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Animal husbandry at Tell el Hesi (Israel)

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Title:
Animal husbandry at Tell el Hesi (Israel) results from zooarchaeological and isotopic analysis
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Book
Language:
English
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Peck-Janssen, Shannon Marie
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University of South Florida
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Subjects / Keywords:
Near Eastern Archaeology
Zooarchaeology
Archaeozoology
Animal domestication
Early Bronze Age
Dissertations, Academic -- Applied Anthropology -- Masters -- USF
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Located in today's Southern Israel, Tell el Hesi provides archaeologists with important clues to political and social changes in the ancient Near East. Zooarchaeological and stable isotopic analyses were conducted to evaluate shifts in animal husbandry practices during changing socioeconomic and sociopolitical conditions in the Southern Levant. During the Early Bronze Age, Tell el Hesi thrived as an agricultural grain producing center for the southern Levant. The acropolis served as both a storage and redistribution center for the inhabitants of Tell el Hesi. Coinciding with the collapse of the southern Levant, Tell el Hesi was abandoned throughout the Middle Bronze Age and Late Bronze Age. Socioeconomic relations collapsed between the southern and northern Levant as foreign cultures swept into the region. The Iron Age and Persian Period represented constant sociopolitical change as Assyrian and Persian armies battled against Egypt for territory and natural resources, u sing Tell el Hesi as a military outpost and storage facility for soldiers and equipment. Unsystematic excavations at the site make it difficult to interpret how animals were used at Tell el Hesi over time. Zooarchaeological analysis suggests, however, that amidst constant societal changes at Tell el Hesi, the inhabitants of the site used animals in similar ways throughout time. Statistically, there seems to be little difference in the quantity of animal species represented during the Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Persian Period. This suggests that the once common specialized pastoralism found in the Early Bronze Age survived into the Persian Period at Tell el Hesi and was an effective herd management strategy for small populations living in ever changing societies. Future excavation and analysis would be able to further assess this hypothesis. The stable isotope results suggest that domesticated animals at Tell el Hesi were consuming both C3 domesticated grain along with C4 wild grasse s. Economically significant animals appear to have been foddered within the city boundaries of Tell el Hesi but predominantly grazed in the surrounding foothill area. Wild animals such as deer, gazelle and antelope share similar d13C values with the domesticated animals at the site.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Shannon Marie Peck-Janssen.
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Title from PDF of title page.
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Document formatted into pages; contains 167 pages.

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aleph - 001788087
oclc - 128248646
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0001437
usfldc handle - e14.1437
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Animal Husbandry at Tell el Hesi (Israel): Results from Zooarch aeological and Isotopic Analysis by Shannon Marie Peck-Janssen A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts Department of Anthropology College of Arts and Science University of South Florida Major Professor: Robert H. Tykot, Ph.D. E. Christian Wells, Ph.D. James Strange, Ph.D. Brian Hesse, Ph.D. Date of Approval: April 14, 2006 Keywords: Near Eastern Archaeology, Z ooarchaeology, Archaeozoology, Animal Domestication, Early Bronze Age Copyright 2006, Shannon Marie Peck-Janssen

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i Table of Contents List of Tables iii List of Figures iv Abstract v Chapter One: Introduction 1 Chapter Two: Archaeohistoric Perspectives of the Southern Levant 4 The Bronze Ages: Changes in Socio-economic Structures 6 The Iron Age: Changes in Socio-political Control 18 The Iron Age: Socio-economic Continuation of the Bronze Ages 21 The Persian Period 22 Chapter Three: Tell el Hesi 24 The Early Bronze Age at Tell el Hesi 30 The Iron Age at Tell el Hesi 31 The Persian Period at Tell el Hesi 33 Chapter Four: An Introduction to Zooa rchaeology 35 Theoretical Paradigms in the Near East 36 Zooarchaeological Methods 41 Chapter Five: Tell el Hesi: Results 49 Non acropolis: Animal Results for the Bronze Age 49 The Acropolis: Animal Results for the Iron, Persian and Ottoman Period 53 Comparing the fields of Tell el Hesi 54 Comparing Tell el Hesi and Surroun ding Sites 59 Stable Isotope Results 61 Chapter Six: Interpretation 67 Chapter Seven : Conclusion 71 References 73

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ii Appendices 82 Appendix A: Distribution of economically significant animal s in the Levant by site and time period 83 Appendix B: Stratigraphy of Tell el Hesi 85 Appendix C: Tell el Hesi Database 86

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iii List of Tables Table 1 Early Bronze Age chronology 7 Table 2 Botanical remains found at Tell el Hesi, Hellenistic occupation 26 Table 3 Identifiable bones 43 Table 4 Sample of Tell el Hesi measurement recording 46 Table 5 Total Number of Fragments of animal remains at Tell el Hesi 51 Table 6 The description of archaeol ogical animals using carcass parts and expressing the results by percentages 52 Table 7 ANOVA results 54 Table 8 T test results 65 Table 9 TNF for faunal remains found on acropolis 58 Table 10 TNF between acropolis fields and non acropolis fields 59 Table 11 Photosynthetic pathways and archaeol ogically significant plants 64 Table 12 13C values from Tell el Hesi 64

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iv List of Figures Figure 1 The ancient Near East 2 Figure 2 The Physiographic Regions of Israel 8 Figure 3 Sites surrounding Tell el Hesi 8 Figure 4 Drainage System of the Southern Levant 25 Figure 5 Modern nomadic tribes plant sorghum in the vicinity of Tell el Hesi 27 Figure 6 Tell el Hesi and its immediate surroundings 27 Figure 7 Drawing by Koucky of Tell el Hesi’s Early Bronze Age city 28 Figure 8 Ariel Photo of Tell el Hesi taken in 1945 28 Figure 9 Tripartite pillared build ings form a defense system around Lachish and Jerusalem 32 Figure 10 Identifiable bones of a dog 42 Figure 11 Location of fields and areas at Tell el Hesi 50 Figure 12 The percent of survival of sheep/goats during the EBA at Tell el Hesi 56 Figure 13 The percent of survival of sheep/goats during the Iron Age at Tell el Hesi 57 Figure 14 The percent of survival of sheep/goat during the Persian Period at Tell el Hesi 57 Figure 15 Tell el Hesi and comparative sites 60 Figure 16 Isotope results from Tell el Hesi 65

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v Animal Husbandry at Tell el Hesi (Israel): Results from Zooarch aeological and Isotopic Analysis Shannon Marie Peck-Janssen ABSTRACT Located in today’s southern Israel, Te ll el Hesi provides archaeologists with important clues to political and social changes in the ancient Near East. Zooarchaeological and stable isotopic analys es were conducted to evaluate shifts in animal husbandry practices during changing so cioeconomic and sociopolitical conditions in the southern Levant. During the Early Bronze Age, Tell el He si thrived as an agricultural grain producing center for the southe rn Levant. The acropolis se rved as both a storage and redistribution center for the inha bitants of Tell el Hesi. Coin ciding with the collapse of the southern Levant, Tell el Hesi was abandoned throughout the Middle Bronze Age and Late Bronze Age. Socioeconomic relations collapsed between the southern and northern Levant as foreign cultures swept into the region. The Iron Age and Persian Period represented constant sociopolitical change as Assyrian and Persian armies battled against Egypt for territory and natural resources, us ing Tell el Hesi as a military outpost and storage facility for soldiers and equipment. Unsystematic excavations at the site make it difficult to interpret how animals were used at Tell el Hesi over time. Zooarc haeological analysis s uggests, however, that amidst constant societal change s at Tell el Hesi, the inhabitant s of the site used animals in similar ways throughout time. Statistically, there seems to be little difference in the

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vi quantity of animal species represented dur ing the Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Persian Period. This suggests that the once common sp ecialized pastoralism found in the Early Bronze Age survived into the Persian Period at Tell el Hesi and wa s an effective herd management strategy for small populations livin g in ever changing societies. Future excavation and analysis would be able to further assess this hypothesis. The stable isotope results suggest that do mesticated animals at Tell el Hesi were consuming both C3 domesticated grain along with C4 wild grasses. Economically significant animals appear to have been f oddered within the city boundaries of Tell el Hesi but predominantly grazed in the surround ing foothill area. Wild animals such as deer, gazelle and antelope share similar 13C values with the domesticated animals at the site.

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1 Chapter One Introduction Tell el Hesi is located in the southeast ma rgin of the coastal plain of Israel and is the boundary-line between the Shephelah and the Negev (Figure 1). The tell is surrounded by Wadi Hesi, a major artery in th e wadi drainage system approximately 23 km from the Mediterranean Sea. A prime s pot for settling, due to the local water ways and trade routes, Tell el Hesi contains an occupati on history spanning from the Chalcolithic through the m odern state of Israel. Between the Early Bronze Age and the Pe rsian Period, Tell el Hesi experienced several sociopolitical and economic transfor mations. During the Early Bronze Age, Tell el Hesi thrived as an agricu ltural grain producing center serv icing the southern Levant. The acropolis served as both a storage and a redistribution center fo r the inhabitants of Tell el Hesi. Coinciding with the collapse of the southern Levant at the end of the Bronze Ages, Tell el Hesi was abandoned during the Middle Bronze Age and Late Bronze Age. Socioeconomic relations collapsed between th e southern Levant and northern Levant as foreign populations swept into the region during the Assyrian and Persian military campaigns. The Iron Age and Persian Period repr esented constant sociopolitical change as Assyrian and Persian armies battled agains t Egypt for territory and natural resources, using Tell el Hesi as a military outpost and storage facility for soldiers and equipment.

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2 Figure 1. The ancient Near East Detailed excavations and historical do cumentation provide strong archaeological evidence of lifestyle changes at Tell el Hesi. Tell el Hesi shifts from an agricultural center in the Early Bronze Age to a military outpost during the sweeping political transformations of the Iron Age and Pe rsian Period. Food production and economic organization are two well researched themes in the archaeology of the southern Levant. Several methods can be used to study these cultural activities includ ing pottery analysis, archaeobotanical analysis, zooarchaeological an alysis, and bone chemistry studies. This thesis analyzes the animal remains excavated at Tell el Hesi in order to determine local changes in food production and animal use during regional social and po litical instability. In addition, stable isotope analysis was conduc ted in order to gain a better understanding of animal foddering and herding practices at Tell el Hesi. Does the faunal assemblage demonstrate variation in animal use that co rrelates with the so ciopolitical changes found

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3 at Tell el Hesi? The following chapters wi ll provide the data co llection and research methods used to answer this question.

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4 Chapter Two Archaeohistoric Perspectives of the Southern Levant The following pages provide essential background information pertaining to socioeconomic and sociopolitical aspects of the southern Levant. The history of archaeological research in the Near East, changes in political control, and common animal husbandry practices are discussed. Due to the nature of archaeological research in this region, it is important to consider both archaeological and historical data to gain a holistic perspective of the culture s inhabiting Tell el Hesi. The archaeological study of the ancient N ear East began in the nineteenth century and consisted of independent topographic surveys and hist orical-geographical studies (Mazar 1992). Numerous American and European explorers traveled to the Near East in hopes of identifying landmarks and bibli cal sites. Following these independent explorations, European countries and the Un ited States developed exploration programs including the Pales tine Exploration Fund and the Am erican Palestine Exploration Society. Both groups hoped to “locate spots that would merit furt her investigations by the society” (Ben-Tor 1992: 58). The period between 1890 and 1914 provided changing views in methods of Near Eastern exploration. Tell el Hesi became a fundamental el ement in the advancement of tell excavations. In the spring of 1890, W. M. Flinders Petrie, a British researcher, began a six week excavation at Tell el Hesi. Follo wing the concepts of Heinrich Schliemann (Petrie 1891), Petrie discovered that each occupational layer of Hesi had its own

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5 characteristic pottery. He conc luded that an archaeologist co uld date the different levels of a site by the types of ceramics found within the layers of the tell (Petrie 1891). Soon after Petrie’s discovery, research expl oded in the Near Ea st following the new stratigraphic model for tell excav ation. F.J. Bliss (1894) conti nued excavations at Tell el Hesi in 1891 and 1892, confirming the id eas presented previously by Petrie. The end of the nineteenth century brought new excavation techniques and new foreign archaeological research institutes into Israel (Maza r 1992). The American School of Oriental Research was founded in 1900 and served to encourage surveys and excavations in the Palestine region. Germany developed the German Evangelical School based in Jerusalem in 1902. Later, the Britis h School of Archaeology was established in 1919. Archaeological investigations matured be tween the world wars. The development of systematic methodology created the precis e chronology of the ancient Near East. At Megiddo, C.S. Fisher’s (1929) detailed reco rding system and systematic excavation techniques provided future archaeologists an outline for accurate recording and the capability to interpre t past archaeological records (Wolff 1998). The 1920s and 1930s saw an increase in published material regard ing the archaeology of ancient Palestine in new journals such as the Biblical Archaeologist, now known as Near Eastern Archaeology and the Bulletin of the American Sc hool of Oriental Research During WWII and the War of Israe li Independence in 1948 archaeological excavations halted. Following the declaration of an Israeli st ate, archaeology thrived and two new excavation techniques emerged. Considered the traditional Israeli archaeological method, the architectural appr oach focuses on the relationship between

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6 different architectural components such as walls and floor levels (Currid 1999:68). The Wheeler-Kenyon technique (Albright 1974), concentrating on accurate excavation, observation, and recording of occupation levels, stresses the significance of soil stratigraphy. Leaving a balk of soil between each ex cavated unit provides a third dimension allowing archaeologists to compare the current level of excavation with that which came before. The Bronze Ages: Changes in Socioeconomic Conditions The Early Bronze Age (EBA) in the Near East can be portrayed best as a phase of urban development and transformation. Ch anges in economy, social organization, and settlement patterns during th e EBA created a lifestyle di stinct from those found in preceding periods. Several chronologies exist fo r archaeological sites in the Near East. Generally, however, the term EBA is used to refer to the events occurri ng between 3200 – 2200 B.C. in the Levant (Ben-Tor 1992). This absolute chronology for sites in Israel draws support from many sources including carbon-14 dating, written documents, and chronology research in adjacent regions. Although many successful carbon-14 dates have been produced in the southern Levant, Near Easter n archaeologists tend to prefer chronology based on written records and Egyptian chronology (Ben-Tor 1992). G.E. Wright (1937) presented archaeologists with extensive pottery studies allowing stra ta dating to the EBA to be further divided, achieving greater accura cy in interpretation at archaeological sites (Finkelstein 1992). The EBA is currently divide d into four phases that correlate with

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7 Table 1. Early Bronze Age Chronology Levantine Chronology Dates (BCE) Egyptian Chronology Early Bronze Age I 3200 2900 Late Predynastic – Early First Dynasty Early Bronze Age II 2900 2650 End of First Dynasty – Second Dynasty Early Bronze Age III 2650 2350 Second – Fifth Dynasty Early Bronze Age IV 2350 2100 Sixth Dynasty Egyptian dynastic chronology as presented by Wright (1937). Slight modifications were later made by L.W. Stager (1985) and are accepted by the majority of Near Eastern archaeologists (Table 1). Several essential attributes define set tlements occurring during the EBA. These include an increase in populat ion and penetration into new regions in the southern Levant, architectural features includi ng fortified walls, buttresses, glacis1, and courtyards, and new interactions between settlements. Thes e attributes required settlement patterns to expand in response to developing socioeconomic and environmental changes. Israel’s combination of geographic zones and environmental variation affect the nature of local settlement and production pa tterns in the southern Levant in the EBA that created differences in economies, residential strategies, and site function (McNutt 1999:37). Geographic variations incl ude sharp changes in terrain, elevation, water availability, soil type, and vegetation. Five geographic zones exist in the southern Levant including 1) the coastal plain; 2) the highlands; 3) th e Jordan rift valley; 4) the Transjordan plains; and 5) th e Negev desert (Figure 2). 1 Ramp-like structures of compressed earth w ith a hard, smooth surface of lime plaster.

