USF Libraries
USF Digital Collections

The effects of small-scale heterogeneities on aquifer storage recovery systems

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
The effects of small-scale heterogeneities on aquifer storage recovery systems
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Hutchings, William C
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Homogeneous
Heterogeneous
Variable-density
Equivalent freshwater heads
Asr cycles
Recovery efficiency
Dissertations, Academic -- Geology -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) is a recently developed (circa 1970) method (in the U.S.A.) to reduce groundwater-pumping stresses by injecting treated wastewater or surface water during periods of low demand into an aquifer followed by its recovery during periods of high demand. This method has been successfully implemented in numerous locations across the U.S.A. and worldwide, mainly due to the cost savings provided by the use of an unlimited reservoir (aquifer) in which to store water compared to the costs to construct surface impoundments and the inherent problems with storing such water for extended periods of time under evaporative atmospheric conditions."This study describes the use of a highly discretized, three-dimensional, variable-density, numerical model (SEAWAT 2000) that incorporates the vertical variation of hydraulic conductivities, measured foot by foot, from a continuous core collected from the upper Floridan aquifer in southwest Florida, to evaluate the effects of small-scale heterogeneities on a hypothetical ASR system well. In order to compare these effects to the more general case in which average hydraulic parameters are used to characterize flow zones, a model is constructed with average parameters taken from the heterogeneous case. This study attempts to determine whether aquifer heterogeneities influence the performance of ASR systems, compared to assumed homogeneous conditions, by quantifying differences in recovery efficiency, horizontal and vertical flow due to advection and dispersion, plume dimensions, and storage periods.The results of this study indicate that 1) the geometry of the injectate plume under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions differ significantly; 2) background formation total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations significantly control the quantity of potable water available for recovery; 3) dispersion exhibits a strong control on vertical mixing; 4) multiple injection cycles are required to generate a plume of potable water for long term storage; and 5) the percent recoveries under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions are generally similar only in low-salinity background concentrations, due to the absence of the effects of buoyancy. Although the percent recoveries of the systems modeled are similar, the success of an ASR well is strongly controlled by the existence of heterogeneities, which essentially determine the degree of horizontal and vertical mixing of the injectate with formation waters.Heterogeneities result in varying groundwater and mass transport paths during injection and recovery periods. Presumably these variations would need to be considered when evaluating potential variations in groundwater quality due to mixing between formation and injected water. Understanding potential variations in groundwater quality and treatment alternatives due to the presence of ASR-associated geochemical conditions, e.g., elevated arsenic concentrations, may also be improved with a detailed heterogeneous numerical model.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of South Florida, 2005.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by William C. Hutchings.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 217 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001709522
oclc - 68904074
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001353
usfldc handle - e14.1353
System ID:
SFS0025673:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

The Effects of Small-Scale Heterogeneities on Aquifer Storage Recovery Systems by William C. Hutchings A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science Department of Geology College of Arts & Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: H. Leonard Vacher, Ph.D. Mark T. Stewart, Ph.D. Christian D. Langevin, Ph.D. Date of Approval: September 23, 2005 Keywords: Homogeneous, heterogeneous, variable-den sity, equivalent freshwater heads, ASR cycles, recovery efficiency Copyright 2005, William Charles Hutchings

PAGE 2

Acknowledgements I would like to extend my sincerest appreciation to Dr. Vacher, Major Professor, for his persistence, creativity, and thoughtfulness in ensu ring that I completed this program, following an absence from the program due to person al reasons that appeared to have concluded this endeavor. In addition, collaboratio n with Dr. Vacher to research the subject matter of this thesis with both constant and variab le-density models provided a solid foundation from which to evaluate ASR systems. His relentless interest in the subject matter and attention to detail concerning the geolo gy, modeling, and interpretation of the results has led to an increased understanding of th e fundamentals of ASR systems. My gratitude is extended to Dr. Stewart, Supervisor y Committee Member, for his guidance and critical review of all aspects of this study th at significantly improved the quality of this thesis. His knowledge of groundwater and solute tr ansport modeling and its relevance to the evaluation of ASR systems improved the course a nd outcome of this study. I would like to extend my appreciation to Dr. Lange vin, Supervisory Committee Member, for his suggestions and recommendations on the impo rtant aspects of ASR systems that needed to be evaluated. Dr. Langevin, the author o f SEAWAT 2000, provided critical review of the study and modeling results significan tly improving the quality of the thesis. I am grateful to HSA Engineers and Scientists, espe cially Nicholas Albergo, CEO, for providing the computer and accessories required to efficiently run both the constant and variable-density models. I would also like to thank James Rumbaugh of Enviro nmental Simulations, Inc. and the technical staff of Waterloo Hydrogeologic, Inc. for their custom software.

PAGE 3

i Table of Contents List of Tables..................................... ................................................... .............................iii List of Figures.................................... ................................................... .............................iv Abstract........................................... ................................................... .................................x Introduction....................................... ................................................... ................................1 Geology and Hydrogeology of Model Setting.......... ................................................... ........3 Previous Work...................................... ................................................... ............................8 Methods............................................ ................................................... ...............................10 Description of ASR Technology...................... ................................................... ..10 Model Description.................................. ................................................... ...........11 General Model Construction......................... ................................................... .....14 Modeled Simulations................................ ................................................... .........24 Model Simulation Results........................... ................................................... ....................27 Homogeneous Simulation............................. ................................................... .....27 Heterogeneous Simulation........................... ................................................... ......32 Simulations with Varying Background TDS............ ............................................39 Extended Storage Simulation........................ ................................................... .....63 Simulation with Varying Dispersivities............. ................................................... 63 Simulation of Multiple Injection-Storage-Recovery C ycles.................................75 Discussion......................................... ................................................... ..............................86 Effects of Small-Scale Heterogeneities............. ................................................... 86 Analysis of Mass Balance........................... ................................................... .......90 Conclusions........................................ ................................................... ...........................105 List of References................................. ................................................... ........................108 Appendix A Model Output for Homogeneous Simulation s..........................................112 Appendix B Model Output for Heterogeneous Simulati ons..........................................122 Appendix C Model Output for Varying TDS Background Simulations........................135

PAGE 4

ii Appendix D Model Output for Extended Storage Simul ation.......................................164 Appendix E Model Output for Simulations with Varyi ng Dispersivities......................173 Appendix F Model Output for Simulation of Multiple Injection-Storage-Recovery Cycles........................ ................................................... ..............................195

PAGE 5

iii List of Tables Table 1 Summary of Model Parameters………………………… ………………..… 17 Table 2 Summary of Model Hydraulic Conductivi ties………………………………18 Table 3. Summary of Model Simulation Results…… ………………………………. 87 Table 4. Mass Balance Time-Flow Results………………… ………………………... 91

PAGE 6

iv List of Figures Figure 1. Site location map………………………………………………………… …....4 Figure 2. Lithologic cross-section and graphic il lustration of matrix permeability variations……………………………………………………………… ……….5 Figure 3. Typical ASR well zones…………………… ………………………………...11 Figure 4. Finite difference model grid and bounda ries…………………………………15 Figure 5. Distribution of hydraulic heads after 2 50 days of injection into homogeneous aquifer with backgrou nd concentration of 1,000 mg/l………..28 Figure 6. Distribution of hydraulic heads after 2 50 days of storage in homogeneous aquifer with backgrou nd concentration of 1,000 mg/l………..28 Figure 7. Distribution of hydraulic heads after 2 50 days of recovery in homogeneous Aquifer with Backgrou nd Concentration of 1,000 mg/l……...28 Figure 8. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of injection into homogeneous aquifer with backgrou nd concentration of 1,000 mg/l………..29 Figure 9. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of storage in homogeneous aquifer with backgrou nd concentration of 1,000 mg/l………..29 Figure 10. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of recovery in homogeneous aquifer with backgrou nd concentration of 1,000 mg/l………..29 Figure 11. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 100 days of recovery in homogeneous aquifer with backgrou nd concentration of 1,000 mg/l………..30 Figure 12. Distribution of hydraulic heads after 2 50 days of injection into heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 1,000 mg/l………33 Figure 13. Distribution of hydraulic heads after 2 50 days of storage in heterogeneous aquifer with backgr ound concentration of 1,000 mg/l……….33 Figure 14. Distribution of hydraulic heads after 2 50 days of recovery in heterogeneous aquifer with backgr ound concentration of 1,000 mg/l……….33

PAGE 7

v Figure 15. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of injection into heterogeneous aquifer with backgr ound concentration of 1,000 mg/l……….34 Figure 16. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of storage in heterogeneous aquifer with backgr ound concentration of 1,000 mg/l……. ...34 Figure 17. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of recovery in heterogeneous aquifer with backgr ound concentration of 1,000 mg/l……….34 Figure 18. Graph of TDS vs depth HC with backgroun d concentration of 1,000 mg/L after 250 days of recovery (average TDS = 701 mg/l)………………..36 Figure 19. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 100 days of recovery in heterogeneous aquifer with backgr ound concentration of 1,000 mg/l……….37 Figure 20. Graph of TDS vs depth HC with backgroun d concentration of 1,000 mg/L after 100 days of recovery (average TDS = 530 mg/l)………………..38 Figure 21. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of injection into heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 2,500 mg/l………40 Figure 22. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of storage in heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 2,500 mg/l… ……40 Figure 23. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of recovery in heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 2,500 mg/l………40 Figure 24. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of injection into heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 2,500 mg/l………41 Figure 25. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of storage in heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 2,500 mg/l………42 Figure 26. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 47 days of recovery in heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 2,500 mg/l………43 Figure 27. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of injection into heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 5,000 mg/l………45 Figure 28. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of storage in heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 5,000 mg/l………46 Figure 29. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of recovery in heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 5,000 mg/l………47

PAGE 8

vi Figure 30. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of injection into heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 10,000 mg/l……..48 Figure 31. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of storage in heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 10,000 mg/l……..48 Figure 32. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of recovery in heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 10,000 mg/l……..48 Figure 33. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of injection into heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 15,000 mg/l……..49 Figure 34. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of storage in heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 15,000 mg/l……..50 Figure 35. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of recovery in heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 15,000 mg/l……..51 Figure 36. Distribution of hydraulic heads after 2 50 days of injection into heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 15,000 mg/l……..52 Figure 37. Distribution of hydraulic heads after 2 50 days of storage in heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 15,000 mg/l……..53 Figure 38. Distribution of hydraulic heads after 2 50 days of recovery in heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 15,000 mg/l……..54 Figure 39. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of injection into heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 15,000 mg/l……..55 Figure 40. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of storage in heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 15,000 mg/l……..57 Figure 41. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 2nd injection period (246 days) in heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 15,000 mg/l……..58 Figure 42. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 2nd recovery period (15.9 days) in heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 15,000 mg/l……..59 Figure 43. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of injection in heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 35,000 mg/l……..60 Figure 44. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of storage in heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 35,000 mg/l……..61

PAGE 9

vii Figure 45. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of recovery in heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 35,000 mg/l……..62 Figure 46. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 1,175 days of storage in heterogeneous aquifer with backg round concentration of 1,000 mg/l………64 Figure 47. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 1,175 days of storage/100 days recovery in heterogeneous a quifer with background concentration of 1,000 mg/l…………… ……………………………………64 Figure 48. Graph of TDS vs depth HC with backgroun d concentration of 1,000 mg/l after 1175 days of storage100 days recovery (average TDS = 550 mg/l)……………………………………………………………………… …65 Figure 49. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 1,175 days of storage/78 days recovery in heterogeneous a quifer with background concentration of 1,000 mg/L…………… …………………………………...66 Figure 50. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of injection into heterogeneous aquifer ( a =0.0 m) with background concentration of 1,000 mg/l………………………………………………………… ………...68 Figure 51. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of storage in heterogeneous aquifer ( a l=0.0 m) with background concentration of 1,000 mg/l………………………………………………………… ………...68 Figure 52. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of recovery in heterogeneous aquifer ( a l=0.0 m) with background concentration of 1,000 mg/l………………………………………………………… ………...68 Figure 53. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of injection into heterogeneous aquifer ( a l=0.5 m) with background concentration of 1,000 mg/l………………………………………………………… … ……...69 Figure 54. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of storage in heterogeneous aquifer ( a l=0.5 m) with background concentration of 1,000 mg/l………………………………………………………… ………...70

PAGE 10

viii Figure 55. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 110.5 days of recovery in heterogeneous aquifer ( a l=0.5 m) with background concentration of 1,000 mg/l………………………………………………………… ………...71 Figure 56. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of injection into heterogeneous aquifer ( a l=5.25 m) with background concentration of 1,000 mg/l………………………………………………………… ………...72 Figure 57. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of storage in heterogeneous aquifer ( a l=5.25 m) with background concentration of 1,000 mg/l………………………………………………………… ………...73 Figure 58. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of recovery in heterogeneous aquifer ( a l=5.25 m) with background concentration of 1,000 mg/l………………………………………………………… ………...74 Figure 59. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of injection into heterogeneous aquifer ( a l=10.5 m) with background concentration of 1,000 mg/l………………………………………………………… ………...76 Figure 60. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of storage in heterogeneous aquifer ( a l=10.5 m) with background concentration of 1,000 mg/l………………………………………………………… ………...76 Figure 61. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of recovery in heterogeneous aquifer ( a l=10.5 m) with background concentration of 1,000 mg/l………………………… ………………………………………...76 Figure 62. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of injection into heterogeneous aquifer ( a l=21.0 m) with background concentration of 1,000 mg/l………………………………………………………… ………..77 Figure 63. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of storage in heterogeneous aquifer ( a l=21.0 m) with background concentration of 1,000 mg/l………………………………………………………… ………...78 Figure 64. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of recovery in heterogeneous aquifer ( a l=21.0 m) with background concentration of 1,000 mg/l………………………………………………………… ………..79

PAGE 11

ix Figure 65. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 150 days of recovery (1st cycle) in heterogeneous aquifer w ith background concentration 1,000 mg/l………………………………………………………………………… .80 Figure 66. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of injection (2nd cycle) in heterogeneous aquifer with background concentration 1,000 mg/l………………………………………………………………………… .82 Figure 67. Distribution of TDS concentrations Afte r 100 days of recovery (2nd cycle) in heterogeneous aquifer with background concentration 1,000 mg/l………………………………………………………………………… .83 Figure 68. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of injection (3rd cycle) in heterogeneous aquifer with background concentration 1,000 mg/l………………………………………………………………………… .84 Figure 69. Distribution of TDS concentrations afte r 250 days of recovery (3rd cycle) in heterogeneous aquifer with background concentration 1,000 mg/l………………………………………………………………………… .85 Figure 70. Flow mass balance (inflows) for cell co lumn 19, row 19, and layer 44……..96 Figure 71. Flow mass balance (outflows) ror cell c olumn 19, row 19, and layer 44……97 Figure 72. Flow mass balance (inflows) ror cell co lumn 19, row 19, and layer 91……..98 Figure 73. Flow mass balance (outflows) for cell c olumn 19, row 19, and layer 91……99 Figure 74. Mass balance analysis for cells at C18C20, R19, and layer 44……………100 Figure 75. Mass balance analysis for cells at C18C20, R19, and layer 43……………102 Figure 76. Mass balance analysis for cells at C18C20, R19, and layer 91……………103

PAGE 12

x The Effects of Small-Scale Heterogeneities on Aquifer Storage Recovery Systems William C. Hutchings ABSTRACT Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) is a recently develo ped (circa 1970) method (in the U.S.A.) to reduce groundwater-pumping stresses by i njecting treated wastewater or surface water during periods of low demand into an aquifer followed by its recovery during periods of high demand. This method has bee n successfully implemented in numerous locations across the U.S.A. and worldwide, mainly due to the cost savings provided by the use of an unlimited reservoir (aqui fer) in which to store water compared to the costs to construct surface impoundments and the inherent problems with storing such water for extended periods of time under evapo rative atmospheric conditions. This study describes the use of a highly discretize d, three-dimensional, variabledensity, numerical model (SEAWAT 2000) that incorpo rates the vertical variation of hydraulic conductivities, measured foot by foot, fr om a continuous core collected from the upper Floridan aquifer in southwest Florida, to evaluate the effects of small-scale heterogeneities on a hypothetical ASR system well. In order to compare these effects to the more general case in which average hydraulic pa rameters are used to characterize flow zones, a model is constructed with average par ameters taken from the heterogeneous case. This study attempts to determine whether aqu ifer heterogeneities influence the performance of ASR systems, compared to assumed hom ogeneous conditions, by quantifying differences in recovery efficiency, hor izontal and vertical flow due to advection and dispersion, plume dimensions, and sto rage periods. The results of this study indicate that 1) the geometry of the injectat e plume under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions differ significantly; 2) b ackground formation total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations significantly control t he quantity of potable water available

PAGE 13

xi for recovery; 3) dispersion exhibits a strong contr ol on vertical mixing; 4) multiple injection cycles are required to generate a plume o f potable water for long term storage; and 5) the percent recoveries under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions are generally similar only in low-salinity background c oncentrations, due to the absence of the effects of buoyancy. Although the percent reco veries of the systems modeled are similar, the success of an ASR well is strongly con trolled by the existence of heterogeneities, which essentially determine the de gree of horizontal and vertical mixing of the injectate with formation waters. Heterogeneities result in varying groundwater and m ass transport paths during injection and recovery periods. Presumably these v ariations would need to be considered when evaluating potential variations in groundwater quality due to mixing between formation and injected water. Understanding potent ial variations in groundwater quality and treatment alternatives due to the presence of A SR-associated geochemical conditions, e.g., elevated arsenic concentrations, may also be improved with a detailed heterogeneous numerical model.

PAGE 14

1 Introduction Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) is a recently develo ped method (circa 1970) to conserve groundwater by injecting treated wastewate r into an aquifer during periods of low demand, storing it there, and recovering it lat er during periods of high demand. This method has been successfully implemented in numerou s locations across the U.S.A. including Florida, Virginia, New Jersey, Texas, Col orado, California, and Oregon, and worldwide including Israel, England, the Netherland s, and Australia (Pyne 1995). The attraction of ASR is mainly due to cost savings pro vided by the use of an unlimited reservoir (aquifer) in which to store water compare d to the costs to construct surface impoundments and the inherent problems with storing such water for extended periods of time above ground (Pyne 1995). The success of this technology is due also to the rather common geologic and hydrogeologic conditions in whi ch this water-conserving technology can be implemented. ASR systems are generally represented with numerica l models that incorporate general primary heterogeneities such as permeable a nd impermeable units and secondary post-depositional solution features and fractures. Due to the difficulty in characterizing the hydraulic parameters associated with more compl ex environments, groundwater models constructed to simulate ASR systems generall y use average hydraulic parameters for permeable units (flow zones) and for low-permea bility confining units. Although these models have proved successful in interpreting the main features of ASR systems, such as groundwater composition during implementati on of the injection-storagerecovery cycles and determining the recovery effici ency of the system (Huntley and Bottcher, 1997; Missimer et al., 2002), the potenti al effects of small-scale heterogeneities are generally not evaluated. These features are ge nerally not able to be included in most regional groundwater flow and solute-transport mode ls due to the inherent difficulties and costs associated with obtaining such data.

PAGE 15

2 This thesis describes the use of a highly discretiz ed, three-dimensional, variabledensity, numerical model (SEAWAT and SEAWAT 2000) t hat incorporates vertical variation of hydraulic conductivities, measured foo t by foot, from a continuous core collected from the upper Floridan aquifer of a loca tion in southwest Florida (Budd, 2002; Budd and Vacher, 2004; Vacher et al., in press) to evaluate the effects of heterogeneities on a hypothetical ASR system. In order to compare these effects to the more general case in which average hydraulic parameters are used to c haracterize flow zones, a model is constructed with average parameters to approximate the heterogeneous case. This study will attempt to determine whether aquifer heterogen eities influence the performance of ASR systems by comparing the results of heterogeneo us and homogeneous cases in terms of quantified differences in recovery efficiency, h orizontal and vertical flow due to advection and dispersion, plume dimensions, and sto rage periods. The study will also attempt to determine whether the factors that deter mine the success of an ASR system including groundwater geochemistry (Price and Pichl er, in press), variations in hydraulic conductivity, variations in groundwater velocity, a nd mixing are affected by small-scale heterogeneities.

PAGE 16

3 Geology and Hydrogeology of Model Setting The Southwest Florida Water Management District (SW FWMD) Regional Observation Monitoring Program (ROMP) observation well (ROMP 20 ; DeWitt and Thompson, 1997) used for this study is located in Sarasota Co unty, Florida (Fig. 1). This observation well, installed in 1991, is used to provide general hydrologic data and to monitor saltwater intrusion. The well penetrates the upper part of the Suwannee Formation at the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer. The most suitab le zone for ASR in the confined Upper Floridan aquifer is typically at the top of the aqu ifer (Reese, 2002) which is represented by the Suwannee Formation in the general area of th is study. This part of the aquifer exhibits low TDS concentrations and has a competent confining unit, both of which promote the development of a freshwater storage zon e about an ASR well. The lithologic parameters used for this study were obtained from measurements and analysis of a core (W-17087 at the Florida Geol ogic Survey) that were part of a regional study (Budd, 2001; Budd and Vacher, 2004) that characterized depositional facies and matrix permeability of the Upper Florida n aquifer (Fig. 2). Grainstones and poorly washed grainstones dominate the Suwannee in ROMP 20. Measured matrix permeabilities of these facies rang e from 10-13.5 to 10-11.3 m2, with median values of 10-12.5 and 10-12.9 m2, respectively. The grainstones form relatively thick stratigraphic units that exhibit significant internal permeability variations. A dolostone with very low permeability (mostly <10-13.8 m2) occurs at the bottom of the formation. At the top is a number of well-cemented grainstones, pedogenetic limestones (i.e., paleosols), and matrix-supported paleokarst breccias that have similarly low permeabilities. Collectively, grainstones and poor ly washed grainstones, which compose 66% of the entire interval, contain 91% of the matr ix transmissivity (Budd and Vacher, 2004).

PAGE 17

4

PAGE 18

5

PAGE 19

6 SWFWMD conducted an aquifer pumping test (APT) of t he Suwannee in ROMP 20 in July, 1992. The tested zone was the 104-m (340-ft) interval from the top of the uppermost grainstone to the bottom of the lowermost grainstone. The results indicated a transmissivity of 1900 m2/day (20,500 ft2/day), for an average hydraulic conductivity of 18 m/day (60 ft/day) for the interval (DeWitt and T hompson, 1997). In contrast to the result of the APT, the cumulate d matrix permeabilities of the interval indicate a matrix transmissivity of 30 m2/day (419 ft2/day), for an average matrix hydraulic conductivity of the tested interval of 0. 37 m/day (1.2 ft/day). The disparity between the APT transmissivity and the matrix trans missivity suggests the presence of permeability due to secondary porosity (Vacher et a l., in press). The flow log (Dewitt and Thompson, 1997) clearly indicates enhanced flow in the upper part of the tested interval (spanned by the upper three grainstones). Although the curve of cumulated matrix permeability indicates that these upper Suwa nnee grainstones are more permeable than the grainstones lower in the formation (as ind icated by the slope of the line), it is likely that the suggested secondary porosity is in this upper interval (Vacher et al., in press). The occurrence of secondary porosity in the upper interval is indicated also by gaps in the core recovery of 17087. The core was described in 30-cm sections (footages). Out of the 340 such footages across th e tested interval, 23 of them had less than 90% recovery. Although these 23 footages had less than complete core recoveries, there were enough pieces in the gaps for Budd (2001 ) to describe facies and obtain matrix permeabilities (Budd 2001). The upper cluster (six footages at 10-14 m depth) is mudsupported breccia indicative of paleokarst. Ten of the others are tightly cemented grainstones with anomalously low (for grainstone) p ermeabilities of 10-14 to 10-13.5 m2, suggesting brittle layers (Vacher et al., in press) Seven of these footages occur successively in a 2-m interval right at the break i n slope of the flow log. All the other footages with missing core were isolated. Thus, ov erall, paleokarst and brittle, cemented grainstones (i.e., fracture zones) can be plausibly hypothesized as the reasons for the missing core intervals and, by implication, the cau se of the secondary porosity and enhanced flow (Vacher et al., in press).

PAGE 20

7 Assuming that all the disparity between the APT tr ansmissivity and the matrix transmissivity is due to secondary permeability and that the quantitative difference between the two can be attributed to the 23 footage s (7 m), then the hydraulic conductivity of the thin zones of secondary porosit y works out to be 290 m/day (960 ft/day) (Vacher et al., in press).

PAGE 21

8 Previous Work Fundamental work on ASR wells in Florida was conduc ted by R.D.G. Pyne and discussed in several publications (Pyne, 1995; Pyne et.al., 1996; Pyne, 2003). These publications discuss the development and practical applications of ASR wells in terms such as efficiency, water-quality problems, and wel l characteristics from several sites located in Florida and from various locations in Vi rginia, New Jersey, Texas, Colorado, Nevada, and California (Pyne, 1995). A detailed su mmary of the history and implementation of ASR systems in Southern Florida i s also provided in Inventory and Review of Aquifer Storage and Recovery in Southern Florida by Reese (2002). Modeling studies of ASR wells in the Floridan aquif er of Florida under variabledensity conditions have been conducted of ASR wells in order to gain an understanding of the various factors that affect the injection-st orage-recovery process and the water quality of the injected plume (Merritt, 1997; Missi mer et al., 2002). A detailed study of the effects of aquifer heterogeneity on ASR systems was previously conducted in the San Diego Formation that included flow-velocity measure ments and groundwater modeling with MODFLOW and MT3D (Huntley and Bottcher, 1997). Although the use of MODFLOW and MT3D to model the effects of groundwate r flow, mixing, and solute transport during injection, storage, and recovery h as been successfully conducted and described (Vacher et. al., in press) in aquifers of low total dissolved solids (TDS), evaluating most ASR wells that are open or screened in aquifers with background TDS concentrations between slightly brackish (Peace Riv er, Florida) and saline (Marathon Key, Florida), requires the use of a variable-densi ty groundwater flow and transport model. Examples of variable-density flow and transport mod els that have been used to evaluate ASR wells have included the U.S.G.S. model s SUTRA (Voss, 1986; 2003); HST3D (Kipp, 1987), SEAWAT (Guo et al., 1998; Lange vin and Guo, 1999), and SEAWAT 2000 (Langevin et al., 2003), among others. SUTRA was used to evaluate the

PAGE 22

9 potential for the implementation of ASR wells in th e partly-confined aquifer underlying a barrier island of Cape Hatteras as part of a study of to evaluate injection and storage of groundwater in the shallow surficial aquifer (Tarbo x and Hutchings, 2003). A model was constructed with HST3D (Yobbi, 1997) to evaluate th e effects of operational factors on the recovery efficiency of a well in Pinellas Count y, Florida. The studies described above by Missimer et. al. were conducted using SEAW AT. The hydraulic characteristics of the sediments used in this study were obtained from a previous study of the matrix permeability of the Floridan aquifer (Budd and Vacher, 2004) and from the results of hydraulic tes ting conducted by the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) (Dewitt and Thompson, 1997). Most recently, these data were used in a model that was used to evaluate the effects of heterogeneity on the geometry of the ASR “bubble” ( Vacher, et al., in press). The model used for the latter study was constructed with Visu al MODFLOW Version 3.0 by Waterloo Hydrogeologic, Inc. (WHI). This model was constructed with MODFLOW 2000 and also included 200 layers, which required a customized version of Visual MODFLOW 3.0 available through WHI; however, MODFLOW 2000 is a constantdensity model and the effects of buoyancy on the pl ume geometry could not be evaluated. In order to create the injectate plume, a tracer wi th a concentration of 1,000 mg/L was injected into an aquifer with a background concentr ation of 0.0 mg/L. The model results should closely resemble the simulation results usin g a variable-density model at low-TDS background concentrations and, therefore, the effec ts of heterogeneity and bubble or plume geometry were very well represented.

PAGE 23

10 Methods Description of ASR Technology ASR is defined as the storage of water in a suitabl e aquifer through a well during times when water is available, and recovery of the water from the same well during times when it is needed (Pyne 1995). The injection phase usually takes place during the part of the year when water supplies are high and a surplus exists. During the injection phase, the injectate invades the aquifer and displaces nat ive formation water. Due to advection and dispersion, mixing takes place during injection along the leading edge of the front forming the transition zone. The injected water th at occurs between the well and the transition zone is referred to as the flushed or st orage zone. Beyond the transition zone occurs native groundwater, otherwise known as the u ninvaded zone. These characteristic zones associated with an ASR well are shown on Figu re 3. The storage period, which can either be omitted or range from days to months, depends on the available water needs and aquifer ch aracteristics. In order for an ASR system to exhibit maximum recovery of injected wate r, repetitive cycles of injection, storage and recovery need to be implemented. With increasing injection and recovery cycles, the mixing of injected water with native gr oundwater is reduced and mixing of injected water occurs primarily within the existing transition zone. With each cycle, the volume of the storage zone increases, thereby gener ally increasing the volume of recoverable water. The entire volume of injected w ater is generally not recoverable after a single injection and it is only, after repetitive cycles, that the recovery of injected water may approach 100% (Pyne, 1995).

