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Maximizing the benefits of ITS deployments based on IDAS performance measures and B/C ratios

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Maximizing the benefits of ITS deployments based on IDAS performance measures and B/C ratios
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Gibson, Cuthbert R
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Florida specific
Components
Parameters
Optimization
IDAS Modules
Dissertations, Academic -- Civil Engineering -- Masters -- USF
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theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Traditional transportation planning models are not very sensitive to many of the benefits derived from Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) technologies. With the recent availability of ITS Deployment Analysis System (IDAS), there is an opportunity to conduct detailed cost-benefit analyses of ITS Alternatives. IDAS is able to estimate the impacts, benefits, and costs resulting from the deployment of many ITS components. This is accomplished by comparing the average cost of deploying and integrating the appropriate technologies, to the estimated benefits experienced by the network. The ratio of average benefits to average costs is termed the B/C ratios. While the use of IDAS has been limited primarily to comparing ITS alternatives, this research goes a step further. After developing a local model, this research develops a strategy to maximize the benefits of using ITS components through prioritized deployment schedules. Effective priority strategies are most often based ^on B/C ratios and therefore require the outputs from IDAS to accurately reflect local conditions. Because local parameters vary considerably from the national averages used in IDAS as default values, this paper establishes input parameters in all five of IDAS's analysis modules that accurately model conditions in the Tampa Bay area. Outputs from the local Transportation forecasting model (FSUTMS), along with some other specialized IDAS conversion tools supplied by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT), were used to develop an accurate control alternative. Instead of default equipment costs, project costs were used to develop User Defined Costs within the cost module, local V/C curves replaced default curves in the benefits module, and the Sunguide report was used to establish Florida specific parameters used to value the benefits associated with each ITS alternative. To develop a scenario that maximized the overall benefits to the system, individual projects were modeled i n IDAS and their corresponding B/C ratio used to re-prioritize projects during deployment. Projects were deployed in order from highest to lowest B/C, while controlling for variations in time available for deployment and budgetary constraints. To account for variations in the time available for deployment, the impact of time was evaluated and the findings used along with project limitations to develop appropriate phase schedules. Three scenarios were developed to test the impact of time. These scenarios were: compressed schedule, actual FDOT schedule, and an extended schedule. The test concluded that compressed schedules offered the highest benefits to the system. Based on this observation, it was desirable to develop a deployment scenario that compressed the time necessary for full deployment. Budget constraints were also a major limiting factor. Because these heavy constraints are often placed on planners, it was desirable that the final scenario accounted for budget constraints in^ the deployment schedule. To account for budgetary constraints, an average phase budget was developed from current FDOT plans and used as an upper limit for the cost of each phase of the deployment scenarios. Based on project priority, time considerations, and budget constraints, a final deployment scenario was developed and compared to the FDOT deployment scenario. Comparing theses scenarios showed that some considerable improvements to the system can be achieved. By tracking the B/C ratio throughout the lifetime of the project, 80% higher B/C ratio was evident one year after full deployment and a 15% higher B/C ratio after 10 years of full project deployment. This represents an additional $350 million in benefits to the system over the ten year period. These results highlight both the effectiveness of ITS technologies as well as the need to develop more efficient strategies for using them.
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Thesis (M.S.)--University of South Florida, 2005.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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by Cuthbert R. Gibson.
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Maximizing the Benefits of ITS Deployments Based On IDAS Performance Measures and B/C Ratios by Cuthbert R. Gibson A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Civil Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering College of Engineering University of South Florida Major Professor: Jian Lu, Ph.D. Ram Pendyala, Ph.D. Elaine Chang, Ph.D. Larry Hagen, M.S.C.E. Date of Approval: November 1, 2005 Keywords: Florida Specific, Components, Parameters, Optimization, IDAS Modules Copyright 2005, Cuth bert R. Gibson

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DEDICATION I would like to dedicate this work to my family, whose love and sacrifices have been unending, and whose support and enc ouragement have guided me throughout my career.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to extend my gratitude to those individuals who have offered their assistance in the completion of th is thesis. Foremost, I would like to thank the entire staff at the Center for Urban Trans portation Research (CUTR), especially my immediate supervisor, Shireen Chada, an d the entire ITS Group. I woul d also like to thank Isaac Sankah for his support and offe r my congratulations for his successful defense. We have both suffered through this process together. Fi nally, my most heartfel t thanks to all my friends, colleagues, and well-wishers, who, wh ile too many to mentio n, have all helped me through this process.

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i TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ...iv LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ ...v ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ........vi CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION...................................................................................1 Background Information......................................................................................................... ...........1 Approach of Research........................................................................................................... .............2 Objective of Research.......................................................................................................... ..............3 Contributions of the Research.................................................................................................. .........4 Outline of Thesis.............................................................................................................. ..................5 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW.........................................................................7 Evaluation of ITS Technologies................................................................................................. .......7 Case Study of ITS Technologies................................................................................................. ......9 Evaluating IDAS Methodology.................................................................................................... ...10 Suitability of IDAS for Analysis............................................................................................... ......14 CHAPTER THREE IDAS MODULES.............................................................................16 IDAS Analysis Procedure........................................................................................................ ........19 Input/Out Interface Module..................................................................................................... ........19 Alternative Generator Module................................................................................................... ......20 IDAS Cost Module............................................................................................................... ...........22 Benefits Module................................................................................................................ ...............25

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ii Travel Time/Throughput Sub-module.............................................................................................. .........26 Environment Sub-module......................................................................................................... .................26 Safety Sub-module.............................................................................................................. .......................27 Travel Time Reliability Sub-module............................................................................................. ............27 ITS Alternatives Comparison.................................................................................................... ......28 Inputs Specified by the User................................................................................................... ...................28 Inputs from Other IDAS Modules................................................................................................. ............29 Outputs........................................................................................................................ ................................30 CHAPTER FOUR DEVELOPMENT OF A LOCAL MODEL........................................31 Key Data Resources in Florida.................................................................................................. ......31 The Input/Output Module and Control Alternative........................................................................33 The Input Data Types........................................................................................................... ......................35 Alternative Generator Module................................................................................................... ......39 Component Parameters........................................................................................................... ...................40 Incident Manage ment Systems.................................................................................................... ..............40 Regional Multimodal Traveler Information Systems............................................................................... .41 Cost Module.................................................................................................................... .................42 Default Co st Data.............................................................................................................. .........................43 User Defined Cost Data......................................................................................................... .....................44 Benefit Module................................................................................................................. ...............47 ITS Alternative Comparison..................................................................................................... .......48 Outputs........................................................................................................................ ................................49 CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS OF LOCAL MODEL.........................................................51 Benefit-Cost Ratio............................................................................................................. ..............51 Project Cost................................................................................................................... ...................52 Project Benefits............................................................................................................... .................54 Performance Measures and Market Sectors....................................................................................55 Sensitivity of IDAS Parameters................................................................................................. ......58 CHAPTER SIX STRATEGIES FOR MAXIMIZ ING ITS BENEFITS.............................60 Research Methodology........................................................................................................... .........60

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iii Development of Florida Specific Model.........................................................................................6 2 Testing Deployment Scenarios................................................................................................... .....64 Controlling for Time Constraints............................................................................................... .....65 Development of Alternative Scenarios........................................................................................... 67 CHAPTER SEVEN SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS....................................71 Summary of Research............................................................................................................ ..........71 Recommendations and Review of IDAS as Effective Tool...........................................................73 REFERENCES..................................................................................................................... ...77 APPENDICES..................................................................................................................... ....78 Appendix A IDAS Components................................................................................................79 Appendix B Network Link File................................................................................................81 Appendix C Network Node Files.............................................................................................82 Appendix D Turn Prohibitor File..............................................................................................83 Appendix E IDAS Performance Measures...............................................................................84

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iv LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Florida Specif ic Data Resources.......................................................................33 Table 2 Comparison of Defau lt and Local VID Parameters..........................................41 Table 3 Comparison of Defau lt and Local DMS Parameters........................................42 Table 4 Equipment Associated with ITS Improvements...............................................44 Table 5 FDOT Projected Phase Costs............................................................................45 Table 6 Conversion of Project Costs to User Defined Costs.........................................46 Table 7 User Defined Parameters...................................................................................49 Table 8 Florida Sp ecific B/C Ratio.................................................................................53 Table 9 Market Sector Output.........................................................................................56 Table 10 Sensitivity of IDAS Module..............................................................................59 Table 11 Project Location.................................................................................................63 Table 12 IDAS Output Summary.....................................................................................64 Table 13 Phase Grouping Based on Cr iteria....................................................................68 Table 14 ITS Componen ts Used in IDAS........................................................................79 Table 15 Network Link File..............................................................................................81 Table 16 Network Node Files...........................................................................................82 Table 17 Turn Pr ohibitor File...........................................................................................83 Table 18 IDAS Performance Measures............................................................................84

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v LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Outline of IDAS Analysis Procedure................................................................18 Figure 2 IDAS Input /Output M odule...............................................................................21 Figure 3 Cumulative Benefits..........................................................................................66 Figure 4 Impact of Compresse d Schedules on B/C Ratio...............................................67 Figure 5 Benefit Optimization..........................................................................................69 Figure 6 Final Op timal Benefits.......................................................................................70

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vi MAXIMIZING THE BENEFITS OF ITS DEPLOYMENTS BASED ON IDAS PERFORMANCE MEASURES AND B/C RATIOS Cuthbert R. Gibson ABSTRACT Traditional transportation pl anning models are not very sensitive to many of the benefits derived from Intelligent Transpor tation Systems (ITS) technologies. With the recent availability of ITS Deploym ent Analysis System (IDAS), there is an opportunity to conduct detailed cost-benefit analyses of ITS A lternatives. IDAS is able to estimate the impacts, benefits, and costs re sulting from the deployment of many ITS components. This is accomplished by comparing the average cost of deploying and integrating the appropriate technologies, to the estimated bene fits experienced by the network. The ratio of average benefits to average costs is termed th e B/C ratios. While the use of IDAS has been limited primarily to comparing ITS alternatives, this research goes a step fu rther. After developing a local model, this research devel ops a strategy to maximize the benefits of using ITS components through priori tized deployment schedules. Effective priority strategi es are most often based on B/ C ratios and therefore require the outputs from IDAS to accurately reflect local conditions. Because local parameters vary

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vii considerably from the national averages used in IDAS as default values, this paper establishes input parameters in all five of ID AS’s analysis modules that accurately model conditions in the Tampa Bay area. Output s from the local Transportation forecasting model (FSUTMS), along with some other speci alized IDAS conversion tools supplied by the Florida Department of Transportation (F DOT), were used to develop an accurate control alternative. Instead of default equipmen t costs, project costs were used to develop User Defined Costs within the cost module, local V/ C curves replaced default curves in the benefits module, and the Sungui de report was used to establish Florida specific parameters used to value the benefits associat ed with each ITS alternative. To develop a scenario that maximized the overall benefits to the system, individual projects were modeled in IDAS and their co rresponding B/C ratio used to re-prioritize projects during deployment. Proj ects were deployed in order from highest to lowest B/C, while controlling for variations in time available for deployment and budgetary constraints. To account for variations in the time ava ilable for deployment, the impact of time was evaluated and the findings used along with project limitations to develop appropriate phase schedules. Three scenarios were deve loped to test the impact of time. These scenarios were: compressed sc hedule, actual FDOT schedule, and an extended schedule. The test concluded that compressed schedules offered the highest benefits to the system. Based on this observation, it was desirable to develop a deployment scenario that compressed the time necessary for full deployme nt. Budget constraints were also a major limiting factor. Because these heavy constrai nts are often placed on planners, it was desirable that the final scen ario accounted for budget cons traints in the deployment schedule. To account for budgetary constraint s, an average phase budget was developed

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viii from current FDOT plans and used as an upper limit for the cost of each phase of the deployment scenarios. Based on project priority, time consid erations, and budget constraints, a final deployment scenario was deve loped and compared to the FDOT deployment scenario. Comparing theses scenarios showed that some considerable improvem ents to the system can be achieved. By tracking the B/C ratio th roughout the lifetime of the project, 80% higher B/C ratio was evident one year after full deployment and a 15% higher B/C ratio after 10 years of full project deployment. This represents an add itional $350 million in benefits to the system over the ten year period. These results highlight both the effectiveness of ITS technologies as well as the need to deve lop more efficient strategies for using them.

