de nt a l l y, a s a dul t s r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s w e r e l e s s l i ke l y t ha n w e r e c om pa r i s on s t ude nt s t o ha ve a f u l l t i m e j ob, be a f ul l t i m e s t ude nt o r be i nvol v e d i n a c om bi na t i on of w o r k a nd s c hool ( F = 4. 62 p< 05) T he y a l s o e a r ne d l o w e r w a ge s ( F = 4 09 p< 05 ) a nd w e r e r a t e d a s l e s s c om pe t e nt i n t he w o r kpl a c e ( F = 4. 39 p< 05) L ow a c hi e vi ng but p r om ot e d s t ude nt s w e r e m or e c om pa r a bl e t o t he c ont r o l gr ou p t ha n t o t he r e t a i ne d gr oup i n r e ga r ds t o a l l p r e vi ous l y de s c r i be d e m pl oym e nt out c om e s

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29 F ac t or s t hat D e t e r m i ne / C ont r i but e t o R e t e nt i on O ut c om e s I t a ppe a r s t he n, t ha t bot h pos i t i ve a s w e l l a s ne ga t i ve out c om e s a r e pos s i bl e f or s t ude nt s r e t a i ne d i n e a r l y e l e m e nt a r y s c hool C ons e que nt l y, i t i s r e a s ona bl e t o a s k w hi c h f a c t or s i f a ny, c a n be us e d t o f i r s t de t e r m i ne w hy s om e c hi l dr e n e xpe r i e nc e s uc c e s s a f t e r a r e t e nt i on ye a r i n t he hope s t ha t t he i nf o r m a t i on c a n be ut i l i z e d t o m a ni pul a t e out c om e s f or a l l c hi l dr e n. F e r gus on, J i m e r s on & D a l t on ( 200 1) pos e d t hi s que s t i on a nd e xa m i ne d w i t hi n gr oup va r i a bl e s i n a n a t t e m pt t o a ns w e r i t T he s e a ut hor s l ooke d a t t he pe r f or m a nc e of r e t a i ne d ( onl y onc e i n gr a de s K 2; n = 58) a nd pr om o t e d ( n = 48) s t ude nt s on s e ve r a l s c hool r e a di ne s s ( B r i ga nc e K i nde r ga r t e n a nd F i r s t G r a de S c r e e n, G e s e l l S c hool R e a di ne s s T e s t M e t r opol i t a n R e a di ne s s T e s t s ) a nd s t a nda r di z e d a c hi e ve m e nt i ns t r um e nt s ( S c i e nc e R e s e a r c h A s s oc i a t e s S ur ve y of B a s i c S ki l l s 2 n d a nd 5 t h gr a de s ; S t a nf o r d A c hi e ve m e nt T e s t 8 t h E di t i on 8 t h a nd 11 t h gr a de s ) a s w e l l a s on a c a de m i c m e a s ur e s s uc h a s gr a de poi nt a ve r a ge ( G P A ) a nd t e a c he r r a t i ngs w hi c h w e r e a dm i ni s t e r e d a t va r i ous poi nt s f r om 2 n d t hr ough 11 t h gr a de s T he y de f i ne d s uc c e s s f ul r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s a s t hos e ha vi ng a m e a n s e ve nt h g r a de G P A of 3. 2 a nd a m e a n e i ght h gr a de S A T ( S t a nf o r d A c hi e ve m e nt T e s t ) s c or e i n t he 53 r d pe r c e nt i l e T he s e s t ude nt s r e pr e s e nt e d 25% of a l l r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s ha d s c or e d hi ghe r on e a r l y s c hool r e a di ne s s m e a s ur e s ( p< 05) w e r e s i gni f i c a nt l y you nge r ( p< 05) a nd w e r e l e s s a ggr e s s i ve ( p< 01) t ha n uns uc c e s s f ul r e t a i ne d pe e r s T he y w e r e f r om f a m i l i e s w i t h a hi ghe r l e ve l o f m a t e r na l e duc a t i on; t he i r pa r e nt s a l s o pl a c e d a hi ghe r va l ue on e duc a t i on f or t he i r c hi l d. T he s e r e s ul t s s ugge s t t ha t t he out c om e s of r e t e nt i on, pos i t i ve or ne ga t i ve a r e de pe nde nt on va r i a bl e s be yond t he r e t e nt i on i t s e l f P e r ha ps c r i t i c i s m t ha t f oc us e s s ol e l y on r e t e nt i on s houl d be r e pl a c e d w i t h i nve s t i ga t i on of m e di a t i ng f a c t or s t ha t m a y i nf l ue nc e ou t c om e s

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30 M e t hodol ogi c al I s s ue s t o C ons i de r T he pot e nt i a l i m pa c t of m e di a t i ng va r i a bl e s on r e t e nt i on e f f e c t s i s onl y one of m a ny r e a s ons t o r e e xa m i ne l ongs t a ndi ng a s s um pt i ons t ha t r e t e nt i on i s ha r m f ul t o s t ude nt s F or e xa m pl e t he r e t e nt i on l i t e r a t ur e ha s be e n c ha r a c t e r i z e d by va r i ous a nd l ongs t a ndi ng m e t hodol ogi c a l i s s ue s w hi c h unde r l i e t he di f f i c ul t i e s i n m a ki ng a c c ur a t e i nt e r pr e t a t i on o f r e s ul t s D e s i gn de f i c i e nc i e s i nc l ude but a r e not l i m i t e d t o, t he a bs e nc e of c om pa r i s on gr oups ( M c C oy & R e ynol ds 1999; M e i s e l s & L i a w 1993) a l a c k of c ons i de r a t i on of s oc i o e c onom i c va r i a bl e s ( M a nt z i c opoul os 1997; M a nt z i c opoul os & M or r i s on, 1992) a nd a l a c k o f l ongi t udi na l s t udi e s ( B unt a i ne & C os t e nba de r 1997; D e nne ba um & K ul be r g, 1994; M a nt z i c opoul os & M or r i s on, 1992) S t udi e s c onduc t e d i n t he l a s t d e c a de ha ve be e n m a r ke dl y i m p r ove d ove r t he i r p r e de c e s s or s w i t h r e ga r d t o m e t hodol ogy; how e ve r t he r e i s s t i l l c ons i de r a bl e v a r i a bi l i t y i n m e t hodol ogi c a l qua l i t y F or e xa m pl e i n t he s t udi e s r e vi e w e d t he r e i s e vi de nc e of a l a c k of c ons i s t e nc y i n c om pos i t i on of c om pa r i s on g r oups w i t h s om e s t ud i e s m a ki ng s a m e gr a de c om pa r i s ons ot he r s m a ki ng s a m e a ge c om pa r i s ons ( M a nt z i c opoul os 1997; M c C oy & R e ynol ds 1999; R e ynol ds 1992) T he r e i s a l s o a l a c k of a de qua t e m a t c hi ng i n c ont r ol gr oups ( M a nt z i c opoul os & M or r i s on, 1992) a nd a l a c k o f s t ude nt i nf or m a t i on pr i or t o r e t e nt i on ( M c C oy & R e ynol ds 1999) F ut ur e D i r e c t i ons i n R e t e nt i on R e s e ar c h F i na l l y, i t s houl d be not e d t ha t al l r e t e nt i on s t udi e s t o da t e ha ve e xa m i ne d r e t e n t i on a s i nt e r ve nt i on ( A r m i s t e a d, K e m pt on, L y nc h, & F o r ha nd, 1992; G ot t f r e ds on e t a l 1994 ; J i m e r s on, 2001; P he l ps e t a l 1992 ) T he r e i s no m e nt i on of r e m e di a t i on e f f or t s i n c onj unc t i on w i t h o r i n l i e u o f r e t e nt i on. I n a ddi t i on, t he l i t e r a t ur e t hus f a r ha s

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31 ne gl e c t e d t o e xa m i ne i ndi vi dua l c om pone nt s of r e t e nt i on i n a n a t t e m pt t o de t e r m i ne e x a c t l y w hi c h va r i a bl e s a r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he ne g a t i ve e f f e c t s T he s e a r e pe r ha ps t he m os t s i gni f i c a nt c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he a va i l a bl e l i t e r a t ur e a nd t he ove r r i di ng pr e s e nc e of s uc h m e t hodol ogi c a l l i m i t a t i ons r e nde r t he a ppl i c a t i on of f i ndi ngs t o t he p r e s e nt s t ude nt pr ogr e s s i on pl a n i n t he S t a t e o f F l o r i da i na ppr op r i a t e T he S t a t e o f F l o r i da ha s be e n c l e a r i n i t s e m pha s i s on r e m e di a t i on. T ha t r e t e nt i on i s pa r t of i t s r e m e di a t i on pl a n ha s c a us e d a l a r m ; ho w e ve r s ys t e m a t i c e f f or t s t o a ddr e s s a c a de m i c di f f i c u l t i e s a r e m a nda t e d t h r oughout t he pl a n. A c a de m i c I m p r ove m e nt P l a ns or A I P s ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on 2002) a r e a s e t of f or m a l i z e d i ns t r uc t i ona l m odi f i c a t i ons a nd r e l a t e d goa l s bot h of w hi c h a r e m a nda t e d i n s t a t e l a w a nd de s i gne d t o a ddr e s s s pe c i f i c s ki l l de f i c i t s i n a ny c hi l d w ho i s n ot m e e t i ng a c a de m i c be nc hm a r ks i n a t i m e l y m a nne r T he pur pos e of a n A I P i s t o de l i ne a t e t he s pe c i f i c i ns t r uc t i ona l a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l va r i a t i ons t ha t w he n i m pl e m e nt e d a s de s i gne d, a r e i nt e nde d t o e nc our a ge r e m e di a t i on of a s t ude nt s a c a de m i c de f i c i e nc i e s E xa m pl e s of A I P i nt e r ve nt i ons i nc l ude 1) t i m e s pe nt w i t h a pe e r t ut or 2 ) one t o one i ns t r uc t i on w i t h a r e a di ng c oa c h, a nd 3) e xt r a t i m e ( 30 m i nut e s pe r da y) de vot e d t o r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. I m por t a nt f e a t ur e s o f A I P s a r e t he i r p r ovi s i on of a di r e c t l i nk t o p r e vi ous a s s e s s m e nt a s w e l l a s t he i r i nc l us i on o f obj e c t i ve m e a s ur a bl e goa l s ; bot h a r e c r i t i c a l f or e f f e c t i ve pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng w hi c h i s r e qui r e d f o r e ve r y A I P C hi l dr e n a r e r e e va l ua t e d a t s pe c i f i c i nt e r va l s t o de t e r m i ne i f t he y a r e m a ki ng pr og r e s s t ow a r d s pe c i f i e d goa l s ; t he s e goa l s m a y a l s o be r e e va l ua t e d a nd r e vi s e d i f ne c e s s a r y. A I P s a r e a va i l a bl e t o a ny s t r u ggl i ng s t ude nt r e ga r dl e s s of a ge or r e t e nt i on s t a t us a s t he goa l i s t o r e m e di a t e pr obl e m s be f or e r e t e nt i on be c om e s ne c e s s a r y. I f a c hi l d s r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e i s de t e r m i ne d t o b e a t L e ve l 1 on t he F C A T a t t he e nd of

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32 t hi r d gr a de a nd no c a us e f o r e xe m pt i on i s f ound h e w i l l t he n be r e t a i ne d; s t i l l r e m e di a t i on e f f o r t s w i l l c ont i nue a nd l i ke l y i nt e ns i f y ( F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2002) I t s houl d be not e d t ha t w hi l e s t a t e l a w i s qui t e c l e a r r e ga r di ng r e m e di a t i on r e qui r e m e nt s s pe c i f i c da t a ve r i f yi ng t r e a t m e nt i nt e gr i t y i s l a c ki ng a t t hi s t i m e R e ga r dl e s s c onc l us i ons a bout t he vi r t ue s of F l or i d a s r e t e nt i on pol i c y ba s e d on pa s t r e s e a r c h a l one m a y not be va l i d i n t he c ur r e nt e duc a t i ona l a t m os phe r e of r e f o r m a nd a c c ount a bi l i t y. T he S t a t e ha s c hos e n a r e l a t i ve l y r a di c a l r e s pons e t o dr a m a t i c c ha nge s i n f e de r a l pol i c y. T hi s i s a t i m e of t r a ns i t i on, but i t a f f or ds t he oppo r t uni t y t o a dd t o t he body of l i t e r a t ur e i n a m e a ni ng f ul w a y. R e t e nt i on ha s be e n l ong c ons i de r e d a n i na de qua t e i nt e r ve nt i on s t r a t e gy f or l ow a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s ; t h e e m e r ge nc e of ne w po l i c i e s a nd pr a c t i c e s i nvol vi ng r e t e nt i on c a l l s f or a ne w ge ne r a t i on of l i t e r a t ur e i nve s t i ga t i ng t hi s m ode l of r e t e nt i on pl us r e m e di a t i on

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33 C H A P T E R T H R E E M e t hod P ur pos e of t he St udy T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o e va l ua t e t he e f f e c t s of t hi r d gr a de r e t e nt i on pr a c t i c e s i n t he S t a t e o f F l or i da a s m e a s ur e d by s c or e s on t he s t a t e m a nda t e d s t a nda r di z e d t e s t ( F C A T ) P r e vi ous r e s e a r c h ha s not e xa m i ne d r e t e nt i on w i t hi n t he c ont e xt of a s t a t e m a nda t e d r e m e di a t i on p r ogr a m a s i s pa r t of F l or i da s pol i c y. I n a ddi t i on, t hi s s t udy a i m e d t o de t e r m i ne t he r e l a t i on s hi p be t w e e n t he e f f e c t s of r e t e nt i on a nd va r i ous s t ude nt de m ogr a phi c s ( ge nde r S E S r a c e / e t hni c i t y) a s w e l l a s e xa m i ne t he f ut ur e pe r f or m a nc e of l ow pe r f or m i ng s t ude nt s w ho w e r e pr om ot e d t hr ough good c a us e e xe m pt i ons P ar t i c i pant s P a r t i c i pa nt s i nc l ude d a l l s t ude nt s w hos e r e a di ng p r of i c i e nc y w a s c l a s s i f i e d a s L e ve l 1 ( s c a l e d s c or e be t w e e n 100 a nd 258) on t he r e a di ng por t i on o f t he 2003 F C A T a nd w e r e e i t he r r e t a i ne d i n t he t hi r d gr a de o r pr o m ot e d t o t he f ou r t h g r a de ba s e d on a good c a us e e xe m pt i on. S t ude nt s w ho m e t t he c r i t e r i a but ha d m i s s i ng da t a f o r a ny of t he va r i a bl e s of i nt e r e s t ( ge nde r r a c e S E S ) w e r e e xc l ude d. S t ude nt s w ho a t t e nde d a l a b s c hool or a t t e nde d s c hool a t ho m e w e r e a l s o e xc l u de d. T he r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s i nc l ude d i n t he s t udy f a i l e d t o de m on s t r a t e r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt t hought t o be ne c e s s a r y i n or de r f o r t he m t o e xpe r i e nc e s uc c e s s i n t he f our t h gr a de C o ns e que nt l y, t he s e s t ude nt s c om pl e t e d