PAGE 24

11 Model Description The models used for this study are constructed with the three-dimensional, finitedifference, variable-density, numerical model SEAWA T 2000. SEAWAT (Guo and Bennet, 1998), the predecessor to SEAWAT 2000, is a code that coupled MODLFOW-88

PAGE 25

12 and MT3D96 (Zheng, 1996) that was subsequently revi sed to include MT3DMS (Zheng and Wang, 1998) and modifications to the flow equat ion and boundary fluxes (Langevin and Guo, 1999). SEAWAT 2000 specifically couples M ODFLOW 2000 (Harbaugh et al., 2000) and MT3DMS (Zheng and Wang, 1999). MODFLOW 2000 generates the velocity field based on the equivalent hydraulic head distribution, and MT3DMS is used to simulate s olute transport, which includes multiple species including sodium chloride as salin ity or TDS in addition to tracers, and contaminants. The velocity field is continuously u pdated as the concentration and density distributions change. The head output from SEAWAT is a set of equivalent freshwater heads, while the output from SEAWAT 2000 is a set of actual field heads. Although the actual field heads are the output for SEAWAT 2000, the velocity vectors and groundwater flow mass balance enable determinat ion of groundwater flow direction and flow through model cells. Most of the simulations used for this study are con ducted with SEAWAT 2000. Simulations with SEAWAT were also run in order to e valuate the distribution of equivalent hydraulic heads. The equivalent freshwater heads used in SEAWAT and SEAWAT 2000 represent the heads measured in the field under constant dens ity conditions. The actual field heads (h) and equivalent freshwater heads (hf) are calculated as follows: h = rf / r hf + r rf / r / Z and hf = r / rf h r rf / rf / Z where: r = density of formation water (ML-3); rf = density of freshwater (ML-3); and Z = elevation of measuring point (L) The governing equation, written in terms of equival ent freshwater heads, for variabledensity groundwater flow is: d/d a [r Kf a(dhf / d a + r – r f / r f dZ/d a ) ] + d/ b [r Kf b(dhf / d b + r – r f / r f dZ/d b ) ]

PAGE 26

13 + d/d g [r Kf g(dhf / d g + r – r f / r f dZ/d g ) ] = r Sf dhf / dt + q d r /dC dC/dt rsqs where: a b and g are orthogonal coordinate axes, aligned with the p rincipal directions of permeability; Kf = equivalent freshwater hydraulic conductivity (LT-1); Sf = is equivalent freshwater specific storage (L-1); t = time (T); q = effective porosity (dimensionless); C = solute concentration (ML-3); r s = fluid density source or sink water (ML-3); qs = volumetric flow rate of sources and sinks per un it volume of aquifer (T-1). In SEAWAT 2000, fluid density is a linear function of solute concentration and does not take into consideration the effects of tem perature and pressure. The relationship between solute concentration and density is: r = rf + d r /dC C The governing equation for coupled variable-density flow is solved using the following finite-difference approximation (Guo and Langevin, 2002). The following equation is written in terms of one-dimension or co lumns of a three-dimension model; however, similar equations would exist for the rows and layers: r i + , j, kCC (hfm, i+1, j, khfm, i, j, k) + r i – , j, kCC(hfm, i-1, j, k-hfm, i, j, k) + P i, j, k hfm, i, j, k r i, j, kSf, i, j, kV i, j, k hfm, i, j, k / tm – tm-1 = r i, j, kSf, i, j, kVi, j, k + -hfm, i, j, k / tm – tm-1 – Qi, j, k –Di, j, k + Vi, j, kR i, j, kq where: i, j, k = cell indices hfm = equivalent freshwater head at cell i, j, k at ti me step m (L); r = fluid density used to convert volumetric to mass flux (ML-3); CC = hydraulic conductivity in the co lumn (L2T-1);

PAGE 27

14 Pi, j, k = the sum of head coefficien ts from source and sink terms (ML-1T-1); Vi, j, k = cell volume (L3); Qi, j, k = sum of constants from sour ce and sink term (MT-1); Di, j, k = sum of relative density d ifference terms (MT-1); and Ri, j, k = change in fluid mass resu lting from concentration change (ML-3T-1) SEAWAT 2000 was run with the proprietar y [Environmental Simulations, Inc. (ESI)] graphical user interface (GUI) Groundwater V istas (GV) Version 4.0 (Rumbaugh, 2004). Construction of this model required that th e standard version of GV be revised to accommodate the 200-layer model design. The revisi on was performed by ESI. General Model Construction The model has dimensions of 7,638 by 7,638 m and th e cell grids used for the models are similar with 38 rows and 40 columns (Fig 4). The grid cell dimensions in the center of the model are 85 by 85 m and are kept con stant in the vicinity of the well to minimize numerical dispersion associated with the s olute-transport solution. These cells expand in both the X and Y directions. The row spa cing was expanded to 1045 m and the columns were expanded to 960 m. The first and last columns of the model were assigned a spacing of 85 m, to accommodate specifie d-head boundaries, as discussed in the following paragraph. The model was constructe d with 200 layers representing a total thickness of 61 m (200 ft). Each layer was assigne d a thickness of 0.305 meters. The injection-recovery well was assigned to a central c ell with dimensions of 85 by 85 m. The cell dimensions for the well were not further r educed in size, in order to minimize convergence problems that could result from the lar ge number of layers. Although the head in the well cannot be accurately simulated wit h these cell dimensions, the head distribution in the vicinity of the well should be accurate. The model is intended to simulate a confined aquife r, so the top and bottom of the model were assigned “no flow” boundaries. In order to simulate a flow system with a negligible gradient that would not influence the gr oundwater flow system, the west side

PAGE 28

15

PAGE 29

16 of the model was assigned a specified head of 202.1 m, and the east side was assigned a specified head of 202.2 m. These cells were assigned varying TDS concentration s from 1.0 kg/m3 to 35 kg/m3, in order to evaluate the effects of buoyancy crea ted by increases in background concentrations. These boundaries resulted in a hor izontal hydraulic gradient of 0.000013 and westward flow. The injection-recovery well was simulated as a fully-penetrating well. The model design parameters are provided in Table 1. The construction of this model is consistent with standard groundwater flow and solute-transport design as described by Anderson and Woessner (1991). The hydraulic conductivities used for the model rep resent measurements performed with a mini-permeameter. The measurement s were performed every foot over the 200-foot section modeled and only represent a p ortion of the measurements conducted for a previous study (Budd and Vacher, 20 04) to evaluate depositional and hydraulic characteristics of the upper Floridan aqu ifer. The distribution of hydraulic conductivity used for the models is provided in Tab le 2. For the heterogeneous cases, the hydraulic conductivities in the x, y, and z dir ections were constant (isotropic); however, for the homogeneous case the harmonic mean of the horizontal hydraulic conductivity was used for the vertical hydraulic co nductivity. The longitudinal ( aL), transverse ( aT), and vertical ( aV) dispersivities ranged from aL = 21 to 5.25 m, aT = 2.1 to 0.525 m, and aV = 0.21 m to 0.0525 m. The longitudinal dispersivi ty is at the upper end of representative field-scale values for limest one aquifers (Fetter, 1999). This value produces a Peclet number (Pe = dx/ aL) of 4.3 in the vicinity of the well, conforming broadly to the guidelines of Anderson and Woessner (1991) and Zheng and Bennett (2002). Diffusion was not simulated in these model s. The model was assigned a specific storage of 2.12e-7, a specific yield of 0.15, and an effective porosi ty of 20%.

PAGE 30

17Table 1. Summary of Model Parameters Parameters Models Homogeneous Heterogeneous Hydraulic Conductivities Kx = Ky = 31.111; Kz = 0.0 56 Kx = Ky = Kz = variable Specific Storage 2.12 e-7 per meter 2.12 e-7 per me ter Dispersivities al = 21; at = 2.1; and az =0.21 al = 21; at = 2.1; and az = 0.21 al = 10.5; at = 1.05; and az = 0.105 al = 5.25; at = 0.525; and a z= 0.0525 al = 0.0; at = 0.0; and az = 0.0 Background Concentrations 1,000 mg/L 1,000 mg/L 2,500 2,500 mg/L NS 5,000 mg/L NS 10,000 mg/L 15,000 15,000 mg/L 35,000 mg/L 35,000 mg/L Injectate concentration 0.0 mg/L 0.0 mg/L Regional Hydraulic Gradient 0.000013 0.000013 Porosity n = 0.3; ne = 0.2 n = 0.3; ne = 0.2 Density Concentration Slope 0.7143 0.7143 Minimum Fluid Density 1,000 Kg/cubic meter 1,000 Kg /cubic meter Maximum Fluid Density 1,025 kg/cubic meter 1,025 kg /cubic meter Note = see Table 2 Kx = horizontal hydrualic conductivity in m /day Ky = transverse hydraulic conductivity in m /day Kz = vertical hydraulic conductivity in m/d ay al = longitudinal dispersivity in meters at = transverse dispersivity in meters az = vertical dispersivity in meters n = total porosity ne = effective porosity mg/L = milligrams per Liter NS = Not Simulated

PAGE 31

18 Table 2. Summary of Model Hydraulic Conductivities Model Depth Actual Depth k K Facies Name (ft) (m) (ft bls) m2 ft/d m/day 1 0.305 481 1.3E-14 0.036 0.011 Pedogenetically Altered Limestone. 2 0.610 482 2.0E-14 0.057 0.017 Pedogenetically Altered Limestone. 3 0.914 483 1.8E-14 0.051 0.015 Pedogenetically Altered Limestone 4 1.219 484 6.1E-13 1.702 0.519 Silty Packstone 5 1.524 485 3.0E-13 0.832 0.254 Silty Packstone 6 1.829 486 3.4E-14 0.095 0.029 Silty Packstone 7 2.133 487 1.2E-13 0.343 0.104 Grainstone 8 2.438 488 1.3E-12 3.624 1.105 Grainstone 9 2.743 489 3.9E-13 1.081 0.330 Grainstone 10 3.048 490 2.0E-14 0.054 0.017 Silty Packstone 11 3.353 491 1.2E-14 0.034 0.010 Silty Packstone 12 3.657 492 5.5E-13 1.531 0.467 Grainstone 13 3.962 493 4.1E-13 1.152 0.351 Grainstone 14 4.267 494 7.4E-13 2.050 0.625 Grainstone 15 4.572 495 7.4E-13 2.059 0.628 Grainstone 16 4.877 496 1.1E-12 3.002 0.915 Grainstone 17 5.181 497 1.3E-12 3.691 1.125 Grainstone 18 5.486 498 1.4E-13 0.384 0.117 Grainstone 19 5.791 499 1.0E-12 2.858 0.871 Grainstone 20 6.096 500 1.4E-12 3.777 1.151 Grainstone 21 6.400 501 6.4E-13 1.766 0.538 Grainstone 22 6.705 502 5.0E-14 0.138 0.042 High-mud Packstone 23 7.010 503 5.4E-14 0.150 0.046 Cemented Grainstone 24 7.315 504 1.5E-12 4.106 1.251 Grainstone 25 7.620 505 1.9E-13 0.518 0.158 Grainstone 26 7.924 506 4.8E-12 13.219 4.029 Grainstone 27 8.229 507 1.7E-13 0.465 0.142 Very low mud packstone 28 8.534 508 1.7E-14 0.046 0.014 Pedogenetically Altered Limestone. 29 8.839 509 6.4E-15 0.018 0.005 Pedogenetically Altered Limestone. 30 9.144 510 6.5E-15 0.018 0.006 Pedogenetically Altered Limestone. 31 9.448 511 1.1E-14 0.030 0.009 Pedogenetically Altered Limestone. 32 9.753 512 1.1E-14 0.030 0.009 Pedogenetically Altered Limestone. 33 10.058 513 1.6E-14 0.044 0.013 Pedogenetically Altered Limestone. 34 10.363 514 9.8E-15 957.0 291.7 Fracture

PAGE 32

19Table 2. Continued Model Depth Actual Depth k K Facies Name (ft) (m) (ft bls) m2 ft/d m/day 35 10.667 515 1.2E-14 957.0 291.7 Fracture 36 10.972 516 5.2E-15 0.015 0.004 Mud-supported Breccia 37 11.277 517 1.7E-14 0.048 0.015 Mud-supported Breccia 38 11.582 518 1.2E-14 0.034 0.010 Mud-supported Breccia 39 11.887 519 9.0E-15 0.025 0.008 Cemented Packstone 40 12.191 520 3.5E-14 957.000 291.679 Fracture 41 12.496 521 8.7E-15 0.024 0.007 Mud-supported Breccia 42 12.801 522 1.4E-14 957.000 291.679 Fracture 43 13.106 523 1.9E-12 5.275 1.608 Very low mud packstone 44 13.411 524 2.4E-14 957.000 291.679 Fracture 45 13.715 525 2.3E-13 0.639 0.195 Grainstone 46 14.020 526 2.0E-14 957.000 291.679 Fracture 47 14.325 527 6.3E-15 0.017 0.005 Mud-supported Breccia 48 14.630 528 2.4E-14 0.067 0.020 Mud-supported Breccia 49 14.934 529 1.1E-13 0.312 0.095 Wackestone 50 15.239 530 1.4E-12 3.954 1.205 Grainstone 51 15.544 531 1.3E-14 0.036 0.011 Mud-supported Breccia 52 15.849 532 8.5E-14 0.237 0.072 Grainstone 53 16.154 533 9.9E-13 2.752 0.839 Grainstone 54 16.458 534 1.2E-12 957.000 291.679 Fracture 55 16.763 535 5.1E-12 14.295 4.357 Grainstone 56 17.068 536 3.2E-12 8.785 2.678 Mud-supported Breccia 57 17.373 537 1.5E-12 4.062 1.238 Grainstone 58 17.678 538 2.5E-12 6.823 2.079 Grainstone 59 17.982 539 4.9E-12 13.571 4.136 Grainstone 60 18.287 540 3.2E-12 957.000 291.679 Fracture 61 18.592 541 4.8E-12 13.274 4.046 Grainstone 62 18.897 542 1.0E-14 0.029 0.009 Cemented Grainstone 63 19.201 543 1.3E-14 0.035 0.011 Cemented Grainstone 64 19.506 544 6.5E-15 0.018 0.006 Cemented Grainstone 65 19.811 545 1.3E-14 957.000 291.679 Fracture 66 20.116 546 1.5E-14 957.000 291.679 Fracture 67 20.421 547 1.1E-14 0.030 0.009 Cemented Grainstone 68 20.725 548 2.7E-13 957.000 291.679 Fracture 69 21.030 549 8.6E-13 2.402 0.732 Grainstone 70 21.335 550 2.0E-12 5.459 1.664 Grainstone 71 21.640 551 3.2E-12 8.879 2.706 Grainstone 72 21.945 552 3.0E-12 8.396 2.559 Grainstone 73 22.249 553 7.8E-13 2.167 0.660 Grainstone 74 22.554 554 3.7E-13 1.040 0.317 Grainstone 75 22.859 555 5.7E-13 1.575 0.480 Grainstone 76 23.164 556 1.6E-12 4.425 1.349 Grainstone

PAGE 33

20Table 2. Continued Model Depth Actual Depth k K Facies Name (ft) (m) (ft bls) m2 ft/d m/day 77 23.468 557 1.1E-13 0.296 0.090 Grainstone 78 23.773 558 2.0E-13 0.555 0.169 Grainstone 79 24.078 559 3.2E-12 8.816 2.687 Grainstone 80 24.383 560 1.6E-12 4.525 1.379 Grainstone 81 24.688 561 6.4E-13 1.773 0.540 Grainstone 82 24.992 562 6.4E-13 1.766 0.538 Grainstone 83 25.297 563 4.9E-14 0.136 0.042 Cemented Grainstone 84 25.602 564 1.1E-12 3.050 0.930 Grainstone 85 25.907 565 1.6E-13 0.452 0.138 Grainstone 86 26.212 566 4.0E-12 11.023 3.360 Grainstone 87 26.516 567 9.7E-13 2.697 0.822 Grainstone 88 26.821 568 1.5E-12 4.301 1.311 Grainstone 89 27.126 569 1.1E-13 0.307 0.094 High-mud Packstone 90 27.431 570 3.1E-13 0.874 0.266 High-mud Packstone 91 27.735 571 2.4E-13 0.657 0.200 High-mud Packstone 92 28.040 572 5.1E-13 1.418 0.432 High-mud Packstone 93 28.345 573 9.4E-13 2.606 0.794 Silty Grainstone 94 28.650 574 2.0E-12 5.563 1.696 Silty Grainstone 95 28.955 575 1.9E-12 957.0 291.7 Fracture 96 29.259 576 5.4E-13 1.506 0.459 Very low mud packstone 97 29.564 577 7.1E-13 1.988 0.606 Very low mud packstone 98 29.869 578 1.2E-12 3.222 0.982 Very low mud packstone 99 30.174 579 8.9E-13 2.483 0.757 Very low mud packstone 100 30.479 580 6.0E-13 1.665 0.507 Very low mud packstone 101 30.783 581 4.5E-13 1.258 0.383 High-mud Packstone 102 31.088 582 9.2E-14 0.256 0.078 High-mud Packstone 103 31.393 583 1.1E-13 957.0 291.7 Fracture 104 31.698 584 1.5E-13 0.426 0.130 High-mud Packstone 105 32.002 585 5.7E-14 0.159 0.048 High-mud Packstone 106 32.307 586 2.1E-12 5.807 1.770 Grainstone 107 32.612 587 7.4E-13 2.060 0.628 Grainstone 108 32.917 588 8.4E-13 2.342 0.714 Grainstone 109 33.222 589 1.3E-12 3.669 1.118 Grainstone 110 33.526 590 4.2E-13 1.179 0.359 Grainstone 111 33.831 591 6.8E-13 1.879 0.573 Grainstone 112 34.136 592 6.0E-13 1.661 0.506 Grainstone 113 34.441 593 1.7E-12 4.827 1.471 Grainstone 114 34.746 594 1.2E-12 3.312 1.010 Grainstone 115 35.050 595 2.9E-13 0.813 0.248 Grainstone 116 35.355 596 2.2E-13 0.613 0.187 Grainstone 117 35.660 597 8.6E-14 0.240 0.073 Grainstone 118 35.965 598 3.7E-13 1.019 0.311 Grainstone

PAGE 34

21Table 2. Continued Model Depth Actual Depth k K Facies Name (ft) (m) (ft bls) m2 ft/d m/day 119 36.269 599 1.4E-13 0.396 0.121 Silty Grainstone 120 36.574 600 8.4E-14 0.235 0.072 Silty Grainstone 121 36.879 601 2.1E-13 0.571 0.174 Silty Grainstone 122 37.184 602 1.5E-13 957.0 291.7 Fracture 123 37.489 603 1.1E-13 957.0 291.7 Fracture 124 37.793 604 8.8E-14 957.0 291.7 Fracture 125 38.098 605 9.5E-14 957.0 291.7 Fracture 126 38.403 606 1.8E-13 957.0 291.7 Fracture 127 38.708 607 9.8E-14 957.0 291.7 Fracture 128 39.012 608 1.5E-13 957.0 291.7 Fracture 129 39.317 609 7.5E-13 2.078 0.633 Grainstone 130 39.622 610 3.6E-13 1.015 0.309 Grainstone 131 39.927 611 2.8E-13 0.780 0.238 Grainstone 132 40.232 612 4.3E-13 1.196 0.364 Grainstone 133 40.536 613 4.8E-13 1.324 0.403 Grainstone 134 40.841 614 5.5E-13 1.518 0.463 Grainstone 135 41.146 615 2.3E-13 0.653 0.199 Grainstone 136 41.451 616 3.0E-13 0.829 0.253 Grainstone 137 41.756 617 1.5E-13 0.428 0.131 Grainstone 138 42.060 618 3.6E-13 1.013 0.309 Grainstone 139 42.365 619 9.4E-14 0.260 0.079 Very low mud packstone 140 42.670 620 1.1E-13 957.0 291.7 Fracture 141 42.975 621 1.3E-13 0.357 0.109 Very low mud packstone 142 43.279 622 6.9E-14 0.191 0.058 Very low mud packstone 143 43.584 623 1.8E-13 0.503 0.153 Very low mud packstone 144 43.889 624 1.7E-13 0.485 0.148 Very low mud packstone 145 44.194 625 7.3E-14 0.202 0.062 Very low mud packstone 146 44.499 626 1.1E-13 0.307 0.094 Very low mud packstone 147 44.803 627 3.3E-13 0.913 0.278 Grainstone 148 45.108 628 1.6E-13 0.454 0.139 Low-mud Packstone 149 45.413 629 1.0E-13 0.285 0.087 Low-mud Packstone 150 45.718 630 9.4E-14 0.260 0.079 Low-mud Packstone 151 46.023 631 1.0E-13 0.288 0.088 Low-mud Packstone 152 46.327 632 7.0E-14 0.194 0.059 High-mud Packstone 153 46.632 633 7.5E-14 0.210 0.064 High-mud Packstone 154 46.937 634 8.6E-14 0.240 0.073 High-mud Packstone 155 47.242 635 1.2E-13 0.341 0.104 Very low mud packstone 156 47.546 636 1.1E-13 0.312 0.095 Very low mud packstone 157 47.851 637 1.3E-13 0.353 0.108 Very low mud packstone 158 48.156 638 5.1E-14 0.143 0.043 Silty Packstone 159 48.461 639 2.4E-14 0.066 0.020 Silty Packstone 160 48.766 640 6.6E-14 0.184 0.056 Silty Packstone

PAGE 35

22Table 2. Continued Model Depth Actual Depth k K Facies Name (ft) (m) (ft bls) m2 ft/d m/day 161 49.070 641 3.9E-14 0.108 0.033 Silty Packstone 162 49.375 642 1.1E-13 0.315 0.096 Low-mud Packstone 163 49.680 643 8.6E-14 0.238 0.073 Very low mud packstone 164 49.985 644 1.1E-13 0.301 0.092 Very low mud packstone 165 50.290 645 2.7E-13 0.743 0.227 Very low mud packstone 166 50.594 646 1.6E-13 0.450 0.137 Very low mud packstone 167 50.899 647 1.9E-13 0.535 0.163 Very low mud packstone 168 51.204 648 1.7E-13 0.469 0.143 Very low mud packstone 169 51.509 649 1.7E-13 0.473 0.144 Very low mud packstone 170 51.813 650 1.2E-13 0.320 0.098 Very low mud packstone 171 52.118 651 2.4E-13 0.664 0.203 Very low mud packstone 172 52.423 652 4.9E-13 1.374 0.419 Grainstone 173 52.728 653 5.5E-13 1.537 0.469 Grainstone 174 53.033 654 2.0E-12 5.601 1.707 Grainstone 175 53.337 655 3.2E-13 0.886 0.270 Grainstone 176 53.642 656 7.4E-13 2.051 0.625 Grainstone 177 53.947 657 7.0E-13 1.945 0.593 Grainstone 178 54.252 658 5.5E-13 1.517 0.462 Grainstone 179 54.557 659 6.9E-13 1.926 0.587 Grainstone 180 54.861 660 5.4E-13 1.491 0.454 Grainstone 181 55.166 661 5.1E-13 1.413 0.431 Grainstone 182 55.471 662 1.9E-13 0.527 0.161 Grainstone 183 55.776 663 2.3E-13 0.635 0.193 Grainstone 184 56.080 664 2.5E-13 0.701 0.214 Grainstone 185 56.385 665 2.1E-13 0.586 0.178 Grainstone 186 56.690 666 1.8E-13 0.495 0.151 Very low mud packstone 187 56.995 667 7.5E-14 0.208 0.063 Very low mud packstone 188 57.300 668 9.3E-13 2.576 0.785 Very low mud packstone 189 57.604 669 1.7E-13 0.476 0.145 Grainstone 190 57.909 670 4.6E-13 1.291 0.393 Grainstone 191 58.214 671 1.2E-13 0.324 0.099 Very low mud packstone 192 58.519 672 3.9E-14 0.107 0.033 Wackestone 193 58.824 673 2.2E-13 0.605 0.184 Grainstone 194 59.128 674 7.7E-13 2.150 0.655 Grainstone 195 59.433 675 5.3E-13 1.486 0.453 Grainstone 196 59.738 676 2.0E-13 0.555 0.169 Grainstone 197 60.043 677 3.1E-13 0.856 0.261 Grainstone 198 60.347 678 3.0E-13 0.821 0.250 Grainstone 199 60.652 679 2.6E-12 7.200 2.194 Grainstone 200 60.957 680 8.7E-13 2.419 0.737 Grainstone

PAGE 36

23 Table 2. Continued Note: ft = foot m = meter ft bls = feet below land surface m2 = meter squared k = permeability K = hydraulic conductivity ft/day = feet per day m/day = meter per day

PAGE 37

24 Modeled Simulations A variety of simulations were run to compare the in jection plume configurations or “bubbles” simulated in homogeneous and heterogen eous conditions. The plume configuration is described by the distribution of T DS concentrations. The simulations that were run to compare homogeneous and heterogene ous aquifer conditions included a background concentration of 1000 mg/L TDS and an in jectate concentration of 0.0 mg/L. Although in reality the injectate could typically h ave a greater TDS concentration, e.g., 200 mg/L, the injectate concentration used in these simulations should highlight the potential differences between the two hydrogeologic conditions. All simulations were run as transient simulations for 150 days to allow the hydraulic heads to achieve a steadystate condition. After steady-state initial condit ions (hydraulic heads) were achieved, the simulations included a 250-day injection period, a 250-day storage period, and a 250-day recovery period. The injection and extraction rate s were constant at 1514 m3/day. The Pre-Conditioned Gradient (PCG2) solver was used to solve the flow equation and the Implicite Finite Difference solver with ups tream weighting was used to solve the transport equation. An initial time step of 0.01 d ays was used for the simulations. The single ASR cycle simulations consisted of 18 stress periods, each of which consisted of 50 days. The extended storage and multiple cycle s imulations included additional stress periods; however, the duration of each stress perio d was held constant at 50 days. Due to the potential buoyancy of freshwater injecte d into a brackish aquifer, simulations were run to determine the TDS concentra tion at which buoyancy effects become apparent and tend to affect the plume distri bution and recovery efficiency. Simulations with background concentrations of 2,500 mg/L, 5,000 mg/L, 10,000 mg/L, 15,000 mg/L, and 35,000 mg/L were run for heterogen eous conditions. Although all of these simulations were run with injection and withd rawal rates of 1514 m3/day, additional simulations with background concentrations of 2,500 and 15,000 mg/L were run with injection and withdrawal rates of 9462.5 m3/day (2,500,000 gallons per day). The increased rates were used to ensure the development of storage zones with TDS concentrations less than 500 mg/L, which would enab le the comparison of recovery efficiencies.

PAGE 38

25 During the operation of an ASR system, groundwater can potentially be stored in the aquifer for extended periods of time, without u ndergoing significant mixing with brackish, background formation water. This is a ma jor advantage of the ASR technology that allows the aquifer to act as a natural reservo ir for long-term storage without affecting groundwater quality. In order to evaluate the pot ential for extended storage under heterogeneous conditions, a simulation was run that included a 250-day injection period (with a background concentration of 1,000 mg/L), a 1175-day storage period, and a 100day recovery period. Hydrodynamic dispersion, which consists of mechanic al dispersion and molecular diffusion, is a non-steady, irreversible process th at decreases the recovery of a tracer because the portion of the flow domain occupied by the tracer as a result of hydrodynamic dispersion and the flow field is alway s greater than that predicted by the flow field alone (Bear, 1988). Dispersion of injec ted water in a brackish aquifer is a significant factor that increases mixing and, there fore tends to decrease water quality of the plume and the percent recovery of the ASR syste m. In order to evaluate the effects of dispersion under heterogeneous conditions, simulati ons with L = 0.0 m, 0.5 m, 5.25 m, 10.5 m, and 21 m; T = 0.0 m, 0.05 m, 0.525, 1.05, and 2.1; and V = 0.0 m, 0.005 m, 0.0525 m, 0.105 m, and 0.21 m were run. These simu lations were run to evaluate the hysteresis exhibited between the TDS distribution f ollowing injection and the distribution following recovery, i.e., to determine if dispersio n is solely responsible for the inability of a pumping well to recover 100% of the injectate, following an equal period of injection. In addition, the percent recovery of injected water is an indication of the suitability of the aquifer conditions to the operat ion of an ASR system. The percent recovery tends to increase as the volume of injecte d water is increased. Typically, water is injected and recovered in cycles to improve the percent recovery. In order to determine the percent recovery associated with the operation of an ASR system under the heterogeneous conditions, a cycled simulation was r un to represent potential conditions under which an ASR system may be operated. A singl e cycle simulation consisted of a 250-day injection, 250-day storage, and 150-day rec overy. The following cycles omitted the storage periods and were represented by 250-day periods of injection followed by

PAGE 39

26 100-day periods of recovery. An additional recover y period of 250 days was included following the third cycle. This condition may be i mplemented in reality where the storage period is technically feasible to be short or omitted. Under optimum conditions, the plume typically does not undergo significant ch anges (unless the hydraulic gradient is large) during the storage period. This cycled simu lation was conducted to determine the potential changes that occur to plume dimensions an d groundwater quality through time, as a result of multiple injection, storage, and rec overy cycles under a minimal hydraulic gradient.