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1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background Information As the demand for capacity on our trans portation networks grows, ITS technologies serve as a possible solution to balancing th at demand with the high cost of roadway improvements. ITS, according to the ITS America Website, encompasses a variety of technologies that take advantage of various forms of wireless and wireline communication, information systems, controls, and electroni cs technologies. When integrated into the transportation infrastructure and vehicles, these technologies help monitor and manage traffic flow, reduce congestion, provide alternat e routes to travelers, enhance productivity, and save lives, time and money. With these technologies, engineers and planners are better able to collect, analyze, and archive perfor mance data of transportation networks with relative ease. This allows enhanced opera tions during adverse weather conditions and incidents that would otherwise restrict traffi c capacity and reduce response times to major events. While ITS technologies have emerged as a possible approach to solving many transportation problems, the benefits associ ated with using them are not adequately reflected in traditional planning models. With the availability of IDAS, there exists an opportunity to perform detailed cost-benefit analysis of a wide variety of these ITS components. IDAS is able to perform its own traffic assi gnment before and after ITS

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2 deployments and can estimate the benefits experienced by the network by comparing changes in default performance measures after ITS deployments. The ratio of these benefits compared to the estimated annual stream of costs produces a Benefit-Cost (B/C) ratio and can be used by planners and engineers to evaluate effective deployments of ITS technologies. Approach of Research Since IDAS is still relatively new, pla nners are unfamiliar w ith many of IDAS’ capabilities and, as a result, are limited in th eir approach to using ITS technologies. A major factor contributing to the lack of fam iliarity with IDAS is the unavailability of information on the development of IDAS mode ls, specifically models that accurately reflect local conditions. This is compounded by some of the demands IDAS places on its users in trying to offer a robust platform for analyzing alternatives. This research highlights the approach taken by IDAS to perform its anal ysis, develops a local model, and uses the model to develop a strategy to maximize th e benefits associated with using ITS components. The use of an accurate loca l model is an essential part of studying ITS benefits. Taking a rational approach to transportation planning, decisions are made only after the determination of the system goals, the iden tification of performance needs, and the development and evaluation of alternative solu tions. Using a model that overestimates the impacts of a particular ITS component will skew the overall benefit to the network. Such a model will highlight alternatives that are inaccu rately quantified as being more beneficial than they are in reality and will make the decision making di fficult. Conversely, when the

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3 impact of components is understated, alte rnatives that may prove ideal for the transportation system may be overlooked. A subs tantial portion of this report discusses the analysis process used by IDAS and deals with the development of a local model based on the Tampa Bay area. While many of the parameters may not be consistent with other regional models, many of the st eps taken to develop this mode l can be used by other users. In addition to using an a ccurate local model, planners need to develop effective uses for IDAS within the decision making process. The current literature available on IDAS focuses primarily on testing the effectiveness and sensitivity of the software or developing B/C ratios for projects already pla nned. While these papers generally make a good case for using IDAS they do not take ad vantage of some of its applications. One example of an IDAS application is its use fo r the optimization of ITS alternatives based on deployment schedules. With a local model established, the impact of ITS components can be maximized by first identifying and quantifyi ng the benefits associated with individual projects, and then developing appropriate depl oyment schedules to maximize their desired effect. Objective of Research The primary purpose of the research presente d in this thesis is to highlight IDAS as an effective tool to quantify the benefits associated with using ITS components. The specific objects of the thesis are to: 1) Present a detail overview of IDAS and the five analysis modules used to develop costs, network performance measures, and B/C ratios;

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4 2) Develop an IDAS model that accurately re flects local parameters consistent with the Tampa Bay Area; 3) Provide an innovative approach to using IDAS in the planning process; and 4) Develop a practical strategy to maximize th e benefits of deploying ITS components Contributions of the Research As the use of ITS technologies has grown, so has the need for a better understanding of the tools available to analy ze them. With IDAS still a relatively new tool, there are very limited practical examples of developing and using the model successfully. This research provides an overview of IDAS and its modules and pr esents an innovative use of the model outputs. A major contribution of this research is providing useful guidance in developing a local specific model. Many organizations are looking to ITS technologies as a viable solution to many of our transportation need s. By providing an overview of how IDAS works, the research is able highlight the eff ectiveness of IDAS as an analytical tool. A better understanding of IDAS w ill allow a more widespread use of the system. The research also provides details on developing a model th at accurately reflects the impact these components have locally. This is particularly usef ul to planners as it offers a clearer picture of the benefits described by the model. With more useful information available, planners will be able to make better decisions. Another contribution of this research is the development of an innovative use of IDAS. While IDAS offers a very robust platfo rm for analyzing ITS components, its use has not yet been fully integrated into the planning process. This is largely due to the limited use

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5 of IDAS beyond comparing different alternatives available for use. The general effects of most ITS components are known and planners are able to make many decisions without relying on detailed cost benefit analysis. Th e innovative use of IDAS presented in this research allows planners to use it in various stages of the planning process. After an ITS alternative has been chosen, planners are still able to us e IDAS to streamline their deployment schedule in an effort to maximize th e benefits to the networ k. As more uses of IDAS become apparent, th e model will more easily be integrated into th e planning process. Finally, the results obtained from this research provide planners with an additional dimension in the planning process. The current approach to deploying ITS components is based largely on techniques developed for traditional ro adway improvements. These techniques are unable to account for many of th e issues specific to ITS components and, as a result, significantly reduce th e effectiveness of these technol ogies. Planners are now able to prioritize projects based on their individual benefits to the system, allowing the most beneficial deployments to be scheduled earlier. Over the lifetime of th e project, especially in the early years, transportation networks can experience a significantly higher return in investments using ITS components. Outline of Thesis In an effort to advance the use of IDAS and ITS technologies, Chapter two of this thesis reviews current literature written on I DAS and some of its applications. To develop a Local Specific Model, Chapters three and four will discuss how th e IDAS modules work, and establish a Florida Specific model based on local parameters developed through the current FDOT project data. Chapter five focuse s on the development of effective strategies

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6 for maximizing the benefits associated with the deployment of ITS components. Finally, chapter six summarizes the research and offers some conclusions and recommendations.

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7 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW The inclusion of ITS impacts is a relatively new approach in the transportation planning process. In many ways it is a depa rture from the traditi onal four-step planning process and as a result there is a shortage of proper tools available to effectively analyze the benefits of deploying many of these tec hnologies. IDAS (ITS Deployment Analysis System) has emerged as one possible solution. This chapter review s current literature available on the use of IDAS, some projects in which IDAS has been used successfully and some of the methods used in quantifyi ng Benefit/Costs of ITS technologies. Evaluation of ITS Technologies Yu Cheng and Mich ael Demetsky, in a report on “The Application of US DOT Evaluation Guidelines”, describe ITS as a change from traditional transportation improvements that as a result requires a differ ent approach in evaluating the effectiveness of ITS deployments. Evaluation is important for the future development of ITS projects, as there is a need for better understanding of actua l impacts from this type of transportation improvement. Two general approaches in ev aluating ITS projects are the formative and summative approaches. The forma tive approach is based on measures taken during actual project development to verify that objectiv es are actually bein g met. The summative approach is a retrospective assessment used to justify the actual project itself.

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8 Key impacts that should be taken into account when evaluating ITS projects are: safety, mobility, efficiency, productivity, energy use, and the environment. Safety includes measures taken for the reduction of the overall ra te of crashes, as well as crash severity. Mobility deals specifically with a reduction of travel time de lays, travel ti me variability, and improvement in customer satisfaction. Ef ficiency is concerned with increases in freeway and arterial throughput, productivity d eals with overall costs savings, and energy and environment deals with the reduction in emission levels and energy consumptions. The authors suggest that each project s hould identify the relevant measures of effectiveness specific to the evaluation of th e project itself. IDAS offers one possible solution as a “Sketch Planning” t ool used to evaluate the cost and benefits of using various ITS alternatives. The software uses an extens ive amount of data to evaluate the cost of incorporating ITS technol ogies within a region and then esti mates the associated benefits in doing so. First, IDAS requires that a “Control Alternative” be created. This Control alternative serves as the base scenario of the region or network to be studied. It uses data from the traditional four-step process (trip ge neration, trip distribution, mode choice, and traffic assignment) as well as detailed physi cal attributes of the transportation network (districts, zones, roadway types, and traffic flow) to describe the general character of the network to be studied. Specific ITS improvements are then added to the base scenario to form new alternatives that will be used to establish new travel patterns and benefits that may result. These patterns establish increased benefits that may have resulted from the change such as increased travel time reliability or lowered fa tality rates. The resulting benefits are grouped

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9 into four main categories; envi ronmental impacts, safety, trav el time reliability, and travel time/throughput. The final step is to convert these benef its to monetary values based on either national averages or local data and compared to the cost of the actual deployment of ITS technologies such as equipment, labor, and integration of a new system. Case Study of ITS Technologies Still a relatively new software, the literature available on IDAS is mostly limited to the evaluation of various ITS Evaluation techni ques, the development of the software itself or the evaluation of its use in relatively small pr ojects as a means of testing its effectiveness and sensitivity to relativel y simple improvements. In a case study of using IDAS to evaluate the cost effectiveness of ITS deployments in a medium sized area, profes sors from the University of Vermont (Adel W. Sadek, Ph.D. and Bernard Baah) described a st udy to predict the benefits of deploying ITS in Chittenden, Vermont. The study also incorporated a sensitivity test of various model para meters and the impact assumptions had on overall results. The case study was comprised a total of 3 recommended projects in the Chittenden County area. The Shelburne Road smart corridor project, developed for mitigating construction effects and providing traveler information, will deploy: (1) limited closed circuit TV (CCTV) cameras, (2) portable vari able message signs, (3 ) pre-trip traveler information website, and (4) traveler info rmation phone system. In addition, the smart corridor project coordinates 12 signals and deploys signa l preemption capabilities for emergency vehicles at those signals.

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10 The methodology used to es timate the benefits of signa l coordination was to first perform a traffic assignment for the control alte rnative and a default increase in operational capacity in the range of 14 to 20%. A second assignment is pe rformed based on the specific ITS option and a comparison is made between th e two for changes in ve hicle miles traveled (VMT), travel time and speeds. These are used to calculate user mobility, which is the primary measure for travel and throughput be nefits. IDAS is also able to use this information to determine reductions in accident s, emission levels and energy consumption. To estimate the benefits from traveler information syst ems, traffic assignment for the control alternative is conducted and trav el time delays are computed. Once the ITS component is deployed, IDAS conducts anot her traffic assignment and calculates the change in travel delays resulting from VMS as sociated with travel information systems. Evaluating IDAS Methodology In a report by the Center for Urban Tran sportation Studies (CUTS) at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM), prepar ed for the Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WDOT), IDAS was evaluated as a possible method of detailed evaluation of ITS benefits. The project was developed to assist WDOT in developing methods to identify and screen ITS projects as part of their project plan ning and programming process. Specifically the project included an overview of ITS benefits, a survey of recent literature and their reported ITS benefits, and a break-e ven analysis that was used to identify ITS performance measures and data needs. In addition, the break-even analysis provides a method to examine the tradeoffs between ITS pr ojects and to indicate circumstances where ITS projects are likely to have the greatest benefit.

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11 The authors focused their approach on tw o methods, the goal-oriented approach and the economic analysis approach The goal-oriented approach first establishes overall goals and objectives with specific methods of measurement. The focus of this approach is whether the end product has achieved the orig inal goals. The U.S. DOT and the FHWA suggests the use of the following “few good measures” to track ITS impacts: Crashes Fatalities Travel Time Throughput User Satisfaction or Acceptance Cost The economic approach establishes a set of goals and investigates whether ITS deployment is an economically viable solution compared to ot her types of projects. This approach attempts to quantify both short term and long-term impacts in terms of a single monetary value that can be co mpared to the overall costs. While most agree that both regional and national markets sh ould be evaluated for the be nefits, there is still much uncertainty as to exact markets and the ri sk of double counting some benefits. The report continues with details on speci fic types of ITS deployments that have been reported around the country. Each deployment is described in detail and presented using a “Benefits Tree”. This seems to be an effective tool in summarizing how technologies affect various agencies, travel ers, non-travelers, freight, and the general

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12 population. It is most effective in avoiding double counting and establishing non-monetary measures and in distinguishing between intern al and external impacts. Examples of the benefit tree are given using travel informatio n systems, incident management systems, and commercial vehicle operating systems. In each case a benefits tree is given along with a description and tables showing examples of some reported benefits by various organizations. Actual tools available for the evaluation of ITS benefits are categorized into two main groups. The first group acts as a supplement to current pl anning models that have a detailed planning database and models. The re port focuses on two of these two tools: IDAS, described earlier in this report, and PRUEVIIN (Pro cess for Regional Understanding and Evaluation of Integrated ITS Networks). PRUEVIIN is also an extension to the current four-s tep process that is designed to assess regional and corridor level impacts due to ITS improvements. A combination of regional forecasting and simulation modeling is used to produce m odal, trip and link based measures of effectiveness with a set of representative scenarios to addres s daily variability. Other tools available include TRANSIMS, which was still in the development stage at the time of this report, and SCRITS (SCReenin g for ITS), a sketch-level tool best used to test the sensitivity of projected benefits. SCRITS is the main tool used in break even analysis. The concept of breakeven analysis is to identify critical performance variables and their rela tive magnitude for an acceptable benefit/cost ratio. It also allows for an eval uation of the feasibility of implementing certain ITS projects. In one ex ample, ramp metering is used to perform a break-even analysis. In this case, benefits fr om adding ramp metering are based on accident

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13 reduction and speed increase versus delays on parallel arterials and at ramps. It was estimated that a 10 mph increas e in freeway speed, 4 mph redu ction in arterial speed, and 20% reduction in crashes would be experienced. The results show that freeway timesavi ng experienced would be far greater than time lost on arterials and at ramps. The actual magnitude, ho wever, would vary depending on the actual assumptions made. Si nce the level of benefit/cost ra tio varies directly with the increase in freeway speed, the breakeven analysis is able to establish a point where the increased benefits in freeway sp eed are equal to losses in arterial speed and at ramp meters. This analysis is also able to tell when the benefits associat ed with the freeway increases would be equal to the cost of implementing this specific ITS technol ogy. Sensitivity tests were performed to establish the significance of the assumptions made earlier in the process. The test showed that ramp metering was not sensitive to the assumptions about operational delays. It was also found th at where freeway volumes were low and ramp volumes high, the ramp metering made less sense, as the ramp delays could be considerable compared to gains in freeway performance. “Commercial vehicle operating systems” an d “Traveler informa tion systems” were also analyzed in the same way to test viability and sensitivity. In each ca se it was found that the ITS deployed had very low breakeven po ints suggesting that both projects make economic sense. In the case of traveler in formation systems, however, benefits were dependant on the ability to actua lly use information such as hi gh crash incident areas with numerous alternative routes.