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34 t he t hi r d gr a de c ur r i c ul um f or a s e c ond t i m e dur i n g t he 2003 2004 s c hool ye a r t hi s t i m e a c c or di ng t o a n i nd i vi dua l i z e d i nt e r ve nt i on pl a n, o r A c a de m i c I m p r ove m e nt P l a n ( A I P ) T he s t ude nt s w ho w e r e p r om ot e d due t o a good c a us e e xe m pt i on, de s pi t e s c or i ng a t L e ve l 1 on t he 2003 F C A T R e a di ng, e xpe r i e nc e d a r e gul a r f our t h gr a de c ur r i c ul um T o e xa m i ne t he i m pa c t of r e t e nt i on m or e c l os e l y, e a c h s t ude nt w a s c ode d on s e ve r a l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s i nc l udi ng r a c e ge nde r a nd s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us R a c e di s t i nc t i ons i nc l ude d C a uc a s i a n, A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n A s i a n P a c i f i c I s l a nde r H i s pa ni c a nd A l a s ka n N a t i ve / N a t i ve A m e r i c a n. S oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us w a s c a t e gor i z e d by e a c h s t ude nt s e l i gi bi l i t y f o r F r e e a nd R e duc e d L unc h a s de t e r m i ne d by t he i nc om e pa r a m e t e r s s e t by t he S t a t e of F l or i da F l or i da C om pr e he ns i v e A s s e s s m e nt T e s t A s i t i s t he dom i na nt f a c t or i n t he S t a t e o f F l or i da s pol i c y f or t he e va l ua t i on o f t he a c a de m i c pr ogr e s s i on of i t s s t ude nt s t hi s s t udy ut i l i z e d s c or e s f r om t he F l or i da C om pr e he ns i ve A s s e s s m e nt T e s t ( F C A T ) i n or de r t o e xa m i ne t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of r e t e nt i on on l ow a c hi e vi ng t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s A c c or di ng t o t he F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on ( 2003 ) t he F C A T i s a c r i t e r i on r e f e r e nc e d t e s t de ve l ope d by a pa ne l of c ur r i c ul um s pe c i a l i s t s I t s i nt e nt i s t o a s s e s s s t ude n t a c hi e ve m e nt of t he hi ghe r o r de r c ogni t i ve s ki l l s r e pr e s e nt e d i n t he S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r ds ( S S S ) T he F C A T r e a di ng S S S r e po r t s s c or e s i n f ou r a r e a s i nc l udi ng; ( 1) m a i n i de a pl ot a nd pu r pos e ( 2 ) w or ds a nd phr a s e s i n c ont e xt ( 3 ) c om pa r i s ons of c a us e / e f f e c t a nd ( 4) r e f e r e nc e a nd r e s e a r c h. I nc l ude d i n t he F C A T a r e l i t e r a r y pa s s a ge s a nd i nf or m a t i o na l pa s s a ge s A not he r por t i on of t he F C A T r e a di ng s e c t i on i s us e d nor m a t i ve l y, c om pa r i ng t he s t ude nt s of F l or i da w i t h t he r e s t of t he na t i on T he F C A T c ont a i ns bot h m u l t i pl e c hoi c e a nd pe r f o r m a nc e

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35 que s t i ons ; t he m ul t i pl e c hoi c e que s t i ons a r e s c or e d by c om p ut e r w hi l e t he pe r f or m a nc e t a s ks a r e ha nd s c or e d. D ur i ng t he m ont hs o f F e b r u a r y a nd M a r c h, t he F C A T i s a dm i ni s t e r e d t o ove r 1. 5 m i l l i on s t ude nt s a c r os s t he s t a t e T he c om p l e t e d t e s t s a r e t he n s e a l e d a nd s e nt t o t he F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on S c or i ng of t he F C A T i s ba s e d on i t e m r e s pons e t he or y ( I R T L or d & N ovi c k 1968) I R T t he o r y a s s um e s t ha t s t ude nt r e s pons e s t o i ndi vi dua l que s t i ons a r e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o unde r l y i ng a c hi e ve m e nt i n a gi ve n c ont e nt a r e a C r onba c h s r e l i a bi l i t y c oe f f i c i e nt e s t i m a t e s of t he f our t h gr a de r e a di ng p or t i on of t he F C A T s c or e s w e r e r e por t e d by t ot a l s c or e ( r = 88 ) l i t e r a r y t e xt ( r = 79 ) a nd i n f or m a t i ona l t e xt ( r = 79 ) ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on 2002b) F i ve l e ve l s ha ve be e n de f i ne d f o r t he F C A T r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e n t t e s t ba s e d on s c a l e d s c or e s r a ngi ng f r om 100 t o 500 L e ve l 1 r e p r e s e nt s t he l ow e s t l e ve l of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ; e a c h s ubs e que nt l e ve l r e pr e s e nt s a n i nc r e a s i ng l e ve l of r e a di ng pr of i c i e nc y. I n 2003, t he f i ve l e ve l s w e r e de f i ne d a c c or di ng t o t he f ol l ow i n g s c a l e d s c or e s : L e ve l 1: 100 258, L e ve l 2: 259 283, L e ve l 3: 284 331, L e v e l 4: 332 393 a nd L e ve l 5: 394 500 I n r e a di ng, i t i s a s s um e d t ha t a s t ude nt w ho a c hi e ve s a s c a l e d s c or e f a l l i ng i n t he c a t e gor y o f L e ve l 1 i s e xpe r i e nc i ng l i t t l e s uc c e s s w i t h t he c ont e nt of t he S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r ds ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on 2003c ) P r oc e dur e s U pon t he a ppr ova l o f t he I R B t he pr i m a r y i nve s t i g a t or c ol l e c t e d t he f ol l ow i ng da t a f r om t he F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on on s t ude nt s w ho s c or e d L e ve l 1 on t he 2003 F C A T R e a di ng: r e t e nt i on s t a t us r e a di ng s c or e s r a c e ge nde r s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us a nd good c a us e pr om ot i on s t a t us T he da t a c ol l e c t i on pr oc e dur e w a s r e pe a t e d w i t h t he

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36 da t a f r om t he 2004 F C A T R e a di ng a dm i ni s t r a t i on t o e xa m i ne c ha nge s i n F C A T s c or e s of t he s t ude nt s w ho w e r e e i t he r r e t a i ne d or pr om o t e d due t o a good c a us e e xe m pt i on. T he da t a w a s t he n s c r e e ne d; s t ude nt s w ho di d not m e e t e s t a bl i s he d c r i t e r i a or w ho ha d m i s s i ng da t a w e r e e xc l ude d. D at a A nal y s i s D e s c r i pt i ve a na l ys e s w e r e pe r f or m e d on a l l t he va r i a bl e s of i nt e r e s t a nd t he r e s ul t s de s c r i be t he pa r t i c i pa nt pool i n t e r m s of ge nde r r a c e a nd S E S T o a ns w e r e a c h r e s e a r c h que s t i on da t a w e r e s ubj e c t e d t o a ppr op r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l m e t hods a s de s c r i be d be l ow R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on 1: W hat pr opor t i on o f F l or i da s t ude nt s r e t ai ne d at t he e nd of t he t hi r d gr ade i n 2003 s c or e d at L e v e l 2 or hi ghe r on t he 3 r d gr ade F C A T R e adi ng i n 2004 a) at t he ov e r al l s t at e l e v e l and b) by s c hool di s t r i c t ? F or s t ude nt s w ho s c or e d L e ve l 1 a nd w e r e r e t a i ne d i n 2003 t he nu m be r a nd pe r c e nt w ho t he n s c or e d L e ve l 1 L e ve l 2, a nd L e ve l 3 o r hi ghe r i n 2004 w a s c om put e d T he da t a w e r e e xa m i ne d a t bot h t he s t a t e l e ve l a nd by di s t r i c t T he a l pha s i gni f i c a nc e l e ve l f or t he pr e s e nt s t udy w a s e s t a bl i s he d a t 05. R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on 2: F o r F l or i da s t ude nt s r e t ai ne d at t he e nd of t hi r d gr ade i n 2003, w hat i s t he r e l at i ons hi p be t w e e n t he i r r e adi ng pe r f or m anc e l e v e l s on t he 3 r d gr ade F C A T R e adi ng i n 2004 and a) ge nde r b) r ac e / e t hni c i t y and c ) S E S? F or e a c h de m ogr a phi c va r i a bl e ( ge nde r S E S r a c e / e t hni c i t y) da t a w e r e s ubj e c t e d t o a C hi s qua r e t e s t of a s s oc i a t i on t o s e e i f t he r e i s di f f e r e nt i a l pe r f or m a nc e a c r os s gr oups f or e a c h of t he s e va r i a bl e s T he a l pha s i gni f i c a nc e l e ve l w a s e s t a bl i s he d a t 05.

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37 R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on 3: F or F l or i da s t ude nt s w ho s c or e d at L e v e l 1 on t he 3 r d gr ade F C A T R e adi ng i n 2003 but w e r e pr om ot e d due t o good c aus e e x e m pt i ons w hat pr opor t i on f or e ac h and f or any e x e m pt i on s c or e d at L e v e l 2 or h i ghe r on t he f our t h gr ade F C A T R e adi ng i n 2004 a) at t he ov e r al l s t at e l e v e l and b ) by s c hool di s t r i c t ? F or s t ude nt s w ho s c or e d L e ve l 1 i n 2003 bu t w e r e p r o m ot e d due t o good c a us e e xe m pt i ons t he num be r a nd pe r c e nt of s t ude nt s w ho t he n s c or e d L e ve l 1 L e ve l 2, a nd L e ve l 3 o r hi ghe r on t he f our t h gr a de F C A T i n 2004 w e r e c o m put e d. T h e da t a w e r e e xa m i ne d a t bot h t he s t a t e l e ve l a nd by di s t r i c t T he a l pha s i gni f i c a nc e l e ve l f or t he p r e s e nt s t udy w a s e s t a bl i s he d a t 05. R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on 4: W hat i s t he l i k e l i hood t hat a 2003 t hi r d gr ade r e t ai ne e s at t ai nm e nt of L e v e l 2 or hi ghe r on t he 2 004 t hi r d g r ade F C A T R e adi ng i s r e l at e d t o ge nde r SE S, and r ac e / e t hni c i t y ? D a t a f o r r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s w e r e e nt e r e d i nt o a l ogi s t i c r e gr e s s i on m ode l t o t e s t f or a s s oc i a t i ons of ge nde r r a c e a nd S E S w i t h a c a de m i c pe r f or m a nc e a s m e a s ur e d by s c or e s on t he 3 r d gr a d e F C A T R e a di ng i n 2004 T he out c om e va r i a bl e s uc c e s s w a s de f i ne d a s a c hi e ve m e nt a t L e ve l s 2 5 on t he 2004 F C A T R e a di ng, a nd w a s c ode d a s 1 = S uc c e s s f ul a nd 0 = U ns uc c e s s f ul T he m ode l c ont r ol l e d f or p r e vi ous pe r f or m a nc e m e a s ur e d by s c a l e d s c or e s f r om 2003 ( S S R ) T he p r e di c t or va r i a bl e s w e r e c ode d a s f ol l ow s : ge nde r w a s c ode d a s 1 = F e m a l e a nd 0 = M a l e w i t h f e m a l e s t ude nt s a c t i ng a s t he r e f e r e nt r a c e / e t hni c i t y w a s dum m y c ode d f o r A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n ( 1 = A A 0 = N ot A A ) H i s pa ni c ( 1 = H i s pa ni c 0 = N ot H i s pa ni c ) a nd A s i a n ( 1 = A s i a n, 0 = N ot A s i a n) w i t h C a uc a s i a n s t ude nt s s e r vi ng a s t he r e f e r e nt a nd S E S w a s c ode d a s 1 = L ow S E S a nd 0 = N ot l ow S E S w i t h L ow S E S p r ovi di ng t he r e f e r e nc e T he a l pha s i gni f i c a nc e l e ve l w a s e s t a bl i s he d a t 05.

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38 C H A P T E R F O U R R e s ul t s A s s t a t e d pr e vi ous l y, t hi s s t udy w a s i nt e nde d t o de t e r m i ne t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he e f f e c t s of r e t e nt i on i n t hi r d gr a de a nd va r i ous s t ude nt de m ogr a phi c c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s ( ge nde r S E S r a c e / e t hni c i t y) a s w e l l a s e xa m i ne t he f u t ur e pe r f or m a nc e of l ow pe r f or m i ng s t ude nt s w ho w e r e p r om ot e d t h r ou gh good c a us e e xe m pt i ons T hi s c ha pt e r be gi ns w i t h a de s c r i pt i on of t he s a m pl e T h e n t he r e s ul t s of t he a na l ys e s a r e pr ovi de d f or e a c h of t he f our r e s e a r c h que s t i ons a ddr e s s e d i n t hi s s t udy. T he da t a w e r e a na l yz e d us i ng S A S V e r s i on 9 1. A n a l pha l e ve l of 05 w a s s e t f or a l l s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s D e s c r i pt i on of Sam pl e T he s a m pl e f or t hi s s t udy c ons i s t e d of 29, 317 s t ude nt s w ho s c or e d a t L e ve l 1 on t he 2003 t hi r d gr a de F l or i da C om p r e he ns i ve A s s e s s m e nt T e s t R e a di ng ( F C A T R e a di ng) a nd w e r e e i t he r r e t a i ne d or pr om ot e d t o f our t h gr a de t hr ough a good c a us e e xe m pt i on f o r t he 2003 2004 a c a de m i c ye a r S t ude nt s w ho a t t e nd e d a l a b s c hool or w ho r e c e i ve d s c hool i ng a t hom e w e r e e xc l ude d f r om a l l a na l ys e s I n a ddi t i on s t ude n t s w i t h m i s s i ng da t a on t w o o r m o r e va r i a bl e s w e r e e xc l ude d. F i na l l y, e a c h i ndi v i dua l a na l ys i s e xc l ude d a ny s t ude nt s w ho w e r e m i s s i ng da t a on a ny one of t he va r i a bl e s of i n t e r e s t R a c e a nd s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us w e r e de f i ne d i n t hi s s t udy a c c or di ng t o t he d a t a m a de a va i l a bl e by t he S t a t e of F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( F L D O E ) T he F L D O E de f i ne s r a c e us i ng s i x c a t e gor i e s ( C a uc a s i a n, A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, H i s pa ni c A s i a n, N a t i ve