PAGE 40

27 Model Simulation Results Homogeneous Simulation The results of the simulation of the homogeneous ca se (Table 3) revealed a distribution of sub-vertical, parallel, contours of hydraulic head during the injection (Fig. 5), storage (Fig. 6), and recovery periods (Fig. 7) and vertical, parallel contours of TDS concentrations throughout the injection (Fig. 8), s torage (Fig. 9), and recovery periods (Fig. 10). The 500-mg/L TDS contour represents the extent of drinking water in the plume and the 900-mg/L contour represents the pract ical maximum extent of the plume, i.e., maximum value able to be contoured by the sof tware, at the end of the injection, storage, and recovery periods: approximately 78 m a nd 180 m; 78 m and 180 m; and 0 m and 161 m, respectively. The TDS distribution at t he end of the 250-day storage period exhibits a distribution generally similar to the di stribution at the end of the injection period. This minimal perturbation to the injectate plume is due to the minimal regional gradient imposed across the model domain. The TDS distribution following the recovery period exhibits an increase in TDS concentrations; however, TDS concentrations throughout the former plume area remain below backg round, even though the recovery period is similar to the injection period. This p henomenon indicates that the concentration distributions during injection and re covery exhibit hysteresis, i.e., although the injectate is introduced at the same rate at whi ch it is recovered, all of the injectate is not recovered. Since the horizontal hydraulic grad ient is minimal and does not induce migration during storage, the loss of injectate is generally attributed to dispersion (Bear, 1988). The concentration at the well is approximately 140 mg/L after 250 days of injection and 720 mg/L after 250 days of recovery. After 100 days of recovery (Fig. 11), the 900-mg/L contour occurs at 171 m and the concen tration at the well is 540 mg/L.

PAGE 41

28

PAGE 42

29

PAGE 43

30

PAGE 44

31 The recovery efficiency of an ASR well is defined a s “the volume of water recovered after attaining a designated concentration, which i n this case is the drinking water standard for chlorides of 250 mg/L that is approxim ately 500 mg/L TDS or salinity divided by the volume of water injected”(Pyne, 1995 ). Since 540 mg/L is practically similar to the drinking water standard for TDS, the percent recovery is calculated from the volume of water recovered (151,400 m3) divided by the injected volume (378,500 m3), which results in a percent efficiency of approxi mately 40%. This percent recovery is generally similar to the results obtained from simu lations performed in the study by Vacher et.al., (in press) using a constant density model. The model output for the homogeneous simulation is provided in Appendix A. In order to evaluate and compare the recovery effic iencies between the homogeneous and heterogeneous cases with higher bac kground concentrations, simulations were conducted with TDS concentrations of 2,500 and 15,000 mg/L with injection and recovery rates of 9462.5 m3/day. The simulation with a background TDS concentration of 2,500 mg/L exhibited the following distances of the 500-mg/L and 2,450-mg/L isochlors (respectively) from the ASR we ll: 168 m and 489 m, respectively, following 250 days of injection and storage; and 0. 0 m and 485 m, respectively following 47.8 days of recovery. The recovery efficiency cal culated for this scenario is 19.2%. The simulation with a background TDS concentration of 15,000 mg/L exhibited the following distances of the 500 and 14,500 mg/L isochlors (respectively) from the ASR well:44 m and 473 m, respectively, following th e initial 250 days of injection and storage; 0.0 m and 485 m, respectively following th e first recovery period of 4.4 days; and 118 m and 591 m, respectively, following the se cond (246-day) injection period. The second recovery period was terminated after 23 days after which the 14,500 mg/L isochlor was located at a distance of 590 m from th e well and the recovery efficiency calculated for this scenario is 9.3%.

PAGE 45

32 Heterogeneous Simulation The results of the simulation of the heterogeneous case revealed a distribution of hydraulic heads throughout the injection (Fig. 12) storage (Fig. 13), and recovery periods (Fig. 14) that varied with depth. In addition, TDS concentrations also varied with depth throughout the injection (Fig. 15), storage (Fig. 1 6), and recovery periods (Fig. 17). The distribution of TDS at the well after 250 days of r ecovery is presented in Fig. 18. Since hydraulic head depends on the density of the fluid, and TDS concentrations vary in the horizontal and vertical dimensions, the hydraulic h eads are consistent with variations in TDS concentrations. Inspection of the cross-sectio n of hydraulic heads indicates that the hydraulic gradients are greater in the intervals of lower hydraulic conductivity compared to those of the high-conductivity intervals. Simul ations conducted with the constantdensity model MODFLOW would exhibit vertical, paral lel contours throughout an ASR cycle. The cross sections of TDS concentrations reveal var iations in the horizontal extent of penetration of the injectate with depth. These horizontal variations are due predominantly to the heterogeneous distribution of hydraulic conductivities. The layers representing intervals of highest conductivities ex hibit the highest accumulations of the injectate and are associated with the greatest exte nts of penetration. In contrast, the layers of low hydraulic conductivity are not signif icantly penetrated by the injectate, therefore, concentrations in these areas near the w ell remain closer to the background concentration. Using the 500-mg/L contour, the max imum extent of penetration of potable groundwater after 250 days of injection occ urs at the approximate depths of 15 and 37 m where the approximate horizontal extents a re 122 m and 130 m, respectively. Using the 900-mg/L contour, the maximum horizontal extents of the plume at the depths of 15 and 37 m are approximately 253 and 289 m, res pectively. Near the base of the model, the horizontal extent of the 500-mg/L contou r occurs at approximately 25 m and the maximum extent occurs at 82 m.

PAGE 46

33

PAGE 47

34

PAGE 48

35 After 250 days of storage, the 500-mg/L contour at the approximate depths of 15 and 37 m occurs at the 113 m and 102 m, respectivel y. The maximum extent has decreased to approximately 251 and 282 m in these z ones of high hydraulic conductivity. The horizontal extent of the injectate near the bot tom of the model did not exhibit a significant decrease. The maximum extent of the pl ume after 250 days of storage appears to remain generally similar to the extent following injection. Using the 500-mg/L TDS contour to compare the plume dimensions after the i njection and storage periods, it is apparent that subtle horizontal and vertical variat ions in the plume occur due to mixing that results from migration induced by variations i n TDS and, consequently, density. Although the dynamic hydraulic gradient dissipated soon after the injection period, continued mixing appears to have occurred due to de nsity variations and dispersion.. After 250 days of recovery, the 900-mg/L contour, a t depths of 15 m and 37 m, occurs at approximately 216 m and 191 m, respective ly from the well and the average concentration at the well is approximately 701 mg/L (Fig. 18). The graph of TDS vs depth (Fig. 18) indicates that the highest concent rations are exhibited by the high conductivity intervals at depths of approximately 1 5 and 37 m. Due to the higher velocity associated with these intervals, the low-T DS water arrives sooner at the well and is consequently replaced with higher-TDS water soon er than in the low conductivity intervals. After 100 days of recovery, the 900-mg/L contour oc curs at approximately 250 m at the depths of 15 and 37 m (Fig. 19) and the conc entration distribution in the vicinity of the well ranges between 500 and 600 mg/L (Fig. 20). Because the model is heterogeneous, the concentration at the well was ca lculated by weighting the discharge from each layer to the well by its transmissivity. After 100 days of recovery, the concentration at the well under dynamic conditions is 550 mg/L, and the percent recovery is, therefore, approximately 40 %. Comparing the p lume dimensions, following injection and recovery, indicates that horizontal extent of t he plume has decreased to approximately 250 m, at the 15-m and 37-m depths, f rom 253 and 289 m. This minor difference indicates that the recovery of the injec ted water is less than 100% and that the injection and recovery periods exhibit hysteresis. The model output for the heterogeneous simulation is provided in Appendix B.

PAGE 49

36

PAGE 50

37

PAGE 51

38

PAGE 52

39 Simulations with Varying Background TDS The results of the simulations of the heterogeneous case with varying background TDS concentrations reveal distributions of TDS concentr ations that significantly vary following the injection and recovery periods. The simulation with a background concentration of 1,000 mg/L exhibits a plume whose 500-mg/L contour occurs at a maximum distance of approximately 125 m from the we ll following 250 days of injection (Fig. 15) and storage (Fig. 16). Following the 250 -day recovery period, the lowestconcentration contour in the vicinity of the well i s 700 mg/L and, with the exception of a small accumulation in the center of the model, the 700-mg/L contour is positioned near the top of the model (Fig. 17). In contrast, the simulation with a 2,500-mg/L-backg round concentration exhibited the 500-mg/L contour at a distance of approximately 31 m after 250 days of injection (Fig. 21) and storage (Fig. 22). Following the rec overy period, the TDS concentrations near the center of the top of the model are approxi mately 1,700 mg/L and increase toward the base of the model where the concentrations are approximately 2,000 mg/L (Fig. 23). The TDS distributions after 250 days of recovery in crease from the top to the bottom of the well, suggesting that significant density contr asts occur within the injectate plume. The density contrast is especially evident when the TDS distributions following the injection and storage periods are compared to the T DS distribution following recovery. The simulation with a background concentration of 2 ,500 mg/L and injection and recovery rates of 9462.5 m3/day exhibits TDS concentration distributions as fo llows. After 250 days of injection (Fig. 24), the 500-mg/L isochlor at depths of approximately 13.5 m and 37 m is located at 206 m and 197 m, resp ectively, from the ASR well; after 250 days of storage (Fig. 25), the isochlor occurs at 203 m and 162 m at depths of 13.5 and 37 m, respectively; and after 47 days of recove ry (Fig. 26), most of the groundwater with a TDS less than 500 mg/L occurs near the top o f the modeled section. The recovery efficiency for this scenario is 19%.

PAGE 53

40

PAGE 54

41

PAGE 55

42

PAGE 56

43

PAGE 57

44 The simulation with a background concentration of 5 ,000 mg/L exhibits concentrations, following injection (Fig. 27) and s torage (Fig. 28), in the vicinity of the well of 750 mg/L and 1,000 mg/L in the highly perme able layers that occur at a depth of approximately 13.5 m and 37.5 m, respectively. Aft er 250 days of recovery (Fig. 29), the lowest-concentration contour of 3250 mg/L is observ ed near the top of the model and concentrations increase to approximately 3,750 mg/L near the base of the model. The simulation with a background concentration of 1 0,000 mg/L exhibits concentrations, following injection (Fig. 30) and s torage (Fig. 31), in the vicinity of the well of 1,000 mg/L and 1,500 mg/L in the highly per meable layers that occur at a depth of approximately 13.5 m and 37.5 m, respectively. After 250 days of recovery (Fig. 32), the lowest concentration contour of 5,500 mg/L is o bserved near the top of the model, and the concentrations increase to approximately 7, 500 mg/L near the base of the model. The simulation with a background concentration of 1 5,000 mg/L exhibits concentrations, following injection (Fig. 33) and s torage (Fig. 34), in the vicinity of the well of 2,500 mg/L and 1,500 mg/L in the highly per meable layers that occur at a depth of approximately 13.5 m and 37.5 m, respectively. After 250 days of recovery (Fig. 35), the lowest-concentration contours of 3,500 and 7,50 0 mg/L, respectively, are observed near the top of the model and concentrations increa se to approximately 11,000 mg/L near the base of the model. Bouyancy stratification, wh ich results in fresher water overlying more saline waters, appears to be evident from thes e results. The head distributions from this simulation following 250 days of injection (Fi g. 36), storage (Fig. 37), and recovery (Fig. 38) were plotted in order to observe the pote ntial effects that velocity variations may have on solute transport. The geometries of th e head distributions are generally similar to the geometries of the TDS distributions. The significant variation of hydraulic head distributions among the injection, storage, an d recovery periods suggests that velocity variations exist that, in part may be due to density contrasts, which could account for the distribution of mass. The effects of buoya ncy are also clearly evident when comparing the injection-storage distributions to th e recovery distribution. The simulation with a background concentration of 1 5,000 mg/L and injection and recovery rates of 9462.5 m3/day exhibits TDS concentration distributions as fo llows. After 250 days of injection (Fig. 39), the 500-mg/L isochlor at depths of approximately

PAGE 58

45

PAGE 59

46

PAGE 60

47

PAGE 61

48

PAGE 62

49

PAGE 63

50

PAGE 64

51

PAGE 65

52

PAGE 66

53

PAGE 67

54

PAGE 68

55

PAGE 69

56 13.5 and 37 m is located at 86 and 45 m, respective ly, from the ASR well; after 250 days of storage (Fig. 40), the isochlor occurs at 52 m a nd 0.0 m (immediate vicinity of well) at depths of 13.5 m and 37 m, respectively, and after 4.4 days of recovery, most of the groundwater with a TDS concentration less than 500 mg/L occurs within 8 m of the top of the modeled section. After the second injectio n period of 246 days (Fig. 41), the 500mg/L isochlor at depths of 13.5 m and 37.5 m occurs at distances of 170 m and 103 m, respectively, from the well. After the second reco very period of 15.9 days (Fig. 42), the 500-mg/L isochlor at depths of 13.5 m and 37.5 m oc curs at distances of 99 m and 0.0 m, respectively, from the well. At the top of the mod eled section, the 500-mg/L storage zone extends to a distance of 101 m from the well. The recovery efficiency for this scenario is 6.5%. The simulation with a background concen tration of 35,000 mg/L exhibits concentrations, following injection (Fig. 43) and s torage (Fig. 44), in the vicinity of the well of approximately 5,000 mg/L in the highly perm eable layers that occur at a depth of approximately 13.5 m and 37.5 m, respectively, and approximately 30,000 mg/L near the base of the modeled section. Unlike the simulation s with lower background concentrations that tend to exhibit similar plume g eometries after the injection period, these results exhibit less penetration into the hig h conductivity interval at a depth of approximately 37 m. In addition, the lowest TDS wa ter (approximately 5,000 mg/L) occurs in the vicinity of the high-conductivity int erval at approximately 13.5 m, suggesting that buoyancy and upward flow of the inj ected water has occurred. After 250 days of storage (Fig. 45) and recovery, the lowestconcentration contours of 10,000 and 17,000 mg/L are observed near the top of the model and concentrations increase to greater than 30,000 mg/L near the base of the model These distributions also indicate the strong effects of buoyancy resulting in buoyanc y stratification. The model output for the varying TDS background simulations is provided in Appendix C.

PAGE 70

57

PAGE 71

58

PAGE 72

59

PAGE 73

60

PAGE 74

61

PAGE 75

62

PAGE 76

63 Extended Storage Simulation After 1175 days of storage (Fig. 46), the 900-mg/L contour at depths of 13.5 and 37 m is present at horizontal distances of 251 and 282 m, respectively, from the well. At the base of the model, the 900-mg/L contour is pres ent at a distance of 83 m from the well. The 500-mg/L contour, at a depth of 13.5 m, occurred at 117 m, and at a depth of 37 m, the 500-mg/L contour occurs at a distance of 102 m from the well. At the base of the model, the 500-mg/L contour occurs at 23 m. Following 100 days of recovery (Fig. 47), the hori zontal extent of the 900-mg/L contour at the approximate depths of 13.5 and 37 m are 232 and 220 m, respectively. Near the base of the model, the 900-mg/L contour is present at approximately 110 m from the center of the well. The TDS concentration s in the vicinity of the well range between 500 and 600 mg/L. The average concentratio n in the well (Fig. 48) exceeds the TDS MCL; therefore, the recovery period is reduced to 78 days after which concentrations in the well were approximately 500 m g/L. The horizontal extent of the TDS plume after 100 days of recovery is slightly re duced compared to the distribution after 78 days of recovery. The percent recovery af ter 100 days of recovery is approximately 40%. Following 78 days of recovery (Fig. 49), the horizo ntal extent of the 900-mg/L contour at the approximate depths of 13.5 and 37 m were 235 and 228 m, respectively. Near the base of the model, the 900-mg/L contour is present at approximately 105 m from the center of the well. The TDS concentration in the vicinity of the well is also approximately 500 mg/L. The model output for the e xtended storage simulation is provided in Appendix D. Simulation with Varying Dispersivities The simulation results using L, T, and V = 0.0 m (Fig. 50) indicates that after 250 days of injection, the maximum horizontal exten ts of the 500-mg/L and 900-mg/L contours at depths of 13.5 m and 37.5 m, are approx imately 231 m and 381 m, and 316 m and 461 m, respectively from the well. At the base of the model, the 900-mg/L contour

PAGE 77

64 0

PAGE 78

65

PAGE 79

66

PAGE 80

67 occurs at a distance of 78 m. After 250 days of s torage (Fig. 51), the horizontal extents of the 500 and 900 mg/L contours at the above depth s are 203 m and 368 m, and 266 m and 441 m, respectively. At the base of the model, the 900-mg/L contour occurs at a distance of approximately 75 m. After 250 days of recovery (Fig. 52), the maximum extent of the 900 mg/L contour at depths of 13.5 m and 37.5 m occurs at approximately 350 m and 400 m, respectively, from the well and gr oundwater with TDS less than or equal to 500 mg/L is not present, due to excessive pumping. The simulation results using L, T, and V = 0.5 m (Fig. 53) indicate that after 250 days of injection, the maximum horizontal exten ts of the 500-mg/L contour at depths of 13.5 m and 37.5 m, are approximately 214 m and 2 90 m, respectively, from the well. After 250 days of storage (Fig. 54), the horizontal extents of the 500-mg/L contour at the above depths are 217 m and 290 m, respectively. Af ter 110.5 days of recovery (Fig 55), the 500-mg/L contour occurs at approximately 175 m from the well at a depth of 13.5 m and approximately 195 m from the well at the depth of 37.5 m. Using a logarithmic regression equation between the average TDS concent rations in the well after 100 and 110.5 days of recovery, it is calculated that the c oncentration in the well would be 500 mg/L after 160 days of recovery; therefore, the rec overy efficiency is estimated at 64%. The simulation results using L = 5.25 m, T = 0.525, and V = 0.0525 m indicates that after 250 days of injection (Fig. 56), the max imum horizontal extents of the 500mg/L and 900-mg/L contours at depths of 13.5 m and 37 m, are approximately 163 m and 207 m, and 296 m and 368 m, respectively. After 25 0 days of storage (Fig. 57), the horizontal extents of the 500-mg/L and 900-mg/L con tours at the same depths are 162 m and 197 m, and 298 m and 360 m, respectively. At t he base of the model, the 900-mg/L contour occurs at a distance of 68 m. After 250 da ys of recovery (Fig. 58), the maximum extent of the 900-mg/L contour occurs at approximat ely 298 m from the well and groundwater with TDS less than or equal to 500 mg/L is not present, due to excessive pumping. The simulation results using L = 10.5 m, T = 1.05, and V = 0.105 m indicates that after 250 days of injection (Fig. 59), the max imum horizontal extent of the 500-mg/L and 900-mg/L contours at depths of 13.5 m and 37 m, are approximately 141 m and 168 m, and 275 m and 321 m, respectively. The 900-mg/ L contour at the base of the model

PAGE 81

68

PAGE 82

69

PAGE 83

70

PAGE 84

71

PAGE 85

72

PAGE 86

73

PAGE 87

74

PAGE 88

75 occurs at 74 m from the well. After 250 days of st orage (Fig. 60), the horizontal extents of the 500-mg/L and 900 mg/L contours at the same d epths were 139 m and 152 m, and 277 m and 320 m, respectively. At the base of the model, the 900-mg/L contour occurs at a distance of 75 m. After 250 days of recovery (Fi g. 61), the maximum extent of the 900mg/L contour occurs at approximately 277 m from the well at both the 13.5 and 37 m depths and groundwater with TDS less than 500 mg/L is not present, due to excessive pumping. The simulation using L = 21 m, T = 2.1, and V = 0.21 m indicates that after 250 days of injection (Fig. 62), the maximum horizontal extents of the 500-mg/L and 900mg/L contours at depths of 13.5 m and 37 m, are app roximately 122 m and 130 m, and 253 m and 289 m, respectively. The 500-mg/L and 90 0 mg/L contours at the base of the model occur at 25 m and 82 m from the well. At the top of the model, the 500-mg/L and 900-mg/L contours occur at 47 m and 139 m, respecti vely from the well. After 250 days of storage (Fig. 63), the horizontal extents of the 500-mg/L and 900 mg/L contours at 13.5 m and 37 m were 119 m and 113 m, and 251 m and 283 m, respectively. At the base of the model, the 900-mg/L contour occurs at a dist ance of 82 m. After 250 days of recovery (Fig. 64), the maximum extent of the 900-m g/L contour occurs at approximately 250 m from the well at both the 13.5-m and 37-m dep ths and groundwater with TDS less than 500 mg/L is not present, due to excessive pump ing. In the immediate vicinity of the well, the concentrations are approximately 700 mg/L The model output for the simulations with varying dispersivities is provided in Appendix E. The recovery efficiencies for the simulations with longitudinal dispersivities of 0.5 m and 21 m are 64% and 40%, respectively. The recovery efficiencies for the simulations with longitudinal dispersivities of 5.2 5 (56%) and 10.5 m (52%) are interpolated between the recovery efficiencies calc ulated for simulations with dispersivities of 0.5 and 21 m. Simulation of Multiple Injection-Storage-Recovery C ycles The multiple injection-storage-recovery simulation using the heterogeneous case revealed that after the first recovery period consi sting of 150 days (Fig. 65), the plume

PAGE 89

76

PAGE 90

77

PAGE 91

78

PAGE 92

79

PAGE 93

80

PAGE 94

81 consisted of a TDS distribution generally exceeding 600 mg/L. From inspection of the results, the recovery period should have terminated at approximately 100 days. After the second injection period (Fig. 66), the horizontal e xtent of the 500-mg/Lcontour at a depth of 13.5 m is 154 m and at 37 m the extent is approx imately 159 m. Near the base of the model, the horizontal extent occurs at approximatel y 42 m. The second recovery period (Fig. 67) indicates that the horizontal extent of t he 500-mg/L contour, at the depth of 13.5 m, occurs at 95 m and near the base of the model th e contour occurs at a horizontal distance of approximately 25 m from the well. Following the third injection period (Fig. 68), the 500-mg/L and 900-mg/L contours at depths of 13.5 m and 37.5 m occur at di stances of 196 m and 193 m, and 381 m and 398 m, respectively. At the base of the mode l these contours occur at distances of 70 m and 166 m, respectively. The results followin g the third recovery period are presented in Figure 69. The third recovery period was terminated at 250 days, at which the concentration in the well was approximately 500 mg/L. The model output for the multiple injection-storage-recovery cycles is provi ded in Appendix F.

PAGE 95

82

PAGE 96

83

PAGE 97

84

PAGE 98

85

PAGE 99

86 Discussion Effects of Small-Scale Heterogeneities Comparing the geometry and dimensions of the plume for the homogeneous and heterogeneous simulations after 250 days of injecti on provides an indication of the variations in TDS concentrations that result from h eterogeneity. The 500-mg/L and 900mg/L contours occur at 78 and 180 m, respectively, in the homogeneous case. In the homogeneous case with low background concentrations the injected water generally migrates horizontally by advection with horizontal and vertical components due to dispersion. Inspection of the results of simulatio ns with SEAWAT and SEAWAT 2000 indicates that minimal vertical flow is present wit h a background concentration of 1,000 mg/L. With increasing background concentrations (to 35,000 mg/L) in the homogeneous models, horizontal flow remains predominant, vertic al flow remains minimal, and variations in the horizontal travel paths do not de velop because vertical density contrasts that result in buoyancy effects do not develop. Th e concentration contours for simulations with background TDS concentrations of 1 ,000 mg/L and 35,000 mg/L generally remain vertical throughout the injection, storage, and recovery periods. Following recovery, all of the injectate is not rec overed and is because of mixing in the transition zone, especially near the outer edge of the plume where dispersion increases the distribution of solute. The recovery efficiencies for the homogeneous simul ations (see Table 3) with background concentrations and injection/recovery ra tes of 1,000 mg/L and 1,514 m3/day; 2,500 mg/L and 9,462.5 m3/day; and 15,000 mg/L and 9,462.5 m3/day after 250 days of injection and storage were 40% (100-day recovery), 19% (48-day recovery), and 2% (4day recovery), respectively. The recovery efficien cy for the model with the background TDS concentration of 15,000 mg/L and injection rate of 9,462.5 m3/day increased to 9.3% when a second injection period of 250 days was included in the simulation.