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14 Suitability of IDAS for Analysis IDAS seems to be most suited for MP Os and similar transportation planning organizations that must be able to justify additiona l spending on new proj ects or on projects that may involve a large variety of possible alternatives. The Michigan Department of Transportation presented its project along I-496 in Lansing, Michigan as a candidate for testing the benefits of ITS during the constr uction phase of the project. The construction project included the rehabilitation of 31 old an d the construction of 4 new bridges, 6 miles of road rehab and 2.5 miles of new roadway, a nd the addition of a third (merge/weave) lane in each direction between U. S. 27 and Pennsylvania Ave nue. The ITS technologies deployed were: CCTV Portable DMS Traffic queue detection device Video monitoring stations Construction Zone intrusion detection devices Web-based traveler information dissemination Dedicated telephone information hotline for construction project information Construction TMC and software operating system Communication network equipment To evaluate the cost/benefit of additiona l ITS projects, first a monetary value was placed on the impact of the reconstruction on the public. This “Control Alternative” was

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15 evaluated through IDAS to come up with an overall cost of $13 m illion. This cost was associated with the shift to local arterials that resulted in slower travel speeds, losses from increased travel time, additional fuel consumptio n, increase in accident rates, and degraded air quality. The benefits of using ITS duri ng the reconstruction pha se was estimated by evaluating monetized value of increased user mobility, travel time reliability, accident savings, fuel consumption savings, and emission saving due to th e ITS deployments. In all, $11 million in benefits was estimated compared to $3.5 million in actual costs, giving a net benefit of $7.5 million. Analysis was conducted with IDAS fo r peak periods of operation in both the morning hours (7:00 am-9:00 am) and the even ing hours (3:00 pm-6:0 0 pm). Both phases of construction were expected to last for 210 days but with non-peak weekend days discounted, a total of 154 days remained for analysis. The first step in the anal ysis was to validate trip in formation imputs into IDAS. Vehicle miles traveled was calculated using I DAS and compared to information from the original model. The travel demand model was th en adjusted to reflect the change in travel patterns due to the construction work being done. All appropriate ITS deployments were made and IDAS was used to evaluate the bene fits from doing so. Benefits were reported in the following categories; user mobility, travel-time reliab ility, accident savings, fuel consumptions, and emissions. From the contro l alternative, a total of $13 million was expected in losses due the construction project. The cost of adding ITS to the project would cost an additional $3.5 milli on but would result in $11 m illion in benefits. Using ITS Technologies, the MDOT estimated a 60% sa ving on impacts to the roadway system.

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16 CHAPTER THREE IDAS MODULES IDAS is an ITS sketch-planning analysis tool that can be used to estimate the impacts, benefits, and costs re sulting from the deployment of ITS components. It operates as a post-processor to travel demand models used by many Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPO) and by State Department s of Transportation (DOT) as part of the transportation planning purposes. IDAS, alth ough a sketch-planning tool, implements the modal split and traffic assignment steps asso ciated with the traditional planning model. These steps are key to estimatin g the changes in modal, route, and temporal decisions of travelers resulting from ITS technologies. IDAS is capable of analyzing over 60 different ITS compone nts (See Appendix A for complete list of components) by evaluating th e annual stream of costs associated with each new ITS component and th eir effect on a variety of performance measures. These performance measures include us er mobility, travel time/speed, travel time reliability, fuel costs, operating costs, accident costs, emission s, and noise. They refl ect changes in travel characteristics after each ITS deployment and, by reducing their effect to appropriate monetary values, the cost of deploying each ITS components can be compared. The ratio of average annual benefit to annual av erage cost is the benefit/cost ratio.

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17 Given the large number of components an d diverse performance measures that may be impacted by individual alternatives, I DAS relies on five modules to provide a comprehensive analysis of the impacts and costs of using specific ITS components: An Input/Output Interface Module (IOM); An Alternatives Generator Module (AGM); A Benefits Module; A Cost Module; and An Alternatives Comparison Module (ACM). The Benefits Module further comp rises four sub-modules: Travel Time/Throughput, Environment, Sa fety, and Travel Time Relia bility. Within each of these sub-modules, both traditional benefits of IT S deployment (e.g., im provement in average travel time) and non-traditional benefits (e.g. reduction in travel time variability) are estimated. The general structure of IDAS mo dules and sub-modules is shown in Figure 1 below.

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18 Figure 1 Outline of IDAS Analysis Procedure Benefits Module Travel Time/Throughput Environment Safety Travel Time Reliability Traditional benefit measures Non-traditional benefit measures IDAS control alternative assignment Mode choice Temporal choice Induced/foregone demand IDAS ITS option assignment Mode choice Temporal choice Induced/fore g one demand Travel Demand Model Data Input/Output Interface Alternative Generator Module User Input Cost Module Alternative Comparison Module Performance measures Cost/benefit analysis Sensitivity analysis Ranking of ITS options Risk analysis Plots of link volumes and speeds OUTPUTS Benefit Valuation

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19 IDAS Analysis Procedure Typically, IDAS analysis begins with local travel demand data. It is used by the Input/Output Interface Module to develop the transportation network and travel demand characteristics necessary to generate the control alternative. The Alternative Generator Module (AGM ) can then be used to develop ITS alternatives that can be compared to the cont rol alternative. To acc omplish this comparison, each alternative is passed through both the cost module, where the cost of each deployment can be calculated, and the benefit module wher e the impact of individual deployments is estimated through performance measures. Specifi c values are attached to each performance measure and the alternative co mparison module can be used to compare the difference between the control alternative and an ITS depl oyment alternative. The ratio of benefits due to changes in performance measur es over costs attributed to th e specific deployment is the B/C ratio. Input/Out Interface Module The input/output interface module (IOM) de fines all system analysis parameters needed for the project. It is responsible for setting the platfo rm for all other modules to function. Before any analysis can begin, the IOM must establis h the transportation characteristics of the network based on a local tr avel demand model. It is also responsible for establishing user-defined parameters such as the name and location of all tables used by other modules, the level of cost sharing, th e V/C curves for all facility types in the transportation network, and the district paramete rs; it also identifies centroid connectors for the Transportation Planning Model.

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20 As shown in Figure 2, Travel Demand information and User Defined parameters make up the only inputs to this module. From these sources a database that allows all other modules to do their assigned tasks is deve loped. The Alternative Generator Module relies on the transportation network data to allow graphical representation of the control alternative. It is then able to create other alternatives by adding ITS components to the network. The Benefits Module, furt her divided into 4 sub-modules, is able to use data files from the AGM to determine th e level of impact each alternative has on the network. The Cost Module uses parameters set by user defined inputs to estimate the cost of deploying individual components. The ACM uses both the unmo dified network data and the output from the benefit mo dule to calculate user benef its for each alternative. Alternative Generator Module The Alternative Generator Module (AGM ) provides the user with the most interaction with IDAS. It provides a graphical interface with the transportation network, allowing the user to specify detailed deploy ment parameters such as the location and attributes of each component, schedule of deployments, and full listing of equipment used during deployment. This module produces the actual ITS improvements that will be passed on to the Cost Module and Benefits Module. The AGM works by gath ering two types of data; data specified by the us er and data from other IDAS modules, specifically, data from the IOM To allow users to interact with the network defined in the IOM, output data is converted into a recognizable format then forwarded to the AGM. The physical network and transportation characteristics are represented graphically, allowing the user to easily

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21 view and add ITS comp onents to the network. The module allows the user to view and select individual links, nodes, an d zones in addition to the abi lity to scroll, pan, and zoom within the physical network. Ad ditionally, the AGM is able to display attributes of the network such as link capacity, link sp eed, and others specified by the IOM. Figure 2 IDAS Input/Output Module

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22 The deployment of ITS compone nts make up the second t ype of data input: Userdefined inputs. The module relies on user define d input to create an ITS alternative that will be used by the cost and bene fits modules for comparison with the control alternative. To accomplish this, the user can select any of the over 60 ITS components available in the module and attach them to speci fied links, nodes, or zones. The module will then allow the user to provide additional information regard ing the ITS component. A detailed inventory of all equipment and their location associat ed with the various ITS improvements is maintained in this module an d helps the cost module develop the stream of cost. IDAS Cost Module The IDAS cost module estimates the annua l stream of costs required for each ITS improvement. It relies on a large amount of de fault and/or user defined ITS equipment and integration costs to estimate the average an nual costs required for each ITS improvement. These costs can be selectively updated to reflect locally derived information. The estimated cost is used to develop a B/C ratio by compar ing it to the valuated benefits derived in the benefit module. The costs for any ITS option are based on the ITS components deployed using the alternatives generator. Each ITS component is associated with a set of ITS equipment. The cost module can either accept us er-defined costs or compile costs based on the inventory of ITS equipment generated by IDAS for each ITS improvement. Costs for the individual ITS equipment can be obtained from the National ITS Website and are provided as de faults in the IDAS database. The default cost values in IDAS are periodically updated based upon the United States Department of Transportation ITS Joint Program Office’s (JPO ) ITS unit costs database loca ted on the Mitretek website

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23 (http://www.mitretek.org/its/beneco st.nsf/). IDAS also allows the user to specify “userdefined” costs that reflect the cost and schedu le of deployment of various components. To aid with cost data, the IDAS equipment databa se, Florida-specific ID AS costs, and Updated FDOT project cost and schedules were also consulted to develop accurate costs. The ITS equipment database is an inve ntory of the individual pieces of ITS equipment needed to deploy each of the ITS components. The database includes deployment details such as: 1) Name and desc ription of all equipment used in IDAS, 2) Listing of equipment used when deploying individual ITS components, 3) The range of costs and useful life of the eq uipment for each piece of equipm ent and/or integration, and 4) The amount of equipment to be deployed at each location specified This inventory is automatically generated (or edited) whenever new improvements (or edits to existing improvements) associated with an ITS Option are defined. When an ITS improvement on the network in the Alte rnatives Generator is entered, the IDAS program searches the database to find indivi dual pieces of equipmen t necessary to deploy the ITS component in the configuration spec ified. The recommended ITS equipment is then added to the equipment inventory for that ITS Option. If the pr ogram detects that a particular piece of equipment has already been deployed and is capable of being shared by multiple deployments, the pr ogram will identify this s ituation and will not deploy redundant equipment. Costs are assessed to the public or private sector based on defaults available by type of equipment; however, these default designatio ns may be modified to assess all or a percentage of costs to either sector. Additiona l default data such as the discount rate are

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24 maintained in the database; however, the defau lt rates can be altered. This discount rate is linked with the rate used in estimating benefits to provide consistent results. Public capital costs include those public agency costs related to the planning, development, design, engineering, cons truction, and implementation of the ITS improvement. The capital costs are all expresse d in terms of the tota l implementation cost per unit. Public O&M costs ar e those ongoing public agency co sts necessary to keep the improvement operational. These O&M costs are expressed as an expected annual expenditure per unit. Private capital costs are those costs accrued by the private sector and individual users such as purchases of equipment and in stallation costs. Private O&M costs are those private sector costs associated with the maintenance and upkeep of equipment. Capital costs are divided among the years designated as the construction period for the ITS component. O&M costs ar e allocated to each year fo llowing the year of opening, throughout the useful life of the equipment. In cases where the useful life of the equipment is insufficient to allow the component to be operating during the analysis year, the equipment is redeployed and the additional cost is added. This process results in an annual st ream of costs for each ITS improvement contained in an ITS option. These costs are segmented by the various cost categories (public capital, public O&M, private capital, private O&M) fo r each of the years in the planning horizon. Based on this stream of costs, an average annual cost is calculated for the ITS option for all improvements that are pres ent during the analysis year. This average annual cost figure is passed on to the altern atives comparison modul e for comparison with the benefits valuation, an d for reporting purposes.