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39 A m e r i c a n, M i xe d R a c e ) ; how e ve r t he c a t e gor i e s o f N a t i ve A m e r i c a n a nd M i xe d R a c e w e r e c ol l a ps e d i n t hi s s t udy due t o s m a l l s a m pl e s i z e s a nd a r e i nc l ude d i n t he c a t e gor y l a be l e d O t he r F l o r i da de f i ne s S E S by a s t ude nt s e l i gi bi l i t y s t a t us f or r e c e i vi ng l unc h a t f r e e o r r e duc e d p r i c e s ; t he r e f or e i n t hi s s t udy, s t ude nt s w ho w e r e e l i gi b l e t o r e c e i ve f r e e or r e duc e d l unc h ( F R L ) w e r e c ode d a s L ow S E S a nd t hos e w ho w e r e not e l i gi bl e w e r e c ode d a s N ot l ow S E S A br e a kdow n of t he f i na l s a m pl e i n t e r m s of r e t e nt i on/ pr om ot i on s t a t us a t t he e nd of t hi r d gr a de i n 2003 by ge nde r r a c e / e t hni c i t y a n d S E S i s r e po r t e d i n T a bl e 1 T a bl e 1 St ude nt s Sc or i ng L e v e l 1 on t he 2003 F C A T R e adi ng and R e t e nt i on / P r om ot i on St at us by G e nde r R ac e / E t hni c i t y and S E S. 2003 F C A T R e a di ng L e ve l 1 n % R e t a i ne d i n T hi r d G r a de n % P r om ot e d due t o G o od C a us e E xe m pt i on n % R a c e / E t hni c i t y C a uc a s i a n 8524 29 5459 26 3065 35 A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n 10891 37 8387 41 2504 29 H i s pa ni c 9036 31 6200 30 2836 33 A s i a n 269 1 160 1 109 1 O t he r 591 2 408 2 183 2 G e nde r M a l e 17294 59 11998 58 5296 61 F e m a l e 12022 41 8619 42 3403 39 S E S L ow 23335 80 16713 81 6622 77 N ot l ow 5860 20 3905 19 1955 23 T ot a l 29317 20618 70 8699 30

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40 R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i ons Q ue s t i on 1. W hat pr opor t i on of F l or i da s t ude nt s r e t ai ne d at t he e nd of t he t hi r d gr ade i n 2003 s c or e d at L e v e l 2 or hi ghe r on t he 3 r d gr ade F C A T R e adi ng i n 2004 a ) at t he ov e r al l s t at e l e v e l and b ) by s c hool d i s t r i c t ? T he num be r a nd pe r c e nt o f 2003 t hi r d gr a de r e t a i ne e s pe r f or m i ng a t L e ve l s 1 5 on t he 2004 F C A T R e a di ng w e r e c om put e d. A f t e r e xa m i na t i on of t he da t a L e ve l s 3 5 w e r e c ol l a ps e d due t o s m a l l c e l l s i z e s T he r e s ul t a nt pe r f or m a nc e l e ve l s a r e r e por t e d i n T a bl e 2. A s i s s how n, 62% ( n = 12 806) of t he t hi r d g r a de r e t a i ne e s s c or e d a t L e ve l 2 or hi ghe r on t he 2004 F C A T R e a di ng. M or e s pe c i f i c a l l y, 21 % ( n = 4, 424 ) o f t he r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s s c or e d a t L e ve l 2 w hi l e 41% ( n = 8, 382) s c or e d a t L e ve l s 3 5 T h i r t y e i ght pe r c e nt ( n = 7, 812) o f t he r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s s c or e d a t L e ve l 1. T a bl e 2 P e r f or m anc e of R e t ai ne d St ude nt s on t he 3 r d gr ade F C A T R e adi ng i n 2004 by L e v e l R e a di ng L e ve l N um be r P e r c e nt 1 7812 38 2 4424 21 3 5 8382 41 T ot a l 20618 100 D a t a w e r e e xa m i ne d by di s t r i c t a nd no c l e a r pa t t e r n of a c hi e ve m e nt on t he F C A T R e a di ng w a s i de nt i f i e d. B r e a kdow n of s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e by di s t r i c t i s r e por t e d i n A ppe ndi x A

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41 Q ue s t i on 2. F or F l or i da s t ude nt s r e t ai ne d at t he e n d of t hi r d gr ade i n 2003, w hat i s t he r e l at i ons hi p be t w e e n t he i r r e adi ng pe r f or m an c e l e v e l s on t he 3 r d gr ade F C A T R e adi ng i n 2004 and a) ge nde r b) r ac e / e t hni c i t y and c ) S E S? C hi s qua r e t e s t s of A s s oc i a t i on w e r e pe r f or m e d t o t e s t f or r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n e a c h of t he s e va r i a bl e s a nd pe r f o r m a nc e on t he 3 r d gr a de F C A T R e a di ng i n 2004 G e nde r and pe r f or m anc e on t he 2004 F C A T R e adi ng A t ot a l of 20, 617 ( 58% m a l e ) s t ude nt s w e r e i nc l ude d i n t he s a m pl e t o e xa m i ne pe r f or m a nc e of r e t a i ne e s by ge nde r ; one s t ude nt w a s e xc l ude d due t o m i s s i ng d a t a T he ob t a i ne d C hi s qua r e w a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt X 2 ( 2, N = 20614 ) = 88. 15 p < 0001, i ndi c a t i ng t ha t t he r e w a s a s i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pe r f o r m a nc e of r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s a nd ge nde r a s i s s how n i n T a bl e 3 S pe c i f i c a l l y, w i t h r e ga r d t o m a l e r e t a i n e e s a gr e a t e r num be r t ha n s t a t i s t i c a l l y e xpe c t e d s c or e d a t L e ve l 1 ( 4, 854 vs 4, 546 ) w hi l e f e w e r t ha n e xpe c t e d s c or e d a t L e ve l s 3 5 ( 4 749 vs 4 877) R e ga r di ng f e m a l e r e t a i ne e s f e w e r t ha n e xpe c t e d s c or e d a t L e ve l 1 ( 2, 957 vs 3 265) w hi l e a gr e a t e r num be r t ha n e xpe c t e d s c or e d a t L e ve l s 3 5 ( 3 633 vs 3, 504) H ow e ve r t he s t r e ngt h of t he a s s oc i a t i on be t w e e n ge nde r a nd pe r f o r m a nc e on t he 2004 F C A T R e a di ng w a s s m a l l ( C r a m e r s V = 07 )

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42 T a bl e 3 N um be r and P e r c e nt of R e t ai ne d St ude nt s of D i f f e r e nt P e r f or m anc e L e v e l s on t he 3 r d gr ade F C A T R e adi ng i n 2004 by G e nde r P e r f or m a nc e L e ve l G e nde r N L e ve l 1 n % L e ve l 2 n % L e ve l s 3 5 n % M a l e 11998 4854 62 2395 54 4749 57 F e m a l e 8619 2957 38 2029 46 3633 43 T ot a l 7811 10 0 4424 100 8382 100 # 2 ( 2, N = 20617) = 88. 15 p < 0001 R ac e / e t hni c i t y and pe r f or m anc e on t he 2004 F C A T R e adi ng A t o t a l of 20, 614 ( 26% C a uc a s i a n, 41% A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n 30% H i s pa ni c 1% A s i a n, a nd 2% O t he r ) s t ude nt s w e r e i nc l ude d i n t he s a m pl e t o e xa m i ne p e r f or m a nc e of r e t a i ne e s by r a c e / e t hni c i t y; f our s t ude nt s w e r e e xc l ude d due t o m i s s i ng da t a T he ob t a i ne d C hi s qua r e w a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt X 2 ( 8 N = 20614 ) = 16 1. 23, p < 0001, i ndi c a t i ng t he r e w a s a s i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pe r f o r m a nc e of r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s a nd r a c e / e t hni c i t y ( s e e T a bl e 4) S pe c i f i c a l l y w i t h r e ga r d t o A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n r e t a i ne e s a g r e a t e r num be r t ha n s t a t i s t i c a l l y e xpe c t e d s c or e d a t L e ve l 1 ( 3, 432 vs 3, 177) w hi l e f e w e r t ha n e xpe c t e d s c or e d a t L e ve l s 3 5 ( 3, 022 vs 3, 410 ) R e ga r di ng C a uc a s i a n r e t a i ne e s f e w e r t ha n e xpe c t e d s c or e d a t L e ve l 1 ( 1, 829 vs 2, 068 ) w hi l e a gr e a t e r num be r t ha n e xpe c t e d s c or e d a t L e ve l s 3 5 ( 2, 523 vs 2, 219 ) H ow e ve r t he s t r e n gt h of t he a s s oc i a t i on be t w e e n ge nde r a nd pe r f or m a nc e on t he 2004 F C A T R e a di ng w a s s m a l l ( C r a m e r s V = 06 )

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43 T a bl e 4 N um be r and P e r c e nt of R e t ai ne d S t ude nt s of D i f f e r e nt P e r f or m anc e L e v e l s on t he 3 r d G r ade F C A T R e adi ng i n 2004 by R ac e / E t hni c i t y P e r f or m a nc e L e ve l R a c e / E t hni c i t y N L e ve l 1 n % L e ve l 2 n % L e ve l s 3 5 n % C a uc a s i a n 5459 1829 23 1107 25 2523 30 A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n 8387 3432 44 1933 44 3022 36 H i s pa ni c 6200 2362 30 1259 28 2579 31 A s i a n 160 58 1 38 1 64 1 O t he r 408 129 2 87 2 1 92 2 T ot a l 7810 100 4424 100 8380 100 # 2 ( 8, N = 20614) = 161. 23 p < 0001 Soc i o e c onom i c s t at us and pe r f or m anc e on t he 20 04 F C A T R e adi ng A t ot a l of 20, 404 ( 83 % L ow S E S 17% N ot l ow S E S ) s t ude n t s w e r e i nc l ude d i n t he s a m pl e t o e xa m i ne pe r f or m a nc e by s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us ( S E S ) a s de f i ne d by f r e e / r e duc e d l unc h ( F R L ) e l i gi bi l i t y; 214 s t ude nt s w e r e e xc l ude d due t o m i s s i ng da t a T he obt a i ne d C hi s qua r e w a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt # 2 ( 2, N = 2040 4) = 102 28, p < 0001 i ndi c a t i ng t ha t t he r e w a s a s i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n pe r f or m a nc e of r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s a nd S E S ( s e e T a bl e 5) S pe c i f i c a l l y w i t h r e ga r d t o r e t a i ne e s w i t h L ow S E S s t a t us ( i e s t ude nt s e l i gi bl e f or F R L ) a gr e a t e r num be r t ha n s t a t i s t i c a l l y e xpe c t e d s c or e d a t L e ve l 1 ( 6 669 v s 6, 422) w hi l e f e w e r t ha n e xpe c t e d s c or e d a t L e ve l s 3 5 ( 6, 660 vs 6, 890 ) R e ga r di ng r e t a i ne e s w ho w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a s N ot l ow S E S ( i e s t ude nt s not e l i gi bl e f or F R L ) f e w e r

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44 t ha n e xpe c t e d s c or e d a t L e ve l 1 ( 1 056 vs 1 302) w hi l e a gr e a t e r num be r t ha n e xp e c t e d s c or e d a t L e ve l s 3 5 ( 1, 628 vs 1, 397 ) H ow e ve r t h e s t r e ngt h of t he a s s oc i a t i on be t w e e n ge nde r a nd pe r f o r m a nc e on t he 2004 F C A T R e a di ng w a s s m a l l ( C r a m e r s V = 07 ) T a bl e 5 N um be r and P e r c e nt of R e t ai ne d S t ude nt s of D i f f e r e nt P e r f or m anc e L e v e l s on t he 3 r d G r ade F C A T R e adi ng i n 2004 by S E S St at us P e r f or m a nc e L e ve l S E S N L e ve l 1 n % L e ve l 2 n % L e ve l s 3 5 n % L ow S E S 16964 6669 86 3635 83 6660 20 N ot l ow S E S 3440 1056 14 756 17 1628 80 T ot a l 20404 7725 100 4391 100 8288 100 # 2 ( 2, N = 20404) = 102. 28 p < 0001 Q ue s t i on 3. F or s t ude nt s w ho s c or e d at L e v e l 1 on t he 3 r d gr ade F C A T R e adi ng i n 2003 but w e r e pr om ot e d due t o good c aus e e x e m pt i ons w hat pr opor t i on f or e ac h t y pe of e x e m pt i on s c or e d at L e v e l 2 or hi ghe r on t he f our t h gr ade F C A T R e adi ng i n 2004 a) a t t he ov e r al l s t at e l e v e l and b) by s c hool di s t r i c t ? A l t oge t he r 30% ( N = 8 699) o f t he t hi r d gr a de s t u de nt s w ho s c or e d a t L e ve l 1 on t he 2003 F C A T R e a di ng w e r e pr om ot e d t o t he f ou r t h gr a de due t o good c a us e e xe m pt i ons T a bl e 6 di s pl a ys a br e a kdow n of t hi s gr oup of s t ude nt s by t ype o f e xe m pt i on.

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45 T a bl e 6. N um be r and P e r c e nt of St ude nt s P r om ot e d t o 4 t h G r ade due t o G ood C aus e E x e m pt i on by T y pe of E x e m pt i on E xe m pt i ons N % 1. P r of i c i e nc y de m ons t r a t e d t hr ough a l t e r na t i ve s t a nda r di z e d r e a di ng a s s e s s m e nt 2189 26 2. P r of i c i e nc y de m ons t r a t e d t hr ough s t ude nt por t f ol i o 1209 14 3. L i m i t e d E ngl i s h P r of i c i e nt ( L E P ) 1897 22 4. D i d not pa r t i c i pa t e due t o I ndi vi dua l i z e d E duc a t i ona l P l a n ( I E P ) 120 1 5. P r e vi ous r e t e nt i on ( 1 ye a r ) + I E P 2852 33 6. P r e vi ous r e t e nt i ons ( 2 ye a r s ) 432 5 T ot a l 8699 100 T he s e pr om ot e d s t ude nt s t ook t he 4 t h gr a de F C A T R e a di ng i n 2004. T he i r pe r f or m a nc e l e ve l s on t h i s t e s t by t ype of good c a u s e e xe m pt i on a r e r e por t e d i n T a bl e 7 L e ve l s 3 5 w e r e c ol l a ps e d due t o s m a l l c e l l s i z e s

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46 T a bl e 7 L e v e l 1 P r om ot e d St ude nt s P e r f or m anc e on t he 2 004 4 t h gr ade F C A T R e adi ng by G ood C aus e E x e m pt i on T ype of E xe m pt i on L e ve l 1 n % L e ve l 2 n % L e ve l s 3 5 n % 1. P r of i c i e nc y de m ons t r a t e d t hr ough a l t e r na t i ve s t a nda r di z e d r e a di ng a s s e s s m e nt 687 31 742 34 760 35 2. P r of i c i e nc y de m ons t r a t e d t hr ough s t ude nt por t f ol i o 491 41 392 32 326 27 3. L i m i t e d E ngl i s h P r of i c i e nt ( L E P ) 1308 69 301 16 288 15 4. D i d not pa r t i c i pa t e due t o I ndi vi dua l E duc a t i on P l a n ( I E P ) 98 82 13 11 9 8 5. P r e vi ous r e t e nt i on ( 1 ye a r ) + I E P 2376 83 297 10 179 6 6. P r e vi ous r e t e nt i ons ( 2 ye a r s ) 338 78 64 15 30 7 T ot a l 5298 61 1809 21 1592 18 O ve r a l l 39% of t he t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s pr o m ot e d i n 2003 due t o a good c a us e e xe m pt i on s c or e d a t L e ve l 2 or hi ghe r on t he 2004 F C A T R e a di ng, w hi l e 61 % s c or e d a t L e ve l 1. L ooki ng m or e c l os e l y a t t he 40 % of s t ude nt s w ho de m ons t r a t e d pr of i c i e nc y t hr ough a n a l t e r na t i ve s t a nda r di z e d r e a di ng a s s e s s m e nt ( E xe m pt i on 1) or t hr ough s t ude nt por t f ol i o ( E xe m pt i on 2) da t a r e ve a l s a di f f e r e nt pa t t e r n of pe r f o r m a nc e t ha n t ha t of