PAGE 100

87

PAGE 101

88 In the heterogeneous case, the plume exhibits varia tions in the horizontal extent depending on the hydraulic conductivity. At the ap proximate depths of 15 and 37 m, which represent intervals of high conductivity asso ciated with fractures, the 500-mg/l and 900-mg/L contours occur at 122 m and 130 m, and 253 m and 289 m, respectively. The increased horizontal extents of the plume in the he terogeneous case following the injection period and the minor decrease in the maxi mum plume dimensions following recovery indicate that the high-hydraulic conductiv ity layers associated with fractures may result in a greater loss of injectate compared to the homogeneous case. The concentrations in the well for the homogeneous and heterogeneous cases after 250 and 100 days are generally similar, and so it appears t hat the percent recoveries are also similar, at approximately 40%. The recovery effici encies for the heterogeneous simulations with background concentrations and inje ction/recovery rates of 1,000 mg/L and 1,514 m3/day; 2,500 mg/L and 9,462.5 m3/day; and 15,000 mg/L and 9,462.5 m3/day after 250 days of injection and storage were 40%, 1 9%, and <2%, respectively. The recovery efficiency for the simulation with a backg round concentration of 15,000 mg/L is considered to be significantly less than 2% because the average TDS concentration of the groundwater after 4.4 days was 980 mg/L. In contra st, the average TDS concentration of groundwater from the homogeneous simulation followi ng 4.4 days of recovery is 470 mg/L. The recovery efficiency for the heterogeneou s model with the background TDS concentration of 15,000 mg/L and injection rate of 9,462.5 m3/day increases to 6.5% when a second injection period of 246 days is inclu ded in the simulation. A rapid decrease in the quality of the injected sou rce water and volume of the storage zone with increasing background concentrati ons is exhibited by these simulations and is likely due to rapid mixing with high-TDS bra ckish water. With increasing background concentrations the accumulation of lower -TDS water in the storage zone becomes restricted to the high-conductivity interva ls. The plumes for all simulations exhibit lowest concentrations in the layers of high est hydraulic conductivity suggesting that increased volumes of injectate are able to pen etrate deeper into the aquifer (during the injection period), thereby decreasing mixing wi th the background formation water as additional water is injected. An accumulation of p otable water represented by a maximum TDS concentration of 500 mg/L develops over one cycle when the background

PAGE 102

89 concentration does not exceed 2,500 mg/L. The accu mulation of the lowest TDS concentrations in the top of the model is a result of the combined effect of the highconductivity layers there and buoyancy. The relati vely low TDS water that is distributed in the layers of high hydraulic conductivity follow ing the injection period is recovered before water in less-conductive layers; however, th e TDS of the groundwater in these high-conductivity layers still remains lower than t hat in the lower part of the ASR interval, resulting in strong density contrasts and buoyancy stratification. As a result, the lower-TDS and lower-density water in the vicinity o f the high-conductivity intervals near the well migrates vertically upwards in response to the large density contrast that it experiences compared to the higher TDS water in the low conductive layers in the lower part of the modeled section. These relationships indicate that, over one cycle, a storage zone can be developed in an aquifer with a background TDS concentration a s high as approximately 2,500 mg/L. With increasing background concentrations, the perc ent recovery can be expected to decrease rapidly over one cycle. However, a signif icant storage zone in higher TDS backgrounds can be expected to develop after multip le cycles of injection, storage, and recovery. These simulations indicate that, in general, the ho rizontal extent of penetration and the storage zone decrease with increasing dispe rsivities; however, with increasing dispersivities vertical mixing is increased. It sh ould be noted that although simulation of the effects of advection with the use of a numerica l solute transport model can be estimated by setting dispersivities to very small v alues (Zheng and Bennett, 2002), the simulation in this study that included dispersiviti es set to 0.0 meters likely exhibits the effects of numerical dispersion associated with the solution of the solute-transport equation by the implicit finitedifference method with upstream weighting (Zheng and Bennett, 2002) Nonetheless, the relationship exhibited by this simulation is similar to those that included larger dispersivities. The res ults also indicate that with minimal dispersion, significant mixing between formation an d injected water occurs in response to advection. During an ASR cycle, advective solute transport (i.e. with minimal dispersion) will also result in a loss of solute, i .e., less than 100 % recovery, suggesting that velocity variations between the injection and recovery periods may account, in part,

PAGE 103

90 for this loss. Typically, dispersion has been dete rmined to be responsible for the inability to recover injected tracers (Bear, 1988), and the i njected water in these models is analogous to a tracer. These simulations also indicate that the volume of stored freshwater increases with increasing cycles, and so the recovery efficie ncies also increase with time. Therefore it is possible to achieve 100% recovery, following the implementation of multiple ASR cycles. Analysis of Mass Balance Following the injection, storage, and recovery of w ater during the first cycle it is evident that complete recovery is not possible. It is generally assumed that this phenomenon is due to dispersive mixing in the trans ition zone; as a result, groundwater near the leading edge of the plume is assumed to no t be recoverable during recovery. The mass balance results at various cells within th e model (Table 4) were inspected to determine the potential effect that variations in f low velocities and travel paths during injection and recovery may have on the recovery of the injected volume of water. Specifically, the intention was to determine if the flow paths of injected and recovered water were simply reversed and if the total flows t hrough the cells were similar following

PAGE 104

91Table 4. Mass Balance Time-Flow Results Inflows to Cell: Column 18, Row 19, Layer 44 time (days) X min X max Y min Y max Top Bottom Total ASR Cycle 400 0 5.13 0 0 0 0 5.13 250 days Injection 900 3.28 0 0.08 0.08 0.7 0.58 4.72 250 Days Recovery Outflows to Cell: Column 18, Row 19, Layer 44 time (days) X min X max Y min Y max Top Bottom Total ASR Cycle 400 3.55 0 0.08 0.08 0.87 0.53 5.11 250 days Injection 900 0 4.71 0 0 0 0 4.71 250 Days Recovery Inflows to Cell: Column 19, Row 19, Layer 44 time (days) X min X max Y min Y max Top Bottom Total ASR Cycle 150 0 0.1 4.08E-10 0 0 2.97E-06 0.1 Start 300 0 8.65 0 0 0 0 8.65 400 0 8.71 0 0 0 0 8.71 250 days Injection 550 0 0.39 0 0 0 1.02 1.41 650 0 0.39 0 0 0 1.02 1.41 250 Days Storage 800 4.7 0 0.18 0.18 0.95 2.08 8.09 900 4.71 0 0.18 0.18 1.05 1.99 8.11 250 Days Recovery Outflows to Cell: Column 19, Row 19, Layer 44 time (days) X min X max Y min Y max Top Bottom Total ASR Cycle 150 0.1 0 0 5.61E-10 6.40E-08 0 0.1 Start 300 5.07 0 0.19 0.19 2.28 0.92 8.65 400 5.13 0 0.2 0.2 3.06 0.12 8.71 250 Days Injection 550 0.24 0 0.015 0.015 1.14 0 1.41 650 0.24 0 0.015 0.015 1.14 0 1.41 250 Days Storage 800 0 8.07 0 0 0 0 8.07 900 0 8.11 0 0 0 0 8.11 250 Days Recovery

PAGE 105

92Table 4. Continued Inflows to Cell: Column 20, Row 19, Layer 44 time (days) X min X max Y min Y max Top Bottom Total ASR Cycle 400 0 18.61 0 0 0 1.43 20.04 250 days Injection 900 8.11 0 0.53 0.53 4.12 4.8 18.09 250 Days Recovery Outflows to Cell: Column 20, Row 19, Layer 44 time (days) X min X max Y min Y max Top Bottom Total ASR Cycle 400 8.7 0 0.58 0.58 10.18 0 20.04 250 days Injection 900 0 18.1 0 0 0 0 18.10 250 Days Recovery Inflows to Cell: Column 18, Row 19, Layer 43 400 0 0.03 0 0 0 0.87 0.90 250 days Injection 900 0.02 0 0.08 0.08 0.55 0 0.73 250 Days Recovery Outflows to Cell: Column 18, Row 19, Layer 43 time (days) X min X max Y min Y max Top Bottom Total ASR Cycle 400 0.02 0 0.08 0.08 0.71 0 0.89 250 days Injection 900 0 0.03 0 0 0 0.7 0.73 250 Days Recovery Inflows to Cell: Column 19, Row 19, Layer 43 time (days) X min X max Y min Y max Top Bottom Total ASR Cycle 400 0 0.048 0 0 0 3.06 3.11 250 days Injection 900 0.026 0 0.1774 0.1769 0.7148 0 1.10 250 Days Recovery Outflows to Cell: Column 19, Row 19, Layer 43 time (days) X min X max Y min Y max Top Bottom Total ASR Cycle 400 0.028 0 0.201 0.2 2.68 0 3.11 250 days Injection 900 0 0.0447 0 0 0 1.05 1.09 250 Days Recovery

PAGE 106

93 Table 4. Continued Inflows to Cell: Column 20, Row 19, Layer 43 time (days) X min X max Y min Y max Top Bottom Total ASR Cycle 400 0 0.1 0 0 0 10.18 10.28 250 days Injection 900 0.04 0 0.53 0.53 3.12 0 4.22 250 Days Recovery Outflows to Cell: Column 20, Row 19, Layer 43 time (days) X min X max Y min Y max Top Bottom Total ASR Cycle 400 0.05 0 0.58 0.58 9.08 0 10.29 250 days Injection 900 0 0.1 0 0 0 4.12 4.22 250 Days Recovery Inflows to Cell: Column 18, Row 19, Layer 91 time (days) X min X max Y min Y max Top Bottom Total ASR Cycle 400 0 0.0034 0 0 2.44 0 2.44 250 days Injection 900 0.0023 0 0.079 0.0784 0 2.13 2.29 250 Days Recovery Outflows to Cell: Column 18, Row 19, Layer 91 time (days) X min X max Y min Y max Top Bottom Total ASR Cycle 400 0.0024 0 0.08 0.08 0 2.28 2.44 250 days Injection 900 0 0.0033 0 0 2.29 0 2.29 250 Days Recovery Inflows to Cell: Column 19, Row 19, Layer 91 time (days) X min X max Y min Y max Top Bottom Total ASR Cycle 150 0 6.87E-05 4.02E-10 0 9.05E-07 0 6.97E-05 Start 300 0 0.01 0 0 5.18 0 5.19 15 0 Days Injection 400 0 0.0057 0 0 4.26 0 4.27 250 Days Injection 550 0 5.93E-05 0 0 0 0.94 0.94 150 Days Storage 650 0 6.03E-05 0 0 0 0.94 0.94

PAGE 107

94 Table 4. Continued time (days) X min X max Y min Y max Top Bottom Total ASR Cycle 800 0.003 0 0.18 0.18 0 5.97 6.33 150 Days Recovery 900 0.003 0 0.18 0.18 0 5.96 6.32 Outflows to Cell: Column 19, Row 19, Layer 91 time (days) X min X max Y min Y max Top Bottom Total ASR Cycle 150 6.87E-05 0 0 5.63E-10 0 6.63E-07 6.94E-05 Start 300 0.003 0 0.18 0.18 0 4.82 5.18 150 Days Injection 400 0.0034 0 0.184 0.1835 0 3.89 4.26 250 Days Injection 550 6.58E-05 0 0.001 0.001 0.94 0 0.94 150 Days Storage 650 6.56E-05 0 0.001 0.001 0.94 0 0.94 800 0.00E+00 0.006 0 0 6.33 0 6.34 150 Days Recovery 900 0.00E+00 0.006 0 0 6.33 0 6.34 Inflows to Cell: Column 20, Row 19, Layer 91 time (days) X min X max Y min Y max Top Bottom Total ASR Cycle 400 0 0.0124 0 0 8.51 0 8.52 250 days Injection 900 0.0056 0 0.53 0.53 0 16.08 17.15 250 Days Recovery Outflows to Cell: Column 20, Row 19, Layer 91 time (days) X min X max Y min Y max Top Bottom Total ASR Cycle 400 0.0057 0 0.5327 0.5321 0 7.45 8.52 250 da ys Injection 900 0 0.0123 0 0 17.13 0 17.14 250 Days Recovery

PAGE 108

95 the same period of injection and recovery. The cel l mass balances were obtained from columns 18, 19, and 20 in the model across the plum e within layer 44, providing a crosssection of mass flow. Additional cells included co lumns 18, 19, and 20 from layers 43 and 91. Two of the cells that were evaluated inclu ding column 19, row 19, and layer 44 (inflow-Fig. 70 and outflow-Fig. 71) and layer 91 ( inflow-Fig. 72 and outflow-Fig. 73) represent hydraulic conductivities associated with fracture flow (K = 291.68 m/day) and intergranular flow (K = 0.2 m/day), respectively. Layer 44 is bound by low permeability layers including layer 43 with K = 1.61 m/day and l ayer 45 with K = 0.2 m/day. Layer 91 is bound by low permeability layers including la yer 90 with K = 0.27 m/day and layer 92 with K = 0.43 m/day. The variations in inflow a nd outflow at each cell face and the total inflow and outflow at the cell were plotted a t 150 day increments beginning with the initiation of the injection cycle, following the st eady-state starting conditions. Inspection of the inflow through the cell at column 19, row 19, and layer 44 (Fig. 74) after the injection period, it is apparent that the flow enters the cell from x-direction at 8.71 m3/day and flows out in various directions but predom inantly in the x-direction at 5.13 m3/day and through the top of the cell at 3.06 m3/day. Flow through the top of the cell is into a lower-conductivity interval. Follow ing the recovery period, inflow to the cell is from the x-direction at 4.71 m3/day, both y-directions at 0.18 m3/day, the top at 1.05 m3/day and from the bottom at 1.99 m3/day. Outflow from this cell is in the xdirection at 8.11 m3/day. Comparing the flow through this cell, it is evident that the flow through the cell is slightly diminished following t he recovery period. In addition, input to the cell is from the top and bottom following the r ecovery period; however, outflow from this cell following the injection period is primari ly through the top. Thus it appears that varying travel paths occur in response to heterogen eity and density contrasts (associated with variations in TDS concentrations). Inspection of the cell flow at column 18, row 19, a nd layer 44 (Fig. 74), which is located within the transition zone, indicates that, during injection, inflow to the cell is primarily from the x-direction at 5.13 m3/day and outflow is in the x-direction at 3.55 m3/day, the y-directions at 0.08 m3/day, the top at 0.87 m3/day, and the bottom at 0.53

PAGE 109

96

PAGE 110

97

PAGE 111

98

PAGE 112

99

PAGE 113

100

PAGE 114

101 m3/day. Following the recovery period, the distribut ion of inflow is very similar to the outflow following injection. Thus it appears that although primary flow was in the xdirection, secondary contributions to this high-con ductivity interval were from the top and bottom, at this location within the plume. The cell located adjacent to the cell containing th e well at column 20, Row 19, and layer 44 (Fig. 74) exhibited inflow in the x-di rection at 18.61 m3/day and through the bottom at 1.43 m3/day and outflow via the x-direction at 8.7 m3/day, the top at 10.18 m3/day, and in both y-directions at 0.58 m3/day following the injection period. This strong vertical flow may be in response to the dens ity contrast that exists immediately after water of low TDS concentration is injected in to the formation of contrasting TDS concentration and the strong effects of injection n ear the well (i.e., hydraulic head). At the end of the recovery period, inflow to this cell is primarily in the x-direction at 8.11 m3/day, from the bottom at 4.8 m3/day, from the top at 4.12 m3/day, and from both ydirections at 0.53 m3/day. Outflow from this cell is entirely in the xdirection. The cell adjacent to the well and immediately overl ying the high-conductivity layer at column 20, row 19, and layer 43 (Fig. 75) exhibited inflow primarily from the bottom at 10.18 m3/day following the injection period, and outflow wa s primarily out the top at 9.08 m3/day and in the y-directions at 0.58 m3/day. Following the recovery period, the inflow to the cell was from the top at 3.12 m3/day and from the y-directions at 0.53 m3/day. Outflow from the cell was almost entirely ou t the bottom at 4.12 m3/day. In addition, total flow into this cell is greater duri ng injection compared to the flow following recovery. Thus it appears that the stron g injection pressures and bouyancy result in upward flow into adjacent intervals and d uring extraction groundwater from the low-conductivity intervals is induced to flow into the high-conductivity intervals. The flow path during recovery is consistent with the re fraction of groundwater at the boundary of units of highly contrasting hydraulic c onductivities (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). Inflow to the cell at column 19, row 19, and layer 91 (Fig. 76), a low conductivity interval, 150 days after the start of the injection period is mostly from the top of the cell at 5.18 m3/day and outflow is primarily out the bottom at 4.8 2 m3/day and in the y

PAGE 115

102

PAGE 116

103

PAGE 117

104 directions at 0.18 m3/day. After 150 days of recovery, inflow to the ce ll was primarily from the bottom at 5.97 m3/day and in the y-directions at 0.18 m3/day and outflow was primarily out the top at 6.33 m3/day. In this cell, the flow through the cell 150 days following injection and recovery appears to have si mply reversed directions. In summary, analysis of flow through various cells throughout the model indicates that significant vertical flow occurs in the hetero geneous case. Inspection of cells of a high conductivity layer and overlying low conductiv ity layer, from the transition zone to the edge of the well, indicates that both horizonta l and vertical flow exist. During the injection period, flow adjacent to the well and in the center of the model is in the xdirection and into the overlying low-conductivity l ayer. At the end of the recovery period, flow into the high-conductivity layer is from the x -direction, followed by significant flow from the bottom and the top, signifying flow from a djacent low-conductivity layers into the high conductivity layer. In contrast flow into a low conductivity layer that is not bound by high-conductivity layers, following inject ion and recovery appears to follow similar vertical paths. In addition, in most layer s inspected, flow into the aquifer model cells following injection is greater than the flow through the same cells following the recovery period. These variations in flow suggest that variations in solute transport paths may result in the inability of all injected mass to be recovered during a single ASR cycle.

PAGE 118

105 Conclusions This modeling study of the effects of small-scale h eterogeneities of hydraulic conductivity on the performance of a hypothetical A SR well enables the following conclusions: 1) Homogeneous and heterogeneous models exhibit sig nificantly different ASR plume geometries and TDS distributions. The “bubbl e” simplification can lead to misinterpretations of flow and solute transport cha racteristics as the aquifer becomes increasingly heterogeneous. 2) The efficiency of an ASR well, measured in terms of percent recovery, does not differ between the homogeneous and heterogeneous mo dels with background concentrations less than 2,500 mg/L and the model p arameters used in this study. Previous modeling of the same homogeneous and heter ogeneous scenarios with MODFLOW 2000 (Vacher et al., in press) confirms tha t the recovery efficiencies are essentially identical. Since the homogeneous c ase represents an average of the hydraulic conductivity distribution of the hete rogeneous case, the recovery efficiencies would be expected to be similar with l ow-TDS background concentrations. However, the recovery efficiency i s greater in the homogeneous model (9.3%) compared to the heterogeneous aquifer model (6.5%) when the background concentration is 15,000 mg/L. Inspectio n of the graphs of recovery efficiencies and background concentrations of the h omogeneous and heterogeneous models indicates that the recovery ef ficiencies differ when the background TDS concentrations are greater than 2,50 0 mg/L. 3) These results indicate that when the effects of buoyancy and significant density contrasts exist, the recovery efficiencies of homog eneous and heterogeneous aquifer models will differ with the homogeneous aqu ifer model exhibiting greater recovery efficiencies. In essence, the homogeneous aquifer model does not exhibit the effects of buoyancy with any combinatio n of injectate and background

PAGE 119

106 TDS concentrations. A background TDS concentration of the aquifer equal to or greater 2,500 mg/L appears to affect percent recove ry for one cycle when the injection rate is 1514 m3/day. The homogeneous and heterogeneous models wit h background TDS concentrations of 2,500 mg/L and inj ection rate of 9462.5 m3/day exhibited a recovery efficiency of approximate ly 19% compared to the efficiency of 40% for an injection rate of 1514 m3/day and a background TDS concentration of 1,000 mg/L. At 15,000 mg/L, a sto rage zone is not developed during one ASR injection period. A storage zone is developed in the homogeneous and heterogeneous aquifer models when t he injection rate is 9462.5 m3/day; however, two ASR cycles are required to yield recovery efficiencies of 9.3% for the homogeneous and 6.5% for the heterogen eous models. 4) Operation of an ASR well in an aquifer of low-TD S background concentration (1,000 mg/L) and minimal regional hydraulic gradien t will enable a prolonged storage period without a significant reduction in t he storage volume. With increasing background TDS concentrations, these res ults indicate that buoyancy effects are evident during the 250-day storage peri od. Significant density contrasts, as a result of large variations in TDS c oncentrations, are also capable of generating notable flow during the 250-day storage periods simulated by these models. 5) The horizontal extent of the TDS distribution, following the injection period, in the transition zone (e.g. identified by the 900-mg/ L contour where the background TDS concentration is 1,000 mg/L) and the storage zo ne, identified by the 500mg/L contour, increase with decreasing dispersiviti es. The vertical distribution of the TDS concentrations in the transition zone and t he storage zone increase with increasing dispersivities. This response is likely due to the increased sensitivity of variable-density models to transverse dispersivi ty (horizontal and vertical), compared to longitudinal dispersivity, where concen tration contours generally parallel the groundwater flow direction (Souza and Voss (1987, 1989; Voss and Souza, 1998, Langevin 2001; and Shoemaker, 2004). Results of modeling the effects of advection in these variable-density flow fields indicate that dispersion alone may not account for all of the mixing that oc curs.

PAGE 120

107 6) The efficiency of an ASR well typically increase s with increasing number of ASR cycles and may approach 100% recovery after three A SR cycles consisting of three injections at 1514 m3/day for 250 days, two recovery periods of 100 and 150 days, followed by a 250 day recovery period. 7) Mass-balance analysis of the heterogeneous simul ation with a background concentration of 1,000 mg/L indicates that groundwa ter migrates along varying paths between injection and recovery cycles, which may partly explain the loss of mass during an ASR cycle.

PAGE 121

108 List of References Anderson, M.P., and W.W. Woessner. 1991. Applied G roundwater Modeling. San Diego: Academic Press. Bear, J. 1988. Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. Budd D.A. and H.L. Vacher. 2004. Matrix permeabilit y of the confined Floridan Aquifer, USA. Hydrogeology Journal 12, p. 531-549. DeWitt, D.J., and D.L. Thompson. 1997. Drilling and testing report, ROMP 20 Osprey, Sarasota County, Florida. Geohydraulics Data Sectio n, Resource Data Department, Southwest Florida Water Management Dist rict, Open-File Report, 173 pp. Fetter, C.W., Jr. 1999. Contaminant Hydrogeology, 2nd edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Freeze, R.A. and J.A. Cherry. 1979. Groundwater. P rentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Guo, Weixing, and Bennett, G.D. 1998. Simulation of saline/fresh water flows using MODFLOW; in E. Poeter and others, Proceedings of th e MODFLOW 1998 Conference, Golden, Colo., v. 1, p. 267-274. Guo, Weixing, and C.D.Langevin. 2002. User’s guide to SEAWAT: A computer program for simulation of three-dimensional variab le-density groundwater flow:

PAGE 122

109 U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water Resource s Investigations, book 6, chap. A7, 77 p. Harbaugh, A.W., E.R. Banta, E.R., M.C. Hill, M.C., and M.G. McDonald. 2000. MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey modular gr ound-water model -User guide to modularization concepts and the Groun d-Water Flow Process. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-92, 121 p. Huntley, D., and R.S. Bottcher. 1997. Effect of ver tical aquifer heterogeneity on the efficiency of aquifer storage and recovery projects In, Proceedings of the AWRA Symposium, Conjunctive Use of Water Resources: Aqui fer Storage and Recovery. D.R. Kendall, ed., American Water Resourc es Association, Herndon, VA, TPS-97-2:211-220. Langevin, C.D. 2001. Simulation of groundwater dis charge to Biscayne Bay, southeastern Florida. U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 00-4251. Langevin, C.D., and Guo, Weixing. 1999. Improvement s to SEAWAT, a variable-density modeling code [abs]: in EOS Transactions, v. 80, no 46., p. F-373. Langevin, C.D., W.B. Shoemaker, and W. Guo. 2003. MODFLOW 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Groundwater Model-Documen tation of the SEAWAT-2000 Version with the Variable-Density Flow Process (VDF) and the Integtrated MT3DMS Transport Process (IMT). U.S. Ge ological Survey Open File Report 03-426, 43 p. Merritt, M.L.. 1985. Subsurface storage of freshwa ter in south Florida: a digital model analysis of recoverability. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2261.

PAGE 123

110 Missimer, T.M., W. Guo, C.W. Walker, and R.G. Maliv a. 2002. Hydraulic and density considerations in the design of aquifer storage and recovery systems. Florida Water Resources Journal, February 2002: 30-36. Price, R.E. and T. Pichler, in press. Abundance and mineralogical association of arsenic in the Suwannee Limestone (Florida): Implication fo r arsenic release during water-rock interactions. Chemical Geology. Pyne, R.D.G. 1995. Groundwater Recharge and Wells, A guide to Aquifer Storage and Recovery. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis. Pyne, R. D.G. 2002. Aquifer storage recovery wells: the path ahead. Florida Water Resources Journal, February 2002: 19-27. Reese, R.S. 2002. Inventory and review of aquifer s torage and recovery in southern Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Inv estigations Report 02-4036. Rumbaugh, J.O. and D.B. Rumbaugh. 2004. Groundwate r Vistas, Version 4. Environmental Simulations, Inc., Reigholds, Pennsyl vania. Shoemaker, W.B. 2004. Important observations and pa rameters for a salt water intrusion model. GroundwaterVolume 42. Nos. 6 & 7: 829-840. Souza, W.R. and C.I. Voss. 1987. Analysis of an an isotropic coastal aquifer system using a variable-density flow and solute transport simulation. Journal of Hydrology 92, 17-41. Souza, W.R. and C.I. Voss. 1989. Assessment of po table groundwater in a fresh water lens using a variable-density flow and solute trans port simulation. In Proceedings of the NWWA Conference on Solving Groundwater Probl ems and Models,

PAGE 124

111 February 7-9, 1989, Indianapolis, Indiana. Dublin, Ohio: National Water Well Association. Tarbox, D.L. and W.C. Hutchings. 2003. Occurrence, enhancement, and utilization of shallow freshwater lenses on barrier islands along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts presented at AIH Conference, Atlanta, Georg ia. HSA Engineers & Scientists. Vacher, H.L., W.C. Hutchings, and D. Budd. in press Metaphors and models: the ASR bubble in the Floridan aquifer. Groundwater. Voss, C.I. and W.R. Souza. 1998. Dynamics of a regi onal fresh water-salt water transition zone in an anisotropic coastal aquifer s ystem. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-398. Yobbi, D.K. 1996. Simulation of subsurface storage and recovery of effluent using multiple wells, St. Petersburg, Florida: U.S. Geolo gical Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 97-4024. Zheng C. 1996. MT3D, A Modular 3-Dimensional Trans port Model for Simulation of Advection, Dispersion, and Chemical Reactions of Co ntaminants in Groundwater Systems. Bethesda MD: S.S. Papadopulos and Associat es. Zheng C and G.D. Bennett. 2002. Applied Contaminan t Transport Modeling. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

PAGE 125

112 Appendix A: Model Output fo r Homogeneous Simulations

PAGE 126

113 Appendix A MODFLOW-2000 U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MODULAR FINITE-DIFFERE NCE GROUND-WATER FLOW MODEL VERSION 3.10 02/13/200 4 This model run produced both GLOBAL and LIST files This is the LIST file. ----| M T | Conversion from Groundwater Vistas | 3 D | MT3D Model ----THE TRANSPORT MODEL CONSISTS OF 200 LAYER(S) 3 8 ROW(S) 40 COLUMN(S) NUMBER OF STRESS PERIOD(S) FOR TRANSPORT SIMULATIO N = 18 NUMBER OF ALL COMPONENTS INCLUDED IN SIMULATION = 1 NUMBER OF MOBILE COMPONENTS INCLUDED IN SIMULATION = 1 UNIT FOR TIME IS D ; UNIT FOR LENGTH IS M ; UNIT FOR MASS IS KG PACKAGES INCLUDED IN CURRENT SIMULATION: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T T T T T F F F F F COUPLING BETWEEN FLOW AND TRANSPORT IS IMPLICIT 100 COUPLING ITERATIONS 0.1000 IS THE DENSITY CONVERGENCE CRITERIA MT3DMS SPECIES USED IN EQUATION OF STATE FOR FLUID DENSITY: 1 AN UPSTREAM-WEIGHTED ALGORITHM IS USED TO CALCULAT E FLUID DENSITY TERMS THAT CONSERVE MASS FIRSTDT SPECIFIED BY USER IN THE VDF FILE IS: 0. 1000000E-01 1000. REFERENCE DENSITY 0.7143 DENSITY SLOPE FOR EQUATION OF STATE VARIABLE-DENSITY WATER-TABLE CORRECTIONS NOT ADDED BTN4 -BASIC TRANSPORT PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 81 4561676 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE BT N PACKAGE 304200 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE BT N PACKAGE FMI4 -FLOW MODEL INTERFACE PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 95 FLOW MODEL IS TRANSIENT ADV4 -ADVECTION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 82 ADVECTION IS SOLVED WITH THE UPSTREAM FINITE DIFFE RENCE SCHEME COURANT NUMBER ALLOWED IN SOLVING THE ADVECTION TE RM = 0.750 0 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE AD V PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE AD V PACKAGE DSP4 -DISPERSION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 83 3040600 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE DS P PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE DS P PACKAGE

PAGE 127

114 Appendix A (Continued) SSM4 -SINK & SOURCE MIXING PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 84 HEADER LINE OF THE SSM PACKAGE INPUT FILE: T F F F F F MAJOR STRESS COMPONENTS PRESENT IN THE FLOW MODEL: o WELL MAXIMUM NUMBER OF POINT SINKS/SOURCES = 30800 215600 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE SS M PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY BY THE SSM PAC KAGE RCT4 -CHEMICAL REACTION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MA Y 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 85 NO SORPTION [OR DUAL-DOMAIN MODEL] IS SIMULATED NO FIRST-ORDER RATE REACTION IS SIMULATED REACTION COEFFICIENTS ASSIGNED CELL-BY-CELL INITIAL SORBED/IMMOBILE PHASE CONCENTRATION ASSIGN ED BY DEFAULT 0 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE RC T PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE RC T PACKAGE GCG4 -GENERALIZED CONJUGATE GRADIENT SOLVER PACK AGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 86 MAXIMUM OF 1 OUTER ITERATIONS AND 50 INNER ITERATIONS ALLOWED FOR CLOSU RE THE PRECONDITIONING TYPE SELECTED IS MODIFIED INCO MPLETE CHOLESKY (MIC). DISPERSION CROSS TERMS LUMPED INTO RIGHT-HAND-SIDE 6688050 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE GC G PACKAGE 150 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE GC G PACKAGE # MODFLOW2000 Basic Package #MODFLOW Data Set Created by Groundwater Vistas # 200 LAYERS 38 ROWS 40 COLUMNS 18 STRESS PERIOD(S) IN SIMULATION BAS6 -BASIC PACKAGE, VERSION 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 1 1000 ELEMENTS IN IR ARRAY ARE USED BY BAS WEL6 -WELL PACKAGE, VERSION 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT R EAD FROM UNIT 12 # MODFLOW2000 Well Package 0 Named Parameters 0 List entries MAXIMUM OF 400 ACTIVE WELLS AT ONE TIME CELL-BY-CELL FLOWS WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 54 1600 ELEMENTS IN RX ARRAY ARE USED BY WEL CHD6 -TIME-VARIANT SPECIFIED-HEAD PACKAGE, VERSI ON 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 40 # MODFLOW2000 Constant-Head Boundary Package (CHD)

PAGE 128

115 Appendix A (Continued) No named parameters MAXIMUM OF 15200 TIME-VARIANT SPECIFIED-HEAD CELL S AT ONE TIME 76000 ELEMENTS IN RX ARRAY ARE USED BY CHD 77600 ELEMENTS OF RX ARRAY USED OUT OF 77600 1000 ELEMENTS OF IR ARRAY USED OUT OF 1000 2736001 ELEMENTS OF THE VDF ARRAY USED BY VDF PRO CESS 1 # MODFLOW2000 Basic Package #MODFLOW Data Set Created by Groundwater Vistas -----------------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 20 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 400.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 20, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 8 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 177936.5 -407087.5 CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 0.000000 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 341416.9 -21.86395 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 519354.4 KG -556406.1 KG NET (IN OUT): -37051.71 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -6.888467 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 8 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

PAGE 129

116 Appendix A (Continued) IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 1009.6500 STORAGE = 5.9267 CONSTANT HEAD = 178063614.0626 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 378500000.0000 WELLS = 1514000.0000 DCDT = 236274.4159 DCDT = 1081.4865 TOTAL IN = 556800898.1286 TOTAL IN = 1515087.4132 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 149403436.5906 STORAGE = 0.9713 CONSTANT HEAD = 407378256.9908 CON STANT HEAD = 1515084.8436 WELLS = 0.0000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 16.6733 DCDT = 3.4180E-02 TOTAL OUT = 556781710.2546 TOTAL OUT = 1515085.8491 IN OUT = 19187.8739 IN OUT = 1.5641 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 0 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 8 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 2508.9 41.816 0.69693 2.90387E-02 7.95038E-05 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 3.45600E+07 5.76000E+05 9600.0 400.00 1.0951 1 -----------------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 20 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 400.0000 D

