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Title:
The information technology professional's psychological contract viewed through their employment arrangement and the relationship to organizational behaviors
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Book
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English
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Newton, Sandra Kay
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University of South Florida
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Tampa, Fla
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IT personnel management
Social information processing theory
Organizational citizenship behaviors
Innovative work
Dissertations, Academic -- Business Administration -- Doctoral -- USF
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Information technology (IT) professionals are continually placed in diverse employment arrangements as organizations continually look for ways to cut costs, enhance performance and maximize organizational goals. Organizations are using strategies beyond hiring permanent employees to achieve objectives in alternative sourcing. Even though the cost differential is positive when employing non-permanent individuals instead of permanent employees, little is known about the effects on the IT professional.This field study was designed to test the effects of employment arrangements on the IT professional's psychological contract and the effects of the level of fulfillment of their psychological contract on their organizational citizenship and innovative work behaviors using psychological contracts and social information processing theories. IT professionals were sampled from four different employment arrangements.The empirical findings show that there are differences in the IT pro fessional's psychological contract as explained by their employment arrangement, as well as by their perceptions of the characteristics of their particular employment arrangement. Permanent full-time IT professionals consistently had higher perceptions of their employer's obligations to them, than did IT professionals from the other employment arrangement categories. The level of fulfillment of the IT professional's psychological contract explained differences in their organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) as a collective, with significant differences in the advocacy participation and obedience citizenship behaviors. This study also found significant relationships with the level of fulfillment of the IT professional's psychological contract and their innovative work behavior, as well as their organizational citizenship behaviors individually, specifically loyalty, advocacy participation, obedience, and functional participation. The primary predictors of the dimensions of OCB were^ the levels of fulfillment of the psychological contract as it relates to the scope, focus, and tangibility dimensions.The exploratory analysis into the characteristics of the employment arrangement provides a clearer understanding as to what encompasses the actual employment arrangement for IT professionals of differing categories. Independent contractors indicated significantly more job control than permanent full-time and contract company workers. Permanent full-time and permanent part-time have greater job stability than do independent contractors and contract company workers. Permanent full-time have greater benefits provided than the other three categories of IT professionals.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Sandra Kay Newton.
General Note:
Includes vita.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 172 pages.

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aleph - 001787213
oclc - 124045626
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001416
usfldc handle - e14.1416
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The Information Technology Professionals Psychological Contract Viewed Through Their Employment Arrangement and the Re lationship to Organizational Behaviors by Sandra Kay Newton A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Information Systems and Decision Sciences College of Business Administration University of South Florida Major Professor: James Ellis Blanton, Ph.D. Rosann W. Collins, Ph.D. Joni L. Jones, Ph.D. Richard Will, Ph.D. Date of Approval: January 10, 2006 Keywords: IT personnel management, so cial information processing theory, organizational citizenship behaviors, innovative work Copyright 2006, Sandra K. Newton

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I could not have succeeded on this marvel ous, yet painful (at times) adventure had it not been for some very special people in my life. To my family and friends, I am very fortunate to have you in my lif e. You saw me through this jour ney, and were at the finish line cheering for me. You have my heartfelt thanks and appreciation for your love, friendship, and support. A special acknowledgement and thanks to my committee chair and main professor. Ellis, you were there the first se mester providing me w ith opportunities to succeed. I learned early that res earch is not easy, but in the end worth the pain. A special thank you to my other committee team me mbers, Rosann, Joni, and Rick for your wisdom, guidance, and sharing of insights. I cannot forget my fellow outliers. This journey has given us some interesting stories to remember: Steve, Tom, Cindy, Made line, George, Gary, Mi ke H., Tim, Keith, and Mike D. Good luck and best wishes to you all. To the Information Systems/Decision Scien ces faculty and staff, especially Judy, Annette, Chris, and Corinna, you are great And to my USF student and alumni colleagues who responded to my survey thank you. In summary Life is all about choices, and I am grateful that I made this one.

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i TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES..............................................................................................................v LIST OF FIGURES...........................................................................................................vi ABSTRACT......................................................................................................................vii CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION.................................................................................1 Motivation for Research.........................................................................................2 Theoretical Support.................................................................................................3 Organizational Behaviors........................................................................................4 Psychological Contracts..........................................................................................5 Research Questions.................................................................................................6 Statement of Contributions.....................................................................................7 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW.....................................................................9 Employment A rrangements..................................................................................11 Permanent Employme nt Arrangement......................................................12 Alternative Employme nt Arrangements...................................................13 Prior Research on Employment Arrangements.........................................17 Employment Arrangements Characteristics.............................................19 Characteristics from Co ntingent Work View...............................19 Characteristics from Externalization View...................................21 Characteristics from Other Literature...........................................23 Prcis of Employment Arrangements.......................................................24 Psychological Contract.........................................................................................25 Approaches to the Psychological Contract...............................................27 Scarcity of Psychological Contract Research in the IT Context...............35 Organizational Behaviors......................................................................................41 Organizational Citizenship Behaviors......................................................41 Innovative Work Behaviors......................................................................45

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ii Antecedents to Organizational Behaviors.................................................47 Summary...............................................................................................................48 CHAPTER THREE RESE ARCH DEVELOPMENT.....................................................49 Hypotheses............................................................................................................49 Research Model....................................................................................................54 CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH METHODOLOGY......................................................56 Sample...................................................................................................................56 Measurement Instrument......................................................................................63 Employment Arrangements and Characteristics.......................................63 Psychological Contract.............................................................................64 Organizational Citizenship Behavior........................................................66 Innovative Work Behavior........................................................................67 Job Satisfaction.........................................................................................68 Control Variables......................................................................................68 Pilot Study.............................................................................................................70 Pilot Data Analysis...................................................................................72 Main Study............................................................................................................78 CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS...........................................................................................79 Scale Analysis.......................................................................................................79 Reliability..................................................................................................80 Validity.....................................................................................................80 Data Reduction Through Factor Analysis.................................................80 Psychological Contract.................................................................81 Fulfillment of the Psychological Contract....................................85 Organizational Citizenship Behavior............................................88 Innovative Work Behavior............................................................90 Employment Arrangement Characteristics...................................91 Job Satisfaction.............................................................................93 Descriptive Statistics.............................................................................................94 First Research Component Tests of the Hypotheses..........................................96 Hypothesis 1..............................................................................................96 Hypothesis 2..............................................................................................99 Hypothesis 3............................................................................................100

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iii Hypothesis 4............................................................................................101 Alternative Hypotheses to H4.................................................................103 Hypothesis 4a Helping..............................................................104 Hypothesis 4b Loyalty..............................................................104 Hypothesis 4c Obedience.........................................................105 Hypothesis 4d Functio nal Participation...................................106 Hypothesis 4e Advocacy Participation....................................107 Hypothesis 5............................................................................................108 Second Research Component Explor ing the Employment Arrangement Characteristics.....................................................................................................111 CHAPTER SIX DISCUSSION.....................................................................................114 Overview of Analysis and Significant Findings.................................................114 Psychological Contract...........................................................................116 Organizational Citizenship Behavior......................................................120 Innovative Work Behavior......................................................................123 Employment Arrangement Characteristics.............................................125 Implications.........................................................................................................125 Theoretical Implications.........................................................................126 Practical Implications..............................................................................128 CHAPTER SEVEN CONCLUSIONS..........................................................................131 Contributions.......................................................................................................131 Limitations of the Study......................................................................................132 Recommendations for Future Research..............................................................135 Concluding Comments........................................................................................137 LIST OF REFERENCES................................................................................................139 APPENDICES................................................................................................................150 Appendix 1. Pilot Study Questionnaire..............................................................151 Appendix 2. Letter Invitation to Participate....................................................159 Appendix 3. Postcard Follow-up Invitation to Participate...............................160 Appendix 4. Final Version of the Measurement Instrument...............................161

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iv Appendix 5. Descriptive Statisti cs of Main Study Variables.............................170 Appendix 6. Inter-Correlation Matrix of Main Study Variables........................171 ABOUT THE AUTHOR.......................................................................................End Page

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v LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Psychological contract empirical studies 37 Table 2. Response rates 57 Table 3. Demographics of respondents versus non-respondents 58 Table 4. Demographics of IT professional respondents 59 Table 5. Respondent career/job categories 61 Table 6. Employment arrangements 62 Table 7. Instrument measures, s ource, and source reliabilities 69 Table 8. Instrument measures developed for the study 70 Table 9. Reliability of pilot study scales 71 Table 10. Pilot three factor solu tion of EA characteristics 73 Table 11. Pilot significant regres sion results of Hypothesis 2 75 Table 12. Pilot significant regression results of Hypotheses 4a-e 76 Table 13. Psychological contract rotated structure matrix 84 Table 14. Fulfillment of psychological c ontract rotated structure matrix 87 Table 15. OCB rotated structure matrix 89 Table 16. EA characteristics rotated structure matrix 93 Table 17. Reliability of main study constructs 94 Table 18. Univariate tests fo r MANOVA of Hypothesis 1 98 Table 19. Post hoc analyses fo r EAC groups of Hypothesis 1 98 Table 20. Regression summar y of Hypothesis 4a 104 Table 21. Regression summ ary of Hypothesis 4b 104 Table 22. Regression coeffi cients of Hypothesis 4b 105 Table 23. Regression summar y of Hypothesis 4c 105 Table 24. Regression coeffici ents of Hypothesis 4c 106 Table 25. Regression summ ary of Hypothesis 4d 106 Table 26. Regression coeffici ents of Hypothesis 4d 107 Table 27. Regression summar y of Hypothesis 4e 107 Table 28. Regression coeffici ents of Hypothesis 4e 108 Table 29. Regression summ ary of Hypothesis 5 108 Table 30. Regression coeffici ents of Hypothesis 5 109 Table 31. Summary of hypot heses and results 110 Table 32. Univariate tests for MANOVA EA characteristics 112 Table 33. Post hoc analyses for EAC groups and EA characteristics 112

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vi LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Initial concept research model 4 Figure 2. An extract of social info rmation processing approach to job characteristics, attitudes, and behaviors 11 Figure 3. A taxonomy of employment arrangements 14 Figure 4. Conceptual model with hypotheses 55 Figure 5. Scree plot of psychologica l contract measurement items 82 Figure 6. Scree plot of fulfillment of psychological contract measurement items 86 Figure 7. Scree plot of EA char acteristics measurement items 92 Figure 8. Profile of OOBL variable means by EAC groups 99 Figure 9. Profile of EA characteristic s variable means by EAC groups 113

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vii THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PR OFESSIONALS PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT VIEWED THROUGH TH EIR EMPLOYMENT ARRANGEMENT AND THE RELATIONSHIP TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORS Sandra Kay Newton ABSTRACT Information technology (IT) professionals are continually pl aced in diverse employment arrangements as organizations continually look for ways to cut costs, enhance performance and maximize organiza tional goals. Organizations are using strategies beyond hiring perman ent employees to achieve ob jectives in alternative sourcing. Even though the cost differential is positive when employing non-permanent individuals instead of permanent employees, little is known about the effects on the IT professional. This field study was designed to test th e effects of employment arrangements on the IT professionals psychologica l contract and the effects of the level of fulfillment of their psychological contract on their organizational citiz enship and innovative work behaviors using psychological c ontracts and social information processing theories. IT professionals were sampled from four different employment arrangements. The empirical findings show that there ar e differences in the IT professionals psychological contract as explained by their employment arrangement, as well as by their perceptions of the characteri stics of their particular em ployment arrangement. Permanent full-time IT professionals consistently had higher perceptions of their employers obligations to them, than did IT professiona ls from the other employment arrangement categories. The level of fulfillment of th e IT professionals psychological contract explained differences in their organizational citizenship beha viors (OCB) as a collective, with significant differences in the advocacy participation and obe dience citizenship behaviors. This study also found significant rela tionships with the level of fulfillment of the IT professionals psychologi cal contract and their innova tive work behavior, as well

PAGE 10

viii as their organizational citizen ship behaviors individually, sp ecifically loyalty, advocacy participation, obedience, and functional par ticipation. The primary predictors of the dimensions of OCB were the levels of fulf illment of the psychol ogical contract as it relates to the scope, focus, and tangibility dimensions. The exploratory analysis into the char acteristics of the employment arrangement provides a clearer understanding as to wh at encompasses the actual employment arrangement for IT professionals of diffe ring categories. Inde pendent contractors indicated significantly more job control than permanent full-time and contract company workers. Permanent full-time and permanent part-time have greater job stability than do independent contractors and contract company workers. Permanent full-time have greater benefits provided than the other th ree categories of IT professionals.

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1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Today, organizations are using a number of alternative employment arrangements to respond to the economic fluctuations of the labor market, gain cost advantages over inhouse services (Levina & Ross, 2003), or gain improvements in the productivity and core competencies of their workers (Ang & Sla ughter, 2001). To this end, organizations may alter their organizational stru cture to include a contingent of alternative employment arrangements, which changes the organiza tional dynamics, not only for managers, but also for the workers (Agarwal & Ferratt, 1999). Alternative employment arrangemen ts (AEA) are beyond the permanent employee arrangement and Sherer (1996) assert s that individuals in these arrangements are considered to be external to the organization. Focus on externalization of the work force is not new (Pfeffer & Baron, 1988) ; however, this phenomenon is especially relevant as the use of information te chnology (IT) profession als in alternative employment arrangements continues to be the trend. IT professionals now find themselves in a variety of alternative employment arrangements (e.g., consulting, contracting, outsourced, or temporary). While the preponderance of research has informed practitioners and academics on the permanent employee, much less is known about individuals in alternative employment arrangements. The literature reve als some interest in the moderating effect of the employment arrangement, but then mo st studies obtain per ceptions from only two groups, permanent employees and one non-permanent employee category. In fact, a challenge in generalizing findings of prior research is that some studies group individuals in different non-permanent employment arrangements into the same category to make their comparisons. When considering the co llective studies, the results are often unexpected or conflicting; thus, generali zing across studies about any alternative employment arrangement category is difficu lt. Consequently, there are recommendations for future research to address how the vari ous types of employment arrangements affect various attitudes and behaviors (Beard & Edwards, 1995; Van Dyne & Ang, 1998).

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2 Motivation for Research Justification for using AEA is plausible, especially when viewed through a macrolevel lens, which considers the strategic and managerial goals of a business enterprise. For example, the gains obtained from information system (IS) outsourcing support the continued use of alternative means of employment. IS outsourcing has been reasoned to gain organizational efficiencies through realigning the IS bud get, obtaining new IT talent, or eliminating IS functions that have b ecome obsolete (Lacity & Hirschheim, 1993). When viewed through the micro-level, wh ich considers the individual, research has disclosed that differences exist between individuals from two general employment categories, permanent and alternative. Res earch has investigated dyadic relationships between employees in a permanent arra ngement and workers from alternative employment arrangements in an assortment of professions and i ndustries (e.g., aerospace engineers (Pearce, 1993), professional bank and hospital workers (Van Dyne & Ang, 1998), restaurant workers (Stamper & Va n Dyne, 2001), and British local government workers (Coyle-Shapiro & Kessler, 2002)). Investigation into the eff ects of the external labor market (e.g., individuals in alternative employment arrangements) on IT professionals has been limited. Ang and Slaughter (2001) found that contractors exhib ited fewer citizenship behaviors, and were perceived as poorer performers, less trus tworthy, and less loyal than permanent employees. These findings were significant gi ven the homogeneous characteristics of the permanent and contractor software deve lopers employment arrangements (e.g., comparable IS technical skills and abili ties, equal opportunities for professional development and company events, and, except fo r fringe benefits, no obvious differences in management). Employment uncertainty is introduced in the IT field by competition (ITAA, 2004) and the diversity of employment arrangeme nts. IT professionals must contend with ambiguous employment duration and future, as well as inconsistent employment opportunities. Organizations are expected to continue to use al ternative employment arrangements to subsidize their permanent IT st aff, as well as to assemble the IT skill sets that keep them competitive. To gain additional insight on how these industry

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3 characteristics impact the IT profession, this research addresses the effect the employment arrangements have on the employees attitudes and behaviors. For the purposes of this study, the reasons organizations are partially fulfilling their human capital requirements by using exte rnal resources are irrelevant. Rather, we concentrate on its impact once employed. What is known is that the use of external resources brings its own risks to the organi zation (Lacity & Hirschheim, 1993), as well as to the employee (Beard & Edwards, 1995). Mana gers see the IT professional as human capital, a resource used to maximize organizatio nal effectiveness. As managers continue to look for ways to cut costs, enhance perf ormance, and maximize organizational goals, they will administer the human capital resource through a variety of employment arrangements. Management, however, can no long er consider the attitudes and behaviors of only permanent employees. They must now consider individuals in differing employment arrangements, and learn to adjust to the unique aspects of these arrangements. The literature provides eviden ce that the employee-employer relationships differ among those in various employment arrangements. This study addresses the primary research question: What is the imp act of alternative employment arrangements on IT professionals orga nizational behaviors? Theoretical Support In trying to understand the individuals perceptions of th e employer-employee relationship with respect to obligations to their employer and their employers reciprocal obligations, researchers have considered Rousseaus (1989) ps ychological contract framework. Accordingly, researchers have drawn on the psychological contract concept to help explain differences in employee at titudes and behaviors in the work place (CoyleShapiro, 2002; Janssen, 2000; Sels, Janssens, & Van Den Brande, 2004). Hackman and Oldhams (1980) job characte ristics model offers a framework to analyze an individuals work environment through their core job characteristics and the effects on their psycholo gical states. Another framework th at considers the attributes of the job in an effort to understand the i ndividuals sense-making within the work environment is Salancik and Pfeffers (1978) social information processing theory. The social information processing framework theorize s that the job or task characteristics will

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4 affect the individuals behavior s through their attitudes. As such and with respect to this study, the individuals attitudes and behaviors are expected to be a function of their social environment within the context of their em ployment arrangement. Rousseaus (1989) and Salancik and Pfeffers (1978) frameworks have been used together to understand perceived employment obligati ons while considering the so cial phenomena of the work environment (Morrison, 1994; Robi nson, Kraatz, & Rousseau, 1994). Following Rousseaus (1989) psychological contract and Salancik and Pfeffers (1978) social information processing framew orks, Figure 1 is offered as an initial conceptualization of the research model by which a more detailed research model depicting the constructs of interest is developed. Organizational Behaviors Employment Arrangement Employment Attitudes Figure 1. Initial concept research model Organizational Behaviors While organizational effectiveness results from the productivity and performance of individuals within the orga nization, researchers contend it is the individuals extra-role behaviors that are cr itical to organizational effectiv eness (Kanter, 1988; Katz & Kahn, 1978; Organ, 1988). Two such extra-role beha viors are organizati onal citizenship and innovative work. Both of these behaviors are defined as extra -role and more discretionary than mandated, yet help the organization or ot hers within the organization in some way (Kanter, 1988; C. A. Smith, Organ, & Near, 1983). Organizational changes can affect the employees work environment (Amabile & Conti, 1999), and perceived work environment can affect the creativity of projects (Amabile, Conti, Coon, Lazenby, & Herron, 1996). Consequently, empirical inte rests continue into the motives and cognitions around creative and innovative wo rk behavior (Amabile & Conti, 1999; Amabile et al., 1996; Janssen, 2000; West & Farr, 1990b), as well as organizational

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5 citizenship behaviors (OCB) (Ang & Slaughter, 2001; CoyleShapiro, 2002; Van Dyne & Ang, 1998). Practitioners struggle with implications of how the use of alternative employment arrangements might affect creativity and innovation within information systems and product development. The Gartner Group indica ted that IT outsourcing and management areas continue to be scrutini zed to ensure organizations r eceive the maximum return from organizational IT investments. They emphasi zed that even when organizations focus on cost, they still need value and innovation (P ring, 2003). For example, a Hewlett Packard (HP) executive stated in VarBusiness that outsourcing their services to other organizations enabled them to improve their business processes while embracing technology innovation. The HP executive also stipul ated that when HP does not have the capabilities to support some aspect of the contracted services, they partner with a company that can provide the needed service (Doyle, 2003). Perceptions of the work environment fr om individuals in varying employment arrangements affect their attitudes and be haviors; however, the findings between the dyadic relationships are mixed. Contractor e ngineers and technicians engage in more extra-role behaviors than permanent employees (Pearce, 1993), and contingent or nonpermanent bank and hospital professionals exhibit more organi zational citizenship behaviors than permanent employees (Van Dyne & Ang, 1998). However, Coyle-Shapiro and Kessler (2002) found contingent worker s exhibit less organi zational citizenship behaviors than permanent employees exhibit. Psychological Contracts Psychological contracts of individuals ar e theorized to unite them with their organizations and regulate their behaviors, th us fulfilling management goals (Robinson et al., 1994). While Robinson et al (1994) state that perceived obligations compose the fabric of the psychological contract (pg. 138), these obligations will vary depending upon the individuals employment arrangement (McLean Parks, Kidder, & Gallagher, 1998). Accordingly, the psychological contract has been equated to an attitude that affects organizational behaviors (Van Dyne & Ang, 1998). When the psychological contract is breached or violated, the re sult is lower job sa tisfaction (Robinson &

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6 Rousseau, 1994), organizational commitment (Coyle-Shapiro & Kessler, 2002), and organizational citizenship behaviors (Coyl e-Shapiro, 2002; Robinson, 1996; Robinson & Morrison, 1995). Most psychological contra ct research focuses on the permanent employee, but McLean Parks et al. (1998) ex tended the research by providing a concept that considers those individuals in alternative employment arrangements. Research Questions Obvious positive returns from using alternative employment arrangements are evident (e.g., savings in manpower budgets, reducing operational costs, improving IT core competencies and innovative technologies and improving flexibility in staffing and skill-set requirements). An additional incentive for using external workers is that they can fulfill certain jobs that permanent employees may be incapable of fulfilling (Andrews & Niederman, 1998; Pfeffer & Baron, 1988). U nderstanding how the IT professionals employment arrangement impacts their a ttitudes and behaviors is paramount for organizations using alternativ e employment arrangements. To date, theoretical and empirical res earch has not directly addressed the consequences of the diverse alternative empl oyment arrangements on the IT professional. Such research is relevant to both schola rs and practitioners due to the potential implications of using alternative employment arrangements to improve organizational effectiveness. This research focuses on the individuals work environment, specifically the employment arrangement, and the effect s on their perceptions regarding employer obligations and fulfillment of those ob ligations and organizational behaviors (organizational citizen ship and innovative work). This study has two major research components with the first being empirical and theory testing an d the second being exploratory and theory building. 1. The first research component evaluates the effects the IT professionals particular employment arrangement has on their psyc hological contract; and the effects the level of fulfillment of the psychological contract has on their organizational citizenship behaviors and i nnovative work behavior. The first research component addresses the following research questions:

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7 o How does the employment arrangement impact the IT professionals psychological contract? o How does the level of fulfillment of the IT professionals psychological contract affect their organizational behaviors organizational citizenship and innovative work? Does the IT prof essionals employment arrangement affect this relationship? 2. The second research component identifies the characteristics surrounding the IT professionals employment arrangement. This aspect of the research study explores the question: What are the similarities and differences in the defining characteristics of the IT profe ssionals employment arrangement? Statement of Contributions This research integrates the existi ng social information processing and psychological contract theories to: 1) deve lop a more comprehensive model, including employment arrangements, psyc hological contracts, and organizational behaviors; and 2) to empirically evaluate hypot hesized relationships. This re search clarifies what IT professionals in varied employment arra ngements perceive as their employers obligations and how the arrangement aff ects their behaviors. Armed with this information, organizational managers can then make decisions concerning the optimal use of particular employment arrangement s depending on their business strategy and environment. By studying organizational behaviors in relation to multiple employment arrangements and the dimensions of the psycho logical contract, this research extends the boundaries of prior research. Prev ious studies have considered the effects of alternative employment arrangements while investig ating OCB, but not while investigating innovative work behaviors. Despite the pr evalence of using alte rnative employment arrangements in the IT labor-market, the eff ect on the IT professional has not been fully investigated. This research expands on existing research by reviewing the diverse employment arrangements available to the IT professional today, identifying the defining characteristics within an IT professionals employment arrangement, and evaluating the effects of the employment arra ngement on the IT professionals attitudes and behaviors.

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8 This research addresses the void in IT hu man resource research as it investigates the diversity of the employment arrangement characteristics of IT professionals. Prior research has shown that information syst ems (IS) personnel are different than non-IS personnel, in that they have lower social needs (Cougar, Zawacki, & Oppermann, 1979). Thus, this research extends the organizational behavior research as it investigates the psychological contracts and organizational beha viors of IT professionals. This research offers a micro-level view to understanding th e IT professional in the context of their employment arrangement. To accomplish this aim, the remainder of this research study is presented as follows: Chapter Two discusses the relevant theories and litera ture surrounding the research model. Chapter Three presents th e development of the hypotheses and research model. Chapter Four presents the research methodology, instrument development, main study sample, and pilot study. Chapter Five o ffers the scale reliability and validity analysis, main study data anal ysis and results. Chapter Six discusses the findings and both theoretical and practical implications. Chapter Seven communica tes the conclusions, contributions, limitations, and recommendati ons for future research opportunities.

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9 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW Organizations are continua lly looking for innovative ways, such as alternative employment arrangements, to meet huma n resource goals. The use of alternative employment arrangements brings expected differences in the IT professionals perceptions of their work environment. IT professionals will make their own realities about their work environment and thus b elieving is seeing (Weick, 2001, pg. 195). This chapter underscores prior re levant literature and underl ying theories on employment arrangements and psychological contracts with regard to organizati onal behaviors, such as citizenship behavior and i nnovative work behavior. The re levant literature, empirical studies, and theories conveyed here provide the foundation for concepts brought forth in subsequent sections and enable the developmen t of stated research questions and testable hypotheses. Concepts regarding psychological cont racts and organizational citizenship behaviors have origins in traditional organizational research on exchange relationships, such as social exchange theory (Blau, 1964) and norm of reciprocity (Gouldner, 1960). Blau (1964) relates the concept of social exchange as the emergent properties in interpersonal relations and social interacti on (pg. 4). Here one has an expectation to receive some semblance of gratitude when a service has been completed, resulting in a shared exchange between parties. A key aspe ct of social exchange is the undefined responsibility and expectation to reciprocate, which requires some level of trust to be established with the pa rticipants. Gouldner (1960) suggest s the reciprocity norm refers to that which imposes obligations only contingently, that is, in response to the benefits conferred by others (pg. 171). These obliga tions of reciprocation are implied by the perceived value of the benefit received and may vary with the status (Gouldners italics) of the participants within a society ( pg. 171). This suggests that the employment arrangement may affect the employees percep tions of obligations versus benefits, oft referred to as the psychological contr act. Ang and Slaughter (2000) state that understanding the IT professiona l in context requires multiple theoretical points of view;

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10 consequently, other theories should be cons idered to advance unde rstanding of the IT professional in the various employment arrangements. The job design concept has continually pr oven to be a valuable contributor to understanding employees intr insic motivation and creativ e performance at work (Hackman & Oldham, 1980; Oldham & Cu mmings, 1996; West & Farr, 1990b). Hackman and Oldhams (1980) init ial work with their job char acteristics model has also provided insights about differences in IS pe rsonnel. IS personnel have higher autonomy needs (Cheney, 1984), as well as higher growth needs and lower social needs than non-IS personnel (Cougar et al., 1979). Following Hackman and Oldhams (1980) job characteristics model, Salancik and Pfeffers (1978) social information processi ng perspective implies jobs are, in part, socially constructed, and an individuals im mediate social environment has an impact on beliefs as they adapt and adju st their attitudes and behavior s according to the situation. An individuals psychological contract is formed through so cial cues from others, and evolves through interpretations. An individua ls employment arrangement will elicit social cues from others, whether employer, fellow worker, or i ndividuals outside the work environment. Salancik and Pfeffer (1978) propose that indi viduals may develop attitudes as a function of the information av ailable to them in their immediate social surroundings. Thus, the immedi acy of their particular employment relationship may influence the relative saliency of informati on that provides cues to form consequent attitudes and opinions. Therefore, when an individual receives soci al information, it may engender powerful consequences about perc eptions of the job, the organization, and, more importantly, the individuals attitude s and behaviors. Morrison (1994) found support for this perspective when investigati ng the characteristics of in-role and extrarole behaviors of medical center clerical employees. She found that employees in structurally comparable positions within their organization defined their job roles similarly. As employees try to make sense of the social context in which they work, this sense-making ultimately affects their percepti ons, attitudes, and subsequent actions. Griffin (1982) states that the social information pro cessing framework predicts that individual perceptions of their jobs are a f unction of social information (pg. 176).

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11 Therefore, an individuals employment arrangement can produce certain perception processes that affect their attitudes, specifi cally their psychological contract; and their attitudes will again bring about certain choi ce processes that affect their organizational behaviors, specifically their organizational citizenship and innovative work behaviors. Figure 2 is an extract of Salancik an d Pfeffers (1978, pg. 227) model depicting their social information processing approach to job or task environm ental characteristics, attitudes-needs, and behavi ors. Their framework was adapted, with psychological contracts theory, to develop th is studys research model. Salancik and Pfeffers (1978) model supports the notion that the job or ta sk environmental characteristics, which are defined in this study as the employment ar rangement, will provide certain social cues. These social cues will affect the IT profe ssionals attitudes-needs, which are defined in this study as the psychological contract and the level of fulfillment of the psychological contract. This will in turn affect their subs equent behaviors, which are defined in this study as organizational citizen ship and innovative work. Behaviors Job or Task Environmental Characteristics Attitudes-NeedsFigure 2. An extract of social info rmation processing approach to job characteristics, attitudes, and behaviors Employment Arrangements When looking for ways to control human re source costs and react to labor market conditions, organizations often decide to use a variety of employment arrangements (Polivka & Nardone, 1989; Sher er, 1996). Organizations genera lly maintain a core of permanent employees and increase or decrease their external worker numbers to adjust to economic fluctuations. The traditional permanen t employment arrangement is associated with the internal labor market, which is characterized with long-term employment, internal promotion ladders, and higher transaction costs (Pfeffer & Baron, 1988; Williamson, 1981). Pfeffer and Baron (1988) cont end that organizations use workers that are external to the organization as a buffer to their permanent work force. There are general sourcing labels used to identify em ployment circumstances that are outside the more traditional permanent employment arra ngement (e.g., externalization (Pfeffer &

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12 Baron, 1988), alternative employment arrangeme nts (AEA) (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2001; Polivka & Nardone, 1989), and altern ative employment structures (Ang & Slaughter, 1995)). In addition to these general sourcing labels a examination of the literature reveals a number of labels depicting workers who are not part of the permanent work force (e.g., external worker (Davis-Blake & Uzzi, 1993; Pfeffer & Baron, 1988), contingent worker (Beard & Edwards, 1995; Polivka & Nardone 1989; Van Dyne & Ang, 1998), temporary worker, contractor, independent contract or, consultant, and outsourcing (Andrews & Niederman, 1998; Ang & Slaughter, 1995)). The di versity and variability of labels used in industry and research often complicat e the understanding of similarities and differences among employment arrangements, a nd consequently, the ability to generalize research findings. To gain a general understanding of the possible employment arrangement categories and definitions, it is necessary to illustrate the diversity found in industry and the literature. Leadi ng this section, permanent and AEA categories are examined. Next, previous research is reviewed to gain a clearer picture of how employment categories have been used. After that, characteristi cs surrounding the employment arrangement categories are presented. This section concludes with a synops is of this studys focus within the employment arrangement domain. Permanent Employment Arrangement The permanent employment arrangement is often used to define fullor part-time employees in an organization. Permanent employment is the customary or traditional form of employment, and the literature refe rs to these employees as core employees (Pfeffer & Baron, 1988), regular employees (V an Dyne & Ang, 1998), internal workers (George, 2003), or the internal labor mark et (Sherer, 1996). Permanent employees are provided a salary and benefits and have a reasonable understanding and expectation of unlimited employment duration (Andrews & Ni ederman, 1998). Kalleberg (2000) is more stringent in her definition of the standard work arrangem ent and contends that the characteristics are that the work is full-tim e, would continue indefinitely, and is

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13 performed at the employers place of bus iness under the employers direction (pg. 341). Alternative Employment Arrangements The predominance of AEA research origin ates in the economic, management, and organizational behavior literature, yet IT researchers also reco gnize the importance of AEA for IT workers (Ang & Slaughter, 1995, 2002; Slaughter & Ang, 1995). To more fully detail the changing landscape of the labo r market, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) (2001) identifies and defi nes four major categories of AEA to classify employed individuals who do not fall in to the permanent employment arrangement: independent contractors, on-call workers, temporary help agency work ers, and contract company workers. 1. Independent contractors encompass independent c ontractors, independent consultants, or freelance workers, whethe r they were self-employed or wage and salary workers (pg. 2). 2. On-call workers are called to work only when needed, although they can be scheduled to work for several da ys or weeks in a row (pg. 2). 3. Temporary help agency workers are paid by a temporary help agency, whether or not their job actually wa s temporary (pg. 2) 4. Contract company workers are employed by a company that provides them or their services to others u nder contract and who are usually assigned to only one customer and usually work at the customers worksite (pg. 2). In addition to the four AEA categories, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (2001) includes a work characteristic that further de fines and clarifies workers in alternative employment arrangements contingent work. C ontingent workers are defined as those who do not expect their jobs to last or who report that their jobs are temporary (pg. 1) and who do not have an implicit or explicit contract for on-going employment (pg. 2). Within the BLS definition of contingent wo rk, an individual coul d be working in an AEA and be a contingent worker, or not. For in stance, if an individua l holds a position as a contractor, but does not expect the job to la st over a year, then according to BLS, this contractor is also a contingent worker. However, if the contra ctor expects the job to last

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14 longer than a year, the AEA is not consider ed to be contingent Polivka and Nardone (1989) elaborate on the BLS contingent work definition by indicating that a contingent worker has little job security and does not have an explicit or implicit contract for longterm employment or one in which the minimum hours worked can vary in a nonsystematic manner (pg. 11). Figure 3 illustrates a tax onomy of the employment arrangement categories described in this section, which includes th e BLS alternative employment arrangements. Alternative* Permanent Employment Arrangements Contract company workers Independent contractors Independent consultants Freelance workers On-call workers Temporary help agency workers Contingent *Categories defined by Bureau of Labor Statistics (2001). Figure 3. A taxonomy of em ployment arrangements The BLS alternative employment arrangement categories comprise workers outside the internal labor mark et and encompass a number of labels used by industry and research. The literature provides an expa nded understanding into the use and fuller definitions of four specific labels within the BLS categories (e.g., consultant, contractor, independent contractor, a nd temporary worker). The consultant can be independently employed or an employee of a consulting organization or vendor representa tive specializing in a particul ar set of IT projects, and typically engages in providing support fo r a major IT project (Andrews & Niederman, 1998). An example of a consultant might be an IT professional working for a consulting organization (e.g., Accenture) or vendor re presentative (e.g., PeopleSoft or Oracle). According to BLS definitions, consultants could be found in two distinct categories

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15 depending upon the employment attachment, eith er as independent contractors or as contract company workers. Contractors can originate from a variety of em ployment situations: they can be self-employed or employed by some other type of organization. Orga nizations often use contractors as a way to tempor arily subsidize skill sets need ed for a short term or for a special project. Independent contractors are self-employed and c ontract directly with organization(s) requiring their services on a temporary basis (Ang and Slaughter 2001). Independent contractors set th eir own hours, are paid hourly or by the job, receive no benefits from the organization receiving the se rvice, and may perform their work off-site (Pearce, 1993; Van Dyne & Ang, 1998). Contractor s, other than indepe ndent contractors, can contract through an employment agency w ith a client organizat ion(s) requiring their services on a temporary basis (Ang and Sla ughter 2001), or can be employed by another type of organization (e.g., pr ofessional service company) Contractors, other than independent contractors, can also provide services and expertise on a temporary basis and/or for a specific project on behalf of the contracting company to a client organization (Andrews & Niederman, 1998). Bureau of Labor Statistics designates contractors as contract company workers, and classifies th em in a distinct category separate from independent contractors. Temporary workers is a label often used to refe r to individuals who are in an AEA, whether consultants, contractors, direct -hire temporary workers, or temporary help agency workers (McLean Parks et al., 1998). The temporary worker does not have a permanent employment arrangement, but is for the time being employed by an organization that provides the employee with a salary, perhaps benefits, and some expectation as to limits of the employment duration. The temporary help agency worker category within the BLS definitions does not include temporary workers who are hired and managed by the employing firm rather than an outside agency (Davis-Blake & Uzzi, 1993, pg. 198), but only includes those individuals who are working for a temporary help agency. Within the BLS categories, the tem porary worker who is hired and managed by the employing firm falls within the independe nt contractor categor y and is associated with freelance and wage and salary workers.