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47 s t ude nt s w ho w e r e pr om ot e d w i t hou t de m ons t r a t i n g pr of i c i e nc y i n r e a di ng ( E xe m pt i ons 3 6) S pe c i f i c a l l y, t he pe r c e nt a ge s of s t ude nt s s c or i ng a t L e ve l 2 or L e ve l s 3 5 on t he 4 t h gr a de F C A T R e a di ng i n 2004 w e r e qui t e hi gh f or t hos e w ho w e r e pr om ot e d due t o E xe m pt i on 1 ( 69% n = 1 502) a nd E xe m pt i on 2 ( 5 9% n = 718) w he n e xa m i ni ng t hi s s m a l l e r s ubs e t of s t ude nt s I n c ont r a s t f e w e r s t ude nt s pr om ot e d due t o E xe m p t i ons 3 6 s c or e d a t L e ve l 2 or L e ve l s 3 5 i n 2004 I n a ddi t i on t he pe r f or m a nc e o f a l l s t ude nt s w ho w e r e pr om ot e d due t o a G ood C a us e E xe m pt i on a nd w ho s ubs e que nt l y pa s s e d t he 2004 F C A T ( L e ve l s 2 5 ) w a s e xa m i ne d a nd t he r e s ul t s a r e di s pl a ye d i n T a bl e 8. T a bl e 8 St ude nt s P r om ot e d t hr ough G ood C aus e E x e m pt i o n i n 2003 Sc or i ng at L e v e l s 2 5 on t he 2004 F C A T R e adi ng by P r of i c i e nc y St at u s P r of i c i e nc y S t a t us N % P r of i c i e nt ( E xe m pt i ons 1 2) 2220 65 N on P r of i c i e nt ( E xe m pt i ons 3 6) 1181 35 T ot a l 3401 100 W he n c ons i de r i ng onl y t hos e s t ude nt s pr om ot e d t h r ough good c a us e e xe m pt i on w ho s c or e d a t L e ve l 2 or hi ghe r on t he 4 t h g r a de F C A T R e a di ng i n 2004, 65% ha d be e n pr om ot e d t he p r e vi ous ye a r due t o one o f t he t w o e xe m pt i ons t ha t r e qui r e de m ons t r a t i on of r e a di ng p r of i c i e nc y t h r ough a n a l t e r na t i ve m e c h a ni s m I n c ont r a s t onl y 35% ( n = 1181) ha d be e n p r om ot e d due t o a n e xe m pt i on t ha t di d not r e qui r e a de m ons t r a t i on o f r e a di ng pr of i c i e nc y.

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48 D a t a w e r e e xa m i ne d by di s t r i c t a nd no c l e a r pa t t e r n of a c hi e ve m e nt on t he F C A T R e a di ng w a s i de nt i f i e d. B r e a kdow n of s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e by di s t r i c t i s r e por t e d i n A ppe ndi x B Q ue s t i on 4: W hat i s t he l i k e l i hood t hat a 2003 t hi r d gr ade r e t ai ne e s at t ai nm e nt of L e v e l 2 or h i ghe r on t he 2004 t hi r d gr ade F C A T R e adi ng i s r e l at e d t o ge nde r S E S, and r ac e / e t hni c i t y ? T o t e s t t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he l i ke l i hood t ha t a t hi r d gr a de r e t a i ne e i s s uc c e s s f ul on t he 2004 F C A T R e a di ng a nd hi s o r he r ge nde r r a c e / e t hni c i t y, S E S a nd 2003 F C A T R e a di ng s c or e da t a w e r e s ubj e c t e d t o a l ogi s t i c r e g r e s s i on a na l ys i s T he out c om e m e a s ur e S uc c e s s on t he 2004 F C A T R e a di ng w a s ope r a t i ona l l y de f i ne d a s s c or i ng a t L e ve l 2 or hi ghe r on t ha t t e s t a nd w a s t r e a t e d a s a di c hot om ous va r i a bl e ( s uc c e s s = 1, f a i l ur e = 0) F ou r e xpl a na t or y va r i a bl e s w e r e e nt e r e d i nt o t he m ode l : 2003 F C A T R e a di ng s c or e s ge nde r r a c e a nd S E S A t ot a l of 20 001 s t ude nt s w e r e i nc l ude d i n t he a na l ys i s ; 617 w e r e e xc l ude d due t o m i s s i ng da t a R e s ul t s a r e s how n i n T a bl e 9.

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49 T a bl e 9 L ogi s t i c R e gr e s s i on A nal y s i s of R e t ai ne d St ude nt s A c hi e v i ng Suc c e s s on t he 2004 F C A T R e adi ng P r e di c t or B S E B W a l d s # 2 df p e B ( odds r a t i o) C ons t a nt ( S S R ) 4. 760 1138 1749. 954 3 1 < 0001 N A G e nde r ( 1 = F e m a l e ) 1217 0332 13. 4127 1 0002 1. 129 R a c e A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n 2624 0432 36. 8578 1 < 0001 769 H i s pa ni c 0335 0457 5378 1 46 967 A s i a n 2459 1855 1 7569 1 19 782 S E S ( 1 = L ow S E S ) 2683 0485 30. 5880 1 < 0001 765 T e s t # 2 df p O ve r a l l m ode l e va l ua t i on L i ke l i hood r a t i o t e s t 4170. 8078 6 < 0001 S c or e t e s t 3940. 3166 6 < 0001 W a l d t e s t 2962. 6594 6 < 0001 G oodne s s of f i t t e s t H o s m e r & L e m e s how 464. 0075 8 < 0001 N o t e C o x a n d S n e l l R 2 = 1 8 8 N a g e l k e r k e R 2 = 2 5 6 G o o d m a n K r u s k a l G a m m a = 5 5 8 c s t a t i s t i c = 7 7 8 % A l l s t a t i s t i c s r e p o r t e d h e r e i n u s e 4 d e c i m a l p l a c e s i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n s t a t i s t i c a l p r e c i s i o n S S R = 2 0 0 3 s t a n d a r d s c o r e N A = n o t a p p l i c a b l e T he r e s ul t s of t he l ogi s t i c r e gr e s s i on a na l ys i s s how e d t ha t P r e di c t e d l ogi t ( S U C C E S S ) = 4. 96 + 0. 122* F E M A L E + ( 0 262*A F R I C A N A M E R I C A N ) + ( 0 034*H I S P A N I C ) + ( 0. 246*A S I A N ) + ( 0 268*L O W S E S )

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50 B a s e d on t he l i ke l i hood r a t i o t e s t t he m ode l w i t h t he f our f a c t or s i n t he e qua t i on w a s f ound t o be s i gni f i c a nt l y m o r e e f f e c t i ve t ha n a c ons t a nt onl y m ode l # 2 ( 6, N = 20, 001) = 4170. 81 p < 0001, i ndi c a t i ng t ha t t he p r e di c t or s a s a s e t r e l i a bl y di s t i ngui s he d be t w e e n s t u de nt s w ho a c hi e ve d s uc c e s s a nd t hos e w ho di d not T he s c or e a nd W a l d t e s t s s uppor t t hi s r e s ul t T he H os m e r L e m e s how goodne s s of f i t t e s t i s s i gni f i c a nt but not c ons i s t e nt w i t h t he ot he r t e s t s of m ode l f i t T he s t r e ngt h of t he pr e di c t i on us i ng N a ge l ke r ke s R 2 w a s 256, w hi l e C ox s a nd S ne l l s R 2 w a s a m or e c ons e r va t i ve 188. M e a s ur e s of a s s oc i a t i on a r e r e p or t e d, w hi c h i ndi c a t e t he de gr e e t o w hi c h pr e di c t e d pr oba bi l i t i e s a gr e e w i t h a c t ua l out c om e s T he G oodm a n K r us ka l s G a m m a s t a t i s t i c w hi c h a c c ount s f or t i e s on bot h t he out c om e s a nd pr e di c t or va r i a bl e s ( a s a r e pr e s e nt i n t he s e da t a ) i s 558 ( s e e T a bl e 3) T hi s i s i nt e r pr e t e d a s 56% f e w e r e r r or s m a de i n pr e di c t i ng w hi c h of t w o s t ude nt s w oul d a c hi e ve s uc c e s s on t he F C A T R e a di ng by us i ng t he e s t i m a t e d pr oba bi l i t i e s t ha n by c ha nc e a l one A not he r e xa m pl e i s t he c s t a t i s t i c w hi c h f or t hi s m ode l i s 778 m e a ni ng t ha t f or 77. 8% of a l l pos s i bl e pa i r s o f s t ude nt s one s uc c e s s f ul a nd t he ot he r uns uc c e s s f ul t he m ode l c or r e c t l y a s s i gne d a hi ghe r pr oba bi l i t y of s uc c e s s t o t he s t ude nt w ho w a s s uc c e s s f ul T hi s i ndi c a t e s t ha t t he m ode l i s be t t e r a t a s s i gni ng out c om e s t ha n one t ha t r a ndom l y a s s i gns pr oba bi l i t i e s t o obs e r va t i ons I n a ddi t i on t o t he f ou r m e a s ur e s of a s s oc i a t i on, a m e a s ur e of c l a s s i f i c a t i on w a s c onduc t e d, a nd r e s ul t s a r e di s pl a ye d i n T a bl e 10.

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51 T a bl e 10 O bs e r v e d and P r e di c t e d F r e que nc i e s f or Suc c e s s b y L ogi s t i c R e gr e s s i on w i t h a C ut of f o f 50 P r e di c t e d O bs e r ve d S uc c e s s f ul U ns uc c e s s f ul % C or r e c t S uc c e s s f ul 10950 1452 88. 3 U ns uc c e s s f ul 4212 3387 44. 6 O ve r a l l % C or r e c t 71. 7 N o t e S e n s i t i v i t y = 1 0 9 5 0 / ( 1 0 9 5 0 + 1 4 5 2 ) % = 8 8 3 % S p e c i f i c i t y = 3 3 8 7 / ( 3 3 8 7 + 4 2 1 2 ) % = 4 4 6 % F a l s e p o s i t i v e = 4 2 1 2 / ( 4 2 1 2 + 1 0 9 5 0 ) % = 2 7 8 % F a l s e n e g a t i v e = 1 4 5 2 / ( 1 4 5 2 + 3 3 8 7 ) % = 3 0 0 % A t a 50 pr oba bi l i t y l e ve l t he m ode l c or r e c t l y pr e d i c t e d 88. 3% of t he s t ude nt s a c hi e vi ng s uc c e s s 44. 6% of s t ude nt s not a c hi e vi ng s uc c e s s a nd 71. 7% o f s t ude nt s ove r a l l T he f a l s e pos i t i ve r a t e ( 27 8% ) m e a s ur e s t he pr opor t i on of obs e r va t i ons m i s c l a s s i f i e d a s e ve nt s w hi l e t he f a l s e ne ga t i ve r a t e ( 30. 0% ) m e a s ur e s t he p r opor t i on of obs e r va t i ons m i s c l a s s i f i e d a s none ve nt s T he ove r a l l c or r e c t i on pr e di c t i on w a s 71 7% w hi c h i s i m pr ove d f r om c ha nc e T he i ndi vi dua l pr e di c t or s w e r e t e s t e d us i ng t he W a l d c hi s qua r e s t a t i s t i c ( s e e T a bl e 9) R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t e ve n w he n c ont r ol l i ng f or pr e vi ous pe r f or m a nc e s uc c e s s w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h ge nde r r a c e a nd S E S S pe c i f i c a l l y, A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s w e r e l e s s l i ke l y ( B = 262) t ha n t he i r C a uc a s i a n pe e r s t o s c or e a t L e ve l 2 or hi ghe r on t he F C A T R e a di ng i n 2004 ( p< 0001) I n f a c t t he odds of a n A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s c or i ng a t L e ve l 2 or hi ghe r w e r e onl y 77 t i m e s t h a t of t he odds f or a C a uc a s i a n s t ude nt I n a ddi t i on s t ude nt s of l ow S E S w e r e l e s s l i ke l y ( B = 266) t o a c hi e ve s uc c e s s on t he

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52 F C A T R e a di ng, a nd ha d de c r e a s e d odds ( 77) of s c or i ng a t L e ve l 2 o r hi ghe r w he n c om pa r e d t o pe e r s c l a s s i f i e d a s N ot l ow S E S F e m a l e s t ude nt s ( B = 122) on t he ot he r ha nd, w e r e m o r e l i ke l y t o a c hi e ve s uc c e s s t ha n m a l e s t ude nt s ; t he odds of a f e m a l e s c or i ng a t L e ve l 2 or hi ghe r i n 2004 w e r e 1 13 t i m e s t ha t of t he odds f or a m a l e s t ude nt ( p< 01) T hus r e s ul t s s ugge s t t ha t ge nde r r a c e a nd S E S a s a s e t r e l i a bl y di s t i ngui s he d be t w e e n s t ude nt s w ho a c hi e ve d s uc c e s s a nd t hos e w ho di d not I n a ddi t i on w he n c ons i de r e d i nd i vi dua l l y, e a c h o f t he s e pr e di c t or s w a s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h s t ude nt s l i ke l i hood of s uc c e s s i n r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e a s m e a s ur e d by t he F C A T

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53 C H A P T E R F I V E D i s c us s i on T he pupi l p r ogr e s s i on pl a n i n t he S t a t e of F l or i da m a nda t e s gr a de r e t e nt i on i n t he t hi r d gr a de f or t hos e s t ude nt s w ho f a i l t o de m ons t r a t e a de qua t e r e a di ng s ki l l s a s m e a s ur e d by t he s t a t e w i de r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t ( i e F C A T R e a di ng) S t ude nt s w ho do not m e e t t h i s c r i t e r i on but w ho qua l i f y f or a good c a us e e xe m pt i on [ e g por t f ol i o, o t he r nor m r e f e r e nc e d a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t pr e vi ous g r a de r e t e nt i on( s ) ] c a n be pr om ot e d t o t he f our t h g r a de ne ve r t he l e s s T he p r e s e nt s t udy i nve s t i ga t e d t he a c a de m i c out c om e s of t he pr a c t i c e s of r e t e nt i on a nd pr om ot i on of l ow a c hi e v i ng t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s w i t hi n a c l i m a t e of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng a nd s t a t e m a nda t e d r e m e di a t i on e f f or t s T he e duc a t i ona l c l i m a t e i n F l o r i da i s i n a s t a t e of f l ux, a s ne w pol i c i e s a nd pr oc e dur e s ha ve be e n pe r c e i ve d by m a ny e duc a t or s i n t he s t a t e a s be i ng di s t r i but e d a l m os t c ont i nuous l y s i nc e t he e na c t m e nt of t he N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd ( N C L B ) f e de r a l l e gi s l a t i on a nd s ubs e que nt s t a t e l e gi s l a t i on. T he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t he pol i c y c ha nge s ha s c r e a t e d a n e duc a t i ona l c l i m a t e t ha t i s e xpe r i e nc e d by m a ny e duc a t or s a s w e l l a s s t ude nt s a nd f a m i l i e s a s be i ng c ha r a c t e r i z e d by pr e s s ur e a nd unc e r t a i nt y a t e ve r y l e ve l P ol i c y m a ke r s a r e be i ng a s ke d t o a ppl y a m a j or pi e c e of n a t i ona l l e gi s l a t i on t o t he e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m i n t he S t a t e o f F l o r i da ; a s a r e s ul t of s t a t e l e gi s l a t i on t yi ng t he F C A T t o hi gh