PAGE 130

117 Appendix A (Continued) CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 20, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 8 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 177936.5 -407087.5 CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 0.000000 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 341416.9 -21.86395 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 519354.4 KG -556406.1 KG NET (IN OUT): -37051.71 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -6.888467 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 8 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 1009.6500 STORAGE = 5.9267 CONSTANT HEAD = 178063614.0626 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 378500000.0000 WELLS = 1514000.0000 DCDT = 236274.4159 DCDT = 1081.4865 TOTAL IN = 556800898.1286 TOTAL IN = 1515087.4132 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 149403436.5906 STORAGE = 0.9713 CONSTANT HEAD = 407378256.9908 CON STANT HEAD = 1515084.8436 WELLS = 0.0000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 16.6733 DCDT = 3.4180E-02 TOTAL OUT = 556781710.2546 TOTAL OUT = 1515085.8491 IN OUT = 19187.8739 IN OUT = 1.5641

PAGE 131

118 Appendix A (Continued) PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 0 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 8 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 2508.9 41.816 0.69693 2.90387E-02 7.95038E-05 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 3.45600E+07 5.76000E+05 9600.0 400.00 1.0951 1 -----------------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 20 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 400.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 20, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 8 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 177936.5 -407087.5 CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 0.000000 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 341416.9 -21.86395 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 519354.4 KG -556406.1 KG NET (IN OUT): -37051.71 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -6.888467 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 8

PAGE 132

119 Appendix A (Continued) CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 1009.6500 STORAGE = 5.9267 CONSTANT HEAD = 178063614.0626 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 378500000.0000 WELLS = 1514000.0000 DCDT = 236274.4159 DCDT = 1081.4865 TOTAL IN = 556800898.1286 TOTAL IN = 1515087.4132 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 149403436.5906 STORAGE = 0.9713 CONSTANT HEAD = 407378256.9908 CON STANT HEAD = 1515084.8436 WELLS = 0.0000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 16.6733 DCDT = 3.4180E-02 TOTAL OUT = 556781710.2546 TOTAL OUT = 1515085.8491 IN OUT = 19187.8739 IN OUT = 1.5641 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 0 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 8 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 2508.9 41.816 0.69693 2.90387E-02 7.95038E-05 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 3.45600E+07 5.76000E+05 9600.0 400.00 1.0951 1 --------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 20 -----------------------------------------

PAGE 133

120 Appendix A (Continued) TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 900.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 20, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 18----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 604342.9 -455166.3 CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 -202464.6 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 345325.9 -150037.0 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 949816.9 KG -956965.2 KG NET (IN OUT): -7148.272 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -0.7497733 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 18 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 18 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 18 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 148674.6757 STORAGE = 1.6843 CONSTANT HEAD = 604774595.0465 CON STANT HEAD = 1515080.6971 WELLS = 378500000.0000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 238936.6198 DCDT = 6.3521 TOTAL IN = 983662206.3420 TOTAL IN = 1515088.7334 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 149403876.7135 STORAGE = 0.8254 CONSTANT HEAD = 455491468.8866 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 378644173.8367 WELLS = 1514774.5218 DCDT = 102159.5748 DCDT = 313.2784 TOTAL OUT = 983641679.0115 TOTAL OUT = 1515088.6255

PAGE 134

121 Appendix A (Continued) IN OUT = 20527.3304 IN OUT = 0.1079 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 0 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 18 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 2508.9 41.816 0.69693 2.90387E-02 7.95038E-05 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 7.77600E+07 1.29600E+06 21600. 900.00 2.4641 1

PAGE 135

122 Appendix B: Model Output for Heterogeneous Simulat ions

PAGE 136

123 Appendix B MODFLOW-2000 U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MODULAR FINITE-DIFFERE NCE GROUND-WATER FLOW MODEL VERSION 3.10 02/13/200 4 This model run produced both GLOBAL and LIST files This is the LIST file. ----| M T | Conversion from Groundwater Vistas | 3 D | MT3D Model ----THE TRANSPORT MODEL CONSISTS OF 200 LAYER(S) 3 8 ROW(S) 40 COLUMN(S) NUMBER OF STRESS PERIOD(S) FOR TRANSPORT SIMULATIO N = 18 NUMBER OF ALL COMPONENTS INCLUDED IN SIMULATION = 1 NUMBER OF MOBILE COMPONENTS INCLUDED IN SIMULATION = 1 UNIT FOR TIME IS D ; UNIT FOR LENGTH IS M ; UNIT FOR MASS IS KG PACKAGES INCLUDED IN CURRENT SIMULATION: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T T T T T F F F F F COUPLING BETWEEN FLOW AND TRANSPORT IS IMPLICIT 100 COUPLING ITERATIONS 0.1000 IS THE DENSITY CONVERGENCE CRITERIA MT3DMS SPECIES USED IN EQUATION OF STATE FOR FLUID DENSITY: 1 AN UPSTREAM-WEIGHTED ALGORITHM IS USED TO CALCULAT E FLUID DENSITY TERMS THAT CONSERVE MASS FIRSTDT SPECIFIED BY USER IN THE VDF FILE IS: 0. 1000000E-01 1000. REFERENCE DENSITY 0.7143 DENSITY SLOPE FOR EQUATION OF STATE VARIABLE-DENSITY WATER-TABLE CORRECTIONS NOT ADDED BTN4 -BASIC TRANSPORT PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 81 4561676 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE BT N PACKAGE 304200 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE BT N PACKAGE FMI4 -FLOW MODEL INTERFACE PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 95 FLOW MODEL IS TRANSIENT ADV4 -ADVECTION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 82 ADVECTION IS SOLVED WITH THE UPSTREAM FINITE DIFFE RENCE SCHEME COURANT NUMBER ALLOWED IN SOLVING THE ADVECTION TE RM = 0.750 0 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE AD V PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE AD V PACKAGE DSP4 -DISPERSION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 83 3040600 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE DS P PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE DS P PACKAGE

PAGE 137

124 Appendix B (Continued) SSM4 -SINK & SOURCE MIXING PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 84 HEADER LINE OF THE SSM PACKAGE INPUT FILE: T F F F F F MAJOR STRESS COMPONENTS PRESENT IN THE FLOW MODEL: o WELL MAXIMUM NUMBER OF POINT SINKS/SOURCES = 30800 215600 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE SS M PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY BY THE SSM PAC KAGE RCT4 -CHEMICAL REACTION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MA Y 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 85 NO SORPTION [OR DUAL-DOMAIN MODEL] IS SIMULATED NO FIRST-ORDER RATE REACTION IS SIMULATED REACTION COEFFICIENTS ASSIGNED CELL-BY-CELL INITIAL SORBED/IMMOBILE PHASE CONCENTRATION ASSIGN ED BY DEFAULT 0 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE RC T PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE RC T PACKAGE GCG4 -GENERALIZED CONJUGATE GRADIENT SOLVER PACK AGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 86 MAXIMUM OF 1 OUTER ITERATIONS AND 50 INNER ITERATIONS ALLOWED FOR CLOSU RE THE PRECONDITIONING TYPE SELECTED IS MODIFIED INCO MPLETE CHOLESKY (MIC). DISPERSION CROSS TERMS LUMPED INTO RIGHT-HAND-SIDE 6688050 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE GC G PACKAGE 150 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE GC G PACKAGE # MODFLOW2000 Basic Package #MODFLOW Data Set Created by Groundwater Vistas # 200 LAYERS 38 ROWS 40 COLUMNS 18 STRESS PERIOD(S) IN SIMULATION BAS6 -BASIC PACKAGE, VERSION 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 1 1000 ELEMENTS IN IR ARRAY ARE USED BY BAS WEL6 -WELL PACKAGE, VERSION 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT R EAD FROM UNIT 12 # MODFLOW2000 Well Package 0 Named Parameters 0 List entries MAXIMUM OF 400 ACTIVE WELLS AT ONE TIME CELL-BY-CELL FLOWS WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 54 1600 ELEMENTS IN RX ARRAY ARE USED BY WEL CHD6 -TIME-VARIANT SPECIFIED-HEAD PACKAGE, VERSI ON 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 40 # MODFLOW2000 Constant-Head Boundary Package (CHD)

PAGE 138

125 Appendix B (Continued) No named parameters MAXIMUM OF 15200 TIME-VARIANT SPECIFIED-HEAD CELL S AT ONE TIME 76000 ELEMENTS IN RX ARRAY ARE USED BY CHD 77600 ELEMENTS OF RX ARRAY USED OUT OF 77600 1000 ELEMENTS OF IR ARRAY USED OUT OF 1000 2736001 ELEMENTS OF THE VDF ARRAY USED BY VDF PRO CESS 1 # MODFLOW2000 Basic Package #MODFLOW Data Set Created by Groundwater Vistas FMI4 -FLOW MODEL INTERFACE PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 95 FLOW MODEL IS TRANSIENT FLOW MODEL CONTAINS CONSTANT-HEAD CELLS "THKSAT FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"QXX FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"QYY FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"QZZ FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"STO FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MAXIMUM STEPSIZE DURING WHICH ANY PARTICLE CANNOT MOVE MORE THAN ONE CELL = 2.124 (WHEN MIN. R.F.=1) AT K= 129, I= 19, J= 21 MAXIMUM STEPSIZE WHICH MEETS STABILITY CRITERION O F THE ADVECTION TERM (FOR PURE FINITE-DIFFERENCE OPTION, MIXELM=0) = 1.926 (WHEN MIN. R.F.=1) AT K= 128, I= 19, J= 21 "CNH FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"WEL FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

PAGE 139

126 Appendix B (Continued) TOTAL NUMBER OF POINT SOURCES/SINKS PRESENT IN THE FLOW MODEL = 30600 MAXIMUM STEPSIZE WHICH MEETS STABILITY CRITERION O F THE SINK & SOURCE TERM = 6.212 (WHEN MIN. R.F.=1) AT K= 34, I= 19, J= 21 MAXIMUM STEPSIZE WHICH MEETS STABILITY CRITERION O F THE DISPERSION TERM = 0.1532E-01(WHEN MIN. R.F.=1) AT K= 128, I= 19, J= 21 1 CALLS TO GCG PACKAGE FOR TRANSPORT TIME STEP 19 IN FLOW TIME STEP 20 STRESS PERIOD 8 4 TOTAL ITERATIONS __________________________________________________ 0COMPLETED COUPLING ITERATION 1 MAXIMUM DENSITY DIFFERENCE = -0.10003E-01 AT CELL (I,J,K) = ( 19, 20, 118) __________________________________________________ SOLVING FOR HEAD 6 CALLS TO PCG ROUTINE FOR TIME STEP 20 IN ST RESS PERIOD 8 126 TOTAL ITERATIONS MAXIMUM HEAD CHANGE FOR EACH ITERATION (1 INDICATE S THE FIRST INNER ITERATION): HEAD CHANGE HEAD CHANGE HEAD CHANGE HE AD CHANGE HEAD CHANGE LAYER,ROW,COL LAYER,ROW,COL LAYER,ROW,COL LAY ER,ROW,COL LAYER,ROW,COL -------------------------------------------------------------------------1 -0.1113E-03 0 0.4632E-04 0 0.2588E-04 0 0 .1686E-04 0 -0.1310E-04 (200, 18, 20) ( 1, 18, 20) ( 1, 17, 21) ( 1, 18, 21) (200, 21, 21) 0 0.5898E-05 0 0.3769E-05 0 0.2465E-05 0 0 .1978E-05 0 0.1667E-05 ( 20, 18, 18) ( 29, 18, 17) ( 47, 18, 15) (12 9, 17, 18) (141, 17, 17) 0 0.1271E-05 0 0.9776E-06 0 0.7867E-06 0 0 .7010E-06 0 0.6343E-06 (141, 16, 16) (141, 15, 17) (141, 14, 16) (14 1, 14, 15) (141, 14, 14) 0 -0.6203E-06 0 -0.6222E-06 0 -0.6680E-06 0 0 .7217E-06 0 0.7602E-06 (141, 25, 30) (141, 26, 29) (141, 26, 28) (14 1, 11, 12) (141, 10, 13) 0 0.6877E-06 0 0.7746E-06 0 0.7656E-06 0 0 .7947E-06 0 -0.7150E-06 (141, 12, 8) (141, 10, 9) (141, 18, 10) (14 1, 6, 11) (200, 19, 21) 1 -0.3569E-06 0 0.4984E-06 0 0.5432E-06 0 -0 .4966E-06 0 -0.4862E-06 (141, 8, 12) (129, 17, 35) (129, 17, 35) (14 1, 8, 15) (141, 6, 16) 0 -0.4991E-06 0 -0.5023E-06 0 -0.4339E-06 0 -0 .4143E-06 0 -0.3773E-06 (141, 14, 8) (141, 11, 18) (141, 13, 11) (12 9, 11, 14) (141, 13, 13) 0 -0.3514E-06 0 -0.3464E-06 0 -0.3245E-06 0 0 .3398E-06 0 -0.3072E-06 (141, 15, 14) (141, 16, 13) (129, 14, 16) (14 1, 24, 23) (129, 16, 16) 0 0.2998E-06 0 0.2830E-06 0 0.2935E-06 0 -0 .3409E-06 0 0.4234E-06 (141, 18, 30) (141, 18, 29) (141, 16, 28) (20 0, 19, 21) (129, 18, 14) 0 0.4974E-06 0 -0.4773E-06 0 0.4649E-06 0 0 .5644E-06 0 0.5028E-06

PAGE 140

127 Appendix B (Continued) ( 69, 18, 15) (141, 22, 25) ( 1, 17, 22) (17 4, 18, 21) ( 1, 17, 21) 1 -0.1916E-06 0 -0.2855E-06 0 -0.4212E-06 0 -0 .2909E-06 0 0.1946E-06 ( 69, 18, 21) (191, 16, 22) (195, 17, 19) (20 0, 17, 20) (141, 6, 7) 0 -0.1754E-06 0 0.1572E-06 0 0.1409E-06 0 -0 .1284E-06 0 0.1343E-06 (141, 16, 16) ( 1, 18, 20) (141, 6, 11) (17 3, 20, 25) ( 5, 17, 17) 0 0.1404E-06 0 0.1259E-06 0 -0.1164E-06 0 -0 .1105E-06 0 0.1113E-06 ( 69, 18, 16) (129, 16, 14) (129, 23, 28) ( 4 3, 23, 27) (129, 18, 11) 0 -0.1109E-06 0 -0.1183E-06 0 -0.1037E-06 0 0 .9113E-07 0 0.8745E-07 (141, 25, 31) (141, 25, 32) (129, 24, 33) (14 1, 17, 7) (129, 18, 6) 0 0.7579E-07 0 0.6903E-07 0 0.6978E-07 0 -0 .6388E-07 0 -0.4513E-07 (141, 11, 9) ( 69, 14, 5) (129, 14, 5) (19 3, 18, 16) (193, 18, 15) 1 0.3428E-07 0 0.4786E-07 0 0.5595E-07 0 0 .4510E-07 0 -0.4551E-07 (141, 17, 26) (141, 17, 35) (129, 25, 36) (12 9, 25, 36) (141, 6, 16) 0 0.5490E-07 0 0.6847E-07 0 0.7150E-07 0 0 .7916E-07 0 0.6980E-07 (129, 24, 35) (141, 24, 32) (141, 24, 33) (14 1, 25, 32) (141, 25, 31) 0 0.5890E-07 0 0.5960E-07 0 0.5415E-07 0 0 .5906E-07 0 -0.4692E-07 (141, 27, 27) (129, 23, 27) (141, 23, 28) ( 1, 23, 23) (195, 18, 15) 0 0.4298E-07 0 -0.4223E-07 0 0.4425E-07 0 0 .5351E-07 0 0.5917E-07 (141, 33, 28) (141, 6, 12) (141, 33, 30) (14 1, 15, 15) (170, 16, 16) 0 0.6002E-07 0 0.6228E-07 0 0.7665E-07 0 0 .5252E-07 0 0.4116E-07 ( 47, 18, 15) ( 2, 17, 18) ( 2, 17, 19) (16 3, 18, 21) (163, 18, 21) 1 -0.3266E-07 0 -0.4598E-07 0 -0.6683E-07 0 -0 .5029E-07 0 0.3144E-07 (200, 18, 21) (141, 19, 18) (197, 17, 19) (20 0, 17, 20) (141, 6, 7) 0 -0.3248E-07 0 -0.2679E-07 0 -0.2810E-07 0 0 .2555E-07 0 -0.2471E-07 (129, 16, 16) (141, 15, 18) (141, 32, 26) (14 1, 6, 12) (198, 22, 24) 0 -0.2451E-07 0 -0.2744E-07 0 -0.2451E-07 0 -0 .2356E-07 0 -0.2236E-07 (198, 23, 22) (183, 23, 23) (129, 23, 28) ( 4 7, 23, 27) (141, 27, 27) 0 -0.2191E-07 0 -0.2311E-07 0 -0.1870E-07 0 0 .1660E-07 0 0.1378E-07 (141, 25, 31) (141, 25, 32) (141, 24, 33) (14 1, 17, 7) (141, 12, 8) 0 0.1112E-07 0 -0.1022E-07 0 -0.1060E-07 0 -0 .9336E-08 0 0.8541E-08 (141, 11, 9) (129, 25, 36) (129, 25, 36) (19 2, 18, 16) (141, 8, 29) 1 -0.7250E-08 (141, 8, 29) MAXIMUM RESIDUAL FOR EACH ITERATION (1 INDICATES T HE FIRST INNER ITERATION): RESIDUAL RESIDUAL RESIDUAL RE SIDUAL RESIDUAL LAYER,ROW,COL LAYER,ROW,COL LAYER,ROW,COL LAY ER,ROW,COL LAYER,ROW,COL -------------------------------------------------------------------------1 305.0 0 128.9 0 72.81 0 48.47 0 37.69 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 0 33.15 0 31.18 0 30.19 0 29.60 0 29.18 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 0 28.86 0 28.57 0 28.32 0 28.03 0 27.71 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 0 27.36 0 26.90 0 26.29 0 25.49 0 24.45

PAGE 141

128 Appendix B (Continued) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 0 23.28 0 21.83 0 20.02 0 17.90 0 15.66 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 1 15.64 0 15.59 0 15.51 0 15.40 0 15.29 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 0 15.14 0 14.99 0 14.84 0 14.68 0 14.51 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 0 14.33 0 14.13 0 13.90 0 13.61 0 13.27 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 0 12.84 0 12.30 0 11.61 0 10.77 0 9.831 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 0 8.890 0 8.015 0 7.220 0 6.506 0 5.864 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 1 5.859 0 5.836 0 5.795 0 5.754 0 5.705 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 0 5.646 0 5.586 0 5.528 0 5.475 0 5.419 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 0 5.359 0 5.297 0 5.232 0 5.158 0 5.074 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 0 4.980 0 4.881 0 4.771 0 4.649 0 4.519 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 0 4.387 0 4.245 0 4.083 0 3.904 0 3.730 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 1 3.726 0 3.713 0 3.692 0 3.668 0 3.639 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 0 3.596 0 3.545 0 3.488 0 3.422 0 3.347 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 0 3.265 0 3.179 0 3.085 0 2.977 0 2.859 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 0 2.736 0 2.604 0 2.457 0 2.307 0 2.161 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 0 2.028 0 1.901 0 1.760 0 1.649 0 1.553 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 1 1.552 0 1.546 0 1.536 0 1.525 0 1.511 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 0 1.493 0 1.474 0 1.453 0 1.433 0 1.412 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 0 1.389 0 1.366 0 1.341 0 1.316 0 1.289 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 0 1.261 0 1.234 0 1.207 0 1.180 0 1.153 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 0 1.127 0 1.100 0 1.067 0 1.031 0 0.9942 (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) (11 9, 19, 20) (119, 19, 20) 1 0.9932 (119, 19, 20)

PAGE 142

129 Appendix B (Continued) FMI4 -FLOW MODEL INTERFACE PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 95 FLOW MODEL IS TRANSIENT FLOW MODEL CONTAINS CONSTANT-HEAD CELLS "THKSAT FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"QXX FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"QYY FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"QZZ FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"STO FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MAXIMUM STEPSIZE DURING WHICH ANY PARTICLE CANNOT MOVE MORE THAN ONE CELL = 2.124 (WHEN MIN. R.F.=1) AT K= 129, I= 19, J= 21 MAXIMUM STEPSIZE WHICH MEETS STABILITY CRITERION O F THE ADVECTION TERM (FOR PURE FINITE-DIFFERENCE OPTION, MIXELM=0) = 1.926 (WHEN MIN. R.F.=1) AT K= 128, I= 19, J= 21 "CNH FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"WEL FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TOTAL NUMBER OF POINT SOURCES/SINKS PRESENT IN THE FLOW MODEL = 30600 MAXIMUM STEPSIZE WHICH MEETS STABILITY CRITERION O F THE SINK & SOURCE TERM = 6.212 (WHEN MIN. R.F.=1) AT K= 34, I= 19, J= 21 MAXIMUM STEPSIZE WHICH MEETS STABILITY CRITERION O F THE DISPERSION TERM = 0.1532E-01(WHEN MIN. R.F.=1) AT K= 128, I= 19, J= 21 1 CALLS TO GCG PACKAGE FOR TRANSPORT TIME STEP 20 IN FLOW TIME STEP 20 STRESS PERIOD 8 1 TOTAL ITERATIONS MAXIMUM CONCENTRATION CHANGES FOR EACH ITERATION: MAX. CHANGE LAYER,ROW,COL MAX. CHANGE LAYER,ROW,C OL MAX. CHANGE LAYER,ROW,COL MAX. CHANGE LAYER,ROW,COL MAX. CHANGE LAYER, ROW,COL

PAGE 143

130 Appendix B (Continued) 0.000 ( 1, 1, 1) __________________________________________________ 0COMPLETED COUPLING ITERATION 1 MAXIMUM DENSITY DIFFERENCE = 0.0000 AT CELL (I,J,K) = ( 19, 20, 118) __________________________________________________ UBUDSV SAVING STORAGE" ON UNIT 50 AT TIM E STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 UBUDSV SAVING CONSTANT HEAD" ON UNIT 50 AT TIM E STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 UBUDSV SAVING "FLOW RIGHT FACE ON UNIT 50 AT TIM E STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 UBUDSV SAVING "FLOW FRONT FACE ON UNIT 50 AT TIM E STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 UBUDSV SAVING "FLOW LOWER FACE ON UNIT 50 AT TIM E STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 UBUDSV SAVING WELLS" ON UNIT 54 AT TIM E STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 UBUDSV SAVING DCDT" ON UNIT 50 AT TIM E STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>FOR COMPONENT NO. 01<<<<<<<<<< -----------------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 20 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 400.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 20, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 8 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 177939.5 -407123.7 CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 0.000000 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 341927.8 -91.08384 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 519868.6 KG -556511.9 KG NET (IN OUT): -36643.27 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -6.808609 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 8

PAGE 144

131 Appendix B (Continued) DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 8 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 1359.9221 STORAGE = 1.1672 CONSTANT HEAD = 178066607.3073 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 378500000.7500 WELLS = 1514000.0030 DCDT = 236748.2968 DCDT = 1081.8305 TOTAL IN = 556804716.2762 TOTAL IN = 1515083.0007 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 149403757.0672 STORAGE = 1.0631 CONSTANT HEAD = 407414498.6510 CON STANT HEAD = 1515081.8366 WELLS = 0.0000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 65.8461 DCDT = 0.3803 TOTAL OUT = 556818321.5644 TOTAL OUT = 1515083.2800 IN OUT = -13605.2882 IN OUT = -0.2794 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 0 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 8 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 2508.9 41.816 0.69693 2.90387E-02 7.95038E-05 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 3.45600E+07 5.76000E+05 9600.0 400.00 1.0951 1 ---------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 20

PAGE 145

132 Appendix B (Continued) TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 650.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 20, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 13 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 225948.3 -455206.0 CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 0.000000 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 349450.1 -7613.408 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 575473.1 KG -612116.6 KG NET (IN OUT): -36643.45 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -6.171062 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 13 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 13 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 13 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 74951.8752 STORAGE = 0.9910 CONSTANT HEAD = 226109705.2689 CON STANT HEAD = 192261.0728 WELLS = 378500000.7500 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 241154.6112 DCDT = 35.8868 TOTAL IN = 604925812.5053 TOTAL IN = 192297.9506 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 149403764.9717 STORAGE = 0.9929 CONSTANT HEAD = 455531186.7247 CON STANT HEAD = 192261.0769 WELLS = 0.0000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 4472.1295 DCDT = 35.8868

PAGE 146

133 Appendix B (Continued) TOTAL OUT = 604939423.8258 TOTAL OUT = 192297.9565 IN OUT = -13611.3205 IN OUT = -5.9664E-03 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 0 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 13 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 2508.9 41.816 0.69693 2.90387E-02 7.95038E-05 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 5.61600E+07 9.36000E+05 15600. 650.00 1.7796 1 --------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 20 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 900.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 20, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 18 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 604372.6 -455207.6 CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 -207139.3 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 359165.5 -158695.4 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 963686.7 KG -970340.1 KG NET (IN OUT): -6653.371 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -0.6880330 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 18

PAGE 147

134 Appendix B (Continued) DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 18 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 18 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 149081.6520 STORAGE = 0.4848 CONSTANT HEAD = 604804329.2189 CON STANT HEAD = 1515080.8872 WELLS = 378500000.7500 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 247827.6525 DCDT = 12.2876 TOTAL IN = 983701239.2734 TOTAL IN = 1515093.6595 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 149404311.2563 STORAGE = 0.6038 CONSTANT HEAD = 455532795.6944 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 378647535.3364 WELLS = 1514776.0681 DCDT = 107318.0209 DCDT = 317.6726 TOTAL OUT = 983691960.3080 TOTAL OUT = 1515094.3446 IN OUT = 9278.9654 IN OUT = -0.6850 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 0 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 18 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 2508.9 41.816 0.69693 2.90387E-02 7.95038E-05 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 7.77600E+07 1.29600E+06 21600. 900.00 2.4641 1

PAGE 148

135 Appendix C: Model Output for Varying TDS Backgroun d Simulations

PAGE 149

136 Appendix C Suwan 2.5 MODFLOW-2000 U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MODULAR FINITE-DIFFERE NCE GROUND-WATER FLOW MODEL VERSION 3.10 02/13/200 4 This model run produced both GLOBAL and LIST files This is the LIST file. ----| M T | Conversion from Groundwater Vistas | 3 D | MT3D Model ----THE TRANSPORT MODEL CONSISTS OF 200 LAYER(S) 3 8 ROW(S) 40 COLUMN(S) NUMBER OF STRESS PERIOD(S) FOR TRANSPORT SIMULATIO N = 18 NUMBER OF ALL COMPONENTS INCLUDED IN SIMULATION = 1 NUMBER OF MOBILE COMPONENTS INCLUDED IN SIMULATION = 1 UNIT FOR TIME IS D ; UNIT FOR LENGTH IS M ; UNIT FOR MASS IS KG PACKAGES INCLUDED IN CURRENT SIMULATION: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T T T T T F F F F F COUPLING BETWEEN FLOW AND TRANSPORT IS IMPLICIT 100 COUPLING ITERATIONS 0.1000 IS THE DENSITY CONVERGENCE CRITERIA MT3DMS SPECIES USED IN EQUATION OF STATE FOR FLUID DENSITY: 1 AN UPSTREAM-WEIGHTED ALGORITHM IS USED TO CALCULAT E FLUID DENSITY TERMS THAT CONSERVE MASS FIRSTDT SPECIFIED BY USER IN THE VDF FILE IS: 0. 1000000E-01 1000. REFERENCE DENSITY 0.7143 DENSITY SLOPE FOR EQUATION OF STATE VARIABLE-DENSITY WATER-TABLE CORRECTIONS NOT ADDED BTN4 -BASIC TRANSPORT PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 81 4561676 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE BT N PACKAGE 304200 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE BT N PACKAGE FMI4 -FLOW MODEL INTERFACE PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 95 FLOW MODEL IS TRANSIENT ADV4 -ADVECTION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 82 ADVECTION IS SOLVED WITH THE UPSTREAM FINITE DIFFE RENCE SCHEME COURANT NUMBER ALLOWED IN SOLVING THE ADVECTION TE RM = 0.750 0 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE AD V PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE AD V PACKAGE