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8 Figure 2. The Physiographic Regi ons of Israel (Kouck 1989:9) Figure 3. Sites surrounding Tell el Hesi

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9 The EBA I phase saw an expansion of settlements into the Judean foothills, plains, and valleys where the Mediterranean c limate prevails. It is believed that 90 percent of EBA sites are found in this ne w settlement area (Ben Tor 1992:84) where water resources appear to hold a significant role in settlement location. As the EBA progressed, hill settlements provided towns with defensive advantages. A transition from unfortified villages to walled towns occurred during the EBA II. These fortifications include town walls, buttresses, and glacis to protect the base, and archaeological evidence demonstrates the significance of fortification maintenance and repair during the EBA. Examples of sites thriving during this transi tion include Tell Dan, Hazor, Tell el Hayyat, Beth Yerah, Beth Shean, Ta’anach, Megiddo, Ai, Gezer, Jericho, Arad, Lachish and Tell el Hesi (see Figure 3 for site s surrounding Tell el Hesi). Interactions between EBA communities sh ifted in response to new settlement patterns and economic strategies. Pottery, seals, and other artifacts s uggest an increase in relations between Levantine towns, Egypt, a nd other foreign commun ities. The level of interaction between the Levant and surroundi ng civilizations is hotly debated. Recent research however has spawned fresh theore tical discussion con cerning the level and intensity of Levantine interactions during the EBA at site s such as Lachish, Jericho, Arad, Tell el Hayyat, and Ain (Falcone r and Savage 1995; Philip 2003). The leading conjecture in previous d ecades argued for similarities between Levantine settlement organizati on and that of Mesopotamia. Several recent publications (Chesson and Philip 2003; Falconer 1995; Jo ffe 1993; Philip 2003) have argued for independent trajectories in development in the Levantine region, and Chesson and Philip (2003) argue that Levantine towns are more si milar to those found in the Aegean than in

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10 Mesopotamia. This suggests that the Le vant was less dependent on Mesopotamian advancement than originally thought. Interactions between and organization of southern Levantine communities are not easily disentangled. Levantine town orga nization was complicated by sociopolitical differences found vertically between the north and south as well as horizontal environmental differences between towns located in the coastal plains, the central hills, and the Jordan Valley. Chesson and Philip (200 3) argue for the hierarchical organization and independent trajectory of settlements a ppearing in the southern Levant. Little evidence has been discovered for systematic sealing and control systems or significant concentrations of wealth lik e that found in Mesopotamia or Egypt. Although there is clear evidence of grain storag e at both the household level and in larger centralized facilities, Levantine towns in control of th ese resources do not appear to have exerted regional power. Instead, arch aeological evidence s uggests a political system consisting of localized power with to wns staying independent and cooperating only when needed (Chesson and Philip 2003). The coexistence of different forms of localized power may explain the late development of a local elite class in the southern Levant, which was not seen until EBA III, and not seen at all at some sites. Environmental factors such as fluctuati ng rainfall prohibited the southern Levant from producing products on the same scale as their neighbors, the Mesopotamians and the Egyptians (Joffe 1993). The Levant’s ability to pool together local power and resources when needed and survive cycli cal reorganization from village and small pastoral communities to urban towns with polit ical structures and institutionalized trade is in stark contrast to the events occurr ing in Mesopotamia and Egypt. Joffe (1993)

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11 suggests that long term persistenc e of cultural traditi ons that resisted and rebelled against urban domination and exploitati on is what drove the independ ent trajectory of Levantine development. Particularly in the southern Levant communities were organized around local settlement clusters and were able to rally around large scale projects. Excavations at Tell el Hesi support this observation by providing evidence of large centralized grain storage facilities and massive fortification reconstr uction projects suggesting organization on a supra-household level. The rise and fall of urban centers like Tell el Hesi in the southern Levant provides further evid ence of poorly integrated regi onal networks and supports Chesson and Philip’s (2003) localized power theory. In the northern Levant, communities do not seem to have followed the same course as communities in the south. Archaeo logical excavations have uncovered mass produced pottery, written documents descri bing bureaucracy, state sponsored artistic production, and large quantities of precious imported goods. A continual increase in communication between the northern Levant and Mesopotamia may account for the above features (Philip 2003:103). It appear s that communities in the northern Levant participated in a more centralized, closel y knit network, with st rong economic links and political allegiances to on e another (Chesson and Philip 2003); however this does not suggest that those towns were dependent on one another. The many geographic zones of the s outhern Levant complicate regional networking. Horizontal environm ental differences between to wns located in the coastal plains, the central hills, and the Jordan Valley obscure possible loose networking systems with local variation due to these changes in environment. An increase in coastal plain

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12 and central hill settlements during the EBA sugg ests an increase in herding specialization and orchard cultivation, creati ng a desire for networking betw een the two zones (Falconer and Savage 1995). However, scattered settle ments throughout the Jord an Valley seem to have been significantly less integrated with other towns in differing geographic zones (Falconer and Savage 1995:54). Local economies during the EBA in the s outhern Levant began to specialize as settlement patterns shifted a nd expanded into new ecologica l zones. It is not clear whether changes in socioeconomic patterns led to settlement expansion or if settlement expansion provided an opportunity for speci alized economies. Levy (1983:32) argues that socioeconomic factors, ra ther than climate changes, were responsible for the change in settlement patterns, since settlements shif ted eastward into more arid regions because of an increase in specialized pastoralism and the need to separate pastoralists from fertile floodplain areas. Early Bronze Age I cemeterie s independent of permanent settlements suggest that these types of pastoral groups were present in the highlands of Israel (Finkelstein 1992). Specialized pastoralism refers to th e intensive and well-structured mobile economic exploitation and rati onalization of land and animals for herd management and marketing. The number one priority of animal managers in Israel during the EBA is meat production. Ingold (1980) argue s that this may steam from previous predatory herd exploitation. Secondary products such as milk also became important as specialized pastoralists migrated into more arid and unculti vable regions. The EBA II-III periods are considered the height of the EBA population increase and urbanization. An increase in fortifications, public bu ildings, the development of

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13 urban planning, and clear social stratification suggest a strength ening in urban principles. Control of subsistence production was a key f unction of the newly fortified town. Town fortifications provided not onl y physical security for reside nts and agricultural products but also reestablished a town’s sense of community and permanence (Philip 2003:112). The network of relations between Egypt and the southern Levant continued to thrive until the end of the EBA II peri od. Way stations and trading points were abandoned and several urban towns in the sout hern Levant collapsed. Some urban towns such as Megiddo, Jericho, and Tel Dan con tinued to thrive. Innovations and EBA I developments matured and prospered during EB A II and III at these sites. Other sites such as Tell el Hesi began a downward sp iral of abandonment due to drier conditions resulting in a decrease in agricultural products and the loss of water resources. At this time of urban development in the southern Levant, rural communities developed in several aspects, including an increase and specialization in agriculture, pastoralism, and household economies. Many ear ly urban centers in the southern Levant endured highs and lows of stability but were able to survive due to their strong long-term continuity in rural settlement and land use (Falconer 1994). Several characteristics of rural economies can be detected in the archaeological record. Rural faunal patterns have been detected at sites such as Te ll Abu en-Ni’aj, Tell el Hayyat and others (Fall and Falconer 1998). Th ese remains from southern Levant sites suggest that rural economies shifted toward an increase in management of taxa with greater market potential in unison with urba n development. Faunal samples from known rural economies reveal an increase in ratios of Ovis aries to C apra hircus implying increasing market-oriented animal husba ndry (Zeder 1991:38). Secondary products

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14 (especially wool), a high pe rcent of meat, and easibility of local management allowed sheep to be well-suited for market produc ts. In addition, the secondary products produced from sheep were durable and allowed for easy transport and exchange (Sherratt 1981). Exploitation of secondary products ha s been discovered in animal samples through the use of aging profiles (see Payne 1972). Typically, older animals were used for milking and wool and were not slaughtered right when they reached their prime meat age as a subadult. Age profiles from the Near East show, in general, an increase in older sheep and goats between the Neolithic and ri se of the EBA (Grigson 1995) suggesting an increase in secondary product exploitation. Across the Levant, there is an increase in sheep and goat remains during the EBA in all areas except for the wealthiest and poorest (Grigson 1995). Typically, when sheep grew in importance, cattle decreased in num bers (Fall et al. 1998). By comparing the mean percentage of meat weight however, cattle still rank as number one followed by sheep and goat (Grigson 1995).Although cattle provided valuable labor for agriculture, they competed with sheep for grazing land and food resources (Redding 1984). For urban economies, participating in ma rket transactions, pig remains appear only in low numbers. Several ideas have been offered to explain the absence or presence of pigs at sites in the Near East and ha ve been outlined by Hesse (1990). People’s involvement in pork production depends on a matrix of environmental, political and agricultural factors. First, the relationship between pig remains and ethnic identification can be determined in both a political and reli gious sense. Pigs will be absent from the garbage of prohibiting ethnic communities and found in the garbage of their cultural and political enemies. The absence or presence of pig remains can be used to distinguish the

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15 political relations betw een groups with different subsiste nce traditions. Second, from an environmental view point, the pig’s high need for water and difficulty in herd management made them unsuitable for region al exchange and incorporation into the nomadic lifestyle of specialized pastoralists Politically, pigs would not have been favored in communities with central administ ration due to the lack of marketable and taxable products from pigs. Pigs were, howev er, suitable for individual family in small rural communities (Zeder 1990). Finally, changes in agricultural strategies from grain to orchard cultivation would have dimini shed the significance of pig products. Archaeobotanical evidence from sites in the southern Levant illustrates an increase in orchard crop cultivation in rura l settlements (Fall et al. 1998; Philip 2003). Crops such as olives, figs, and grapes si gnificantly changed farmers’ exploitation strategies and produced many valuable sec ondary products that could be exchanged regionally. From EBA II through EBA III, orch ard cultivation intensified in the central hills and highlands. The combination of new herding and agricultural strategies in rural villages suggests independent survival a nd corroborates Chesson and Philip’s (2003) theory of independe nt trajectories. By the end of the EBA (2100 BCE), centers in the southern Levant collapsed and fell into abandonment. The exact cause s of abandonment are unknown and several theories are disputed (Ben To r 1992). Most likely, a single ex planation does not apply to the overall region and variations of abandonm ent along with combinations of causes existed. Of those proposed, environmental stre ss, regional warfare, and foreign invaders (Kenyon 1966, 1979) are most widely supported.