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54 s t a ke s de c i s i on s s uc h a s r e t e nt i on a nd gr a de s f or s c hool s a dm i ni s t r a t or s a r e de a l i ng w i t h ve r y l a r ge t hi r d gr a de c l a s s r oom s a nd a r e a l s o f a c e d w i t h t he pos s i bi l i t y of l os i ng a c c e s s t o f undi ng on w hi c h t he y ha ve c ount e d i n t he pa s t T e a c he r s a r e ba t t l i ng t h e c ont r ove r s y s pa r ke d by pr e s s ur e t ha t e xi s t s t o t e a c h t o t he t e s t F i na l l y s t ude nt s a s young a s ki nde r ga r t e n e r s a r e a w a r e o f t he F C A T a nd t he r a m i f i c a t i ons t he y w i l l f a c e i f t he y f a i l ; m a ny s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e c ons i de r a bl e a nxi e t y a bout be i ng l e f t be hi nd i n t he t hi r d g r a de T he a nxi e t y t ha t ha s i m pa c t e d t he e nt i r e s t a t e ha s r e s ul t e d i n l a r ge pa r t f r om t he r e c e nc y of t he l e gi s l a t i ve c ha nge s l a c k of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h or unc e r t a i nt y a bout t he p r oc e dur e s a nd t he r a pi di t y w i t h w hi c h e duc a t or s ha ve be e n c om p e l l e d t o c om pl y T hi s c l i m a t e of s t r e s s m a y a f f e c t s t ude nt s s c or e s i n t he s e e a r l y ye a r s ; how e ve r i t i s pos s i bl e t ha t t i m e w i l l e a s e t he i m pa c t of s om e or a l l o f t he s e f a c t or s a nd t he s e c ha nge s i n F l or i da s e duc a t i ona l c l i m a t e m a y i m pa c t t he a c a de m i c out c om e s of s t ude nt s w ho a r e r e t a i ne d due t o i na de qua t e pe r f or m a nc e on t he F C A T R e a di ng. Sum m ar y of F i ndi ngs F i ndi ngs of t he pr e s e nt s t udy i ndi c a t e d t ha t o f t he r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s 62% s c or e d a t L e ve l s 2 o r hi ghe r on t he F C A T R e a di ng ( i e pa s s e d t he F C A T R e a di ng ) t he s ubs e que nt ye a r T hi s f i ndi ng i s e nc our a gi ng a s i t s ugge s t s t ha t r e t e nt i on w a s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h pos i t i ve a c a de m i c out c om e s ; a f t e r r e pe a t i ng t he t hi r d g r a de c ur r i c ul um a nd a t l e a s t i n t e r m s of m a nda t e by pol i c y, r e c e i vi ng i nt e ns i ve a c a de m i c s uppor t s a l m os t t w o t hi r ds of t he r e t a i ne e s w e r e s uc c e s s f ul i n i m pr ovi ng t he i r F C A T R e a di ng s c or e t o a pa s s i ng l e ve l a s de f i ne d by s t a t e s t a nda r ds U pon c l os e r e x a m i na t i on, how e ve r i t i s not e d t ha t l e s s t ha n ha l f ( 41% ) of a l l r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s w e r e c ons i d e r e d t o be pr o f i c i e nt r e a de r s ( i e L e ve l s 3 5 a c c or di ng t o t he F L D O E ) a t t he e nd o f t he i r r e t e nt i on ye a r T hi s num be r i s

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55 s ubs t a nt i a l l y l ow e r t ha n t he 66 % of a l l t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s w ho s c or e d a t L e ve l s 2 5 i n 2004 ( F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on, 2005) ; ho w e ve r i t a l s o r e pr e s e nt s c ons i de r a bl e i m pr ove m e nt i n t hi s gr oup f r om t he p r e vi ous ye a r ( i e a l l ha d s c or e d a t L e ve l 1 i n 2003 ) T he s e f i ndi ngs a l s o i l l us t r a t e t he l a c k of c ons i s t e nc y i n F l o r i da s de f i ni t i ons of a de qua t e r e a di ng s ki l l s w hi c h m a ke s t he i n t e r pr e t a t i on of s uc h s e e m i ngl y c ont r a di c t or y r e s ul t s di f f i c ul t S t ude nt s w ho s c or e a L e ve l 2 on t he F C A T R e a di ng a r e de m ons t r a t i ng onl y l i m i t e d s uc c e s s w i t h t he c ur r i c ul um ; how e ve r a c c or di ng t o t he pupi l pr ogr e s s i on pl a n, t he s e s a m e s t ude nt s a r e e l i gi bl e f or p r om ot i on t o t he f our t h gr a de A s s uc h, t he y a r e c ons i de r e d t o be bot h a de qua t e t o be pr om o t e d a s w e l l a s i na de qua t e a s r e a de r s A c c or di ng t o s t a t e l e gi s l a t i on a nd f or t he pu r pos e s of t hi s s t udy, L e ve l s 2 5 de f i ne s uc c e s s ; how e ve r i t i s i m por t a nt t o ke e p i n m i nd t he a c t ua l l i m i t e d r e a di ng s ki l l s of m a ny of t he s t ude nt s w ho ha ve be e n pr om ot e d. T he f i ndi ngs a r e l e s s e qui voc a l but a l s o l e s s pos i t i ve f o r s t ude nt s w ho s c or e d a t L e ve l 1 i n 2003 but w e r e pr om ot e d due t o a good c a us e e xe m pt i o n. R e s ul t s s how t ha t 61% of t he s e s t ude nt s f a i l e d t he f ou r t h g r a de ve r s i on of t he F C A T R e a di ng ( i e t he y s c or e d a t L e ve l 1 ) t he s ubs e que nt ye a r S i nc e t he s e s t ude nt s t ook a di f f e r e nt ve r s i on of t he F C A T R e a di ng t ha n di d t he r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s ( i e t he y t ook t he f our t h gr a de t e s t r a t he r t ha n t he t hi r d gr a de t e s t ) t he r e s ul t s a r e not di r e c t l y c om pa r a bl e ; how e ve r t he s e f i ndi ngs do i ndi c a t e t ha t w i t hi n t he i r r e s pe c t i ve c ur r i c ul a t he r e t a i ne d L e ve l 1 s t ude nt s w e r e m or e c om pe t e nt r e l a t i ve t o t he pr o m ot e d L e v e l 1 s t ude nt s I n a ddi t i on w hi l e 39% of L e ve l 1 s t ude nt s pr om ot e d t hr ough good c a us e e xe m pt i on pa s s e d t he 4 t h gr a de F C A T R e a di ng a t a L e ve l 2 o r hi ghe r on l y 18% w e r e c ons i de r e d pr of i c i e nt r e a de r s ( i e s c or i ng a t L e ve l 3 or hi ghe r ) I t a ppe a r s t ha t t he va s t m a j or i t y o f s t ude nt s pr om ot e d t o

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56 f our t h g r a de t hr ough a good c a us e e xe m pt i on di d n ot m e e t w i t h s uc c e s s w i t h t he f our t h gr a de c ur r i c ul um a s i t ua t i on pr e di c t e d by t he i r s c or e s on t he t hi r d gr a de F C A T R e a di ng. I t i s i m po r t a nt t o c ons i de r t he r e s ul t s f or e a c h i ndi v i dua l e xe m pt i on, how e ve r a s s t ude nt s w ho w e r e pr om ot e d due t o a n e xe m pt i on t ha t r e qui r e d a de m ons t r a t i on o f p r of i c i e nc y i n r e a di ng ( i e pa s s i ng a n a l t e r na t e t e s t s t ude nt por t f ol i o) f a r e d qui t e w e l l i n f our t h gr a de O f s t ude nt s pr om ot e d f or one of t he t w o pr of i c i e n c y e xe m pt i ons 65% pa s s e d t he F C A T R e a di ng i n f ou r t h g r a de s c or i ng a t a L e ve l 2 or hi ghe r W he n e xa m i ne d a not he r w a y, r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e t he s a m e pa t t e r n; of a l l good c a us e e xe m pt e d s t ude nt s w ho pa s s e d t he f our t h g r a de F C A T R e a di ng ( i e L e ve l s 2 5) 65% ha d be e n pr om ot e d t o t he f our t h gr a de due t o a n e xe m pt i on t ha t i ndi c a t e d pr of i c i e nc y i n r e a di ng T a ke n t oge t he r t he s e f i ndi ngs i ndi c a t e t ha t t he r e i s a di s t i nc t di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n s t ude nt s pr om ot e d t o g r a de f our a s a r e s ul t o f de m ons t r a t i ng pr of i c i e nc y i n r e a di ng a nd t hos e w ho w e r e pr om ot e d f or a r e a s on unr e l a t e d t o a de qua t e a c a de m i c s ki l l s ( e g. L E P pr e vi ous r e t e nt i ons e t c ) I t w oul d be unw i s e t o dr a w c onc l us i ons a bout t he a ppr opr i a t e ne s s of pr om ot i ng s t ude nt s t hr oug h goo d c a us e e xe m pt i ons w i t hout m or e c l os e l y e xa m i ni ng t he i m pl i c a t i ons of e a c h e xe m pt i on. A l l ow i ng s t ude nt s t o di s pl a y t he i r s ki l l s t hr ough a l t e r na t i ve m e c ha ni s m s a ppe a r s t o be a n a s s e t t o t he pupi l pr ogr e s s i on pl a n; s uc h e xe m pt i ons pr ovi de a n a ddi t i ona l t ool w i t h w hi c h s t ude nt s w ho a r e l i ke l y t o be s uc c e s s f ul w i t h t he f ou r t h g r a de c ur r i c ul um c a n be i de nt i f i e d. F or s t ude nt s w ho e xpe r i e nc e t e s t a nxi e t y, or a di m i n i s he d pe r f or m a n c e on t he F C A T R e a di ng f or a ny r e a s on ot he r t ha n i na de qua t e s ki l l s t he s e e xe m pt i ons s e e m a ppr opr i a t e T he da t a s ugge s t t ha t t he m a j or i t y of t he s e s t ude nt s pos s e s s t he s ki l l s ne c e s s a r y t o be s uc c e s s f ul i n t he f our t h g r a de a nd pr ovi de s uppor t f o r t he de c i s i on t o not r e t a i n t he m i n t hi r d gr a de

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57 S t ude nt s qua l i f yi ng f or one of t he ot he r f ou r good c a us e e xe m pt i ons w e r e a l s o pr om ot e d a nd e xpe r i e nc e d t he f our t h gr a de c ur r i c ul um w i t ho ut a de qua t e ba s i c r e a di ng s ki l l s ; a s a r e s ul t t he y ha ve e s s e nt i a l l y s pe nt a not he r ye a r s i g ni f i c a nt l y be hi nd t he i r pe e r s a nd m os t l i ke l y, f a l l i ng e ve n f a r t he r b e hi nd. T hough t he y a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s be i ng pr om ot e d due t o good c a us e t hi s gr oup o f s t ude nt s m a y ha ve ve r y di f f e r e nt ne e ds f r om t hos e w ho w e r e a bl e t o de m ons t r a t e r e a di ng c om pe t e nc y i n a n a l t e r na t e m a nne r F or e xa m pl e s t ude nt s w ho qua l i f i e d f or e xe m pt i on t hr ough L i m i t e d E ngl i s h P r of i c i e n c y ( L E P ) due t o l e s s t ha n t w o ye a r s of i ns t r uc t i on i n a n E ng l i s h f or S pe a ke r s of O t he r L a ngua ge s pr og r a m m a y ne e d e xt r a t i m e t o m a s t e r c e r t a i n a s pe c t s of t he ba s i c r e a di ng c ur r i c ul um ( e g. phone m i c a w a r e ne s s phoni c s ) b e f or e t he y c a n be e xpe c t e d t o pr ogr e s s a l ong w i t h t he i r s a m e a ge pe e r s f or w hom E ngl i s h i s t he i r pr i m a r y l a ngua ge I t m a y be a ppr opr i a t e f or pol i c y m a ke r s t o r e e xa m i ne t he pur pos e of pr om ot i ng t h e s e s t ude nt s a nd t o i de nt i f y w he r e a nd how t he i r a c a de m i c ne e ds w oul d be s t be s e r ve d. W i t h r e ga r d t o t he s t ude nt va r i a bl e s e xa m i ne d, a na l ys e s r e ve a l e d t ha t ge nde r r a c e a nd S E S a r e e a c h i nde pe nde nt l y a nd s i gni f i c a nt l y ( p< 0 001) a s s oc i a t e d w i t h r e pe a t e d a c a de m i c f a i l ur e a s m e a s ur e d by t he F C A T R e a di ng. A m ode l i nc l udi ng a l l t hr e e of t he s e va r i a bl e s w hi l e c ont r ol l i ng f o r pr e vi ous a c hi e ve m e nt i ndi c a t e d t ha t r e t a i ne d A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s t e nde d t o be l e s s s uc c e s s f ul t ha n t he i r C a uc a s i a n pe e r s R e t a i ne d m a l e s t e nde d t o be l e s s s uc c e s s f ul t ha n f e m a l e s a nd r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s w i t h a l ow S E S t e nde d t o be l e s s s uc c e s s f ul t ha n s t ude nt s w ho w e r e not l ow S E S P r e vi ous r e s e a r c h ha s e s t a bl i s he d t ha t ge nde r ( J i m e r s on, 19 99; P a ga ni e t a l 2001) r a c e ( J i m e r s on, 1999; M c C oy & R e ynol ds 1999) a nd S E S s t a t us ( J i m e r s on, 1999; M c C oy & R e ynol ds 1999; F e r gus e n e t a l 2001) m a y a c t a s pr e di c t o r s of r e t e nt i on dur i ng t he e l e m e nt a r y