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16 Although the definitions within the f our BLS categories provide for over 12.5 million workers in AEA (Bureau of Labor St atistics, 2001), industry and research use other labels that do not fall ne atly within the BLS AEA (e.g., contingent worker, external worker, and outsourcing). The labels, contingent worker and external worker, have both been used in research to collectively identify individuals who are not permanent to the organization and may actually fit in different AEA categor ies. Individuals who are temporary or on standby may not receive any benefits, dont e xpect promotions, and are not guaranteed a stable work schedule have been referred to as contingent workers (e.g., McLean Parks et al., 1998; Van Dyne & Ang, 1998). Workers contracted to do certain work in an organization that does not have ultimate cont rol over them have been referred to as external workers (Pfeffer & Baron, 1988). In DavisBlake and Uzzis (1993) study, independent contractors and temporary workers were collectively referred to as external workers. Georges (2003) external workers also represented a mi xture of temporary workers and contract workers. Sherer (1996) believes that external workers have some kind of relationship with the work organi zation beyond the employment relationship. Outsourcing is seen as a staffing alterna tive in IT literature (Andrews & Niederman, 1998; Lacity & Willcocks, 1998; Sl aughter & Ang, 1996). It is defined as turning over the management and operation of an organizations IT assets and activities to a third party (Kern & Willcocks, 2001). Ou tsourcing can encompass the use of any combination of AEA, such as consultant s, contractors, and temporary workers. Organizations adjust to environmental changes, respond to the fluctuation in availability of quality IT professionals, and increase flexibility in staffing of IT positions by outsourcing (Slaughter & Ang, 1996). An outso urce organization typi cally takes on the function(s) of a specific missi on for a client organization (Andrews & Niederman, 1998). For instance, Procter & Gamble outsourced their managed-IT services to Hewlett Packard in a $3 billion, 10-year deal (Doyle, 2003). This particular arrangement found IT employees of Proctor & Gamble becoming em ployees of Hewlett P ackard, and in turn, working under an outsourcing contract for Proc tor & Gamble. Outsourcing was originally intended for non-core functions, yet it continues to proliferate to co re and strategic IT

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17 functions. For instance, Research and Deve lopment is now being outsourced offshore (Thibodeau & Lemon, 2004). The literature shows that labels are a ssigned to individuals (e.g., permanent, temporary, or contractor) and labels are also assigned to categorize or group workers (e.g., consultants, external workers, or c ontingent workers). In addition, individuals identify themselves through a particular label, such as consultant or contractor. From the alternative employment structures describe d in Ang and Slaughter (1995), Andrews and Niederman (1998) define what they believe to be the most significant AEA in IT research: outsourcing, contract or temporary workers, consul tants, and any combination of permanent, contract, temporary staff, outsourcing of some functionality, and consultants. The difficulty with labels and categ ories starts with the user as the user is typically the only one sure of the intended meaning of the word. Each employment arrangement has certain characteristics that define it, and some employment arrangements share some of the same characte ristics. It is therefore important to move beyond categories and labels to provide an alte rnative course to th e basic understanding of employment arrangements by defining their ch aracteristics as found in the literature. Prior Research on Employment Arrangements Researchers have used the employment arrangement category as the antecedent, as well as the moderator, to compare di fferences in various employee attitudes and behavioral outcomes (e.g., in-role and extr a-role behaviors (A ng & Slaughter, 2001), OCB (Coyle-Shapiro & Kessler, 2002; Stam per & Van Dyne, 2001; Van Dyne & Ang, 1998), and organizational commitment (Pearce, 1993)). While studies typically sample the permanent, more traditional employee (e.g., George, 2003; Robinson et al., 1994), there are studies that sample the permanen t employment arrangement and one alternative category. Studies have explored permanent employees and contractors (Ang & Slaughter, 2001; Pearce, 1993), permanent and fixed-term contract employees (Feather & Rauter, 2004), permanent and temporary employees (V. Smith, 1994), and permanent employees and contingent workers (e.g., Beard & Edwa rds, 1995; Matusik & Hill, 1998; McLean Parks et al., 1998; Van Dyne & Ang, 1998).

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18 Researchers considering the individual s employment type found significant effects on their attitudes and re sultant behaviors, but the resu lts have been mixed. Pearce (1993) demonstrated that contractors were assigned easier tasks than permanent employees, even when the contractors and permanent employees had similar jobs. Contractors reported that they engaged in more OCB than the permanent employees, yet there were no differences between the cont ractors and permanent employees in their commitment to the organization. V. Smith (1994) wrote that permanent employees did not believe temporary workers were as suppor tive, as committed to doing the job right the first time, and as involved in the work as their fellow permanent coworkers. Feather and Rauter (2004) discovered contract teachers reported more job insecurity and more OCB than permanent teachers, and that their j ob status was not linked to job satisfaction. Research has also considered the effect s of using AEA on full-time employees. In George (2003), the permanent employees trust in and commitment to the organization were negatively affected the more the organi zation used external workers and the longer the external workers were on the job. Kr aimer, Wayne, Liden, and Sparrowe (2005) found that the full-time employees perceived jo b security was lower when they felt that the temporary workers with whom they worked posed a threat to their job. Focusing on the demographic characteristics of individua ls in different AEA, Cohany (1996) found that individuals in alternative arrangements have significant differences. For instance, independent contractors are ty pically white males of middle age or older, have more education than average, and are married; whereas, temporary help agency workers are typically females of 20-44 years of age, have less education on average, and are members of a minority group. Although most of the IT human resources research has assumed permanent employment of IT professionals, a few resear chers have investigated AEA relationships. Andrews and Niederman (1998) provide a conceptual framework of possible AEA suggesting further investigation into the implications of employment arrangement characteristics. Ang and Slaughter (2001) focu s on two types of software developers in one organization, permanent employees and contractors, who were obtained through employment agencies. Findings indicate that contractors showed lower in-role and extra-

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19 role behaviors than permanent employees, but contractors percepti ons of organizational support were higher than permanent employees perceptions. Ferratt et al. (2001) posit that the IT professionals level of satisfaction is related to the level of fit between their preferred work arrangement and their current work arrangement. The mixed findings involving AEA results from combining multiple AEA into one label; therefore, understanding the eff ects of specific employment arrangements is blurred. McLean Parks et al. (1998) recognized that the categ ories of contingent workers are too numerous and difficult to separate out into clear definitions so they mapped the domain of contingent employment arrangem ents onto dimensions of the psychological contract. Identifying essentia l characteristics surrounding th e employment arrangement categories further delineates similarities a nd differences between varying employment arrangements. Employment Arrangements Characteristics To begin an understanding into the doma in of employment arrangements, Polivka and Nardone (1989) and Pfeffer and Baron (1988 ) define characteristic s that clarify the extent that the worker may be contingent and the extent that the worker is attached to the organization. These characteristics were consid ered in building an initial framework of employment arrangement characteristics. Other literature offered additional characteristics that better recognize the diversity involved between permanent and alternative employment arrangements, as well as among alternative employment arrangements. Characteristics from Contingent Work View The label, contingent worker, has been us ed to refer to a collection of workers who are part-time or temporary, are in a more flexible arrangement, and do not include full-time wage and salary workers (Poli vka & Nardone, 1989). Consequently, Polivka and Nardone (1989) identify three characterist ics they deem critical and necessary in evaluating the extent that work is contingen t: job security, variability in hours of work, and access to benefits (pg. 10).

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20 Job security. Job security is a feel ing of safety or protection from unemployment, and often comes with an implicit or e xplicit contract for ongoing employment. Job security relates to some level of uncertainty as to the continuati on of employment or understanding that the job is temporary. The ab sence of job security has been used to define contingent work by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (2001), and has been linked to lower job satisfaction (Oldham, Kulik, Ambr ose, Stepina, & Brand, 1986), trust, and organizational commitment (Ashford, Lee, & Bobko, 1989). Pearce (1998) believes job security should be defined as an independent ly determined probability that an individual will have their same job in the foreseeable fu ture. Yet, the perception of job security can be conceived through a subjectiv e experience of secu rity (or insecurity ) resulting from happenings or characteristics in the indivi duals work environmen t (Beard & Edwards, 1995; Roskies & Louis-Guerin, 1990). Variability in hours of work Variability in the number and scheduling of work hours offers distinctions between employment arrangements. Unpredictability in work hours an extension to va riability in hours of work, re fers to the lack of routine scheduling, no guarantee as to the number of hours worked, and the stability of those hours from week to week (Polivka & Na rdone, 1989). Cohany (1996) maintains that traditional work schedules are no longer the norm when looking at employment arrangements, and for AEA, work schedules are becoming less standardized (pg. 31). Flexibility in work schedule is a bi-product of variability and unpredictability in work hours. Research has shown that individuals employed for shorter le ngth projects or assignments often prefer the flexibility of the nonstandard work schedule (Bendapudi, Mangum, Tansky, & Fisher, 2003; Cohany, 1996). Access to benefits. Access to benefits is an impor tant characteristic within any employment relationship (e.g., McLean Park s et al., 1998; Polivka & Nardone, 1989; Van Dyne & Ang, 1998). There is a general understa nding that permanent employment offers benefits (e.g., health insurance, possible pr omotions, professional development, vacation and sick days) that non-permanent (or contingent) employment does not. And compensation packages around salary will vary depending upon the employment arrangement. Even though Polivka and Nardone (1989) believe that the availability of

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21 benefits should not be used to define c ontingent work, they believe it to be a key characteristic in any employment relationship. For instance, self-employed workers, often defined within the realm of contingent wor k, are responsible for their own benefits. Characteristics from Externalization View Investigating the increase in externalizat ion of the workforce, Pfeffer and Baron (1988) find that the extent to which the work er is attached to the organization affects three characteristics of th e employment arrangement: phys ical proximity between the worker and the organization, the duration of employment, and the extent of internal control over personnel-related activities. A ng & Slaughter (2002) adapted Pheffer and Barons (1988) dimensions and developed a taxonomy of IS sourcing strategies to highlight the potential gains behind alterna tive employment strategi es (e.g., ability to respond to changing technologies and skill shor tages in information systems personnel). Ang and Slaughter (2002) refer to externaliz ation as the extent that the worker is detached from the organization. They label th e three dimensions of externalization as temporal detachment, administrative de tachment, and locational detachment. These three dimensions are appropriate to fu rther define characteristics of employment arrangements. Temporal detachment. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2001) states that the expectation as to whether the job will last will not be a personal judgment, but an objective understanding of the employment relationship. Th is understanding leads to an indication of temporal detachment, referring to the length or dura tion of employment (Pfeffer & Baron, 1988). The individual may have a fixed-term employ ment contract that specifies a completion date or ends upon completion of a project, which is typically considered temporary employment. An imp licit employment contract that does not specify a length of time is often consider ed permanent employment. Limiting durations of employment is typi cally an economic decision by organizations and used to maintain a faction of part-time employees. Administrative detachment. Administrative detachment refers to the degree of internal control of personne l-related activities, such as the hiring, firing, performance evaluations, training, and development (Ang & Slaughter, 1995; Pfeffer & Baron, 1988).

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22 Within the realm of administrative detachment is the supervision of the work of the employee. There is the issue of the legal employer as well as the client organization who supervises the work of the individual (K alleberg, 2000). For instance, individuals employed by a temporary help agency will not be supervised by the agency, but by the company for which they are working. Indivi duals employed by a contract company, such as Accenture or PeopleSoft, are supervised by the contract company; even when working for a client company. Related to control ove r and supervision of the employee is the ownership of planning and managing the job tasks. Here, independent contractors may independently plan and execute the tasks requir ed to complete the contracted job (Belous, 1989). Locational detachment. Locational detachment refers to the extent that the worker is geographically displaced from the orga nization (Ang & Slaughter, 2002), and provides an added dimension to the control and supervis ion characteristics due to the extensive use of information technology today. The physical proximity between the worker and the organization could vary with any employm ent arrangement. Traditional permanent employees typically perform their jobs on the company grounds; however even this relationship is changing. Ang and Slaughter (2002) indicat e telecommuters, who are permanent employees, may work at a location, other than company grounds, such as their home. Workers who telecommute may have more flexible work hours, reduced commuting costs, and a more balanced work/f amily life. However, they may experience feelings of isolation from the work envi ronment, peers, and supervisors, and may experience job stress. The physical control and personal supervision is not necessarily colocated, in that an individual could perform their job virtually and be physically located anywhere in the world. A distri buted work arrangement, which could be characteristic of any individuals employment arrangement, enco mpasses work setting variables such as telecommuting, no permanent work area on company premises, work site located more closely to the employees home, and work perf ormed at home at least part of the time (Belanger & Collins, 1998).

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23 Characteristics from Other Literature While Polivka and Nardones three key characteristics of contingent work and Pfeffer and Barons three dimensions of ex ternalization provide an excellent starting point for identifying and isolating character istics surrounding employment arrangements, the literature offers other ch aracteristics (e.g., tenure, volun tary work status, preferred work status, and job positions) that also he lp in understanding th e domain of employment arrangements. Tenure. Tenure, the length of the current employment relationship between the worker and the employing or client firm, is pr oposed to be an indica tor of job stability (DiNatale, 2001). This characte ristic is distinct from length or duration of employment, in that duration of employment re fers to the extent of the c ontract in term s of end date; whereas tenure refers to the time already spent employed or working with a particular organization. The longer an individual spends in a particular employ ment arrangement or job assignment, the more stable one belie ves the relationship (Rousseau, 1989). A job may be temporary, yet the individuals employm ent tenure with the firm may be longer than others in a permanent job position, and th is characteristic may influence perceptions of the relationship. Voluntary work status. Voluntary work status refe rs to the extent that the individual has entered into the particular work arrangement voluntarily. Within each employment relationship, it is typically assu med that the arrangement is entered into voluntarily, yet some researchers are concerne d that there are con tingent workers who would prefer the more traditional pe rmanent employment (Cohany, 1996; Polivka & Nardone, 1989). While Van Dyne and Ang (1998) in ferred the contingent work status to be voluntary in their study comparing conti ngent and regular employees in the bank and hospital industry, other researchers focusi ng on alternative employ ment arrangements surveyed the respondents as to their preferred work status Stamper and Van Dyne (2001) found that workers who were part-time voluntar ily engaged in more helping citizenship behaviors than those workers who were pa rt-time involuntarily, while the workers who were full-time voluntarily engaged in higher le vels of the voice dimension of OCB. In an earlier study, Morrow, McElroy, and Elliott (1994) found little suppor t for work status

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24 preferences on work-related a ttitudes of fulland parttime nurses, yet found support when shift and schedule preferences were cons idered. They contend the differences in the effects may be due to whether the work deci sions concerning status shift, or schedule were under the control of the indivi dual worker or the organization. Job positions. Slaughter and Ang (1996) indicate that certain IT job positions are more likely to be found in AEA, like outsourci ng. Jobs related to systems development, such as programmer, systems analyst, syst ems engineer, and consultant are more likely to be outsourced than jobs re lated to systems support, such as database administrator, network administration, and sy stems programmer (pg. 49). An employment arrangement category is de fined by specific characteristics, yet multiple employment arrangement categories will be defined by some of the same characteristics with differing variability. Clearly defining categor ies is difficult as boundaries of the characteristics can blur into more than one category. Consequently, it is the characteristics of the individuals employment arrangement that may become important key discriminators of the employment arrangement. Prcis of Employment Arrangements Bureau of Labor Statistics (2001) provi des discrete, exhaustive categorical classifications for individuals in AEA; how ever, BLS cautions that the numbers of nonpermanent categories of workers are increasi ng. As the number of cat egories increase, the number and variability of characteristics su rrounding the categories will also increase. While research typically focuses on no more than two major categories permanent and one AEA the increase of categories brings an even narrower focus to research results with groups of workers potentially being left out. This consequen ce supports the appeal to not only expand the research of AEA be yond the traditional cat egories, but also identify the numerous characteristics surr ounding the employment arrangements. This research provides a clearer picture into the i nvestigation of IT prof essionals attitudes and behaviors by identifying the specific char acteristics of the in dividuals employment arrangements, instead of sole ly labeling IT professionals to a particular employment arrangement category. This study follows Mc Lean Parks et als (1998) perspective recognizing the inconsistency of the employme nt arrangement categories and definitions,

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25 and goes beyond the categories to identify the characteri stics of the employment arrangements. Researchers have also recognized the need to improve the definitions of various AEA and understanding of indi viduals in AEA. Beard and Edwards (1995) realize the varied use of the label, contingent worker and recommend studies st art with a reliable definition and then sample th e population of interest appr opriately. Beard and Edwards (1995) and Van Dyne and Ang (1998) recomme nd that future research address how the various types of contingent work affect va rious attitudes and beha viors. Slaughter and Ang (1995) find U.S. companies increasing th eir use of external IT workers, and recommend future research into how to ma nage and motivate them. This study responds to their recommendations in two ways. Firs t, this study clarifies the employment arrangement labels used within the IT industry, compares the labels with BLS classifications, and identifies the characteristi cs that define the employment arrangements as perceived by the IT professional. Sec ond, this study empirically investigates the relationship between the employment arrangem ent and the IT profe ssionals attitudes and behaviors. Psychological Contract The importance of an employees psychologi cal contract within the organization is highlighted by the continued attention gi ven it by way of theore tical and empirical research, yet the definition of the psychologica l contract has varied as the concept has evolved and matured (Argyris, 1960; He rriot & Pemberton, 1997; Rousseau, 1995; Schein, 1980). In Argyris (1960), psychological work contracts were conceptualized as unwritten expectations that transpire between employ ees and managers. Schien (1980) notes that the contract ch anges and expands as time passes and the needs of the organization and employee change. The idea of the psychological contract implies that there are unwritten expectati ons between every employee and manager or others within an organization. Schein (1980, pg. 24) states that the psychologi cal contract is a powerful determiner of beha vior in organizations. Todays research often follows the defi nition in Rousseau (1989) in that the psychological contract is an individuals be liefs regarding the terms and conditions of a

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26 reciprocal exchange agreement between that focal person and another party (pg. 123). The psychological contract is an integral part of the employment relationship that influences behaviors through perceived mutu al obligations of the involved parties (Robinson et al., 1994; Rousseau, 1995). While th e psychological cont ract is normally perceived as unwritten, it has the power of se lf-fulfilling prophecies: they can create the future (Rousseau, 1995, pg. 9). It is the individuals pe rceptions that form the psychological contract, which in turn beco mes a reciprocal obligation. The individual believes certain obligations ar e owed to the employer (e.g., lo yalty or hard work) and in return certain inducements will be provide d by the employer (e.g., job security and good pay) (Rousseau, 1990). The indivi duals psychological contract is the essence of the perceived relationship formed between the employee and employer, yet the terms are subjective, and the parties to this relationship do not n ecessarily agree to its terms (Rousseau, 1989). In Herriot and Pembert on (1997), the number of psychological contracts is expected to be constraine d only by the number of employees in an organization, and any number of employees may share similar perceptions of various aspects of the contract. Social information processing theory (Sal ancik & Pfeffer, 1978) implies that the social cues employees receive from not only their own behaviors, but also their employers behaviors will modify their beliefs of perceived obligations owed to and from their employer. Herriot and Pemberton (1997) parallels this view by proposing that development of the psychological contract is a social process, because beliefs of the contract originate from each party th rough direct or indi rect communication. Researchers have applied Rousseaus (1989; 1995) psychological contract concept to frame their inves tigation into understanding a vari ety of work relationships, such as between an IT professionals pref erred employment durat ion as determined by their career anchor, life stage, and competencies; and between permanent, fixed term, and temporary government staffer worker ar rangements and their commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (Aga rwal, De, & Ferratt, 2001; Coyle-Shapiro & Kessler, 2002). The psychological contract ha s been treated as a mediator between organizational procedures and attitudinal and behavioral outcomes of expatriate managers

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27 (Guzzo, Noonan, & Elron, 1994). The psychological contract has also been treated as an antecedent to the helping dimension of OC B of contingent and regular professional workers of service organizations (Van Dyne & Ang, 1998). Van Dyne and Ang (1998) found when contingent employees did not hol d positive beliefs of their psychological contracts, they withheld their helping behavi ors, but not when they held positive beliefs. However, regular employees exhibited helpi ng behaviors even when they held lower perceptions of their psychologica l contracts. If a particular employment relationship is defined by a specific psychologica l contract that can change and evolve over time, then an individual, who is connected to multiple organizations (e.g., employed by one agency and contracted to work for another organization) conceivably has multiple psychological contracts with each contract having differing characteristics (McLean Parks et al., 1998), and each susceptible to its own leve ls of fulfillment and obligation. Approaches to the Psychological Contract The psychological contract ha s been empirically measured from three distinct approaches: content, evaluation, and dime nsional (Rousseau & Tijoriwala, 1998). The content approach examines the specific aspects or tangible terms of the perceived exchange relationship, such as employe rs obligations of high pay and career development, and is used routinely in psyc hological contract re search (Robinson, 1996; Rousseau, 1990; Van Dyne & Ang, 1998). In Van Dyne and Ang (1998), the content approach was used to investigate contingent and regular employees perceptions of their psychological contacts. Van Dyne and Ang ad apted the employer obligation items used in Robinson et al. (1994), and, as hypothesized, found that contingent employees expect less from their employers than regular employees expect. Rousseau (1990) contends that the psyc hological contract can be an array of emotional and practical expectations of benefits between employee and employer. Accordingly, the theory of ps ychological contracts posits that when an individual is in an employment relationship, specific aspects within the contract can be either transactional or relational (Robinson et al., 1994; Roussea u, 1990; Rousseau & McLean Parks, 1993). The content approach enables clarification in to specific types of obligations between the employer and employee, but generalizability across populations can become an issue

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28 when defining the elements of the psychologi cal contract. Rousseau s (1990) study of graduating MBA students with r ecently accepted job offers defined employer obligations for training and development and employ ee obligations for working overtime as transactional elements of the psychological contract. Robinson et al.s (1994) study of business school alumni interpreted the sa me employer and employee obligations as relational elements of the ps ychological contract. Beard a nd Edwards (1995) propose that relationships between contingent employ ees and their employers may be more transactional than relational simply because of the weakened employment relationship and their inability to develop relationships w ith trust and interpersonal attachment that emerges in long-term relationships. The evaluation approach considers the degree of fulfillment, change, breach, or violation perceived within the context of the contract and has received a good deal of research interest (Guzzo et al., 1994; Robinson et al., 1994; Robinson & Morrison, 1995; Robinson & Rousseau, 1994; Turnley, Boli no, Lester, & Bloodgood, 2003). Research on permanent employees suggests that employ ees perceptions of their psychological contracts change over time. When the employe r fails to live up to their commitments, employees believe they owe less to their em ployers (Robinson et al., 1994). While trying to understand the employee-employer relationship with regard to changes in the psychological contract, researchers have investigated the consequences of a breached or violated contract (e.g., Robinson, 1996; Robi nson et al., 1994; Robinson & Rousseau, 1994; Rousseau, 1990). Rousseau (1989) defines the violation of a psychological contract as a failure of organizations or other parties to respond to an employees contribution in ways the individual believes they are obligated to (pg. 128). This definition has been referred to when explaining contract breach and cont ract violation (e.g., Robinson, 1996; Robinson & Rousseau, 1994). An employee develops perceptions of obligations owed them according to their contributions to the or ganization. When the organization fails to respond accordingly, an individu al may construe the contradi ction as a violation or a breach. This incongruence in the psychologica l contract is a s ubjective experience; whenever ones psychological contract is vi olated, the result produ ced may be one of

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29 disappointment, anger, or mistrust. This incong ruence can also be thought of as the extent that the contract has been fulfilled. Robins on and Rousseau (1994) state this reaction refers to the individuals perceptions of promises not received (e.g., the individual performs some service, function, or task e xpecting to receive something in exchange, which does not materialize). With any perc eived violation, the i ndividual may change their beliefs about what they subsequently owe their employer, and accordingly, change their beliefs about what their employer ow es them (Robinson et al., 1994; Rousseau, 1989). However, Rousseau and Tijoriwala (1998) stipulate that what is important is how the individual reacts to the pe rceived violation or breach, a nd that assessment of change in the psychological contract continues to be a relevant area of research interest. Studies investigating perceptions of viola tions to the psychol ogical contract have considered the consequences to a number of attitudes and behaviors. Studies investigating contract violations have f ound violations related to lowe r trust and job satisfaction (Robinson & Rousseau, 1994) and in-role and extra-role behaviors (Robinson & Morrison, 1995). Studies investigating contract breaches have found breaches related to lower organizational citizenship behavior (Coyle-Shapiro, 2002), performance, civic virtue behavior, intentions to stay (R obinson, 1996), and organizational commitment (Coyle-Shapiro & Kessler, 2002). Wh at is consistent throughout th ese studies is that if an individual perceives that their psychologica l contract is violate d, it is what the individual does about the viol ation that is important. The in dividuals interpretation of the overall quality of the employment relationshi p is an important indicator of issues involving fulfillment of the psychological contract (Rousseau, 2000, pg. 269). In Turnley et al. (2003), the extent of psychological co ntract fulfillment on the dimensions of pay and a supportive employment relationship was po sitively related to in-role performance, OCB directed at the organization, and O CB directed at individuals within the organization. The dimensional approach the term used for this study, has received conceptual interest (McLean Parks et al ., 1998; Rousseau & Tijoriwala 1998) and recent empirical interest (Sels et al., 2004). Distinguishing the psychological contract through particular traits or adjectives that characterize summary properties of the contract has been labeled a

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30 dimensional approach by some researchers (e .g., McLean Parks et al., 1998) and a feature approach by other researchers (e.g., Rousseau & Tijoriwala, 1998; Sels et al., 2004). Both approaches identify a variety of similar prope rties that characterize a contract. McLean Parks et al. (1998) state that the dimensiona l approach might be mo re appropriate than the content approach when defining the charac teristics of the psyc hological contract of individuals in varying employ ment arrangements. The researchers maintain that the precise content of psychological contract may be difficult to specify over the wide range of alternative employment arrangements a nd some content may be inappropriate to employees of different employment types. For example, a company contractor may not expect their employer or contracting orga nization to provide career development opportunities, yet permanent employees woul d expect career development opportunities from their employer. The concept of the dimensional appro ach to the psychological contract was initially conceived as having five fundamental dimensions of stability, scope, tangibility, focus, and time frame (Rousseau, 1990; R ousseau & McLean Parks, 1993). Further conceptualization and research led to the addition of three more dimensions to the psychological contract framework: part icularism (McLean Parks & Smith, 1998), multiple agency, and volition (McLean Parks et al., 1998). Sels et al.s (2004) study employed the dimensional approach asse ssing the impact of the employees psychological contract on affective commitme nt and personal control. The researchers investigated the psychological contract dimensions of st ability, scope, tangibility, and time frame, but varied the other McLean Pa rks et al. (1998) dimensions and included, instead, exchange symmetry and contract level. Their reasoning for incorporating the dimensions of exchange symmetry and contra ct level was based upon industrial relations literature and the importance of collective bargaining and union representation in the employment relationship of their intended sample population. Sels et al. (2004) found a positive relationship between the psychological contract dimensions of time frame, exchange symmetry, and contract level and affective commitment. They also found a positive relationship between the psychological c ontract dimensions of tangibility, scope, and stability and pe rsonal control.

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31 The eight psychological contract dimensi on definitions as outlined in McLean Parks et al. (1998) are provided to offer cons istency and understanding of the dimensions that are addressed in the study: stability, scope, tangibility, time frame, particularism, focus, volition, and multiple agency. These definitions are parsimonious with prior research and are considered to work well with conceptualizations for alternative employment arrangements. Stability of the psychological contra ct refers to the extent the contract is constant or static opposed to dynamic and evolvi ng. The perceptions of obligations and entitlements framed within the psychologica l contract evolve in response to changing needs. McLean Parks et al. (1998) state th at stability is the degree to which the psychological contract is limited in its ability to evolve and adjust without an implied renegotiation of the contract conditions. McLean Parks et al. (1998) assert that the psychological contracts of non-permanent types of employees will not be as flexible and malleable as those of permanent employees, and the stability of psychological contracts between individuals in altern ative employment arrangements may also differ. Shortened tenure or length on the job makes the estab lishment of trusting relationships, which enable a more flexible and malleable psychol ogical contract, more difficult than long tenure or unlimited employment length. Scope refers to the extent of the boundary between an individuals employment relationship and other porti ons of ones life (e.g., the amount an individuals work responsibilities spill ov er into their personal life (McLean Parks et al., 1998)). The scope of a contract can vary from very narrow to very broad. For instance, some independent contractors scope may be broad as they may work hours beyond the typical work week in order to complete the job on-time, yet temporary workers scope may be narrow as they are unlikely to take work home or o ffer helpful suggestions that go beyond the basic job description (McLean Parks et al., 1998). Morrison (1994) found that the more broadly employees describe their job responsibilities, the more likely they perform aspects of organizational citizenship behavior. Tangibility refers to the explicitness of the ps ychological contract with respect to the employees degree of understanding to the defining boundaries, terms, and

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32 expectations of the relations hip. Important characteristics of tangibility are that the specific terms of the contract are visible and not ambiguous to third parties (McLean Parks et al., 1998). Employees who perform pi ecework consider their contracts as having high levels of tangibility; however, research sc ientists consider their contracts as being less tangible, and the more specific and observa ble the terms of a contract, the less likely the employee will go beyond the minimum requirements of the job (McLean Parks et al., 1998). Davis-Blake and Uzzi (1993) found that temporary workers are routinely hired with the clear understanding of the length of their employment and are placed in positions that are less complex and easily monitore d. In Ang and Slaughter (2001, pg. 337), a contractor justified his work behavior by saying it is not my job to question work assigned to me. Time frame of the psychological contract has ev olved from a single dimension to one defined in two elements that illustrate the dive rsity of labor work force. In a study that conceptualizes human resource pract ices that would affect the employees psychological contract, Rousseau and Wade -Benzoni (1994) define the time frame dimension with end points representing a closeended, specific contract at one end and an open-ended, indefinite contract at the other end. McLean Park s et al. (1998) indicate that employees may no longer perceive their empl oyment relationship to be just shortor long-term, representing duration. Employees must now also consider whether the duration of the relationship is defined with any assurance as to when it will terminate, representing precision. McLean Parks et al. (1998) propos e there will be differences in duration and precision beliefs within, as well as between, permanent and contingent workers. These differences refer to whethe r the employment relationship will continue, the job is a one-time occurrence, the job is a reoccurring one, as we ll as the length of time that the employment relationship will last. Particularism of the psychological contract refe rs to the degree to which the employee perceives the resources exchanged within the contract as unique and nonsubstitutable, and the keyis the notion of dependence through non-substitutability (McLean Parks et al., 1998, pg. 714). For inst ance, an organization may be dependent upon an individual whose skills or knowledge is sufficiently uni que that obtaining a

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33 replacement or training another would not be an easy task. Pfeffer and Baron (1988) established the importance of employees acquiring firm-specific knowledge, which increases their value to the firm and creates a basis that could lead to a long-term relationship. A study investiga ting externalized workers, Davis-Blake and Uzzi (1993) stated the study did not confirm whether i ndependent contractors are actually hired because of their unique skills, but did find th at temporary workers are not likely to have the jobs requiring firm-specific or complex technical skills. Focus of the psychological contract has been debated within the field as to whether it is two distinct dimensions repr esenting an economic continuum and a socioemotional continuum or one continuum encomp assing the extreme points of the relative emphasis on socio-emotional versus economic concerns (McLean Parks et al., 1998, pg. 711). For this study, focus refers to rela tive emphasis on economic versus socioemotional concerns. Focus addresses how important economic or socio-emotional concerns compare in the psychological contra ct. A psychological cont ract, geared toward truthfulness, sharing, respect development opportunities, etc., is typical of socioemotional concern; whereas, focus geared to ward material and monetary rewards is typical of an economic concern (McLean Parks et al., 1998). Rousseau (1989) stated that the longer employment relationships continue there will be recurring exchanges of contributions, which in turn will strengthen the employees perceptions of the relationship, yet Rousseau (1995) theorized c ontingent workers do not expect or entertain socio-emotional rewards because their particular employment arrangements are not based on those elements. McLean Parks et al. (1998) proposed that an independent contractors focus would be high in economic but low in socio-emotional because their work relationship is typically inde pendent of others and their contractual agreement is for specific talents for a specific project. Volition of the psychological cont ract is the degree to which employees believe they had a choice in the selec tion of the nature of the em ployment relationship, including, but not limited to, the degree to which they had input or control in to the terms of the contract or formation of the deal (M cLean Parks et al., 1998, pg. 720). Volition also refers to alternatives one may or may not have with respect to job offers. For instance, an

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34 individual with many job offers is not as de pendent on any one job as another with less job offers. Also, an individual who has so me specialized expertise may not be as dependent on any one job as another indivi dual with no speciali zed talents. When individuals have less marketability, this does not allow for improved negotiations of desired salary and benefits (McLean Parks et al., 1998; Pfeffer & Salancik, 1978). An IT professional may engage in some degree of negot iation if the IT professionals skill set is sufficiently unique and in demand. Consequent ly, the IT professiona l will have a higher level of volition than an indi vidual whose skill set is not un ique and in demand, and, thus, has little room for negotiation. An independe nt contractor might have a high level of volition in their choice of contracted jobs, but even this instance might be affected by market conditions and availability of jobs. McLean Parks et al. (1998) advised that the dimension of volition be used as a moderator between the employees psychological contract and their attitudes and behaviors. Multiple agency of the psychological contract accommodates multiple employment arrangements, thus the potent ial for multiple psychological contracts. According to McLean Parks et al. (1998), a mu ltiple agency relationship exists when an act by an employee simultaneously fulfils obligat ions to two or more entities, with full knowledge and sanction from both (pg. 718). For instance, a contractor employed by a professional service agency may also be work ing for a corporation on a special two-year project. This individual will likely have at least two psychological contracts, one with the professional service agency and one with the organization with which the IT professional is working, and the dimensions of the two psyc hological contracts will in all probability differ. McLean Parks et al. (1998) proposed that the multiple agency dimension doesnt fit neatly with the other psychological cont ract dimensions, because multiple employment arrangements increase the complexity of the individuals psychological contract. Consequently, this study will focus on the IT professionals psychological contract as it relates to their employment arrangement, whic h is connected to their work environment where they work on projects.