PAGE 150

137 Appendix C (Continued) DSP4 -DISPERSION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 83 3040600 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE DS P PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE DS P PACKAGE SSM4 -SINK & SOURCE MIXING PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 84 HEADER LINE OF THE SSM PACKAGE INPUT FILE: T F F F F F MAJOR STRESS COMPONENTS PRESENT IN THE FLOW MODEL: o WELL MAXIMUM NUMBER OF POINT SINKS/SOURCES = 30600 214200 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE SS M PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY BY THE SSM PAC KAGE RCT4 -CHEMICAL REACTION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MA Y 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 85 NO SORPTION [OR DUAL-DOMAIN MODEL] IS SIMULATED NO FIRST-ORDER RATE REACTION IS SIMULATED REACTION COEFFICIENTS ASSIGNED CELL-BY-CELL INITIAL SORBED/IMMOBILE PHASE CONCENTRATION ASSIGN ED BY DEFAULT 0 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE RC T PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE RC T PACKAGE GCG4 -GENERALIZED CONJUGATE GRADIENT SOLVER PACK AGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 86 MAXIMUM OF 1 OUTER ITERATIONS AND 50 INNER ITERATIONS ALLOWED FOR CLOSU RE THE PRECONDITIONING TYPE SELECTED IS MODIFIED INCO MPLETE CHOLESKY (MIC). DISPERSION CROSS TERMS LUMPED INTO RIGHT-HAND-SIDE 6688050 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE GC G PACKAGE 150 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE GC G PACKAGE # MODFLOW2000 Basic Package #MODFLOW Data Set Created by Groundwater Vistas # 200 LAYERS 38 ROWS 40 COLUMNS 18 STRESS PERIOD(S) IN SIMULATION BAS6 -BASIC PACKAGE, VERSION 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 1 1000 ELEMENTS IN IR ARRAY ARE USED BY BAS WEL6 -WELL PACKAGE, VERSION 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT R EAD FROM UNIT 12 # MODFLOW2000 Well Package 0 Named Parameters 0 List entries MAXIMUM OF 200 ACTIVE WELLS AT ONE TIME CELL-BY-CELL FLOWS WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 54

PAGE 151

138 Appendix C (Continued) 800 ELEMENTS IN RX ARRAY ARE USED BY WEL CHD6 -TIME-VARIANT SPECIFIED-HEAD PACKAGE, VERSI ON 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 40 # MODFLOW2000 Constant-Head Boundary Package (CHD) No named parameters MAXIMUM OF 15200 TIME-VARIANT SPECIFIED-HEAD CELL S AT ONE TIME 76000 ELEMENTS IN RX ARRAY ARE USED BY CHD 76800 ELEMENTS OF RX ARRAY USED OUT OF 76800 1000 ELEMENTS OF IR ARRAY USED OUT OF 1000 2736001 ELEMENTS OF THE VDF ARRAY USED BY VDF PRO CESS 1 # MODFLOW2000 Basic Package #MODFLOW Data Set Created by Groundwater Vistas TRANSPORT STEP NO. 25 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 400.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 25, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 8 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 628434.2 -1016867. CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 0.000000 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 829121.6 -431.3344 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 1457566. KG -1575018. KG NET (IN OUT): -117452.4 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -7.746026 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 8

PAGE 152

139 Appendix C (Continued) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 4104.5930 STORAGE = 0.8276 CONSTANT HEAD = 251822579.0953 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 378500000.7500 WELLS = 1514000.0030 DCDT = 575576.9073 DCDT = 2704.0046 TOTAL IN = 630902261.3456 TOTAL IN = 1516704.8353 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 223486425.6884 STORAGE = 0.6511 CONSTANT HEAD = 407473173.3178 CON STANT HEAD = 1516703.6216 WELLS = 0.0000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 317.7517 DCDT = 0.3792 TOTAL OUT = 630959916.7579 TOTAL OUT = 1516704.6519 IN OUT = -57655.4123 IN OUT = 0.1833 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = -0.01 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 5 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 8 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 10903. 181.72 3.0286 0.12619 3.45497E-04 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 3.45600E+07 5.76000E+05 9600.0 400.00 1.0951 1 -----------------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 25 -----------------------------------------

PAGE 153

140 Appendix C (Continued) TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 650.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 25, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 13 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 747220.7 -1135931. CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 0.000000 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 862095.7 -33405.14 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 1609603. KG -1727057. KG NET (IN – OUT): -117453.2 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -7.040165 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 13 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 13 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 13 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 115302.2191 STORAGE = 0.1071 CONSTANT HEAD = 299422032.3147 CON STANT HEAD = 190528.7348 WELLS = 378500000.7500 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 596340.9994 DCDT = 146.5656 TOTAL IN = 678633676.2833 TOTAL IN = 190675.4075 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 223486434.7459 STORAGE = 0.1352 CONSTANT HEAD = 455183951.7071 CON STANT HEAD = 190528.8286 WELLS = 0.0000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 21054.5595 DCDT = 146.5656 TOTAL OUT = 678691441.0125 TOTAL OUT = 190675.5294

PAGE 154

141 Appendix C (Continued) IN OUT = -57764.7292 IN OUT = -0.1220 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = -0.01 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 5 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 13 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 10903. 181.72 3.0286 0.12619 3.45497E-04 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 5.61600E+07 9.36000E+05 15600. 650.00 1.7796 1 ---------------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 25 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 900.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 25, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 18 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 1693180. -1135938. CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 -522328.6 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 882625.1 -383149.5 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 2576373. KG -2599140. KG NET (IN OUT): -22767.62 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -0.8798209 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 18 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 18 1

PAGE 155

142 Appendix C (Continued) MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 18 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 227974.5083 STORAGE = 0.2270 CONSTANT HEAD = 678481543.6106 CON STANT HEAD = 1516703.4321 WELLS = 378500000.7500 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 610441.6046 DCDT = 30.4287 TOTAL IN = 1057819960.4735 TOTAL IN = 1516734.0878 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 223487920.0036 STORAGE = 0.2923 CONSTANT HEAD = 455186797.5931 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 378872292.6718 WELLS = 1515932.6972 DCDT = 259985.3114 DCDT = 801.3598 TOTAL OUT = 1057806995.5799 TOTAL OUT = 1516734.3492 IN OUT = 12964.8937 IN OUT = -0.2615 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 5 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 18 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 10903. 181.72 3.0286 0.12619 3.45497E-04 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 7.77600E+07 1.29600E+06 21600. 900.00 2.4641 1

PAGE 156

143 Appendix C (Continued) Suwan 5 MODFLOW-2000 U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MODULAR FINITE-DIFFERE NCE GROUND-WATER FLOW MODEL VERSION 3.10 02/13/200 4 This model run produced both GLOBAL and LIST files This is the LIST file. ----| M T | Conversion from Groundwater Vistas | 3 D | MT3D Model ----THE TRANSPORT MODEL CONSISTS OF 200 LAYER(S) 3 9 ROW(S) 40 COLUMN(S) NUMBER OF STRESS PERIOD(S) FOR TRANSPORT SIMULATIO N = 18 NUMBER OF ALL COMPONENTS INCLUDED IN SIMULATION = 1 NUMBER OF MOBILE COMPONENTS INCLUDED IN SIMULATION = 1 UNIT FOR TIME IS D ; UNIT FOR LENGTH IS M ; UNIT FOR MASS IS KG PACKAGES INCLUDED IN CURRENT SIMULATION: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T T T T T F F F F F COUPLING BETWEEN FLOW AND TRANSPORT IS IMPLICIT 100 COUPLING ITERATIONS 0.1000 IS THE DENSITY CONVERGENCE CRITERIA MT3DMS SPECIES USED IN EQUATION OF STATE FOR FLUID DENSITY: 1 AN UPSTREAM-WEIGHTED ALGORITHM IS USED TO CALCULAT E FLUID DENSITY TERMS THAT CONSERVE MASS FIRSTDT SPECIFIED BY USER IN THE VDF FILE IS: 0. 1000000E-01 1000. REFERENCE DENSITY 0.7143 DENSITY SLOPE FOR EQUATION OF STATE VARIABLE-DENSITY WATER-TABLE CORRECTIONS NOT ADDED BTN4 -BASIC TRANSPORT PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 81 4681718 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE BT N PACKAGE 312200 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE BT N PACKAGE FMI4 -FLOW MODEL INTERFACE PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 95 FLOW MODEL IS TRANSIENT ADV4 -ADVECTION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 82 ADVECTION IS SOLVED WITH THE UPSTREAM FINITE DIFFE RENCE SCHEME COURANT NUMBER ALLOWED IN SOLVING THE ADVECTION TE RM = 0.750 0 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE AD V PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE AD V PACKAGE DSP4 -DISPERSION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 83

PAGE 157

144 Appendix C (Continued) 3120600 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE DS P PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE DS P PACKAGE SSM4 -SINK & SOURCE MIXING PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 84 HEADER LINE OF THE SSM PACKAGE INPUT FILE: T F F F F F MAJOR STRESS COMPONENTS PRESENT IN THE FLOW MODEL: o WELL MAXIMUM NUMBER OF POINT SINKS/SOURCES = 31400 219800 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE SS M PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY BY THE SSM PAC KAGE RCT4 -CHEMICAL REACTION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MA Y 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 85 TYPE OF SORPTION SELECTED IS [LINEAR] NO FIRST-ORDER RATE REACTION IS SIMULATED REACTION COEFFICIENTS ASSIGNED CELL-BY-CELL INITIAL SORBED/IMMOBILE PHASE CONCENTRATION ASSIGN ED BY DEFAULT 936000 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE RC T PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE RC T PACKAGE GCG4 -GENERALIZED CONJUGATE GRADIENT SOLVER PACK AGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 86 MAXIMUM OF 1 OUTER ITERATIONS AND 50 INNER ITERATIONS ALLOWED FOR CLOSU RE THE PRECONDITIONING TYPE SELECTED IS MODIFIED INCO MPLETE CHOLESKY (MIC). DISPERSION CROSS TERMS LUMPED INTO RIGHT-HAND-SIDE 6864050 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE GC G PACKAGE 150 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE GC G PACKAGE # MODFLOW2000 Basic Package #MODFLOW Data Set Created by Groundwater Vistas # 200 LAYERS 39 ROWS 40 COLUMNS 18 STRESS PERIOD(S) IN SIMULATION BAS6 -BASIC PACKAGE, VERSION 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 1 1000 ELEMENTS IN IR ARRAY ARE USED BY BAS WEL6 -WELL PACKAGE, VERSION 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT R EAD FROM UNIT 12 # MODFLOW2000 Well Package 0 Named Parameters 0 List entries MAXIMUM OF 200 ACTIVE WELLS AT ONE TIME CELL-BY-CELL FLOWS WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 54 800 ELEMENTS IN RX ARRAY ARE USED BY WEL

PAGE 158

145 Appendix C (Continued) CHD6 -TIME-VARIANT SPECIFIED-HEAD PACKAGE, VERSI ON 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 40 # MODFLOW2000 Constant-Head Boundary Package (CHD) No named parameters MAXIMUM OF 15600 TIME-VARIANT SPECIFIED-HEAD CELL S AT ONE TIME 78000 ELEMENTS IN RX ARRAY ARE USED BY CHD 78800 ELEMENTS OF RX ARRAY USED OUT OF 78800 1000 ELEMENTS OF IR ARRAY USED OUT OF 1000 2808001 ELEMENTS OF THE VDF ARRAY USED BY VDF PRO CESS 1 # MODFLOW2000 Basic Package #MODFLOW Data Set Created by Groundwater Vistas --------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 25 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 400.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 25, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 8 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 0.3542142E+08 -2000782. CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 0.000000 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 1627906. -1403.853 MASS STORAGE (SORBE D): 0.000000 0.000000 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 0.3704983E+08 KG -0.3731443E+08 KG NET (IN OUT): -264602.0 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -0.7116375 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 8

PAGE 159

146 Appendix C (Continued) CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 100123.1373 STORAGE = 28.0689 CONSTANT HEAD = 7109586335.3564 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 378500000.7500 WELLS = 1514000.0030 DCDT = 1127296.1428 DCDT = 5414.2223 TOTAL IN = 7489313755.3864 TOTAL IN = 1519442.2942 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 7087672548.2672 STORAGE = 76.9186 CONSTANT HEAD = 401585650.2738 CON STANT HEAD = 1519358.4740 WELLS = 0.0000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 1032.4589 DCDT = 6.9730 TOTAL OUT = 7489259231.0000 TOTAL OUT = 1519442.3656 IN OUT = 54524.3865 IN OUT = -7.1478E-02 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 5 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 8 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 10903. 181.72 3.0286 0.12619 3.45497E-04 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 3.45600E+07 5.76000E+05 9600.0 400.00 1.0951 1 -----------------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 25 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 650.0000 D

PAGE 160

147 Appendix C (Continued)................................................... .................. CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 25, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 13 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 0.3565753E+08 -2254294. CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 0.000000 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 1723890. -97359.57 MASS STORAGE (SORBE D): 0.000000 0.000000 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 0.3739922E+08 KG -0.3766390E+08 KG NET (IN OUT): -264674.0 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -0.7052038 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 13 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 13 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 13 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 3580970.3319 STORAGE = 4.9366 CONSTANT HEAD = 7156976646.1911 CON STANT HEAD = 193360.0206 WELLS = 378500000.7500 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 1187465.5622 DCDT = 397.8884 TOTAL IN = 7540245082.8352 TOTAL IN = 193762.8456 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 7087672666.0197 STORAGE = 4.5041 CONSTANT HEAD = 452469136.8926 CON STANT HEAD = 193360.5616 WELLS = 0.0000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 61179.7995 DCDT = 397.8851 TOTAL OUT = 7540202982.7118 TOTAL OUT = 193762.9507

PAGE 161

148 Appendix C (Continued) IN OUT = 42100.1235 IN OUT = -0.1051 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 5 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 13 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 10903. 181.72 3.0286 0.12619 3.45497E-04 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 5.61600E+07 9.36000E+05 15600. 650.00 1.7796 1 -----------------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 25 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 900.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 25, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 18 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 0.3753320E+08 -2254966. CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 -1093446. DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 1762011. -730631.9 MASS STORAGE (SORBE D): 0.000000 0.000000 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 0.3933039E+08 KG -0.3939136E+08 KG NET (IN OUT): -60974.69 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -0.1549119 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 18

PAGE 162

149 Appendix C (Continued) DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 18 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 18 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 7077218.6793 STORAGE = 13.5084 CONSTANT HEAD = 7533449193.4805 CON STANT HEAD = 1519402.4529 WELLS = 378500000.7500 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 1213370.4976 DCDT = 64.0688 TOTAL IN = 7920239783.4074 TOTAL IN = 1519480.0301 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 7087688166.4147 STORAGE = 8.6878 CONSTANT HEAD = 452603976.3183 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 379279526.3864 WELLS = 1517930.2585 DCDT = 490399.8512 DCDT = 1541.0616 TOTAL OUT = 7920062068.9706 TOTAL OUT = 1519480.0078 IN OUT = 177714.4367 IN OUT = 2.2244E-02 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 5 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 18 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 10903. 181.72 3.0286 0.12619 3.45497E-04 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 7.77600E+07 1.29600E+06 21600. 900.00 2.4641 1

PAGE 163

150 Appendix C (Continued) Suwan 10 MODFLOW-2000 U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MODULAR FINITE-DIFFERE NCE GROUND-WATER FLOW MODEL VERSION 3.10 02/13/200 4 This model run produced both GLOBAL and LIST files This is the LIST file. ----| M T | Conversion from Groundwater Vistas | 3 D | MT3D Model ----THE TRANSPORT MODEL CONSISTS OF 200 LAYER(S) 3 8 ROW(S) 40 COLUMN(S) NUMBER OF STRESS PERIOD(S) FOR TRANSPORT SIMULATIO N = 18 NUMBER OF ALL COMPONENTS INCLUDED IN SIMULATION = 1 NUMBER OF MOBILE COMPONENTS INCLUDED IN SIMULATION = 1 UNIT FOR TIME IS D ; UNIT FOR LENGTH IS M ; UNIT FOR MASS IS KG PACKAGES INCLUDED IN CURRENT SIMULATION: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T T T T T F F F F F COUPLING BETWEEN FLOW AND TRANSPORT IS IMPLICIT 100 COUPLING ITERATIONS 0.1000 IS THE DENSITY CONVERGENCE CRITERIA MT3DMS SPECIES USED IN EQUATION OF STATE FOR FLUID DENSITY: 1 AN UPSTREAM-WEIGHTED ALGORITHM IS USED TO CALCULAT E FLUID DENSITY TERMS THAT CONSERVE MASS FIRSTDT SPECIFIED BY USER IN THE VDF FILE IS: 0. 1000000E-01 1000. REFERENCE DENSITY 0.7143 DENSITY SLOPE FOR EQUATION OF STATE VARIABLE-DENSITY WATER-TABLE CORRECTIONS NOT ADDED BTN4 -BASIC TRANSPORT PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 81 4561676 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE BT N PACKAGE 304200 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE BT N PACKAGE FMI4 -FLOW MODEL INTERFACE PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 95 FLOW MODEL IS TRANSIENT ADV4 -ADVECTION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 82 ADVECTION IS SOLVED WITH THE UPSTREAM FINITE DIFFE RENCE SCHEME COURANT NUMBER ALLOWED IN SOLVING THE ADVECTION TE RM = 0.750 0 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE AD V PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE AD V PACKAGE DSP4 -DISPERSION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 83

PAGE 164

151 Appendix C (Continued) 3040600 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE DS P PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE DS P PACKAGE SSM4 -SINK & SOURCE MIXING PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 84 HEADER LINE OF THE SSM PACKAGE INPUT FILE: T F F F F F MAJOR STRESS COMPONENTS PRESENT IN THE FLOW MODEL: o WELL MAXIMUM NUMBER OF POINT SINKS/SOURCES = 30800 215600 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE SS M PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY BY THE SSM PAC KAGE RCT4 -CHEMICAL REACTION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MA Y 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 85 NO SORPTION [OR DUAL-DOMAIN MODEL] IS SIMULATED NO FIRST-ORDER RATE REACTION IS SIMULATED REACTION COEFFICIENTS ASSIGNED CELL-BY-CELL INITIAL SORBED/IMMOBILE PHASE CONCENTRATION ASSIGN ED BY DEFAULT 0 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE RC T PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE RC T PACKAGE GCG4 -GENERALIZED CONJUGATE GRADIENT SOLVER PACK AGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 86 MAXIMUM OF 1 OUTER ITERATIONS AND 50 INNER ITERATIONS ALLOWED FOR CLOSU RE THE PRECONDITIONING TYPE SELECTED IS MODIFIED INCO MPLETE CHOLESKY (MIC). DISPERSION CROSS TERMS LUMPED INTO RIGHT-HAND-SIDE 6688050 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE GC G PACKAGE 150 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE GC G PACKAGE # MODFLOW2000 Basic Package #MODFLOW Data Set Created by Groundwater Vistas # 200 LAYERS 38 ROWS 40 COLUMNS 18 STRESS PERIOD(S) IN SIMULATION BAS6 -BASIC PACKAGE, VERSION 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 1 1000 ELEMENTS IN IR ARRAY ARE USED BY BAS WEL6 -WELL PACKAGE, VERSION 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT R EAD FROM UNIT 12 # MODFLOW2000 Well Package 0 Named Parameters 0 List entries MAXIMUM OF 400 ACTIVE WELLS AT ONE TIME CELL-BY-CELL FLOWS WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 54 1600 ELEMENTS IN RX ARRAY ARE USED BY WEL

PAGE 165

152 Appendix C (Continued) CHD6 -TIME-VARIANT SPECIFIED-HEAD PACKAGE, VERSI ON 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 40 # MODFLOW2000 Constant-Head Boundary Package (CHD) No named parameters MAXIMUM OF 15200 TIME-VARIANT SPECIFIED-HEAD CELL S AT ONE TIME 76000 ELEMENTS IN RX ARRAY ARE USED BY CHD 77600 ELEMENTS OF RX ARRAY USED OUT OF 77600 1000 ELEMENTS OF IR ARRAY USED OUT OF 1000 2736001 ELEMENTS OF THE VDF ARRAY USED BY VDF PRO CESS 1 # MODFLOW2000 Basic Package #MODFLOW Data Set Created by Groundwater Vistas ---------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 20 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 400.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 20, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 8 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 1790834. -4070059. CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 0.000000 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 3443842. -10181.74 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 5235096. KG -5583204. KG NET (IN OUT): -348108.4 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -6.435547 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 8 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

PAGE 166

153 Appendix C (Continued) CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 42329.8144 STORAGE = 9.9098 CONSTANT HEAD = 180362628.4679 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 378500000.7500 WELLS = 1514000.0030 DCDT = 2386903.1805 DCDT = 10816.5843 TOTAL IN = 561291862.2127 TOTAL IN = 1524826.4970 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 151369963.0741 STORAGE = 9.0762 CONSTANT HEAD = 409913160.8099 CON STANT HEAD = 1524814.7685 WELLS = 0.0000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 7043.5362 DCDT = 2.0847 TOTAL OUT = 561290167.4201 TOTAL OUT = 1524825.9294 IN OUT = 1694.7926 IN OUT = 0.5677 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 0 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 8 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 2508.9 41.816 0.69693 2.90387E-02 7.95038E-05 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 3.45600E+07 5.76000E+05 9600.0 400.00 1.0951 1 --------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 20 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 650.0000 D

PAGE 167

154 Appendix C (Continued) .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 20, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 13 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 2274007. -4553967. CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 0.000000 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 3838406. -404743.7 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 6113566. KG -6461674. KG NET (IN OUT): -348108.2 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -5.536406 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 13 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 13 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 13 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 116398.6747 STORAGE = 2.0145 CONSTANT HEAD = 229025000.9366 CON STANT HEAD = 194740.1217 WELLS = 378500000.7500 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 2644345.6029 DCDT = 1153.3277 TOTAL IN = 610285745.9642 TOTAL IN = 195895.4639 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 151369978.6162 STORAGE = 1.9205 CONSTANT HEAD = 458649584.0229 CON STANT HEAD = 194739.2853 WELLS = 0.0000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 264483.8687 DCDT = 1153.3265 TOTAL OUT = 610284046.5078 TOTAL OUT = 195894.5323 IN OUT = 1699.4564 IN OUT = 0.9316

PAGE 168

155 Appendix C (Continued) PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 0 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 13 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 2508.9 41.816 0.69693 2.90387E-02 7.95038E-05 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 5.61600E+07 9.36000E+05 15600. 650.00 1.7796 1 -----------------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 20 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 900.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 20, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 18 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 6056856. -4553983. CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 -2282179. DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 3888554. -1638769. ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 9947402. KG -9978000. KG NET (IN OUT): -30598.18 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -0.3071274 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 18 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 18 1

PAGE 169

156 Appendix C (Continued) MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 18 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 201122.4758 STORAGE = 2.5144 CONSTANT HEAD = 610012019.7324 CON STANT HEAD = 1524814.2852 WELLS = 378500000.7500 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 2678435.7280 DCDT = 81.5698 TOTAL IN = 991391578.6862 TOTAL IN = 1524898.3693 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 151380650.7675 STORAGE = 2.9600 CONSTANT HEAD = 458651231.0381 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 380126774.6360 WELLS = 1521923.6838 DCDT = 1095705.0039 DCDT = 2972.3906 TOTAL OUT = 991254361.4455 TOTAL OUT = 1524899.0345 IN OUT = 137217.2407 IN OUT = -0.6651 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.01 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 0 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 18 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 2508.9 41.816 0.69693 2.90387E-02 7.95038E-05 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 7.77600E+07 1.29600E+06 21600. 900.00 2.4641 1

PAGE 170

157 Appendix C (Continued) Suwan 35 MODFLOW-2000 U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MODULAR FINITE-DIFFERE NCE GROUND-WATER FLOW MODEL VERSION 3.10 02/13/200 4 This model run produced both GLOBAL and LIST files This is the LIST file. ----| M T | Conversion from Groundwater Vistas | 3 D | MT3D Model ----THE TRANSPORT MODEL CONSISTS OF 200 LAYER(S) 3 8 ROW(S) 40 COLUMN(S) NUMBER OF STRESS PERIOD(S) FOR TRANSPORT SIMULATIO N = 18 NUMBER OF ALL COMPONENTS INCLUDED IN SIMULATION = 1 NUMBER OF MOBILE COMPONENTS INCLUDED IN SIMULATION = 1 UNIT FOR TIME IS D ; UNIT FOR LENGTH IS M ; UNIT FOR MASS IS KG PACKAGES INCLUDED IN CURRENT SIMULATION: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T T T T T F F F F F COUPLING BETWEEN FLOW AND TRANSPORT IS IMPLICIT 100 COUPLING ITERATIONS 0.1000 IS THE DENSITY CONVERGENCE CRITERIA MT3DMS SPECIES USED IN EQUATION OF STATE FOR FLUID DENSITY: 1 AN UPSTREAM-WEIGHTED ALGORITHM IS USED TO CALCULAT E FLUID DENSITY TERMS THAT CONSERVE MASS FIRSTDT SPECIFIED BY USER IN THE VDF FILE IS: 0. 1000000E-01 1000. REFERENCE DENSITY 0.7143 DENSITY SLOPE FOR EQUATION OF STATE VARIABLE-DENSITY WATER-TABLE CORRECTIONS NOT ADDED BTN4 -BASIC TRANSPORT PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 81 4561676 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE BT N PACKAGE 304200 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE BT N PACKAGE FMI4 -FLOW MODEL INTERFACE PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 95 FLOW MODEL IS TRANSIENT ADV4 -ADVECTION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 82 ADVECTION IS SOLVED WITH THE UPSTREAM FINITE DIFFE RENCE SCHEME COURANT NUMBER ALLOWED IN SOLVING THE ADVECTION TE RM = 0.750 0 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE AD V PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE AD V PACKAGE DSP4 -DISPERSION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 83 3040600 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE DS P PACKAGE

PAGE 171

158 Appendix C (Continued) 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE DS P PACKAGE SSM4 -SINK & SOURCE MIXING PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 84 HEADER LINE OF THE SSM PACKAGE INPUT FILE: T F F F F F MAJOR STRESS COMPONENTS PRESENT IN THE FLOW MODEL: o WELL MAXIMUM NUMBER OF POINT SINKS/SOURCES = 30800 215600 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE SS M PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY BY THE SSM PAC KAGE RCT4 -CHEMICAL REACTION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MA Y 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 85 NO SORPTION [OR DUAL-DOMAIN MODEL] IS SIMULATED NO FIRST-ORDER RATE REACTION IS SIMULATED REACTION COEFFICIENTS ASSIGNED CELL-BY-CELL INITIAL SORBED/IMMOBILE PHASE CONCENTRATION ASSIGN ED BY DEFAULT 0 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE RC T PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE RC T PACKAGE GCG4 -GENERALIZED CONJUGATE GRADIENT SOLVER PACK AGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 86 MAXIMUM OF 1 OUTER ITERATIONS AND 50 INNER ITERATIONS ALLOWED FOR CLOSU RE THE PRECONDITIONING TYPE SELECTED IS MODIFIED INCO MPLETE CHOLESKY (MIC). DISPERSION CROSS TERMS LUMPED INTO RIGHT-HAND-SIDE 6688050 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE GC G PACKAGE 150 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE GC G PACKAGE # MODFLOW2000 Basic Package #MODFLOW Data Set Created by Groundwater Vistas # 200 LAYERS 38 ROWS 40 COLUMNS 18 STRESS PERIOD(S) IN SIMULATION BAS6 -BASIC PACKAGE, VERSION 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 1 1000 ELEMENTS IN IR ARRAY ARE USED BY BAS WEL6 -WELL PACKAGE, VERSION 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT R EAD FROM UNIT 12 # MODFLOW2000 Well Package 0 Named Parameters 0 List entries MAXIMUM OF 400 ACTIVE WELLS AT ONE TIME CELL-BY-CELL FLOWS WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 54 1600 ELEMENTS IN RX ARRAY ARE USED BY WEL CHD6 -TIME-VARIANT SPECIFIED-HEAD PACKAGE, VERSI ON 6, 1/11/2000

PAGE 172

159 Appendix C (Continued) INPUT READ FROM UNIT 40 # MODFLOW2000 Constant-Head Boundary Package (CHD) No named parameters MAXIMUM OF 15200 TIME-VARIANT SPECIFIED-HEAD CELL S AT ONE TIME 76000 ELEMENTS IN RX ARRAY ARE USED BY CHD 77600 ELEMENTS OF RX ARRAY USED OUT OF 77600 1000 ELEMENTS OF IR ARRAY USED OUT OF 1000 2736001 ELEMENTS OF THE VDF ARRAY USED BY VDF PRO CESS 1 # MODFLOW2000 Basic Package #MODFLOW Data Set Created by Groundwater Vistas --------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 20 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 400.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 20, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 8 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 6379060. -0.1423474E+08 CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 0.000000 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 0.1201403E+08 -16160.81 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 0.1839832E+08 KG -0.1960822E+08 KG NET (IN OUT): -1209905. DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -6.366828 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 8 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