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58 gr a de s S pe c i f i c a l l y, be i ng m a l e a m e m be r of a n e t hni c m i nor i t y gr oup a nd ha vi ng a l ow S E S s t a t us put c hi l dr e n a t a hi ghe r r i s k f or gr a de r e t e nt i on. T he f i ndi ngs f r om t he c ur r e nt s t udy i ndi c a t e t ha t t he s e va r i a bl e s c ont i nue t o i m pa c t a c a de m i c pe r f or m a nc e dur i ng a nd a f t e r t he r e t e nt i on ye a r L i m i t at i ons O ne i de nt i f i e d t h r e a t t o va l i d i t y i n t hi s s t udy i s r e l a t e d t o t he c e nt r a l m e a s ur e of r e a di ng s ki l l s us e d bot h i n t hi s s t udy a s w e l l a s i n F l or i da s s t ude nt pr og r e s s i on pl a n, t he F C A T R e a di ng T he r e a r e m a ny i s s ue s t oo m a ny t o de l i ne a t e he r e c onc e r ni ng t he us e o f s t a nda r di z e d t e s t s f or hi gh s t a ke s de c i s i ons s uc h a s gr a de r e t e nt i on A m a j or c onc e r n i s t he pos s i bi l i t y t ha t F C A T R e a di ng s c or e s m a y not be a t r ue r e pr e s e nt a t i on of a s t ude nt s a c t ua l r e a di ng s ki l l s C e r t a i nl y t he r e s ul t s of t he p r e s e nt s t udy ha ve f ound t ha t f or s om e s t ude nt s pa r t i c ul a r l y t hos e w ho qua l i f i e d f or pr om ot i on t hr ough a n a l t e r na t e t e s t or por t f ol i o t he F C A T R e a di ng di d no t pr ov i de t he b e s t e s t i m a t e of t he i r r e a di ng s ki l l s a s t he m a j or i t y m a na ge d t o be qui t e s uc c e s s f ul i n f ou r t h gr a de r e ga r dl e s s of t he i r poor pe r f or m a nc e on t he t e s t i n t he t hi r d gr a de A l t houg h ot he r m e t hods o f e va l ua t i ng r e a di ng s ki l l s m a y ne e d t o be e xpl o r e d, t he S t a t e of F l or i da i s c ur r e nt l y r e l yi ng he a vi l y on t he F C A T t o de t e r m i ne r e a di ng s ki l l l e ve l ; t hus F C A T R e a di ng s c or e s w e r e us e d i n t hi s s t udy a s w e l l A not he r t hr e a t t o va l i di t y i n t h i s s t udy i nvol ve s t r e a t m e nt i nt e gr i t y of s t a t e m a nda t e d i nt e r ve nt i on t h r ough A c a de m i c I m p r ove m e nt P l a ns ( A I P s ) f o r r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s T he F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ha s de l i ne a t e d s e ve r a l c om pone nt s of a n A I P i n r e a di ng, i nc l udi ng: 1 ) a de s c r i pt i on of s pe c i f i c de f i c i e nc i e s i n phone m i c a w a r e ne s s phoni c s f l ue nc y, c om pr e he ns i on, a nd voc a bul a r y, 2) c onc r e t e goa l s i n e a c h

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59 a r e a a nd 3) t he s pe c i f i c i ns t r uc t i ona l a nd/ o r s uppo r t s e r vi c e s pr ovi de d ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003g) F o r s t ude nt s w h o a r e r e t a i ne d i n t hi r d g r a d e due t o r e c e i vi ng a L e ve l 1 s c or e on t he F C A T R e a di ng, A I P s s houl d be r e vi e w e d a t t he be gi nni ng of t he r e t e nt i on ye a r a nd a ga i n a s s oon a s i t i s de t e r m i ne d t ha t t he s t ude nt m a y f a i l t he F C A T R e a di ng a ga i n ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on 2003h ) T hi s i m p l e m e nt a t i on pl a n a t t e m pt s t o c ont r ol f or t he qu a l i t y of e a c h s t ude nt s r e a di ng r e m e di a t i on; how e ve r t he pl a n i s de f i c i e nt i n a t l e a s t t w o a r e a s t ha t m a y ha ve i m pa c t e d t he c onc l us i ons dr a w n i n t he pr e s e nt s t udy. A l t hou gh e ve r y s t ude nt w ho r e c e i ve s a L e ve l 1 s c or e on t he F C A T R e a di ng, r e ga r dl e s s of r e t e nt i on/ pr om ot i on s t a t us s houl d ha ve a n A I P a t t hi s poi nt i n t i m e t he r e i s no m e t hod i n pl a c e t ha t w oul d e va l ua t e t he c ons i s t e nc y of A I P s w i t h s t a t e r e qui r e m e nt s o r t o e ns ur e t ha t e a c h s t ude nt i s a c t ua l l y r e c e i vi ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on a s i nt e nde d. I t i s hi ghl y pos s i bl e t ha t s t ude nt s A I P s va r y w i de l y bot h i n qua l i t y of c ons t r uc t i on a nd i n i m pl e m e nt a t i on m a ki ng s t a t i s t i c a l r e s ul t s di f f i c ul t t o i nt e r pr e t I t i s onl y t hr ough de t a i l e d doc um e nt a t i on r e ga r di ng t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h e a c h s t ude nt r e c e i ve d i nt e r ve nt i ons a s m a nda t e d t ha t a n e va l ua t i on of t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he i nt e r ve nt i ons a s w e l l a s t he r e t e nt i on ye a r i t s e l f w oul d be pos s i bl e A not he r i s s ue t ha t i m pa c t s t he c ons t r uc t i on a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on of A I P s i s t h e va r i a bi l i t y of t he r e m e di a l a c t i vi t i e s w hi c h a r e de f i ne d by t he s t a t e a s e f f e c t i ve i ns t r uc t i ona l pr a c t i c e s a nd s c i e nt i f i c a l l y ba s e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. N o f ur t h e r de t a i l s a r e p r ovi de d r e ga r di ng s pe c i f i c a c t i vi t i e s a nd i nt e r ve nt i ons m a ki ng i t i nc u m be nt upon pr a c t i t i one r s s uc h a s s c hool ps yc hol ogi s t s a nd t e a c he r s t o m a ke t he s e de c i s i ons a c c or di ng t o t he s pe c i f i c ne e ds of e a c h s t ude nt ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2003h) W hi l e t hi s a f f o r ds gr e a t i ndi vi dua l i z a t i on, i t a l s o i m pl i e s t ha t a c t ua l i nt e r ve nt i ons m a y va r y w i de l y di s a l l ow i ng

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60 ge ne r a l i z a t i ons a bout t he i r e f f e c t i ve ne s s F or t he r e a s ons m e nt i one d a bove e xa m i na t i on of t he qua l i t y of A I P s w a s c ons i de r e d t o be be yond t he s c ope of t he pr e s e nt s t udy a nd w a s not i nc l ude d. T hi s s t udy w a s not a bl e t o c ont r ol f o r i nc ons i s t e nc i e s i n da t a c odi ng o r e nt r y f a c t or s t ha t a l s o t hr e a t e n t he va l i di t y of t he f i nd i ng s D a t a w e r e e nt e r e d i n t hous a nds of s c hool s a c r os s t he s t a t e by num e r ous c ode r s us i ng a c odi ng s ys t e m t ha t w a s r e l a t i ve l y unknow n a nd unt e s t e d. I n a ddi t i on t he s t udy va r i a bl e of s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us w a s de f i ne d us i ng s t ude nt s f r e e or r e duc e d l unc h qua l i f i c a t i on s t a t us T he s e da t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d by t he s t a t e a nd t hus t hi s c a t e gor y c oul d not be de f i ne d m or e c l e a r l y W hi l e t he qua l i f i c a t i on s t a t us f o r f r e e o r r e duc e d l unc h a s a d e f i ni t i on of hi gh or l ow S E S i s pe r ha ps ove r l y br oa d a nd m a y not of f e r a c l e a r pi c t ur e of s t ude nt s a c t ua l s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us i t i s a w i de l y a c c e pt e d m e t hod of c a t e gor i z a t i on i n b ot h r e s e a r c h a nd pr a c t i c e A ddi t i ona l l y, t he pr e s e nt s t udy di d not i nc l ude a c o nt r ol gr oup a nd t he da t a e xa m i ne d w e r e c r os s s e c t i ona l i n na t ur e w hi c h l i m i t e d t he na t ur e of t he c onc l us i ons t ha t c oul d be dr a w n. I nc l us i on o f a t r ue e xpe r i m e nt a l c ont r ol gr oup i s not e t hi c a l l y pos s i bl e i n t hi s t ype of r e s e a r c h; how e ve r a l ongi t udi na l de s i gn w oul d s t r e ngt he n t he s t udy by a l l ow i ng c onc l us i ons t o be dr a w n a bout t he l ong t e r m out c om e s of e a r l y g r a de r e t e nt i on D e l i m i t at i ons T he r e s ul t s m a y be ge ne r a l i z e d t o t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s w ho a r e r e t a i ne d i n t he S t a t e of F l or i da or i n a s i m i l a r s t ude nt pr ogr e s s i on pr ogr a m w hi c h r e qui r e s a s t r uc t ur e d pl a n of r e m e di a t i on f o r e ve r y r e t a i ne d s t ude nt I n a ddi t i on t o r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s t he s t udy w i l l i nc l ude pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho pe r f o r m e d poor l y ( L e ve l 1) on t he F C A T but w e r e pr om ot e d due t o one of s i x good c a us e e xe m pt i ons R e s ul t s c a n be ge ne r a l i z e d t o o t he r

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61 t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s w ho m e e t t he s e r e qui r e m e nt s R e s ul t s c a nnot be ge ne r a l i z e d t o ol de r or younge r popul a t i ons o r t o s t ude nt s w i t h s pe c i a l ne e ds not i nc l ude d i n t he p r e de f i ne d good c a us e e xe m pt i ons I m pl i c at i ons f or P r ac t i c e and F ut ur e R e s e ar c h M os t e duc a t or s a nd r e s e a r c he r s c onc ur t ha t ne i t he r r e pe a t i ng t he s a m e c ur r i c ul um by r e pe a t i ng a g r a de nor m e r e l y be i ng pr om ot e d t o t he ne xt g r a de w i l l pr ovi de s uf f i c i e nt oppor t u ni t i e s f or s t ude nt s w ho a r e e xpe r i e nc i ng a c a de m i c di f f i c ul t i e s t o e xpe r i e nc e s uc c e s s ; t he r e s ul t s of t he p r e s e nt s t udy s uppor t t hi s pos i t i on I ns t e a d, s t r uggl i ng s t ude nt s w i l l ne e d c ons i s t e nt i nt e ns i ve a nd e m pi r i c a l l y s u ppor t e d r e m e di a t i on e f f or t s t o m a k e s uf f i c i e nt a c a de m i c ga i ns F l o r i da ha s i ns t i t ut e d A I P s t o a ddr e s s t hi s ne e d; how e ve r s t ude nt out c om e s s ugge s t t ha t ga ps e xi s t i n one or m or e a r e a s t ha t i m pe de t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of A I P s f or e xa m pl e i n t he de ve l op m e nt a nd m oni t o r i ng o f t he p l a ns a s w e l l a s c ont i nui ng pr o f e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt i n t he s e a r e a s F i ndi ngs f r om t he p r e s e nt s t udy a l s o s ugge s t t ha t c e r t a i n s ubgr oups of s t ude nt s ( e g. m a l e s A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s s t ude nt s w i t h a l ow S E S ) a r e a t r i s k f o r r e pe a t e d f a i l ur e ; t he A I P s ys t e m a nd r e s ul t i n g i nt e r ve nt i ons a r e not pr ovi ng a s e f f e c t i ve f o r t he s e s ubgr oups T hi s i ndi c a t e s a ne e d t o m a ke a ppr opr i a t e m odi f i c a t i ons t ha t w i l l t a r ge t t he s e a t r i s k s t ude nt s i nc l ud i ng t he de ve l opm e nt of ne w i n t e r ve nt i ons or m or e f r e que n t m oni t or i ng T he da t a f r om t h i s s t udy a l s o r a i s e que s t i ons i n t e r m s of pol i c y de c i s i ons t ha t pr om ot e s t ude nt s s c or i ng a t L e ve l 1 t hr ough goo d c a us e e xe m pt i ons T he pur pos e of s t ude nt pr om ot i on t h r ough good c a us e i s a r gua bl y t o he l p t he s e s t ude nt s a c hi e ve f ut ur e a c a de m i c s uc c e s s ; how e ve r c ur r e nt f i ndi ngs i ndi c a t e t ha t onl y one e xe m pt i on p r ovi de s a vi a bl e pr e di c t or o f s uc c e s s i n t he f ou r t h g r a de S t u de nt s pr om ot e d t hr ough E xe m pt i on 1

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62 ( de m ons t r a t i on of pr of i c i e nc y t hr ough a n a l t e r na t i ve a s s e s s m e nt ) ha ve a ne a r l y 70% c ha nc e of pa s s i ng t h e F C A T R e a di ng a t L e ve l 2 or hi ghe r i n t he f our t h gr a de S t ude nt s pr om ot e d t hr ough E xe m pt i on 2 ( de m ons t r a t i on o f pr of i c i e nc y t hr ough por t f ol i o) ha ve r oughl y a 50 % c ha nc e of pa s s i ng, w hi l e s t ude nt s p r om ot e d t hr ough t he ot he r f ou r c a t e gor i e s ha ve onl y a 17 3 1% c ha nc e of pa s s i ng. T he S t a t e o f F l o r i da ha s not de f i ne d w ha t pe r c e nt a ge of s t ude nt s pr om ot e d t hr ough a g ood c a us e e xe m pt i on m us t pa s s t he F C A T R e a di ng i n t he f our t h gr a de i n or de r f o r t he e xe m pt i on t o be c ons i de r e d a va l i d r e a s on f or p r om ot i on. I f t he p ur pos e of t he pol i c y w e r e t o pr om o t e onl y t hos e s t ude nt s w i t h a r e a s ona bl e c ha nc e f or s uc c e s s pol i c y m a ke r s w oul d be w i s e t o r e e xa m i ne s t ude nt s w ho a r e qua l i f yi ng f o r pr o m ot i on t h r ough E xe m pt i ons 3 6. W ha t i s c ont r i but i ng t o t he i r hi gh r a t e s of a c a de m i c f a i l ur e ( i e s c or i ng L e ve l 1 on t he F C A T R e a di ng i n f our t h gr a de ) a nd w ha t c a n be done t o r e duc e t hos e r a t e s ? I f t he pur pos e l i e s i n s om e t hi ng ot he r t ha n a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt ( e g. s oc i a l o r e m ot i o na l he a l t h) f ur t he r r e s e a r c h i s ne e de d t o de t e r m i ne w he t he r t he s e out c om e s c a n be e m pi r i c a l l y s uppor t e d a nd i n t ur n w he t he r pr om ot i ng s t ude nt s t hr ough t he s e e xe m pt i ons c a n be c ons i de r e d a va l i d pr a c t i c e F ut ur e r e s e a r c h s houl d a l s o e xpa nd on t he f i ndi ngs pr e s e nt e d i n t hi s e xpl o r a t or y s t udy. M or e i nf o r m a t i on i s ne e de d r e ga r di ng t he s t ude nt ( e g de m ogr a phi c s f a m i l y s uppor t e t c ) or e c ol ogi c a l va r i a bl e s ( e g. t e a c he r va r i a bl e s s c hool va r i a bl e s i nt e r ve nt i ons e t c ) t ha t m a y ha ve c ont r i but e d t o t h e obs e r ve d va r i a bi l i t y i n out c om e s T he f i ndi ngs r e por t e d i n t h e p r e s e nt s t udy r a i s e i m por t a nt que s t i ons r e ga r di ng t he e f f e c t s of t r e a t m e nt i nt e gr i t y on out c om e s ( D o hi ghe r l e ve l s of t r e a t m e nt i nt e gr i t y dur i ng t he r e t e nt i on ye a r r e s ul t i n be t t e r a c a de m i c out c om e s ? ) t he us e o f c ut of f s c or e s i n de t e r m i ni ng s t ude nt pr og r e s s i on, a nd w hi c h s t ude n t s w i l l m os t be ne f i t f r om w hi c h t ype s