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25 After reviewing the estimated stream of co sts and average annual cost estimate, the inventory of ITS equipment can be modified or default co st figures can be edited. The option to directly enter cost figures into the annual stream of costs or enter values for the average annual cost is available. The cost mo dule will recalculate a ll input figures forward in the analysis; however, these figures will not be carried back wards into the preceding cost calculations. Benefits Module The objective of the IDAS benefits module is to estimate impacts resulting from the deployment of ITS co mponents. These impacts are quan tified using various performance measures of travel time, travel time relia bility, throughput, safety, emissions, energy consumption and noise. The benefits module uses the updated data set representing the ITS option and the unmodified data set representing the control alternative, to perform a series of analyses to generate the difference in performance between the two scenarios. The performance statistics are then passed on to the alternativ es comparison module where values are attached to the chan ges in the various measures. Performance measures are outputted into the ITS Library. The data contained in this library will be critical in the development of the IDAS impact an alysis methodology for each of the ITS improvements. These pe rformance measures include: Travel time/speed/delay; Throughput/capacity/vehicle st ops; Number of mode changes; Change in time of day travel; Change in route assi gnments; Safety; Emissions; Energy; Costs; Efficiency; and Other measures such as fare evasion reductions, reduced passenger wait times, reduced response times, etc.

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26 The IDAS benefits module comprises four individual sub-modules that provide estimates of impacts for differ ent categories of performance measures. The benefits module consists of a travel time/throughput sub-modul e, an environment sub-module, a safety submodule, and a travel time reliability sub-modul e. A brief overview of each of these submodules is provided below: Travel Time/Throu ghput Sub-module The travel time/throughput sub-module determines the impacts in transportation system capacity and operational efficiency re sulting from ITS improv ements. Travel time and throughput are primary considerations used in the analysis of ITS impacts. This submodule is capable of determining the imp acts on traveler responses including route diversion, mode shift, temporal diversi on, and induced/foregone demand. The travel time/throughput sub-module provides for the examination of these traveler responses by utilizing its own individual sub-m odules to determine sh ifts of travel related to route choice (trip assignment), mode choi ce, temporal choice (time-of-day), and induced/foregone demand. Environment Sub-module The environment sub-module provides a fl exible method for estimating changes in mobile source emissions, ener gy consumption, and noise impa cts of ITS strategies. Using the performance statistics generated from the travel time/throughput sub-module, the environment sub-module estimates environmenta l performance measures by using a series of detailed look-up tables that consider emis sions and energy consumption rates by specific

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27 network volume and traffic operating characteristi cs. The use of default tables provides the analyst with the ability to in corporate updated emissions and energy consumption rates as they become available. IDAS incorporates emissions and energy consumption rates from currently available sources, including Mob ile 5 and California Air Resources Board Emission Factors. Safety Sub-module The IDAS safety sub-module provides es timates of changes in the number and severity of accidents resulting from the im plementation of ITS strategies. Based on performance statistics calculated from the tr avel time/throughput s ub-module, the safety sub-module determines the safety benefits by using detailed accident rates using a series of default tables. Like the environment sub-module the safety sub-module is flexible to allow use of updated accident rates as they become available. Travel Time Relia bility Sub-module Delay experienced by the vehicle traveler can be attributed to two primary sources; recurrent delay caused by congestion on the ro adway due to over-saturated conditions, and non-recurrent delay related to incidents, such as crashes and vehicle breakdowns. Recurrent delay is calculated directly fr om the results of th e IDAS trip assignment, mode choice, temporal choice and induced/foregone demand modules. It is the non-recurrent congestion due to incidents that provid es the measure of travel time reliability in IDAS. Improvements to the reliability of travel time are estimated in IDAS by a postprocessor immediately following the completion of the final as signment. Separate estimates

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28 of travel time reliability are produced fo r the control alternative and ITS option. ITS components, specified in the alternatives genera tor, that have the capability of reducing the number of incidents, such as ramp metering, or the duration of incidents, such as incident detection/verification, will resu lt in an improved travel time reliability reported for the ITS option. ITS Alternatives Comparison The IDAS Alternatives Comparison M odule (ACM) compiles the output from the other IDAS modules, converts performance m easures into comparable formats, and presents the results of the analysis. Specifi cally, the ACM allows the user to view/edit default valuation parameters, converts pe rformance measures and benefits from hourly/daily to annual figures, assigns dollar valu es to the benefits estimated in the benefits module, applies user de fined weights to benefit values for sensitivity analysis, compares annual benefit and cost figures, summarizes and displays benefits information, summarizes and displays information on public and private costs, performs and displays the results of risk analysis, and produces summary tables of cost/benefit analysis and performance measures; it also plots link volumes and sp eeds using evaluation criteria and weights specified by the IDAS user. Inputs Specified by the User For the ACM to work, the name of the IT S option to be evaluated must first be specified. In response, the ACM will automati cally access the data for that ITS option as well as its associated control alternative. Optio nal user inputs include values for monetizing

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29 the various benefits. Graphical interface screens allow the IDAS user to enter values or to accept the default values for the following variables: Cost adjustment factors Value of time Value of user mobility Cost of fuel Non-fuel vehicle operating cost Global warming cost Emission costs Internal cost per fatal, injury, and property damage only accident External cost per fatal, injury, and property damage only accident Noise damage costs Risk analysis ranges Inputs from Other IDAS Modules Inputs obtained from the benefits module for th e control alternative and ITS option include: In-vehicle travel time, out-of-vehicle tr avel time, and travel time reliability by market sector; Vehicle miles traveled and vehi cle trips by market sector; Vehicle occupancy rates by market sector; Fatal, injury, and property damage only accidents by market sector;

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30 Emissions by pollutant; and, Energy consumption (gallons of gaso line, gallons of diesel fuel). Outputs The ACM produces summary reports of the output data produced by the ACM as well as data output by other modules of the ID AS model. Three default summary sheets are output by the model. The firs t two of the summary sheets provide details on various performance measures (VMT, VHT, number of accidents, etc.) of th e ITS option compared with the control alternative stra tified by facility type or by ma rket sector (mode and/or trip purpose). The third sheet (Benefit/Cost Summar y) details the results of the benefits valuation (value of time saved, value of accide nt reductions, etc.), cost analysis of the ITS option, net annual benefit, and benefit-cost ratio. In IDAS, output data from the ACM may be output in ASCII text files that can be viewed or printed from a text editor program. The text files ar e structured to facilitate the easy incorporation of the data into most sp readsheet programs for further analysis. All output data reports contain unique identification of the control alterna tive and ITS option as well as a time stamp.

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31 CHAPTER FOUR DEVELOPMENT OF A LOCAL MODEL Many of the parameters used in IDAS depend on a variety of local traveler behavior patterns and, since the default values presente d in IDAS are typically national averages, the resulting B/C ratio may not accurately reflect local conditio ns. At some level, all five modules require parameter adjustme nts to ensure accurate results. This chapter highlights the key elements of each IDAS Mo dule that may be affected by local conditions as well as helpful resources for developing these parameters. Using project data provided by the district office of FDOT, this chapter covers the development of a local Transportation Network, some examples of local Parameters of ITS Components, and steps to de velop an accurate cost modul e, and it establishes key parameters within the ACM. While most of th e parameters developed in the chapter are limited to the scope of the Tampa Bay project the parameters developed for the ACM can be used statewide. Key Data Resources in Florida Before working in IDAS, it is important to secure all the necessary data required by the modules. While IDAS of fers default parameters, some modules require some significant user inputs. Data gathering is a cr itical step in developing a Local model and attention must be paid to all modules, especi ally in developing the travel network and

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32 characteristics. The most intensive amount of da ta required for this project is data required by the IOM to define transportation charact eristics of the network. Nonetheless, all modules must reflect local para meters, and must be formatted for import into IDAS. It may be necessary to use additional tools such as the FSUTMS Conversion tool, or detailed project costs instead of default cost inventor y. Table 1 below high lights the major data requirements and resources used for deve loping a Tampa Bay specific model. The equivalent sources can be used to de velop other modules in other areas.

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33 Table 1 Florida Specific Data Resources Module Data Categories Data Type Resources User Defined Inputs Pr oject Descriptions User Preference Market Sectors Based on ITS component and project objective Default Input file Location User Preference Control Alternative N ode Coordinate File FSUTMS Output Network Link File FSUTMS Output Conversion Tool Input/Output Travel Matrix FSUTMS Output IOM Outputs Network Data FSUTMS Output User Defined Inputs ITS Component (Name/Location/Attributes) Based on ITS component and project objective IDAS Parameter IDAS Database Alternative Generator User Component Parameter Local Traffic Experience Equipment Parameters (Sharing/Discount Rates/GNP Factors) Local Assumptions Equipment Costs User Defined Costs Project Data Equipment Inventory Output from AGM Lifecycle Assumptions Project Dependent Cost Equipment Inventory Deployment Schedule Project Dependent Benefit Benefit parameters V/C Curve FSUTMS Conversion tool Value of Time Sunguide Discount Rate Local Assumptions Cost per Gallon of Fuel Local Market Non-fuel Operating Cost Sunguide Environmental/Noise Costs Default OK Alternative Comparison User Input Accident Costs Sunguide The Input/Output Module an d Control Alternative The first step in the analysis process is to develop a control alternative through the IOM which will serve as the baseline for comparison of va rious ITS alternatives. The majority of this data is typically availabl e through local travel demand models. It is important to note that the data used in the control alternative must be from a validated

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34 traffic model. Without a validated networ k, the IDAS assignment model may vary considerably from the actual local model. The Tampa Bay control alternative is prim arily based on the network data described by the 2015 FSUTMS travel dema nd model which was used to establish the appropriate Node Coordinate file, Network Link file, Turn Prohibitor file, and Trip Data files (origin/destination tables). The node file inputted into the IOM cons isted of a total of 16,244 nodes, each giving exact coordinates of link nodes. The network link file co nsisted of 28,552 links that described the roadway system of the Tampa Ba y area. These links, in addition to the other eight facility types defined in the module, were pre-define d using the FSUT MS conversion tool. While the turn prohibitor file was optional, it was import ed to help pr ovide accurate travel assignment. And finally, th e Matrix data file used is essential for traffic assignment in IDAS. It describes person trips through the ne twork based on the market sectors chosen. As part of the control alternative, two market sectors were defined. Based on the available trip data, the project called for Auto Vehicles and Truc ks as the market sectors to be studied. Since none of the planned ITS improvements affected other modes directly, they were excluded from the analysis. It shoul d also be noted that in-vehicle and out-ofvehicle trip tables were excluded because these are optional, and neither of the two market sectors defined in this module required them. The data used in the cont rol alternative must be from a validated traffic model. Without a validated network, the IDAS assign ment model may vary considerably from actual local conditions. For this project, a lthough all the deploym ents were located completely within only tw o of the five counties, the entire network data was used to ensure

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35 the validity of the data. Atte mpts at reducing the size of the network without proper validation resulted in various errors in the mo del. While some of th e errors were evident while attempting to upload network files, ot hers were not obvious until after running the benefits module. Using the entire network model ensured an accurate assignment model. The Input Data Types The Input data types required by the IOM are of two types. First, user-specified inputs are needed to set analysis parameters. Th ey also allow the user to set the name of project alternatives and year of analysis an d to establish input files names and locations. The most intensive input type s, however, are those that describe the transportation characteristics of the network. The travel demand model data required by IDAS form the building blocks of information to drive the benefits analysis of the various ITS deployments. IDAS has been designed to be flexible in terms of the require d input formats, allowing a wide cross-section of planning model output to be used with a minimum of preprocessing. Input files can be in fixed-format or space, tab, or comma deli mited ASCII text with each column of data separated by the delimiter. IDAS contains a data translator that allows the user to define column variables of the input data. The data translator automatically parses the data upon input. There is, however, a mini mum of information that must be input into IDAS to test any ITS deployment. These include Zone to district equivalence (optional), Node coordinate file, Network link file, Turn prohib itor file (optional), Trip origin destination (trip table) data files, Trip in-vehicle travel time tables (optional for vehicle market sectors), and Trip out-of-vehicle travel time tables (optional for vehicle market sectors).