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35 Scarcity of Psychological Contract Research in the IT Context In an effort to improve the generalizab ility of psychological contract research, sample populations have come from a variet y of industries (e.g., professional workers from the banking and hospital industries (Van Dyne & Ang, 1998), and professional employees from aerospace, electronics, accoun ting firms (Porter, Pearce, Tripoli, & Lewis, 1998)). Yet, there has been little em pirical research samp ling IT professionals and, until recently, no direct research of their psychologi cal contract. Martinez (2004) examined the relationship between full-time IT employees organizational commitment and OCB and perceptions of their employers psychological contract violations. Results revealed violations of the psychological contract content dime nsions of growth, development, and organizational rewards had a negative relationship with altruism-based OCB and generalized compliance-based OCB. King and Bu (2005) conducted a crosscultural study and examined th e psychological contracts of new IT recruits who were graduating students in the IT discipline in th e United States and China. Using the content approach, they found similar pe rceptions of employers oblig ations to provide high pay and long-term job security and employees oblig ations to be loyal and volunteer to do non-required tasks. Agarwal et al. (2001) considered the rela tionship between the IT professionals career anchor, life stage, and competencies and their preferred employment duration using the psychological contract as a theore tical underpinning. Ang and Slaughter (2001) used the psychological contract concept in th e investigation of c ontract and permanent software developers and found that supervis ors perceived contract ors to have lower loyalty, obedience, trustworthiness, and pe rformance than permanent employees. Even with low ratings, the contractors believed that the organization provided them higher levels of support. Rousseau (2000) contends that individuals with a higher labor market power, (pg. 263) will have increased maneuvering abil ity with their employment opportunities, resulting in differences in their psychol ogical contracts. Accordingly, psychological contract theory posits, workers with gr eater market power will have psychological

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36 contracts that reflect more idiosyncratic individual dema nds (pg. 265). IT professionals, in a variety of employment arrangements, represent these types of individuals. Key non-IT longitudinal studies by Robi nson and Rousseau (1994) and Robinson (1996) sampled graduate students when they entered the work for ce and then again two years later to gain perceptions to change s in the psychological contract. The study by Rousseau (1990) investigated the perceptions of transactional and relational obligations and contracts. In Robinson and Rousseau (1994) and Robinson ( 1996), the respondents specific employment arrangements were not i nvestigated, and in Rousseau (1990), only respondents who had accepted full-time employmen t participated in the study. Sels et al. (2004) contributed to psychologi cal contracts research by empi rically testing the nature of the employees psychological contract us ing the dimensional approach investigating both employee and employer obligations. Sels et al. (2004) sample d Belgian employees from two categories permanent employees and employees with a temporary (fixedterm) contract (pg. 474) and from a variety of organizations. This research examines a more comprehensive set of employment arrangements beyond two categories. This research furthe r expands the body of knowledge concerning IT professionals in different employment a rrangements and the psychological contract using the dimensional approach. Table 1 is a summary of psychologica l contract research evidenced in this section.

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37 Table 1. Psychological contract empirical studies* Study Author(s) Employment Type / Sample Type of PC** PC Construct Other Constructs Studied Key Findings Rousseau (1990) Perm / recently hired MBA grads C Employer & employee obligations Careerism, specific company, expected tenure Employer & employee obligations found to be transactional or relational. Relational obligations to employer (loyal & minimum 2 yr stay) pos. related to expected tenure. Guzzo, Noonan, & Elron (1994) Perm / Expatriate managers C & E Employer obligations, extent provided & extent should be provided Perceived org. support, org. commitment intentions, turnover Perceived org. support related to org. commitment. Indications of fulfillment of PC related with org. commitment & intention. Morrison (1994) Perm / clerical workers T None OCB (inrole & extra role), satisfaction, affective & normative commitment Employees differed in defining in-role and extra-role behaviors; differences related to commitment and social cues (employee & supv interaction). Sat, affective & norm commitment pos. related to perceived job breadth. Tenure neg. related to perceived job breadth. Robinson, Kraatz, & Rousseau (1994) Perm / business school alumni C & E Employer & employee obligations Employer violation (Longitudinal) Employer & employee obligations found to be relational or transactional. Employees' obligations decreased over time, but employer obligations increased. Violation affected obligations differently all employee relational obligations, none of employer transactional obligations.

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38 Name of Study Employment Type / Sample Type of PC** PC Construct Other Constructs Studied Key Findings Robinson & Rousseau (1994) Perm / graduating management students E Employer obligation violation PC violation, Careerism, trust, job satisfaction, intentions, turnover (T1 @ grad, T2 @ 2yrs) Violations = lower trust job satisfaction, intentions, & higher turnover. Robinson & Morrison (1995) Perm / MBA alumni C & E Employer obligations & employer violation of obligations Trust in employer, OCB civic virtue (T1 @ time of hire, T2 @ 18 mos, T3 @ 30 mos) Violations factored into 2: relational & transactional. Violations = lower civic virtue. Trust mediates relational violation & civic virtue Robinson (1996) Perm / recently hired graduating MBAs C & E Employer obligations @ T1, employer fulfillment of obligations @ T2, breach = T2-T1 item Trust @ T1 & T3, PC breach @ T2, unmet expectations @ T3, OCB civic virtue @ T3, Intentions to remain @ T1 & T3, TO @ T2 & T3 (T1 @ time of hire, T2 @ 18 mos, T3 @ 30 mos) Breach = lower performance, civic virtue behavior, & intentions to remain (T3). Initial trust neg. related to PC breach. PC breach led to loss in trust, thus lower employee contributions. Van Dyne & Ang (1998) Regular & contingent / Banking & hospital workers C Perceptions of PC employer obligations Affective commitment OCB helping Using work status as moderator: Contingent: With neg. PC, withheld helping, but not with pos. PC. Regular: exhibit helping behavior regardless of PC. Contingent expect less PC than Reg.

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39 Name of Study Employment Type / Sample Type of PC** PC Construct Other Constructs Studied Key Findings Porter, Pearce, Tripoli, & Lewis (1998) Perm / Aerospace, electronics, & accounting employees C & E Employee perceptions of inducements & employer reported inducements Org. sat., job sat., selfrpt perf evaluation Larger the gap between employee perceptions vs. actual inducements, the lower org. satisfaction, even after controlling job sat., & perf evaluation. Agarwal, De, & Ferrett (2001) Perm / MIS majors and ITPs T None Career anchors, Competencies, Prefer employment duration Research in progress statistical results not reported. Ang & Slaughter (2001) Perm & contractor / SW Developers T None Att Org Spt, D. Justice, alienation || Beh in-role & extra role behaviors || Perf loyalty, obed, trust, perf Contractors felt higher levels of org spt (self rate). No diff with D justice & alienation. Contractors lower inrole & extra-role behaviors (peer rate). Contractors have lower loyalty, obedience, trustworthiness, & performance (supv rate). CoyleShapiro (2002) Perm / Public sector employees (Great Britain) C & E Employer obligations, inducements Norm of reciprocity, trust, procedural justice, interactional justice, OCB Employer inducements pos. related to functional participation & loyalty. Employer obligations pos. related to advocacy participation, helping, & functional participation. CoyleShariro & Kessler (2002) Perm, fixed term, & temp / government employees, England C Employer obligations, employer inducements Perceived org spt, org commit, OCB-O, contract status Contingent rpt fewer obligations & inducements, thus less OCB-O, lower org commitment. But contingent = higher perceptions of org spt. Perm engage in OCB independent of employer inducements.

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40 Name of Study Employment Type / Sample Type of PC** PC Construct Other Constructs Studied Key Findings Turnley, et al. (2003) Perm health care workers & MBA students C & E Pay & supportive employment relationship (employer obligations) Fulfillment of 2 obligations; cause of PC breach, inrole, OCBO, OCB-I PC fulfillment is pos. related to 3 forms of perf (rated by supv). PC fulfillment related more to employ relationship than pay. PC fulfillment related more to OCB-O than OCB-I and any breach OCB-O withheld. Martinez (2004) Perm FT / IT E Employer PC violation of intrinsic & extrinsic promises Altruism, generalized compliance; affective, continuance & normative commitment Violations of autonomy, control, growth, & development PC dimensions neg. related to affective commitment. Violations of growth & development neg. related to norm. commitment, altruism, & gen. compliance. Violations of org benefits neg. related with continuance commit. Sels, Janssens, & Van Den Brande (2004) Perm & temp (fixed-term) contract / Belgian employees D Employer and employee obligations PC Dimensions, Affective commit, Personal control, Time frame, exchange symmetry, & contract level positively related to affective commit. Tangibility, scope, & stability pos related to personal control. King & Bu (2005) Perm / new IT recruits & also graduating students (US & China) C Employer and employee obligations Indivcollectivism Recruits hold similar beliefs on obligations high pay, job autonomy, long-term job security, work extra when needed, loyalty, & volunteerism. U.S. want rapid advancement, motivating boss & complete projects on time, which Chinese want project milestone bonuses.

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41* Conceptual/theoretical articles omitted, e.g., Rousseau (1989), Beard & Edwards (1995), Rousseau (1995), McLean Parks et al. (1998), Rousseau & Tijoriwala (1998). **C=Content Approach; D=Dimension Approach ; E=Evaluation Approach; T=Psychological Contract Theory Organizational Behaviors A distinction between dependable role performance and innovative and spontaneous behavior was offered by Katz (1964, pg. 132). Katz (1964) and later Katz and Kahn (1978) conferred the importance of behaviors beyond the normal job requirements indicating that th ese many types of behaviors ar e required of organizational members so that organizations can not onl y survive, but also function effectively. Whenever alternative IT staffing measures are employed, organizati ons do not expect to lose productivity or job performance, but expe ct to gain cost adva ntages over in-house services, or gain improvements in system s development produc tivity and IT core competencies, etc. Consequently, organiza tions are typically looking for behaviors beyond the dependable role performance from their organizational members, and such innovative and spontaneous behaviors might in clude organizational citizenship behaviors and innovative work behaviors. Organizational Citizenship Behaviors As specified in Organ (1988), organiza tional citizenship behavior (OCB) is recognized as an important contributor toward the goal of organiza tional effectiveness. OCB is defined as extra-role, discretionary ac tions that help others in the organization perform their jobs or show support for and conscientiousness toward the organization (C. A. Smith et al., 1983). Organizational citizenship behaviors are not part of the traditional productivity and task performance measures a nd the results of OCB are proposed to free up resources, which will facilitate a more effective and efficient system (Organ, 1988). Organizational citizenship be haviors are not specified in the employees formal job description, there is no contra ctually guaranteed reward as a result of any performed citizenship behavior, and the employee cannot be held accountable for non-performance of these behaviors (Organ, 1988; 1997, pg. 89). Organ (1988) states that although no one deed is going to bring about significant overall improvements to the organization, it is the

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42 aggregate (pg. 6) of these ac tions that will signify an improved functioning of the organization. Organ (1988) references existing empiri cal studies (e.g., Bateman & Organ, 1983; C. A. Smith et al., 1983), and accordingly, propos es five major categories that fit within the taxonomy of OCB, altruism, conscien tiousness, civic virt ue, courtesy, and sportsmanship. Altruism refers to discretionary actions th at have some helping effect and are directed at a specific individual or group and th e task performed has some organizational relevance. Conscientiousness originally conceived as generalized compliance (C. A. Smith et al., 1983), refers to discretionary role behaviors that go well beyond the minimum required levels of the j ob and are directed at the organization. Civic virtue refers to behaviors that an individual exhibits indica ting personal attachment and concern for the life of the organization and implies a sense of involvement (Organ, 1988, pg. 12). Courtesy refers to those discretionary actions that prevent work-related problems from occurring, or take proactive me asures to improve a situation. Courtesy is different from altruism by the timing of th e actions; courtesy helps prevent a problem, whereas altruism helps to improve a s ituation where a problem likely exists. Sportsmanship refers to the willingness to endure less than desirable work situations, and avoid complaining, petty grievances, railing ag ainst real or imagined slights (Organ, 1988, pg. 11). Researchers have applied the five categories from Organ (1988) to investigate the relationship with trust and satisfaction (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman, & Fetter, 1990), the relationshi p with job breadth with in-r ole and extra-role behaviors (Morrison, 1994), and to identify an indivi duals motives toward OCB (Rioux & Penner, 2001). Varying from the five categories, Moor man and Blakely (1995) used interpersonal helping, individual initiative, and loyal booste rism as OCB categorie s while investigating individualism-collectivistism characteristics. Researchers offer other perspectives to OCB, such as pro-social behavior (Puffer, 1987), pro-social organizational behavior (Brief & Motowidlo, 1986), contextual performance (Motowidlo & Van Scotter, 1994), and citizenship performance (Borman, Penner, Allen, & Motowidlo, 2001). Researchers al so offer alternatives to Organs (1988) OCB categories in their pursuit of th eoretical grounding (Graham, 1991) by

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43 differentiating between in-role and extra-ro le behaviors (Morri son, 1994; Van Dyne & LePine, 1998). Graham (1991) took a political philosophical view by defining OCB with the categories of obedience, loyalty, and partic ipation and proposes that the strength of the individuals relational ties to the orga nization may affect the extent of their OCB (pg. 259). It was Inkeles (1969) original concep t of citizenship, adapted by Graham (1991, pg. 255) and then by Van Dyne et al. (1994, pg. 767), that was used to define loyalty, obedience, and participation: Loyalty refers to identifying wi th the organization and having allegiance to the organization, goi ng beyond the parochial interests of individuals, work groups, a nd departments. Typical beha viors include defending the organization against threats, contributing to its good reputation, and cooperating with others to serve the in terests of the whole. Obedience refers to accepting the rules and regulations governing organiza tion structure, job descrip tions, and personnel policies. This would include such actions as having r espect for rules and in structions, punctuality in attendance and task completion, and st ewardship of organi zational resources. Participation refers to ones interest in organi zational affairs guided by ideal standards of virtue, validated by an individuals k eeping informed and expressed through full and responsible involvement in organizational governance. Participat ive activities might include attending non-required meetings, sharin g informed opinions and new ideas with others, and being willing to deliver bad news. Van Dyne et al. (1994) found the participat ion category to empiri cally divide into three separate categories so cial, advocacy, and functional. Social participation refers to non-controversial participation, such as inte rpersonal and social contact with other individuals. Advocacy participation refers to behaviors that are targeted at other members of the organization and reflect a wi llingness to be controversial; (pg. 780) and describes innovation as maint aining high standards, cha llenging others, and making suggestions for change (pg. 780). Functional participation refers to behavi ors that have a personal focus, yet still contri bute to organizational effectiv eness, such as performing additional work activities, self-development and volunteering for special assignments. Van Dyne et al. (1994) redefined OCB as a multi-dimensional construct with the

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44 categories: loyalty, obedience, social partic ipation, functional part icipation, and advocacy participation. Van Dyne and LePine (1998) comb ined concepts of Van Dyne et al. (1994) and Organ (1988) and demonstrated that the individual employees, their peers, and their supervisor were able to distinguish be tween extra-role and in-role behaviors. Organizational citizenship behaviors have been operationalized according to who is benefited another individual or the organization. Turnley, Bolino, Lester, and Bloodgood (2003) found that when individuals display altruism and courtesy, the behaviors benefit individuals, and when indi viduals display sports manship, civic virtue, and conscientiousness, the be haviors benefit the organiza tion. Throughout the debate surrounding how to accurately define aspects of Organs (1988) OCB dimensions (e.g., LePine, Erez, & Johnson, 2002; Organ, 1997; Va n Dyne et al., 1994), it is clear that individuals perform actions that are not clearly defined in th eir job description and these actions contribute to the eff ectiveness of the organization. Performance of these actions may or may not be recognized and reward ed in some manner, and the individuals perceptions determine whether the action is beli eved to be necessary, expected and within the bounds of their job, or beyond the nor mal expectations of their job. In an attempt to understa nd the significance of OCB, Podsakoff and MacKenzie (1994) found that the supervisors performance evaluations are affected by the extent that the salespeople exhibit OCB, with helping behavior making the greatest impression on the supervisor. The salespeople considered to be better performers are not only good workers but also make those around them more productive as well, by helping, being good sports, and/or exhibiting civic virt ue (Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1994, pg. 359). These findings bring validity to Van Dyne a nd Angs (1998) proposal th at an individuals perceptions will come into play as organi zational citizenship can be regarded as a behavioral gauge of the employees responses to their relationship with their employer. The relevancy of these perceptions is impor tant when IT professionals from various employment arrangements are placed in a work environment where the performance of their job is partially judged by the amount of OCB performed. Evidence of this dilemma was found in Ang and Slaughter (2001) wh ere the permanent employed team members felt their contractor peers displa yed lower extra-role behaviors.

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45 This research examines a set of organi zational citizenship be haviors that have been used in prior research and includ e: helping, loyalty, advocacy participation, functional participation, and obedience (Coyle-Shapiro, 2002; C. A. Smith et al., 1983; Van Dyne et al., 1994). These behaviors fit wi thin the conceptual realm of those that might offer more variability when considering IT professionals in different employment arrangements. Innovative Work Behaviors When organizations execute alternative employment arrangements to satisfy their IT staffing requirements, management must reso lve risks involved in retaining continuity in their intellectual capital and ensu ring knowledge sharing between those IT professionals from the varied employment a rrangements. Using a psychological contract perspective, Koh, Ang, and Straub (2004) f ound effective human capital management, effective knowledge transfer, and knowledge sh aring as key mutual obligations required for a successful IT outsourcing relationship between the customer and the supplier. Another issue organizations must contend with is how the use of alternative employment arrangements will affect the innovative work behaviors of IT professionals. Innovation is defined a multitude of ways Zaltman, Duncan, and Holbek (1973) define innovation as any idea, practice or ma terial artifact perceived to be new by the relevant unit of adoption (pg. 10), while Ka nter (1983) refers to innovation as the process of bringing any ne w, problem-solving idea into use (pg. 20). Implementing alternative employment arrangements to lowe r operational costs, or restructuring work teams by adding external workers both fall under Kanters (1983) de finition of innovation as the generation, acceptance and implementa tion of new ideas, processes, products or services (p. 20). Another vari ation of the definition of i nnovation is the development and implementation of new ideas by people who over time engage in transactions with others within an institutional context (V an de Ven, 1986, pg. 591). According to Kanter (1988), the continuity and stability of pe rsonnel within any work group, project, or organizational unit is critical to its eff ectiveness, and yet innovation stems from individual talent and crea tivity (pg. 205). Consequentl y, it is the in tentions for

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46 innovative work as it relates to IT professiona ls in their employment arrangement that is of interest in this study. The concept of innovative work behavior has been defined by West and Farr (1990a, pg. 9) as the intent ional introduction and applica tion within a role, group, or organization of ideas, processes, products, or procedures, new to the relevant unit of adoption, designed to significantly benefit th e individual, group, or ganization, or wider society. This definition was adopted by Ja nssen (2000) in his investigation of how perceptions of fairness between effort a nd reward affect non-management employees relationship between job demands and innovation work behavior. Within this definition, innovation refers to planned actions that hope to accomplish some beneficial result. Studies have found creative efficiency associ ated with the some diversity of work roles (McCarrey & Edwards, 1973) and social in dependence or lack of concern for social norms (Kaplan, 1963). IT professionals have be en found to have high growth needs, high need for achievement, yet low social need s (Cougar et al., 197 9). Therefore, the employment arrangement of the IT professiona ls may affect their creative performance, as research has found social and environmental factors can play a crucial role in creative performance (Amabile, 1983). With innovation, it has been inferred that the nature of ones job assignment aids in idea generation; the broader defined the j ob, the greater the possi bility an individual will not be constrained and will be motivat ed to look to solve problems, improve processes, think creatively, a nd be aware of their envir onment, especially changes (Kanter, 1988). In a study of non-manageme nt food sector empl oyees, Janssen (2000) found the level to which workers responded i nnovatively to their job was determined by their perceptions of fairne ss on the job. Thus, an indivi duals perceptions of their employers obligations and fulfillment of those obligations could affect the individuals innovative work behavior. This would, in turn, have direct consequen ce to potential work group innovation as well as organizational citizenship behaviors. Understanding how diverse employment arrangements will affect the IT professionals willingness to participate in the creative group processes is an area that is not explored in this study.

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47 This research examines the innovative wo rk behavior as defined and empirically tested by Janssen (2000). This research expands the body of know ledge concerning the innovative work behavior of IT professiona ls using the dimensional approach of the psychological contract. Antecedents to Organizational Behaviors Researchers continue to search for clues to determine what individual characteristics will bring about desired organizational behaviors and how and why organizational behaviors occur. Studies have found positive correlations between job satisfaction and citizenship behaviors. C. A. Smith et al. (1983) discovered that respondents exhibited more OCB, specifically altruism, the higher th eir job satisfaction. The supervisors level of supportiveness also affected the responde nts job satisfaction. Bateman and Organ (1983) rea lized greater significance in the relationship between job satisfaction and the employees OCB than in the relationship between job satisfaction and the employees performance. Besides job sati sfaction, other antecedents are proposed to affect OCB. In the investigation of O CB and psychological contracts, Robinson and Morrison (1995) found employees less likely to perform civic-minded behaviors when they felt their employer had not fulfilled th eir obligations to the perceived contract. Robinson (1996) found trust mediated the relati onship between perceived contract breach and employees contributions. Previous studies have considered th e effects of alternative employment arrangements while investigating OCB, but not while investigating innovative work behaviors. In Pearce (1993), even though the contractors and permanent employees exhibited no significant differences in th eir commitment to the organization, the contractors reported that they performed more citizenship behaviors than their permanent counterparts. Van Dyne and Angs (1998) st udy of permanent and contingent bank and hospital workers revealed that the relati onship between psychological contracts and organizational citizenship was stronger for th e contingent workers than for the permanent workers. Katz and Kahn (1978) and Organ ( 1988) agree that extra -role behaviors are thought to be outside the normal job descrip tions, are not a requirement of the job, and are not clearly identifie d within the formal reward system of the organization. Yet, these

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48 extra-role behaviors are often looked for wh en considering an individuals overall contribution to the organization. These extra-role behaviors include, not only organizational citizenship, but also innovative work, and it seems appropriate that both behaviors be investigated in a study that focuses on employment arrangements of IT professionals. Summary Since the inception of information syst ems projects, alternative employment arrangements have been relied upon to help with completing various phases from systems development through implementation (e.g., cont racting with hardware vendors, using systems engineer consultants). Yet, little research has been conducted to bring insights into the impact the employment arrangeme nt has on the IT professionals and their attitudes, and subsequent be haviors. Guzzo et al. (1994) summarized his study indicating there should be more research to determine the function of the psychological contract on in-role and extra-role performance. And as evidenced in Moore and Love (2005), citizenship behaviors continue to remain a vital component of the IT professionals performance. Using the dimensional approach to the psychological contract, the IT professionals perceptions of their employers obligations and thei r perceptions of the fulfillment of their employers obligations are investigated in this study. The psychological contract framework was adap ted to predict two such organizational behaviors, organizational citizenship and innovative work, and were proposed to be affected by the IT professiona ls employment relationship.

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49 CHAPTER THREE RESE ARCH DEVELOPMENT This research builds on existing theories of psychological contracts and social information processing. The first component of this research was empirical and theory testing. A conceptual model depicting the re lationships among employment arrangement types, psychological contract, psychological contract fulfillment and organizational behaviors (e.g., organizational citizenship and innovative work) is pres ented in Figure 4. The employment arrangement category, as well as the characteristics of the employment arrangement, is proposed to affect the individu als contract. The level of fulfillment of an individuals psychological contact is proposed to affect both organizational behaviors. To achieve the objectives for the first research component, hypot heses were drawn from the conceptual model and tested by collecting primary data. The second component of this research was exploratory and theory building. The IT professionals interpretation of the charac teristics of their empl oyment arrangement is absent from the lite rature. This exploration provide s a clearer understanding of the characteristics of various employment ar rangements in which IT professionals find themselves. These findings define and further clarify the characteristics within the IT professionals employment arrangement th at may be influencing factors to the relationships in the model. Hypotheses The IT profession continue s to see an increased us e of varied employment arrangements, yet prior research on the effect s of alternative empl oyment arrangements has had mixed outcomes. Researchers agree th at psychological contra cts are an integral part of the employment rela tionship that influences beha viors through perceived mutual obligations of the involved parties (Robi nson et al., 1994; Rousseau, 1995). Even so, Beard and Edwards (1995) propose workers fr om alternative employment arrangements will have psychological experiences different from those associated with permanent employees, such as control, job insecurity, a nd the nature of their psychological contract.

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50 Research has discovered percep tual differences between contract and permanent software developers (Ang & Slaughter, 2001), contract and permanent engineers (Pearce, 1993), and contingent and permanent workers (Van Dyne & Ang, 1998), yet these studies have been limited to two-group comparisons. Van Dyne and Ang (1998) investigated contingent and regular employees psychological contract perceptions of their employer obligations, and, as hypothesize d, found that contingent employ ees expect less from their employers than regular employees expect. Coyle-Shapiro and Kessl er (2002) stipulate that perhaps the contract status of permanen t, fixed-term, and temporary government staff workers plays a significant role in the per ceptions of their work arrangement and their resulting outcome attitudes and behaviors. Research on psychological contracts usi ng the dimension approach to date has been at a more conceptual level with no empi rical studies until Sels et al. (2004). They linked formal employment characteristics human resource practices, affective commitment, and personal control to the various dimensions. They obtained employee perceptions of employer obligations and empl oyee obligations using four psychological contract dimensions conceptualized by McL ean Parks et al. (1998): stability, scope, tangibility, and time frame. They added two dimensions, exchange symmetry and contract level, to consider the employment re lationship with respect to contracts, unions, collective bargaining, an d collective agreements. Research using the content approach to the psychological contract uses single item constructs, such as rapid advancement and evaluates them independently (Robinson et al., 1994; Rousseau, 1990) or evaluates the psychological contract as an averaged vari able (Van Dyne & Ang, 1998). For this study, the hypotheses consider the IT professionals perceptions of the em ployers obligations as they relate to six of th e psychological contract dimens ions conceptualized by McLean Parks et al. (1998): stability, sc ope, tangibility, time frame, particularism, and focus. The psychological contract dimensions, voliti on and multiple agency, are not directly addressed by the hypotheses. The dimensions developed by Sels et al. (2004), exchange symmetry and contract level, were not adapted as they did not fit within the scope of the study.

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51 Recognizing the conflicting research on employment arrangements and psychological contracts and the diversity of th e employment arrangements available to IT professionals, directionality for the hypot hesis cannot be posited. Therefore, the following research hypothesis is proposed: Hypothesis 1: Differences in employment arrangement categories will explain mean differences in the empl oyees perceptions of their employers1 obligations in their ps ychological contract. Salancik and Pfeffers (1978) social info rmation processing framework, as well as Hackman and Oldhams (1980) j ob characteristics model, reason that it is not the objective employment arrangement category, but the individuals perceptions of the characteristics of their empl oyment arrangement, which ar e socially constructed, that impact their beliefs. Thus, social cues from others, whether employer, fellow worker, or individuals outside the work environment, may stimulate certain perceptions of the characteristics, just as they stimulate cer tain perceptions of th e job and organization. Recognizing the potential differe nces of perceived characteri stics within the employment arrangement categories, the following research hypothesis is proposed: Hypothesis 2: Differences in the employees perceptions of their employment arrangement characteristics will explain mean differences in the employees perceptions of their employers obligations in their psychological contract. Rousseau (1989) contends th at the longer an individual spends in a particular employment arrangement or job assignme nt, the more stable one believes the relationship. A job may be temporary, yet th e individuals employme nt tenure with the firm may be longer than others in a perman ent job position. This characteristic of the individuals employment a rrangement may influence perc eptions of the relationship. Consequently, the potential interaction between the empl oyment arrangement category and the perceptions of the ch aracteristics of the employme nt arrangement provides the support for the following proposed research hypothesis: 1 For the purposes of this study, the term employers is synonymous to clients organization.

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52 Hypothesis 3: Differences in the objectiv e category of employment arrangement and differences in the empl oyees perceptions of their employment arrangement characteristics will interact to explain mean differences in the employees perceptions of their employer s obligations in their psychological contract. Employees develop perceptions of obliga tions owed them according to their contributions to the organization. When th e organization fails to respond accordingly, individuals may construe the contradiction as a violation or a breach of the psychological contract. This incongruence in a psychologica l contract is a subj ective experience, and can be thought of as the extent to which the contract is perceived to have been fulfilled. With any perceived non-fulfillment, individuals may change their beliefs about what they subsequently owe their employer, and also ch ange their beliefs about what their employer owes them (Robinson et al., 1994; Roussea u, 1989). How individuals react to the perceived non-fulfillment of the psychological contract will affect subsequent behaviors (Rousseau & Tijoriwala, 1998). Studies investigating psychological contra ct violations or breaches have found them related to lower in-role and extr a-role behaviors (Robinson & Morrison, 1995), lower performance, civic virtue behavi or, intentions to stay (Robinson, 1996), organizational citizenship beha vior (Coyle-Shapiro, 2002), as well as lower trust and job satisfaction (Robinson & Rousseau, 1994). In their investigation of permanent and contingent bank and hospital workers, Van Dyne and Ang (1998) found that permanent employees exhibited helping behaviors irre levant of their perceptions of their psychological contract. Contingent employees, however, withheld their helping behaviors when they did not hold positive beliefs of their psychological contract. Yet, in a previous investigation of psychological contracts and OCB of perm anent employees, Robinson and Morrison (1995) found employees less lik ely to perform civi c-minded behaviors when they felt their employer had not fulfilled their obligations to the perceived contract. Pearce (1993) revealed that even though contractors and pe rmanent employees exhibited no significant differences in their commitmen t to the organization, contractors reported that they performed more citizenship beha viors than their permanent counterparts.

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53 Coyle-Shapiro and Kessler (2002) observed that if contingent workers are to engage in OCB, employers must offer approp riate inducements. They also observed that permanent employees typically performe d OCB independent of their employer inducement perceptions. In Coyle-Shapiro ( 2002), the government employees perceived employer obligations were positively related to their helping, advo cacy participation, and functional participation citizenship behavi ors. Their perceived employer inducements, which refer to obligations they had actually received, were positively related to their loyalty and functional participation citizen ship behaviors. The literature supports diversity in the findings with the employment a rrangements, yet it is expected that the IT professionals perceptions of the extent that the client organization has fulfilled the psychological contract will influence the amount to which they engage in OCB. Organizational citizensh ip behaviors are regarded as a collection of deeds and Organ (1988) recommends they be aggregated because no single act is sufficiently significant to improve the organization. Consequently, th e following research hypothesis is proposed: Hypothesis 4: Higher perceptions of fulfillment of their employers obligations of the psychological contract wi ll be positively related to higher levels of the IT professionals organiza tional citizenship behaviors. Even though Organ (Organ, 1988) recommends the collective act of citizenship behaviors, researchers consider OCB as a multi-dimensional construct and look at the significance of each dimension under study (Coyle-Shapiro, 2002), or investigate selective dimensions of OCB. Robinson and Morrison (1995) i nvestigated the civic virtue dimension of OCB, Van Dyne and Ang (1998) investigated the he lping dimension of OCB, whereas, Ang and Slaughter (2001) investigated loyalty, obedience, and extra-role behaviors. As such, it is proposed that the IT professionals perceptions of the extent that the client organization has fulfilled the obliga tions of the psychological contract will be positively related to higher levels of each of the dimensions of OC B under study: helping, loyalty, obedience, functi onal participation, and a dvocacy participation. Hypothesis 4a: Higher perceptions of fulfill ment of their employers obligations of the psychological contract wi ll be positively related to higher levels of the IT professionals organizational ci tizenship behavior dimension helping.