PAGE 173

160 Appendix C (Continued) CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 153208.1157 STORAGE = 9.5228E-03 CONSTANT HEAD = 186815332.5952 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 378500000.7500 WELLS = 1514000.0030 DCDT = 8317594.9997 DCDT = 37885.3715 TOTAL IN = 573786136.4607 TOTAL IN = 1551885.3840 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 156893252.8332 STORAGE = 8.8225E-03 CONSTANT HEAD = 416874463.9887 CON STANT HEAD = 1551843.7786 WELLS = 0.0000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 9749.3595 DCDT = 41.8058 TOTAL OUT = 573777466.1814 TOTAL OUT = 1551885.5932 IN OUT = 8670.2793 IN OUT = -0.2092 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 0 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 8 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 2508.9 41.816 0.69693 2.90387E-02 7.95038E-05 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 3.45600E+07 5.76000E+05 9600.0 400.00 1.0951 1 -----------------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 20 -----------------------------------------

PAGE 174

161 Appendix C (Continued) TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 200.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 20, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 4 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 1377525. -1377510. CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 0.000000 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 1564434. -1564439. ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 2941999. KG -2941990. KG NET (IN OUT): 8.599161 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): 0.2922902E-03 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 4 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 4 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 4 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 1178.9776 STORAGE = 7.6660 CONSTANT HEAD = 40341808.0643 CON STANT HEAD = 201706.5759 WELLS = 0.0000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 1025752.2116 DCDT = 5740.8940 TOTAL IN = 41368739.2536 TOTAL IN = 207455.1359 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 1199.3170 STORAGE = 8.4474 CONSTANT HEAD = 40341367.4769 CON STANT HEAD = 201705.7254 WELLS = 0.0000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 1025858.0751 DCDT = 5741.1173 TOTAL OUT = 41368424.8689 TOTAL OUT = 207455.2901

PAGE 175

162 Appendix C (Continued) IN OUT = 314.3847 IN OUT = -0.1542 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 0 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 4 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 2508.9 41.816 0.69693 2.90387E-02 7.95038E-05 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 1.72800E+07 2.88000E+05 4800.0 200.00 0.54757 1 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 20 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 450.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 20, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 9 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 0.1459242E+08 -1377570. CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 -9634902. DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 1863818. -4366460. ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 0.1645986E+08 KG -0.1537999E+08 KG NET (IN OUT): 1079871. DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): 6.783145 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 9 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 9 1

PAGE 176

163 Appendix C (Continued) MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 9 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 106269.2162 STORAGE = 6.6630 CONSTANT HEAD = 427349422.4009 CON STANT HEAD = 1551852.3405 WELLS = 0.0000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 1219900.1048 DCDT = 611.7234 TOTAL IN = 428675591.7220 TOTAL IN = 1552470.7268 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 30930.4572 STORAGE = 7.2079 CONSTANT HEAD = 40343110.9155 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 385377369.4603 WELLS = 1543929.9341 DCDT = 2855253.4367 DCDT = 8534.5511 TOTAL OUT = 428606664.2697 TOTAL OUT = 1552471.6930 IN OUT = 68927.4523 IN OUT = -0.9662 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.02 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 0 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 9 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 2508.9 41.816 0.69693 2.90387E-02 7.95038E-05 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 3.88800E+07 6.48000E+05 10800. 450.00 1.2320 1

PAGE 177

164 Appendix D: Model Output for Extended Storage Simu lation

PAGE 178

165 Appendix D. MODFLOW-2000 U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MODULAR FINITE-DIFFERE NCE GROUND-WATER FLOW MODEL VERSION 3.10 02/13/200 4 This model run produced both GLOBAL and LIST files This is the LIST file. ----| M T | Conversion from Groundwater Vistas | 3 D | MT3D Model ----THE TRANSPORT MODEL CONSISTS OF 200 LAYER(S) 3 8 ROW(S) 40 COLUMN(S) NUMBER OF STRESS PERIOD(S) FOR TRANSPORT SIMULATIO N = 35 NUMBER OF ALL COMPONENTS INCLUDED IN SIMULATION = 1 NUMBER OF MOBILE COMPONENTS INCLUDED IN SIMULATION = 1 UNIT FOR TIME IS D ; UNIT FOR LENGTH IS M ; UNIT FOR MASS IS KG PACKAGES INCLUDED IN CURRENT SIMULATION: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T T T T T F F F F F COUPLING BETWEEN FLOW AND TRANSPORT IS IMPLICIT 100 COUPLING ITERATIONS 0.1000 IS THE DENSITY CONVERGENCE CRITERIA MT3DMS SPECIES USED IN EQUATION OF STATE FOR FLUID DENSITY: 1 AN UPSTREAM-WEIGHTED ALGORITHM IS USED TO CALCULAT E FLUID DENSITY TERMS THAT CONSERVE MASS FIRSTDT SPECIFIED BY USER IN THE VDF FILE IS: 0. 1000000E-01 1000. REFERENCE DENSITY 0.7143 DENSITY SLOPE FOR EQUATION OF STATE VARIABLE-DENSITY WATER-TABLE CORRECTIONS NOT ADDED BTN4 -BASIC TRANSPORT PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 81 4561676 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE BT N PACKAGE 304200 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE BT N PACKAGE FMI4 -FLOW MODEL INTERFACE PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 95 FLOW MODEL IS TRANSIENT ADV4 -ADVECTION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 82 ADVECTION IS SOLVED WITH THE UPSTREAM FINITE DIFFE RENCE SCHEME COURANT NUMBER ALLOWED IN SOLVING THE ADVECTION TE RM = 0.750 0 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE AD V PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE AD V PACKAGE DSP4 -DISPERSION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 83 3040600 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE DS P PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE DS P PACKAGE

PAGE 179

166 Appendix D (Continued) SSM4 -SINK & SOURCE MIXING PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 84 HEADER LINE OF THE SSM PACKAGE INPUT FILE: T F F F F F MAJOR STRESS COMPONENTS PRESENT IN THE FLOW MODEL: o WELL MAXIMUM NUMBER OF POINT SINKS/SOURCES = 30800 215600 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE SS M PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY BY THE SSM PAC KAGE RCT4 -CHEMICAL REACTION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MA Y 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 85 NO SORPTION [OR DUAL-DOMAIN MODEL] IS SIMULATED NO FIRST-ORDER RATE REACTION IS SIMULATED REACTION COEFFICIENTS ASSIGNED CELL-BY-CELL INITIAL SORBED/IMMOBILE PHASE CONCENTRATION ASSIGN ED BY DEFAULT 0 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE RC T PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE RC T PACKAGE GCG4 -GENERALIZED CONJUGATE GRADIENT SOLVER PACK AGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 86 MAXIMUM OF 1 OUTER ITERATIONS AND 50 INNER ITERATIONS ALLOWED FOR CLOSU RE THE PRECONDITIONING TYPE SELECTED IS MODIFIED INCO MPLETE CHOLESKY (MIC). DISPERSION CROSS TERMS LUMPED INTO RIGHT-HAND-SIDE 6688050 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE GC G PACKAGE 150 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE GC G PACKAGE # MODFLOW2000 Basic Package #MODFLOW Data Set Created by Groundwater Vistas # 200 LAYERS 38 ROWS 40 COLUMNS 35 STRESS PERIOD(S) IN SIMULATION BAS6 -BASIC PACKAGE, VERSION 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 1 1000 ELEMENTS IN IR ARRAY ARE USED BY BAS WEL6 -WELL PACKAGE, VERSION 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT R EAD FROM UNIT 12 # MODFLOW2000 Well Package 0 Named Parameters 0 List entries MAXIMUM OF 400 ACTIVE WELLS AT ONE TIME CELL-BY-CELL FLOWS WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 54 1600 ELEMENTS IN RX ARRAY ARE USED BY WEL CHD6 -TIME-VARIANT SPECIFIED-HEAD PACKAGE, VERSI ON 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 40 # MODFLOW2000 Constant-Head Boundary Package (CHD)

PAGE 180

167 Appendix D (Continued) No named parameters MAXIMUM OF 15200 TIME-VARIANT SPECIFIED-HEAD CELL S AT ONE TIME 76000 ELEMENTS IN RX ARRAY ARE USED BY CHD 77600 ELEMENTS OF RX ARRAY USED OUT OF 77600 1000 ELEMENTS OF IR ARRAY USED OUT OF 1000 2736001 ELEMENTS OF THE VDF ARRAY USED BY VDF PRO CESS -----------------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 10 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 1385.727 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 10, TIME STEP 18, STRESS PE RIOD 28 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 367289.9 -596537.3 CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 0.000000 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 334901.9 -6101.472 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 702266.5 KG -751935.9 KG NET (IN OUT): -49669.38 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -6.831150 SOLVING FOR HEAD 1 CALLS TO PCG ROUTINE FOR TIME STEP 18 IN ST RESS PERIOD 28 1 TOTAL ITERATIONS FMI4 -FLOW MODEL INTERFACE PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 95 FLOW MODEL IS TRANSIENT FLOW MODEL CONTAINS CONSTANT-HEAD CELLS "THKSAT FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"QXX FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

PAGE 181

168 Appendix D (Continued) "QYY FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"QZZ FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"STO FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MAXIMUM STEPSIZE DURING WHICH ANY PARTICLE CANNOT MOVE MORE THAN ONE CELL = 36.23 (WHEN MIN. R.F.=1) AT K= 94, I= 19, J= 21 MAXIMUM STEPSIZE WHICH MEETS STABILITY CRITERION O F THE ADVECTION TERM (FOR PURE FINITE-DIFFERENCE OPTION, MIXELM=0) = 35.84 (WHEN MIN. R.F.=1) AT K= 103, I= 19, J= 21 "CNH FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"WEL FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TOTAL NUMBER OF POINT SOURCES/SINKS PRESENT IN THE FLOW MODEL = 30400 MAXIMUM STEPSIZE WHICH MEETS STABILITY CRITERION O F THE SINK & SOURCE TERM = 4399. (WHEN MIN. R.F.=1) AT K= 127, I= 38, J= 40 MAXIMUM STEPSIZE WHICH MEETS STABILITY CRITERION O F THE DISPERSION TERM = 0.2632 (WHEN MIN. R.F.=1) AT K= 93, I= 19, J= 21 1 CALLS TO GCG PACKAGE FOR TRANSPORT TIME STEP 11 IN FLOW TIME STEP 18 STRESS PERIOD 28 1 TOTAL ITERATIONS __________________________________________________ 0COMPLETED COUPLING ITERATION 1 MAXIMUM DENSITY DIFFERENCE = 0.0000 AT CELL (I,J,K) = ( 19, 22, 125) __________________________________________________ SOLVING FOR HEAD 1 CALLS TO PCG ROUTINE FOR TIME STEP 18 IN ST RESS PERIOD 28 1 TOTAL ITERATIONS FMI4 -FLOW MODEL INTERFACE PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 95 FLOW MODEL IS TRANSIENT FLOW MODEL CONTAINS CONSTANT-HEAD CELLS

PAGE 182

169 Appendix D (Continued) "THKSAT FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"QXX FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"QYY FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"QZZ FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"STO FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MAXIMUM STEPSIZE DURING WHICH ANY PARTICLE CANNOT MOVE MORE THAN ONE CELL = 36.23 (WHEN MIN. R.F.=1) AT K= 94, I= 19, J= 21 MAXIMUM STEPSIZE WHICH MEETS STABILITY CRITERION O F THE ADVECTION TERM (FOR PURE FINITE-DIFFERENCE OPTION, MIXELM=0) = 35.84 (WHEN MIN. R.F.=1) AT K= 103, I= 19, J= 21 "CNH FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"WEL FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TOTAL NUMBER OF POINT SOURCES/SINKS PRESENT IN THE FLOW MODEL = 30400 MAXIMUM STEPSIZE WHICH MEETS STABILITY CRITERION O F THE SINK & SOURCE TERM = 4399. (WHEN MIN. R.F.=1) AT K= 127, I= 38, J= 40 MAXIMUM STEPSIZE WHICH MEETS STABILITY CRITERION O F THE DISPERSION TERM = 0.2632 (WHEN MIN. R.F.=1) AT K= 93, I= 19, J= 21 1 CALLS TO GCG PACKAGE FOR TRANSPORT TIME STEP 12 IN FLOW TIME STEP 18 STRESS PERIOD 28 1 TOTAL ITERATIONS __________________________________________________ 0COMPLETED COUPLING ITERATION 1 MAXIMUM DENSITY DIFFERENCE = 0.0000 AT CELL (I,J,K) = ( 19, 22, 125) __________________________________________________

PAGE 183

170 Appendix D (Continued) >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>FOR COMPONENT NO. 01<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< -----------------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 12 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 1385.937 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 12, TIME STEP 18, STRESS PE RIOD 28 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 367330.2 -596577.5 CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 0.000000 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 334901.9 -6101.472 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 702306.8 KG -751976.2 KG NET (IN OUT): -49669.38 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -6.830772 SOLVING FOR HEAD 1 CALLS TO PCG ROUTINE FOR TIME STEP 18 IN ST RESS PERIOD 28 1 TOTAL ITERATIONS FMI4 -FLOW MODEL INTERFACE PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 95 FLOW MODEL IS TRANSIENT FLOW MODEL CONTAINS CONSTANT-HEAD CELLS "THKSAT FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"QXX FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"QYY FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"QZZ FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95

PAGE 184

171 Appendix D (Continued) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"STO FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MAXIMUM STEPSIZE DURING WHICH ANY PARTICLE CANNOT MOVE MORE THAN ONE CELL = 36.23 (WHEN MIN. R.F.=1) AT K= 94, I= 19, J= 21 MAXIMUM STEPSIZE WHICH MEETS STABILITY CRITERION O F THE ADVECTION TERM (FOR PURE FINITE-DIFFERENCE OPTION, MIXELM=0) = 35.84 (WHEN MIN. R.F.=1) AT K= 103, I= 19, J= 21 "CNH FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"WEL FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TOTAL NUMBER OF POINT SOURCES/SINKS PRESENT IN THE FLOW MODEL = 30400 MAXIMUM STEPSIZE WHICH MEETS STABILITY CRITERION O F THE SINK & SOURCE TERM = 4399. (WHEN MIN. R.F.=1) AT K= 127, I= 38, J= 40 MAXIMUM STEPSIZE WHICH MEETS STABILITY CRITERION O F THE DISPERSION TERM = 0.2632 (WHEN MIN. R.F.=1) AT K= 93, I= 19, J= 21 1 CALLS TO GCG PACKAGE FOR TRANSPORT TIME STEP 13 IN FLOW TIME STEP 18 STRESS PERIOD 28 1 TOTAL ITERATIONS __________________________________________________ 0COMPLETED COUPLING ITERATION 1 MAXIMUM DENSITY DIFFERENCE = 0.0000 AT CELL (I,J,K) = ( 19, 22, 125) __________________________________________________ SOLVING FOR HEAD 1 CALLS TO PCG ROUTINE FOR TIME STEP 18 IN ST RESS PERIOD 28 1 TOTAL ITERATIONS FMI4 -FLOW MODEL INTERFACE PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 95 FLOW MODEL IS TRANSIENT FLOW MODEL CONTAINS CONSTANT-HEAD CELLS "THKSAT FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

PAGE 185

172 Appendix D (Continued) "QXX FLOW TERMS FO R TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED O N UNIT 95 ------------------------"QYY FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"QZZ FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"STO FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MAXIMUM STEPSIZE DURING WHICH ANY PARTICLE CANNOT MOVE MORE THAN ONE CELL = 36.23 (WHEN MIN. R.F.=1) AT K= 94, I= 19, J= 21 MAXIMUM STEPSIZE WHICH MEETS STABILITY CRITERION O F THE ADVECTION TERM (FOR PURE FINITE-DIFFERENCE OPTION, MIXELM=0) = 35.84 (WHEN MIN. R.F.=1) AT K= 103, I= 19, J= 21 "CNH FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"WEL FLOW TERMS F OR TIME STEP 18, STRESS PERIOD 28 READ UNFORMATTED ON UNIT 95 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

PAGE 186

173 Appendix E: Model Output for Simulations with Vary ing Dispersivities

PAGE 187

174 Appendix E Suwan Hetero D 0.0 MODFLOW-2000 U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MODULAR FINITE-DIFFERE NCE GROUND-WATER FLOW MODEL VERSION 3.10 02/13/200 4 This model run produced both GLOBAL and LIST files This is the LIST file. ----| M T | Conversion from Groundwater Vistas | 3 D | MT3D Model ----THE TRANSPORT MODEL CONSISTS OF 200 LAYER(S) 3 8 ROW(S) 40 COLUMN(S) NUMBER OF STRESS PERIOD(S) FOR TRANSPORT SIMULATIO N = 18 NUMBER OF ALL COMPONENTS INCLUDED IN SIMULATION = 1 NUMBER OF MOBILE COMPONENTS INCLUDED IN SIMULATION = 1 UNIT FOR TIME IS D ; UNIT FOR LENGTH IS M ; UNIT FOR MASS IS KG PACKAGES INCLUDED IN CURRENT SIMULATION: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T T T T T F F F F F COUPLING BETWEEN FLOW AND TRANSPORT IS IMPLICIT 100 COUPLING ITERATIONS 0.1000 IS THE DENSITY CONVERGENCE CRITERIA MT3DMS SPECIES USED IN EQUATION OF STATE FOR FLUID DENSITY: 1 AN UPSTREAM-WEIGHTED ALGORITHM IS USED TO CALCULAT E FLUID DENSITY TERMS THAT CONSERVE MASS FIRSTDT SPECIFIED BY USER IN THE VDF FILE IS: 0. 1000000E-01 1000. REFERENCE DENSITY 0.7143 DENSITY SLOPE FOR EQUATION OF STATE VARIABLE-DENSITY WATER-TABLE CORRECTIONS NOT ADDED BTN4 -BASIC TRANSPORT PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 81 4561676 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE BT N PACKAGE 304200 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE BT N PACKAGE FMI4 -FLOW MODEL INTERFACE PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 95 FLOW MODEL IS TRANSIENT ADV4 -ADVECTION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 82 ADVECTION IS SOLVED WITH THE UPSTREAM FINITE DIFFE RENCE SCHEME COURANT NUMBER ALLOWED IN SOLVING THE ADVECTION TE RM = 0.750 0 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE AD V PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE AD V PACKAGE DSP4 -DISPERSION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 83 3040600 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE DS P PACKAGE

PAGE 188

175 Appendix E (Continued) 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE DS P PACKAGE SSM4 -SINK & SOURCE MIXING PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 84 HEADER LINE OF THE SSM PACKAGE INPUT FILE: T F F F F F MAJOR STRESS COMPONENTS PRESENT IN THE FLOW MODEL: o WELL MAXIMUM NUMBER OF POINT SINKS/SOURCES = 30800 215600 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE SS M PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY BY THE SSM PAC KAGE RCT4 -CHEMICAL REACTION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MA Y 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 85 NO SORPTION [OR DUAL-DOMAIN MODEL] IS SIMULATED NO FIRST-ORDER RATE REACTION IS SIMULATED REACTION COEFFICIENTS ASSIGNED CELL-BY-CELL INITIAL SORBED/IMMOBILE PHASE CONCENTRATION ASSIGN ED BY DEFAULT 0 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE RC T PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE RC T PACKAGE GCG4 -GENERALIZED CONJUGATE GRADIENT SOLVER PACK AGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 86 MAXIMUM OF 1 OUTER ITERATIONS AND 50 INNER ITERATIONS ALLOWED FOR CLOSU RE THE PRECONDITIONING TYPE SELECTED IS MODIFIED INCO MPLETE CHOLESKY (MIC). DISPERSION CROSS TERMS LUMPED INTO RIGHT-HAND-SIDE 6688050 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE GC G PACKAGE 150 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE GC G PACKAGE # MODFLOW2000 Basic Package #MODFLOW Data Set Created by Groundwater Vistas # 200 LAYERS 38 ROWS 40 COLUMNS 18 STRESS PERIOD(S) IN SIMULATION BAS6 -BASIC PACKAGE, VERSION 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 1 1000 ELEMENTS IN IR ARRAY ARE USED BY BAS WEL6 -WELL PACKAGE, VERSION 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT R EAD FROM UNIT 12 # MODFLOW2000 Well Package 0 Named Parameters 0 List entries MAXIMUM OF 400 ACTIVE WELLS AT ONE TIME CELL-BY-CELL FLOWS WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 54 1600 ELEMENTS IN RX ARRAY ARE USED BY WEL CHD6 -TIME-VARIANT SPECIFIED-HEAD PACKAGE, VERSI ON 6, 1/11/2000

PAGE 189

176 Appendix E (Continued) INPUT READ FROM UNIT 40 # MODFLOW2000 Constant-Head Boundary Package (CHD) No named parameters MAXIMUM OF 15200 TIME-VARIANT SPECIFIED-HEAD CELL S AT ONE TIME 76000 ELEMENTS IN RX ARRAY ARE USED BY CHD 77600 ELEMENTS OF RX ARRAY USED OUT OF 77600 1000 ELEMENTS OF IR ARRAY USED OUT OF 1000 2736001 ELEMENTS OF THE VDF ARRAY USED BY VDF PRO CESS 1 # MODFLOW2000 Basic Package #MODFLOW Data Set Created by Groundwater Vistas -----------------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 20 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 400.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 20, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 8 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 177939.5 -407125.2 CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 0.000000 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 354068.3 -48.88584 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 532009.3 KG -556471.3 KG NET (IN OUT): -24462.06 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -4.494716 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 1

PAGE 190

177 Appendix E (Continued) MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 8 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 1510.1370 STORAGE = 1.5311 CONSTANT HEAD = 178066607.3073 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 378500000.7500 WELLS = 1514000.0030 DCDT = 247697.3025 DCDT = 1081.5768 TOTAL IN = 556815815.4969 TOTAL IN = 1515083.1109 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 149403907.0651 STORAGE = 1.0202 CONSTANT HEAD = 407415999.1286 CON STANT HEAD = 1515081.6480 WELLS = 0.0000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 36.9202 DCDT = 0.1264 TOTAL OUT = 556819943.1139 TOTAL OUT = 1515082.7946 IN OUT = -4127.6170 IN OUT = 0.3164 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 0 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 8 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 2508.9 41.816 0.69693 2.90387E-02 7.95038E-05 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 3.45600E+07 5.76000E+05 9600.0 400.00 1.0951 1 ++++++++++++++++ +++++++++++++++++++++++++

PAGE 191

178 Appendix E (Continued) -----------------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 20 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 650.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 20, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 13---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 225947.9 -455208.2 CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 0.000000 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 383164.9 -29145.45 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 609187.7 KG -633650.9 KG NET (IN OUT): -24463.28 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -3.936678 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 13 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 13 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 13 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 75111.1211 STORAGE = 3.5190 CONSTANT HEAD = 226109263.1669 CON STANT HEAD = 192258.7720 WELLS = 378500000.7500 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 266805.9199 DCDT = 95.2858 TOTAL IN = 604951180.9579 TOTAL IN = 192357.5768 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 149403924.0525 STORAGE = 4.1502 CONSTANT HEAD = 455533365.6175 CON STANT HEAD = 192261.4355

PAGE 192

179 Appendix E (Continued) WELLS = 0.0000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 19145.5170 DCDT = 95.2872 TOTAL OUT = 604956435.1870 TOTAL OUT = 192360.8730 IN OUT = -5254.2291 IN OUT = -3.2961 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 0 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 13 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 2508.9 41.816 0.69693 2.90387E-02 7.95038E-05 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 5.61600E+07 9.36000E+05 15600. 650.00 1.7796 1 -----------------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 20 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 900.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 20, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 18 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 604371.6 -455209.8 CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 -159474.8 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 397545.1 -235971.5 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 1002066. KG -999954.2 KG

PAGE 193

180 Appendix E (Continued) NET (IN OUT): 2111.463 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): 0.2109333 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 18 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 18 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 18 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 149482.6893 STORAGE = 1.1028 CONSTANT HEAD = 604803331.4612 CON STANT HEAD = 1515082.3793 WELLS = 378500000.7500 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 276746.6171 DCDT = 25.3615 TOTAL IN = 983729561.5176 TOTAL IN = 1515108.8436 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 149404712.4673 STORAGE = 1.0659 CONSTANT HEAD = 455534974.7023 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 378613403.4220 WELLS = 1514745.1551 DCDT = 161912.5129 DCDT = 361.6596 TOTAL OUT = 983715003.1046 TOTAL OUT = 1515107.8807 IN OUT = 14558.4130 IN OUT = 0.9630 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 0 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 18 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 2508.9 41.816 0.69693 2.90387E-02 7.95038E-05 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 7.77600E+07 1.29600E+06 21600. 900.00 2.4641 1

PAGE 194

181 Appendix E (Continued) Suwan Hetero D 5.25 MODFLOW-2000 U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MODULAR FINITE-DIFFERE NCE GROUND-WATER FLOW MODEL VERSION 3.10 02/13/200 4 This model run produced both GLOBAL and LIST files This is the LIST file. ----| M T | Conversion from Groundwater Vistas | 3 D | MT3D Model ----THE TRANSPORT MODEL CONSISTS OF 200 LAYER(S) 3 8 ROW(S) 40 COLUMN(S) NUMBER OF STRESS PERIOD(S) FOR TRANSPORT SIMULATIO N = 18 NUMBER OF ALL COMPONENTS INCLUDED IN SIMULATION = 1 NUMBER OF MOBILE COMPONENTS INCLUDED IN SIMULATION = 1 UNIT FOR TIME IS D ; UNIT FOR LENGTH IS M ; UNIT FOR MASS IS KG PACKAGES INCLUDED IN CURRENT SIMULATION: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T T T T T F F F F F COUPLING BETWEEN FLOW AND TRANSPORT IS IMPLICIT 100 COUPLING ITERATIONS 0.1000 IS THE DENSITY CONVERGENCE CRITERIA MT3DMS SPECIES USED IN EQUATION OF STATE FOR FLUID DENSITY: 1 AN UPSTREAM-WEIGHTED ALGORITHM IS USED TO CALCULAT E FLUID DENSITY TERMS THAT CONSERVE MASS FIRSTDT SPECIFIED BY USER IN THE VDF FILE IS: 0. 1000000E-01 1000. REFERENCE DENSITY 0.7143 DENSITY SLOPE FOR EQUATION OF STATE VARIABLE-DENSITY WATER-TABLE CORRECTIONS NOT ADDED BTN4 -BASIC TRANSPORT PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 81 4561676 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE BT N PACKAGE 304200 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE BT N PACKAGE FMI4 -FLOW MODEL INTERFACE PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 95 FLOW MODEL IS TRANSIENT ADV4 -ADVECTION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 82 ADVECTION IS SOLVED WITH THE UPSTREAM FINITE DIFFE RENCE SCHEME COURANT NUMBER ALLOWED IN SOLVING THE ADVECTION TE RM = 0.750 0 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE AD V PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE AD V PACKAGE DSP4 -DISPERSION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 83 3040600 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE DS P PACKAGE

PAGE 195

182 Appendix E (Continued) 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE DS P PACKAGE SSM4 -SINK & SOURCE MIXING PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 84 HEADER LINE OF THE SSM PACKAGE INPUT FILE: T F F F F F MAJOR STRESS COMPONENTS PRESENT IN THE FLOW MODEL: o WELL MAXIMUM NUMBER OF POINT SINKS/SOURCES = 30800 215600 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE SS M PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY BY THE SSM PAC KAGE RCT4 -CHEMICAL REACTION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MA Y 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 85 NO SORPTION [OR DUAL-DOMAIN MODEL] IS SIMULATED NO FIRST-ORDER RATE REACTION IS SIMULATED REACTION COEFFICIENTS ASSIGNED CELL-BY-CELL INITIAL SORBED/IMMOBILE PHASE CONCENTRATION ASSIGN ED BY DEFAULT 0 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE RC T PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE RC T PACKAGE GCG4 -GENERALIZED CONJUGATE GRADIENT SOLVER PACK AGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 86 MAXIMUM OF 1 OUTER ITERATIONS AND 50 INNER ITERATIONS ALLOWED FOR CLOSU RE THE PRECONDITIONING TYPE SELECTED IS MODIFIED INCO MPLETE CHOLESKY (MIC). DISPERSION CROSS TERMS LUMPED INTO RIGHT-HAND-SIDE 6688050 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE GC G PACKAGE 150 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE GC G PACKAGE # MODFLOW2000 Basic Package #MODFLOW Data Set Created by Groundwater Vistas # 200 LAYERS 38 ROWS 40 COLUMNS 18 STRESS PERIOD(S) IN SIMULATION BAS6 -BASIC PACKAGE, VERSION 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 1 1000 ELEMENTS IN IR ARRAY ARE USED BY BAS WEL6 -WELL PACKAGE, VERSION 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT R EAD FROM UNIT 12 # MODFLOW2000 Well Package 0 Named Parameters 0 List entries MAXIMUM OF 400 ACTIVE WELLS AT ONE TIME CELL-BY-CELL FLOWS WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 54 1600 ELEMENTS IN RX ARRAY ARE USED BY WEL CHD6 -TIME-VARIANT SPECIFIED-HEAD PACKAGE, VERSI ON 6, 1/11/2000