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16 Intermediate Bronze Age and Middle Bronze Age layers of the acropolis have not been excavated at Tell el Hesi and only a small sample from the Late Bronze Age has been recovered thus far. Therefore, only a brief review of the In termediate, Middle, and Late Bronze Ages are presented here. The collapse of the urban centers in the southern Levant during EBA IV continued into the IBA. Fortifications dete riorated in complexity and relations with Egypt and Mesopotamia weakened. Areas in th e southern Levant appear to have been sparsely inhabited by small, seminomadic popul ations practicing lim ited agriculture and specialized pastoralism. Settlements appear to have been semipermanent with limited buildings and permanent structures. Cemeteri es may be associated with these types of settlements or found independent in the form of single graves, shaft tombs, secondary burials or large cemeteries. Following the IBA for which few textual references exist, the MBA (2100-1550 BCE) presents scholars with a plethora of archaeological evidence and historical references. A double-edged sword, this addi tional information offers contradictory evidence and complicates the understanding of the MBA. The Execration texts, often found on clay figurines that represent Egyp tian enemies, and the Tale of Sinuhe, an Egyptian official from the twelfth dynasty w ho fled Egypt to settle in Syria, provide scholars with written descriptions of Egyp tian and Canaan relations during the Bronze Age. Conflicting interpretations of these te xts argue against the accurateness of events and descriptions. Two scholars (Albright 1928; Mazar 1968) argue for a disorganized, slow developing region populated by nomadic tribesmen as supported by the Tale of Sinuhe text. Both Egyptian texts describe the land of Canaan under strong Egyptian

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17 imperialistic power. There is little archaeological evidence however, to support this claim (Ben-Tor 1992). Egyptian residencies and governors’ palaces are two features that would undoubtedly be prevalent in the archaeol ogical record if this region was under Egyptian control. However, these structures ar e not commonplace in the southern Levant. Acknowledging biases often accompanying hi storical writings, Weinstein (1975) argued for the accuracy of the archaeological re cord. Due to the lack of urbanization and socioeconomic stability during the MBA, Egypt would have ha d little economic interest in the southern Levant. Egyptian control in Sy ria and the ports of Phoenicia, however, is certain due to their important trade routes and posts. So, where does this conflicting evidence leav e us? Historical te xts should not be disregarded due to their inheri t biases nor should the archaeol ogical record. Gerstenblith (1983) suggests we consider a third alte rnative, acknowledging Egypt’s awareness of Canaan for possible commercial trade without exerting administrative control. Both historical texts and archaeol ogical evidence are considered. Cities that survived or developed duri ng the socioeconomic turmoil of the MBA appear to have owed their success to strong rural ties a nd evolving rural complexity (Falconer and Savage 1995). In times of ec onomic stress, rural towns in the southern Levant pulled together to form poorly inte grated regional and lo cal trade networks. Archaeological excavations at sites from th e MBA suggest the development of a “new urbanization” in the coastal plains, which then spread inland along wadi systems and trade routes (Cohen 2002). Egyptian supremacy in the southern Levant during the LBA (1550–1200 BCE) is rarely debated (Gonen 1992). The rise of the New Kingdom in Egypt coincides with a

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18 noticeable increase in organiza tion and the unification of E gypt under the Theban Kings. In the southern Levant archaeo logists have uncovered widesp read destruction layers at numerous sites. These layers seem to correlate with evidence of the expanding international power of Egypt and the loss of Levantine political independence. Although sites in the southern Levant a ppear to have been under complete Egyptian control, they maintained their cultu ral independence and iden tity. Overall, sites in the southern Levant appear to have b een politically weak an d under Egyptian control while maintaining and developing their cultu ral identity through art, language, and religious independence during the LBA. The Iron Age: Changes in Sociopolitical Control The Iron Age in the Levant dates from 1200-586 BCE and is known as the Period of the Judges and the United Monarchy. Citie s in the Levant experienced political, social, and economic crises during the end of th e LBA. This turmoil is attributed to the collapse of the Hittite Empire in the north along with a de cline in Egyptian power and control in the south. Corres ponding with these events, archae ologists often find layers of destruction at archaeological sites across the Levant. Several new nations developed out of th e political chaos engulfing the Levant prior to the United Monarchy. For example, along the coastal plain historical documents describe the arrival of the s ea people today known as the Ph ilistines. Also, Phoenicians thrived along the northern coastal plain and to wards the central Judean hills and valleys the Canaanites settled. Further in the east, texts refer to the Kingdoms of the Edomites,

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19 Moabites, and Ammorites in the Transjor dan plains. These new groups and kingdoms are discussed below. The Iron Age I (1200-900 BCE) can be st be described as a period of reorganization and settlement (Mazar 1992). Local trade continued during this time, although little evidence points toward s international trade with cities in Cyprus or in the Aegean. With the beginning of Iron Ag e II (900-586 BCE) Levantine cities were prepared for further political independ ence and cultural development (Mazar 1992). Biblical resources and archaeology ar e the primary sources of information regarding life during the Iron Age. The Iron Age II period highli ghts the differences intensifying between the northern Levant and the southern Levant. As Barkay (1992:304) explains, “different parts of the country were unde r the control of different administrations and kingdoms, allowing varyi ng cultural facies to develop in various parts of the country.” Thus, prominent re gional differences appeared among the cultures of the kingdom of Israel, Judah, Philistia and the Transjordanian kingdoms. These cultural distinctions, found within the kingdom s of the Levant, become important when archaeologists try to discern a site’s cultural affiliation. During the 10th century BCE, the United Monarchy rose to power under the reign of David and Solomon. The overall peaceful su ccess of their reign wa s due to the decline of international powers. The United Monarchy is remembered for its economic and cultural prosperity along with its royal architecture, palace s, and fortifications (Mazar 1992). The 9th century BCE can be distinguished from the 10th century by the appearance of different material culture, including potte ry and architecture, found in the northern and

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20 southern Levant. This geographic distincti on correlates with the development of three major kingdoms, the Kingdom of Israel, th e Kingdom of Judah, and the Kingdom of Philistia. With the development of these new kingdoms, inhabitants in the Levant experienced new taxation polic ies and social stratification. The material culture of Is rael exhibits strong Syrian and Mesopotamian influences in both tool technology and pottery (Dot han 1982). Strong evidence for widespread destruction is found in the ar chaeological record throughout sites within the borders of Israel’s kingdom. This destruction may be long to Shishak’s campaigns or Assyrian campaigns under Shalmaneser III (Mazar 1992). Since numerous military conquests occurred during the Iron Age in Israel, arch aeologists have yet to unravel exactly who destroyed the cities of Israel. South of ancient Israel was the Kingd om of Judah. Although both Israel and Judah worshipped the same god, their material culture differed. Differences can be found clearly in both ceramic and architectural typology. Archaeologist s have not uncovered a single destruction like that found in Israel during the 9th century, although plenty of evidence exists for warfare. Strong fortif ication systems can be found throughout Judah both at a local level (individua l sites) and at a regional level (networks of outposts protecting important Judean ci ties) (Blakely 2002). Polit ical relations are unclear between Egypt and Judah, although it would not be unreasonable to think military clashes occurred throughout the Iron Age. Late in the Iron Age, Judah fell under Assyrian control during Sennacherib’s military campaigns. Along the coastal plain lies the Kingdom of Philistia. Famed for its important sea and land trade routes, Philistia experienced continuous military conflicts with Egypt,

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21 Israel, and Assyria during the Iron Age. De spite military chaos, Philistia maintained political independence until the Assyrian ca mpaign in 738 BCE, as well as distinctive pottery (Dothan 1982). Overall, the Iron Age represents a time of political and cultural development in the mist of an international reshuffling of power. At the beginning of the Iron Age, political situations within the Levant were more or less the same with differences being due to geographic location and environmenta l influences. However, as the Iron Age developed, the number of political entities and the complexity of interactions between these entities increased. Stil l, the cultural identity of independent groups thrived. International contacts increased and, although it appears that the Ir on Age was a time of development, it was not a time of peace. Towards the end of the Iron Age, many kingdoms were victims of internal and international military campaigns. The Iron Age: Socioeconomic Cont inuation of the Bronze Ages Settlement patterns during Iron Age II show strong urban development. Overall growth and prosperity of the previous cen tury enabled this in crease in urbanization. Specifically, growth in population and inde pendent political and military power, along with an increase in division of labor and soci al stratification, create d a social environment conducive to urbanization (McNutt 1999:156). Subsistence strategies during the Iron Age were ba sed on a system of mixed agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, and orchard cultiva tion in the highlands. The majority of food production was conducted at local and household levels. Redistribution, although present at urban centers, does not seem to have played a part in rural economies

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22 (Borowski 1987). For the most part, families and villages were self-sufficient and participated in trade and commerce with agriculturally based products. The Persian Period Unfortunately, the Persian Period (537332 BCE) in the Levantine archaeological record has not received as much attention as the Bronze and Iron Ages Historical texts and references to the Persian Period are ex tensive and focus on the reconstruction of Jerusalem and the establishment of the temple. Israel formed the satrapy of Abar-Nahara, which included all Persian territory west of the Euphrates River. This providence was crucial to Persian military campaigns against Egypt and Greece since it served as a direct communication and supply route between Pers ia and the port cities along the Levantine coast (Lipovitz 1999). Southern Levant to wns often served as Persian administrative centers and military forts during this time. For the purposes of research at Tell el Hesi and the surrounding area, four main aspects of the Persian Period hold relevance. First, the reconstruc tion of Jerusalem and development of the temple encouraged and pr omoted the stability of cultural traditions and customs, both social and religious. The temple at Jerusalem impacted the development of market exchange in the Leva nt as well. The second important feature of the Levantine Persian Period was the return of the exiles in Babylon. This influx in the population created strong social stratificati on between a new literate class returning from Babylonia and the rural farmers who were left behind. Persian imperial control of Judah and Israel created a new political environm ent that must be analyzed in order to understand properly the archaeological record fr om this time. Finally, under this new

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23 control, Judeans and Israelites experienced ne w tax regulations and ex ternal control like never before. The history of the southern Levant gr eatly influenced the development and stability of sites located in the region. Th e expansion of urbanization, the development of local economies and trade networks, and the po litical reorganization seen in the Levant left their mark on sites struggling to adap t during these turbulent times. These political and cultural shifts can all be found in the ar chaeological record of Tell el Hesi and are explored in detail in the next chapter.

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24 Chapter Three Tell el Hesi Located in today’s southern Israel, Te ll el Hesi provides archaeologists with important clues to political and social cha nges in the ancient Near East. The site’s geographic location, ecology, and excavation history significantly influence the interpretation of occupa tional events at Hesi. Tell el Hesi is located at the southeast margin of the coastal plain in southern Israel. This area serves as the meeting line between the Shephelah and Negev desert where the climate often fluctuated between Me diterranean and desert. Israel’s unique geographic variations (see Figure 2) significantly affect the av ailability of resources and suitable settlement locations. Tell el Hesi’s location enabled its inhabitants to take advantage of two geographic zones and the asso ciated resources. The site is located on the south bank of the Wadi Hesi, which flowed another 23 km to th e Mediterranean Sea. Water resources were available from the Ea rly Bronze Age through the Hellenistic period at the site due to the extensive wadi dr ainage system cutting through the Shephelah (Figure 4). Major cities a nd trade routes surrounded Tell el Hesi enabling it to be instrumental in trade. Specifically, Tell el Hesi lies 26 km northeast of Gaza on a major route that connects Judah with Philistia and Egypt through the Via Maris. Hesi’s location is significant in defining the boundaries of Philistia and Judah and clarifying Tell el Hesi’s cultural affiliation.

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25 Figure 4. Drainage System of th e Southern Levant (Koucky 1989:20) Annual rainfall averages 300-400 mm. Th e combination of suitable rainfall and fertile loess deposits found at Tell el Hesi created an e nvironment capable of producing large amounts of grain. Preliminary resu lts from Stewart’s (1 978) archaeobotanical analysis of the Hellenistic period provide a comprehensive report of the plant material found at Tell el Hesi. Of th e plants listed below only comm on wheat, barley, bitter vetch, lentil, olive, and grape could be sa id to have occurred in abundance.

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26 Table 2. Botanical Remains found at Tell el He si, Hellenistic Occupa tion (Stewart 1978) Cereals Pulses Oil seeds Other crops Weeds Common Wheat Lentils Flax Grape Bromus sp. Six Rowed Barley Chickpea Olive Hackberry Medicago sp. Emmer Bitter Vetch Hordeum sp. Pea Anchusa sp. Vetchling Goatface grass Horse Bean Wild oats Compositae Polygonaceae Rubiaceae Stewart’s interpretation of arch aeobotanial remains at Tell el Hesi corresponds with the overall interpretation of faunal material analyzed at the site These interpretations are discussed in detail in Chapter 6, but it is impor tant to mention here that crops occurring in abundance were grown in the immedi ate vicinity of Tell el Hesi. The climate of southern Israel today is comparable to the climate during Tell el Hesi’s occupation (Stewart 1978). Seasonal va riation, similar to that which occurred during the site’s occupation, also can be obs erved today. Variation can be so extreme that the site could be absorbed into the Ne gev desert with local water resources becoming nonexistent. Today, the once vast wadi syst em streaming through the local vicinity of Tell el Hesi is meager at best Still, nomadic tribes use the area surrounding the site for seasonal grazing. Pictures taken duri ng the 1983 excavation s eason of the Joint Expedition of Tell el Hesi s how sorghum plants growing at the base and surrounding area of Tell el Hesi (Figures 5 and 6). The site of Tell el Hesi consists of the acropolis and surrounding fields. The boundaries of the site fluctuated significan tly between the Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Persian period due to changing sociopolit ical influences (Figures 7 and 8).

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27 Figure 5. Modern nomadic tribes plant sorghum in the vicinity of Tell el Hesi. Provided by Dr. Jeffrey Blakely Figure 6. Tell el Hesi from the west and her immediate surroundings. Provided by Dr. Jeffrey Blakely

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28 Figure 7. Drawing by Koucky (1978) of Te ll el Hesi’s Early Bronze Age City Figure 8. Aerial photo of Tell el Hesi take n in 1945. Provided by Dr. Jeffrey Blakely

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29 Evidence of the EBA is found only in Fields II, IV, V, VI, and VII. Future excavations may reveal more of the EBA c ity in both the fields mentioned above and possibly in Field I. The earliest human activity, found in Field III, dates to the Chalcolithic (ca. 4200-3200 BCE) period (see Appendix B for complete stratigraphy of the site). No clear evidence of occupa tion has been found dating to EBA I. As mentioned above, the EBA III occupation is ev idenced in several fields and includes several occupational phases and fortif ication walls. Abandonment followed the establishment of the EBA city and little evidence exists sugge sting any permanent occupation during the MBA and LBA. Occupati ons reoccur at Tell el Hesi during the Iron Age, however, the site seems to serve as a military post and administrative center for the Kingdom of Judah and its fo reign controllers. The details of Tell el Hesi’s occupation are discussed in depth la ter in this chapter. As mentioned previously, the Tell el Hesi excavations significantly contributed to the development of archaeological methods and theories in the Near East. Excavations began in 1890 under the direction of Sir Flinde rs Petrie with the Palestine Exploration fund. Petrie’s recognition of pottery chronology and caref ully controlled excavation techniques placed Tell el Hesi on the map of leading archaeological sites in Israel. Frederick Jones Bliss continue d in Petrie’s footsteps in 1891. He expanded upon Petrie’s chronology through the inclusion of soil stratigra phy. Tell el Hesi experienced its first large excavation under Bliss, which is fondly known today as “Bliss’s cut”. During the 1960s and 1970s Tell el Hesi led the way in the New Archaeology movement in the Near Eastern region. Largescale flotation was pract iced and specialists