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36 Zone to District Equivalence File (Optional) Zone number, integer District number, integer Networks – Network data consist of da ta describing nodes and links of the transportation system. Each row of node or link data must cont ain the following: Node Coordinates File Node number, integer X coordinate, integer or real Y coordinate, integer or real Network Links File A Node Number (beginning node of link), integer B Node Number (end n ode of link), integer Distance, in units of miles, real Travel Mode (1=auto links, 2=transit mode), integer (Note: this variable helps to identify transit only links in a network. Most links will be coded as 1 meaning that personal vehicles can use the link. Trans it only links should be coded as 0. If no transit links exist, all links should be coded as 1.) Area Type (urban, CBD, suburban, rural, etc.) designator, integer (Note: any number of areas types may be input into IDAS; however, they will be collapsed

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37 into two designations within the software, urban and suburban/rural, as defined in File, Setup, TPM Data screen.) Number of Lanes (number of one-way travel lanes), integer or real Facility Type (freeway, arterial, HOV, transit, etc.) designator, integer (Note: before importing the links, the File Setup menu sh ould be used to ma p the facility type number to the facility type definition.) Volume, optional (for the specific time period), integer or real (Note: this variable represents the loaded volume for the li nk assigned by the travel demand model. This is optional as IDAS performs its ow n assignment procedure. If volumes are unavailable, the value should be set to zer o. Non-zero values will override IDAS values.) Lane Capacity (one-way), in units of vehicl es per lane for the sp ecified time period (for example, a three-hour peak period lane capacity should be three times the hourly capacity). (Note: This is not the t ypical vehicles per lane per hour unless a peak hour time period is being analyzed.), integer Speed (input free flow speed) or link free flow travel time with spee d in units of miles per hour and time in va lues of minutes, integer or real (Note: Only centroid connectors can have a speed of zero. All other facility types must have a speed greater than zero.) DistrictID, integer, optional (Note: this must correspond to the zone to district equivalence values. If links are not to be categ orized into districts, the input variable for each link should be set to 1.)

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38 Time Speed Indicator flag, al pha characters T or S (Note: this variable tells the software whether the value in the Speed co lumn represents a speed “S” (in mph) or a travel time “T” (in minutes).) Turn Prohibitor File (Optional) From node, integer Through (intersection) node, integer To node, integer Prohibitor code (a value of zero is required) Matrix Data File Origin zone, integer Destination zone, integer Matrix data values, real or integer. (Time values in units of minutes, and cost values in units of dollars). Matrix data are two dimensional array data structures that describe information for origin and destination zone pairs. This informa tion can consist of trips, travel times, travel costs, or any other zonal pair data. The matrices of data used as inputs to IDAS are: Person and/or vehicle trips by market sector, In-vehic le travel times by market sector, and Out-ofvehicle travel times (the total of all out-of -vehicle time components such as walk, wait and transfer time) by market sector.

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39 An important concept within IDAS is the use of market sectors to describe discrete segments of the trave ling population of a study area. Market sectors are analogous to trip purposes or modes of travel. For example, single occupant vehicle trips can be classified as one market sector, or could be classified by work trip and non-work trip single occupant vehicle trips in two different market sector s, as the two sectors could have different sensitivities to transportation improv ements. It is entirely up to the user to provide the most appropriate level of detail when defining the nu mber of total market sectors (up to 99 can be defined). Alternative Generator Module After detailed network and control alternative data are imported through the IOM, specific ITS alternatives can then be deploye d and compared to the control alternative. These alternatives consist of essentially the same physical network and traffic assignment data, but with specific ITS components deployed throughout the network at specific times. To compare the alternatives, IDAS performs its own traffic assignme nt on both the control alternative and all other ITS alternatives deve loped. The changes in performance measures are then evaluated based on both default an d user defined benefit parameters. The choice of which ITS components to deploy must be based entirely on the project goals and objectives desired. Users can deploy a wide range of ITS components at various locations to examine which configura tion offers the most benefits, or, knowing specific details about components and their loca tions, examine the benefits associated with doing so. In either case, deve loping a local module w ill require significant changes to many of the default component parameters.

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40 Component Parameters The task of developing local components for all ITS components used in IDAS is beyond the scope of this research. To high light a possible approach, however, some available data is presented below. Using existing FDOT plans for the Tampa Bay region over a 10 year span, detailed schedules and co mponent location information were used to develop local parameters. The ITS Component s modeled for the region included Incident Management Systems and Regional Multimo dal Traveler Information Systems. Each ITS component has default settings that affect the performance measures of the alternative. For alternatives to reflect the conditions in the Tampa Bay area, both components had to be adjusted as describe d in Tables 2 and 3 below. For Incident Detection/Verification, it is believed that th e percent reduction in incident duration was too high. It was lowered from 9% to 5%. In the ca se of DMS, the percent of time that signs were on and disseminating information was also believed to be too high. It was lowered from 10% to 2.5%. The tables reflect the di fferences between project values used and default values for DMS and VIDs. Incident Management Systems The ITS component that best reflected the FDOT project plans for incident management systems was “ Incident Detection/Verification ”. This component detects traffic speed and volumes on a network. When the traf fic slows down below a certain speed it can activate CCTV in the area to find out what the problem might be. This component is supported by:

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41 Closed Circuit Television (CCTV): This component has the capability to pan, tilt, and zoom. Its purpose is to transmit real-t ime traffic condition im ages to TMC. As described in FDOT plans, CCTVs were depl oyed throughout the network with one (1) mile spacing. Regional Traffic Management Center (TMC): This serves as the home base for a variety of ITS components. An operator can control the necessary parameters of various ITS components in the field. In the ca se of incident management systems, the operator may be able to identify a situ ation on the network that may have caused traffic to slow down. For this projec t the TMC was deployed at District 7 headquarters. Table 2 Comparison of Defa ult and Local VID Parameters Description Default Values Local Values VID (Video Incident Detection) % reduction in incident duration 9 5 % reduction in fuel consumption 15 15 % reduction in accident rate 10 10 % reduction in emission CO 15 15 HC/ROG 15 15 NOX 15 15 PM 15 15 Regional Multimodal Traveler Information Systems The ITS component that best reflected the FDOT project plans for Regional Multimodal Traveler Information Systems was “Freeway Dynamic Message Signs”. Once a problem arises or any need to inform driv ers of a situation, a message is placed on DMS to inform or reroute traffic. This component is supported by

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42 Regional Traffic Man agement Center (TMC): This serves as the home base for a variety of ITS components. An operator can control the necessary parameters of various ITS components in the field. In the case of regional multimodal traveler information systems, an operator may be able to update messages on DMS already deployed on the transportation network. For this project the TMC was deployed at District 7 headquarters Table 3 Comparison of Defaul t and Local DMS Parameters Description Default Values Project Values DMS (Dynamic Message Signs) % vehicles that passed sign and saved time 20 20 % of time sign is turned on and disseminating information 10 2.5 Average time savings (mins) 3 3 Cost Module While IDAS offers a very robust modul e for estimating deployment costs, the available FDOT project data allowed us to develop our own “User-defined” cost. These costs were compared to the IDAS default cost module and a Florida-specific cost database that was based on updates in accordance with Florida-specific IDAS Costs. Results suggest that IDAS underestimates the total costs associated with the deployment of ITS components. Whenever possible, user defined costs should be used to replace or at least supplement default cost module.

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43 Default Cost Data Default cost data are derived from th e alternative generator module. The cost module uses the output from the AGM to create equipment inventory based on ITS elements deployed onto the network. Based on th e total number and time of deployment of each piece of equipment used, I DAS is able to estimate an annual stream of costs and eventually estimate the overall average annual cost. Equipment costs are contained within a cost database that does allow the user to upda te costs and lifetime of all the equipment used in IDAS. Many ITS equipment costs are driven by local markets and every network may not reflect the national average given in IDAS. A Florida-Specific database was developed through the help of Florida-specific IDAS Co sts. Although both the IDAS default and Florida-specific cost database will produce the same type and nu mber of equipment, their individual costs varied for some equipment. Table 4 outlines equipm ent associated with ITS improvements in the Tampa Bay area.

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44 Table 4 Equipment Associat ed with ITS Improvements Improvement IDAS ITS Element Associated Default Equipment VID Incident Management Systems Video monitor, video wall, hardware, software, integration and labor DMS Regional Multimodal Traveler Information Systems Communication line, hardware, software, integration, DMS with structure, workstation, and labor RTMC Supporting Deployment Tr affic Management Center CCTV Supporting Deployment Camera, Tower, Processor, software, and integration User Defined Cost Data IDAS allows the use of us er-defined costs, but the co st data must adhere to a predetermined format. Since the goal of the co st module was to develo p annual streams of cost, user defined costs had to provide speci fics about the equipment such as individual equipment cost, maintenance costs, scheduled deployment dates, and useful life of equipment. The total equipment cost, and deployment dates, both readily available, helped to establish general construction and integration co sts. Maintenance cost was estimated at the industry standard of 10%. However, the useful life of the equipment, which allowed IDAS to redeploy equipment when the analysis period exceeded the useful life of the equipment, had to be estimated. The cost data associated with FDOT projects (sho wn in Table 5) were categorized in terms of Construction costs, Procurement costs, and Integration and CEI costs.

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45 Table 5 FDOT Projected Phase Costs Project ID Construction Costs Procurement Costs Integration and CEI Costs Total Costs 255844-2 $1,414,001.00 $427,000.00 $244,351.00 $2,085,352.00 258398-3 $1,514,653.00 $800,000.00 $299,311.00 $2,613,964.00 258401-2 $1,152,001.00 $230,800.00 $103,680.00 $1,486,481.00 258643-2 $800,000.00 $503,745.00 $144,427.00 $1,448,172.00 407232-1 $5,720,620.00 $0.00 $634,193.00 $6,354,814.00 407232-2 $2,825,285.00 $0.00 $780,000.00 $3,605,285.00 407233-1 $2,575,001.00 $1,036,000.00 $850,000.00 $4,461,001.00 407233-2 $5,300,495.00 $1,150,000.00 $446,963.00 $6,897,458.00 407233-4 $3,363,000.00 $332,000.00 $302,670.00 $3,997,670.00 407233-5 $2,939,857.00 $1,000,000.00 $593,902.00 $4,533,759.00 407233-6 $1,920,953.00 $279,000.00 $0.00 $2,199,953.00 407233-7 $4,440,000.00 $1,200,000.00 $467,317.00 $6,107,317.00 409366-1 $3,000,971.00 $1,050,000.00 $306,301.00 $4,357,272.00 409366-2 $5,736,001.00 $695,000.00 $516,241.00 $6,947,242.00 409366-3 $2,421,001.00 $932,000.00 $127,891.00 $3,480,892.00 410909-1 $6,878,501.00 $532,000.00 $1,052,411.00 $8,462,912.00 410909-2 $1,673,000.00 $196,000.00 $150,570.00 $2,019,570.00 410909-3 $1,280,001.00 $132,000.00 $115,201.00 $1,527,202.00 410909-6 $2,445,001.00 $400,000.00 $220,051.00 $3,065,052.00 Because the useful lives of equipment within each of these categories vary considerably, an average useful life could not be taken. Instead, the proportional cost of equipment having various categories of useful life was estimated, i.e. equipment with a similar useful life was grouped. The proportiona l cost of each group was estimated from detailed project data available for earlier phases. At the time of analysis, FDOT was in the construction stage of Phase-I deployments. This data provided detailed proj ect costs that included equipment inventory for three projects in Phase I. Equipment were grouped in one of the four useful life categories, and the proportiona l sum of each group was calcula ted and used in all other

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46 phases. Equipment having 40 years of useful life was estimated to be approximately 65% of total cost and those with 10 years of useful life estima ted at 25%. Five-year equipment was estimated at 10% of total cost. Table 6 show s the Useful Life Cost s associated with the project. These costs replaced Default costs completely. Table 6 Conversion of Project Costs to User Defined Costs Total 40 Yr 10 Yr 5 Yr $2,085,352.00 $1,355,478.80 $521,338.00 $208,535.20 $2,613,964.00 $1,699,076.60 $653,491.00 $261,396.40 $1,486,481.00 $966,212.65 $371,620.25 $148,648.10 $1,448,172.00 $941,311.80 $362,043.00 $144,817.20 $6,354,814.00 $4,130,629.10 $1,588,703.50 $635,481.40 $3,605,285.00 $2,343,435.25 $901,321.25 $360,528.50 $4,461,001.00 $2,899,650.65 $1,115,250.25 $446,100.10 $6,897,458.00 $4,483,347.70 $1,724,364.50 $689,745.80 $3,997,670.00 $2,598,485.50 $999,417.50 $399,767.00 $4,533,759.00 $2,946,943.35 $1,133,439.75 $453,375.90 $2,199,953.00 $1,429,969.45 $549,988.25 $219,995.30 $6,107,317.00 $3,969,756.05 $1,526,829.25 $610,731.70 $4,357,272.00 $2,832,226.80 $1,089,318.00 $435,727.20 $6,947,242.00 $4,515,707.30 $1,736,810.50 $694,724.20 $3,480,892.00 $2,262,579.80 $870,223.00 $348,089.20 $8,462,912.00 $5,500,892.80 $2,115,728.00 $846,291.20 $2,019,570.00 $1,312,720.50 $504,892.50 $201,957.00 $1,527,202.00 $992,681.30 $381,800.50 $152,720.20 $3,065,052.00 $1,992,283.80 $766,263.00 $306,505.20

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47 Benefit Module To calculate the benefits of the ITS improvements deployed onto the network, IDAS uses four sub-modules. These sub-modul es evaluate individual alternatives based on performance measures discussed in the last ch apter. By comparing each alternative to the control alternative, the difference in the performance measures was used to calculate the benefits to the network. The Travel/Throughput sub-module requi red two types of inputs; user defined inputs and inputs from the alternatives generato r. User defined inputs included the name of the alternative and market sectors, as well as transportation characteristics defined through the FSUTMS Conversion tool such as volume-de lay curves, mode choice, temporal choice, and induced demand coefficients. The alterna tive generator provided network data, trip matrix data, and deployment/equipment loca tions. The sub-module then performed new trip assignments to each alternative to gene rate travel times, distances, speed, and link volumes, each used to develop mode choice temporal diversion, and induced/foregone demand. A final trip assignment was applied and output was sent to the three remaining benefits sub-modules as well as to the alternative comp arison module. The environmental sub-module was then ab le to use trip data outputs from the travel/throughput sub-module, along with fuel consumption rate s, emission rates (defined by Mobile 5a), and energy and emissions costs. These were used to develop the environmental cost associated with each altern ative. The safety sub-module used the same trip data outputs from the travel/throughput su b-module along with accident rate data to produce an output file.