PAGE 196

183 Appendix E (Continued) INPUT READ FROM UNIT 40 # MODFLOW2000 Constant-Head Boundary Package (CHD) No named parameters MAXIMUM OF 15200 TIME-VARIANT SPECIFIED-HEAD CELL S AT ONE TIME 76000 ELEMENTS IN RX ARRAY ARE USED BY CHD 77600 ELEMENTS OF RX ARRAY USED OUT OF 77600 1000 ELEMENTS OF IR ARRAY USED OUT OF 1000 2736001 ELEMENTS OF THE VDF ARRAY USED BY VDF PRO CESS 1 # MODFLOW2000 Basic Package #MODFLOW Data Set Created by Groundwater Vistas --------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 25 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 400.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 25, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 8 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 177953.3 -407100.7 CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 0.000000 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 335133.2 -121.3936 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 513087.7 KG -556519.1 KG NET (IN OUT): -43431.39 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -8.121000 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 8 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

PAGE 197

184 Appendix E (Continued) CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 1238.7598 STORAGE = 0.2245 CONSTANT HEAD = 178080366.5120 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 378499999.7500 WELLS = 1513999.9990 DCDT = 233066.7606 DCDT = 1081.7044 TOTAL IN = 556814671.7824 TOTAL IN = 1515081.9280 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 149403653.2148 STORAGE = 0.1614 CONSTANT HEAD = 407391509.6637 CON STANT HEAD = 1515081.3874 WELLS = 0.0000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 85.0837 DCDT = 0.2543 TOTAL OUT = 556795247.9623 TOTAL OUT = 1515081.8031 IN OUT = 19423.8201 IN OUT = 0.1249 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 5 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 8 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 10903. 181.72 3.0286 0.12619 3.45497E-04 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 3.45600E+07 5.76000E+05 9600.0 400.00 1.0951 1 ---------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 25 -----------------------------------------

PAGE 198

185 Appendix E (Continued) TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 650.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 25, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 13 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 225951.0 -455172.0 CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 0.000000 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 345504.1 -10492.22 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 571529.6 KG -614961.3 KG NET (IN OUT): -43431.62 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -7.321020 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 13 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 13 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 13 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 74846.1726 STORAGE = 0.3116 CONSTANT HEAD = 226112347.4801 CON STANT HEAD = 192218.1648 WELLS = 378499999.7500 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 239621.4713 DCDT = 45.6247 TOTAL IN = 604926814.8741 TOTAL IN = 192264.1011 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 149403659.3921 STORAGE = 0.2950 CONSTANT HEAD = 455497162.0779 CON STANT HEAD = 192216.0151 WELLS = 0.0000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 6628.9457 DCDT = 45.6246 TOTAL OUT = 604907450.4157 TOTAL OUT = 192261.9347

PAGE 199

186 Appendix E (Continued) IN OUT = 19364.4584 IN OUT = 2.1663 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 5 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 13 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 10903. 181.72 3.0286 0.12619 3.45497E-04 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 5.61600E+07 9.36000E+05 15600. 650.00 1.7796 1 -----------------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 25 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 900.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 25, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 18 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 604375.3 -455173.7 CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 -184159.6 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 350967.3 -171394.2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 955491.0 KG -960025.0 KG NET (IN OUT): -4533.990 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -0.4733962 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 18

PAGE 200

187 Appendix E (Continued) DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 18 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 18 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 148987.4264 STORAGE = 0.1111 CONSTANT HEAD = 604807007.5191 CON STANT HEAD = 1515081.8573 WELLS = 378499999.7500 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 243400.2564 DCDT = 4.8148 TOTAL IN = 983699394.9519 TOTAL IN = 1515086.7831 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 149404199.9950 STORAGE = 0.1076 CONSTANT HEAD = 455498798.7021 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 378631172.7932 WELLS = 1514743.5077 DCDT = 117254.8932 DCDT = 342.7563 TOTAL OUT = 983651426.3834 TOTAL OUT = 1515086.3716 IN OUT = 47968.5685 IN OUT = 0.4115 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 5 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 18 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 10903. 181.72 3.0286 0.12619 3.45497E-04 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 7.77600E+07 1.29600E+06 21600. 900.00 2.4641 1

PAGE 201

188 Appendix E (Continued) Suwan Hetero D 10.5 MODFLOW-2000 U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MODULAR FINITE-DIFFERE NCE GROUND-WATER FLOW MODEL VERSION 3.10 02/13/200 4 This model run produced both GLOBAL and LIST files This is the LIST file. ----| M T | Conversion from Groundwater Vistas | 3 D | MT3D Model ----THE TRANSPORT MODEL CONSISTS OF 200 LAYER(S) 3 8 ROW(S) 40 COLUMN(S) NUMBER OF STRESS PERIOD(S) FOR TRANSPORT SIMULATIO N = 18 NUMBER OF ALL COMPONENTS INCLUDED IN SIMULATION = 1 NUMBER OF MOBILE COMPONENTS INCLUDED IN SIMULATION = 1 UNIT FOR TIME IS D ; UNIT FOR LENGTH IS M ; UNIT FOR MASS IS KG PACKAGES INCLUDED IN CURRENT SIMULATION: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T T T T T F F F F F COUPLING BETWEEN FLOW AND TRANSPORT IS IMPLICIT 100 COUPLING ITERATIONS 0.1000 IS THE DENSITY CONVERGENCE CRITERIA MT3DMS SPECIES USED IN EQUATION OF STATE FOR FLUID DENSITY: 1 AN UPSTREAM-WEIGHTED ALGORITHM IS USED TO CALCULAT E FLUID DENSITY TERMS THAT CONSERVE MASS FIRSTDT SPECIFIED BY USER IN THE VDF FILE IS: 0. 1000000E-01 1000. REFERENCE DENSITY 0.7143 DENSITY SLOPE FOR EQUATION OF STATE VARIABLE-DENSITY WATER-TABLE CORRECTIONS NOT ADDED BTN4 -BASIC TRANSPORT PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 81 4561676 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE BT N PACKAGE 304200 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE BT N PACKAGE FMI4 -FLOW MODEL INTERFACE PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 95 FLOW MODEL IS TRANSIENT ADV4 -ADVECTION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 82 ADVECTION IS SOLVED WITH THE UPSTREAM FINITE DIFFE RENCE SCHEME COURANT NUMBER ALLOWED IN SOLVING THE ADVECTION TE RM = 0.750 0 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE AD V PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE AD V PACKAGE DSP4 -DISPERSION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 83 3040600 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE DS P PACKAGE

PAGE 202

189 Appendix E (Continued) 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE DS P PACKAGE SSM4 -SINK & SOURCE MIXING PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 84 HEADER LINE OF THE SSM PACKAGE INPUT FILE: T F F F F F MAJOR STRESS COMPONENTS PRESENT IN THE FLOW MODEL: o WELL MAXIMUM NUMBER OF POINT SINKS/SOURCES = 30800 215600 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE SS M PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY BY THE SSM PAC KAGE RCT4 -CHEMICAL REACTION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MA Y 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 85 NO SORPTION [OR DUAL-DOMAIN MODEL] IS SIMULATED NO FIRST-ORDER RATE REACTION IS SIMULATED REACTION COEFFICIENTS ASSIGNED CELL-BY-CELL INITIAL SORBED/IMMOBILE PHASE CONCENTRATION ASSIGN ED BY DEFAULT 0 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE RC T PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE RC T PACKAGE GCG4 -GENERALIZED CONJUGATE GRADIENT SOLVER PACK AGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 86 MAXIMUM OF 1 OUTER ITERATIONS AND 50 INNER ITERATIONS ALLOWED FOR CLOSU RE THE PRECONDITIONING TYPE SELECTED IS MODIFIED INCO MPLETE CHOLESKY (MIC). DISPERSION CROSS TERMS LUMPED INTO RIGHT-HAND-SIDE 6688050 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE GC G PACKAGE 150 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE GC G PACKAGE # MODFLOW2000 Basic Package #MODFLOW Data Set Created by Groundwater Vistas # 200 LAYERS 38 ROWS 40 COLUMNS 18 STRESS PERIOD(S) IN SIMULATION BAS6 -BASIC PACKAGE, VERSION 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 1 1000 ELEMENTS IN IR ARRAY ARE USED BY BAS WEL6 -WELL PACKAGE, VERSION 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT R EAD FROM UNIT 12 # MODFLOW2000 Well Package 0 Named Parameters 0 List entries MAXIMUM OF 400 ACTIVE WELLS AT ONE TIME CELL-BY-CELL FLOWS WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 54 1600 ELEMENTS IN RX ARRAY ARE USED BY WEL CHD6 -TIME-VARIANT SPECIFIED-HEAD PACKAGE, VERSI ON 6, 1/11/2000

PAGE 203

190 Appendix E (Continued) INPUT READ FROM UNIT 40 # MODFLOW2000 Constant-Head Boundary Package (CHD) No named parameters MAXIMUM OF 15200 TIME-VARIANT SPECIFIED-HEAD CELL S AT ONE TIME 76000 ELEMENTS IN RX ARRAY ARE USED BY CHD 77600 ELEMENTS OF RX ARRAY USED OUT OF 77600 1000 ELEMENTS OF IR ARRAY USED OUT OF 1000 2736001 ELEMENTS OF THE VDF ARRAY USED BY VDF PRO CESS 1 # MODFLOW2000 Basic Package #MODFLOW Data Set Created by Groundwater Vistas -----------------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 25 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 400.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 25, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 8 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 177953.3 -407100.7 CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 0.000000 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 335133.2 -121.3936 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 513087.7 KG -556519.1 KG NET (IN OUT): -43431.39 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -8.121000 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 8 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 8

PAGE 204

191 Appendix E (Continued) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 1238.7598 STORAGE = 0.2245 CONSTANT HEAD = 178080366.5120 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 378499999.7500 WELLS = 1513999.9990 DCDT = 233066.7606 DCDT = 1081.7044 TOTAL IN = 556814671.7824 TOTAL IN = 1515081.9280 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 149403653.2148 STORAGE = 0.1614 CONSTANT HEAD = 407391509.6637 CON STANT HEAD = 1515081.3874 WELLS = 0.0000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 85.0837 DCDT = 0.2543 TOTAL OUT = 556795247.9623 TOTAL OUT = 1515081.8031 IN OUT = 19423.8201 IN OUT = 0.1249 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 5 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 8 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 10903. 181.72 3.0286 0.12619 3.45497E-04 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 3.45600E+07 5.76000E+05 9600.0 400.00 1.0951 1

PAGE 205

192 Appendix E (Continued) -----------------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 25 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 650.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 25, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 13 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 225951.0 -455172.0 CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 0.000000 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 345504.1 -10492.22 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 571529.6 KG -614961.3 KG NET (IN OUT): -43431.62 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -7.321020 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 13 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 13 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 13 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 74846.1726 STORAGE = 0.3116 CONSTANT HEAD = 226112347.4801 CON STANT HEAD = 192218.1648 WELLS = 378499999.7500 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 239621.4713 DCDT = 45.6247 TOTAL IN = 604926814.8741 TOTAL IN = 192264.1011 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 149403659.3921 STORAGE = 0.2950 CONSTANT HEAD = 455497162.0779 CON STANT HEAD = 192216.0151

PAGE 206

193 Appendix E (Continued) WELLS = 0.0000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 6628.9457 DCDT = 45.6246 TOTAL OUT = 604907450.4157 TOTAL OUT = 192261.9347 IN OUT = 19364.4584 IN OUT = 2.1663 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 5 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 13 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 10903. 181.72 3.0286 0.12619 3.45497E-04 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 5.61600E+07 9.36000E+05 15600. 650.00 1.7796 1 -----------------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 25 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 900.0000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 25, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 18 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 604375.3 -455173.7 CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 -184159.6 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 350967.3 -171394.2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 955491.0 KG -960025.0 KG

PAGE 207

194 Appendix E (Continued) NET (IN OUT): -4533.990 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -0.4733962 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 18 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 18 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 18 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 148987.4264 STORAGE = 0.1111 CONSTANT HEAD = 604807007.5191 CON STANT HEAD = 1515081.8573 WELLS = 378499999.7500 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 243400.2564 DCDT = 4.8148 TOTAL IN = 983699394.9519 TOTAL IN = 1515086.7831 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 149404199.9950 STORAGE = 0.1076 CONSTANT HEAD = 455498798.7021 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 378631172.7932 WELLS = 1514743.5077 DCDT = 117254.8932 DCDT = 342.7563 TOTAL OUT = 983651426.3834 TOTAL OUT = 1515086.3716 IN OUT = 47968.5685 IN OUT = 0.4115 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 2 5 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 18 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 10903. 181.72 3.0286 0.12619 3.45497E-04 TIME STEP LENGTH 7.39284E+05 12321. 205.36 8.5565 2.34265E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 7.77600E+07 1.29600E+06 21600. 900.00 2.4641 1

PAGE 208

195 Appendix F: Model Output for Simulation of Multipl e Injection-Storage-Recovery Cycles

PAGE 209

196 Appendix F Hetero Cycled 3 Yrs. MODFLOW-2000 U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MODULAR FINITE-DIFFERE NCE GROUND-WATER FLOW MODEL VERSION 3.10 02/13/200 4 This model run produced both GLOBAL and LIST files This is the LIST file. ----| M T | Conversion from Groundwater Vistas | 3 D | MT3D Model ----THE TRANSPORT MODEL CONSISTS OF 200 LAYER(S) 3 8 ROW(S) 40 COLUMN(S) NUMBER OF STRESS PERIOD(S) FOR TRANSPORT SIMULATIO N = 35 NUMBER OF ALL COMPONENTS INCLUDED IN SIMULATION = 1 NUMBER OF MOBILE COMPONENTS INCLUDED IN SIMULATION = 1 UNIT FOR TIME IS D ; UNIT FOR LENGTH IS M ; UNIT FOR MASS IS KG PACKAGES INCLUDED IN CURRENT SIMULATION: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T T T T T F F F F F COUPLING BETWEEN FLOW AND TRANSPORT IS IMPLICIT 100 COUPLING ITERATIONS 0.1000 IS THE DENSITY CONVERGENCE CRITERIA MT3DMS SPECIES USED IN EQUATION OF STATE FOR FLUID DENSITY: 1 AN UPSTREAM-WEIGHTED ALGORITHM IS USED TO CALCULAT E FLUID DENSITY TERMS THAT CONSERVE MASS FIRSTDT SPECIFIED BY USER IN THE VDF FILE IS: 0. 1000000E-01 1000. REFERENCE DENSITY 0.7143 DENSITY SLOPE FOR EQUATION OF STATE VARIABLE-DENSITY WATER-TABLE CORRECTIONS NOT ADDED BTN4 -BASIC TRANSPORT PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 81 4561676 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE BT N PACKAGE 304200 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE BT N PACKAGE FMI4 -FLOW MODEL INTERFACE PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 95 FLOW MODEL IS TRANSIENT ADV4 -ADVECTION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 82 ADVECTION IS SOLVED WITH THE UPSTREAM FINITE DIFFE RENCE SCHEME COURANT NUMBER ALLOWED IN SOLVING THE ADVECTION TE RM = 0.750 0 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE AD V PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE AD V PACKAGE DSP4 -DISPERSION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 83 3040600 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE DS P PACKAGE

PAGE 210

197 Appendix F (Continued) 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE DS P PACKAGE SSM4 -SINK & SOURCE MIXING PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 84 HEADER LINE OF THE SSM PACKAGE INPUT FILE: T F F F F F MAJOR STRESS COMPONENTS PRESENT IN THE FLOW MODEL: o WELL MAXIMUM NUMBER OF POINT SINKS/SOURCES = 30800 215600 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE SS M PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY BY THE SSM PAC KAGE RCT4 -CHEMICAL REACTION PACKAGE, VERSION 4.5, MA Y 2003, INPUT READ FROM UNIT 85 NO SORPTION [OR DUAL-DOMAIN MODEL] IS SIMULATED NO FIRST-ORDER RATE REACTION IS SIMULATED REACTION COEFFICIENTS ASSIGNED CELL-BY-CELL INITIAL SORBED/IMMOBILE PHASE CONCENTRATION ASSIGN ED BY DEFAULT 0 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE RC T PACKAGE 0 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE RC T PACKAGE GCG4 -GENERALIZED CONJUGATE GRADIENT SOLVER PACK AGE, VERSION 4.5, MAY 2003 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 86 MAXIMUM OF 1 OUTER ITERATIONS AND 50 INNER ITERATIONS ALLOWED FOR CLOSU RE THE PRECONDITIONING TYPE SELECTED IS MODIFIED INCO MPLETE CHOLESKY (MIC). DISPERSION CROSS TERMS LUMPED INTO RIGHT-HAND-SIDE 6688050 ELEMENTS OF THE X ARRAY USED BY THE GC G PACKAGE 150 ELEMENTS OF THE IX ARRAY USED BY THE GC G PACKAGE # MODFLOW2000 Basic Package #MODFLOW Data Set Created by Groundwater Vistas # 200 LAYERS 38 ROWS 40 COLUMNS 35 STRESS PERIOD(S) IN SIMULATION BAS6 -BASIC PACKAGE, VERSION 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT READ FROM UNIT 1 1000 ELEMENTS IN IR ARRAY ARE USED BY BAS WEL6 -WELL PACKAGE, VERSION 6, 1/11/2000 INPUT R EAD FROM UNIT 12 # MODFLOW2000 Well Package 0 Named Parameters 0 List entries MAXIMUM OF 400 ACTIVE WELLS AT ONE TIME CELL-BY-CELL FLOWS WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 54 1600 ELEMENTS IN RX ARRAY ARE USED BY WEL CHD6 -TIME-VARIANT SPECIFIED-HEAD PACKAGE, VERSI ON 6, 1/11/2000

PAGE 211

198 Appendix F (Continued) INPUT READ FROM UNIT 40 # MODFLOW2000 Constant-Head Boundary Package (CHD) No named parameters MAXIMUM OF 15200 TIME-VARIANT SPECIFIED-HEAD CELL S AT ONE TIME 76000 ELEMENTS IN RX ARRAY ARE USED BY CHD 77600 ELEMENTS OF RX ARRAY USED OUT OF 77600 1000 ELEMENTS OF IR ARRAY USED OUT OF 1000 2736001 ELEMENTS OF THE VDF ARRAY USED BY VDF PRO CESS 1 # MODFLOW2000 Basic Package #MODFLOW Data Set Created by Groundwater Vistas -----------------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 9 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 1050.000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 9, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 21 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 452882.7 -833451.4 CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 -104160.4 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 753573.1 -133887.6 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 1206608. KG -1220948. KG NET (IN OUT): -14339.52 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -1.181396 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 21 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 21 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 21 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

PAGE 212

199 Appendix F (Continued) CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 152801.0356 STORAGE = 3.8690E-02 CONSTANT HEAD = 453206181.5845 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 757000001.5000 WELLS = 1514000.0030 DCDT = 530288.1962 DCDT = 1081.5214 TOTAL IN = 1210889272.3163 TOTAL IN = 1515081.5631 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 149555199.7322 STORAGE = 3.2990E-02 CONSTANT HEAD = 834046723.5887 CON STANT HEAD = 1515081.4241 WELLS = 227174094.8027 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 92905.7010 DCDT = 7.1599E-02 TOTAL OUT = 1210868923.8246 TOTAL OUT = 1515081.5287 IN OUT = 20348.4917 IN OUT = 3.4347E-02 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 9 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 21 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 1.05311E+05 1755.2 29.253 1.2189 3.33711E-03 TIME STEP LENGTH 4.61296E+05 7688.3 128.14 5.3391 1.46176E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 9.07200E+07 1.51200E+06 25200. 1050.0 2.8747 1 --------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 9 -----------------------------------------

PAGE 213

200 Appendix F (Continued) TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 1150.000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 9, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 23 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 604134.3 -833453.0 CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 -148551.8 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 761778.8 -246278.3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 1366212. KG -1377732. KG NET (IN OUT): -11519.51 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -0.8396314 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 23 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 23 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 23 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 300615.8627 STORAGE = 9.8475E-03 CONSTANT HEAD = 604565805.7632 CON STANT HEAD = 1515081.4426 WELLS = 757000001.5000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 536308.7756 DCDT = 24.4864 TOTAL IN = 1362402731.9015 TOTAL IN = 1515105.9388 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 149555847.1632 STORAGE = 1.3709E-02 CONSTANT HEAD = 834048329.1256 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 378605595.0578 WELLS = 1514451.0970 DCDT = 172390.8611 DCDT = 654.8424 TOTAL OUT = 1362382162.2078 TOTAL OUT = 1515105.9532

PAGE 214

201 Appendix F (Continued) IN OUT = 20569.6938 IN OUT = -1.4366E-02 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 9 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 23 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 1.05311E+05 1755.2 29.253 1.2189 3.33711E-03 TIME STEP LENGTH 4.61296E+05 7688.3 128.14 5.3391 1.46176E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 9.93600E+07 1.65600E+06 27600. 1150.0 3.1485 1 ++++++++++++++++ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ STRESS PERIOD NO. 024 ++++++++++++++++ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ LENGTH OF CURRENT STRESS PERIOD = 50.00000 NUMBER OF TIME STEPS FOR CURRENT STRESS PERIOD = 20 TIME STEP MULTIPLIER USED IN FLOW SOLUTION = 1.1 00000 USER-SPECIFIED TRANSPORT STEPSIZE = 0.1000000 D MAXIMUM NUMBER OF TRANSPORT STEPS ALLOWED IN ONE FLOW TIME STEP = 500 MULTIPLIER FOR SUCCESSIVE TRANSPORT STEPS [USED I N IMPLICIT SCHEMES] = 1.450 MAXIMUM TRANSPORT STEP SIZE [USED IN IMPLICIT SCH EMES] = 100.0000 D 1 -----------------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 9 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 1250.000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 9, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 25 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

PAGE 215

202 Appendix F (Continued) IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 604135.6 -984702.3 CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 -148551.8 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 908789.7 -246792.2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 1513226. KG -1529643. KG NET (IN OUT): -16417.02 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): -1.079049 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 25 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 25 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 25 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 301746.8412 STORAGE = 4.8798E-02 CONSTANT HEAD = 604567161.2748 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 908400001.8000 WELLS = 1514000.0030 DCDT = 639609.0465 DCDT = 1081.5887 TOTAL IN = 1513908518.9625 TOTAL IN = 1515081.6405 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 149704145.7410 STORAGE = 4.0135E-02 CONSTANT HEAD = 985405704.9542 CON STANT HEAD = 1515081.4805 WELLS = 378605595.0578 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 172843.3644 DCDT = 0.1389 TOTAL OUT = 1513888289.1174 TOTAL OUT = 1515081.6595 IN OUT = 20229.8451 IN OUT = -1.9007E-02 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00

PAGE 216

203 Appendix F (Continued) 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 9 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 25 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 1.05311E+05 1755.2 29.253 1.2189 3.33711E-03 TIME STEP LENGTH 4.61296E+05 7688.3 128.14 5.3391 1.46176E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 1.08000E+08 1.80000E+06 30000. 1250.0 3.4223 1 -----------------------------------------TRANSPORT STEP NO. 9 -----------------------------------------TOTAL ELAPSED TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF SIMULATION = 50.00000 D .................................................. ................... CUMMULATIVE MASS BUDGETS AT EN D OF TRANSPORT STEP 9, TIME STEP 20, STRESS PE RIOD 1 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IN OUT ------------------------------CONSTANT CONCENTRATI ON: 75696.33 -0.8192252E-05 CONSTANT HE AD: 0.000000 0.000000 WEL LS: 0.000000 -25483.75 DECAY OR BIODEGRADATI ON: 0.000000 0.000000 MASS STORAGE (SOLUT E): 1597.896 -47480.61 ------------------------------------------------------------------------[TOTA L]: 77295.60 KG -72965.91 KG NET (IN OUT): 4329.697 DISCREPANCY (PERCENT): 5.762883 HEAD WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 30 AT END OF TIME STE P 20, STRESS PERIOD 1 DRAWDOWN WILL BE SAVED ON UNIT 31 AT END OF TIME STEP 20, STRESS PERIOD 1 1 MASS BUDGET FOR ENTIRE MODEL AT END OF TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------CUMULATIVE MASS M RATES FOR THIS TI ME STEP M/T ---------------------------------------

PAGE 217

204 Appendix F (Continued) IN: IN: ----STORAGE = 1382.2210 STORAGE = 1.2979E-02 CONSTANT HEAD = 75750400.9792 CON STANT HEAD = 1515081.4362 WELLS = 0.0000 WELLS = 0.0000 DCDT = 1095.4641 DCDT = 21.1321 TOTAL IN = 75752878.6643 TOTAL IN = 1515102.5812 OUT: OUT: ------STORAGE = 1547.0163 STORAGE = 1.8044E-02 CONSTANT HEAD = 0.0000 CON STANT HEAD = 0.0000 WELLS = 75718150.6769 WELLS = 1514401.7473 DCDT = 32463.7894 DCDT = 700.8379 TOTAL OUT = 75752161.4827 TOTAL OUT = 1515102.6032 IN OUT = 717.1816 IN OUT = -2.1920E-02 PERCENT DISCREPANCY = 0.00 PERCENT D ISCREPANCY = 0.00 0 TIME SUMMARY AT END OF TRANSPORT STEP 9 IN TIME STEP 20 IN STRESS PERIOD 1 SECONDS MINUTES HOURS DAYS YEARS ---------------------------------------------------------TRANS STEP LENGTH 1.05311E+05 1755.2 29.253 1.2189 3.33711E-03 TIME STEP LENGTH 4.61296E+05 7688.3 128.14 5.3391 1.46176E-02 STRESS PERIOD TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 TOTAL TIME 4.32000E+06 72000. 1200.0 50.000 0.13689 1


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.loc.govstandardsmarcxmlschemaMARC21slim.xsd
leader nam Ka
controlfield tag 001 001709522
003 fts
005 20060614112155.0
006 m||||e|||d||||||||
007 cr mnu|||uuuuu
008 060516s2005 flua sbm s000 0 eng d
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a E14-SFE0001353
035
(OCoLC)68904074
040
FHM
c FHM
1 100
Hutchings, William C.
4 245
The effects of small-scale heterogeneities on aquifer storage recovery systems
h [electronic resource] /
by William C. Hutchings.
260
[Tampa, Fla.] :
b University of South Florida,
2005.
502
Thesis (M.S.)--University of South Florida, 2005.
504
Includes bibliographical references.
516
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
538
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
500
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 217 pages.
520
ABSTRACT: Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) is a recently developed (circa 1970) method (in the U.S.A.) to reduce groundwater-pumping stresses by injecting treated wastewater or surface water during periods of low demand into an aquifer followed by its recovery during periods of high demand. This method has been successfully implemented in numerous locations across the U.S.A. and worldwide, mainly due to the cost savings provided by the use of an unlimited reservoir (aquifer) in which to store water compared to the costs to construct surface impoundments and the inherent problems with storing such water for extended periods of time under evaporative atmospheric conditions."This study describes the use of a highly discretized, three-dimensional, variable-density, numerical model (SEAWAT 2000) that incorporates the vertical variation of hydraulic conductivities, measured foot by foot, from a continuous core collected from the upper Floridan aquifer in southwest Florida, to evaluate the effects of small-scale heterogeneities on a hypothetical ASR system well. In order to compare these effects to the more general case in which average hydraulic parameters are used to characterize flow zones, a model is constructed with average parameters taken from the heterogeneous case. This study attempts to determine whether aquifer heterogeneities influence the performance of ASR systems, compared to assumed homogeneous conditions, by quantifying differences in recovery efficiency, horizontal and vertical flow due to advection and dispersion, plume dimensions, and storage periods.The results of this study indicate that 1) the geometry of the injectate plume under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions differ significantly; 2) background formation total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations significantly control the quantity of potable water available for recovery; 3) dispersion exhibits a strong control on vertical mixing; 4) multiple injection cycles are required to generate a plume of potable water for long term storage; and 5) the percent recoveries under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions are generally similar only in low-salinity background concentrations, due to the absence of the effects of buoyancy. Although the percent recoveries of the systems modeled are similar, the success of an ASR well is strongly controlled by the existence of heterogeneities, which essentially determine the degree of horizontal and vertical mixing of the injectate with formation waters.Heterogeneities result in varying groundwater and mass transport paths during injection and recovery periods. Presumably these variations would need to be considered when evaluating potential variations in groundwater quality due to mixing between formation and injected water. Understanding potential variations in groundwater quality and treatment alternatives due to the presence of ASR-associated geochemical conditions, e.g., elevated arsenic concentrations, may also be improved with a detailed heterogeneous numerical model.
590
Adviser: H. Leonard Vacher, Ph.D.
653
Homogeneous.
Heterogeneous.
Variable-density.
Equivalent freshwater heads.
Asr cycles.
Recovery efficiency.
0 690
Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x Geology
Masters.
049
FHMM
090
QE26.2 (Online)
773
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.1353