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54 Hypothesis 4b: Higher perceptions of fulfill ment of their employers obligations of the psychological contract wi ll be positively related to higher levels of the IT professionals organizational ci tizenship behavior dimension loyalty. Hypothesis 4c: Higher perceptions of fulfill ment of their employers obligations of the psychological contract wi ll be positively related to higher levels of the IT professionals organizationa l citizenship behavior dimension obedience. Hypothesis 4d: Higher perceptions of fulfill ment of their employers obligations of the psychological contract wi ll be positively related to higher levels of the IT professionals organizationa l citizenship behavior dimension functional participation. Hypothesis 4e: Higher perceptions of fulfill ment of their employers obligations of the psychological contract wi ll be positively related to higher levels of the IT professionals organizational ci tizenship behavior dimension advocacy participation. Innovative actions have been thought of as extra-role behaviors that are not obligatory, are outside the normal job descri ption requirements, and are not clearly distinguished within the fo rmal reward system (Katz & Kahn, 1978; Organ, 1988). In Janssens (2000) investigation of fairness perceptions in non-management employees relationship between job dema nds and innovative work behavior, he found the level to which the employees responded innovatively to their job was determined by their perceptions of fairness on the job. Thus, ones perceptions of the le vel of fulfillment of their employers obligations could affect one s innovative work behavior. Accordingly, the following research hypothesis is proposed: Hypothesis 5: Higher perceptions of fulfillment of their employers obligations of the psychological contract wi ll be positively related to higher levels of the IT professionals innovative work behavior. Research Model To address the hypotheses outlined above, the conceptual research model is presented.

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55 Organizational Citizenship Behavior Employment Arrangement Cat. (EAC) Innovative Work Behavior H1 H4 + H5 + Psychological Contract Fulfillment Psychological Contract Stability Scope Tangibility Time Frame Particularism Focus Helping Loyalty Obedience Functional Participation Advocacy Participation H4a-e + Employment Arrangement Employment Attitudes Organizational Behaviors Employee Perceptions of Characteristics ofEACH2 H3 Perm FT Perm PT IndepContr Contract Co On-call Temp help agency Benefits Stability Control Figure 4. Conceptual model with hypotheses

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56 CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The purpose of this study was to evaluate IT professionals from a variety of employment arrangements. Self-report ques tionnaire data were collected from IT professionals to address the research questions and hypothese s. Chapter Four documents the sample of the study, the measurement instru ment development, a synopsis of the pilot study, and the administration of the main study. Sample The goal was to obtain an adequate samp ling of IT professionals in varied employment arrangements, enabling generali zability to the IT pr ofessional population. As of 2004, the total U.S. IT workforce numbered approximately 10.5 million workers (ITAA, 2004). With the diversity of the IT pr ofession and no means to adequately satisfy the sampling frame of the U.S. IT workforce through a random sampling, the respondents were drawn from a convenience sample of wo rking IT professionals located throughout the United States. The two primary sources of intended respondents for the main study were IT professionals who were University of South Florida alumni with MIS degree and graduate students from University of South Florida MIS evening classes. Data for this study were collected th rough two means: a gr oup-administered survey in MIS graduate evening classes a nd an on-line survey. All individuals were invited to participate with participation bei ng strictly voluntary. Fo r the data collection through the on-line survey, a letter of invitation to particip ate in the on-line survey was mailed to the alumni. Approximately four week s after the initial letter had been mailed, a postcard was mailed as a follow-up reminder to those alumni who had not yet responded. Table 2 presents a summary of those alum ni responding from each of the two mailings and those completing the group-administered su rvey. The response rate is the percentage of those completing the survey from the number of surveys possible. Respondents are those who completed the survey, and non-re spondents are those who chose not to complete the survey, yet complete d Section I of the questionnaire.

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57 Non-response bias is at issue with surveys, ther efore, basic demographic information was asked for in the event the resp ondent could not or chose not to complete the survey. The survey contained the statemen t If you choose to not participate, please take a minute to complete Section I of th e survey. Section I had basic demographic information questions that enabled verificati on that those who did not participate were not different from those who chose to participate. Table 2. Response rates n Respondents Response Rate NonRespondents Letter 1st mailing 30751825.9%26 Postcard 2nd mailing 2400692.9%11 Group administered 3636100.0%0 TOTAL 55112875.2%37 Table 3 presents a demographic profile of the 324 who replied to the invitations to participate, 287 respondents completed the survey and 37 non-respondents chose not to complete the survey. There were minor de mographic differences between the groups; however, the differences dont appear to affect the generalizability of the sample due to response bias. While the target population centered on working IT prof essionals, there were a number of individuals who responded to the survey, but were not currently working in the IT field. Of the 287 respondents, 29 indicate d they were not working in the IT field, and their responses were excluded from ensuing data analysis. Of the 37 nonrespondents, 27 indicated they were not working in the IT field. Method bias was assessed, as there were two primary sources for data collection, on-line survey and group admini stered. There were also two mailings inviting individuals to participate in the on-line survey. It was th erefore important to ensure that the different sample sets were not so statis tically different as to affect the analyses. Table 4 presents the demographic profile of the 258 IT profe ssionals who completed the survey by data collection source and are include d in the data analysis. Although Table 4 presents the demographics of the on-line survey responde nts together, method bias as assessed for both first and second mailings as well as for the group-administered respondents.

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58 Table 3. Demographics of respo ndents versus non-respondents All Respondents Non-respondents Age n % n % n % < 25 28 8.6%289.8%0 0.0% 26 30 50 15.4%4214.6%8 21.6% 31 35 65 20.1%6121.3%4 10.8% 36 40 73 22.5%6121.3%12 32.4% 41 45 41 12.7%3913.6%2 5.4% 46 50 30 9.3%269.1%4 10.8% 51 55 24 7.4%217.3%3 8.1% > 55 12 3.7%82.8%4 10.8% Left blank 1 0.3%10.4%0 0.0% TOTAL 324 287 37 Gender Female 126 38. 9%10837.6%18 48.6% Male 198 61.1%17962.4%19 51.4% TOTAL 324 287 37 Education level High School 5 1.5%51.7%0 0.0% Associate's 1 0.3%10.4%0 0.0% Bachelor's 255 78.7%22879.4%27 73.0% Master's 61 18.8%5218.1%9 24.3% Doctoral 2 0.6%10.4%1 2.7% TOTAL 324 287 37 Any differences made sense consideri ng the source of the sample. The groupadministered respondents were younger, had le ss tenure in their em ployment arrangement than the on-line survey respondents from both mailings. The group-administered respondents were different from the first ma iling respondents in their EAC and volition, which refers to preference to a differe nt employment arrangement. First mailing respondents indicated higher job control th an second mailing respondents; otherwise there were no differences in any demogra phics or other variables. There were no significant differences between the first a nd second mailing and th e group-administered respondents that might affect the overall analysis due to method bias. Any differences provide further support to facilitate generalizability to the IT population.

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59 Table 4. Demographics of IT professional respondents All IT Professional Respondents On-line Survey Group Administered Age n % n % n % < 25 25 9.7%156.6%10 31.3% 26 30 38 14.7%3013.3%8 25.0% 31 35 54 20.9%4620.4%8 25.0% 36 40 55 21.3%5323.5%2 6.3% 41 45 36 14.0%3515.5%1 3.1% 46 50 22 8.5%219.3%1 3.1% 51 55 19 7.4%188.0%1 3.1% > 55 8 3.1%73.1%1 3.1% Left blank 1 0.4%10.4%0 0.0% TOTAL 258 226 32 Gender Female 94 36.4%8638.1%8 25.0% Male 164 63.6%14061.9%24 75.0% TOTAL 258 226 32 Education High School 4 1.6%00.0%4 12.5% Associate's 1 0.4%00.0%1 3.1% Bachelor's 207 80.2%18782.7%20 62.5% Master's 46 17.8%3917.3%7 21.9% TOTAL 258 226 32 Overall, the 258 IT professionals in the study ranged in age from 19 to 64 and the median age was 37. Over 75% of the IT profe ssionals were at least 31 years of age, and 23% of the IT professionals were at least 45 years of ag e. The sampling frame was well educated with 98% having at minimum a bachelors degree. Approximately 45% had attended formal education within the past five years. Females represented 36.4% of the sample, which is close to the national IT female workforce of 32.4% reported by ITAA (2004). ITAA (2005) reported that The IT labor force is a highly skilled, highly educated population (pg. 6). In 2004, 35% of the IT workforce was 45 years of age or older and the median age was 39 (ITAA, 2004), which are similar to the sample demographics.

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60 ITAA indicated that as of 2004, 79 percent of the IT jobs were in non-IT organizations, whereas, 64 percent of the IT professionals responding to the survey worked in non-IT organizations. Approximate ly 30.8% of the respondents had worked in the IT profession for five years or less. While 58.9% of the respondents had worked in their current primary employment arrangement for five years or less, 38.8% of the respondents did not expect thei r current primary employment arrangement to last beyond five years and 38.4% left this question blank or responded that they did not know. Of the 53 respondents who responded that they expect their employment arrangement to last beyond 10 years, all but 3 were permanent full-time employees. The respondents were asked to select one of the IT car eer field clusters based on the National Workforce Center for Emer ging Technologies (NWCET) skill standards (ITAA, 2004). Table 5 presents the number a nd percentages of the 258 IT professionals participating in the survey by the ITAA car eer/job category. The % in IT Workforce represents the percentage of the IT wo rkforce in the specific career/job category according to ITAA in 2004. Twenty-nine IT prof essionals did not place themselves in a specific career/job category; in stead they indicated their j ob level (e.g., project manager), and placing these respondents in a career/job category was not possible. The 258 IT professionals held a wide variet y of job titles and were in all of the ITAA career field clusters, except tec hnical writing, suppor ting a diverse and representative sampling comparable to th e ITAA IT workforce. Using the ITAA IT workforce demographic data referenced thr oughout this section as a baseline for IT professional population comparisons, the IT professionals in the study sample were comparatively similar and appear to be repres entative of the IT workforce. Evaluation of the response rates, response /non-response demographics, sample sets for method bias, and sample demographics to the IT workfo rce demographics, including the career field clusters and job titles, provide s plausible evidence to deduce that the sample obtained for the study is satisfactory for data analysis and generalizing about the IT population.

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61 Table 5. Respondent career/job categories n % of Sample Total % in IT Workforce* Managers Executives 4 Jr. exec (directors) 5 Project managers 9 General managers 11 SubTotal 2911.24% Database Development & Administration SubTotal 259.69%10% Digital Media SubTotal 20.78%7% Enterprise Systems Analysis & Integration SubTotal 4718.22%11% Network Design & Administration SubTotal 218.14%7% Programming/Software Engineering SubTotal 8432.56%20% Technical Support SubTotal 3513.57%19% Technical Writing SubTotal 00.0%5% Web Development & Administration SubTotal 51.94%9% Consulting SubTotal 83.10% IT Education SubTotal 20.78% TOTAL 258 *Percentages in each career/job ca tegory according to ITAA (2004) The respondents were asked to select their primary employment category from a list of general BLS labels: permanent fulltime, permanent part-time, independent contractor, contract company worker, on-call worker, temporary help agency worker, and other. Those responding as other were asked to describe their employment arrangement. Four respondents checked the o ther category; however, their descriptions of their employment arrangement were sufficien tly detailed that the principal researcher

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62 had no difficulty in identifying and placing the respondent into an a ppropriate and valid category. IT professionals can be affiliated with more than one employment and/or work arrangement. For instance, IT professi onals may be employed (and paid) by one organization, and work on projects intern al to the same organization. Here, the employing organization and the client organi zation are the same. However, some IT professionals may be employed (and paid) by one organization, yet work on projects for another organization. Here, the employing orga nization and the c lient organization are two different organizations. The client organization is the main focus of this research study; therefore, respondents we re also instructed to descri be their primary employment arrangement as it relates to the client orga nization, for which they work on projects. This information was also used to conf irm their understanding of the employment arrangement categories. Eighty-three percen t of the IT professionals completing the survey were permanent full-time employees (Group 1), while 4.3% were permanent parttime (Group 2), 6.2% were independent contra ctors (Group 3), and 6.2% were contract company workers (Group 5) as shown in Ta ble 6. None of the re spondents considered themselves on-call workers (Group 4) or te mporary help agency workers (Group 6). Table 6. Employment arrangements Employment Arrangement Category Group n Percent Permanent full-time 1 215 83.3% Permanent part-time 2 11 4.3% Independent contractor 3 16 6.2% Contract company worker 5 16 6.2% Total 258 Prior to any data collection, a power an alysis was conducted indicating a sample of 100 subjects would provide sufficient statis tical power for an effect size of .80 and alpha cutoff of .05 as recomme nded by Cohen (1969) for the bi -variate anal ysis portion of this study. It was anticipa ted that the initial mailing lis t numbering 3075 would provide a sufficient number of respons es to provide the power need ed for the data analyses.

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63 Measurement Instrument In an effort to remain consistent with pr ior research, each variab le in the research instrument was adapted from existing instru ments with proven reliabilities, whenever possible. Coefficient alpha (Cronbach, 1951) the standard measure of internal consistency, was used to confirm all scale reliabilities. Nunnally and Bernsteins (1994) recommendation of an alpha of at least .70 was adopted to de monstrate internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the cons truct validity of the measurement instrument. It was anticipate d that adapting established measures of constructs would facilitate comparable reliabil ity coefficients from prior research, as well as comparable reliability coefficients from the pilot study. A summary of the constructs, including the source and reliability of the measures (Cronbachs alpha) used in the instrument is presented in Table 7 at the end of the Measurement Instrument Section. Any scales adopted that did not have end c hoice points of 1-6 were changed to 1-6. This enabled consistent end choice points th roughout the measurement instrument and attempted to minimize social desirability bias (Crowne and Marlow 1964) by forcing a non-neutral choice (Spector, 1992) Table 8 follows Table 7 and is a summary of the constructs, whose items were developed for this study. Employment Arrangements and Characteristics Labels to categorize resp ondents into specific employment arrangements were obtained from the Bureau of Labor (2001). The arrangements are permanent employment (full-time), permanent employment (part-time ), independent contractor, on-call worker, contract company worker, and temporary help agency worker. An other arrangement category was offered if the respondent was not able to choose among the pre-determined arrangement. The respondent was then asked to describe their pa rticular employment arrangement. Research has shown that empl oyment customs, practices, and definitions vary within an industry or across industries (Sherer, 1996) ; therefore, respondents were also asked to restate their primary employ ment arrangement in their own words and describe the organization that was the basis for answering the questions as they related to the client organization. This individually written definition enabled a manipulation

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64 check to confirm that the primary employm ent arrangement category chosen matched their restatement of their prim ary employment arrangement. The employment arrangement characteristi c statements were developed from a review of the organizational behavior, ma nagement, and labor literature. Works by Polivka and Nardone (1989) and Pfeffer and Baron (1988) provided the initial conceptualization of the employment arrangement characteristics domain under consideration. The respondent was asked to indi cate the extent that the client organization provides each of the 21 employment arrangem ent characteristics using a six-point scale with response choices of 1 (not at al l) to 6 (to a very large extent). Psychological Contract The dimensional approach has not receive d as much empirical interest as the content and evaluation approaches have re ceived, yet this method seems the most appropriate to use when investigating mu ltiple employment arrangements. There are eight psychological contract di mensions conceptually addressed in McLean Parks et al. (1998): stability, scope, tangibility, time fram e, particularism, focus, volition, and multiple agency, which were all addressed in this study. Measurement items for four of the dimensions (stability, scope, tangibil ity, and time frame) were developed and empirically tested by Sels et al (2004) and were adopted for this study. Sels et al. (2004) used a five-point scale with re sponse choices of 1 (entirely di sagree) to 5 (entirely agree) to measure all items relating to the psychologi cal contract. Measurem ent items for two of the dimensions, particularism and focus, were developed for this study. The dimension of volition was addressed by comparing two questions in the survey; however, no hypotheses were developed for volition. Multip le agency refers to whether the IT professional is affiliated with more than one employment and/or work arrangement. In this study, the question as to multiple agency of the psychological contract was addressed by focusing solely on the IT profe ssionals client organization. Stability Dimension. The stability dimens ion assesses the extent the psychological contract is constant or static opposed to dynamic and evolving (McLean Parks et al., 1998). This dimension to the psychological cont ract was measured using three items from Sels et al. (2004), which ha d a Cronbachs alpha of .70.

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65 Scope Dimension. The scope dimension assesses the extent of the boundary between an individuals employment relati onship and their personal life (McLean Parks et al., 1998). This dimension to the psychol ogical contract was measured using eight items from Sels et al. (2004), wh ich had a Cronbachs alpha of .80. Tangibility Dimension. The tangibility dimension assesses the degree of understanding of the terms and expectations of the employment re lationship within the context of the psychological co ntract (McLean Parks et al., 1998). This dimension to the psychological contract was measured using se ven items from Sels et al. (2004), which had a Cronbachs alpha of .82. Time Frame Dimension. The time frame dimension assesses the perceived duration and precision of the employment arra ngement (McLean Parks et al., 1998). This dimension to the psychological contract was measured using eight items from Sels et al. (2004), which had a Cronbachs alpha of .79. Particularism Dimension. The particularism dimension assesses the extent that the individual perceives the re sources exchanged are unique (McLean Parks et al., 1998). Using the domain definition from McLean Park s et al. (1998), four items were developed to measure and operationalize the particularism dimension. Focus Dimension. The focus dimension assess es the extent that the psychological contract has a socio-emotional concern vers us economic emphasis (McLean Parks et al., 1998). Using the domain definition from McLean Parks et al. (1998), five items were developed to measure and operati onalize the focus dimension. Volition Dimension. The volition dimension assesses the degree that individuals believe they have a choice in their par ticular employment arrangement. Research focusing on alternative employment arrangemen ts has surveyed respondents as to their preferred work status (Morrow et al., 1994; Stamper & Van Dyne, 2001). In Van Dyne and Ang (1998), it was inferred the contingent work status to be voluntary. With the volatility of the IT workforce, voluntary work status cannot be inferred. Volition is believed to moderate between the perceived psychological contract and the behaviors of the individual (McLean Parks et al., 1998). Cons equently, IT professionals were asked to specify their preferred employme nt arrangement. This information was then compared to

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66 their current employment arrangement, thus pr oviding an indication as to whether their current arrangement was voluntary. The respondents perceptions regarding the extent of their client organizations obligations, as well as for the respondent s perceptions regarding the extent of fulfillment of their client organizations obligations, were obtained from the same psychological contract items. Items for the c lient organizations obligations, as well as items for fulfillment of the client obligations obligations, were measured on a six-point Likert scale with response choi ces of 1 (not at all) to 6 (to a very large extent). Organizational Citizenship Behavior The initial concept of Or gans (1988) OCB framewor k evolves around a helping hand (pg. 2-3). Organs concept is that the he lp is not because of some aspect of their job description, but that the act is spontaneous that nothing will come of the act from any formal reward system, and that the help will contribute, even if in some small way, to a group or the organization. The dimensi ons of OCB (Helping, Loyalty, Advocacy Participation, Functional Participation, a nd Obedience) were measured using 25 items adapted from Coyle-Shapiro (2002) using a five -point Likert scale to indicate the extent to which the behavior was typical of their behavior at work. To remain consistent throughout the instrument, a sixpoint Likert scale with end choice points ranging from 1 (not at all) to 6 (very large extent) was used to measure the dimensions of OCB. Helping Dimension. The helping dimension assesses the extent that the individual offers discretionary actions to other individuals or a group. This dimension to OCB was measured using five items on a six-point Likert scale, and is an adaptation of the CoyleShapiro (2002) instrument, which was deve loped by C.A. Smith et al. (1983). CoyleShapiros (2002) scale had a demonstrated reliability of = .80. Loyalty Dimension. The loyalty dimension assesses the extent that the individual shows loyalty to the organization. This di mension to OCB was measured using three items on a six-point Likert scale, and is an adaptation of the Coyle-Shapiro (2002) instrument, which was developed by Van D yne et al. (1994). Coyle-Shapiros (2002) scale had a demonstrated reliability of = .79.

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67 Advocacy Participation Dimension. Th e advocacy participation dimension assesses the extent that the i ndividual speaks out, is supportive, etc. for the benefit of the organization. This dimension of OCB was meas ured using six items on a six-point Likert scale, and is an adaptation of the Coyle-Shapiro (2002) in strument, which was developed by Van Dyne et al. (1994). Coyle-Shapiros (200 2) scale had a demonstrated reliability of = .81. Functional Participation Dimension. Th e functional partic ipation dimension assesses the extent that the i ndividual has a personal focus to the job, yet contributes to the organization. This dimension of OCB was measured using seven items on a six-point Likert scale, and is an adaptation of th e Coyle-Shapiro (2002) instrument, which was developed by Van Dyne et al (1994). Coyle-Shapiros (2002) scale had a demonstrated reliability of = .80. Obedience Dimension. The obedience dime nsion assesses the extent that the individual complies with the work rules. This dimension of O CB was measured using four items on a six-point Likert scale, and is an adaptation of the Coyle-Shapiro (2002) instrument, which was developed by Van D yne et al. (1994). Coyle-Shapiros (2002) scale had a weak demonstrated reliability of = .63. Innovative Work Behavior The nine-item innovative work behavior scal e used in this study and developed by Janssen (2000) was an extension from Sco tt and Bruces (1994) six-item innovative behavior scale. The nine-item scale comprise s Kanters (1988) three stages to innovation: idea generation, idea promotion, and idea real ization. Three items define each stage. Janssen (2000) found high inter-correlations be tween the three stages and consequently summed and averaged the nine items to cr eate an overall scale of innovative work behavior. The overall innovative work behavi or scale had a previous demonstrated reliability of = 0.95. Janssen (2000) used a seven-poi nt scale ranging from 1 (never) to 7 (always). Again, to remain consistent th roughout the measurement instrument, a sixpoint scale with end choice points of 1 (never) to 6 (always) was used.

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68 Job Satisfaction Organ and Ryan (1995) warned of pot ential problems of common method variance when using self-reports and express concern with self-report measurements of citizenship behaviors. They i ndicated that respondents, who ma y be dissatisfied with their job for some reason, may inflate their actual citizenship behavior responses. For purposes of this study, job satisfaction wa s not in the research model, but the respondents level of satisfaction was measured to provide an indication of thei r job satisfaction, as well as used to evaluate potential negative correlati on with self-reported OCB. The nature of work facet of Spectors (1985) Job Satisfaction Survey was used to measure job satisfaction. The overall nature of work sati sfaction scale had a pr evious demonstrated reliability of = 0.75. Job satisfaction was measured using four items on a six-point Likert scale with response choices ranging from 1 (disag ree strongly) to 6 (agree strongly). Control Variables Behavioral and psychologi cal researchers control for certain demographic characteristics as they have been linked to outcome behaviors. Tenure is offered as a possible moderator between the anteceden ts and OCB to account for unexplained variance in correlations; and some research ers believe that forms of OCB may be a function of tenure (Organ and Ryan 1995). Gender is also offered as a potential moderator following Organ and Ryans (1995) argument that gender might be a predictor of OCB, considering the beliefs that fema les may perform more aspects of OCB (e.g., altruism and courtesy factors). Stamper and Van Dyne (2001) found age, gender, and organizational tenure related to work status. Therefore, three variab les were collected to be control variables in the analysis: age, gender, and tenure in current employment arrangement.

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69 Table 7. Instrument measures, so urce, and source reliabilities Construct Measure Assesses Measure/ Source Sample Item Source Reliability Stability (of psychological contract) Extent the psychological contract is constant or static opposed to dynamic and evolving. Three items. (Sels et al. 2004) Are flexible in applying agreements. = .70 Scope (of psychological contract) Extent of the boundary between an individuals employment relationship and personal life. Eight items. (Sels et al. 2004) Appreciate me for what I do and for who I am. = .80 Tangibility (of psychological contract) Extent of understanding of the terms and expectations of the employment arrangement within the context of the psychological contract. Seven items. (Sels et al. 2004) Make specific agreements regarding my work. = .82 Time Frame (of psychological contract) Extent of understanding the perceived duration and precision of the employment arrangement. Eight items. (Sels et al. 2004) Make a commitment to me for a long time. = .79 Helping (of OCB) Extent that individual offers discretionary actions to individual or group. Five items. (CoyleShapiro 2002) I help others who have been absent. = .80 Loyalty (of OCB) Extent that individual shows loyalty to organization. Three items. (CoyleShapiro 2002) I tell outsiders that the organization is a good place to work. = .79 Advocacy Participation (of OCB) Extent that individual speak out, be supportive, etc. for benefit of organization. Six items. (CoyleShapiro 2002) I share ideas for new projects or improvements widely. = .81 Functional Participation (of OCB) Extent that individual has personal focus, yet contributes to organization. Seven items. (CoyleShapiro 2002) I only attend workrelated meetings if required by the job. = .80 Obedience (of OCB) Extent that the individual complies with work rules. Four items. (CoyleShapiro 2002) I follow work rules and instructions with extreme care. = .63 Innovative Work Behavior Extent that the individual performs innovative actions in the workplace. Nine items. (Janssen 2000) I create new ideas for difficult issues. = .95 Job Satisfaction The extent that the individual is satisfied with the job nature of work. Four items. (Spector 1985) I like doing the things I do at work. = .78

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70 Table 8. Instrument measures developed for the study Pilot Study Prior to the main study, the measuremen t instrument was pre-tested using academic and practitioner domain experts. The pre-test experts were asked to ensure readability, identify threatening or am biguous measurement items, and corroborate content validity. A pilot test was then executed to provide preliminary indication of the reliability and validity of the adapted scales in the meas urement instrument prior to administering to main study sample. The instrument was administered to University of South Florida undergraduate students, who are working prof essionals and some of whom are working IT professionals. The pilot study version of th e measurement instrument is at Appendix 1. One purpose for a pilot study is to iden tify the length of time it takes the respondents to complete the measurement inst rument. The instrument should not be so long that the respondent loses interest or fails to answer all questions. Respondents required approximately 28 minutes to comple te the pilot measurement instrument. All items were retained for the main study survey, as removal of a few items would have made no significant improvement to the antici pated time length required to complete the Construct Measure Assesses Measure/ Source Sample Item Reliability Particularism (of psychological contract) Extent that the individual perceives the resources exchanged are unique. Four items. Developed from domain definition of McLean Parks et al. (1998) Recognize my skills as important. None Focus (of psychological contract) Extent that the psychological contract has socio-emotional concern versus economic emphasis. Five items. Developed from domain definition of McLean Parks et al. (1998) Provide any and all materials necessary to do the job. None Volition (of psychological contract) Extent that individuals believe they have a choice in their particular employment arrangement One item. (Morrow et al. 1994; Stamper & Van Dyne 2001) Response to the question Which employment arrangement would you prefer to work? None

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71 survey. Also, because of the pilot sample size, removal of any items may have been premature. SPSS, Version 13.0, was used to assess normality of the data, obtain descriptive statistics and scale reliabili ties, and conduct factor analys es for data reduction and necessary statistical methods to address research questions an d hypotheses. Reliability if item deleted and item to total correlation methods were used to assess reliability and reduce the number of items in individual constr ucts. All scale reliabilities were assessed using Cronbachs alpha. Table 9 reports the reliabilities of the constructs and item numbers retained in the constructs. Constructs annotated with asterisks factor loaded with two items, not the preferred minimum of three items, while still maintaining a Cronbachs alpha of at least .70. Because the pilot n = 48 did not provide the minimally adequate sample size needed to conduct viable factor analyses as recommended by Hatcher (1994), the factor analyses results were cautiously evaluated. Table 9. Reliability of pilot study scales Construct Item Numbers Pilot Cronbachs Organizations Obligations toward: Scope 13, 14, 17, 25, 32 0.86 Stability* 18, 20 0.82 Tangibility 7, 9, 10, 12 0.89 Time Frame 2-4 0.80 Particularism 27, 28, 30 0.89 Focus* 34, 35 0.90 Organizations Fulfillment of Obligations toward: Scope 14-17 0.93 Stability* 18, 20 0.84 Tangibility 11, 12 0.77 Time Frame 1, 2, 4 0.85 Particularism* 29, 30 0.86 Focus 5, 10, 31, 33 0.85 Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: Helping 14-17 0.85 Loyalty 1-3 0.94 Advocacy Participation 9-11 0.83 Functional Participation 19-21 0.87 Obedience* 4, 5 0.72 Innovative Work Behavior 1-9 0.93 Job Satisfaction 3, 6, 9, 12 0.75

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72 The pilot sample size was n = 48. The re spondents ranged in age from 18 to 51 with a mean age of 26 Females represented 42% of the sample. Fi fty-eight percent of the respondents were permanent full-time (n = 28), 29% were permanent part-time (n = 14), 11% were independent contractors (n = 5), and 2% were cont ract company workers (n = 1). Pilot Data Analysis The items retained for each of the constructs in Table 9 were summed and averaged to create new variables used in the pilot data analysis. MANOVA was conducted to test Hypothesis 1, which propos ed that the differences in employment arrangement categories will explain differences in the employees expectations of their employers obligations in their psychologica l contract. Multivariate normality was assessed and considered adequate for analys is. The group, contract company worker, with n = 1 was omitted from the analysis. Three groups were analyzed, perm full-time (n = 27), perm part-time (n = 14), and independent contractor (n = 5), to ascertain the differences in the employees expectations of their employers obligations. The four multivariate omnibus tests were significant at = .05 with Wilks Lambda at .044 and Roys Largest Root at .04, signifying support for Hypothesis 1. Post hoc analyses using the Scheffe test, which has no sample size or design restrictio ns, revealed some significant differences between groups. Th e mean of the time frame dimension of perceived employers obligations was lower for the independent contractor respondents than for the permanent full-time and permanent part-time respondents at = .05. The mean of the tangibility dimension of percei ved employers obligations was lower for the independent contractor res pondents than for the permanent full-time respondents at = .10. As posited in Hypothesis 2 and 3, potential differences in the IT professionals perceptions of the characteristics of thei r employment arrangement (EA) may explain differences in their expectations of their employers obligations in their psychological contract. Content analys is of the items for the character istics revealed three potential factors defining (1) benefits, (2) stability and continuity in the arrangement, and (3) job control or empowerment within the arrangement; thus, a confirmatory factor analysis

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73 with principal components was conducted. Table 10 reflects the threefactor solution of the EA characteristics with corresponding fact or loadings. Fairly clean factors were obtained with no potential cross-loadings over .379. Promax rotation method was used due to moderate correlations among the 21 items. Table 10. Pilot three-factor solu tion of EA characteristics Factors Measurement Item Benefits Stability Job Control Overall job security .061 .832 .010 An expectation that your job will last indefinitely, if you want it to .072 .637 .148 Freedom to supervise your own work -.347 .676 .180 Stability in your work schedule .057 .729 -.153 A guarantee in the number of hours you will work from week to week -.234 .845 -.101 Steady income .137 .760 .006 Opportunities for pay raises .224 .400 .379 An expectation as to the limits of your employment duration .076 .221 .461 Opportunities for job promotions .241 .076 .703 Opportunities for professi onal development activities .250 -.112 .849 Opportunities for formal on-the-job training .208 .146 .733 Control over your own work schedule/number of hours you work -.299 -.067 .586 The flexibility to work from a location other than the company office -.223 -.066 .702 Flexibility in your work hours -.301 -.008 .748 Access to benefits .709 .306 -.124 Access to retirement plan .970 -.097 -.106 Access to tuition reimbursement .885 -.316 .180 Access to a good overall compensation package .786 .117 -.036 Access to health insurance .830 .153 -.191 Frequent job performance evaluations .876 -.244 .109 A satisfactory overall compensation package .767 .080 -.035 Eigenvalue 7.3 3.6 2.2 Variance Explained 34.8% 16.9% 10.6% Rotation Method: Promax with Kaiser Normali zation. Rotation converged in 4 iterations. Reliabilities were assessed revealing Cr onbachs alpha = .917 for seven items of Factor 1 (benefits), .83 for seven items of Fact or 2 (stability), and .806 for seven items of Factor 3 (job control). The sample size of n = 47 was insufficient to analyze H2 and H3

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74 as depicted in the model; consequently, se parate multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the six variables, which represent dimensions of perceived employers obligations of the psychological co ntract as the depende nt variable(s). All three major employment arrangement charact eristics were entered as main effects independent variables with no interaction. Sample size was too small to consider interaction effects. The depende nt variables, time frame a nd tangibility, were significant at = .01, and stability and partic ularism were significant at = .10. Table 11 reflects the R2, Adjusted R2, and coefficients for the significant results.

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75 Table 11. Pilot significant regressi on results of Hypothesis 2 DV = Time frame: R2 = .383; Adjusted R2 = .340, F = 8.888, Sig. = .000* DV = Tangibility: R2 = .278; Adjusted R2 = .227, F = 5.509, Sig. = .003* DV = Stability: R2 = .157; Adjusted R2 = .098, F = 2.675, Sig. = .059** DV = Particularism: R2 = .l43; Adjusted R2 = .083, F = 2.394, Sig. = .081** **Statistically significant at = .10; *Statistica lly significant at = .01. 2.278 .967 2.356 .023 .147 .137 .174 1.071 .290 -.021 .223 -.016 -.093 .926 .403 .175 .340 2.299 .026 (Constant) Benefits Stabilit y Job Control Model B Std. Erro r Unstandardized Coefficients Beta Standardize d Coefficients t Sig. 1.386 .956 1.450 .154 .372 .135 .413 2.752 .009 .164 .220 .117 .747 .459 .169 .173 .134 .975 .335 (Constant) Benefits Stabilit y Job Control Model B Std. Erro r Unstandardized Coefficients Beta Standardize d Coefficients t Sig. 2.888 .983 2.939 .005 .032 .139 .038 .234 .816 -.053 .226 -.040 -.234 .816 .458 .178 .384 2.571 .014 (Constant) Benefits Stabilit y Job Control Model B Std. Erro r Unstandardized Coefficients Beta Standardize d Coefficients t Sig. -.048 .883 -.054 .957 .137 .125 .152 1.098 .278 .552 .203 .394 2.717 .009 .325 .160 .257 2.029 .049 ( Constant ) Benefits Stability Job Control Model B Std. Erro r Unstandardized Coefficients Beta Standardize d Coefficients t Sig.