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63 of r e m e di a t i on e f f or t s ( W ha t i s t he t r e a t m e nt u t i l i t y of us i ng a c ut of f s c or e t o de t e r m i ne s t ude nt pr ogr e s s i on, a nd w ha t a r e t he m os t va l i d s e l e c t i on c r i t e r i a ? ) va r i a bi l i t y i n pe r f or m a nc e a c c o r di ng t o ge nde r r a c e / e t hni c i t y a nd S E S ( W ha t i nt e r ve nt i ons m a y be m or e be ne f i c i a l f or m a l e / A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n/ poor s t ude nt s ? ) a nd l ongi t ud i na l e f f e c t s o f t he r e t e nt i on ye a r ( D o t he a c a de m i c ga i ns de m ons t r a t e d by r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s c ont i nue t hr ough s ubs e que nt gr a de s ? I f s o, how do t hos e ga i ns c om pa r e w i t h t he a c hi e ve m e nt of pr om ot e d s t ude nt s ? ) A not he r i m por t a nt i s s ue be yond t he s c ope of t hi s s t udy i s t he s oc i a l a nd e m ot i ona l r a m i f i c a t i ons of be i ng r e t a i ne d R e s e a r c h ha s c ons i s t e nt l y r e por t e d t he ne ga t i ve s oc i a l a nd e m ot i ona l e f f e c t s of gr a de r e t e nt i on, s uc h a s p oor e r s c hool a t t e nda nc e s oc i a l a dj us t m e nt a nd m or e pr obl e m be ha vi or s ( H ol m e s 1989) a s w e l l a s pe e r di f f i c ul t i e s ( S he pa r d & S m i t h, 1990) G r a de r e t e nt i on ha s hi s t or i c a l l y be e n a s t i gm a t i z i ng e xpe r i e nc e f or m a ny s t ude nt s s uc h t ha t e ve n t he l a r ge num be r s s e e n i n t he S t a t e o f F l o r i da w oul d not ne c e s s a r i l y i m pr ove t he e m ot i ona l out c om e s o f be i ng os t r a c i z e d f r om one s pe e r g r oup. D e s pi t e t hi s how e ve r no s t udi e s ha ve e xa m i ne d t he s e c ons t r uc t s i n t he c o nt e xt of l a r ge s c a l e r e t e nt i on a s pa r t of a s t a t e w i de pupi l pr og r e s s i on pl a n. C onc l us i on R e c ogni t i on of t he i m por t a nc e of e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s ha s r e s ul t e d i n a na t i ona l e duc a t i ona l c l i m a t e t ha t e m pha s i z e s r e a di ng de ve l opm e nt i n s t ude nt s i n g r a de s K t hr o ugh 3. T he pol i c i e s i n F l or i da ha ve r e f l e c t e d t hi s c l i m a t e ; i t s pupi l p r ogr e s s i on pl a n i nc l ude s t he us e of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng a nd m a nda t or y r e t e nt i on f or t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s w ho do not di s pl a y a de qua t e pr ogr e s s t ow a r d t he a c qui s i t i on of r e a di ng s ki l l s I n a ddi t i on t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s w ho a r e r e t a i ne d i n F l o r i da a r e r e qu i r e d t hr ough l e gi s l a t i on a nd pol i c y t o

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64 r e c e i ve i nt e ns i ve a c a de m i c i nt e r ve nt i ons T he l i t e r a t ur e i s r e pl e t e w i t h s t udi e s i ndi c a t i ng t he pot e nt i a l l y ha r m f ul e f f e c t s of g r a de r e t e nt i on o n s t ude nt s f ut ur e a c a de m i c pr ogr e s s ; how e ve r pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h ha s not i nc l ude d a n e x a m i na t i on of t he e f f e c t s of r e m e di a t i on e f f or t s s uc h a s t hos e t ha t e xi s t i n F l or i da oc c ur r i ng dur i ng t he r e t e nt i on ye a r T he pr e s e nt s t udy f ound t ha t t he m a j o r i t y o f s t u de nt s w ho w e r e r e t a i ne d i n t hi r d gr a de w i t h i nt e ns i ve r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i ons w e nt on t o s c or e a t L e ve l s 2 or hi ghe r on t he F C A T R e a di ng t he f ol l ow i ng ye a r M os t s t ude nt s ( 69% a nd 59% r e s pe c t i ve l y) w ho f a i l e d t he F C A T R e a di ng but w e r e p r om ot e d t h r ough a goo d c a us e e xe m pt i on r e qui r i ng de m ons t r a t i on of p r of i c i e nc y w e r e s uc c e s s f ul i n t he f our t h gr a de ; how e ve r t hos e pr om ot e d t hr ough a good c a us e e xe m pt i ons not r e qui r i ng de m ons t r a t i on of p r of i c i e nc y s t r uggl e d i n t he f our t h gr a de de s pi t e r e m e di a l e f f o r t s ; m or e t h a n one ha l f f a i l e d t he 4 t h gr a de F C A T R e a di ng t he f ol l ow i ng ye a r T a ke n t o ge t he r t he s e r e s ul t s s ugge s t s uppor t f or r e t e nt i on pr a c t i c e s ; how e ve r t he c r os s s e c t i ona l de s i gn a nd l a c k of e xpe r i m e nt a l c ont r ol i n t hi s s t udy pr e c l ude s uc h c onc l us i ons I n a ddi t i on, s e ve r a l r i s k f a c t or s f o r non s uc c e s s t he ye a r a f t e r r e t e nt i on w e r e i de nt i f i e d, i nc l udi ng be i ng m a l e A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, a nd ha vi ng a l ow S E S F ut ur e e f f or t s s houl d f oc us on l e a r ni ng m o r e a bout t he s e popul a t i ons a s c ur r e nt i nt e r ve nt i ons a ppe a r t o be l e s s e f f e c t i ve w i t h t he s e s t ude nt s

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65 R e f e r e nc e s A l e xa nde r K L E nt w i s l e D R & D a ube r S L ( 1994) O n t he s uc c e s s of f ai l ur e : A r e as s e s s m e nt of t he e f f e c t s of r e t e nt i on i n t he pr i m ar y gr ade s N e w Y or k, N Y : C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s A r m i s t e a d, L K e m pt on, T L ync h, S & F or ha nd R ( 1992) E a r l y r e t e nt i on: A r e t he r e l ong t e r m be ne f i c i a l e f f e c t s ? P s y c hol ogy i n t he Sc hool s 29( 4) 342 347. B unt a i ne R L & C os t e nba de r V K ( 1997) T he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of a t r a ns i t i ona l pr e ki nde r ga r t e n pr og r a m o n l a t e r a c a de m i c a c hi e v e m e nt P s y c hol ogy i n t he Sc hool s 43, 41 50. D e nne ba um J M & K ul be r g, J M ( 1994) K i nd e r ga r t e n r e t e nt i on a nd t r a ns i t i on c l a s s r oom s : T he i r r e l a t i ons hi p t o a c hi e ve m e nt P s y c hol ogy i n t he S c hool s 31 5 12. F e r gus on, P J i m e r s on, S R & D a l t on M J ( 200 1) S or t i ng out s uc c e s s f ul f a i l ur e s : E xpl or a t or y a na l ys e s of f a c t or s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a c a de m i c a nd be ha vi or a l out c om e s P s y c hol ogy i n t he Sc hool s 38( 4 ) 327 3 41. F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on. ( 2002) S t ude nt P r ogr e s s i on. R e t r i e ve d M a y 3, 2005 f r om ht t p: / / w w w f i r n e du/ doe / c om m hom e / p r ogr e s s / pr oghom e ht m F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( 2002b) T e c hni c a l r e por t : F or ope r a t i ona l t e s t A dm i ni s t r a t i ons of t he 200 0 F l o r i da C om pr e he ns i v e A s s e s s m e nt T e s t R e t r i e ve d M a y 3, 2005 f r om ht t p: / / w w w f i r n. e du/ doe / s a s / f c a t / pdf / f c 00t e c h. pd f

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66 F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on. ( 2003a ) N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd: A de qua t e ye a r l y pr ogr e s s f a c t s he e t R e t r i e ve d M a y 3 2005 f r om ht t p: / / w w w f l doe or g / N C L B / F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on. ( 2003b) J us t R e a d, F l or i da : R e a di ng F i r s t R e t r i e ve d M a y 3, 2005 f r om ht t p: / / w w w j us t r e a df l or i da c om / r e a di ng_f i r s t a s p F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on. ( 2003c ) F C A T r e a di ng S S S T he F l or i da C om pr e he n s i v e A s s e s s m e nt T e s t R e t r i e ve d M a y 3, 2005 f r om ht t p: / / w w w f i r n. e du / doe / s a s / f c a t ht m F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on. ( 2003d) T hi r d g r a de r e a di ng 2003 pr o f i l e s R e t r i e ve d M a y 3, 2005 f r om ht t p: / / w w w f i r n. e d u / d oe / bi n00014/ pr ogr e s s / pr o f i l e ht m F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on. ( 2003e ) G ood C a us e E xe m pt i ons R e t r i e ve d M a y 3, 2005 f r om ht t p: / / w w w f i r n. e du/ doe / bi n00014/ pdf / y2004 17. pdf F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on. ( 2003f ) T hi r d G r a de P r ogr e s s i on R e qui r e m e nt s f o r s t ude nt s w ho w e r e r e t a i ne d. R e t r i e ve d M a y 3, 200 5 f r om ] ht t p: / / w w w f i r n. e du / doe / c om m hom e / pr og r e s s / pr oghom e ht m F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on. ( 2003g) P ubl i c S c hool S t ude nt P r ogr e s s i on. R e t r i e ve d M a y 9, 2005 f r om D P S _m e m o_03 024 a t t a c h2. pdf F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on. ( 2003 h) T e c hni c a l A s s i s t a nc e P a pe r R e l a t e d t o T h i r d G r a de S t ude nt P r ogr e s s i on. R e t r i e ve d M a y 9 2005 f r om ht t p: / / w w w f i r n. e du / doe / c om m hom e / pr og r e s s / pr oghom e ht m F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( 2005) R e a di ng a nd M a t he m a t i c s S c or e s G R A D E 3 S t a t e w i de C om pa r i s on f or 2001 t o 2005 R e t r i e ve d O c t obe r 2, 2005 f r om ht t p: / / f c a t f l doe o r g/

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67 G ot t f r e ds on, D C F i nk, C M & G r a ha m N ( 19 94) G r a de r e t e nt i on a nd pr obl e m be ha vi or A m e r i c an E duc at i onal R e s e ar c h J our nal 31( 4 ) 761 784 H ol m e s C T ( 1989) G r a de l e ve l r e t e nt i on e f f e c t s : A m e t a a na l ys i s of r e s e a r c h s t udi e s I n L A S he pa r d & M L S m i t h ( E ds ) F l unk i ng g r ade s : R e s e ar c h and pol i c i e s on r e t e n t i on ( pp. 16 33 ) L ondon: F a l m e r P r e s s J a c ks on, G B ( 1975) T he r e s e a r c h e vi de nc e on t h e e f f e c t s of g r a de r e t e nt i on R e v i e w of E duc at i onal R e s e ar c h 45, 613 635 J i m e r s on, S ( 1999) O n t he f a i l ur e o f f a i l u r e : E xa m i ni ng t he a s s oc i a t i on be t w e e n e a r l y gr a de r e t e nt i on a nd e duc a t i on a nd e m pl oym e nt out c om e s dur i ng l a t e a dol e s c e nc e J our nal of Sc hool P s y c hol ogy 37( 3) 243 272. J i m e r s on, S ( 2001) M e t a a na l ys i s of g r a de r e t e nt i on r e s e a r c h: I m pl i c a t i ons f or p r a c t i c e i n t he 21 s t c e nt ur y Sc hool P s y c hol ogy R e v i e w 30 ( 3) 420 437. J i m e r s on, S C a r l s on, E R ot e r t M E ge l a nd, B & S r ouf e A ( 1997 ) A pr os pe c t i ve l ongi t udi na l s t udy of t he c or r e l a t e s a nd c ons e que nc e s of e a r l y gr a de r e t e nt i on. J our nal of Sc hool P s y c hol ogy 35( 1) 3 25. J us t R e a d, F l or i da ( 2003) R e a d t o L e a r n: I nt e r v e nt i on R e t r i e ve d M a y 3 2005 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w r e a d t o l e a r n. o r g/ i nt e r ve nt i on. ht m l L or d, F M & N ovi c k M R ( 1968) St at i s t i c al t h e or i e s of m e nt al s c or e s R e a di ng, M A : A ddi s on W e s l e y. M a nt z i c opoul os P ( 1997 ) D o c e r t a i n gr oups of c hi l dr e n pr o f i t f r om e a r l y r e t e nt i on? A f ol l ow up s t udy o f ki nde r ga r t ne r s w i t h a t t e nt i on p r obl e m s P s y c hol ogy i n t he Sc hool s 34, 115 127.

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68 M a nt z i c opoul os P & M or r i s on, D ( 1992) K i nde r ga r t e n r e t e nt i on: A c a de m i c a nd be ha vi or a l out c om e s t hr ough t he e nd of s e c ond gr a de A m e r i c an E duc at i ona l R e s e ar c h J our nal 29, 182 198 M c C oy, A R & R e ynol ds A J ( 1999 ) G r a de r e t e nt i on a nd s c hool pe r f o r m a nc e : A n e xt e nde d i nve s t i ga t i on. J our nal of Sc ho ol P s y c hol ogy 37( 3 ) 273 298. M e i s e l s S J & L i a w F ( 1993) F a i l ur e i n gr a de : D o r e t a i ne d s t ude nt s c a t c h up? J our nal of E duc at i onal R e s e ar c h 87( 2) 69 77. N a t i ona l R e a di ng P a ne l ( 2000) T e a c hi ng c hi l d r e n t o r e a d: A n e vi de nc e ba s e d a s s e s s m e nt of t he s c i e nt i f i c r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e on r e a di ng a nd i t s i m pl i c a t i ons f or r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. R e t r i e ve d M a y 3, 2005 f r om ht t p: / / w w w ni c hd ni h. gov / publ i c a t i ons / nr p/ s m a l l b ook. ht m N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd. ( 2002) R e t r i e ve d M a y 3 2 005 f r om ht t p: / / w w w e d gov/ nc l b/ l a ndi ng j ht m l ? s r c = pb P a ga ni L T r e m bl a y, R V i t a r o, F B oul e r i c e B & M c D uf f P ( 2001 ) E f f e c t s of g r a de r e t e nt i on on a c a de m i c pe r f or m a nc e a nd be ha vi or a l de ve l opm e nt D e v e l opm e nt & P s y c hopat hol ogy 13( 2) 297 315. P e t e r s on, S E D e G r a c i e J S & A ya be C R ( 1 987) A l ongi t udi na l s t udy of t he e f f e c t s of r e t e nt i on / pr om ot i on on a c a de m i c a c hi e v e m e nt A m e r i c an E duc at i on al R e s e ar c h J our nal 27, 107 118 P he l ps L D ow de l l N R i z z o, F G E h r l i c h, P & W i l c z e ns ki F ( 1992) F i ve t o t e n ye a r s a f t e r pl a c e m e nt : T he l ong t e r m e f f i c a c y of r e t e nt i on a nd pr e g r a de t r a ns i t i on. J our nal of P s y c hoe duc at i onal A s s e s s m e nt 10 116 123