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30 including geologists and arch aeobotonists were actively involved in excavation and analysis. Currently, excavations occur thr ough the organization of the Joint Expeditions to Tell el Hesi. The Early Bronze Age at Tell el Hesi Although the earliest human presence f ound at Tell el Hesi dates to the Chalcolithic, the first permanent occupa tion does not occur until the EBA. No occupational evidence has been found at Tell el Hesi prior to the construction of the EBA city wall. This early phase of occupation c onsists mainly of residential and domestic structures with local work areas. Hearth s, ash with broken pottery, and charcoal fragments of bone suggest cooki ng areas located in the EBA courtyards of Field VI. Butchering areas also located in the cour tyards are evident by large stone slabs surrounded by bones with butcher marks and horns of large bovine animals. Early Bronze Age occupation is found on the acropolis. As mentioned above, future excavation may uncover more of these la yers. Tell el Hesi expanded outside the acropolis boundaries during EBA II. Toom bs (1983) argues that this expansion coincided with the fall of local towns and ci ties surrounding Tell el He si, and with Hesi’s population increase. This combination of econom ic shifts within th e local area of Hesi brought the site into greater prominence as a vital grain produci ng center and trading locality. The overall portrayal of Te ll el Hesi in the EBA is as a populous and prosperous grain producing center with massive for tifications surrounding the acropolis and surrounding fields. People livi ng at Tell el Hesi appear to have possessed elaborate

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31 engineering skills as evidenced by the extens ive building repairs found at the site. Two main industries were flourishing at Tell el Hesi, including 1) gr owing and distributing emmer; and 2) animal husbandry and herding. Animal pens found out side the lower city wall of Field VI provide arch aeological support for the animal husbandry industry at Tell el Hesi. Archaeobotanical and geological studies suggest that the people living at Tell el Hesi during the EBA received in exchange fo r agricultural products vesicular basalt for grinders, hematite for pigments, diabase for stone bowls, bitumen, and food stuffs such as fish, grapes, pistachios, and po megranates (Stewart 1978). As with the rest of the southern Levant Tell el Hesi experi enced a socioeconomic collapse during EBA IV. The MBA and LBA peri ods in this area represent a time of socioeconomic restructuring and rebuilding. Li ttle to no evidence has been found at Tell el Hesi suggesting permanent occu pation during these time periods. The Iron Age at Tell el Hesi Socioeconomic and sociopolitical reor ganization reshaped fortification construction in the southern Levant during th e MBA, LBA, and early Iron Age. Out of this new construction arose the famous “tripa rtite pillared building” or four-room house found at many sites in the ar ea surrounding Tell el Hesi. Ar chitectural evidence for the tripartite pillared building is first found during the early 10th century along and within the boundaries of the Kingdom of Judah (Figure 9) These structures served as public, governmental, and administrative centers, wh ich acted as political and military defense systems surrounding Jerusalem and Lachish (Blakely 2002:8).

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32 Tripartite pillared building foundations and the lack of Philistine pottery at Tell el Hesi suggests that Hesi served as a Judean outpost and had strong political affiliation with the Kingdom of Judah from the 10th through the 8th centuries BCE (Blakely 2002:23). At the end of the 10th century, the tripartite pillared posts generally Figure 9. Tripartite pillared buildings form a defense system around Lachish and Jerusalem (provided by Dr. Jeffrey Blakely)

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33 become abandoned due to political shifts in the surrounding area. Te ll el Hesi, although no longer a trading center, still functioned as an outpost during that time. At the beginning of the 9th century BCE Israel and Judah split in to separate political entities. Architectural evidence suggests that Tell el Hesi was used as a storage fort (Toombs 1978). The outer mudbrick wall expanse from 20-42 meters thick suggests active military campaigns were sweeping through the area. Tw enty meters of fill were added to the wall’s height and provided a better defensive vi ew of the surrounding area at Tell el Hesi. During the end of the 8th century BCE Tell el Hesi fe ll to the conquering Assyrians during Tiglath Pileser’s military campaign in 734 BCE and was destroyed. The Persian Period at Tell el Hesi The Persian Period, dating from 539-332 BC in ancient Palestine, is defined by the continual military campaigns of the Pers ians against the Egyptians. During the 5th century, Egypt successfully revolted against Persian control forcing a strong Persian presence in the Near East as they battled to reassert their dominance. The region of southern Israel was essen tially the border between pe rmanent Persian control and wavering Egyptian control during the 5th and 4th centuries. Tell el Hesi and surrounding cities provided a logical choice for Persian supply posts providing easy access to invasion supplies for conquering Persian soldiers (Be nnett and Blakely 1989). Pottery and other archaeological data suggest that Tell el Hesi was exclusiv ely under Persian control during these centuries.

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34 Overall, two clear activities were taki ng place at Tell el Hesi during the Persian Period. Tell el Hesi served as a military stor age center for the Persian military campaign. The presence of a semi-permanent milita ry and government installation, temporary storage facilities, and evidence for seasonal activities based on grain acquisition and redistribution support this vi ew (Bennett and Blakely 1989) Coinciding with this military aspect were the everyday activities of the post soldiers and families who supervised the Pers ian supply lines. Tell el Hesi experienced drastic shifts in function from a growing urban center in the EBA to a military post and storage facili ty in the Persian Period. Comparative sites such as Lahav, Beer Sheba, Tel Miqne-Ekron, and Ashkelon were researched in order to analyze the impact of site function on animal exploitation strategies. Since most of the urban acropolis is still unexcav ated, the animal remains studi ed from Tell el Hesi during the EBA should reflect the husbandry strategi es of rural small families and household units. Those animals sent to the urban market will most likely not be present in these samples. During the Iron Age and Persian Pe riod, I expect the faunal samples to look similar to those found at other military pos t sites in the surrounding areas such as Ashkelon. The animals should reflect the lifestyle of military troops and their families stationed at the post. In addition to the typi cal domesticated animals, military posts are often marked by the presence of game anim als (Hesse and Wapnish 1985). Tell el Hesi, like Ashkelon, should have a hi gher percentage of game an imals in the Persian Period than the EBA.

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35 Chapter Four An Introduction to Zooarchaeol ogical Analysis and Methods Zooarchaeology, the study of animal re mains from archaeological sites, has gained respect and prominence among archaeo logists. Zooarchaeology has proven itself indispensable to archaeologists studyi ng environmental change, foodways and production, animal domestication, and the antiquity of humans. The history of zooarchaeology (also referred to as arch aeozoology among scholars in Eurasia and Africa) is as unique as its methods and c ontributions to the field of archaeology. Understanding the development of zooarch aeology is vital for appreciating how it contributes to archaeological theory. There are two main objectives for archaeolo gists practicing faunal analysis. First, zooarchaeologists need to portray the inte ractions between animals and people in a cultural setting. The emphasis on the cultural setting is what separates a zooa rchaeologist from a zoologist. Second, zooarchaeologist s should strive to understand the processes motivating the interactions be tween animals and people. Although there is a focus on dietary reconstruction and envi ronmental studies, it is importa nt not to forget how the animals were conceptualized by the people who interacted with them (Hesse and Wapnish 1985). These types of conceptualiza tions should serve as a foundation for all zooarchaeological studies. Like many disciplines, zooarchaeology’s early contributions to science were dismissed. Mid-eighteenth century philosophy limited the history of our species to

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36 biblical references and theol ogy. Any scientific finds contra ry to biblical suggestions were considered erroneous. In western Eu rope, numerous discoveries of prehistoric weapons associated with enormous unknown animal remains were surfacing. In 1797 Frere, High Sheriff of Suffolk, gathered al l known discoveries of enormous prehistoric animals associated with human remains and presented an article to the journal Archaeologia in 1800. The development of Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species and Charles Lyell’s new geological time frame for the age of the Earth brought the early finds of Frere and others the recognition they deserv ed in the mid-nineteenth century. The first major contribution, therefore, of zooarchaeo logy was providing proof of human antiquity (Davis 1987:20; Reitz and Wing 1999). Two Swiss researchers, Rutimeyer and Ul rich Duerst, were the first to perform specialized studies of faunal remains in an archaeological context. Rutimeyer’s 1862 study of mammalian bones from a Neolithic site in Switzerland permitted him to distinguish between bones of domestic animals and their wild ancestors. Duerst, researching in Russian Turkistan from 19041907, believed he could show the transition of wild animals to domesticates through th e reduction of bone si ze and change in bone texture. Both of these studies provided a starting point for futu re domesticate research (Davis 1987). Theoretical Paradigms in the Near East The field of zooarchaeology encompasses academic backgrounds from history, zoology, and archaeology. Each of these fields brings their own theoretical frameworks explaining how animal remains should be viewed and understood. Overlapping

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37 paradigms complicate regional in terpretation of Near Eastern archaeology sites due to the inconsistent ways animals are being viewed. Culture historical interpretations of an imal remains at Near Eastern sites have largely been confined to liter ary and pictorial references, not the analysis of animal remains found during excavations. This para digm focuses on how animals are viewed by humans in an ideological and symbolic co ntext and does not express the economic and political significance of animals to past culture s. The role of anim als are generally left out of historical studies excep t for in a few exceptional cases such as the development of caravan traffic connecting southe rn Arabia and the Mediterrane an and the use of pigs as ethnoideolocial markers in Palestine (Hesse 1995). Zooarchaeologists coming from a z oology background present archaeological animal remains in terms of their chronol ogy and morphological variation. The animals are viewed at biological creatu res, a view that significantl y helps archaeol ogists correctly identify the animals taxonomy. This paradigm has been extremely useful in developing new techniques for the identification and mor phological evaluation of animal remains as well as providing substantial bodies of zooarchaeological da ta. This zoology approach however, often overlooks anthropo logically important questions concerning the role of the social, economic and political institutions that exploited the animals. As interest in early animal domesticati on gained speed, faunal studies desperately needed solid guidelines, methods, and specia lization. During this Formative Era of the 1950s and 1960s, archaeologists inte rested in faunal analysis began to develop systematic guidelines to study animal remains. The founding of the International Council of

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38 Archaeozoology (ICAZ) in 1971 added to the systemization of zooarchaeology as a discipline and allowed zooarchaeologists to congregate and converse (www.icaz.org). Anthropological philosophies added a ne w scientific approach to the current environmental or ecological approach in th e 1960s. This New Archaeology, processual movement, encouraged the use of both social and natural science an alytical techniques (Trigger 1989). Stemming from its functi onalist base, New Archaeology emphasizes the integration of reconstructed social, political, and economic systems with human behavior. Although this paradigm has been heavily embraced at prehistoric American archaeology sites, researchers in the Near East have been slow to fully incorporate New Archaeology methods. A few sites in Israel have incorporated archaeological science in their excavation strategy including Tell el Hesi (Rose 1989), however much resi stance has been felt due to the overwhelming reliance on historical resour ces. Many Near Eastern sites appear to have embraced scientific archaeology. Howe ver, upon closer examination, it is evident that little scientific data ha ve been incorporated into publications (Hesse 1995). Hesse argues that this translucent incorporation of science can be misleading since the majority of archaeologists favor the hist orical approach to Near East ern archaeology not scientific, leaving a gap in the knowledge of everyday lifestyles. Still, today, many scientific zooarchaeological contributions are seen only in the appendixes and footnotes of historical research in the Near East. Zooarchaeological research faces more challenges from the developing postprocessual world of archaeology. Post-processu alism takes as its target much of the processual theoretical infrastructure, which has justified and funde d the application of

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39 zooarchaeology to cultural rath er than strictly zoological, textual, or artistic questions (Hesse 1995). This paradigm includes a wide range of perspectives including a resurrection of the historical perspective and individual choice. As a result of textual dependence, zooarchaeologists must try to a dopt both historical (post-processual) and prehistoric (processual) perspectives into their research. When archaeologists encounter animal remains, the remains are not in their initial condition. Numerous taphonomic processes a ffect animal bones on ce they are deposited into the soil (Hesse and Wapnish 1985; Lyman 1994; Meadows 1981; Reitz 1999). These processes include environmental (biotic, perthotaxic, taphic, and anataxic), human (sullegic and trephic), and cause of death (t hanatic). Environmenta l factors can include temperature (biotic), fluvial movements and soil erosion (anataxic), and soil chemistry (taphic). Sullegic and trephic processes, which expose the biases of the research, illustrate the biases archaeologists add to the assemblage. The basic research design, collecting procedures, and laboratory proce dures will all affect the faunal sample. Trephic processes include curato rial factors associ ated with sorting, recording, analyzing, and reporting the faunal sample. Thanatic proce sses can refer to either the forcable death of an animal through slaughter or natural causes such as old age and disease. Zooarchaeologists must be aware of all pro cesses affecting the accuracy of the animal samples. Upon receiving the faunal sample, it must first be decided how the assemblage was deposited. Were the bones deposited all at one time or did they accumulate over time? Bone accumulation is most often enc ountered by archaeologists but one can not rule out catastrophic deaths.