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76 Hypothesis 4 posited higher perceptions of fulfillment of their employers obligations are positively relate d to higher levels of the IT professionals OCB, while the alternative hypotheses 4a-e denote the speci fic dimensions of OCB. Multiple regression analysis was conducted for each of the five dimensions of OCB as the dependent variables using the six variables depicting fulfillment of their employers obligations as the main effects independent variables. Agai n interaction of the independent variables was not considered due to the small pilot sample size. Dependent variables, loyalty and obedience, were significant at = .01, as shown in Table 12. Table 12. Pilot significant regressi on results of Hypotheses 4a-e DV = Loyalty: R2 = .416; Adjusted R2 = .329, F = 4.757, Sig. = .001* DV = Obedience: R2 = .363; Adjusted R2 = .268, F = 3.805, Sig. = .004* *Statistically significant at = .01. Hypothesis 5 posited higher perceptions of fulfillment of their employers obligations are positivel y related to higher levels of the IT professionals innovative work behavior. Multiple regression analysis was conducted using innovative work behavior as 4.247 .743 5.720 .000 -.210 .160 -.217 -1.317 .195 .082 .166 .098 .493 .625 -.188 .202 -.200 -.934 .356 .056 .215 .064 .261 .795 .598 .141 .645 4.258 .000 -.209 .134 -.264 -1.552 .128 (Constant) TFFOBL1 TAFOBL1 SCFOBL1 STFOBL1 PAFOBL1 FOFOBL1 Model 1 B Std. Erro r Unstandardized Coefficients Beta Standardize d Coefficients t Sig. 1.062 .818 1.299 .202 .091 .176 .082 .516 .608 .347 .183 .359 1.891 .066 .638 .222 .589 2.874 .006 -.137 .237 -.136 -.579 .566 -.005 .155 -.005 -.032 .975 -.157 .148 -.174 -1.064 .294 (Constant) TFFOBL1 TAFOBL1 SCFOBL1 STFOBL1 PAFOBL1 FOFOBL1 Model 1 B Std. Erro r Unstandardized Coefficients Beta Standardize d Coefficients t Sig.

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77 the dependent variable and the six variables depicting fulfillment of their employers obligations as the independent variable s. The results were not significant at = .10. Positively and negatively worded items were used in the survey, as recommended by Spector (1992) to minimize response bias tendencies, such as acquiescence. Yet, irregularities in the pilot study factor analyses were found with the negatively worded statements. Researchers have found reverse-sc ored OCB items load on different factors, and consequently have excluded those items from analyses (Organ & Konovsky, 1989). Researchers have also found irre gularities in the factor anal yses when only a few of the scale items are negatively worded with the items loading on different factors (Idaszak & Drasgow, 1987; Schmitt & Stults, 1985). Because of the potential problems in the data analysis, other researchers ha ve changed the negatively word ed statements to positively worded statements in an effort to negate this potential bias (Liden, Wayne, Kraimer, & Sparrowe, 2003; Morrison, 1994). Th ese were issues during the p ilot data analyses of the reliability coefficients and the item reduction procedures for some of the negatively worded items. Problematic items were excluded from th e pilot data analysis; however, none of the items were removed from the measurement instrument. The negatively worded items, except one, were retained for the main study survey to minimize response bias tendencies. One negatively worded statem ent in OCB-Obedience was changed to a positively worded statement after the pilot study. The statement, I waste time while at work on personal matters. was changed to I rarely waste time while at work on personal matters. No survey items were removed from the measurement instrument; however, minor refinements were made to three items to improve readability. As expressed earlier, the pilot sample size was not sufficiently large to support viable factor analyses; therefore, the re sults were cautiously accepted. However, the significance of preliminary statistic al analyses in the adjusted R2 estimates of the regressions and the tests of the MANOVAs provided support fo r the theoretical concepts outlined. Specifically, that the employment arra ngement of the IT professional affects the psychological contract, and the perceived fulfillment of the psychological contract affects organizational behaviors. Alt hough some hypothesized relationshi ps were not significant,

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78 the pilot sample may not have been larg e enough to detect th ese relationships. Nevertheless, preliminary hypothesis testing of the pilot data di d provide sufficient evidence to warrant progressi on to the main study data. Main Study The preponderance of particip ants in the main study completed an on-line survey located at the link http://www.coba.usf.edu/departments /isds/grads/newton/AEAITPSTUDY.htm 2. Those not completing the survey on-line complete d a paper survey instrument. Respondents were not directly identifiable in the data anal ysis and the letter of invitation to participate assured them of confidentia lity. A Study ID number was prov ided in the invitation to participate and the respondents were asked to input the study ID number in the survey. This ID number was used to ensure that those who responded did not receive a second invitation to participate. The letter (for the first mailing) inviting the individuals to participate is at Appendix 2. The postcar d (for the second mailing) inviting the individuals to participate is at Appendix 3. The final version of the measurement instrument is at Appendix 4. Self-report measures were the sole mean s of data collecti on. Although judged a limitation in this study, they are justifiably, immediate sources of information describing the nature and substance of their psychological contract (R ousseau & Tijoriwala, 1998) and their perceptions regarding the effect s on their creativity (Amabile, 1983). Spector (1987) contends that the typica l criticism in using self-report measures involving attitude and perception measures may not be factual. Organizational citizenship behavior studies have obtained ratings from a number of different sources (e.g. self, peers, and supervisors) in an effort to minimize m ono-method bias; however, results have found the self-ratings of OCB are comparable to both pe er and supervisor ratings (Rioux & Penner, 2001). 2 This link has since been deactivated.

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79 CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS Chapter Five details the statistical data analyses and findings. First, the scale analysis, which included assessing reliability and validity, as well as the data reduction through factor analysis, is discussed. Sec ond, the research components are addressed separately. The first research component was empirical testing theory. Here the research hypotheses were tested using the multivariate techniques, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), and regression analys is. The second research component was exploratory theory building. Here MANOVA was used to answ er the question as to the similarities and differences in the de fining characteristics of the employment arrangements (EA) in which IT professionals find themselves. SPSS, Version 13.0, was used to assess normality of the data, obtain descriptive statistics and scale reliabilities, and conduct factor analyses for data reduc tion and necessary statistical methods to address the research questions and hypotheses. Scale Analysis Prior to any data analyses, data we re examined assessing missing values, frequencies, distributions, sk ewness, and kurtosis. The kurtosis of three measurement variables (#17 of Empl oyment Arrangement Characteristics Stability factor, and #4 and #18 of OCB Obedience and Helping factor s) exceeded the recommended 2.58 maximum (Hair, Anderson, Tatham, & Black, 1 998) at 3.901, 4.195, and 3.913. These three variables displayed a leptokurtic distri butional shape around their means of 5.19, 5.29, and 5.20; however, these three variables were retained for the factor analyses and not omitted. Skewness and kurtosis for all remaini ng variables were within the recommended bounds. Further examination of the data did not present any initi al concerns about Univariate normality assumptions and the data were deemed acceptable for further analysis. The reliability, validity and dimens ionality of the measurement scales were determined through an iterative process using scale reliability and da ta reduction analysis

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80 techniques and are elaborated on in the sub-sections detailing the operationalization of each construct. Reliability The internal-consistency reliability of a ll constructs was assessed with Cronbachs alpha using reliability if item deleted and item to to tal correlation methods. Ensuring unidimensionality of the constructs was essential and accomplished through factor analyses; then Cronbachs alphas were re-estim ated. Table 17, located at the end of the Data Reduction Through Factor Analysis section, reports the re liabilities (Cronbachs alpha) obtained and item numbers retained in the measurement scales from the informal confirmatory factor analyses. Measurement scal es annotated with aste risks factor loaded with two items, not the preferred minimum of three items. All reliabilities were above Nunnally and Bernsteins (1994) recommende d acceptable level of at least .70, except OCB_Obedience at = .61. Validity Construct and discriminant validity were assessed through informal confirmatory factor analysis. The factor analyses resu lts enable evaluation of the correspondence between the measurement items in the survey and the construct that is being measured, as well as evaluation that operationalization of any one construct is not similar to others (Pedhazur & Schmelkin, 1991; Trochim, 2001). The number of factors for multidimensional constructs was identified a priori according to theory and prior literature. Data Reduction Through Factor Analysis Principal component analysis was the extraction method used to perform the informal confirmatory factor analyses. Ro tation method is typically determined by the level of inter-correlations among the measurement items and is expanded on in each subsection below. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Me asure of Sampling Adequacy was used to assess the appropriateness of the factor analys is with the understanding that the closer to 1, the better (Hair et al., 1998).

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81 Psychological Contract The six psychological contract dimensions of stability, scope tangibility, time frame, focus, and particularism were measured through measurement items depicting the organizations obligations to the IT professi onal. Four of these dimensions, stability, scope, tangibility and time frame, were adapte d from the measurement instrument of Sels et al. (2004). The dimensions, particularism and focus, were developed from the domain definitions by McLean Parks et al. (1998). All measurement items from the pilot study were in the main study instrument. Voliti on, another of the psychological contract dimensions, was measured through the res ponse to the question Which employment arrangement would you prefer to work? If the IT professi onals response matched their current employment arrangement, it was reas oned that their empl oyment arrangement was of their choosing, and volition was coded . If the IT professionals response did not match their current employment arra ngement, it was reas oned that another employment arrangement was prefer red, and volition was coded . Initial scale reliabilities were estimate d for each of the six dimensions of the psychological contract and deemed acceptabl e. Eight measurement items were removed during this process to improve the reliability coefficients. The correlation matrix showed minimal to moderate inter-correlations among the remaining measurement items; therefore, the Promax rotation method was used in the factor anal ysis. Initial factor analysis for six a priori factors found the it ems for particularism f actor loading with the Focus factor or cross loading with other f actors. Consequently, the measurement items developed for the particularism dimension were removed from the inte nded analysis. This action removed the particularism dimensi on from subsequent hypothesis testing. The following informal confirmatory fact or analysis was conducted for five factors, stability, scope, tangi bility, time frame, and focu s. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy was satisfact ory at .920. The scree plot, depicted in Figure 5, visually supports the potential for fi ve factors; however, only three factors had eigenvalues greater than one, the fifth factor at .943, and the sixth factor at .851. The five-factor solution accounted for 75.4% of the variance in the measurement items. Table 13 illustrates the satisfactory factor loadings from the structure matrix, eigenvalues, and

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82 variance explained for each of the five a pr iori dimensions of psychological contract. Each dimension is addressed below. Figure 5. Scree plot of psychologi cal contract measurement items Time frame (OOBL_TF) was operationalized using 5 of the 8 time frame items on the survey instrument. Three time frame items offer me opportunities for career development, be clear in outlining expectati ons, and give me plenty of notice were removed during the scale reliability analysis. Demonstrated reliability of the 5-item scale was acceptable at = .90. Scope (OOBL_Sc) was operationalized using 4 of the 8 scope items on the survey instrument. Four items support me personally in difficult periods, support the defined job expectations, allow me to offer suggest ions to work and organization, and allow me to keep work and personal life separat e were removed during the scale reliability analysis. Demonstrated reliability of the 4-item scale was acceptable at = .92. Tangibility (OOBL_T) was operationalized using 4 of the 7 tangibility items on the survey instrument. Two items put in writing our agreements about my work and make specific agreements regarding my work were problematic, and thus was removed from analysis. One item leave no room for mi sinterpretation of my obligations cross19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Component Number 10 8 6 4 2 0 Eigenvalue

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83 loaded with particularism and focus, and t hus was removed from analysis. Demonstrated reliability of the 4-item scale was acceptable at = .88. Focus (OOBL_F) was operationalized using 4 of the 5 focus items on the survey instrument. One item notify me of any available financial rewards cross-loaded with tangibility, and thus removed from analysis. Demonstrated reliability of the 4-item scale was acceptable at = .82. Stability (OOBL_St) was operationalized us ing 2 of the 3 stability items on the survey instrument. One stability item be flexible in applying agreements was a reversecoded item and problematic, and was remove d during the scale reliability analysis. Demonstrated reliability of th e 2-item scale was acceptable at = .79.

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84 Table 13. Psychological contract rotated structure matrix Item OOBL _TF OOBL _Sc OOBL _T OOBL _F OOBL _St Provide me with job security .883 .445 .365 .376 .271 Make a commitment to me for a long time .885 .477 .361 .374 .262 Wont immediately release me if things are going badly .775 .501 .387 .281 .273 Offer me another job if my current job would disappear .846 .537 .486 .436 .292 Do everything in their power to keep me on the job .820 .623 .420 .406 .356 Be very clear about opportunities for advancement in this firm .589 .470 .783 .629 .280 Specifically describe the performance appraisal criteria used in this firm .469 .413 .841 .583 .269 Unambiguously describe my obligations within this firm .331 .388 .893 .458 .396 Unambiguously describe my rights within this firm .391 .443 .896 .543 .396 Appreciate me for what I do and who I am .528 .923 .435 .508 .435 Consider not only the end result, but also my personal effort .556 .879 .432 .498 .434 Treat me as a person, not as a number .507 .909 .444 .537 .508 Allow me to be myself within this firm .551 .858 .405 .487 .504 Stick to agreements despite changing circumstances .355 .507 .464 .466 .892 Consider written or oral agreements as permanently valid .346 .508 .346 .409 .891 Establish a respectful and trusting relationship immediately .447 .660 .473 .743 .546 Provide development opportunities .581 .553 .616 .800 .282 Provide any and all materials necessary to do the job .281 .376 .465 .867 .304 Be truthful even when it may harm the relationship .286 .519 .497 .770 .512 Eigenvalue 8.97 1.99 1.58 .94 .85 Variance Explained 47.23 10.45 8.30 4.97 4.48 Rotation Method: Promax with Kaiser Normali zation. Rotation converged in 6 iterations.

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85 Fulfillment of the Psychological Contract The six psychological contract dimensi ons of stability, scope, tangibility, timeframe, focus, and particularism were also used to measure the level at which the IT professional perceived the organization as having fulfilled its obligations to them. The respondents perceptions regarding their psyc hological contract and the fulfillment of their psychological contract were obtained from the same measurement items. The difference being that the respondents perceptions were measured two times according to the extent of their client organizations obligations, and the extent of fulfillment of their client organizations obligations. Initial scale reliabilities were estimate d for each of the six dimensions of the fulfillment of the psychological contract and deemed acceptable. Eight measurement items were removed during this process to improve the reliability coefficients. The correlation matrix showed minimal to modera te inter-correlations among the remaining measurement items; therefore, the Promax rotation method was used in the factor analysis. Initial factor analysis for six a pr iori factors found the items for particularism factor loading with the scope f actor or cross loading with ot her factors. C onsequently, the measurement items developed for the partic ularism dimension were removed from the intended analysis. This action removed the particularism dimension from subsequent hypothesis testing. The following informal confirmatory fact or analysis was conducted for five factors, stability, scope, tangi bility, time frame, and focu s. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy was satisfact ory at .945. The scree plot, depicted in Figure 6, visually supports the potential for fi ve factors; however, only three factors had eigenvalues greater than one, the fifth factor at .797, and the sixth factor at .721. The five-factor solution accounted for 76.0% of the variance in the measurement items. Table 14 illustrates the satisfactory factor loadings from the structure matrix, eigenvalues, and variance explained for each of the five a priori dimensions of fulfillment of the psychological contract. Each di mension is addressed below.

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86 Figure 6. Scree plot of fulfillment of ps ychological contract measurement items 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Component Number 10 8 6 4 2 0 Eigenvalue

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87 Table 14. Fulfillment of the psychologica l contract rotated structure matrix Item FOBL _Sc FOBL _T FOBL _TF FOBL _F FOBL _St Provide me with job security .505 .507 .891 .517 .408 Make a commitment to me for a long time .531 .453 .903 .487 .423 Wont immediately release me if things are going badly .488 .544 .835 .488 .431 Do everything in their power to keep me on the job .648 .547 .791 .515 .506 Be very clear about opportunities for advancement in this firm .545 .793 .626 .657 .466 Specifically describe the performance appraisal criteria used in this firm .475 .867 .492 .556 .394 Unambiguously describe my obligations within this firm .502 .883 .451 .486 .430 Unambiguously describe my rights within this firm .525 .857 .558 .612 .507 Appreciate me for what I do and who I am .896 .589 .503 .600 .524 Consider not only the end result, but also my personal effort .888 .507 .561 .573 .595 Treat me as a person, not as a number .899 .435 .554 .630 .622 Allow me to be myself within this firm .859 .431 .508 .534 .584 Support the defined job expectations .758 .619 .396 .695 .578 Allow me to offer suggestions to work and organization .785 .490 .522 .707 .571 Stick to agreements despite changing circumstances .675 .551 .449 .582 .875 Consider written or oral agreements as permanently valid .563 .386 .421 .465 .921 Establish a respectful and trusting relationship .763 .500 .535 .798 .634 Provide development opportunities .551 .671 .556 .796 .420 Provide any and all materials necessary to do the job .553 .527 .435 .895 .450 Be truthful even when it may harm the relationship .744 .492 .556 .775 .709 Eigenvalue 10.84 1.59 1.25 .797 .721 Variance Explained 54.2% 8.0% 6.3% 4.0% 3.6% Rotation Method: Promax with Kaiser Normali zation. Rotation converged in 6 iterations.

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88 Scope (FOBL_Sc) was operationalized using 6 of the 8 scope items on the survey instrument. Two items support me personally in difficult periods and allow me to keep work and personal life separate were rem oved during the scale re liability analysis. Demonstrated reliability of th e 6-item scale was acceptable at = .93. Time frame (FOBL_TF) was operationalized using 4 of the 8 time frame items on the survey instrument. Three items offer me another job if my current job would disappear, be clear in outlining expectations , and give me plenty of notice were removed during scale reliability analysis. On e item offer me opportunities for career development cross-loaded on another f actor and was removed from analysis. Demonstrated reliability of th e 4-item scale was acceptable at = .88. Tangibility (FOBL_T) was operationalized using 4 of the 7 ta ngibility items on the survey instrument. One tangibility item leave no room for misi nterpretation of my obligations was removed during scale reliabil ity analysis. Two tangibility item put in writing our agreements about my work and make specific agreements regarding my work were problematic, did not load on the tangibility factor, and thus removed from analysis. Demonstrated reliability of the 4-item scale was acceptable at = .88. Stability (FOBL_St) was operationalized us ing 2 of the 3 stability items on the survey instrument. One stability item be flexible in applying agreements was a reversecoded item and problematic, and was, thus, removed from analysis. Demonstrated reliability of the 2-item scale was acceptable at = .80. Focus (FOBL_F) was operationalized using 4 of the 5 focus items developed for the survey. One item notify me of any available financial rewa rds cross-loaded on other factors and thus removed from analysis. Demonstrated reliability of the 4-item scale was acceptable at = .85. Organizational Citizenship Behavior The five dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), which were adapted from the measurement instrument of Coyle-Shapiro (2002), are advocacy participation, loyalty, functional participat ion, helping, and obedience. The correlation matrices showed minimal to moderate inter-correlations among the measurement items; therefore, the Promax rotation method was us ed. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of

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89 Sampling Adequacy was satisfactory at .809. The scree plot indicated five factors as a plausible solution, and five factors had ei genvalues over 1. The five-factor solution accounted for 72.6% of the variance in the m easurement items. Table 15 illustrates the satisfactory factor loadings, eigenvalues, and variance explained for each of the five OCB dimensions with applicable measurement items. Table 15. OCB rotated structure matrix Item OCB_ AP OCB_ Loy OCB_ FP OCB_ Hlp OCB_ ObE I tell outsiders that th is organization is a good place to work. .230 .904 .216 .023 .053 I defend the organization when other employees criticize it .316 .869 .313 .111 -.023 I represent the organization favorably to outsiders .176 .892 .273 .043 .083 I neglect aspects of job responsibilities .004 -.057 .129 .156 .778 Regardless of circumstance, I produce the highest quality of work .341 .024 .562 .208 .708 I follow work rules and instructions with extreme care .180 .144 .308 .220 .750 I make creative work-related suggestions to co-workers .829 .255 .405 .213 .247 I make innovative suggestions to improve the functioning of the department .854 .207 .468 .275 .153 I share ideas for new projects or improvements widely .873 .250 .508 .382 .206 I encourage others to speak up at organizational meetings .788 .186 .319 .195 -.007 I help others who have heavy workloads .250 .000 .264 .894 .232 I help others who have been absent .276 -.006 .317 .918 .209 I go out of my way to help colleagues with job-related problems .305 .207 .420 .754 .216 I work beyond what is expected .466 .221 .853 .388 .265 I exceed formal requirements of the job .392 .193 .866 .257 .294 I go the extra mile for the organization .441 .417 .838 .322 .319 Eigenvalue 5.18 2.32 1.65 1.45 1.01 Variance Explained 32.4% 14.5% 10.3% 9.1% 6.3% Rotation Method: Promax with Kaiser Normalization. Rotation converged in 5 iterations *Reverse coded item

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90 Advocacy participation (OCB_AP) was operationalized using 4 of the 6 Advocacy Participation items on the survey in strument. Two items of the OCB_AP scale #8 and #13 were removed during scale reliability analysis. Both items also failed to load satisfactorily on OCB_AP cross-loading with ot her factors. Demonstrated reliability of the 4-item scale was acceptable at = .84. Helping (OCB_Hlp) was operationalized using 3 of the 5 helping items on the survey instrument. Two items of the O CB_Hlp scale #17 and #18 were removed during scale reliability analysis. Item #18 I try to avoid creating problems for others also had a high kurtosis value, but had been retained for the scale reliability analysis. Demonstrated reliability of the 4-item scale was acceptable at = .83. Loyalty (OCB_Loy) was operationalized us ing the 3 loyalty items on the survey instrument. Demonstrated reliability of the 3-item scale was acceptable at = .87. Functional participation (OCB_FP) was operationalized using 3 of the 7 Functional Participation items on the survey in strument. Four items of the OCB_FP scale #22, #23, #24, and #25 were removed during scale re liability analysis. The four items I only attend work-related meetings if required by the job, I pa rticipate in ac tivities that are not required that help the image of th e organization, I avoid extra duties and responsibilities at work, a nd I personally pursue additi onal training to improve job performance also did not load sufficiently on any of the OCB_FP factor. Demonstrated reliability of the 3-item scale was acceptable at = .83. Obedience (OCB_Obe) was operationalized using 3 of the 4 obedience items on the survey instrument. The item I rarely waste time while at work on personal matters was removed during scale reliability analysis. Demonstrated reliability of the 3-item scale was marginally acceptable at = .61. Innovative Work Behavior Innovative work behavior (IWB) was opera tionalized as one dimension with 8 of the 9 IWB items on the survey instrument. One item of the IWB scale #5 was removed during scale reliability analysis. Following prio r research and pilot study results, informal confirmatory factor analysis was employed for one factor. The Promax rotation method was used as the inter-correlations among the eight variables were moderate. The Kaiser-

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91 Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy was satisfactory at .919. The scree plot supported one factor as a plausible soluti on with only one factor greater than one eigenvalue at 5.2; the one f actor solution accounted for 64.9% of the variance in the measurement items. All factor loadings were greater than .745, th e smallest loading. Demonstrated reliability of the scale was acceptable at = .92. Employment Arrangement Characteristics Identification of the char acteristics surrounding the IT professionals employment arrangement through theory building was the second research compone nt of this study and was exploratory in nature. Three dimens ions of the employment arrangement (EA) characteristics were posited from the c ontent analysis of th e measurement items developed for this study. Even though pilot study results found three factors representing (1) benefits, (2) stability and continuity of the arrangement, and (3) job control or empowerment within the arrang ement, these results were cautiously used as supporting evidence to proceed. As these characterist ics of the employment arrangement were developed for this study, again the reliabi lity, validity, and dimensionality of the measurement scales were determined through an iterative process us ing scale reliability and data reduction analysis techniques. Two characteristics an expectation as to the limits of your employment duration and freedom to supervise your work were removed to improve reliabilities. Two characte ristics, opportunities for job promotions and steady income cross-loaded on more th an one factor, and, thus, were removed from further analysis. The correlation matrices showed minima l to moderate inter-correlations among the measurement items; therefore, the Promax rotation method was used for the factor analysis. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy was satisfactory at .854. Although the pilot study reveal ed a three-factor solution the main study data scree plot indicated four factors as the plausible solution acc ounting for 71.3% of the variance in the measurement items. Forcing a threefactor solution accounted for 64.9% of the variance in the measurement items; however, th e scree plot shown in Figure 7 illustrated a distinguishing break between th ree and four factors; therefore, a thre e-factor solution was operationalized as shown in Table 16. Th e table illustrates the satisfactory factor

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92 loadings, eigenvalues, and variance explained for each of the three dimensions of EA characteristics with measurement items. Benefits (EACc_B) was operationalized usi ng 10 of the EA characteristics items on the survey instrument. Demonstrated reliabi lity of the 10-item scale was acceptable at = .92. Stability (and continuity of the arrang ement) (EACc_S) was operationalized using 4 of the EA characteristics items on the survey instrument. Demonstrated reliability of the 4-item scale was acceptable at = .81. Job control (or empowerment within the arrangement (EACc_JC) was operationalized using 3 of the EA characte ristics items on the survey instrument. Demonstrated reliability of th e 3-item scale was acceptable at = .79. Figure 7. Scree plot of EA char acteristics measurement items 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Component Number 8 6 4 2 0 Eigenvalue

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93 Table 16. EA characteristics rotated structure matrix Item EACc _B EACc _S EACc _JC Overall job security .458 .853 .071 An expectation that your job will last indefinitely, if you want it to .363 .801 .091 Stability in your work schedule .377 .794 .203 A guarantee in the number of hours you will work from week to week .266 .717 -.039 Control over your own work schedule/number of hours you work .092 .165 .829 The flexibility to work from a location other than the company office .222 -.135 .758 Flexibility in your work hours .104 .107 .888 Access to benefits .860 .412 .071 Opportunities for professi onal development activities .668 .394 .385 Opportunities for formal on-the-job training .638 .375 .414 Access to retirement plan .797 .328 -.008 Access to tuition reimbursement .722 .257 .087 Access to a good overall compensation package .826 .305 .310 Opportunities for pay raises .734 .510 .317 Access to health insurance .840 .412 -.036 Frequent job performance evaluations .732 .387 .124 A satisfactory overall compensation package .864 .320 .233 Eigenvalue 6.91 2.30 1.84 Variance Explained 40.6% 13.5% 10.8% Rotation Method: Promax with Kaiser Normali zation. Rotation converged in 5 iterations. Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction (JSAT) was operationalized as one dimension with the 3 of the 4 JSAT items on the survey instrument. Follo wing prior research a nd pilot study results, informal confirmatory factor analysis w ith Promax rotation method was employed for one factor. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy was satisfactory at .720. The scree plot supported one factor as a plausible solution with only one factor greater than one eigenvalue at 2.33; the one factor soluti on accounted for 77.5% of the variance in the measurement items. All fact or loadings were greater than .847, the smallest loading. Demonstrated reliability of the 3-item scale was acceptable at = .85.

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94 Table 17. Reliability of main study constructs Construct Item Numbers Retained Cronbachs Alpha Organizations Obligations of: Scope OOBL_Sc 14-17 .92 Stability OOBL_St 18,20 .79 Tangibility OOBL_T 9-12 .88 Time Frame OOBL_TF 1,2,4-6 .90 Focus OOBL_F 32-35 .82 Organizations Fulfillment of Obligations f Scope FOBL_Sc 14-17,23,24 .93 Stability* FOBL_St 18,20 .80 Tangibility FOBL_T 9-12 .88 Time Frame FOBL_TF 1,2,4,6 .88 Focus FOBL_F 32-35 .85 Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: Advocacy Participation OCB_AP 9-12 .84 Functional Participation OCB_FP 19-21 .83 Helping OCB_Hlp 14-16 .83 Loyalty OCB_Loy 1-3 .87 Obedience OCB_Obe 4,6,7 .61 Employment Arrangement Characteristics Benefits EACc_B 4,7-10,15,18-21 .92 Job Control EACc_JC 11,14,16 .79 Stability EACc_S 1-2,12,13 .81 Innovative Work Behavior IWB 1-4,6-9 .92 Job Satisfaction JSAT 2-4 .85 Descriptive Statistics The items retained for each particular construct from Table 17 were summed and averaged to create new variab les to be used in the main study analysis. The descriptive statistics for the main study variables ar e depicted in Appendix 5. The statistical procedures, MANOVA and regression analysis, were performed to respond to the stated hypotheses: MANOVA for H1, H2, H3, and H4 and regression analysis for H4a-e and H5. MANOVA was used in the exploratory an alysis of the employment arrangement characteristics. Prior to conduc ting the analyses, the appropria te assumptions were tested and assessed.

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95 With each MANOVA, dependent variables must follow a multivariate normal distribution. Because there are no direct multiv ariate normality tests, univariate normality tests were performed. Initially, the individual variables were assessed for normality through the skewness and kurtosis values prior to the scal e analysis. Of the three items that were found to exceed the 2.58 recommende d maximum, two items, steady income #17 of employment arrangement characteristics and I try to avoid creating problems for others #18 of OCB_helping were removed durin g the scale analysis. The third item, I neglect aspects of job respons ibilities, a negatively word ed item, was retained in OCB_obedience. The normality of the main study variables wa s also assessed individually for each of the four employment arrangement categor y samples, i.e., Group 1 (permanent full-time with n=215), Group 2 (permanent part-time w ith n=11), Group 3 (independent contractor with n=16), and Group 5 (contract company work er with n=16). Neither the skewness nor kurtosis for any of the main study variab les in any group exceeded beyond 2.789. The main study variables for the complete sample of n = 258 reflect acceptable skewness and kurtosis values as shown in Appendix 5. Sa tisfying univariate and bivariate normality does not guarantee multivariate normality; how ever, they are indicative of multivariate normality and slight departures are typically deemed insignificant (Hair et al., 1998). This provided sufficient evidence to be sa tisfied in meeting this assumption. With each MANOVA, the variance-covarian ce matrices must be equal for all treatment groups; consequently, the Boxs Test of Equality of Covariance Matrices or the Levenes Test of Equality of Error Va riances is addressed with each MANOVA performed. The observations in this study were deemed independent, which is an assumption to be assessed when using MAN OVA. Another issue to consider when using MANOVA is that the dependent variables should not exhibit high multicollinearity, which might represent redundancy among those dependent variables. With regression analysis, multicollinearity is an issue that must be addressed with respect to the independent variables used in the model. The inter-correlation s for the main study variables are shown in Appendix 6. Evidence of multicollinearity among the applicable study variables will be addressed duri ng each hypothesis testing analysis.

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96 The existence of outliers and influen tial observations may affect both MANOVA and regression analysis results ; consequently, data were sc rutinized for their presence. Casewise diagnostics, Cooks D, leverage, a nd Rstudent revealed three observations (#28, #55, and #115) that appeared to be outlier s or influential. Further examination of the three sets of data did not reveal sufficien t deviations in responses to warrant removal from the analysis. First Research Component Tests of the Hypotheses This section describes the results of the tests performed for each of the hypotheses. A summary of the fi ndings follows. A detailed di scussion of the findings and implications is presented in Chapter Six. Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 1 posited that the mean diffe rences in employment arrangement categories will explain differences in the em ployees expectations of their employers obligations in their psychol ogical contract. MANOVA is th e appropriate statistical procedure to simultaneously address multiple dependent variables that have some intercorrelation. The correlations among the five psychological contract dimensions, OOBL_TF, OOBL_St, OOBL_SC, OOBL_T, and OOBL_ F, ranged from .399 to .657. MANOVA also maintains control over the experiment-wide error rate. Decisions were made to follow prior re search recommendations and control for the effects that age, gender, and tenure in the current employment arrangement might have with respect to the outcome variable s. MANCOVA, which considers covariates, would be more appropriate than MANOVA to account for differences that may be due to characteristics of respondents (Hair et al., 1998). However, an effective covariate should be correlated with the dependent variable, and not with the indepe ndent variables. The intended covariates, age, gender, and tenure we re neither correlated with the independent variable, EAC, nor the dependent va riables, OOBL_TF, OOBL_St, OOBL_SC, OOBL_T, and OOBL_F as evidenced in Appe ndix 6. The highest inter-correlation was .111 for OOBL_FP and tenure. Therefore, age, gender, and tenure were not entered as covariates, but instead entered in the model as independent variables with EAC to help

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97 explain the differences in the employees ex pectations of their employers obligations. MANOVA was used to test Hypot hesis 1. Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for each of the six employers obligation va riables and the independent variables was insignificant at = .05. The variable, EAC, represen ts the four groups analyzed, Group 1 (permanent fulltime with n=215), Group 2 (permanent part -time with n=11), Group 3 (independent contractor with n=16), and Group 5 (contract company worker with n=16). The overall sample size and small group sizes for three of the groups gave indicati ons that neither full factorial design, nor any type of interaction of the indepe ndent variables was possible. Consequently, MANOVA was conducted for the main effects of independent variables, EAC, age, gender, and tenure. When analyzing more than two groups, MANOVA generates four omnibus test statistics. Therefore, of the f our test statistics, Roys Greates t Root was used, as it is the most powerful when the dependent variable s are correlated and th e least robust when multivariate normality assumption is violate d. Roys Greatest Root test statistic was significant for the dependent variables at = .05 cut-off with an F-Statistic = 5.132 and Sig. = .000, signifying suppor t for Hypothesis 1. At = .05 cut-off, Roys Greatest Root test statistic was significant for independent variables, EAC (F-Statistic = 10.101 and Sig. = .000), tenure (F-Statistic = 1.690 and Sig. = .016), and age (F-Statistic =1.516 and Sig. = .035), and not significant for gender (F-S tatistic = 1.176 and Sig. = .323). Univariate tests for the four EAC groups as the indepe ndent variables are pr esented in Table 18, where employers obligations with respect to time frame, tangibility, and focus were significant at = .05. Univariate tests for tenure we re not significant for any of the employers obligations; theref ore, no further analysis was realized for tenure.