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69 R e ynol ds A J ( 1992) G r a de r e t e nt i on a nd s c hool a dj us t m e nt : A n e xpl a na t or y a na l ys i s E duc at i onal E v al uat i on & P ol i c y A nal y s i s 14 ( 2) 101 121. S i m m ons R G & B l yt h, D A ( 1987) M ov i ng i n t o adol e s c e nc e : T he i m pac t of pube r t al c hange and s c hool c ont e x t H a w t hor ne N Y : A l di ne de G r uyt e r T he F l or i da S e na t e ( 2003) T he 2003 F l or i da S t a t ut e s : T i t l e X L V I I I ; C ha pt e r 1008. R e t r i e ve d M a y 3, 2005 f r om ht t p: / / w w w f l s e na t e gov/ S t a t ut e s / i nde x. c f m ? A pp_ m ode = D i s pl a y_S t a t ut e & S e a r c h _S t r i ng= & U R L = C h1008/ S E C 25. H T M & T i t l e = U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( 2002) O v e r v i e w : W hy N C L B i s I m por t ant t o A m e r i c a. R e t r i e ve d M a y 3, 3005 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w e d gov/ nc l b/ ove r vi e w / i m por t a nc e / e dl i t e i nde x. ht m l U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( 2003a ) S t r onge r a c c ount a bi l i t y: A c c ount a bi l i t y f or s c hool s R e t r i e ve d M a y 3 2005 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w e d gov/ nc l b/ a c c ount a bi l i t y/ s c hool s / a c c ount a bi l i t y. ht m l U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( 2003b) I nt r oduc t i on: N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd R e t r i e ve d M a y 3, 2005 f r om ht t p: / / w w w e d. gov / nc l b/ ove r vi e w / i m por t a nc e / e dl i t e i nde x. ht m l U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( 2003c ) S t r onge r a c c ount a bi l i t y: T he f a c t s a bout m a ki ng ga i n s e a c h ye a r R e t r i e ve d M a y 3, 2 005 f r om ht t p: / / w w w e d gov/ nc l b/ a c c ount a bi l i t y/ a yp/ ye a r l y. ht m l U ni t e d S t a t e s D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( 2003d) P r ove n m e t hods : R e a di ng. R e t r i e ve d M a y 3, 2005 f r om ht t p: / / w w w e d. gov / nc l b/ m e t hod s / r e a di ng/ r e a di ng. ht m l

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70 V i t a r o, F D e s m a r a i s G e r va i s L T r e m bl a y, R E & G a gnon C ( 1992) S oc i a l a dj us t m e nt a t t he be gi nni ng of e l e m e nt a r y s c hool a nd pr e s c hool da y c a r e a r r a nge m e nt s R e v ue de s Sc i e nc e s de l E duc at i on 18, 1 15

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71 A ppe ndi x A P e r f or m a nc e of R e t a i ne d S t ude nt s on t he 3 r d g r a de F C A T R e a di ng i n 2004 by D i s t r i c t P e r f or m a nc e L e ve l L e ve l 1 L e ve l 2 L e ve l s 3 5 D i s t r i c t N n % n % n % A l a c hua 219 78 35. 6 55 25. 1 86 39. 2 B a ke r 41 11 26. 8 7 17. 1 23 56. 1 B a y 92 34 40. 0 16 17. 4 42 45. 7 B r a df or d 32 8 25. 0 6 18. 8 18 56. 3 B r e va r d 316 99 31. 3 68 21. 5 149 47. 2 B r ow a r d 1972 821 41. 6 435 22. 1 716 36. 3 C a l houn 10 2 20. 0 1 10. 0 7 70. 0 C ha r l ot t e 28 5 17. 9 3 10. 7 20 71. 4 C i t r us 54 17 31. 5 11 20. 4 26 48. 6 C l a y 110 29 26. 4 20 18. 2 61 55. 5 C ol l i e r 560 221 39. 5 116 20. 7 223 39. 8 C ol um bi a 82 21 25. 6 17 20. 7 44 53. 7 D a de 5377 2173 40. 4 1047 19. 5 2157 40. 1 D e S ot o 44 21 47. 7 12 27. 3 11 25. 0 D i xi e 29 14 48. 3 6 20. 7 9 31. 0 D uva l 763 206 27. 0 199 26. 1 358 46. 9 E s c a m bi a 393 136 34. 6 95 24. 2 162 41. 2 F l a gl e r 31 17 54. 8 6 19. 4 8 25. 8 F r a nkl i n 2 0 0. 0 2 100. 0 0 0. 0 G a ds de n 34 20 58. 8 6 17. 7 8 23. 5 G i l c hr i s t 16 6 37. 5 1 6. 3 9 56. 3 G l a de s 9 5 55. 6 2 22. 2 2 22. 2 G ul f 11 5 45. 5 3 27. 3 3 27. 3 H a m i l t on 34 18 52. 9 7 20. 6 9 26. 5 H a r de e 56 20 35. 7 12 21. 4 24 42. 9 H e ndr y 86 33 38. 4 20 23. 3 33 38. 4 H e r na ndo 101 34 33. 7 17 16. 8 50 49. 5 H i ghl a nds 84 36 42. 9 10 11. 9 38 45. 2 H i l l s bor ough 944 403 42. 7 217 23. 0 324 34. 3 H ol m e s 32 11 34. 4 6 18. 8 15 46. 9 I ndi a n R i ve r 127 46 36. 2 25 19. 7 56 44. 1 J a c ks on 7 4 57. 1 1 14. 3 2 28. 6 J e f f e r s on 11 6 54. 6 1 9. 1 4 36. 4 L a f a ye t t e 5 0 0. 0 1 20 0 4 80. 0 L a ke 171 67 39. 2 38 22. 2 66 38. 6 L e e 560 184 32. 9 104 18. 6 272 48. 6 L e on 139 39 28. 1 46 33. 1 54 38. 9 L e vy 22 9 40. 9 4 18. 2 9 40. 9

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72 A ppe ndi x A c ont i nue d P e r f or m a nc e L e ve l L e ve l 1 L e ve l 2 L e ve l s 3 5 D i s t r i c t N n % n % n % L i be r t y 6 2 33. 3 0 0. 0 4 66. 7 M a di s on 54 26 48. 2 12 22. 2 16 29. 6 M a na t e e 285 94 33. 0 56 19. 7 135 47. 4 M a r i on 407 132 32. 4 84 20. 6 191 46. 9 M a r t i n 55 19 34. 6 11 20. 0 25 45. 5 M onr oe 32 13 40. 6 7 21. 9 12 37. 5 N a s s a u 52 20 38. 5 6 11. 5 26 50. 0 O ka l oos a 131 45 34. 4 33 25. 2 53 40. 5 O ke e c hobe e 58 15 25. 9 12 20. 7 31 53. 5 O r a nge 1554 599 38. 6 338 21. 8 617 39. 7 O s c e ol a 334 115 34. 4 80 24. 0 139 41. 6 P a l m B e a c h 1238 517 41. 8 303 24. 5 418 33. 8 P a s c o 536 187 34. 9 104 19. 4 245 45. 7 P i ne l l a s 853 329 38. 6 203 23. 8 321 37. 6 P ol k 803 285 35. 5 166 20. 7 352 43. 8 P ut na m 104 36 34. 6 19 18. 3 49 47. 1 S t J ohns 81 20 24. 7 29 35. 8 32 39. 5 S t L uc i e 336 126 37. 5 78 23. 2 132 39. 3 S a nt a R os a 53 18 34. 0 12 22. 6 23 43. 4 S a r a s ot a 102 41 40. 2 16 15. 7 45 44 1 S e m i nol e 320 103 32. 2 81 25. 3 136 42. 5 S um t e r 85 31 36. 5 16 18. 8 38 44. 7 S uw a nne e 69 22 31. 9 14 20. 3 33 47. 8 T a yl or 28 8 28. 6 8 28. 6 12 42. 9 U ni on 6 3 50. 0 1 16. 7 2 33. 3 V ol us i a 379 138 36. 4 80 21. 1 161 42. 5 W a kul l a 2 0 0. 0 0 0. 0 2 100. 0 W a l t on 41 5 12. 2 11 26. 8 25 61. 0 W a s hi ngt on 10 4 40. 0 1 10. 0 5 50. 0

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73 A ppe ndi x B L e ve l 1 P r om ot e d S t ude nt s P e r f or m a nc e on t he 2 004 4 t h g r a de F C A T R e a di ng by G ood C a us e E xe m pt i on P e r f or m a nc e L e ve l L e ve l 1 L e ve l 2 L e ve l s 3 5 D i s t r i c t N n % n % n % A l a c hua 0 0 0. 0 0 0. 0 0 0. 0 B a ke r 24 9 37. 5 4 16. 7 11 45. 8 B a y 74 55 74. 3 13 17. 6 6 8. 1 B r a df or d 22 14 63. 6 6 27. 3 2 9. 1 B r e va r d 254 177 69. 7 40 15. 6 37 14. 6 B r ow a r d 777 419 53. 9 182 23. 4 176 22. 7 C a l houn 9 5 55. 6 1 11. 1 3 33. 3 C ha r l ot t e 6 4 66. 7 1 16. 7 1 16. 7 C i t r us 48 30 62. 5 9 18. 8 9 18. 8 C l a y 56 39 69. 6 11 19. 6 6 10. 7 C ol l i e r 130 74 56. 9 33 25. 4 23 17. 7 C ol um bi a 43 36 83. 7 6 14. 0 1 2. 3 D a de 1211 687 56. 7 255 21. 1 269 22. 2 D e S ot o 27 18 6 6. 7 7 25. 9 2 7. 4 D i xi e 4 3 75. 0 0 0. 0 1 25. 0 D uva l 9 5 55. 6 4 44. 4 0 0. 0 E s c a m bi a 114 89 78. 1 16 14. 0 9 7. 9 F l a gl e r 8 4 50. 0 1 12. 5 3 37. 5 F r a nkl i n 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 G a ds de n 14 5 35. 7 7 50. 0 2 14. 3 G i l c hr i s t 24 13 54. 2 3 12. 5 8 33. 3 G l a de s 3 2 66. 7 1 33. 3 0 0. 0 G ul f 7 5 71. 4 0 0. 0 2 28. 6 H a m i l t on 3 3 100. 0 0 0. 0 0 0. 0 H a r de e 38 28 73. 7 7 18. 4 3 7. 9 H e ndr y 34 26 76. 5 4 11. 8 4 11. 8 H e r na ndo 72 44 61. 1 11 15. 3 17 23. 6 H i ghl a nds 28 23 82. 1 5 17. 9 0 0. 0 H i l l s bo r ough 1465 821 56. 0 374 25. 5 270 18. 4 H ol m e s 9 6 66. 7 2 22. 2 1 11. 1 I ndi a n R i ve r 98 41 41. 8 27 27. 6 30 30. 6 J a c ks on 38 24 63. 2 7 18. 4 7 18. 4 J e f f e r s on 8 6 75. 0 2 25. 0 0 0 0 L a f a ye t t e 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 L a ke 65 50 76. 9 6 9 2 9 13. 9 L e e 168 93 55. 4 49 29. 2 26 15. 5 L e on 126 72 57. 1 34 27. 0 20 15. 9

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74 A ppe ndi x B c ont i nue d P e r f or m a nc e L e ve l L e ve l 1 L e ve l 2 L e ve l s 3 5 D i s t r i c t N n % n % n % L e vy 18 11 61. 1 4 22. 2 3 16. 7 L i be r t y 3 2 66. 7 1 33. 3 0 0. 0 M a di s on 2 2 100. 0 0 0. 0 0 0. 0 M a na t e e 174 112 64. 4 25 14. 4 37 21. 3 M a r i on 151 88 58. 3 33 21. 9 30 19. 9 M a r t i n 30 12 40. 0 12 40. 0 6 20. 0 M onr oe 39 19 48. 7 9 23. 1 11 28. 2 N a s s a u 33 21 63. 6 6 18. 2 6 18. 2 O ka l oos a 30 22 73. 3 3 10. 0 5 16. 7 O ke e c hobe e 58 35 60. 3 14 24. 1 9 15. 5 O r a nge 716 412 57. 5 161 22. 5 143 20. 0 O s c e ol a 195 131 67. 2 39 20. 0 25 12. 8 P a l m B e a c h 243 107 44. 0 76 31. 3 60 24. 7 P a s c o 208 128 61. 5 40 19. 2 40 19. 2 P i ne l l a s 429 301 70. 2 67 15. 6 61 14. 2 P o l k 442 357 80. 8 38 8. 6 47 10. 6 P ut na m 56 45 80. 3 4 7. 1 7 12. 5 S t J ohns 77 48 62. 3 12 15. 6 17 22. 1 S t L uc i e 93 57 61. 3 19 20. 4 17 18. 3 S a nt a R os a 23 17 73. 9 6 26. 1 0 0. 0 S a r a s ot a 79 49 62. 0 17 21. 5 13 16. 5 S e m i nol e 180 122 67. 8 28 15. 6 30 16. 7 S um t e r 36 16 44. 4 10 27. 8 10 27. 8 S uw a nne e 17 12 70. 6 0 0. 0 5 29. 4 T a yl or 5 5 100. 0 0 0. 0 0 0. 0 U ni on 14 10 71. 4 4 28. 6 0 0. 0 V ol us i a 289 192 66. 4 51 17. 7 46 15. 9 W a kul l a 17 14 82. 4 1 5. 9 2 11. 8 W a l t on 21 17 81. 0 1 4. 8 3 14. 3 W a s hi ngt on 5 4 80. 0 0 0. 0 1 20. 0


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Third grade retention and the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test
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b an exploratory study /
by Heather A. Powell.
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[Tampa, Fla.] :
University of South Florida,
2005.
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Thesis (Ed.S.)--University of South Florida, 2005.
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ABSTRACT: Literacy is a growing national concern, resulting in federal legislation (e.g., No Child Left Behind Act) instituting higher accountability for states and schools with regard to reading instruction and remediation. As a result, Floridas statewide measure of achievement, the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) is now tied to retention decisions in third grade as part of the new pupil progression plan in the state. In its first year of implementation (2003), 23% of third-grade students failed the FCAT and over 28,000 were retained. Research has consistently shown retention to be a negative experience for children; even when academic gains are made, within two to three years, their achievement is equal to or lower than that of both same-grade and same-age regularly promoted students. However, these findings cannot be generalized to the current student progression plan in Florida, which mandates specific remediation activities during the retention year.Therefore, holding negative beliefs about grade retention in Florida is premature as no research exists to date evaluating the outcomes of the plan. The present study examined the student progression plan in Florida at it relates to high-stakes testing and mandated third-grade retention. More specifically, this study examined the relationship between the effects of retention and various student demographic characteristics (e.g., gender, SES, race/ethnicity), as well as the future performance on the FCAT-Reading of low-performing students who were promoted through good cause exemptions. Descriptive analyses revealed that of 20,617 third-grade retainees, 38% again scored at Level 1 in 2004. In addition, future success of retainees was significantly associated with gender, race, and SES.With regard to students who were promoted due to a good cause exemption, findings indicated that a higher percentage of those who demonstrated reading proficiency through an alternative procedure (65%) achieved success in fourth grade compared to those who did not demonstrate proficiency (23%). This study contributes to the literature by examining the outcomes of grade retention within a context of high-stakes testing and mandated remediation activities. Implications for future research include controlling for the quality of interventions and identifying strategies that target specific populations of at-risk students.
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Adviser: Michael Curtis, Ph.D.
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Achievement.
Remediation.
Progression.
Policy.
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Dissertations, Academic
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