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40 After reviewing the timing of the archaeol ogical deposits, it is important to review spatial variability. Running on a continuum, sp atial variability of faunal remains range from in situ finds to redeposited finds with in terdependence falling in between. Interdependence can be defined as the probabi lity that when one bone from a particular carcass is found, another from the same skeleton will be present (Hesse and Wapnish 1985:52). Often, zooarchaeological assembla ges incorporate many ranges of spatial variability. Several clues help recognize the spatial variability of faunal samples. In situ finds are represented by articula tions of whole animals or parts of animals. A relative frequency of each skeletal element should be present. The ratios of bones found in situ should correspond to those bones found in living animals. Butcher marks and signs of dismemberment represent evidence for rede posited finds. The bones from the animals killed have been moved from their original site of death and have been redeposited in trash middens and other locations. Bones can also be redeposited through fluvial movements. In this situation, the orientation of the bone fragments is important and must be recorded. The condition of the bones should be noted. Again, bone conditions fall on a continuum ranging from whole bones to bone dust. Most sample s lie somewhere in between. Environmental factors, human modi fication, and animal modification such as digestion and gnawing all e ffect bone condition. Understanding the development of zooarc haeology ensures the success of future faunal analyses. Zooarchaeology is increas ingly producing new me thods and providing new hypotheses for mainstream archaeology in high profile regions including the Near East. The faunal remains from Tell el Hesi serve as an example of how zooarchaeology

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41 can contribute to new con cepts surrounding the Early Br onze Age, Iron Age and the Persian Period in southern Levant archaeology. Zooarchaeology Methods Upon receiving the Tell el Hesi faunal remains, a quick overview of their condition was noted. Several boxes were ope ned. Approximately 15 bags containing animal bones had deteriorated. All of the iden tification tags associat ed with these bags had either deteriorated or were damaged by te rmites. As a result, these remains were not included in the final results pr esented. The condition of the bones, in general, was of high quality. Later, however, it was discovered th at the composition of the bones was of lower quality than expected. For the Tell el Hesi remains, cleaning was done on a case by case situation. All faunal material was washed in the field prior to shipment. As a result, little secondary washing was necessary in the laboratory. It is agreed that only water should be used when cleaning these types of remains. Generally it is believed that animal remains should be cleaned briefly in the field prior to sh ipping (Davis 1987; Hesse and Wapnish 1985). Shipping dirty remains can cause numerous problems including grinding of the bones, breaking of the bones, and the removal of ke y diagnostic aspects of bones. If the bones are not of a condition where they can be clean ed, then creative packing must be done to prevent the problems mentioned ab ove as much as possible. Two levels of sorting occur when processi ng faunal remains. First, a basic sort that determines which bones are “identifia ble” and which remains are “indeterminate”. “In training students to observe and record faunal material, we (Binford and Bertram)

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42 have always taken the position that there is no unidentifiable bone. All bones even the smallest fragments may be identified with sufficient training in osteology” (Binford and Bertram 1977:125). Although it is true that all remains can be identified to a certain degree, it is not necessarily beneficial to th e faunal study to spend the time identifying all bones. The levels of identification lie on a continuum. At one end of the continuum are bones that can be identified to the species level and aid the z ooarchaeologist in determining age and sex of the animal. Th ese bones include teeth, cranium, axis and atlas vertebra, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, phalanges, innominate, sacrum, femur, tibia, fibula, calcaneous, metapodials, and astr agalus (Figure 10). Bones such as the patella and the carpals and tarsals can also be identified to the species (Table 3). Birds, fish, turtles, and exotic animals are automatica lly recorded as identifiable. Extra effort is spent identifying these animals since they ha ve the potential to provide information regarding trade, seasonality, and environmental fluctuation. Figure 10. Identifiable bones of a dog (Davis 1987).

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43 Table 3. Level of bone identification Next on the continuum are bones that can be identified to the element and possibly the species; however, they genera lly do not provide as much information regarding age and sex. Bones that fall into this level of identification include the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae. Z ooarchaeologists can of ten identify that the bone belongs to a small, medium, or large ma mmal, whether or not th e animal is mature or immature and whether the vertebra is cervical, thoracic, or lumbar. Long bone shaft fragments and ribs do not provide much information to the faunal researcher. These types of bone s tell researchers that animal remains are present and the general size of the animal. Long bone shaft fragments and rib shafts are recorded as small, medium, or large mammals. There are many problems using these terms due to animal variation. Often, the faunal research er does not know the age of the animal the bone shaft is coming from. An immature or young large mammal may have a shaft fragment that is the same size of a matu re medium mammal. Because of this, the categories small, medium, and large should not be viewed as fixed categories. Instead, these sizes span a continuum and provide a general idea of what is represented. Bones that are identifiable to the species Bones that are identifiable to the element Bones that are identifiable as bone Teeth femur cervical vertebra long bone shaft fragments Cranium tibia thoracic vertebra axis vertebra fibula lumbar vertebra atlas vertebra calcaneous scapula metapodials humerus astragalus Radius patella Ulna carpals phalanges tarsals innominate sacrum

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44 Recording the basic identification materi al takes place while the sorting is continuing. The researcher is responsible for not only r ecording the animal bones but also the context in which they were found. Without the contextual information, the bones are not as useful for zooarchaeological analys is. For the Tell el Hesi remains, the site, area, and locus were recorded followed by th e pottery basket number and the material culture number. Both the pottery basket number and the material culture number are assigned in the field and correlates with other Tell el Hesi databases. The pottery basket number refers to the number of containers holding dirt removed from the locus. All artifacts and ecofacts are given a material cu lture number for tracki ng and identification in the database. This coding system allows for easy cross-referencing of all Tell el Hesi material. After the context informati on is recorded, a basic bone count is added as seen below: THVI/23/143 Pb 78 MC 04 8 ID, 2 mmcerv.verta, 15 mmlbsf 5 lmlbsf, 18 mmrbsh, 7 scrap. Translated, this would read: At Tell el Hesi, in field VI, area 23, locus 143, pottery basket number 78 and material culture number 04, eight animal re mains are identifiable to the degree of species, age, and/or sex. Two medium mammal cervical vertebras are present along with 15 medium mammal long bone sh aft fragments, 5 large mammal long bone shaft fragments, 18 medium mammal rib shafts and 7 bone fragments that were not able to identify past the stage that they are bone.

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45 All bones other than those record ed as identifiable were return ed to their bags after they were recorded. The identifiabl e bones were then labeled with their context information. The context information was written direc tly on the bones, assuming that the bone condition allows as was the case for the Tell el Hesi material. If the bone becomes separated from the collection, researchers can read the label and re turn the bone to the correct collection. Pe rmanent markers were used for the labeling of the Tell el Hesi material. If the bones were too small or burnt, a tag was made with the context information. The bone and tag were placed in a 4-6 mm bag. After the bones were labeled, they were separated by their fiel d number and awaited further examination. When all basic recordin g and labeling were completed, the bones were then subjected to another sorting. This next sort grouped similar bones together according to the element they represent. All humeri went in one box regardless of what animal they were from. The other elements followed the same move as the humerus and each element received their own box. After the elements were separated into their own boxes, they were separated by species. At this point, trips to a reference collection were needed to identify unexpected or unusual species. Measurements were taken by calipers and measuring boxes and recorded following the standards developed by Von den Dreisch (1976). All cut marks, trauma, disease, maturity, and any abnor mality found on the bone at this time were recorded. The recording at this stage was more detailed and merged with the basic recording in the database. Below is a samp le recording from Tell el Hesi (Table 4)

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46 Table 4. Sample of Tell el Hesi measurement recording Animal: Ovis aries Element: Calcaneous Diaphysis Location: Field VI Provenience Bp Bd Length Comments THVI/24/67 Pb103 MC25 10.3 6.89 19.2 Cut on distal end THI/76/12 Pb56 MC11 NA NA NA Worked bone THVI/89/156 Pb 67 Mc33 10.9 8.2 19.9 Gnawed Tooth wear analysis was th e next step in the processe s of faunal analysis. Wear patterns have been developed for domesticates such as sheep/goats, cattle and pigs by Grant (1982). Payne (1973) further advan ced the study for Anatolian sheep/goats and created the manual for zooarchaeo logists working in the Near East. Each tooth and tooth row was recorded. The contextual informa tion, species, tooth number, and wear stage with diagram were incl uded in the recording. All material that has been recorded manua lly entered a database. The Tell el Hesi faunal remains have been entered into a Microsoft Access database. The zooarchaeological information needed to be co ded before it can be useful in a statistical way. Numerous coding lists have been proposed by Redding et al. (1978), Meadow (1978), and Uerpmann (1978). Adopting one of these lists can be helpful for standardizing data. The creation of digital databases become s useful when the researcher wants to estimate category abundance and analyze taphon omic space for the site (Grayson 1984). There are five basic methods used for determining category abundance including bone volume, bone weight, total number of fragment s (TNF), minimum numb er of individuals

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47 (MNI), and relative frequency (RF). Total number of fragments, MNI, and RF were used to analyze Tell el Hesi. Bone volume and bone weight are the least recommended meas ures of category abundance and was not used in this analys is. The measurement of bone volume should be conducted in the field after the bone fr agments have been washed. By placing the bone in a graduated container filled with wa ter and noting the leve l of liquid displaced, archaeologists can estimate the volume of the bone. Bone weight can be used for comparing bones grouped in taphonomic units. Differences in bone weights may reveal differential preservation and distinguish primary from secondary deposits. Several problems occur when bone weight is transforme d into an estimate of dietary resources (Grayson 1984). The amount of meat per carcass is highly va riable and, therefore, there is not a direct correlation between bone weight and meat. S econd, estimating dietary resources from bone weight assumes that w hole carcasses are presen ted by the debris. Third, viewing bone weight in this manner reduces the economic importance of animals into protein and ignores the va riety of non-dietary uses of an imals. Since the remains had been stored for numerous years and damage from storage was evident, bone volume and bone weight were not applicable to Tell el Hesi studies. Measuring abundance by c ounting the TNF is highly problematic but can be useful when combined with other methods. Problems occur when TNFs are thought to reflect the sizes of the populations represen ted by the categories of animals. Total Number of Fragments ignores the probability of interdependence, the chance that two fragments from the same animal will not be re cognized as such and will be counted twice (Hesse and Wapnish 1985).

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48 By far, MNI is the most popular me thod of estimating category abundance (Hesse and Wapnish 1985). Mi nimum Number of Individuals determines the number of animals by establishing the most frequent type of fragment in a categ ory. Over the years, modifications have removed the biases inte rdependence can create in an MNI count. Factors such as age, size, di sease, and archaeological contex t can remove biases found in MNI counts. Two questions need to be cons idered when factoring in the archaeological context to MNI (Hesse and Wapnish 1985). Fi rst, how far apart must two bones be to argue that they do not come fr om the same animal? Second, how different in time do two deposits have to be to insure that parts of the same animal are not included in both? Minimum Number of Individuals can be recommended as an estimator of abundance where it is suspected that interdependence is radically different in the categories being compared. Relative Frequency (RF) overcomes the w eakness of MNIs (t he existence of a whole animal is inferred from one of its pa rts) and TNFs (categories of animals are represented by variable numb ers of types of fragments) (Grayson 1984). Relative Frequency is calculated by listing the types of bones representing a category and the number of fragments in each, obtaining the tota l number of fragment s, and dividing it by the number of types. Relative Frequency can be described as the mean MNI.

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49 Chapter Five Tell el Hesi: The Results This chapter presents a quantitative analys is of the dist ribution of animals at Tell el Hesi. In addition, stable is otope results are presented in order to determine whether the animals at Tell el Hesi were eating domesticated C3 plants or wild C4 plants found in the surrounding hills. The following chapter integrates this new information with current site interpretations to determine the extent to which the faunal remains correlate with the interpretations. Tell el Hesi is divided into two main areas, the acropolis and the surrounding domestic and agricultural fields (Figure 11). Excavations at the site focused on two fields including Field I (the acropolis ) and Field VI (an Early Bronz e Age domestic field). The remaining fields have only been sampled th rough probes and shovel te sts. Due to changes in site function (see Chapter 3: Tell el Hesi), incomplete excavations on the acropolis, and a relatively small faunal sample, the fauna l assemblage is divide d into acropolis and non-acropolis samples. Non-Acropolis: Animal Results for the Bronze Age The only reliable faunal sample avai lable for the EBA is from non-acropolis fields. There is no evidence of any later occ upation outside the acropolis at Tell el Hesi. Because excavations have not yet ventured into the EBA on the acropolis, it is not possible to compare rural animal usage versus urban animal usage at Tell el Hesi during this time period.

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50 Figure 11. Location of fi elds and areas at Tell el Hesi (Rose et al. 1978)

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51 Table 5. Total number of fragments of animal remains at Tell el Hesi Field VI is the most extensively ex cavated Early Bronze Age portion with 39 areas sampled (see Table 5 for the faunal a ssemblage of Field VI during the EBA). Excavations in Field III, IX and VIII produced only spotty information for cultural behavior during EBA III. These remains were added to the total number of fragments of Field VI to provide a faunal assemblage repr esenting the cultural activities outside the acropolis (Table 5). Economically signifi cant animals are presented in bold type. The relative frequency for animals at Tell el Hesi was determined by grouping the animal bones into body categories, i.e. head, forelimb, hindlimb, and foot. By presenting the Tell el Hesi remains in this “archaeol ogical animal” method it is possible to examine biases impacting the archaeologi cal sample. The RF of animal s at Tell el Hesi represents an “average MNI”. Simply speaking, the RF constitutes the composition of bones in a sample. The RF of animals at Tell el Hesi are presented below by percentages (Table 6). Field VI All Non-Acropolis Fields Animal TNF Animal TNF Aves 12 Bos Taurus 176 Alcelaphus 6 Ovis/Capra 511 Bos taurus 166 Ovis aries 142 Camelus 2 Capra hircus 69 Canis 16 Familiaris Capra hircus 62 Cervus 6 Equus asinus 2 Gazella 9 Felidae 3 Rodentia 62 Ovis aries 126 Ovis/Capra 509 Sus scrofa 2 Osteichthyes 6 Reptilia 4

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52 Table 6. The description of archaeological animals using carcass parts and expressing the results by percentages Capra Hircus Acropolis Non-Acropolis Carcass Element OttomanPersianIron I EBA head and neck 04 9 forelimb 3329 20 hindlimb 2625 22 foot and ankle 4136 49 Bos Taurus Acropolis Non-Acropolis Carcass Element OttomanPersianIron EBA head and neck 50239 20 forelimb 02725 15 hindlimb 502128 20 foot and ankle 02937 44 Ovis aries Acropolis Non-Acropolis Carcass Element OttomanPersianIron EBA head and neck 040 4 forelimb 332116 17 hindlimb 332922 30 foot and ankle 334661 50 Ovis/Capra Acropolis Non-Acropolis Carcass Element OttomanPersianIron EBA head and neck 02917 7 forelimb 02931 28 hindlimb 502530 29 foot and ankle 501722 25