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98 Table 18. Univariate tests for MANOVA of Hypothesis 1 Dependent Variable Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. OOBL_T Contrast 60.234 3 20.078 14.186 .000 Error 242.023 171 1.415 OOBL_TF Contrast 23.226 3 7.742 4.714 .003 Error 280.847 171 1.642 OOBL_F Contrast 8.081 3 2.694 2.723 .046 Error 169.135 171 .989 OOBL_St Contrast 7.441 3 2.480 1.661 .177 Error 255.308 171 1.493 OOBL_Sc Contrast 7.551 3 2.517 1.575 .197 Error 273.347 171 1.599 Post hoc analyses using the Scheffe te st, which has no sample size or design restrictions, revealed significant differen ces between groups for dependent variables OOBL_TF, OOBL_T, and OOBL_F as reflected in Table 19. Table 19. Post hoc analyses for EAC groups of Hypothesis 1 Dependent Variable Groups Mean Difference Std Error Sig. OOBL_TF 1 3 1.111 .332 .013 1 5 1.337 .332 .001 OOBL_T 1 3 1.036 .309 .012 1 5 1.505 .309 .000 OOBL_F 1 5 .738 .258 .046 Plotting the means of the employers oblig ations by EAC groups, shown in Figure 8, provides an indication to the variation of mean responses with OOBL_TF, OOBL_T, and OOBL_F having significant differences.

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99 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 OOBL_TFOOBL_StOOBL_ScOOBL_TOOBL_F 1 2 3 5 Figure 8. Profile of OOBL variable means by EAC groups Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2 posited that the differences in the employees perceptions of their employment arrangement characteristics will ex plain mean differences in the employees perceptions of their employers obligations in their psychologi cal contract. To explain the differences in the employees perceptions of their employers obligations, the three employment arrangement (EA) characteristics variables, job control (EACc_JC), stability (EACc_S), and benefits (EACc_B), along with ag e, gender, and tenure, were analyzed as the independent variables. Error variance equal ity tests were not possible with the present model. Age, gender, and tenure were not si gnificant, and were consequently removed from the model. It is plausible that ther e would be interactio n among the independent variables, EACc_JC, EACc_S, and EACc_B; however, a full factorial design was not statistically possible; nor was two-way inte raction. Therefore, interaction terms were removed from the model and the main effect s of the three independent variables were analyzed with the dependent variables. Levene s Test of Equality of Error Variances for each of the five employers obligation va riables and the independent variables, EACc_JC, EACc_S, and EACc _B, was insignificant at = .05.

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100 The four omnibus MANOVA test statistics were generated. As the correlations for dependent variables OOBL_TF, OOBL_ P, OOBL_St, OOBL_SC, OOBL_T, and OOBL_F, ranged from .399 to .612, again Roy s Greatest Root was the test statistic chosen. Roys Greatest Root test statistic was significant at = .05 cut-off for the dependent variables with an F-Statistic = 214.193 and Sig. = .000, signifying support for Hypothesis 2. At = .05 cut-off, Roys Greatest Root te st statistic was significant for all three independent variables, EACc_B (F-Statistic = 2.986 and Sig. = .000), EACc_S (FStatistic = 2.546 and Sig. = .001), and EACc _JC (F-Statistic = 2.263 and Sig. = .006). Independent variable, EA Cc_S, was significant at = .05 with the dependent variable, OOBL_Sc (F-Statistic = 2.011, Sig. = .009). Independent variable, EACc_B, was significant at = .05 with the dependent variables, OOBL_T (F-Statistic = 2.867, Sig. = .000), OOBL_Sc (F-Statistic = 1.927, Sig. = .011), and OOBL_TF (F-Statistic = 1.914, Sig. = .045). Due to the insufficient number of cases in at least one grouping for each of the variables, no further analysis of separa te univariate tests or post hoc analyses was possible for the EA characteristic variables. Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3 posited that the differences in the objective ca tegory of employment arrangement and differences in the empl oyees perceptions of their employment arrangement characteristics will interact to explain mean differen ces in the employees expectations of their employers obligations in their psychologi cal contract. MANOVA was used to explain the differences in the employees expectations of their employers obligations by the interaction in the differen ces in the objective cat egory of employment arrangement and the three employment arrange ment characteristic variables, EACc_JC, EACc_S, and EACc_B. As hypothe sized, it is plausible th at there would be some interaction among the four independent vari ables, EACc_JC, EACc_S, and EACc_B, and EAC groups. From the previous testing of Hypothesis 2, neither a full fact orial design, nor a complete two-way interaction was possible, so two-way interaction was placed in the model between each of the three characteris tics variables, EACc_JC, EACc_S, and EACc_B, and EAC groups. Levenes Test of Equality of Error Va riances for the five

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101 employers obligation variables and the indepe ndent variables with the interaction was insignificant at = .05. The four omnibus MANOVA test statistics were generated. Roys Greatest Root test statistic was significant at = .05 cut-off for the dependent variables with an FStatistic = 208.219, and Sig. = .000, signi fying support for Hypothesis 3. At = .05 cutoff, Roys Greatest Root test statistic was significant for interaction term, EACc_JC*EAC (F-Statistic = 4.370 and Sig. = .000), and independent variables, EACc_B (F-Statistic = 3.438 and Sig. = .000) EACc_JC (F-Statistic = 2.304 and Sig. = .006), and EACc_S (F-Statistic = 2.167 and Si g. = .006), and not significant for EAC (FStatistic = 1.236 and Sig. = .296), EACc_S*EAC (F-Statistic = .438 and Sig. = .822), and EACc_B*EAC (F-Statistic = .000 and Sig. = 1.000). Tests of Between-Subject Effects reflected significant effects at = .05 cutoff for dependent variables, OOBL_T and OOBL_Sc with EACc_B, and dependent variables, OOBL_T and OOBL_F with EACc_JC*EAC. No further analysis findi ngs were realized for the MANOVA model. Hypothesis 4 Hypothesis 4 theorizes that higher perceptions of fulfill ment of their employers obligations of the psychological contract will be positively related to higher levels of the IT professionals organizational citizenship behaviors. Again, MANOVA was used in order to address the five organizational citizenship behaviors simultaneously as dependent variables in the model. The corr elations for dependent variables, OCB_Loy, OCB_Obe, OCB_AdP, OCB_Hl p, OCB_FuP, ranged from .054 to .491. Age, gender, and tenure in the current employment arrangeme nt were not entered as covariates in the MANOVA as their correlations with the de pendent variables was minimal with -.206 being the greatest correlation be tween gender and OCB_obedience. The employment arrangement of the IT professional may also moderate the fulfillment of the psychological contract; therefore, EAC, age, gender, and tenure were entered as independent variables, as well as five variables repr esenting the level of fulfillment of their employers obligations, FOBL_TF, FOBL_St, FOBL_SC, FOBL_T, and FOBL_F, to explain the levels of IT professionals organizational citizenship behaviors. The variable representing volition was included in the model as McLean Parks

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102 et al. (1998) proposed that volition would mode rate between the psychological contract and the outcomes of the worker. Volition was not correlated with the dependent variables, so was not treated as a covariate. The overall sa mple size and small group sizes gave indications that neither full factorial de sign, nor any type of interaction between the independent variables, was possi ble; therefore, only main effects of the variables were placed in the model. Overall mu ltivariate results and Boxs Test and Levenes Test could not be computed with the in tended model; consequently, independent variables (age, gender, and tenure) were removed from the mo del in an effort to more parsimoniously assess the fulfillment of the psychological contract variables. A second MANOVA was run with EAC and volition and five variables representing the level of fulfillment of their employers obligations, FOBL_TF, FOBL_St, FOBL_SC, FOBL_T, and FOBL_F, to explain the levels of IT professionals organizational citizenship behaviors. Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances was insignificant at = .05 for all dependent variables, except OCB_FuP. The test was not computed for OCB_FuP. The four omnibus M ANOVA test statistics were generated and Roys Greatest Root was chosen to evaluate the significance of th e test. Roys Greatest Root test statisti c was significant at = .05 cut-off for the dependent variables with an FStatistic = 792.273 and Sig. = .001, signi fying support for Hypothesis 4. At = .05 cutoff, Roys Greatest Root test statistic was si gnificant for the five variables representing the level of fulfillment of their employers obligations, FOBL_TF (F-Statistic 2.108 and Sig. = .005), FOBL_St (F-Statistic = 2.852 a nd Sig. = .004), FOBL_Sc (F-Statistic = 2.214 and Sig. = .001), FOBL_T (F-Statistic = 1.779 and Sig. = .030), and FOBL_F (FStatistic = 1.993 and Sig. = .013), but not for variables EAC (F-Statistic = 2.189 and Sig. = .058) and Volition (F-Statistic = 2.063 and Sig. = .073). Independent variable, FOBL_Sc, was significant at = .05 with the dependent variable, OCB_AdP (F-Statistic = 1.567, Si g. = .046). Independent variable, FOBL_St, was significant at = .05 with the dependent variab les, OCB_Obe (F-Statistic = 2.403, Sig. = .014. Due to the insufficient number of cases in at least one grouping for each of the variables, no further analysis of separa te univariate tests or post hoc analyses was possible for the EA characteristic variables.

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103 Organizational citizenship be haviors are often regarded as a collection of deeds and researchers recommend they be aggreg ated, thus the reasoning for Hypothesis 4. However, other researchers c onsider OCB as a multi-dimen sional construct and look at the significance of each dimension under study (Coyle-Shapiro, 2002). Consequently, it was proposed that the IT professionals percep tions of their employers obligations of the psychological contract would be positively re lated to higher levels of each of the dimensions of OCB under study: helping, l oyalty, obedience, func tional participation, and advocacy participation. The MANOVA test statistic results for Hypothesis 4 offer viability to this studys a lternative to Hypothesis 4. Alternative Hypotheses to H4 Hypotheses 4a-e posited that higher percep tions of fulfillment of their employers obligations of the psychological contract will be positively related to higher levels of each of the five IT professionals organi zational citizenship behavior dimensions: helping, loyalty, obedience, functional pa rticipation, and advocacy participation. Regression analysis was conducted for each of the five dimensions of OCB as the dependent variable and five variables repres enting the level of fulfillment of their employers obligations FOBL_TF, FOBL_St, FOBL_SC, FOBL_T, and FOBL_F. In line with Hypothesis 2, the employment arrangemen t of the IT professi onal and volition may moderate the fulfillment of the psychological contract; therefore, EAC and volition, as well as age, gender and tenure we re also entered as independent variables to explain their relationship with each dimension of the IT professionals organizational citizenship behaviors. Multicollinearity was assessed with respect to the independent variables used in the regression model. The correlations for the independent variab les in the regression model, FOBL_Sc, FOBL_St, FOBL_TF, FOBL _T, FOBL_F, volition, EAC, age, gender, and tenure (CPEAlength) ranged from -.005 to .789. Therefore, a variance inflation factor (VIF) of > 10 was used as a gauge to detect multicollinearity in the model (Mendenhall & Sincich, 1996). Because of potential multic ollinearity issues, no interaction was investigated in any of the models; however, the VIFs for the independent variables were

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104 no greater than 3.363, which is within acceptable limits. The regression results are described under each hypothesis sub-heading. Hypothesis 4a Helping The model using FOBL_Sc, FOBL_St, FOBL_TF, FOBL_T, FOBL_F, volition, EAC, age, gender, and CPEAlength as the inde pendent variables to explain the dependent variable, OCB_helping (Hlp ), was not significant at = .05 cutoff with an F-Statistic of .625 and Sig. = .792, as shown in Table 20. The R2 = .03 and the Adjusted R2 = -.015. Hypothesis 4a was not supported. Table 20. Regression summary of Hypothesis 4a Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 6.925 10 .693 .625 .792 Residual 262.516 237 1.108 Total 269.441 247 Predictors: (Constant), Age, EAC, Gende r, FOBL_Sc, CPEAlngth, Volition, FOBL_T, FOBL_St, FOBL_TF, FOBL_F; Dependent Variable: OCB_Hlp Hypothesis 4b Loyalty The model using the same ten independent variables as Hypothesis 4a to explain the dependent variable, OCB_l oyalty (Loy), was significant at = .05 with an F-Statistic of 23.296 and Sig. = .000, as shown in Tabl e 21. Hypothesis 4b was supported. The R2 = .50 and the Adjusted R 2 = .47. The regression coefficients in order of significance are presented in Table 22. Table 21. Regression summary of Hypothesis 4b Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 199.509 10 19.951 23.296 .000 Residual 203.822 238 .856 Total 403.332 248 Predictors: (Constant), Age, EAC, Gende r, FOBL_Sc, CPEAlngth, Volition, FOBL_T, FOBL_St, FOBL_TF, FOBL_F; Dependent Variable: OCB_Loy

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105 Table 22. Regression coefficients of Hypothesis 4b Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig. 1 (Constant) .255 .410 .620 .536 FOBL_Sc .462 .094 .415 4.899 .000 FOBL_F .291 .091 .269 3.179 .002 FOBL_TF .118 .066 .120 1.782 .076 Volition -.300 .176 -.095 -1.705 .089 FOBL_T -.110 .066 -.119 -1.680 .094 Age .011 .007 .082 1.562 .120 CPEAlngth .019 .016 .063 1.165 .245 Gender .134 .123 .051 1.090 .277 EAC .054 .064 .046 .853 .394 FOBL_St .058 .069 .056 .832 .406 Hypothesis 4c Obedience The model using same independent variab les to explain the dependent variable, OCB_obedience (Obe), was significant at = .05 with an F-Sta tistic of 2.094 and Sig. = .026, as shown in Table 23. Hypothesis 4c was supported. The R2 = .08 and the Adjusted R2 = .04. The regression coefficients in order of significance are presented in Table 24. Table 23. Regression summary of Hypothesis 4c Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 9.385 10 .938 2.094 .026 Residual 106.670 238 .448 Total 116.054 248 Predictors: (Constant), Age, EAC, Gende r, FOBL_Sc, CPEAlngth, Volition, FOBL_T, FOBL_St, FOBL_TF, FOBL_F; Dependent Variable: OCB_Obe

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106 Table 24. Regression coefficients of Hypothesis 4c Hypothesis 4d Functio nal Participation The model using the same previous i ndependent variables to explain the dependent variable, OCB_functional par ticipation (FuP), was significant at = .05 with an F-Statistic of 2.110 and Sig. = .024, as shown in Table 25. Hypothesis 4d was supported. The R2 = .08 and the Adjusted R2 = .043. The regression coefficients in order of significance are presented in Table 26. Table 25. Regression summary of Hypothesis 4d Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 13.467 10 1.347 2.110 .024 Residual 151.890 238 .638 Total 165.357 248 Predictors: (Constant), Age, EAC, Gende r, FOBL_Sc, CPEAlngth, Volition, FOBL_T, FOBL_St, FOBL_TF, FOBL_F; Dependent Variable: OCB_FuP Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig. 1 (Constant) 5.113 .297 17.224 .000 Gender -.314 .089 -.222 -3.528 .001 FOBL_TF -.089 .048 -.169 -1.857 .065 CPEAlngth -.018 .012 -.115 -1.560 .120 FOBL_Sc .058 .068 .098 .855 .394 FOBL_St .043 .050 .077 .852 .395 FOBL_T .033 .047 .067 .697 .486 EAC -.026 .046 -.041 -.564 .574 Age .002 .005 .023 .325 .745 Volition .022 .127 .013 .175 .861 FOBL_F .005 .066 .009 .076 .939

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107 Table 26. Regression coefficients of Hypothesis 4d Hypothesis 4e Advocacy Participation The model using same previous independe nt variables to explain the dependent variable, OCB_advocacy participa tion (AdP), was significant at = .05 with an FStatistic of 3.608 and Sig. = .000, as shown in Table 27. Hypothesis 4e was supported. The R2 = .13 and the Adjusted R2 = .10. The regression coefficients in order of significance are presented in Table 28. Table 27. Regression summary of Hypothesis 4e Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 35.859 10 3.586 3.608 .000 Residual 236.551 238 .994 Total 272.410 248 Predictors: (Constant), Age, EAC, Gende r, FOBL_Sc, CPEAlngth, Volition, FOBL_T, FOBL_St, FOBL_TF, FOBL_F; Dependent Variable: OCB_AdP Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig. 1 (Constant) 4.193 .354 11.838 .000 FOBL_Sc .203 .081 .285 2.497 .013 EAC -.128 .055 -.168 -2.323 .021 Age .008 .006 .088 1.243 .215 Volition .171 .152 .084 1.126 .261 Gender -.103 .106 -.061 -.973 .332 CPEAlngth -.011 .014 -.057 -.778 .437 FOBL_St -.037 .060 -.056 -.626 .532 FOBL_T -.019 .057 -.032 -.336 .737 FOBL_TF -.015 .057 -.024 -.263 .793 FOBL_F .015 .079 .022 .194 .847

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108 Table 28. Regression coefficients of Hypothesis 4e Hypothesis 5 Hypothesis 5 theorizes that higher perceptions of fulfill ment of their employers obligations of the psychological contract will be positively related to higher levels of the IT professionals innovative work behavior (IWB). Regression analysis was conducted using innovative work behavior as the dependent variable and the five variables depicting fulfillment of their employers obligations, as well as volition, EAC, age, gender, and CPEAlength as the independent variables. The VIFs for the independent variab les were no greater than 3.363, thus multicollinearity was not an issue. The mode l using the ten independent variables to explain the dependent variab le, IWB, was significant at = .05 with an F-Statistic of 5.139 and Sig. = .000, signifying support for Hypothesis 5. The regression summary results are shown in Table 29. The R2 = .18 and the Adjusted R2 = .14. The regression coefficients in order of signifi cance are presented in Table 30. Table 29. Regression summary of Hypothesis 5 Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 36.942 10 3.694 5.139 .000 Residual 171.091 238 .719 Total 208.032 248 Predictors: (Constant), Age, EAC, Gende r, FOBL_Sc, CPEAlngth, Volition, FOBL_T, FOBL_St, FOBL_TF, FOBL_F ; Dependent Variable: IWB Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig. 1 (Constant) 2.922 .442 6.610 .000 FOBL_T .176 .071 .231 2.492 .013 FOBL_Sc .243 .102 .265 2.387 .018 FOBL_TF -.127 .071 -.157 -1.782 .076 Gender .219 .133 .101 1.648 .101 Volition .295 .190 .113 1.553 .122 FOBL_St .108 .075 .126 1.443 .150 FOBL_F -.141 .099 -.158 -1.428 .155 Age .006 .008 .057 .830 .408 CPEAlngth .007 .017 .030 .415 .679 EAC -.022 .069 -.023 -.326 .745

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109 Table 30. Regression coefficients of Hypothesis 5 Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig. 1 (Constant) 3.086 .376 8.210 .000 FOBL_Sc .262 .086 .327 3.032 .003 Gender .330 .113 .174 2.923 .004 Volition .415 .161 .182 2.571 .011 FOBL_St .143 .063 .192 2.248 .025 FOBL_TF -.097 .061 -.138 -1.600 .111 EAC -.080 .059 -.094 -1.374 .171 FOBL_F -.094 .084 -.121 -1.122 .263 FOBL_T .034 .060 .051 .559 .577 Age -.001 .007 -.006 -.087 .931 CPEAlngth .001 .015 .004 .051 .959 Table 31 presents the results of the study hypotheses, which indicates that nine of the ten hypotheses were supported. The second research component is addressed in the next section.

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110 Table 31. Summary of hypotheses and results Study Hypotheses Results Hypothesis 1: Differences in employment arrangement categories will explain mean differences in the employees perceptions of their employers obligations in their psychological contract. Supported Hypothesis 2: Differences in the employees perceptions of their employment arrangement characteristics will explain mean differences in the employees perceptions of thei r employers obligations in their psychological contract. Supported Hypothesis 3: Differences in the objective category of the employment arrangement and differen ces in the employees perceptions of their employment arrangement charact eristics will interact to explain mean differences in the employees perceptions of their employers obligations in their psychol ogical contract. Supported Hypothesis 4: Higher perceptions of fulfillment of their employers obligations of the psychological contract will be positively related to higher levels of the IT professionals OCB. Supported Hypothesis 4a: Higher perceptions of fulfillment of their employers obligations of the psychological contract will be positively related to higher levels of the IT professionals OCB dimension helping. Not Supported Hypothesis 4b: Higher perceptions of fulfillment of their employers obligations of the psychological contract will be positively related to higher levels of the IT profe ssionals OCB dimension loyalty. Supported Hypothesis 4c: Higher perceptions of fulfillment of their employers obligations of the psychological contract will be positively related to higher levels of the IT professionals OCB dimension obedience. Supported Hypothesis 4d: Higher perceptions of fulfillment of their employers obligations of the psychological contract will be positively related to higher levels of the IT professionals OCB dimension functional participation. Supported Hypothesis 4e: Higher perceptions of fulfillment of their employers obligations of the psychological contract will be positively related to higher levels of the IT professionals OCB dimension advocacy participation. Supported Hypothesis 5: Higher perceptions of fulfillment of their employers obligations of the psychological contract will be positively related to higher levels of the IT professionals IWB. Supported

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111 Second Research Component Expl oring the Employment Arrangement Characteristics The items developed to frame the nomological network surrounding the characteristics of an employment arrangement were scrutinized th rough content analysis and confirmatory factor analyses, as describe d in previous sections Three factors were found to define the characteristics to an employment arrangement: (1) benefits, (2) stability and continuity in the arrangement, and (3) job control or empowerment within the arrangement. These three factors were us ed to respond to Hypotheses 1a and 1b, as described in the previous section. This sect ion responds to the research question: What are the similarities and differences in the de fining characteristics of the employment arrangements in which IT professionals are found? A separate factor analysis for each em ployment arrangement should have been executed when differing groups are expected in the sample (Hair et al., 1998, pg. 100). However, the sample sizes for permanent part -time (n = 11), independe nt contractor (n = 16), and contract company worker (n = 16) were not sufficiently large to carry out separate factor analyses. Differences in the characteristics of the employment arrangements of IT professionals can be explained through MANOVA, as it can address the three EA characteristics variables simultaneously as dependent variables in the model. The correlations among dependent variables EA Cc_JC, EACc_S, and EACc_B ranged from .032 to .472. To explain the differences in the characteristics of the IT professionals employment arrangements, four groups we re analyzed, Group 1 (permanent full-time with n=215), Group 2 (permanent part-time w ith n=11), Group 3 (independent contractor with n=16), and Group 5 (contract company work er with n=16). Boxs Test of Equality of Covariance Matrices was not significant at = .01 with Boxs M = 33.347 and Sig. = .034. Levenes Test of Equality of Error Va riances for the independent variable, EAC, and the characteristics variables, EACc_J C and EACc_S, was not significant at = .01, but was significant at = .01 for EACc_B variable. EA Cc_Bs F-Statistic = 5.536 and Sig. = .001. With the non-significance of Box s M Test and its reliance for strict

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112 multivariate normality, the assumption of variance-covariance equality was cautiously satisfied. For this exploratory analysis, the al pha level of significance cutoff was = .05. With more than two groups, four omnibus MANOVA test statistics ar e generated, and all were significant at = .05. Roys Greatest Root test statistic was significant for the dependent variables with an F-Statis tic = 65.559, Sig. = .000, indicating that the dependent variables, EACc_JC, EACc_S, a nd EACc_B, vary across the four employment arrangement groups. Univariate tests for the f our EAC groups as the independent variable are presented in Table 32, where the three EA characteristic variable s were significant at = .05. Table 32. Univariate tests for MANOVA EA characteristics Post hoc analyses using the Scheffe te st, which has no sample size or design restrictions, revealed significant difference s between groups for the dependent variables as reflected in Table 33. Table 33. Post hoc analyses for EAC groups and EA characteristics Dependent Variable Groups Mean Difference Std Error Sig. EACc_JC 1 3 -1.188 .344 .001 3 5 1.583 .470 .001 EACc_S 1 3 1.118 .289 .000 1 5 1.103 .289 .000 2 3 .908 .436 .038 2 5 .892 .436 .042 EACc_B 1 2 2.188 .299 .000 1 3 2.062 .251 .000 1 5 1.812 .251 .000 Dependent Variable Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. EACc_B Contrast 144.550 3 48.183 51.519 .000 Error 237.554 254 .935 EACc_S Contrast 34.395 3 11.465 9.246 .000 Error 313.955 254 1.230 EACc_JC Contrast 24.595 3 8.198 4.640 .004 Error 448.757 245 1.767

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113 Plotting the means of the EA character istics variables by EAC groups, shown in Figure 9, provides an indication to the variation of mean responses, even though not all are significantly different. A detailed disc ussion of the findings and implications is offered in the next chapter. Figure 9. Profile of EA characterist ics variable means by EAC groups 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 EACc_JC EACc_S EACc_B 1 2 3 5

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114 CHAPTER SIX DISCUSSION This chapter provides a detailed discussi on of the research findings and their implications to both theory a nd practitioners. This research study investigated the effect the employment arrangement had on the IT pr ofessionals psychological contract and the effects of the fulfillment of their psychological contract on their organizational citizenship behaviors and innova tive work behavior. These findings address the first research component and hypotheses. There are no empirical studies to date that have brought these constructs together in this context to investig ate the IT professional. The second research component was exploratory and investigated the similarities and differences in the defining characteris tics of the IT professionals employment arrangements. These scale analysis findings of the defining characteristics were incorporated in the empirical testi ng in the first research component. Overview of Analysis and Significant Findings This research provides empirical evidence to indicate that IT professionals from different employment arrangements have differe nces within their ps ychological contract, and aspects of their organi zational citizenship and innovative work behaviors are determined by their perceptions regarding th e level of fulfillment of their psychological contract. The exploratory analysis reveals that th e employment arrangement characteristics for IT professionals ar e different depending upon their employment arrangement. The analysis and results are reviewed as follows: Hypotheses 1, 2and 3 are discussed under the subheading psychologica l contract; Hypotheses 4 and 4a-e are discussed under the subheading organizational citizenship behavior; and Hypothesis 5 is discussed under the subheading innovative work behavior. The explor atory analysis of the defining characteristics of the IT pr ofessionals employment arrangements is discussed under the subheading employ ment arrangement characteristics. Prior to the statistical an alyses of the hypotheses, scale analysis confirming reliability, validity, and unidimensionality of th e constructs was in order. Use of adapted

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115 scales from prior research and pilot study re sults enabled informal confirmatory factor analyses to a priori validate multi-dimensional constructs. The instrument contained negatively worded measurement items with positively worded measurement items to minimize response bias (Spector, 1992); however some of the negatively worded items were problematic, causing irregu larities in the reliability a nd factor analyses as Idazak and Drasgow (1987) had cautioned. Three negatively worded items were omitted from the intended variables. The reliabilities of constructs with ad apted measurement items were comparable to prior research, including OCB_obedience, which had a low reliability of = .63 in Coyle-Shapiros (2002) study. The measuremen t items developed for particularism did not load on their own intended factor; theref ore, the particularism dimension of the psychological contract was omitted from the an alysis. More work in the development of the scale is required in orde r to better understand this di mension of the psychological contract. Additional studies are needed to further validate the focus scale, as well as the four scales, stability, scope, tangibility and time frame, which were adapted from, and developed by, Sels et al. (2004). The respondents perceptions regarding their psychological contract and the fulfillment of their psychological contract were obtained from the same measurement items. In order to accomplis h this, the respondents perc eptions were measured two times, once to measure the extent of their cl ient organizations obligations, and again to measure the extent of fulfillment of thei r client organizations obligations. The correlations between the the ex tent of their client organiza tions obligations, and the extent of fulfillment of their client organizations obligations for the five dimensions ranged from .305 to .510. During the scale analysis, c onstruct and discriminant validity was assessed and found to be satisfactory. An evaluation of c onvergent validity was possible for two study variables, OCB_advocacy participation and innovative work behavior. The measurement items in each relate to sharing ideas, making improvements, suggestions, etc., and the two study variables were found to be highly correlated at = .703.

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116 In the research model, there is a direc tional arrow indicating that perceptions of their psychological contract wi ll lead to perceptio ns of level of fulfillment of their psychological contract. This is a known phe nomenon in psychological contract research often termed degree of fulfillment, change, breach, or violation, and is often investigated using the evaluation approach (Robinson et al., 1994; Robinson & Morrison, 1995; Robinson & Rousseau, 1994). The breach or diffe rence between the level of fulfillment of the psychological contract and the psychol ogical contract is not addressed in this study. Future research could examine in more detail the differences between level of fulfillment of the psychological contract and the psychological contract. Prior research has reported gender differences with aspects of OCB (Organ & Ryan, 1995), recommending gender be controlle d. Gender did not meet requirements as a covariate, and was neverthe less entered into the models to investigate possible relationships. No gender differences we re found investigating the employees expectations of their employers obligations from the employment arrangement category or from their perceptions of the characteri stics of their employment arrangement. Gender was a significant contributor in the regressi on analyses when explaining innovative work behavior at Sig. = .004 and O CB_obedience at Sig. = .001. Psychological Contract The psychological contract is important to research and industry because of the evolving employment relationships in todays IT labor market, especially as IT sourcing issues focus on outsourcing, contracting, and ot her alternative employ ment arrangements to improve productivity and cost savings. In response to the first research question and Hypothesis 1, the IT professionals psychol ogical contract was impacted by their employment arrangement. The IT profe ssionals age and tenure in the current employment arrangement also affected th eir psychological cont ract. Gender had no significant effect on the IT professionals psychological contract. Even though research findings have been mixed, as expected, perman ent full-time IT professionals consistently had higher perceptions of their employers oblig ations to them than did IT professionals from the other employment arrangement categor ies. Three dimensions were significantly higher for permanent full-time IT professiona ls: time frame, tangibility, and focus.