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48 The travel time reliability sub-module calculated improvem ents in travel reliability based on hours of delay associated with each freeway link as a function of length, traffic volume, capacity, freq uency of accidents, and average durat ion of incidents. In each case, the results of the alternatives were passed along to the alternat ive comparison module. ITS Alternative Comparison The Alternative Comparis on Module was responsible for taking all the outputs from the other IDAS modules a nd providing a platform to compare the relative benefits of using each alternative. To aid in this proce ss, the other modules pr ovided data inputs such as travel time and travel time variability, market sector parame ters (vehicle miles, vehicle trips, and accidents), emissions, energy consumption, and the annual stream of costs. The user was responsible for developing input parameters that evaluated each performance measure during the analysis proced ure. The included items such as value of time, discount rate, cost of fuel, emission cost accident cost, and other trip based costs. Table 7 shows a list of various user-defin ed parameters used in this module.

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49 Table 7 User Defined Parameters Description Default Values Project Values Value of time *In vehicle auto costs ($/HR) 8.50 6.15 *In vehicle commercial tr uck cost ($/HR) 20.80 60.00 Auto travel time reli ability ($/HR) 25.00 **18.45 Truck travel time reliability ($/HR) 62.40 **180.00 Vehicle costs Fuel Costs ($/gallon) 1.21 2.00 *Auto Non-fuel costs ($/mile) 0.034 0.061 *Truck Non-fuel costs ($/mile) 0.1 0.245 Safety costs *Accidents with Fatalit ies ($) 2,317,398.00 1,000,000.00 *Accidents with Injury ($) 50,760.00 25,000.00 *Accidents with Property damage only ($) 2,824.00 2,500.00 These values are from the Sunguide Report3 ** Travel time reliability is esti mated at three times the in-vehic le travel costs. These values are consistent with the relationship established by IDAS. Outputs The ACM produces summary reports of the output data produced by the ACM as well as data output by other modules of the ID AS model. Three default summary sheets are output by the model. The firs t two of the summary sheets provide details on various performance measures (VMT, VHT, number of accidents, etc.) of th e ITS option compared with the control alternative stra tified by facility type or by ma rket sector (mode and/or trip purpose). The third sheet (Benefit/Cost Summar y) details the results of the benefits valuation (value of time saved, value of accide nt reductions, etc.), cost analysis of the ITS option, net annual benefit, and benefit-cost ratio. In IDAS, output data from the ACM may be output in ASCII text files that can be viewed or printed from a text editor program. The text files ar e structured to facilitate the easy incorporation of the data into most sp readsheet programs for further analysis. All

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50 output data reports contain unique identification of the control alterna tive and ITS option as well as a time stamp. Appendix B supplies copies of these tables.

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51 CHAPTER FIVE RESU LTS OF LOCAL MODEL IDAS was used in a Cost -benefit analysis of ITS deployments in the Tampa Bay area using actual FDOT project data. To develop a B/C ratio, IDAS performed its own traffic assignment on the Ta mpa Bay network before and after ITS com ponents were deployed. By monitoring specific performance me asures, IDAS was able to evaluate the benefits of each ITS component and comp are it to an annual stream of costs. The ITS alternative featured an incide nt management system with “Incident Detection/Verification” and a regional multim odal traveler information system featuring “Freeway Dynamic Message Signs”, deployed simultaneously in four phases over an eight year period. The annual stream of cost was estimated based on project costs provided by FDOT and was imported as us er-defined costs while the be nefits of each phase were calculated based on “Change in User Mobility”, “Change in User Tr avel Time”, “Change in Costs Paid by Users”, and “Change in External Costs”. Benefit-Cost Ratio With the annual costs estimated at $24 ,878,706 and benefits at $178,509,268, IDAS estimates a final B/C ratio of 7.18. This ratio describes the va lue of benefits expected for each dollar spent on deploying the given ITS components. Table X highlights these results.

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52 Project Cost The average annual cost represents the initial cost to FDOT plus O & M costs and the cost for redeployment of equipment over the lifetime of the project. These costs are tallied and an annual average is calculated. A final average annual cost of almost $25 million from a total initial investment by F DOT of $75.6 million wa s calculated. While user-defined costs based on FDOT project costs were used to establish the final B/C ratio, other cost sources were examined for their va lidity. Table 8 shows the B/C ratio associated with using these diff erent cost modules

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53 Table 8 Florida Sp ecific B/C Ratio

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54 IDAS default costs were based on the e quipment database developed from national averages. This cost source provided a total an nual cost of about half the FDOT projected costs, giving a B/C ratio of 13.57. The Florida specific cost s were based on the default equipment database with adjustments made to it as suggested by Florida-specific IDAS Costs2. This cost source estimated an annual cost of $16.5 million, gi ving a B/C ratio of 10.7. From these results we can expect better co st estimates from changes reflected in the Florida-specific IDAS Costs; however, both Florida specific and default costs seem to underestimate costs associated with ITS deployments. Project Benefits The benefits associated with this projec t can be divided into four areas based on “Change in User Mobility”, “C hange in User Trav el Time”, “Change in Cost paid by Users”, and “Change in External Costs”. Change in user mobi lity accounts for the largest benefit with just over 43 % of total benefits at the end of the final phase. Changes in cost paid by the user is a close second accounting for 39.5% of total benefits, with changes in external cost and changes in user travel ti me having 13% and 4% respectively. A further breakdown of these benefits shows a $68 million improvement in the cost paid by the user in fuel costs. With the estimated fuel cost se t at $2.00/gal, this value has the potential to increase significantly above regular inflation rates as the price of fuel continues to increase sharply.

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55 Performance Measures and Market Sectors IDAS relies on its performance measures to develop appropriate benefits. These performance measures, shown in Table 9, include measures such as vehicle miles of travel, number of accidents, gallons of fuel consum ed, and tons of emissions. By tracking the changes of each performance measure, benefits can be evaluated based on the value of each unit of individual performance measures.

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56 Table 9 Market Sector Output

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57 Table 9 displays the unit and percentage changes of each performance measure used in IDAS. Each performance measure is further broken down into the two market sectors, Auto and Truck, used to describe th e travel patterns within the network. While the Auto Market sector accounts for about 90% of total vehicle-miles of travel, the Truck Market sector has a higher percentage change in most of the categories affected in this study. Based on these performance measures, no change in travel demand is experienced. When comparing the control alternative to the fully deployed network, there is no change in vehicle miles of travel, vehicle-hours of tr avel, average speed, person hours of travel, or number of person trips. Within the safety sub-module; however, there is a 0.7% de crease in number of fatal accidents but no change recorded for either number of injury accidents or number of PDO accidents. The environmental sub-module also produced some change s. A 2.6% reduction in the oxides of nitrogen was recorded al ong with a 1.6% reduc tion in carbon monoxides emissions and 1.7% reduction in hydrocarbon an d reactive organic gases. The 2.6% oxides of nitrogen reduction was the largest percentage reduction overall. The most significant changes recorded we re the reduction in hours of unexpected delay and fuel consumption. Tr avel time reliability, expressed in hours of unexpected delay, improved by 2.4%. Fuel consumption, e xpressed in gallons of fuel, was reduced by over 100,000 gallons (2.1%). These changes are reflected in the B/C ratio as a significant benefit in user mobility, user travel ti me, and fuel costs paid by the user.

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58 Sensitivity of IDAS Parameters An overview of results based on the IDAS default parameters as compared to userdefined parameters used for the final results in this memorandum is shown in Table X. The results show that when IDAS is used with no changes made to any of the default parameters, the B/C ratio is greatly overes timated. Using defau lt parameters IDAS estimated a total of $415.5 millio n in benefits and onl y $13 million in annu al costs, giving a B/C ratio of 31.98. The B/C of 7.1 8 reflects the changes made to input parameters aimed at describing local conditions. To make these adjustments, changes were made to input parameters for ITS components in the alterna tive generator module and to input parameters in the alternative comparison module.

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59 Table 10 Sensitivity of IDAS Module

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60 CHAPTER SIX STRATEG IES FOR MAXIMIZING ITS BENEFITS As ITS technologies become more prev alent in the Transportation planning process, a growing need has emerged for tools that can be used to analyze and maximize the impact of those technologies With such a diverse variety of technologies available to planners, understanding the impact alternatives have on a network is an important part of the planning process. While IDAS certainly has that capab ility, planners must go even further to utilize all of IDAS’s capabilities and to develop more inno vative approaches to deploying ITS technologies. One way to further utilize IDAS’s capab ilities is by developing strategies to maximize the impact of the appropriate tec hnologies by first identifying and quantifying the benefits associated with individual projects, and then developing appropriate deployment schedules to maxi mize their desired effect. Th ese new deployment schedules, if prioritized based on factors that directly impact the benefits to the network, will allow planners to optimize the effect of ITS com ponents while remaining within both cost and time constraints. Research Methodology To help planners develop strategies to maximize the benefits of ITS deployments, this research focuses on current FDOT data available for ITS projec ts within the Tampa Bay area. These plans call for Incident Mana gement and Regional Multimodal Traveler

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61 Information Systems to be deployed along majo r sections of I-4, I-75, and I-275 within the Hillsborough and Pinellas area. Using a model based on this available data, this chapter will focus primarily on utilizing IDAS output valu es to prioritize deployment alternatives. The method of research was developed to accomplish four key goals, each designed to test various aspects of the hypothesis that the impact of ITS components can be maximized by first identifying and quantifying the benefits associated with individual projects, and then developing appropriate depl oyment schedules to maximize their desired effect. The first goal was to develop a Florida specific model based on actual FDOT project data to serve as a baseline for comparison. This model should include Florida specific component parameters that reflect the imp act of each ITS component based on local conditions. The second and third goals were to account for both Time and Budget constraints, as both are important factors in the planning process and often dictate scheduling. The final goal was to develop strategi es for prioritization of projects in order to positively impact th e final B/C Ratio. To accomplish these goals a Florida speci fic model was first used to develop a control alternative as discussed in earlier chapters. All 17 projects were individually modeled in IDAS and compared to the control alternative to establish the impact of each project on the network. From IDAS, useful information such as overall benefits, average annual costs, environmental, safety, and oper ational benefits was co llected along with the final B/C ratios for each project. The projects were then used to test various deployment scenarios based on the prioritizing of each pr oject based on these outpu ts. To ensure that strategies developed from this method were us eful, both budget and time constraints were accounted for. By comparing the overall B/C ratio for the entire sequence of project deployment, a general deployme nt strategy was developed.

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62 Development of Florida Specific Model As outlined in Chapter Four and Five, developing a Flor ida specific model required some significant data gathering and user define d parameters. Table 1 was used as a guide to establish key resources for the data imports to be used in the IOM. Outputs from the 2015 FSUTMS database was formatted and uploade d to the IDAS. These files included Node Files, Link Files, and Travel Matrix Data Files (examples are shown in Appendix B). As required by the IOM module, add itional information that define d key market sectors (Auto and Trucks), time of travel, and average vehi cle occupancy was also necessary. This data produced a control alternative that was used as a baseline to test changes in performance measures. Each project was then modeled indivi dually in the AGM, allowing IDAS to establish individual performance measures fo r each project. Table 11 below highlights and gives a brief description of each project used in the model. In each case, both an Incident Management System and a Regional Multimo dal Traveler Information System were deployed at the locations listed. To account for a Florida specifi c model, component parameters discussed in the previous chapte r were used All seventeen projects were deployed using a 2005 mid year construction a nd 2006 end of project deployment schedule. Since each project was modeled separately, th ey did not affect each other in any way.