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53 The Acropolis: Animal Results for th e Iron Age, Persian and Ottoman Periods Faunal evidence from the acropolis dates to the Late Bronze Age, Iron Age, Persian Period, and the Ottoman Empire. The LBA stratigraphy is questionable and therefore will not be included in the results here. The acropolis at Tell el Hesi is distinctive, because of its dras tic change in function from the EBA to the Ottoman Empire. This aspect of the site must be considered when viewing the faunal results. Are the faunal results from the acropo lis indicative of the ch anges we see at Tell el Hesi? It would be reasonable to argue that animal and botanical remains discovered during the Iron Age are associated with th is specialized military population and local production versus international trade or complex redistributio n found at Tell el Hesi only during the Early Bronze Age. Iron Age faunal remains were found in four fields at Tell el Hesi including Fields I, III, IX and IV. Out of the 329 TNFs a ssociated with the Iron Age, 313 are found in Field I on the acropolis. A total of 13 areas have been excavated on the acropolis and date to the Iron Age. Of these 13, areas 11, 22, 32, 41, 51, 71, 81 and 91 were extensively excavated versus just sporadically sa mpled or probed. Only one animal remain was found in Field III a nd one in Field IX. These remains are insignificant for statistical study of activities taking place in these fields. Thirteen remains were found in Field IV. The population at Tell el Hesi during the Persian Pe riod shifted again while maintaining its military function. No conc rete evidence for permanent residential complexes have been found. The site appear s to have switched from a military outpost with a permanent outpost crew to a supply station with a se mi-permanent skeleton crew

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54 (Blakely 2002). With this skeleton cr ew is evidence for only seasonal activities associated with daily life. Animal remains dating to the Persian Period are only found in Field I, the acropolis. Ten areas have been excavated dating to th e Persian Period on the acropolis; six have been excavated extens ively. Below are the faunal remains found on the acropolis for the Iron Age, Persian Peri od, and Ottoman Empire (Table 7). As one can see, a large number of faunal remains ar e from an Iron Age II fill layer found in the acropolis. This layer correlates with a cham ber and fill system produced to elevate the summit of the acropolis during the Iron Age in re sponse to a new military focus at the site (Toombs 1981). The fill has been dated to Iron Age II based on ceramic evidence found within the fill layers (Blakely and Hardin 2002). Comparing the fields of Tell el Hesi Drawing conclusions from comparison be tween the acropolis and non-acropolis fields is difficult. Two majo r factors blur the connection between the results from the fields at Tell el Hesi. First, the site’s function is segregated be tween acropolis and nonacropolis. In the non-acropolis fields, the only substantial faunal remains excavated date to EBA III when Tell el Hesi was a we ll-known grain producing center and trading location. Table 7. TNF for faunal remains found on the acropolis Animal Iron IA Iron II Iron II Fill Persian Period Ottoman Empire Ovis/Capra 4 178 202 347 6 Ovis aries 0 0 49 56 3 Capra hircus 0 14 14 27 0 Bos taurus 0 51 65 56 2

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55 The city’s residents were living in a prospe rous urban center in the Southern Levant. The faunal remains excavated from the acropo lis, however, represent a very different lifestyle than those found in the EBA. These remains represent the military lifestyle of outpost families. Second, the faunal sample currently availa ble for analysis is incomplete and inconsistent in sample size. Thirty-nine ar eas were excavated in Field VI whereas only 13 areas were excavated in Field I. Of thes e areas, several were completely excavated, however many were only sampled through probe s and surface screen ing. Quantification of earth moved during excavation is vague due to the inaccuracy of removal methods. The total number of fragments can be compar ed only with these complications in mind. Table 8, below, illustrates the association of faunal fragments between the acropolis (Field I) at Tell el Hesi and the non-acropolis fields. Th e number of fragments excavated at this site is comparable in number to those found at other sites in the Southern Levant of the same time period (see Appendix A). By de veloping two sets of comparable data in the acropolis and non-acropo lis, it is possible to see the relationship between O/C and Bos taurus as well as Ovis aries and Capra hircus in these two settings. There is little change in the rela tionship among these animals over time. Table 8. TNF between acropolis fields and non-acropolis fields O/C Bos taurus Ovis aries Capra hircus Acropolis 737 174 108 55 81% 19% 66% 34% Non-Acropolis 511 176 142 69 74% 26% 67% 33%

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56 Mortality patterns were calculated for th e sheep/goat tooth remains found at Tell el Hesi in order to learn mo re about how the animals were used for market (Figures 12, 13, and 14). The estimates were calculated following the procedures outlined by Payne (1973). Many individual loose teeth spanned several age cate gories, as defined by Payne, where other teeth spanned only one age category. To account for these differences, teeth spanning several categories were divide d equally between th e categories they represented. The results are pr esented based on the percentage of survival for each aging category. In general, the sharpest decline in survival occurs between six months to three years across all time periods. This correlates with the age range marketable animals are culled for maximum meat weight. Cumulative Survivorship Curve (EBA)0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 ABCDEFGHI Tooth Wear StagePercent of Survival 0-2 m 2-6 m6-12 m1-2 y2-3 y3-4 y4-6 y6-8 y8-10 y Figure 12. The percent of survival of sh eep/goats during the EB A at Tell el Hesi

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57 Cumulative Survivorship Curve (Iron Age)0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 ABCDEFGHI Tooth Wear StagePercentage of Survival0-2 m2-6 m6-12 m1-2 y2-3 y3-4 y4-6 y6-8 y8-10 y Figure 13. The percent of survival of sheep/goats during the Iron Age at Tell el Hesi Cumulative Survivorship Curve (Persian)0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 ABCDEFGHI Tooth Wear StagePercentage of Survival0-2 m2-6 m6-12 m1-2 y2-3 y3-4 y4-6 y6-8 y8-10 y Figure 14. The percent of survival of sh eep/goat during the Persian Period at Tell el Hesi

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58 Quantitative analyses including Independent student’s t tests and One-Way Analysis of Variance were performed on the re lative frequency data in order to determine if there are differences in the composition of these bone piles at Tell el Hesi according to animal or through time. A One-Way ANOVA is a way to test the equality of three or more means at one time by using mean values This statistical test follows three basic assumptions. First, the populations from which the samples were obtained must be normally or approximately normally dist ributed. Second, the samples must be independent. Lastly, the varian ces of the populations must be equal. Four independent variables were tested from Tell el Hesi including field, time, animal, and the relative frequency of that animal. Economically signif icant animals were selected for the test and included O vis aries, Capra hircus, O/C, and Bos taurus The purpose of the independent samples stud ent’s t test is to compare the means between two groups whose scores are not re lated to one another. Normally, these samples are collected indepe ndently. The same variable s were evaluated using the Independent t test and One-Way ANOVA test. Both tests show that there is no statistical difference or change in the way the faunal samples were deposited in the non-acropolis fields versus the acropolis (Tables 9 and 10). Table 9. T Test results Animals Amoung Animals p = O/C .24 Sheep .94 Goat .67 Cattle .64 .47 = .05

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59 Table 10. ANOVA results Animals p = Among Animals .17 O/C .68 Sheep Goat .95 Cattle .94 = .05 sample size is to small for accurate testing Comparing Tell el Hesi and Surrounding Sites During the EBA both Tell el Hesi and Te ll Halif developed into fortified urban towns on the northern edge of the Negev De sert and Shephelah (Figure 15). When comparing the faunal remains from these two sites, there is a noticeable difference in the percent of cattle present (see Appendix A) One explanation for the higher cattle percentage at Tell el Hesi may be due to differences in annual rainfall and geographic location (Sasson 2005). The annual rainfall for Te ll Halif is 270 mm compared to Tell el Hesi, which is 300-400 mm per year. Sasson (20 05) argues that sites where cattle bone frequencies reach levels of 15 percen t employed cattle for ploughing and grain cultivation, an important undertaking in a gr ain producing center such as Tell el Hesi. Both Tel Miqne-Ekron and Beer-Sheba were reviewed for comparative faunal samples during the Iron Age. Many aspects of animal husbandry and management were different from that found at Tell el Hesi. First, during the 12th through 10th centuries, cattle appear to play a more important role at Tel Miqne-Ekron than at Tell el Hesi (see Appendix A).

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60 Figure 15. Tell el Hesi and comparative sites (Zeder 1996) Second, unlike the complete absence of pig rema ins at Tell el Hesi during the Iron Age, Tel Miqne-Ekron experienced a relative abund ance of pig. These changes found at Tel Miqne-Ekron point to intensification and cen tralization of the animal production effort (Hesse 1986), an effort not found dur ing the Iron Age at Tell el Hesi. Animal frequencies are more similar be tween Tell el Hesi and Beer-Sheba than with those found at Tel Miqne-Ekron during the Iron Age. When comparing sheep/goat versus cattle, 81 percen t of the remains are that of sh eep/goat at Tell el Hesi and 86 percent at Beer-Sheba. A nu merical predominance of bones from the forepart of sheep and goats was evident at Bee r-Sheba (Hellwing 1984). Th is tendency was not found at Tell el Hesi, where carcass parts were relativ ely even across species and time. Tooth wear analysis from both sites suggests that caprovines were exploite d primarily for meat over by-products.

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61 Ashkelon and Tell el Hesi were both used as Persian military outposts during Persia’s campaigns against Egypt between the 5th and 4th centuries. At both sites sheep and goats represent the majority of the assemblage. Lipovitch’s (1999) analysis of Ashkelon suggests a shift to a mo re goat-intensive stoc k-raising pattern, on e that is absent from Tell el Hesi. Previous comparisons of Ashkelon and earlier fauna l studies at Tell el Hesi present conflicting reports from the finds of this cu rrent study. Unlike Ashkelon, there have been no camel bones discovered at Tell el Hesi dating to the Persian Period. Only two camel metatarsals have been record ed in this analysis and both come from contaminated layers found outside the acropolis In contrast to Lipovitch’s analysis, no game animals, often associated with milita ry sites, have been found in the Persian occupation layers at Tell el He si. All game and wild animals recorded in this analysis date to the EBA. Stable Isotope Results Isotopes are elements with a different nu mber of neutrons that give them a different atomic mass. Many isotopes do not decay through time and therefore are considered stable. Two traits of isotopes become valuable to researchers who study living organisms. First, the isotopic ratios of a subject’s tissue refl ect the isotopic ratios from living things ingested. Second, local isot opic ratios vary spatia lly across the earth. With these two traits, scientists are able to make inferences about nut ritional relationships and migration patterns, and to compare the qu ality of different habitats (Ambrose and Krigbaum 2003).

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62 Stable isotope analysis of human and animal bone provi des direct information on the lifetime diets of these organisms. This information can be combined with other archaeological evidence such as artifacts, fa unal analysis, and archaeobotanical analysis to provide a clearer picture of subsistence practices. The combination of faunal and stable isotope analysis is fairly new to arch aeological studies in the Near East (Sillen et al. 1989). The results presented below provi de a basic isotopic view of foddering practices at Tell el Hesi. Typically, archaeologists study two specifi c elements found in human and animal bone, including carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). These elements found in bones are the same carbon and nitrogen atoms that are found in the food eaten. The ratio between the two stable isotopes of carbon (13C/12C) is measured and reported relative to a standard reference material as 13C. The ratio for nitrogen isotopes (15N/14N) is also measured and reported relative to a standard reference material as 15N. These values are signature specific to different types of foods. By measuring the delta values of carbon and nitrogen isotopes, archaeologists are ab le to infer what food the ca rbon and nitrogen came from (Ambrose and Krigbaum 2003; Katzenberg and Harrison 1997; Tykot 2004; van der Merwe 1982). Two main types of bone material exist, collagen and apatite. Collagen is the protein portion of bone, and the values found in collagen reflect mainly the protein portion of the organism’s diet. Apatite is co mprised of bone carbonate. This material is comprised from dietary protei ns, carbohydrates, and fat. Carbon values play an important role when trying to determine an animal’s diet consisting of different types of plants, includi ng C3 and C4 plants. These plants differ in

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63 their photosynthetic pathways. C4 plants foll ow the Hatch-Slack pathway (see van der Merwe 1982 for details) and are subject to long growing seasons with lots of access to sun. They are called C4 because, during the pho tosynthesis process, the plants convert atmospheric carbon into a chemical compound with four carbon atoms. Typically, grasses native to hot and arid environments, su ch as the Southern Levant, fall into this C4 category (Sillen et al. 1989). C4 plants of speci al interest to archaeologists include maize, sorghum, sugarcane, millet, and papyrus. C4 plants absorb 13C far faster than 12C, and so the total biomass of C4 plants range s between -9 to -16‰. The average 13C values of these plants fall around -12.5‰. C3 plants follow the Calvin-Benson pathway (see van der Merwe 1982 for more details). These plants convert carbon to a compound containing three carbon atoms. They are found in a far broader range of environm ents and include trees shrubs, and grasses from temperate regions. C3 plants, which are of particular interest to archaeologists, include rice, wheat, rye, barl ey, cassava, potatoes, algae, spinach, and yams. They are slower to take in 13C, so their total biomass ranges from -22 to -35‰. The average 13C values of these plants are -26.5‰. Stable isotope analysis was performed on 18 animal fragments from Tell el Hesi to determine if the animals were foddered with domesticated C3 plants or consumed wild C4 plants found in the surrounding foothills. Two samples each were chosen from nine species including domestic and wild animals. Sixteen samples date to EB III and two are from mixed stratigraphy in Fi eld I. Although the faunal re mains appeared to be in optimal condition for stable isotope testing, little to no collagen was preserved. The carbon values presented below (Table 11) repr esent bone apatite taken from the faunal

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64 Table 11. Photosynthetic pathways and archaeologically si gnificant plants Pathway 13C Range Important plants Calvin-Benson C3 -22‰-35‰Rice Wheat Rye Barley Cassava Potatoes Algae spinach yams Hatch-Slack C4 -9‰-16‰maize sorgham sugarcane millet papyrus Table 12. 13C values from Tell el Hesi Animal Lab ID 13C Cervus 7677 -7.1 Cervus 7678 N/A Bos taurus 7674 -8.1 Bos taurus 7673 -9.4 Canis 7672 -9.5 Canis 7671 -9.8 Alcelaphus 7675 -9.5 Alcelaphus 7676 -9.9 Ovis 7668 -9.3 Ovis 7667 -10.3 Capra 7669 -10.1 Capra 7670 -10.7 Gazelle 7682 -11.4 Gazelle 7681 N/A Equid 7679 N/A Equid 7680 N/A Camelus* 7683 -8.8 Camelus 7684 -10.2 Remains from mixed stratigraphy

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65 samples. Fourteen of the samples yielde d a carbon value representing a significant consumption of C4 plants. The remaining f our samples did not yield any carbon value. The results from the stable isotope analysis reveal that all animals tested from Tell el Hesi ate C4 plants. There is no evidence of cultivated C4 plants (i.e., millet, sorghum) at Tell el Hesi (Steward 1978) during the Early Bronze Age. This suggests that the animals listed were eating wild C4 grasses commonly found in southern Israel’s semiarid environment. Deer express the highest value of C4 plant consumption, whereas gazelle express the lowest value found at Tell el Hesi (Figure 16). It is important to note, however, that only one sample from each of these two animals yielded a result. Both Bos taurus samples revealed an isotope value c onsistent with high C4 consumption suggesting that domesticated cattle at Tell el Hesi were habitually grazed in the surrounding foothills. The domesticated animals at Tell el Hesi may have been foddered, however, domesticated C3 plants did not make up the majority of the animals diet. More stable isotope testing is needed in order to have a large enough sample to apply the isotope results to specialized an imal production questions. Small sample size and poor bone preservation make these results preliminary at best.