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117 The time-frame dimension of the psychologica l contract refers to the extent of understanding of the perceived duration and precision of the employment arrangement. This research found that permanent full-time IT professionals had higher perceptions of their employers obligations with respect to the expected duration and precision of the employment arrangement than others, specifi cally independent cont ractors and contract company workers. Permanent full-time IT pr ofessionals believed their employers were more obligated to the durability of the empl oyment relationship, in that the employment relationship would last longer than indepe ndent contractors and contract company workers believed. Permanent full-time believed that their employer was more obligated to make the employment relationship work than independent contra ctors and contract company workers believed. The tangibility dimension refers to the explicitness of the ps ychological contract with respect to the employees understandi ng of the defining b oundaries, terms, and expectations, as it refers to the clarity of advancement opportunities, performance appraisal criteria, and rights within the firm This research found that permanent full-time IT professionals had higher perceptions of their employers obligations with respect to the boundaries and terms of their employment th an independent contractors and contract company IT professionals. Permanent fulltime believed their employers were more obligated as to being clear about the term s and expectations of their employment relationship than independent contractors a nd contract company workers believed. These would be more important characteristics of the permanent full-time, when the work and employment environment were the same; and not necessarily of the independent contractor and contract comp any worker, when the work environment and employer are not the same. Higher levels of the focus dimension of the psychological contract represented a more socio-emotional emphasis rather than an economic emphasis. When measurement items were rated high on the 1-6 Likert scal e, they hypothetically defined a more socioemotional focus to the psychol ogical contract. In this st udy permanent full-time believed their employers were more obligated to provide higher levels of development opportunities and a trusting and respectful employment relationship than contract

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118 company workers believed. Contract compa ny workers may not necessarily expect a trusting and respectful relations hip in their work environmen t, since it is with another organization, not their employer. Also, this research did not s upport the proposition by McLean Parks and her colleagues (1998) that an independent contract ors focus would be different from permanent full-time IT profession als, in that it woul d be high in economic and low in socio-emotional. The independent contractors focus variable mean was not sufficiently different from the permanent full-time or part-time IT professionals. Hypothesis 2 addressed the potential differe nces in the psychological contract by viewing them through the IT professionals pe rceptions of the char acteristics of their employment arrangement, EACc_ job control, EACc_benefits, and EACc_stability. This research found that the IT professionals psychological contract did vary according to their perceptions of the char acteristics of their employm ent arrangement. Testing the interaction of the three variables was not po ssible; consequently, only the main effects were analyzed in the model. The three char acteristics dimensions, EACc_ job control, EACc_benefits, and EACc_stability, were signifi cant contributors to the differences in the IT professionals psychol ogical contract. The stability characteristics of the employment arrangement most influenced the scope dimension of the psychological contract. The IT professional s perceptions of how stable their employment arrangement affected the differences as to their u nderstanding of the boundary between their employment relations and their personal life (s cope). In other words, their perceptions of how stable their employment arrangement made a difference in the perceptions of their employers obligations as to their appreciation of their work, consideration of their personal effort, and their treatment of them. The benefits characteristics of the empl oyment arrangement most influenced the tangibility, scope, and time frame dimensions of the psychological contract. The IT professionals perceptions of the benefits afforded in their employment arrangement affected by the differences as to their unde rstanding of the defi ning boundaries, terms, and expectations (tangibility); their u nderstanding of the boundary between their employment relations and their personal li fe (scope); and thei r understanding of the perceived duration and precision of the em ployment arrangement (time frame). Their

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119 perceptions of the amount of benefits provided within th eir employment arrangement made a difference in the percep tions of their employers obliga tions as to the clarity of advancement opportunities, performance appraisa l criteria, and rights within the firm, the tangibility of their psychological contract. Th eir perceptions of the amount of benefits provided within their employment arrangement made a difference in the perceptions of their employers obligations as to their appreciation of their work, consideration of their personal effort, and their treatment of them the scope of their psychological contract. Their perceptions of the am ount of benefits provided within their employment arrangement made a difference in the perceptions of their employers obl igations as to the durability of the employment relationship, the time frame of the psychological contract. The greater the benefits provided in the em ployment relationship, the IT professional believed that their employer was more obligat ed to make the employment relationship work. Hypothesis 3 addressed the potential differe nces in the psychological contract through the interaction between the IT professionals percep tions of their employment arrangement characteristics and their empl oyment arrangement category. Neither full factorial design nor complete two-way inte raction was possible; however, interaction between each employment arrangement ch aracteristics variable and employment arrangement category variable was possibl e. This research found that the IT professionals psychological c ontract did vary according to their percep tions of the characteristics of their employment arrangement along with their employment arrangement category. Accordingly, it was the interaction between the employment arrangement and the varied perceptions of employment arrangement characteristics defining benefits, job control, and stability th at affected the significant differences in the IT professionals psychological contract. Specifically, the interaction between the pe rceptions of their jo b control and their employment arrangement category affected the tangibility and focus dimensions of their psychological contract. The amount of job c ontrol the ITP had in their particular employment arrangement affected their percep tions of their employers obligations as to the clarity of advancement opportunities, perfor mance appraisal criteri a, and rights within

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120 the firm, tangibility of their psychological contract. The am ount of job control the ITP had in their particular empl oyment arrangement affected their perceptions of their employers obligations in providing deve lopment opportunities and a trusting and respectful employment relationship. For this study the focus dimension of the psychological contract was a continuum representing a more socio-emotional or an economic emphasis in the employment relationship. Organizational Citizenship Behavior Organizational citizenship be haviors are important to IT human resource research because these behaviors fall outside the tr aditional productivity and task performance measures, yet these behaviors are subtly e xpected by supervisors of IT professionals (Ang & Slaughter, 2001). Organ (1988) theori zed that it is the collective of the organizational citizenship behaviors that wi ll improve the functioning of an organization, and thus the reasoning for Hypothesis 4. Hypot hesis 4 addressed levels of the five organizational citizenship behaviors from the perceptions of fulfillment of their employers obligations of the IT professiona ls psychological contra ct. This research found that the level of fulf illment of the IT professionals psychological contract impacted their organizational citizenship beha viors as a collective. Age, gender, tenure, and the employment arrangement category were not significant contributors to differences in their OCB; and volition did not moderate the relationship. Of the five OCB dimensions (loyalty, obe dience, advocacy participation, helping, and functional participation), advocacy part icipation and obedience were found to have significant differences. The scope dimension of fulfillment of the psychological contract impacted the differences found in OCB_advocacy participation. If the IT professionals employer had failed to maintain the unde rstanding of the boundary between their employment relations and the IT professional s personal life (scope), this affected their level of advocacy participation, which refers to their willingness to make suggestions, share ideas, etc. the stability dimension of fulfillment of the psychological contract impacted the differences found in OCB_obedience. The more constant and stable the employer made the employment arrangement the more the individual complied with work rules, and did not negl ect their job responsibilities. Thus, if the IT professionals

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121 employer had failed to stick to agreements (stability), this affected their level of obedience, which may have resulted in a re duction in the qualit y of work normally performed. Following prior research, investigation in to each dimension of organizational citizenship behavior to determine its consequence from the levels of fulfillment of their employers obligations of the IT professi onals psychological contract was conducted using regression analyses for Hypotheses 4a -e. As the concept of the psychological contract is a multi-dimensional construct, the five dimensions representing the level of fulfillment of their psychological contract were entered into the regression models. The variable representing the employment arrang ement category was entered into the model to determine whether the employment arrange ment affects any of the IT professionals organizational citizenship behaviors. The variab les, age, gender, tenure, and volition were also entered into the model to monitor th eir effects. The organizational citizenship behaviors, loyalty, advocacy participation, obedience, and functional participation, had significant relationships with the predictor variables in the model. OCB_loyalty had the highest Adjusted R2 value. The model using the fulfillment of the psychological contract dimensions, pl us EAC, age, gender, tenure, and volition explained 47% of the sample variation in OCB_loyalty. The regression equation for OCB_loyalty below indicates the relationship of the significant terms at = .05, where both standardized Beta () coefficients are positive. OCB__loyalty = .255 + .415 FOBL _scope + .269 FOBL_focus As for OCB_advocacy participation, the model using the fulfillment of the psychological contract dimensions, plus EAC, age, gender, tenure, and volition explained 10% of the sample variation. The regressi on equation for OCB_advocacy participation below indicates the relationship of the significant terms at = .05, where both standardized Beta () coefficients are positive. OCB__advocacy participation = 2.922 + .231 FOBL_tangibility + .265 FOBL_scope Only 4% of the sample variation of OCB_obedience was explained using the model of the fulfillment of the psychological contract dimensions, plus EAC, age, gender,

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122 tenure, and volition. The regression equati on for OCB_obedience below indicates the relationship of the sole significant term at = .05. OCB_obedience = 5.113 .222 gender Only 4.3% of the sample variation of O CB_functional participation was explained using the model of the fulfillment of the psychological contract dimensions, plus EAC, age, gender, tenure, and volition. The regression equation for OCB_functional participation below indicates the rela tionship of the significant terms at = .05. OCB_functional participation = 4.193 + .285 FOBL_scope -.168 EAC OCB_helping was not significant, in that there was no significant relationship between the IT professionals perceptions of fulfillment of their employers obligations and OCB_helping. The primary predictors of dimensions of OCB were the levels of fulfillment of the psychological contract as it relates to scope, focus, and tangibility. Scope was the most relevant of predictor variab les and relates to the boundari es established between the individuals employment rela tionship and other portions of their life. The greater the employers support, appreciation, and recogni tion of them as perceived by the IT professional, the greater the IT professional exhibited loyalt y, advocacy participation, and functional participation. As s hown in prior research and s upported in this study, females tend to be more obedient than males. Loyalty relates to how well the IT profe ssional favorably represents, defends and supports the organization. In this study, th e more the IT professional felt that the employer had fulfilled their obligations as to their appreciation of the IT professionals work, taking their personal effort into c onsideration, and their treatment of them, the more loyal the IT professional was to the or ganization. The IT prof essionals level of loyalty was also related to hi gher levels of fulfillment of a socio-emotional focus of the psychological contract, instead of an economic focus. Thus, the more the IT professional felt that the employer had fulfilled their obligations in providing development opportunities and a trusting and respectful em ployment relationship; the more loyal the IT professional was to the organization.

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123 Advocacy participation relate s to the IT professionals willingness to make suggestions, share ideas, etc.; whereas, functi onal participation repr esents the amount of effort they apply to the job, and the willi ngness to exceed or go beyond expectations. In this study, with regard to advocacy participati on, the more the IT professional felt that the employer had fulfilled their obligations as to their appreciation of the IT professionals work, taking their personal effort into c onsideration, and their treatment of them, the more the IT professional spoke out making creative and innovative suggestions, sharing ideas, and encouraging others to speak up, thus supporting the organization. As to functional participation, the more the IT prof essional felt that the employer had fulfilled their obligations as to their appreciation of the IT professionals work, taking their personal effort into considera tion, and their treatment of th em, the more the ITP worked beyond expectations and fo rmal job requirements. There is room for improvement in the Adjusted R2 values from these regression models using the fulfillment of the psychological contract dimensions, EAC, age, gender, tenure, and volition. The low Adjusted R2 valu es indicate that ther e are other relevant factors that may help to bette r explain the OCB dimensions. The IT professionals job satisfaction was measured not only to provide an indication of their job satisfac tion, but also to evaluate for potential negative correlation with self-reported OCB as recommended by Organ and Ryan (1995). Their concern for respondents inflating the OCB dimensions when not satisfied with their job did not play out, as the inter-correlations between j ob satisfaction and each of the five OCB dimensions and IWB did not have an inve rse relationship. The job satisfaction intercorrelations ranged from a low of .129 with OCB_helping to the high of .481 with OCB_loyalty. Innovative Work Behavior Innovative work behavior is especially re levant to IT human resource research through its direct consequence to the poten tial work group innovations, as well as individual creativity required of IT professionals Hypothesis 5 represents the investigation into innovative wo rk behavior to determine its effect from the levels of fulfillment of their employers obligations of the IT professionals psychological

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124 contract. Following the hypothe ses testing of organizational citizenship behaviors, the variables, EAC, age, gender, tenure, and voli tion were entered into the model. The model using the fulfillment of the psychological cont ract dimensions, plus EAC, age, gender, tenure, and volition explained 14% of the samp le variation in innova tive work behavior. The regression equation for IWB indi cates four significant terms at = .05. IWB = 3.086 + .327 FOBL_Scope + .174 Gende r + .182 Volition + .192 FOBL_Stability Scope and stability were relevant predic tor variables of th e IT professionals innovative work behavior; however, the IT professionals gender and volition also affected their innovative work behavior. Th e male IT professionals indicated higher levels of innovative work behavior. The IT pr ofessionals in this study indicated greater levels of innovative work when they perceived their employers obligations toward support, appreciation, recognition, as well as stability, had been fulfilled. Those IT professionals who were not in the employme nt arrangement of their choosing indicated higher levels of innovative work behaviors than those who did not want to change employment arrangements. Here, too, there is room for improvement in the Adjusted R2 value; hence, it seems appropriate that there are other rele vant factors, such as job demands and perceptions of fairness that might help to better explain th e innovative work behavior of the IT professional (Janssen, 2000). The second research question focused on the effect that the employment arrangement had on the level of fulfillment of the IT professionals psychological contract and their organizational citizenship behavior and innovativ e work behavior and was answered through hypotheses 4, 4a-e, and 5. The IT professionals employment arrangement had no effect on the relationships with any of the organizational behaviors, except for functional particip ation. Functional participati on behaviors have a personal focus, but still contribute to overall organi zational effectiveness. This study found permanent full-time IT professionals indi cating the highest le vel of functional participation, with independent contractors, permanent part-time, and contract company workers following in that order.

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125 Employment Arrangement Characteristics The exploratory analysis with the em ployment arrangement characteristics provided unexpected findings in that IT professionals expressed differences in the characteristics of their re spective employment arrangement. The IT professionals indicated the extent that thei r client organization had provide d 21 particular statements as each related to their arrangeme nt (e.g., overall job security) Exploratory analysis into the characteristics provides insight into what distinguishes the actual employment arrangement for IT professionals of differi ng categories. The post hoc results from the MANOVA revealed interesting and signi ficant differences in the employment arrangement characteristics among the EAC groups. Those who were permanent full-time and permanent part-time expressed a greater degree of stability in their employment arrangements than did independent contract ors and company contract IT professionals. Independent contractors indi cated that they had greater job control within their employment arrangement than did permanen t full-time and company contract workers. There were no significant di fferences between independent contractors and permanent part-time workers. Permanent full-time expr essed being provided a greater degree of benefits in their employment arrangement than did the other three employment arrangement groups of IT professionals (perma nent part-time, independent contractors, and contract company workers). These findings make sense; however, the strength here is that what made anecdotal sense was in fact confirmed by IT professionals from four varied employment arrangements. Implications In the words of Argyris (1960, pg. 30), the most practical and useful knowledge has come from research whose primary aim has been the addition of knowledge. The purpose of this research was to deepen the organizational understanding of IT professionals by investig ating variables not examined in prior studies. This section discusses the implications of the fi ndings, both theoretical and practical.

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126 Theoretical Implications This study endeavored to view the IT prof essional from a contextual perspective as recommended by Ang and Slaughter (2000 ). Applying psychologi cal contract and social information processing frameworks, resu lts of this study support the relevance of the employment arrangement influencing the IT professionals attitudes, with respect to the IT professionals psychologi cal contract, and having some effect on their subsequent organizational behaviors. Using a framewor k, such as Salancik and Pfeffers (1978) Social Information Processing Theory, whic h considers the social context of the individual, permitted inclusion of salient in formation about the employment arrangement. The psychological contract framework al lowed consideration of the perceived employment relationship with regard to oblig ations and fulfillment of those obligations on the part of the client organization. This study validates the significance of the dimensional approach when investigating the psychologi cal contract of employees in varied employment arrangements as conceptualized by McLean Pa rks et al. (1998). Noted differences in the dimensions of the psychological contra ct were seen through the employment arrangements of the IT professionals, as well as the three dimensions of their employment arrangement characteristics. The permanent full-time IT professionals perceptions of their employers obligations were the highe st of IT professionals from any other category. Differences were seen in IT profe ssionals organizational citizenship behaviors and innovative work behavior when the dimensi onal approach was applied to the level of fulfillment of their psychological contract. Note d differences were such that as the use of varied employment arrangements continues in the IT labor market with organizational and technological innovation tre nds, researchers and organizati ons interested in IT human resource management issues should consider the employment arrangements being used in the context of the work environment. Gender had an affect on the innovative work behavior of IT professionals; however, the results were not as one might have assumed considering prior gender research. Prior research found females e xhibited higher levels of organizational citizenship than males when investigating altruism and courtesy behaviors (Organ &

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127 Ryan, 1995). Yet, with innovative work be havior, it was the males who expressed performing higher levels of innovative work behavior than females. Van Dyne and Ang (1998) proposed th at an individuals organizational citizenship behaviors could be regarded as a gauge of the employees responses to their relationship with their employer. This study fo und that the level of fulfillment of the IT professionals psychological contract was pos itively related to organizational citizenship behaviors (loyalty, obedience, functional par ticipation, and advocacy participation) and innovative work behavior. There was no signi ficant relationship, however, between the level of fulfillment of the IT professionals psychological contract, and the organizational citizenship behavior of helping. Prior studies have shown that it may be difficult to obtain adequate sampling numbers from diverse employment arrangemen ts and this was confirmed by this studys sampling. Previous research has typically focused on the permanent full-time employee or the dyadic relationship of two employment arrangement categories. This study expanded the employment arrangement ca tegories to four: permanent full-time, permanent part-time, independent contractor and contract company worker. The group sample sizes for permanent part-time, inde pendent contractor, a nd contract company worker were small (n = 11, n = 16, and n = 16); however, the groups were sufficiently different that combining any two categories to increase sample sizes was not possible. The diversity of the four groups brings forward the importance of including the employment arrangement category when inve stigating attitudes and behaviors of IT professionals who are not in the same employment arrangement. Characteristics of employment arrangements were identified from the literature and the exploratory analysis revealed three definitive dimensions regarding job control, stability, and benefits. Results of this study reveal that IT professi onals from differing employment arrangements perceived these th ree dimensions differently. One dimension related to job control is a common attribute of an independent contractor in the IT industry (e.g., Independent contra ctors have more control to se lect the projects they want to work on (Spiegel, 2005)). In this st udy, independent contractors perceived greater control in their job than permanent fu ll-time and contract company workers.

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128 Practical Implications The externalization of the employment arrangements to source IT professional jobs, beyond the permanent full-time employee, has most likely altered how human resource and management issues are ex ecuted. The variability of employment arrangements for IT professiona ls or their working conditions is not likely to stabilize with continued offshore outsourcing, downsiz ing, or shifting of healthcare costs (Koprowski, 2005). Organizations know the incentives to co st saving and improvements in systems-development productivity and IT core competency in applications management when using alternative employ ment arrangements (Ang & Slaughter, 2001; Ang & Straub, 1998). Yet, Shore and Tetrick ( 1994) contend that if organizations dont understand the employees psychological contr act under which they are operating, some strategic business decisions to affect the cost savings and improvements may result in violations to the employees ps ychological contract. Understa nding the diversity of the IT professionals psychological contract and its origins according to their employment arrangement is also key when organizations are trying to reassess their human resource strategies (Rousseau, 2000). For these reas ons, it is important for organizations to recognize the subtle differences found in the psychological cont racts of those IT professionals in different categories, as de monstrated in this study. Organizations might want to clarify aspects of the employment re lationship for those IT professionals in nonpermanent full-time positions. Clear comm unication from management would be essential to the IT professiona l so that perceptions of ob ligations are not unnecessarily unfulfilled. This investigation into innovative work behaviors at the i ndividual level with respect to the fulfillment of the psychological contract provides evidence that will carry forward to the moderating effects of group in teractions. Utilizing mixed teams of IT professionals (or IT professionals from vary ing employment arrangements who are on the same development team) is a valid and accepted organizational strategy; therefore, recognizing the differing percep tions of IT professionals from different employment arrangements is a necessary and worthwhile managerial objective.

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129 Innovation is an important aspect in an IT professionals job, as evidenced by one IT professional who was quoted saying, but its all abou t solving problems of the businessand theres always something ne w to learn (Murphy, 2005). Organizations may have difficulty objectively monitoring cr eativity and innovation within the job performance purview, even though an IT prof essionals job may have an implicit degree of creative and innovative requirement to it. In turn, West and Farr (1990a) define innovative work behavior as an intentional act, which can be withheld as easily as it can be performed. It appears that if managers e xpress appreciation of the IT professionals work, consider their personal effort in th e performance of their jobs, improve their treatment of them, and stick to agreements, the IT professional will be motivated to perform greater levels of innovative work behavior. Thus, understanding motivating factors that will facilit ate one to be innovative enables orga nizations to be proactive in the management of their IT professionals. This study substantiates that aspects of the psychological contract, such as controlling the amount of work that spills into their personal life and providing a stable environment, can, when fulfilled, positively influence the innovative work behavior of the IT professional. Another important finding is that IT professionals who are not in the employment arrangement of their choosing may, in fact, perform higher levels of innovative work in an effort to perhaps secu re a job in the their preferred employment arrangement. One purpose of this research was to gain additional knowledge into the psychological contract of IT professionals from varied employment arrangements, which should improve organizational understanding of how to manage todays IT professional. The results in this study provide managers w ith some insight into why things occur as they do (Argyris, 1960, pg. 166), as it relate s to IT professionals. As long as organizations retain workers in varying empl oyment arrangements in order to shrink and expand their work force without the cost a nd liability risk of laying off employees (Pfeffer & Baron, 1988), human resource managers will have to recognize the effects that different employment arrangements have on the IT professionals attitudes and behaviors.

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130 The contributions of this research are presented in Chapter Seven, as are the limitations of the study and recomme ndations for future research.

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131 CHAPTER SEVEN CONCLUSIONS Contributions As organizations continue to capitalize on th eir ability to use a ny configuration of employing IT professionals in their efforts to increase operational effectiveness or performance of IT development and innovations, they naturally depend on IT professionals to willingly accept these employme nt arrangements. With in the realm of the first research component, this study found certa in dimensions of the IT professionals psychological contract that have a direct impact on their resulting performance. Prior research has not considered th e full diversity of the employ ment arrangements used in IT industry today. This study extended research by sampling IT professionals from four different employment arrangement categories: permanent full-time, permanent part-time, independent contractor, and contract compa ny workers. This study revealed significant relationships relating to th e IT professionals employment arrangement, psychological contract, fulfillment of the psychological contract, and organizational behaviors. Within the IT context, innovative work behavior has not received the same empirical examination that organizational ci tizenship behavior has received. However, within the IT industry, innovativ e work is just as relevant if not more so. Innovative work behavior includes a willingness to be cr eative, search out new techniques and/or product ideas, and generate original solu tions. Innovative work behavior can be an important element to an IT professionals job performance, even as defined within its domain for this study. Acknowledging Amabiles (1983) concern that social and environmental factors may affective ones cr eativity, this study found that the innovative work behavior of IT professionals was affected by the level of fulfillment of their psychological contract, as well as their ge nder and the volition of their employment arrangement. IT professionals have the option to limit innovativ e work since these behaviors are extra-role acts typically not in their job de scription or required by the organization (Janssen, 2000). This studys finding s were comparable to Janssens (2000)

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132 findings, where the level that the workers re sponded innovatively was related to their perceptions of fairness on the job. For Jansse n (2000), the perceptions related to fairness on the job, and for this study, the perceptio ns related to how well the employer had fulfilled their obligations to the IT professional. This studys findings suggest that perceptions as to the level of fulfillment of the employers obligations regulate the IT professionals willingness to res pond innovatively in their job. In 1998, McLean Parks and colleagues recommended the dimensional approach to the psychological contract should be used for studying employees in alternative arrangements. To date, only one study had empi rically tested the dimensional approach as it relates to the psychological contract (Sels et al., 2004). Us ing the dimensional approach in this study, the results conf irm the soundness of using dimensions in lieu of the content approach as a method for comparing perm anent full-time category employees with employees in other alternative categories. IT professionals in different employment arrangements had definitive differences in their psychological cont ract. The dimensional approach tells a more comprehensive story of their understanding of their employers obligations to them. As well, the dimensional approach offers specific information in the fulfillment of the psychological contract as to what influences their subsequent behaviors, both organizational citize nship and innovative work. The second research component, with the attempt at theory building through an exploratory analysis, succeeded in identifying th ree basic factors to th e characteristics of the IT professionals employment arrangement Prior literature provided the framework to build realistic dimensions that with stood the factor analyses and multivariate techniques executed in the main study. This st udy found that the thr ee factors labeled job control, benefits, and stability differe d markedly depending upon the employment arrangement of IT professional and impacted th e IT professionals perceptions of their employers obligations to them. Limitations of the Study Limitations are inherent in field research and alt hough care was taken during the design of the research, five re search limitations are identifie d and discussed: (1) use of

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133 cross-sectional data, (2) convenience sample (3) self-report bias and common source method bias, (4) sample sizes for EAC groups, and (5) non-response bias. This study used cross-sectional data asking the responde nts to evaluate perceptions at they relate to their client organization. IT pr ofessionals can be affiliated with more than one employment or work arrangement and always evolving, and McLean Parks et al. (1998) cautioned that workers could have multiple psychological contracts, which may be continually changing. Conseque ntly, care was taken in the design of the instrument and during pilot testing procedures to ensure the instructi ons were clear as to the specific perceptions of interest. Even so, there is no definitive line separating perceptions, and thus no guarant ee that the perceptions obtaine d were those of the client organization. Also, with cross-sectional data, directions of causality cannot be confirmed, even though any directions of indi vidual relationships in the model were supported by prior research. The participants in this study were from convenience samples and sourced by working professionals who were University of South Florida maste r-level students from evening MIS classes and University of S outh Florida MIS graduate alumni located throughout the United States. All respondents voluntarily completed the survey, and accordingly pose a threat to validity through self-selection. Making inferences to the IT professional population is not recommended when a convenience sample is used. With this said, however, there were many similari ties between the study sample demographics and the IT professional demographics from ITAA studies (2004; 2005) and, therefore, it is feasible that generalities can be ma de with this research with caution. Another common limitation of survey research is hi gh correlations confounded by common source and common meth od bias due to self-report of dispositional and attitudinal variables. The design of this study did not make the evaluation by peers or supervisors of the IT professionals organi zational behaviors achievable; consequently, this study had a potential for self-report bias. Ev en so, there is research in support of selfreports. Spenner (1990) supports self-reporting as a valid and reliable method, because respondents tend not to misrepresent their re porting of job charac teristics and they accurately state their job circumstances. Orga n and Ryan (1995) state that self-ratings of

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134 OCB is appropriate due to its fundamental subjectivity. Organ ( 1988) also warns that employees who are not satisfied with their j ob may inflate their OCB responses to justify their self-worth (pg. 34); therefore, a j ob satisfaction measure was obtained from the individual and evaluated with the organi zational behavior measures. No inverse relationships were found (e.g., OCB dimensions and IWB were not negatively correlated with job satisfaction) and many other variables in the st udy were not correlated with job satisfaction as reported in Appendix 6. The de scriptive statistics in Appendix 5 do not offer evidence of artificial inflation of the study variables on the part of the respondents. Hair et al. (1998, pg. 100) c ontends that separate f actor analyses should be executed when differing groups are expected in the sample. The sample sizes obtained for the employment arrangement categories other than permanent full-time were not sufficiently large to carry out separate factor analyses. T-test comp arisons were made of the individual variables to determine wh ether the samples of the other employment arrangement categories could be combined; however, there were sufficient differences that made any combining of samples unjustif iable. Also, proper execution of MANOVA has recommended minimum sample sizes in each cell with resp ect to number of dependent variables (Hair et al., 1998). The disproportionate group sizes among the employment arrangement categories made group comparisons more difficult. Uneven sample variance results were used in lieu of even sample variance results, because of the disproportionate group sizes. Harmonic mean of the group sizes was also used, which may have affected the power of the test, as well as the results (Baroudi & Orlikowski, 1989). Steps were taken to obtain a satisfact ory response rate and control for nonresponse bias. The letter inviting the IT profe ssional to participate asked them to fill out Section I of the survey, even if they were not willing or could not complete the survey. Section I contained standard demographic data that were used to evaluate respondents with non-respondents, asse ssing potential differences between the two groups. Comparisons found no discernable differences between those who responded and those who filled out only Section I of the survey. In addition, the on-line survey had JavaScript encoded to check for missing fields in the survey. The respondents could not submit the

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135 survey without certain fields completed; c onsequently, surveys received were complete. This, however, may have frustrated some re spondents who may have wanted to submit a partially completed survey, and, when this wa s not possible, they abandoned their survey. A postcard was sent as the follo w-up mailing, in lieu of another le tter, as there is research in support of varying the method of invitati on to participate. Nevertheless, the overall response rate for the study was 5.2%. Recommendations for Future Research This research study did not answer all of the questi ons surrounding the employment arrangements of IT professiona ls, their psychological contract, and the effects on their organizational behaviors. Presen ted here are ideas for future research that extend the current research model and perh aps offer other explanations to the IT professionals psychological c ontract and the effects on thei r organizational behaviors. Rousseau (1995) contends that the psychol ogical contract is a cognitive creation by the individual; consequently, the full potential of the contract could be limited by an individuals cognitions. Resear chers have found individuals r eact differently to similar work situations (Hackman & Oldham, 1980) th rough not only their individual cognitions, but also their personalities. Th erefore, it is conceivable to investigate such influences (e.g., personality characteristic s) on the psychological c ontract and organizational citizenship behavior. An individuals perc eived self-efficacy includes consideration of not only their thinking about their ability to accomplish selected job tasks, but also their skills and capabilities to perform the job task (Bandur a, 1986). Bandura (1982) suggests that self-efficacy can influence ones choi ce of surroundings and activities, including level of effort; therefore, ones perceptions of self-efficacy can affect decisions in the work environment, in that an individual may choose a more challenging job, or not. Consequently, an individuals level of se lf-efficacy might affect their behaviors as perceived through to their employment ar rangement and their attitudes and job. Therefore, the moderating effect of self-efficacy in the fulfillment of the IT professionals psychological contract and the subsequent orga nizational behaviors coul d be investigated. Coyle-Shapiro (2002) found permanent empl oyees with high trust exhibit high organizational citizenship behaviors, namely advocacy and functional participation. Ang

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136 and Slaughters (2001) study of permanent and c ontractor software de velopers found that supervisors trust contractors less than permanent software developers. A study by Robinson and Morrison (1995) of permanent employees found that trust mediates the relational aspects of their psyc hological contract and organi zational citizenship behavior, namely civic virtue. Therefore, the level of trust in the clients organization could be investigated as to the effects in the fulf illment of the IT professionals psychological contract and the subsequent organizationa l behaviors, while considering the IT professionals employment arrangement. Van Dyne and Ang (1998) investigated regular and contingent employees of banks and hospitals. They found that in exam ining the relationship between affective commitment and psychological contracts wi th organizational citizenship behavior, helping behavior was stronger for contingent workers than for regular workers. This research study found the level of fulfillmen t of the IT professionals psychological contract was not related to th eir helping behavior. Martinez s (2004) study of permanent full-time IT professionals found that violations to aspects of their psychological contract were related to lower levels of their a ffective commitment. Consequently, the IT professionals level of affective commitment c ould be investigated as to its moderating effect between the fulfillment of their psyc hological contracts and their organizational behaviors, while considering the IT professionals employment arrangement. This research study investigated the per ceptions of the IT pr ofessional in their current employment arrangement. It is po ssible that their previous employment arrangement, if different than the present, coul d have interfered with the IT professionals perceptions of their current employment arra ngement. Therefore, future research should consider a longitudinal study to investigate ch anges in perceptions, as well as investigate directions of causality in the model. Research into the breach of the psychologi cal contract has not been investigated using the dimensional approach. Therefore, further investigation into the differences between the fulfillment of the psychological contract and the psychological contract using the psychological contract dimensions is warranted and recommended if the focus becomes the breach, which this study did not address.

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137 The construct, OCB, has received atte ntion referring to the need of better identifying its dimensions (Van Dyne et al., 1994), because of the blurring of the separation between in-role perf ormance and OCB. Most OCB studies have been subject to non-managerial or non-professional responde nts. IT professionals do not likely fall into these categories, and, hence, with th eir job descriptions, in -role performance and OCB may be harder to disti nguish. Organizational behavior s, OCB and IWB, were the focus in this study. Future research might c onsider investigating whether organizational behaviors within the OCB and IWB domain are considered in-role or extra-role behaviors by IT professionals. Rousseaus (1989) psychological contract and Salancik and Pfeffers (1978) social information processing frameworks s upported including social influences of the employer and employee relationship of the IT professional, originating from varied employment arrangements, on their attitudes and behaviors. Other theories, such as Hackman and Oldhams (1980) j ob design characteristics, Ol ivers (1980) expectancy disconfirmation, Blaus (1964) social ex change, and Gouldners (1960) norm of reciprocity, are viable considerations for future research in this area. Concluding Comments This study, as does all research, has its li mitations; however, there are significant contributions to IT human resource resear ch. This study expands our understanding of how IT professionals in varying employm ent arrangements perceive their work environment. Specifically, IT professionals from different employment arrangements see their work environment differently, which a ffects their attitudes and behaviors in the work place. No other study has examined the variety of employment arrangements in the IT profession, in spite of th e fact that alternative employ ment arrangements have been used to source IT professionals since the inception of information systems projects. Obtaining the perceptions of th e IT professionals within the context of their particular work environment is an important contri bution in our pursuit to understanding how environmental characteristics, such as the employment arrangement, affect IT professionals attitudes and subsequent beha viors. As for the IT professional, their

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138 perceptions are very rele vant to the situation, as Karl Weic k so aptly stated, believing is seeing (2001, pg. 195)

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145 Morrison, E. W. (1994). Role Definitions and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Importance of the Employee's Perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 37 (6), 1543-1567. Morrow, P. C., McElroy, J. C., & Elliott, S. M. (1994). The Effect of Preference for Work Status, Schedule, and Shif t on Work-Related Attitudes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 45 202-222. Motowidlo, S. J., & Van Scotter, J. R. ( 1994). Evidence That Task Performance Should Be Distinguished from Contextual Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79 (4), 475-480. Murphy, C. (2005). Speak up for the IT Career Retrieved November 3, 2005, from http://www.informationweek.com/story /showArticle.jhtm l?articleID=171202135 Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric Theory (Third ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc. Oldham, G. R., & Cummings, A. (1996). Employee Creativity: Personal and Contextual Factors at Work. Academy of Management Journal, 39 (3), 607-634. Oldham, G. R., Kulik, C. T., Ambrose, M. L., Stepina, L. P., & Brand, J. F. (1986). Relations between Job Facet Comparisons and Employee Reactions. Organizational Behavior and Huma n Decision Processes, 38 28-47. Oliver, R. L. (1980). A Cognitive Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction Decisions. Journal of Marketing Research, 17 (November), 460-469. Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational Citizenship Be havior: The Good Soldier Syndrome Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Organ, D. W. (1997). Organizational Citizensh ip Behavior: It's Construct Clean-up Time. Human Performance, 10 (2), 85-97. Organ, D. W., & Konovsky, M. A. (1989). Cogn itive Versus Affective Determinants of Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74 (1), 157164. Organ, D. W., & Ryan, K. (1995). A Meta-Analytic Review of Attitudinal and Dispositional Predictors of Orga nizational Citizenship Behavior. Personnel Psychology, 48 (4), 775-802. Pearce, J. L. (1993). Toward an Organizationa l Behavior of Contr act Laborers: Their Psychological Involvement and Effects on Employee Co-Workers. Academy of Management Journal, 36 (5), 1081-1096.

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146 Pearce, J. L. (1998). Job Ins ecurity Is Important, but No t for the Reasons You Might Think: The Example of Contingent Worker s. In C. L. Cooper & D. M. Rousseau (Eds.), Trends in Organizational Behavior (Vol. 5). Chichester, England: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. Pedhazur, E. J., & Schmelkin, L. P. (1991). Measurement, Design, and Analysis Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. Pfeffer, J., & Baron, J. N. (1988). Taking th e Workers Back Out: Recent Trends in the Structuring of Employment. In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior (Vol. 10, pp. 257-303). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, Inc. Pfeffer, J., & Salancik, G. R. (1978). The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective New York, NY: Harper and Row, Publishers, Inc. Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. ( 1994). Organizational Citi zenship Behaviors and Sales Unit Effectiveness. Journal of Marketing Research, 31 (3), 351-363. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Moorman, R. H., & Fetter, R. (1990). Transformational Leader Behaviors and Their Effects on Followers' Trust in Leader, Satisfaction, and Organiza tional Citizenship Behaviors. Leadership Quarterly, 1 (2), 107-142. Polivka, A. E., & Nardone, T. (1989). On the Definition of "Contingent Work". Monthly Labor Review, 112 (12), 9-16. Porter, L. W., Pearce, J. L., Tripoli, A. M., & Lewis, K. M. (1998). Differential Perceptions of Employers' Inducements: Implications for Psychological Contracts. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19 769-782. Pring, B. (2003). Predicts 2004: IT Management and IT Services & Outsourcing Retrieved July 12, 2004, from http://www3.Gartner.com/research/focus_areas/asset_48263.jsp Puffer, S. M. (1987). Prosocial Behavi or, Noncompliant Behavior, and Work Performance among Commission Salespeople. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72 (4), 615-621. Rioux, S. M., & Penner, L. A. (2001). The Caus es of Motivational Citizenship Behavior: A Motivational Analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86 (6), 1306-1314. Robinson, S. L. (1996). Trust and Br each of the Psychological Contract. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41 (4), 574-599. Robinson, S. L., Kraatz, M. S., & Rousseau, D. M. (1994). Changing Obligations and the Psychological Contract: A Longitudinal Study. Academy of Management Journal, 37 (1), 137-152.