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63 Table 11 Project Location FDOT ID # Project Location 255844-2 SR 60 from Cypress Street to Courtney Campbell 258398-3 I-275 from Howard Frankla nd Bridge to Hillsborough River 258401-2 I-4 from 14th Street to 50th Street 258643-2 I-275/I-4 from Hillsborough Ri ver to Downtown Interchange 407233-1 I-275 from MLK to Bears Blvd. 407233-2 I-275 from 54th Ave North to Kennedy Blvd 407233-4 I-275 from 54th Ave. South to 54th Ave. North 407233-5 I-275 from Sunshine Skyway to 54th Ave South 407233-6 I-275 from I-75 to Sunshine Skyway Bridge 407233-7 I-275 from Bears to I-75 409366-1 I-4 from 50th Street to CR 579 409366-2 I-4 from CR 579 to Park Road 409366-3 I-4 from Park Road to Polk County Line 410909-1 I-75 from US 301 to Fowler Ave 410909-2 I-75 from Fowler Ave to Bruce B. Downs Blvd 410909-3 I-75 from Bruce B. Downs Blvd to I-275 (Pasco County) 410909-6 I-75 from Manatee County line to US 301 Accounting for a Florida specific model also required changes in both the Benefits and Cost modules. For the bene fits module to reflect local conditions, changes in the V/C curve used were necessary. These changes were available through the FSUTMS/IDAS conversion tool supplied by the FDOT office an d relied on data associated with Florida travel characteristics. To develop an appropr iate cost module, FDOT capital costs were used to develop User Define d costs within the IDAS Cost Module. Based on values estimated earlier in this report, FDOT costs were divided into 40-year costs, 10-year costs, and 5-year costs and used to develop an annual stream of co st over a 30-year period. The resulting Florida specific model produc ed B/C ratios as well as annual benefits associated with each project. Table 12 gives a summary of outputs fr om the ACM used in IDAS. Because operational bene fits are valued heavily in the IDAS model, total annual benefits were separated into individual benef its as shown. This allo wed the development of scenarios that tested three separate categorie s of benefits without the operational biases.

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64 Table 12 IDAS Output Summary Individual Benefits Project ID # Environment Safety Operations Annual Benefit B/C Ratio 255844-2 $2,062,393$373,784$8,381,426$10,817,603 18.49 258398-3 $2,119,145$489,160$11,833,635$14,441,940 19.69 258401-2 $734,339$149,356$4,704,866$5,588,562 13.40 258643-2 $219,975$40,657$1,515,460$1,776,091 6.70 407233-1 $1,801,663$367,610$10,775,120$12,944,393 10.34 407233-2 $393,853$55,347$2,148,954$2,598,154 1.34 407233-4 $872,667$178,071$5,359,603$6,410,341 5.72 407233-5 $2,147,043$308,905$9,263,017$11,718,964 3.30 407233-6 $780,327$88,491$7,007,744$7,876,562 12.76 407233-7 $261,399$53,386$1,475,037$1,789,822 1.14 409366-1 $1,031,358$210,457$6,774,503$8,016,318 5.10 409366-2 $2,939,599$461,530$17,894,239$21,295,368 13.54 409366-3 $1,002,019$173,703$7,171,072$8,346,793 5.31 410909-1 $2,156,433$370,754$13,210,605$15,737,793 10.00 410909-2 $1,159,747$158,387$6,615,460$7,933,594 5.04 410909-3 $393,567$66,023$2,455,211$2,914,801 1.85 410909-6 $6,075,979$931,937$33,158,213$40,166,129 25.53 Testing Deployment Scenarios One of the limitations of IDAS is its inability to test the impact of changes in deployment schedules on the network. The B/C ratio developed for each alternative represents a “Snap Shot” of the project after the completion of the fi nal project where the B/C ratio can be assumed to have converged to some value. To test the impact of various schedule alternatives, a forecasting proce dure was developed. The procedure tracked annual benefits and costs throughout the lifecycl e of the entire project, from the beginning of the first project to the end of the co nstruction year for the last project. Total cost was developed by summing the cost attributed to each project deployed for a given year starting from th e first year of construction. Starting from that year and going to the year of analysis the average annual cost of eac h project active was taken and summed. If a project was deployed after the analysis year its costs were not considered. Total benefits were calculated in a similar manner. The benefits each project contributed to

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65 the network up to the year of analysis were summed. In the case of benefits, however, the first year of benefits was not realized un til the end of construction, which according to FDOT data took two years for each project. The ratio of these benefits and costs gave the B/C ratio used in this part of the report. Controlling for Ti me Constraints Before alternative scenarios were develope d, the effect of time constraints on ITS projects had to be controlled for. Time constr aints often play a major role in the scheduling of projects. Current FDOT plans called for a full deployment schedule over an eight year period, with four phases each lasting two years. To develop an understanding of the effect of these constraints, the projects were firs t modeled according to the current deployment schedule. The B/C ratio over a 50 year period was tracked and compared to other scenarios having contracted and expa nded deployment schedules. The first scenario used for comparing the impact of time constraints involved using a contracted schedule that deployed all 17 project s within the first two years of project life. In the second scenario, the deployment schedul e called for a total time span of 18 years from beginning to end. Each year a new proj ect was deployed onto the system. In all three cases, the average annual benefits experienced by the network was su mmed and compared to the total cost up to that point. Figures 3 shown below tracks the total bene fits experienced by the network for any given year. After 50 years, the total benefits for the scenario used by FDOT are estimated at $8 billion. When compared to an extended schedule, the overall benefit is reduced by $1 billion. When compared to a compressed schedule, however, the total benefits are increased

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66 by $657 million. In all three cases, the rate of change in total benefits over time (Slope of the curves) is the same after the final project was deployed for that scenario. Figure 3 Cumulative Benefits From these results we can conclude that, assu ming all other factors remain constant, the scenario having the most compressed schedule wi ll benefit the system the most as it will meet the maximum possible benefit output fi rst. Figure 4 confirms these findings by tracking the B/C ratio over th e same period of time. The ratio remains highest for compressed schedules through out the project life. While al l three scenarios converge towards the same final B/C ratio, compressed schedules do so the fastest. Additionally, compressed schedules remain the highest even after a long period of time.

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67 Figure 4 Impact of Compre ssed Schedules on B/C Ratio Development of Alternative Scenarios The development of altern ative scenarios to maximize the benefits to the network was based primarily on prior itizing projects based on their benefits to the system. Deploying projects with the highest benefits to the system fi rst will allow the system to receive most of its benefits ear ly in the project life. In this scenario, the maximum possible benefits will accumulate sooner than other a lternatives and will allow the network to converge towards its final B/C ratio at a fast er rate. As is the case with compressed schedules, the total benefits to the system s will be maximized u nder these conditions. To develop an optimum alternative/scen ario, the FDOT deployment scenario was used as a baseline for comparis on. Because time constraints have considerable impact on the final B/C ratio develope d, the same time frame was used on the initial set of deployments. The be nefit outputs from IDAS were used to prioritize projects, deploying

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68 the higher benefits first. Five scenarios were developed and modeled. Holding only time constraints constant, the scenarios developed were 1) Highest to lowest Environmental Benefits, 2) Highest to lowest Safety Benefits 3) Highest to lowest Operational Benefits, 4) Highest to lowest Total Benefits, and 5) Highest to lowest B/ C Ratio. Table 13 Phase Grouping Based on Criteria FDOT Scenario Environment Benefits Safety Benefits Operational Benefits Overall Benefit B/C Ratio Adjusted 407233-1 410909-6 410909-6 410909-6 410909-6 410909-6 410909-6 407233-2 409366-2 258398-3 409366-2 409366-2 258398-3 258398-3 409366-1 410909-1 409366-2 410909-1 410909-1 255844-2 255844-2 258401-2 407233-5 255844-2 258398-3 258398-3 409366-2 409366-2 258643-2 258398-3 410909-1 407233-1 407233-1 258401-2 258401-2 407233-4 255844-2 407233-1 407233-5 407233-5 407233-6 407233-6 409366-2 407233-1 407233-5 255844-2 255844-2 407233-1 407233-1 410909-1 410909-2 409366-1 409366-3 409366-3 410909-1 410909-1 255844-2 409366-1 407233-4 407233-6 409366-1 258643-2 258643-2 407233-5 409366-3 409366-3 409366-1 410909-2 407233-4 407233-4 407233-7 407233-4 410909-2 410909-2 407233-6 409366-3 409366-3 409366-3 407233-6 258401-2 407233-4 407233-4 409366-1 409366-1 407233-6 258401-2 407233-6 258401-2 258401-2 410909-2 410909-2 410909-2 407233-2 410909-3 410909-3 410909-3 407233-5 410909-3 410909-3 410909-3 407233-2 407233-2 407233-2 410909-3 407233-5 410909-6 407233-7 407233-7 258643-2 407233-7 407233-2 407233-2 258398-3 258643-2 258643-2 407233-7 258643-2 407233-7 407233-7

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69 Figure 5 Benefit Optimization Based on the results, the optimum scenar io developed earlier was then compressed as much as possible, within given budget constraints. The task of developing budget constraints was accomplished by first using th e FDOT scenario to develop average cost per phase. Assuming that the pla nning process was affected by available funding, a budget constraint of $5.7 million per phase was es tablished. No single phase was allowed to exceed this limit. Given these constraints, the schedule was compressed by once again prioritizing projects base d on IDAS B/C ratios. In this or der, projects were deployed until the next project cause d the budget limit to be exceeded. The next highest ranked project that did not cause the budget constraint to be exceeded was deployed into that phase. If all the remaining projects caused the project to exceed its budget limit, a new phase was 60% increase 16% increase

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70 started. These steps combined th e benefits of using compresse d schedules, under realistic budget constraints. 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 05101520253035 Time (yrs)B/C Ratio Series1 Compressed and Budgeted B/C prioritized Figure 6 Final Optimal Benefits Based on project priority, time consid erations, and budget constraints, a final deployment scenario was deve loped and compared to the FDOT deployment scenario. Comparing these scenarios showed that some co nsiderable improvements to the system can be achieved. By tracking the B/ C ratio throughout the lifetime of the project, an 80% higher B/C ratio was evident one year after full de ployment and a 15% higher B/C ratio after 10 years of full project de ployment. This represents an add itional $350 million in benefits to the system. These results highlight the effectiv eness of ITS technologies as well as the need to develop more efficient strategies for using them. 80% increase 18% increase

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71 CHAPTER SEVEN SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ITS technologies have been neglected by most traditional pl anning models as a direct result of the lack of proper tools availa ble to analyze them. IDAS is able to perform its own traffic assignment before and after IT S deployments and can estimate the benefits experienced by the network by comparing cha nges in default performance measures after ITS deployments. This research was concerned with the de velopment and applica tion of a local IDAS model, in an attempt to highlight the benefits associated with using ITS technologies as part of the transportation planning process. As the use of IDAS is still relatively new, the need for a better understanding of how the model work s, as well as the incr eased application of local models, remains an important part of the development of ITS. This research highlighted the structure of IDAS and its an alysis procedures, highlighted key resources and steps in the development of a local model, and developed an innovative application of IDAS that maximized the benefits asso ciated with deploying ITS components. Summary of Research By highlighting the procedures used by I DAS to perform its anal ysis, this research is able to highlight many of the benefits and possible applications of the model. The research is also able to highlight the bene fits of ITS technologies by developing a local model and performing a detailed anal ysis of planned deployments.

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72 Based on detailed project data, Regional Multimodal Traveler Information Systems and Incident Management Systems were depl oyed throughout the Ta mpa Bay area over an eight year period. It was found that over $175 million in av erage annual benefits was experienced by the network, with a B/C ratio of 7.18. These values represent a more realistic model when compared to default valu es that overestimate the effectiveness of ITS components while underestimating costs. In genera l, these results show that we can expect some significant improvement to our roadway sy stems at the relatively lower costs of using ITS components. The research also developed an innovative approach to the planning process by using the outputs from IDAS to maximize the benefits resulting from the same ITS components deployed. This new approach mode led individual projects using a local model developed earlier, and prioritized the deployme nt scheduled based on the highest to lowest B/C ratios. Variations in both time and budge t constraints were accounted for and a new deployment schedule was developed. This ne w scenario increased the B/C ratio by 80% one year after full deployment and maintain ed a 15% higher B/C ratio after 10 years of deployment. This increased B/C ratio represented $350 million do llars in total benefits to the system over the ten years, in addition to the annual average benefits described earlier. These results are very positiv e in that they give a ne w dimension to the planning process in regards to ITS technologies. Planne rs and engineers can use IDAS to choose the most appropriate ITS alternatives availa ble to the network by comparing various alternatives. With the approach developed in this thesis, engineers can develop effective deployment schedules that greatly im prove the benefits to the system.