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66 Isotope Values from Tell el Hesi-12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 AnimalsCarbon Values Sample 1 -9.3-10.1-8.1-9.5-11.4-7.1-9.5-8.8 Sample 2 -10.3-10.7-9.4-9.8-9.9-10.1 Ovis ariesCapraBos taurusCanisGazelleCervusAlcelaphusCamelus *Carbon values represent the 13C isotope value Figure 16. Isotope results from Tell el Hesi

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67 Chapter Six Interpretation All archaeological and historical analyses of Tell el Hesi clearly show a drastic change in site function except for the faunal analysis. One would expect the animal usage at such a site to change, reflecting the cha nge in site function and habitation; however, this change is not apparent at Tell el Hesi. Two rationales may explain this. One major factor influencing the faunal re sults from this site is the incomplete excavation of both the acropolis and surroundi ng fields. For non-acropolis remains, 39 areas were excavated in Field VI. Only a ha ndful of areas have been excavated from Fields III, IX, and VIII combined and most of the sampling was limited to small probes. Due to this sporadic probing, little information is available to give in sight to the activities taking place in these fields. Incomplete exca vation of these fields has created faunal samples too small to test. Tell el Hesi mu st be analyzed by lumping all non-acropolis fields together. Lumping this many areas together greatly increases the chance for interdependence among samples. This is also true for the faunal remains found in association with the acropolis. Fields I, III, IX and IV ha d to be lumped together for analysis. In Field I, 13 areas have been sampled through excavation. The other fields have only been minimally probed. Excavating tells in the Near East is challenging. Several common problems plague archaeologists when tryi ng to sort through the stratigra phy of a tell. The nature of tell construction leads to une venly distributed stratigraphy bo th in depth and area. The

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68 sequence of deposits, structures, and debris is irregular. Adding to this complexity is the many intrusive features found at Tell el Hesi including pits, fills, and glacises. These inconveniences also increase the chance of in terdependence and inaccuracy in the faunal record. Because Tell el Hesi is extremely se gregated by both the current status of excavation and by site function, it is nearly impossible to confidently compare urban vs. rural usage of economically significant animal s during a single time period at this stage of research. Historical documentation and past excavations at Te ll el Hesi strongly suggest that the EBA layers of Tell el Hesi represent the activities of a thriving urban center providing grain for much of the southe rn Levant. The acropolis would have been the heart of this type of society. The EBA urban faunal remains, however, are still buried in the acropolis. Once these remains are ex cavated, quantitative changes in the faunal assemblage may appear, differentiating be tween urban and domestic animal use. Although I argue that incomplete excavati on of the site is certainly a cause for dissimilarity between the faunal results and current site interpretation, another explanation is possible. The faunal remains excavated date to the EBA and reflect the domestic sector of life at Tell el Hesi. Architecture for this time period in the nonacropolis fields includes small domestic dwel lings with local workshops, cooking areas, and courtyards (Toombs 1983). Animals were being manipulated by small families for their individual needs. This non-urban aspect of everyday life at Tell el Hesi is what the faunal assemble represents. Because of the missing urban aspect, it is difficult to accurately compare the EBA fauna l samples of Tell el Hesi with those of other urban towns in the southern Levant. At this tim e, the animal remains dating to the EBA are

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69 predominantly sheep/goat at 70 percent of th e total assemblage followed by cattle at 16 percent. Wild mammals, birds and fish make up 6 percent of the total assemblage. This may be a reflection of meat supplementation fo r families living in the rural sector of Tell el Hesi. Although sheep and goat comprise the majority of the assemblage, it is clear that sheep are favored two to one over goat. The mortality curves for sh eep/goat suggests that the people of Tell el Hesi primarily exploited these animals for meat products over by products. With the beginning of the Iron Age, 900 y ears later, Tell el Hesi was still being occupied by small families. The reason fo r those families occupying Tell el Hesi had changed drastically, though th e need to survive and pr oduce food had not. Military families upholding the Judean border during the Iron Age and guarding Tell el Hesi as an outpost during the Persian period would have pr oduced food in a strikingly similar way to the domestic families of the EBA. This similarity may represent the strength of basic animal husbandry practices of the southern Leva nt as it is adapted to many political and social changes that occurred at Tell el Hesi through time. The only difference recorded in the animal samples from the EBA to the Iron Age is a reduction in wild mammals. Comparing the animal usage at Tell el Hesi to other sites in the Southern Levant is difficult due to problems already discu ssed. To provide a basic understanding of how the number of bones excavated at Tell el Hesi compares to other si tes in the region, the percent of TNF between sheep and goat as well as sheep/goat and cattle have been calculated (Appendix A). During the EBA, th e TNF percentage between sheep/goat and cattle is most similar to Tel Megiddo and th e percentage between sheep and goat is most similar to Yaqush (Hesse and Wapnish 2001). During Iron Age I, the percentage

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70 between sheep/goat and cattle is most similar to Beth-Shemesh with a difference of only one percent (Hesse and Wapnish 2001). The percentages of Iron Age II remains at Tell el Hesi are considerably diffe rent than those calculated fo r surrounding sites (Hesse 1986; Hesse and Wapnish 2001; Zeder 1996). Severa l distinctions have been noted when comparing the Persian Period remains of Tell el Hesi with Ashkel on. Notably, Tell el Hesi does not experience an increase in wild animal remains, which is a signature of military sites. Also, there has been no eviden ce pointing to an increase in draft animals at Tell el Hesi during the Persian Period. Although Tel el Hesi shared the same s ite function as many surrounding sites in the Shephelah and northern Negev region, this study does not show the change in animal exploitation through time that is often found at other sites. Th is contrasts with the general trend of shifting exploitation for adaptati on to new political and economic pressures. Tooth wear analysis, carcass part comparison, and proportion of assemblage all remain relatively consistent through time at Tell el Hesi. The stable isotope results clearly show that all animals tested at Tell el Hesi ate wild C4 plants commonly found in the southern Levant. This result was surprising since all animals tested dated to the EBA, a time when domestically grown C3 plants where plentiful at Tell el Hesi fo r both human use and animal foddering. Although animals at Tell el Hesi were grazing and predominantly eating C4 plants this does not suggest that there was no foddering activity at Tell el Hesi. Economically significant animals could have been both foddered within the city boundari es of Tell el Hesi as well as grazed in the surrounding foothill area. Th e stable isotope results suggest that plenty of local C4 grasses were available at Tell el Hesi and used by local herd ers and wild animals alike.

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71 Chapter Seven Conclusion It is clear to see that Tell el Hesi provides archaeologists with a unique opportunity to examine the stabili ty of animal husbandry practic es in the Southern Levant amidst social and political upheaval and change. One of the earliest sites excavated in the Near East following the para digm of New Archaeology (Ben Tor 1992), Tell el Hesi’s excavation history provides researchers with a solid archaeohistorical foundation upon which future studies can de velop. The faunal and stable isotope analyses are by no means complete at this site. Th is report is not meant to se rve as a final study and should be considered a preliminary introduction fo r future faunal studies at Tell el Hesi. Incomplete excavations at Tell el Hesi prevent a clear unders tanding of change in animal use through time. No area has been completely excavated, and it is difficult to quantify the amount of earth ex cavated between areas. Because the site is extremely segregated between the acropolis and non-acropoli s fields, it is nearly impossible at this time to view husbandry differences between ur ban and rural populations living at Tell el Hesi during the EBA. Faunal remains repr esenting the activities of urban populations still lay beneath the acropolis. Currently, the composition of animals being used at Tell el Hesi appears to be stable through sociopolitical and economic shifts occurring in the regi on and site. If this composition is an accurate repr esentation of activities at Tell el Hesi, animals were being manipulated in similar patterns through time. Th is is in stark contra st to reports produced

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72 from other sites in the surrounding area that also experienced the same political and economic turmoil as Tell el Hesi. This sugge sts that the animal husbandry practices found at Tell el Hesi were not influenced by social and political changes in the southern Levant. The TNF percentages at Tell el Hesi between sheep/goat and cattle, and sheep and goat are comparable to some sites in the surrounding region. Th ese sites include Tell Yaqush, Tell Halif, Tell Megiddo, Beth-Shemesh, Beer-Sheba, Miqne-Ekron, and Ashkelon. Sheep and goat represent the majori ty of the assemblage and were the most significant taxa to the economy from the EBA through the Persian Period. The significance of cattle fluctuates between sites. Cattle remains are relatively consistent during the EBA and Iron Age I, but begin to de cline in significance at the end of the Iron Age through the Persian Period. Game animals are almost absent from the faunal record at Tell el Hesi during the Persian Period, which is contra dictory to evidence found at most other military posts in the southern Levant. Future excavations are needed in order to increase the sample size from Tell el Hesi and to provide a more accurate record of animal exploitation in an urban market economy during the EBA. Though Field I has b een sampled extensively, other areas of the acropolis must be analyzed in order to get a more accurate picture of animal exploitation strategies of military soldiers and their families. Tell el Hesi provides both archaeologist s and the public with an opportunity to experience cultural development in a singl e location over time. The site provides valuable insight to the history of Israel and Near Eastern re gion. Zooarchaeological analysis is needed at sites su ch as Tell el Hesi to provide a more complete understanding of human adaptation in times of social and political transformation.

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73 References AHARONI, Y. 1978. The Archaeology of the Land of Israel: From the Prehistoric Beginnings to the End of the First Temple Period. Philadelphia, PA: The Westminster Press. ALBRIGHT, W. 1974. The Archaeology of Palestine and the Bible. Cambridge, MA: The American Schools of Oriental Research. AMBROSE, S. H., and KRIGBAUM, J. 2003. Bone Chemistry and Bioarchaeology. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 22: 193-99. AMBROSE, S. H., and NORR. 1993. "Experiment al Evidence for the Relationship of Carbon Isotope Ratios of Whole Diet a nd Dietary Protein to Those of Bone Collagen and Carbonate," in Prehistoric Human Bone: Archaeology at the Molecular Level Edited by J. B. Lambert and G. Grupe, pp. 1-37. New York: Springer-Verlag. AMOROSI, T. 1989. Postcranial Guide to Domestic Neo-Natal and Juvenile Mammals. Oxford: BAR International Series 533. ANDREWS, A. H. 1982. "The Use of Dentition to Age Young Cattle," in Ageing and Sexing Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites Edited by B. Wilson, C. Grigson, and S. Payne, Oxford: BAR International Series 109. BARKAY, G. 1992. "The Iron Age II-III," in The Archaeology of Ancient Israel Edited by A. Ben-Tor, pp. 302-73. New Haven: Yale University Press. BEN TOR, AMNON. 1992. "The Early Bronze Age," in The Archaeology of Ancient Israel Edited by A. Ben Tor, pp. 81-125. New Haven: Yale University Press. BENNETT, W. J., and BLAKELY, J. A. 1989. Tell el Hesi: The Persian Period (Stratum V). Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisen brauns. BETLYON, J. W. 1982. The Joint Archaeolo gical Expedition to Tell el Hesi, 1981. Biblical Archaeologist 45: 124-26. BLAKELY, J. Lecture. Archaeological Contribu tions to Biblical Scholarship: The Case of Tell el Hesi. BLAKELY, J. 2002. Reconciling Two Maps: Ar chaeological Evidence for the Kingdoms of David and Solomon. Bulletin of the American Sc hools of Oriental Research 327: 49-54.