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148 Scott, S. G., & Bruce, R. A. (1994). Determ inants of Innovative Behavior: A Path Model of Individual Innovation in the Workplace. Academy of Management Journal, 37 (3), 580-607. Sels, L., Janssens, M., & Van Den Brande I. (2004). Assessing the Nature of Psychological Contracts: A Va lidation of Six Dimensions. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25 461-488. Sherer, P. D. (1996). Toward an Understandi ng of the Variety in Work Arrangements: The Organization and Labor Relationships Framework. In C. L. Cooper & D. M. Rousseau (Eds.), Trends in Organizational Behavior (Vol. 3, pp. 99-122). New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. Shore, L. M., & Tetrick, L. E. (1994). The Psychological Contract as an Explanatory Framework in the Employment Relationshi p. In C. L. Cooper & D. M. Rousseau (Eds.), Trends in Organizational Behavior (Vol. 1). Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Slaughter, S. A., & Ang, S. (1995). Informa tion Systems Employment Structures in the USA and Singapore: A Cross-Cultural Comparison. Information Technology and People, 8 (2), 17-36. Slaughter, S. A., & Ang, S. (1996). Employme nt Outsourcing in Information Systems. Communications of the ACM, 39 (7), 47-54. Smith, C. A., Organ, D. W., & Near, J. P. (1983). Organizational Ci tizenship Behavior: Its Nature and Antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68 (4), 653-663. Smith, V. (1994). Institutionalizing Flexibility in a Service Firm. Work and Occupations, 21 (3), 184-307. Spector, P. E. (1985). Measurement of Huma n Service Staff Satisfaction: Development of the Job Satisfaction Survey. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13 (6), 693-713. Spector, P. E. (1987). Method Variance as an Artifact in Self-Reported Affect and Perceptions at Work: Myth or Significant Problem. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72 438-443. Spector, P. E. (1992). Summated Rating Scale Construction: An Introduction Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications, Inc. Spenner, K. I. (1990). Skill. Work and Occupations, 17 (4), 399-421. Spiegel, E. (2005). What It Means to Be an IT Contractor Retrieved November 10, 2005, from http://itmanagement.earthwe b.com/career/print.php/3560311

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149 Stamper, C. L., & Van Dyne, L. (2001). Wo rk Status and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Field Study of Restaurant Employees. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22 517-536. Thibodeau, P., & Lemon, S. (2004). R&D Starts to Move Offshore Retrieved March 15, 2004, from http://www.computerworld.com/printthis/2004/0,4814,90599,00.html Trochim, W. M. K. (2001). The Research Methods Knowledge Base (Second ed.). Cincinnati, OH: Atomic Dog Publishing. Turnley, W. H., Bolino, M. C., Lester, S. W., & Bloodgood, J. M. (2003). The Impact of Psychological Contract Fulfillment on the Performance of in-Role and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors. Journal of Management, 29 (2), 187-206. Van de Ven, A. H. (1986). Central Problems in the Management of Innovation. Management Science, 32 (5), 590-607. Van Dyne, L., & Ang, S. (1998). Organizationa l Citizenship Behavior of Contingent Workers in Singapore. Academy of Manage ment Journal, 41 (6), 692-703. Van Dyne, L., Graham, J. W., & Dienesch, R. M. (1994). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Construct Redefiniti on, Measurement, and Validation. Academy of Management Journal, 37 (4), 765-802. Van Dyne, L., & LePine, J. A. (1998). He lping and Voice Extra-Role Behaviors: Evidence of Construct and Predictive Validity. Academy of Management Journal, 41 (1), 108-119. Weick, K. E. (2001). Making Sense of the Organization Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishers Ltd. West, M. A., & Farr, J. L. (1990a). Innovati on at Work. In M. A. West & J. L. Farr (Eds.), Innovation and Creativity at Work: Psychological and Organizational Strategies Chichester, England: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. West, M. A., & Farr, J. L. (Eds.). (1990b). Innovation and Creativity at Work: Psychological and Organizational Strategies Chichester, England: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. Williamson, O. E. (1981). The Economics of Organization: The Transaction Cost Approach. The American Journal of Sociology, 87 (3), 548-577. Zaltman, G., Duncan, R., & Holbek, J. (1973). Innovations and Organizations New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

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150 APPENDICES

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151 Appendix 1. Pilot Study Questionnaire Field Study of Working Professionals and Their Work Environment Section I. General Background Information 1. Your Age:_________ 2. Your gender (circle): M F 3. What is your highest level of formal education (check one). Some high school Bachelor degree High school graduate Some graduate courses Some college Master degree Associate degree (or vocational degree) Doctorate degree 4. When did you last attend the formal education above? (year) ________ 5. What is your job title? _________________________________________________________________ 6. What career field do you work in (Finance, Banking, etc.)____________________________ 7. How long, in years, have you worked in your profession? ___________

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152Section II. Current Employment Arrangement The purpose of this section is to identify your pa rticular employment arrangement. For instance, working professionals may be em ployed (and paid) by one organization, and work on projects internal to the same organization. Here, th e employing organization and the client organization are the same. However, some wo rking professionals may be employed (and paid) by one organization, yet work on projects fo r another organization. Here, the employing organization and the client organizatio n are two different organizations. 1. Please check the one category below that best fits your current primary employment arrangement. 2. How long have you been in your current employment arrangement? (years)_______________ 3. How much longer do you expect to be in your current employment arrangement (if you know)? (years) 4. Which employment arrangement w ould you prefer to work? (check one) Permanent full-time employment arrangement encompasses full-time employees of an organization for which they work on projects for consumption of the employing organization. Permanent part-time employment arrangement encompasses part-time employees of an organization for which they work on projects for consumption of the employing organization. Independent contractors encompass independent contractor s, independent consultants, or freelance workers. On-call workers are called to work only when needed although they can be scheduled to work for an extended period of time. Contract company workers are employed by an organization that provides workers or their services to other organizations under contract. For example, employed by an organization th at provides outsourced services, whether or not they work on location in the client organization. Temporary help agency workers are paid by a temporary help agency, whether or not their job is actually temporary. Other arrangement (please describe) ________________________________________________________________ current arrangement change from current arrangement to: (specify one)

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153Section III. Your Client Organization For this section, consider each statement as it relates to your client organization. Remember, it may be your employing organization or it may be a client organization. Indicate the extent each statement best represents your opinion about it. Your client organization provides you Not at all Little extent Some extent Moderate extent Large extent Very large extent 1 Overall job security. 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 An expectation that your job will last indefinitely, if you want it to. 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 An expectation as to the limits of your employment duration. 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 Access to benefits. 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 Freedom to supervise your own work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 Opportunities for job promotions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Opportunities for professional development activities. 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 Opportunities for formal on-the-job training. 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 Access to a retirement plan. 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 Access to tuition reimbursement. 1 2 3 4 5 6 11 A say in the number and scheduling of your work hours. 1 2 3 4 5 6 12 Stability in your work schedule. 1 2 3 4 5 6 13 A guarantee in the number of hours you work from week to week. 1 2 3 4 5 6 14 The flexibility to work from a location other than company office. 1 2 3 4 5 6 15 Access to a good overall compensation package. 1 2 3 4 5 6 16 Flexibility in your work hours. 1 2 3 4 5 6 17 Steady income. 1 2 3 4 5 6 18 Opportunities for pay raises. 1 2 3 4 5 6 19 Access to health insurance. 1 2 3 4 5 6 20 Frequent job performance evaluations. 1 2 3 4 5 6 21 A satisfactory overall compensation package. 1 2 3 4 5 6

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154Section IV. Beliefs About Your Client Organization For the next set of statements, indicate in Column A the extent to which you believe your current client organization is obligated to provide you with and in Column B the extent to which you believe your current client organization has fulfilled these obligations . Column A Column B Extent the organization is obligated to Extent the organization has fulfilled this obligation to Not at all Little Some Moderate Large Very large Not al all Little Some Moderate Large Very large 1 Provide me with job security. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 Make a commitment to me for a long time. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 Offer me opportunities for career development. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 Wont immediately fire me if things are going badly. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 Offer me a transfer to another job if my current job would disappear. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 Do everything in thei r power to keep me on the job. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Set agreements regarding my work down in writing. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 Make specific agreements regarding my work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 Are very clear about opportunities for advancement in this firm. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 Specifically describe the performance appraisal criteria used in this firm. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 11 Unambiguously describe my obligations within this firm. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 12 Unambiguously describe my rights within this firm. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 13 Support me personally in difficult periods. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 14 Appreciate me for what I do and for who I am. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 15 Consider not only the end result but also my personal effort. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 16 Treat me as a person, not as a number. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 17 Allow me to be myself within this firm. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 18 Stick to agreements despite changing circumstances. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 19 Are flexible in applying agreements. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 20 Consider made agreements as permanently valid. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 21 Be clear in outlining expectations. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 22 Give me plenty of notice. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 23 Support the defined job expectations. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6

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155 Section IV. Beliefs About Your Client Organization Column A Column B Extent the organization is obligated to Extent the organization has fulfilled this obligations to Not at all Little Some Moderate Large Very large Not al all Little Some Moderate Large Very large 24 Allow me to offer suggestions to work and organization. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 25 Allow me to keep work and personal life separate. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 26 Leave no room for misinterpretation of my obligations. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 27 Recognize my talents as key to the success of the job. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 28 Accept my skills as important. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 29 Recognize that speci fic knowledge about the company is necessary. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 30 Realize that special skills are needed to do this job. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 31 Make public any monetary rewards possible. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 32 Establish respectful and trusting relationship immediately. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 33 Provide development opportunities. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 34 Provide any and all materials necessary to do the job. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 35 Be truthful even when it may harm the relationship. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 Please restate in your own words your current employment arrangement. For example: Permanent, full-time employee in a public non-IT financial firm, or Independent Contractor, self-employed, under contract with a bank, or Company Consultant, employed by IT services company and working at private ma nufacturing company, etc.

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156Section V. Beliefs About Your Curren t Job In Your Client Organization For this section, consider each statement as it relates to your client organization. Remember, it may be your employing organization or it may be a client organization. In my current job, ... Never Rarely Seldom Sometimes Frequently Always 1 I create new ideas for difficult issues. 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 I search out new technologies, processes, working methods, techniques, and/or product ideas. 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 I generate original solutions for problems. 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 I mobilize support for innovative ideas. 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 I acquire approval for innovative ideas. 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 I make organizational members enthusiastic for innovative ideas. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I transform innovative ideas into useful applications. 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 I introduce ideas into the work environment in a systematic way 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 I evaluate the utility of innova tive behaviors in the workplace. 1 2 3 4 5 6 For this section, consider each statement as it relates to your overall work performance. Very Poor Poor Fair Good Very Good Excellent 1 How would you rate your own work performance? 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 How would your supervisor probably rate your work performance? 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 How would your co-workers probably rate your work performance? 1 2 3 4 5 6

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157Section V. Beliefs About Your Current Job In Your Client Organization (continued) For this section, please indicate the extent e ach statement is typical of your own behavior. Not al all Little extent Some extent Moderate extent Large extent Very large extent 1 I tell outsiders that the or ganization is a good place to work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 I defend the employer when other employees criticize it. 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 I represent the organization favorably to outsiders. 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 I neglect aspects of job responsibilities. 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 I waste time while at work on personal matters. 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 Regardless of circumstance, I produce the highest quality work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I follow work rules and instructions with extreme care. 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 I use professional judgment to assess what is right/wrong for the organization. 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 I make creative work-related suggestions to co-workers. 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 I make innovative suggestions to improve the functioning of the department. 1 2 3 4 5 6 11 I share ideas for new projects or improvements widely. 1 2 3 4 5 6 12 I encourage others to speak up at meetings. 1 2 3 4 5 6 13 I participate in outside groups for the benefit of the organization. 1 2 3 4 5 6 14 I help others who have heavy workloads. 1 2 3 4 5 6 15 I help others who have been absent. 1 2 3 4 5 6 16 I go out of my way to help colleagues with job-related problems. 1 2 3 4 5 6 17 I readily assist my supervisor with his/her work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 18 I try to avoid creating problems for others. 1 2 3 4 5 6 19 I work beyond what is expected. 1 2 3 4 5 6 20 I exceed formal requirements of the job. 1 2 3 4 5 6 21 I go the extra mile for the organization. 1 2 3 4 5 6 22 I only attend work-related meetings if required by the job. 1 2 3 4 5 6 23 I participate in activities that are not required but that help the image of the organization. 1 2 3 4 5 6 24 I avoid extra duties and responsibilities at work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 25 I personally pursue additional training to improve job performance. 1 2 3 4 5 6

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158Section VI. Beliefs About Your Current Job And Your Client Organization For this section, please consider each statement about your job and your client organization and indicate the extent of your agr eement or disagreement Disagree Strongly Disagree Moderately Disagree slightly Agree slightly Agree Moderately Agree Strongly 1 Generally speaking, I am very satisfied with my job. 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 I am generally satisfied with the kind of work I do in this job. 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 I frequently think of quitting this job. 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 I have many alternative job opportunities including some that are different from what I do now. 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 There are many jobs available similar to mine. 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 I can find another job doing exactly what I am doing now. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Communications seem good within this organization. 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 Many of our rules and procedures make doing a good job difficult. 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 I sometimes feel my job is meaningless. 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 The goals of this organization are not clear to me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 11 My efforts to do a good job are seldom blocked by red tape. 1 2 3 4 5 6 12 I like doing the things I do at work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 13 I often feel that I do not know what is going on with the organization. 1 2 3 4 5 6 14 I have too much to do at work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 15 I feel a sense of pride in doing my job. 1 2 3 4 5 6 16 Work assignments are not fully explained. 1 2 3 4 5 6 17 I have too much paperwork. 1 2 3 4 5 6 18 My job is enjoyable. 1 2 3 4 5 6

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159 Appendix 2. Letter Invitation to Participate ADDR_NAME PREF_STREET1 PREF_STREET2 PREF_CITY, PREF_ST PREF_ZIP Subject: Field study of IT professionals work environment Dear FIRST_NAME: As an alumnus of the University of South Floridas MIS program, I wish to invite you to participate in a field study of the IT prof essionals work environment, which includes the phenomenon of the different employment arrange ments in which IT professionals are finding themselves. This study is a critical part of my culminating research project and requirement for the completion of my doctoral degree. Your participation provides the basis for the knowledge to be gained in this information systems study. All IT professionals may participate by comp leting a 20 minute questionnaire, which can be found online at the following website: http://www.coba.usf.edu/departments/isds/grads/newton/AEAITPSTUDY.htm Alternatively, you can email me at snewton@coba.usf.edu or call 813-431-7844 to request that I mail a printed questionnaire to you. Identities of all participants will remain anonymous in any future publication of research results. Please enter your study ID number usfaID at the end of the questionnaire to ensure that you will not be contacted in a subsequent mailing. Although 20 minutes is not a trivial amount of time to spend on a questionnaire, the value of the information you provide is potentially far greater, and so I am truly grateful for your consideration. If you are not currently working as an IT professi onal, I still welcome your participation as the information you provide is still of value to me. If you do not wish to participate, I would ask that you please take a minute or two to complete Secti on I of the questionnaire, which consists of simple general and demographic questions, and enter the study ID number printed in bold above at the end of the questionnaire. In doing so, you will enable us to determine that those who are either unwilling or unable to participate in the st udy are not demographically different than those who do choose to participate. I would be delighted to address any questions or concerns at your convenience. Thank you very much for your consideration. Regards, Sandra Newton Department of Information Systems and Decision Sciences University of South Florida

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160 Appendix 3. Postcard Follow-up Invitation to Participate Dear This post card is a follow-up to the lette r I mailed you a few weeks ago inviting you to participate in a field study concerning IT pr ofessionals and their work environment. If you have already responded, thank you for your participation and please ignore this reminder. I realize how busy you are; however, I also recognize that the information you may provide is very important and this questionn aire is a way to express your beliefs. You may participate by completing the questi onnaire, which can be found online at http://www.coba.usf.edu/department s/isds/grads/newton/aeaitpstudy.htm Please enter the study ID number found on the reverse side of th is card at the end of the questionnaire. Again, thank you for your consideration! Sandra Newton E-mail me at snewton@coba.usf.edu if you have any questions.

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161 Appendix 4. Final Version of the Measurement Instrument Field Study of IT Professionals and The Work Environment Thank you for your willingness to participate in this study. Since we are trying to better understand the different employment arrangements in which IT professionals find themselves, as well as their work environment, you should complete this questionnaire only if you are currently employed. On average, 20 minutes are required to complete the questionnaire. I know this is not a trivial amount of time, so I am very grateful to you fo r taking the time to complete the questionnaire. All information you provide will be held in the strictest confidence. Total anonymity is guaranteed. Even if you choose to not participate, we would be grateful if you please take a minute to complete Section I of the questionnaire. This basi c demographic information allows us to verify that those who do not participate are not different from those who do participate. Section I. General Background Information Age Gender (M/F) Highest degree held (HS Diploma, AA, BA, MA, MBA, PhD) What year did you graduate? Race/ethnicity What is your job title? Please choose oneOther Which one of the IT career fields best represents your job title? How long, in years, have you worked in the IT profession? In what industry do you work? (Ex.: Information Technology, Law, Medicine, Finance, etc.) The purpose of this section is to identify your pa rticular employment arrangement. For instance, IT professionals may be employed (and paid) by one organization, and work on projects internal to the same organization. Here, the employing organization and the c lient organization are the same. However, some IT professionals may be employed (and paid) by one organization, yet work on projects for another organization. Here the employing organization and the client organization are two different organizations.

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162Please check one category below that best fits your current primary employment arrangement. Permanent full-time employment arrangement encompasses full-time employees of an organization for which they work on projects for consumption of the employing organization. Permanent part-time employment arrangement encompasses part-time employees of an organization for which they work on projects for consumption of the employing organization. Independent contractors encompass independent contractors, independent consultants, or freelance workers. On-call workers are called to work only when needed, although they can be scheduled to work for an extended period of time. Contract company workers are employed by an organization that provides workers or their services to other organizations under contract. For example, those employed by an organization that provides outsourced services, whether or not they work on location in the client organization. Temporary help agency workers are paid by a temporary help agency, whether or not their job is actually temporary. Other arrangement (please describe your employment arrangement) How long, in years, have you been in your current primary employment arrangement? How many more years do you expect to be in your current primary employment arrangement (if you know)? Please choose oneWhich employment arrangement would you prefer to work? Please choose oneWhat was your previous primary employment arrangement? How long in years were you in your previous primary employment arrangement? In two or three sentences, please describe your current primary employment arrangement. For example: 1. Permanent, full-time employee in a public non-IT financial firm, or 2. Independent contractor, under 2 year contract with a commercial bank, or 3. Company consultant, employed by IT services company and working at a private manufacturing company, etc.

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163Section III. Your Client Organization For this section, consider each statement as it relates to your client organization Remember, your client organization may be your primary empl oyer, or an external organization, depending upon your employment arrangement. Please indicate on a scale of 1-6 the exten t your client organization provides you... 1 not at all 2 to a little extent 3 to some extent 4 to a moderate extent 5 to a large extent 6 to a very large extent 1 Overall job security. 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 An expectation that your job will last indefinitely, if you want it to. 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 An expectation as to the limits of your employment duration. 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 Access to benefits. 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 Freedom to supervise your own work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 Opportunities for job promotions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Opportunities for professional development activities. 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 Opportunities for formal on-the-job training. 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 Access to retirement plan. 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 Access to tuition reimbursement. 1 2 3 4 5 6 11 Control over your own work schedule/number of hours you work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 12 Stability in your work schedule. 1 2 3 4 5 6 13 A guarantee in the number of hours you work from week to week. 1 2 3 4 5 6 14 The flexibility to work from a location other than company office. 1 2 3 4 5 6 15 Access to a good overall compensation package. 1 2 3 4 5 6 16 Flexibility in your work hours. 1 2 3 4 5 6 17 Steady income. 1 2 3 4 5 6 18 Opportunities for pay raises. 1 2 3 4 5 6 19 Access to health insurance. 1 2 3 4 5 6 20 Frequent job performance evaluations. 1 2 3 4 5 6 21 A satisfactory overall compensation package. 1 2 3 4 5 6

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164 Section IV. Beliefs About Your Client Organization For the next set of statements using the scale of 1-6 below, indicate in Column A the extent to which you believe your current client organiz ation is obligated to provide you with... and in Column B the extent to which you believe your cu rrent client organization has fulfilled these obligations . Remember, your client organization may be your primary employer, or an external organization, depending upon your employment arrangement. 1 not at all 2 to a little extent 3 to some extent 4 to a moderate extent 5 to a large extent 6 to a very large extent Column A Column B Extent the organization is obligated to Extent the organization has fulfilled this obligation to 1 Provide me with job security. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 Make a commitment to me for a long time. 1 23456 1 2 3 456 3 Offer me opportunities for career development. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 Wont immediately release me if things are going badly. 1 23456 1 2 3 456 5 Offer me another job if my current job would disappear. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 Do everything in their power to keep me on the job. 1 23456 1 2 3 456 7 Put in writing our agreements about my work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 Make specific agreements regarding my work. 1 23456 1 2 3 456 9 Be very clear about opportunities for advancement in this firm. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 Specifically describe the performance appraisal criteria used in this firm. 1 23456 1 2 3 456 11 Unambiguously describe my obligations within this firm. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 12 Unambiguously describe my rights within this firm. 1 23456 1 2 3 456 13 Support me personally in difficult periods. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 14 Appreciate me for what I do and who I am. 1 23456 1 2 3 456 15 Consider not only the end result, but also my personal effort. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 16 Treat me as a person, not as a number. 1 23456 1 2 3 456 17 Allow me to be myself within this firm. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 18 Stick to agreements despite changing circumstances. 1 23456 1 2 3 456 19 Be flexible in applying agreements. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6

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16520 Consider written or oral agreements as permanently valid. 1 23456 1 2 3 456 21 Be clear in outlining expectations. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 22 Give me plenty of notice. 1 23456 1 2 3 456 23 Support the defined job expectations. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 24 Allow me to offer suggestions to work and organization. 1 23456 1 2 3 456 25 Allow me to keep work and personal life separate. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 26 Leave no room for misinterpretation of my obligations. 1 23456 1 2 3 456 27 Recognize my talents as key to the success of the job. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 28 Recognize the importance of my skills. 1 23456 1 2 3 456 29 Recognize that specific knowledge about the company is necessary to do the job. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 30 Realize that special skills are needed to do this job. 1 23456 1 2 3 456 31 Notify me of any available financial rewards. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 32 Establish a respectful and trusting relationship immediately. 1 23456 1 2 3 456 33 Provide development opportunities. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 34 Provide any and all materials necessary to do the job. 1 23456 1 2 3 456 35 Be truthful even when it may harm the relationship. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6

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166 Section V. Beliefs About Your Current Job In Your Client Organization For this section Va consider each statement on a scale of 1-6 as it relates to your client organization Remember, that your client organization may also be your current primary employer, or an external organization, depending upon your employment arrangement. 1 never 2 rarely 3 seldom 4 sometimes 5 frequently 6 always In my current job, ... 1 I create new ideas for difficult issues. 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 I search out new technologies, processes, working methods, techniques, and/or product ideas. 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 I generate original solutions for problems. 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 I mobilize support for innovative ideas. 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 I acquire approval for innovative ideas. 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 I make organizational members enthusiastic for innovative ideas. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I transform innovative ideas into useful applications. 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 I introduce ideas into the work environment in a systematic way 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 I evaluate the utility of innovative behaviors in the workplace. 1 2 3 4 5 6 For this section Vb consider each statement on a scale of 1-6 as it relates to your overall work performance 1 very poor 2 poor 3 fair 4 good 5 very good 6 excellent 1 How would you rate your own work performance? 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 How would a supervisor probably rate your work performance? 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 How would your co-workers probably rate your work performance? 1 2 3 4 5 6

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167For this section Vc, please indicate on a scale of 1-6 the extent each statement is typical of your own behavior. 1 not at all 2 to a little extent 3 to some extent 4 to a moderate extent 5 to a large extent 6 to a very large extent 1 I tell outsiders that this organization is a good place to work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 I defend the organization when other employees criticize it. 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 I represent the organization favorably to outsiders. 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 I neglect aspects of job responsibilities. 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 I rarely waste time while at work on personal matters. 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 Regardless of circumstance, I produce the highest quality work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I follow work rules and instru ctions with extreme care. 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 I use professional judgment to assess what is right/wrong for the organization. 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 I make creative work-related suggestions to co-workers. 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 I make innovative suggestions to improve the functioning of the department. 1 2 3 4 5 6 11 I share ideas for new projects or improvements widely. 1 2 3 4 5 6 12 I encourage others to speak up at organizational meetings. 1 2 3 4 5 6 13 I participate in outside groups for the benefit of the organization. 1 2 3 4 5 6 14 I help others who have heavy workloads. 1 2 3 4 5 6 15 I help others who have been absent. 1 2 3 4 5 6 16 I go out of my way to help colleagues with job-related problems. 1 2 3 4 5 6 17 I readily assist my supervisor with his/her work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 18 I try to avoid creating problems for others. 1 2 3 4 5 6 19 I work beyond what is expected. 1 2 3 4 5 6 20 I exceed formal requirements of the job. 1 2 3 4 5 6 21 I go the extra mile for the organization. 1 2 3 4 5 6 22 I only attend work-related meetings if required by the job. 1 2 3 4 5 6 23 I participate in activities that are not required but that help the image of the organization. 1 2 3 4 5 6 24 I avoid extra duties and responsibilities at work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 25 I personally pursue additiona l training to improve job performance. 1 2 3 4 5 6

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168For this section Vd please consider each statement about your job and your client organization and indicate on a scale of 1-6 the extent of your agreement or disagreement. 1 disagree strongly 2 disagree moderately 3 disagree slightly 4 agree slightly 5 agree moderately 6 agree strongly 1 Generally speaking, I am very satisfied with my job. 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 I am generally satisfied with the kind of work I do in this job. 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 I frequently think of quitting this job. 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 I sometimes feel my job is meaningless. 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 I like doing the things I do at work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 I feel a sense of pride in doing my job. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 My job is enjoyable. 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 In general, I believe this organizations motives and intentions are good. 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 This organization is open and upfront with me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 I am quite confident that this organization will always try to treat me fairly. 1 2 3 4 5 6 11 This organization can be trusted to make sensible decisions for the future of the organization. 1 2 3 4 5 6 12 This organization would be quite prepared to gain advantage by deceiving employees. 1 2 3 4 5 6 13 This organization is sincere in its attempts to understand their workers points of view. 1 2 3 4 5 6 14 I would be very happy to spend the rest of my career with this organization. 1 2 3 4 5 6 15 I enjoy discussing this organization with people outside it. 1 2 3 4 5 6 16 I really feel as if this organizations problems are my own. 1 2 3 4 5 6 17 I think that I could easily become as attached to another organization as I am to this one. 1 2 3 4 5 6 18 I do not feel like part of the family at this organization. 1 2 3 4 5 6 19 I do not feel emotionally attached to this organization. 1 2 3 4 5 6 20 This organization has a great deal of personal meaning for me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 21 I do not feel a strong sense of belonging to this organization. 1 2 3 4 5 6

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169 Section VI. Beliefs About Jobs in General For this section, please consider each statement about jobs in general and indicate on a scale of 1-6 the extent of your agreement or disagreement 1 disagree strongly 2 disagree moderately 3 disagree slightly 4 agree slightly 5 agree moderately 6 agree strongly 1 I am capable of dealing with most problems that come up at work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 If I cant do a job the first time, I keep trying until I can. 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 When I set important goals for myself, I rarely achieve them. 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 If something looks complicated, I avoid it. 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 When trying to learn something new, I soon give up if I am not initially successful. 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 If a new task seems especially difficult, I become more determined to master it. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Initial failures just make me try harder. 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 I feel confident about my ability to do things. 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 I am a selfreliant person 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 A job is what you make of it 1 2 3 4 5 6 Briefly describe anything about your employme nt arrangement that you feel was overlooked by our study. Also, please describe any other sourcing issues you believe are important with respect to either the IT profession or to the larger IT industry. Please enter your Study ID here. This will ensure you do not receive a follow-up letter. Again, thank you!! We are truly grateful for your participation.

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170 Appendix 5. Descriptive Statisti cs of Main Study Variables Variable N Mean SE Range Min Max Variance Skewness SE Kurtosis SE Age 257 37.30 .573 45 19 64 84.508 .427 .152 -.347 .303 Gender 258 .64 .030 1 0 1 .232 -.567 .152 -1.692 .302 CPEAlngth 254 5.273 .2733 25.0 .0 25.0 18.978 1.283 .153 1.952 .304 EAC 258 1.41 .066 4 1 5 1.115 2.624 .152 5.778 .302 EACc_JC 258 3.7016 .08449 5.00 1.00 6.00 1.842 -.081 .152 -.893 .302 EACc_S 258 4.2684 .07259 5.00 1.00 6.00 1.359 -.648 .152 -.033 .302 EACc_B 258 4.1911 .07591 5.00 1.00 6.00 1.487 -.809 .152 .060 .302 OOBL_TF 256 3.7109 .08282 5.00 1.00 6.00 1.756 -.451 .152 -.589 .303 OOBL_T 256 4.2432 .07878 5.00 1.00 6.00 1.589 -.739 .152 .106 .303 OOBL_Sc 256 4.1729 .07639 5.00 1.00 6.00 1.494 -.786 .152 .232 .303 OOBL_F 257 4.5613 .06401 5.00 1.00 6.00 1.053 -.907 .152 1.005 .303 OOBL_St 256 4.0137 .07546 5.00 1.00 6.00 1.458 -.378 .152 -.359 .303 FOBL_TF 256 4.1527 .08140 5.00 1.00 6.00 1.696 -.557 .152 -.601 .303 FOBL_T 256 3.6924 .08622 5.00 1.00 6.00 1.903 -.110 .152 -.901 .303 FOBL_Sc 256 4.2260 .07211 5.00 1.00 6.00 1.331 -.411 .152 -.577 .303 FOBL_St 256 3.7910 .07755 5.00 1.00 6.00 1.539 -.158 .152 -.430 .303 FOBL_F 257 4.0691 .07344 5.00 1.00 6.00 1.386 -.338 .152 -.503 .303 Volition 255 .20 .025 1 0 1 .158 1.540 .153 .375 .304 OCB_AdP 256 4.3691 .06512 5.00 1.00 6.00 1.086 -.496 .152 -.133 .303 OCB_FuP 256 4.8620 .05120 3.67 2.33 6.00 .671 -.469 .152 .042 .303 OCB_Hlp 255 4.3673 .06509 5.00 1.00 6.00 1.080 -.392 .153 -.202 .304 OCB_Loy 256 4.3177 .07929 5.00 1.00 6.00 1.609 -.768 .152 -.009 .303 OCB_Obe 256 5.0299 .04265 3.00 3.00 6.00 .466 -.451 .152 -.197 .303 IWB 256 4.2378 .05703 5.00 1.00 6.00 .833 -.522 .152 .783 .303 JSAT 257 4.7750 .05847 5.00 1.00 6.00 .879 -.840 .152 .908 .303

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171 Appendix 6. Inter-Correlation Ma trix of Main Study Variables Age Gender CPEA lngth EAC EACc _JC EACc _S EAC c_B OOBL _TF OOBL _T OOBL _Sc OOBL _F Age 1 Gender -.091 1 CPEAlngth .418** -.115 1 EAC -.005 -.054 -.150(*) 1 EACc_JC -.090 .010 .110 .023 1 EACc_S -.088 -.087 .112 -.294** .032 EACc_B .084 -.068 .229** -.515** .182** .472** 1 OOBL_TF -.054 -.096 .078 -.300** .090 .346** .402** 1 OOBL_T -.026 -.011 .064 -.344** .062 .183** .451** .506** 1 OOBL_Sc -.018 -.129* -.034 -.145* .140* .207** .281** .612** .496** 1 OOBL_F -.093 -.089 -.111 -.195** .084 .142* .274** .490** .657** .637** 1 OOBL_St -.062 -.079 -.081 -.069 .173** .103 .135* .399** .452** .552** .534** FOBL_TF -.174** .003 .035 -.178** .170** .659** .443** .353** .253** .283** .184** FOBL_T -.076 .032 .088 -.166** .238** .400** .556** .247** .510** .250** .279** FOBL_Sc -.098 -.001 .025 -.054 .354** .433** .399** .159* .184** .358** .181** FOBL_St -.178** -.008 -.136* -.032 .245** .377** .303** .143* .224** .277** .190** FOBL_F -.172** .020 -.040 -.071 .308** .406** .445** .159* .243** .224** .305** Volition -.049 .029 -.253** .494** -.025 -.260** -.408** -.196** -.160* -.024 -.011 OCB_AdP .051 .111 .023 -.003 .181** .025 .142* .177** .174** .239** .201** OCB_FuP .043 -.050 .007 -.120 -.001 .128* .177** .145* .147* .152* .187** OCB_Hlp .003 -.080 -.021 .022 .013 .051 .011 .092 .058 .133* .182** OCB_Loy -.003 .031 .094 -.059 .213** .431** .393** .126* .102 .164** .037 OCB_Obe -.002 -.206** -.096 .006 -.069 .048 .002 .039 .171** .097 .181** IWB -.058 .183** -.067 -.015 .192** .090 .081 .114 .111 .221** .176** JSAT .061 -.001 .050 -.013 .134* .227** .173** .099 .115 .160* .153* ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

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172 Appendix 6. Inter-Correlation Matrix of Main Study Variables (continued) OOBL _St FOBL _TF FOBL _T FOBL _Sc FOBL _St FOBL _F Volition OCB _AdP OCB _FuP OCB _Hlp OCB _Loy OCB _Obe IWB JSAT OOBL_St 1 FOBL_TF .126* FOBL_T .196** .647** FOBL_Sc .207** .644** .634** 1 FOBL_St .437** .510** .545** .686** 1 FOBL_F .156* .642** .701** .789** .635** 1 Volition -.095 -.220** -.181** -.089 -.120 -.104 1 OCB_AdP .232** .080 .226** .246** .210** .161** .061 1 OCB_FuP .102 .124* .125* .218** .123 .170** .001 .491** 1 OCB_Hlp .284** -.001 .007 .047 .097 .013 -.023 .320** .365** 1 OCB_Loy .087 .515** .456** .665** .488** .617** -.167** .266** .321** .057 1 OCB_Obe .137* -.039 .041 .069 .098 .060 .024 .195** .388** .269** .054 1 IWB .195** .099 .178** .286** .274** .197** .122 .703** .489** .301** .265** .195** 1 JSAT .098 .311** .335** .468** .350** .450** -.068 .361** .367** .129* .481** .278** .328** 1 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR Sandra Kay Newton received her Bachel ors Degree in 1985 in Business and Management from University of Maryland Univ ersity College and a Masters Degree in 1987 in Business Administration and Human Resources Development from Webster University. She weaved her educ ation in with her full-time and part-time service to her country from 1970 to 1999, when she retired in the grade of Chief Warrant Officer Five with over 20 years of active military service. The idea of a second career in academia was fostered by family and from having the opportunity to teach parttime at the university level. She completed her Doctorate Degree in Business Administration with a c oncentration in Management Information Systems at the University of South Florida in 2006. Her plans are now to weave travel, golf, gardening and all the many joys of fam ily and life together with her career in academia.