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73 Recommendations and Review of IDAS as Effective Tool IDAS proved to be an effec tive tool for the type of ev aluation needed for the FDOT projects planned. While some inefficiency may exist for smaller projects where the availability of a smaller networ k data is limited, the overa ll evaluation of the model is positive. IDAS was able to use available data sources to accurately model Florida specific alternatives. With little training, it proved to be user-friendly in m odeling and adapted to changes in time and location of ITS compone nts developed by FDOT. IDAS was also a great time saver in the evaluation process, esp ecially when considering the nature of such a long term project. IDAS was successful in using available data sources to model ITS alternatives The user inputs required to define the type, lo cation, and cost of individual ITS components were all available in the project data provide d for the research. This included outputs from the local planning model (FSUTMS) such as node files, link file s, and travel matrix files, detailed project timelines that established important deployment schedules, and cost estimates that helped to establish an accurate annual stre am of costs. The types of data not readily available we re related to user-defined parameters of ITS components. These required knowledge and e xperience with specif ic local components and their anticipated usage in the Tampa Bay area. Florida-specific parameters were de veloped through the use of IDAS While the default cost module did not accur ately reflect the annual stream of costs associated with deploying ITS components, the use of “User-de fined Costs” was enough to account for detailed representation of all costs. Instead of the $13 million es timated by the IDAS

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74 default module, detailed user-defined costs estimated $24.88 million in annual stream of costs. Additionally, a Florida-specific cost mo dule similar to the IDAS default structure was developed based on changes suggested in th e Florida-specific IDAS Costs report. The $16.5 million in annual cost estimated by this Florida-specific Cost Module was better than the default estimates but still re quires more detailed research before a generalized module can be established. Appropriate ITS component parameters ar e also necessary to accurately model Florida-specific components. For this project both DMS and VID parameters needed some adjustments to reflect the conditions expected in the Tampa Bay area. The default percentage of time that each DMS was dissemi nating useful information seemed to be too high. It is important to note that the develo pment of accurate Florida-specific parameters can only be accomplished thro ugh the long term observatio n of the effect of these components. In the case of DMS, the values of the component parame ters may change in the future based on the decision of FHWA and FDOT to more actively use DMS by showing Travel Times for several hours each da y whenever there is not a higher priority message. The evaluation process used by IDAS has the potential for considerable time savings. A significant potential for time savings is apparent if we consider the alternatives to using IDAS. To evaluate these deployme nts without IDAS, FDOT would have to wait for all scheduled ITS components to be deploye d before doing a before and after study of the transportation network. This would be acco mplished only after considerable financial commitment without fully realizing the benefits for many years. IDAS is able to perform its own traffic assignment and comp are network performance measures that track the benefits

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75 associated with each ITS component. It also a llows the development of an annual stream of costs associated with the depl oyment of each component. IDAS provided a user-friendly interface Although the data gathering process was quite extensive, IDAS provided a user interfa ce that allowed for relative ease in developing appropriate alternatives. Because IDAS provid es a robust platform to evaluate a wide variety of ITS alternatives, the data required by the modules can be quite extensive. Some considerable level of familiarity with the data sources was necessary to be able to further process the available data into acceptable formats. The local travel demand model (FSUTMS) had to be carefully developed with IDAS parameters in mind. It was necessary to use a FSUTMS conversion tool provided by FD OT to help identify some key aspects of the local model that needed a ttention. These included facility and area type nomenclature, V/C curves, and link files. Additional project da ta such as cost and deployment schedules were also converted to IDAS friendly formats. Despite the extensive data collection effort s, actual data imports were relatively easy. The user interface allowed the user to easily identify input parameters and develop user defined parameters when necessary. The process for the deployment of ITS components allowed a high level of control by the user. Exact locations and component parameters were easily edited to reflect Fl orida specific conditions without making the process too cumbersome. An analysis of ramp metering in the Tampa Bay area is presented in Appendix A of this report. IDAS is able to take the same network data and many of the parameters developed through this project to easily calculate Florida specific Benefit/cost ratios.

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76 IDAS is able to adapt to the changes expe cted during the regular course of the planning process During the regular course of th e planning process, changes are inevitable. IDAS is able to eas ily adapt to the type of changes we can expect during this stage of the process. Changes ca n be made to the mo dule with very little effort as the user is able to return to any module and revise sp ecific details at any time. The effect of these changes, however, may vary considerably de pending on the nature of these changes. Changes that affect network parameters or performance measures requi re additional traffic assignment, a process that can take as much as seven hours of IDAS run time on a network of this size. Changes in the Alternatives Comparis on Module do not require much effort and their effect on the resulting B/C ratio is i mmediate. These change s have no effect on performance measures or the network parameters They typically include changes related to the cost associated with indivi dual performance measures such as the value of time, cost of fuel, and emission cost per ton of pollutant. Changes in the cost module also require little effort. Changes associated with cost also have no effect on performance measures or network parameters. Changes in the equipment database or with user-defined costs are reflected immediately in th e final benefit summary. Other changes, however, can require some substantial effort. Changes in any of the other modules will require a complete new traffi c assignment. Most of these changes, however, are impractical to expect Most network modules are standard and changes in related travel matrix, link, or node files are not practical. Most of the changes related to the planning process are associated with deployment locations and schedules reflected in the Alternative Generator module. Although each set of these changes required a new traffic assignment, the effort require d to reflect each cha nge was minimal.

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77 REFERENCES ITS America. What is ITS? May 3, 2003 <://www.itsa.org/subject.nsf/vLookupA boutITSA/What+is+I TS!OpenDocument> Banks, James H., Introduction to Transportation Engineering Second Edition. New York: MGH, 2002. Cambridge Systematic Inc, User’s ManualITS Deployment Analysis System (IDAS), Oakland, 2001. Florida Department of Transportation, Tech Memo #1. Draft Project Technical Requirements. IDAS Customization Florida, 2003. Florida Department of Transportation, Technical Memorandum No.4-Florida-specific Intelligent Transportation System Deployment Costs Florida, 2004. Florida Department of Transportation, SUNGUIDE-Florida Inte lligent Transportation Systems Benefits Florida, 2002.

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78 APPENDICES

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79 Appendix A IDAS Components Table 14 ITS Components Used in IDAS Arterial Traffic Management Systems Isolated Traffic Actuated Signals Preset Corridor Signal Coordination Actuated Corridor Signal Coordination Central Control Signal Coordination Emergency Vehicle Signal Priority Transit Vehicle Signal Priority Freeway Management Systems Pre-set Ramp Metering Traffic Actuated Ramp Metering Centrally Controlled Ramp Metering Fixed Route Transit – Au tomatic Vehicle Location Fixed Route Transit –Automated Scheduling and Vehicle Location Fixed Route Transit – Security Systems Paratransit – Automate d Scheduling System Paratransit – Automatic Vehicle Location Paratransit – Automated Scheduling Sy stem and Automatic Vehicle Location Incident Management Systems Incident Detection/Verification Incident Response/Management Incident Detection/Verification/ Response/ Management combined Electronic Payment Systems Electronic Transit Fare Payment Basic Electronic Toll Collection Supporting Deployments Traffic Management Center Transit Management Center Emergency Management Center Traffic Surveillance – CCTV Traffic Surveillance – Loop Detector System Traffic Surveillance – Probe System Basic Vehicle Communication Roadway Loop Detector Railroad Grade Crossing Monitors Emergency Management Services Emergency Vehicle Control Service Emergency Vehicle AVL In-Vehicle Mayday System Regional Multimodal Traveler Information Systems Highway Advisory Radio Freeway Dynamic Message Sign Transit Dynamic Message Sign Telephone-Based Traveler Information System Web/Internet-Based Traveler Information System

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80 Appendix A (Continued) Table 14 Continued Kiosk with Multimodal Traveler Information Kiosk with Transit-only Traveler Information Handheld Personal Device – Travel er Information With Guidance Handheld Personal Device – Tr aveler Information Only In-Vehicle – Traveler Information with/without Route Guidance Commercial Vehicle Operations Electronic Screening Weigh-in-Motion Electronic Clearance – Credentials Electronic Clearance – Safety Inspection Electronic Screening/Clearance combined On-board Safety Monitoring Safety Information Exchange Electronic Roadside Safety Inspection Hazardous Materials Incident Response Advanced Vehicle Control and Safety Systems Motorist Warning – Ramp Rollover Motorist Warning – Downhill Speed Longitudinal Collision Avoidance Lateral Collision Avoidance Intersection Collision Avoidance Vision Enhancement for Crashes Safety Readiness

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81 Appendix B Network Link File Table 15 Network Link File

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82 Appendix C Network Node Files Table 16 Network Node Files NODE XCOORD YCOORD 1 503872 1350413 2 503245 1346561 3 507390 1350535 4 506643 1346452 5 508919 1350082 6 508837 1346151 7 510120 1351040 8 510258 1346594 9 512498 1352257 10 511978 1346364 11 516078 1352407 12 515361 1350449 13 515141 1346748 14 518071 1350886 15 517924 1346646 16 520795 1350787 17 520221 1346898 18 523063 1351870 19 523217 1347270 20 525826 1351001 21 525946 1348336 22 526587 1345668 23 502502 1343088 24 501342 1339351 25 506865 1343811 26 506927 1341399

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83 Appendix D Turn Prohibitor File Table 17 Turn Prohibitor File FROM1 THRU2 TO3 PROHCODE4 24722328111630 2328232970370 23292330111640 6634247124730 24732471108700 66342471108700 10870247324710 2471247366340 10870247366340 3057304930670 3050306730490 3307331094860 9487331391360 101023626100980 8744374487430 11276382087380 101083845100900 100913848101100 8730386587310 9336403293380 9803405995670 9370406293730 8837410788360 4290415189550 8950429041510 8950429089560

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84 Appendix E IDAS P erformance Measures Table 18 IDAS Performance Measures

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85 Appendix E (Continued) Table 18 Continued

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ABSTRACT: Traditional transportation planning models are not very sensitive to many of the benefits derived from Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) technologies. With the recent availability of ITS Deployment Analysis System (IDAS), there is an opportunity to conduct detailed cost-benefit analyses of ITS Alternatives. IDAS is able to estimate the impacts, benefits, and costs resulting from the deployment of many ITS components. This is accomplished by comparing the average cost of deploying and integrating the appropriate technologies, to the estimated benefits experienced by the network. The ratio of average benefits to average costs is termed the B/C ratios. While the use of IDAS has been limited primarily to comparing ITS alternatives, this research goes a step further. After developing a local model, this research develops a strategy to maximize the benefits of using ITS components through prioritized deployment schedules. Effective priority strategies are most often based ^on B/C ratios and therefore require the outputs from IDAS to accurately reflect local conditions. Because local parameters vary considerably from the national averages used in IDAS as default values, this paper establishes input parameters in all five of IDAS's analysis modules that accurately model conditions in the Tampa Bay area. Outputs from the local Transportation forecasting model (FSUTMS), along with some other specialized IDAS conversion tools supplied by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT), were used to develop an accurate control alternative. Instead of default equipment costs, project costs were used to develop User Defined Costs within the cost module, local V/C curves replaced default curves in the benefits module, and the Sunguide report was used to establish Florida specific parameters used to value the benefits associated with each ITS alternative. To develop a scenario that maximized the overall benefits to the system, individual projects were modeled i n IDAS and their corresponding B/C ratio used to re-prioritize projects during deployment. Projects were deployed in order from highest to lowest B/C, while controlling for variations in time available for deployment and budgetary constraints. To account for variations in the time available for deployment, the impact of time was evaluated and the findings used along with project limitations to develop appropriate phase schedules. Three scenarios were developed to test the impact of time. These scenarios were: compressed schedule, actual FDOT schedule, and an extended schedule. The test concluded that compressed schedules offered the highest benefits to the system. Based on this observation, it was desirable to develop a deployment scenario that compressed the time necessary for full deployment. Budget constraints were also a major limiting factor. Because these heavy constraints are often placed on planners, it was desirable that the final scenario accounted for budget constraints in^ the deployment schedule. To account for budgetary constraints, an average phase budget was developed from current FDOT plans and used as an upper limit for the cost of each phase of the deployment scenarios. Based on project priority, time considerations, and budget constraints, a final deployment scenario was developed and compared to the FDOT deployment scenario. Comparing theses scenarios showed that some considerable improvements to the system can be achieved. By tracking the B/C ratio throughout the lifetime of the project, 80% higher B/C ratio was evident one year after full deployment and a 15% higher B/C ratio after 10 years of full project deployment. This represents an additional $350 million in benefits to the system over the ten year period. These results highlight both the effectiveness of ITS technologies as well as the need to develop more efficient strategies for using them.
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