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74 BLAKELY, J., HARDIN, J., and MASTER, D. Unpublished. The Expenditure of Human Capital on the Southern/Western Boarders of Judah in the 10th, 9th, and Early 8th Centuries B.C.E. BLAKELY, J., and HORTON, F. 2001. On S ite identifications Old and New: The Example of Tell el Hesi. Near Eastern Archaeology 64: 24-36. BLAKELY, J., HORTON, F., and DOERMANN, R. In progress. Judahite Governmental Outpost and Fortress: Tell el Hesi in the 10th through 8th Centuries B.C.E. BLAKELY, J. A., and HARDIN, J. W. 2002. Southwestern Judah in the Late 18th century B.C.E. Bulletin for the American Sc hools of Oriental Research 326: 1164. BLAKELY, J. A., and TOOMBS, L. E. 1980. "The Tell el Hesi Field Manual," in Excavation Reports of the American Schools of Oriental Research : Tell el Hesi 1 Edited by K. G. O' Connell, Cambri dge pp. 1-100. MA: American Schools of Oriental Research. BLISS, FREDERICK J. 1894. A Mound of Many Cities. London. BOESSNECK, J. 1970. "Osteological Differen ce between Sheep (Ovis aries Linne) and Goat (Capra hircus Linne)," in Science of Archaeology Edited by D. Brothwell and E. Higgs, pp. 23-52. London: Thames and Hudson. BOESSNECK, J., MULLER, H. H., and TEICHERT, M. 1964. Kuhn-Archiv 78: 1-129. BOROWSKI, O. 1987. Agriculture in Iron Age Israel: The Evidence From Archaeology and the Bible. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns. CHAPLIN, R. E. 1971. The Study of Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites. New York: Seminar Press Ltd. CHESSON, M. 2003. Households, Houses, Neighborhoods, and Corporate Villages: Modeling the Early Bronze Age as a House Society. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 16: 79-102. CHESSON, M, and PHILIP, G. 2003. Tales of th e City? 'Urbanism' in the Early Bronze Age Levant from Mediterranean and Levantine Prospectivies. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 16: 3-16. CLUTTON-BROCK, J. 1978. "Bones for the Zoologists," in Approaches to faunal analysis in the Middle East. Edited by R. H. Meadow and M. Zeder, pp. 49-51. Harvard University: Peabody Museum Bulletin. COHEN, S. 2002. Canaanites, Chronologies, and Conn ections: The Relationship of Middle Bronze Age IIA Canaan to Middle Kingdom Egypt. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns

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75 COOGAN, M. D. 1989. "Chalcolithic Remains in Field III," in Tell el Hesi: The Site and the Expedition Edited by B. T. Dahlberg and K. G. O'Connell, pp. 169-76. Winona Lake, IN: Excavation Reports of the American Schools of Oriental Research: Tell el Hesi 4. COOGAN, M. D. 1989. "Field II," in Tell el Hesi: The Site and the Expedition Edited by K. G. O' Connell and B. T. Dahlbe rg, pp. 163-68. Winona Lake, IN: Excavation reports of the American Schools of Oriental Research: Tell el Hesi 4. CURRID, J. 1999. Doing Archaeology in the Land of the Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books. DAVIS, S. 1987. The Archaeology of Animals. New Haven: Yale University Press. DOERMANN, R. W. 1983. Summaries of the 19 83 Season of Excavation at Tell el Hesi. Revue Biblique 91: 272-77. DOERMANN, R. W., and FARGO, V. M. 1985. Tell el Hesi, 1983. Palestine Exploration Quarterly 117: 1-24. DOTHAN, T. 1982. The Philistines and Their Material Cutlure. New Haven: Yale University Press. DRIESCH, A. 1976. A Guide to the Measurement of Animal Bones From Archaeological Sites: As Developed by the Institut fu r Paleoanatomie, Domestikationsforschung und Geschichte der Tiermedizin of the University of Munich. Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum of Archaeology an d Ethnology, Harvard University. DRIESCH, A. V. D. 1976. A Guide to th e Measurements of Animal Bones From Archaeological Sites. Peabody Museum Bulletin 1-136. FALCONER, S. 1995. Rural Responses to Ea rly Urbanism: Bronze Age Household and Village Economy at Tell el-Hayyat, Jordon. Journal of Field Archaeology 22: 400-19. FALCONER, S., and SAVAGE, S. 1995. Hear tlands and Hinterlands, Alternative Trajectories of Early Ur banization in Mesopotamia and the Southern Levant. American Antiquity 60: 37-58. FALCONER, S. E. 1994. "The Develoment an Decline of Bronze Age Civilisation in the Southern Levant: A Reassessment of Urbanism and Ruralism.," in Development and Decline in the Mediterranean Developm ent and Decline in the Mediterranean Bronze Age. Edited by C. Mathers and S. Stoddart, pp. 305-33. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press. FALL, P., LINES, L., and FALCONER, S. 1998. Seeds of Civilization: Bronze Age Rural Economy and Ecology in the Southern Levant. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 88: 107-25.

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76 FARGO, V. M. 1979. Early Bronze Ag e Pottery at Tell el Hesi. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 236: 23-40. FARGO, V. M., and O' CONNELL, K. G. 1978. Five Season of Excavation at Tell el Hesi (1970-1977). Biblical Archaeologist 41: 168-82. FINKELSTEIN, I. 1988. The Archaeology of the Israelite Settlement. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society. FINKELSTEIN, I. 1992. "Pastoralism in the Highlands of Canaan in the Thrid and Second Millennia B.C.E.," in Pastoralism in the L evant: Archaeological Materials in Anthropological Perspectives Edited by O. Bar-Yosef and A. Khazanov, pp. 133-42. Madison, WI: Prehistory Press. FISHER, C. S. 1929. The Excavation of Armageddon. Chicago: University of Chicago. FRITZ, V. 1995. The City in Ancient Israel. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press. GERSTENBLITH, P. 1983. The Levant at the Beginning of the Middle Bronze Age. American Schools of Oriental Re search Dissertation Series 5. GONEN, RIVKA. 1992. "The Late Bronze Age," in The Archaeology of Ancient Israel Edited by A. Ben-Tor, pp. 211-57. New Haven: Yale University Press. GRANT, A. 1982. "The Use of Toothwear as a Guide to the Age of Domestic Ungulates.," in Ageing and Sexing Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites Edited by B. Wilson, C. Grigson, and S. and Paynes, pp. 91-108. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, British Series. GRAYSON, D. 1984. Quantitative Zooarchaeology: Topics in the Analysis of Archaeological Faunas. Orlando: Academic Press. GRIGSON, C. 1995. “ Plough and Pasture in the Early Ec onomy of the Southern Levant” in The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land Edited by T. Levy, pp. 245-268. New York: Facts on File. HELLWING, S. 1984. “Human Exploitation of Animal Resources in the Early Iron Age Strata at Tel Beer-Sheba,” in Beer-Sheba II: The Early Iron Age Settlements. Edited by Ze’ev Herzog, pp. 105-115. Tel Aviv: Ramot Publishing Co. HESSE, B. 1986. Animal Use at Tel Miqne -Ekron in the Bronze Age and Iron Age. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 264: 17-27. HESSE, B. 1995. “Husbandry, Dietary Taboos a nd the Bones of the Ancient Near East: Zooarchaeology in the Post-Processual World” in Methods in the Mediterranean: Historical and Archaeological Views on Texts and Archaeology Edited by D.B. Small, pp.197-232. New York: E.J. Brill.

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77 HESSE, B., and WAPNISH, P. 1984. Animal Bone Archaeology: From Objectives to Analysis. Washington D.C.: Taraxacum. HESSE, B., and WAPNISH, P. 1997. “Can Pig Remains be used for Ethnic Diagnosis in the Ancient Near East?” in The Archaeology of Israel : Constructing the Past, Interpreting the Present Edited by N.A. Silberman and D.B. Small, pp. 238-270. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. HESSE, B. and WAPNISH, P. 2001. "An Ar chaeolozoological Perspective on the Cultural Use of Mammals in the Levant.," in A History of the Animal World in the Ancient Near East. Edited by B. J. Collins, pp. 457-91. Leiden: Brill. HESSE, B. and WAPNISH, P. 2001. “Commod ities and Cuisine: Animals in the Early Bronze Age of Northern Palestine,” in Studies in the Archae ology of Israel and Neighboring Lands in Memory of Douglas L. Esse Edited by S.R. Wolff, pp. 251282. Atlanta: Scholars Press. HORWITZ, L. K., TCHERNOV, E., DUCOS, P., BECKER, C., VON DEN DRIESCH, A., MARTIN, L., and GARRARD, A. 1999. Animal Domestication in the Southern Levant. Paleorient 25: 63-80. INGOLD, T. 1980. Hunters, Pastoralists, and Ranchers: Reindeer Economies and their Transformations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. JOFFE, ALEXANDER. 1993. Settlement and Society in th e Early Bronze Age I and II, Southern Levant. Sheffield: Sheffield University Press. KATZENBERG, M. A., and HARRISON, R. G. 1997. What is Bone ? Recent Advances in Archaeological Bone Chemistry. Journal of Archaeological Research 5: 26593. KENYON, K. M. 1966. Amorites and Canaanites. London. KENYON, K. M. 1979. Archaeology in the Holy Land. New York: Norton & Co. KLEIN, R. G. 1985. The Analysis of Animal Bone s from Archaeological Sites. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. KOUCKY, F. L. 1989. "The Present and Past Physical Environment of Tell el Hesi, Israel ," in Tell el Hesi: The Site and Expedition Edited by B. T. Dahlberg and K. G. O' Connell, pp. 5-36. Winona Lake, IN: Excavation Reports o the American Schools of Oriental Res earch: Tell el Hesi 4. LEE THORP, J., and VAN DER MERWE, N. J. 1987. Carbon Isotope Analysis of Fossil Bone Apatite. South African Journal of Science 83: 712-15. LEVY, T. E. 1983. The Emergence of Specializ ed Pastoralism in the Southern Levant. World Archaeology 15: 15-36.

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78 LIPOVITCH, D.R. 1999. Can These Bones Live Again? An Analysis of the Non-Canid, Mammalian Faunal Remains from the Ac haemenid Period Occupation of Tel Ashkelon, Israel. Ph.D. Disse rtation, Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, Harvard University. LYMAN, R. L. 1994. Vertebrate Taphonomy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. MAZAR, A. 1992. Archaeology in the Land of the Bible: 10,000-586 B.C.E. New York: Doubleday. MAZAR, A. 1968. The Middle Bronze Age in Palestine. Israel Exploration Journal 18: 65-97. MCNUTT, P. 1999. Reconstructing the Society of Ancient Israel. NY: Westminster John Knox Press. MEADOW, R. H. 1978. ""Bonecode" A System of Numerical Coding for Faunal Data From Middle Eastern Sites," in Approaches to faunal analys is in the Middle East Edited by R. H. Meadow and M. Zeder, pp. 169-86. Harvard University: Peabody Museum Bulletin. MEADOWS, R. H. 1981. Animal BonesProblem s for the Archaeologist Together with some Possible Solutions. Paleorient 6: 65-77. PAYNE, S. 1972. Kill-off Patterns in Sheep a nd Goats: The Mandibles from Asvan Kale. Journal of the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara 23: 281-303. PETRIE, W. M. F. 1891. Tell el Hesy (Lachish). London: Watt. PHILLIP, G. 2003. The Early Bronze Age of the Southern Levant: A Landscape Approach. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 16.1:103-132. RACKHAM, J. 1994. Animal Bones. Berkeley: University of California Press. REDDING, R. 1981. Decision Making in Subsiste nce Herding of Sheep and Goats in the Middle East. Ph.D. Dissertati on, University of Michigan. REDDING, R. 1984. "Theorectical Determinan ts of a Herder's Decisions: Modeling Variation in the Sheep/Goat Ratio," in Animals and Archaeology: Early Herders and their Flocks Edited by J. Clutton-Brock and C. Grigson, pp. 161-70. Oxford: B.A.R. International Series. REDDING, R., ZEDER, M., and MCARDLE, J. 1978. ""Bonesort II" A System for the Computer Processing of Identi fiable Faunal Material," in Approaches to Faunal Analysis in the Middle East Edited by R. H. Meadow and M. Zeder, pp. 135-47. Harvard University: Peabody Museum Bulletin. REITZ, E. 1999. Zooarchaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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79 REITZ, E., and CORDIER, D. 1983. "Use of Allometry in Zooarchaeological Analysis," in Animals and Archaeology Edited by C. Grigson and J. Clutton-Brock, pp.1-53. Oxford: BAR International Series 183. RENFREW, C. 1982. "Socio-economic Ch ange in Ranked Societies.," in Ranking, Resource and Exchange Edited by C. Renfrew and S. Shennan, pp. 1-8. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ROSE, D. G. 1989. "The Methodology of the New Archaeology and its Influence on the Joint Expedition to Tell el Hesi," in Tell el Hesi: The Site and Expedition Edited by B. T. Dahlberg and K. G. O' Connell, pp. 72-87. Winona Lake, IN: Excavation Reports of the American Schools of Or iental Research: Tell el Hesi 4. ROSE, D. G., TOOMBS, L. E., and O' CONNELL, K. G. 1978. "Four Seasons of Excavation at Tell el Hesi: A Preliminary Report," in Preliminary Excavation Reports: Babe dh-Dhra, Sardis, Meir on, Tell el Hesi, Carthage (Punic) Edited by D. Freedman, pp. 109-49. Cambridge, MA: Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research. ROSEN, S. 1988. Notes on the Origins of Pa storal Nomadism: A Case Study from the Negev and Sinai. Current Anthropology 29: 498-506. ROSS, J. F. 1979. Early Bronze Age Structures at Tell el Hesi. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 236: 11-21. SASSON, Aharon. 2005. “The Role of Cattle an d Economic Strategies in the Bronze and Iron Ages at Tell Beer-Sheba, Israel” in Archaeolozoology of the Near East VI: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on the Archaeology of Southwestern Asia and Adjacent Areas Edited by H. Buitenhuis, A.M. Choyke, L. Martin, L. Bartosiewicz and M. Mashkour, pp. 222-239. Groningen: ARCPublicaties 123. SHERRATT, A. G. 1981. "Plough and Pastoral ism: Aspects of the Secondary Products Revolution," in Pattern of the Past: Studies in Memory of David Clarke Edited by I. Hoder, G. Isaac, and N. Hammond, pp. 261-305. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. SILLEN, A. 1986. Dietary Reconstructi on and Near Eastern Archaeology. Expedition 28: 16-22. SILLEN, A, SEALY, J., LEE THROP, J., HORWITZ, L. K., and VAN DER MERWE, N. J. 1989. "Trace Element and Isotope Res earch in Progress: Implications for Near Eastern Archaeology," in People and Culture in Change: Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Upper Palaeolithic, Meolithic and Neolithic Populations of Europe and the Mediterranean Basin Edited by I. Hershkovitz, pp. 321-34. BAR International Series

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80 SILVER, I. A. 1969. "The Ageing of Domestic Animals," in Science in Archaeology Edited by D. Brothwell and E. Higgs pp. 105-123. London: Thames and Hudson. STAGER, L. H. 1985. Merneptah, Israel and Sea Peoples: New light on an old relief. Eretz-Israel 18: 56-64. STEWART, R. B. 1978. Archaeobotan ic Studies at Tell el Hesi. Economic Botany 32: 379-86. TRIGGER, B. 1989. A History of Archaeological Thought Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. TOOMBS, L. E. 1989. "The Stra tigraphy of the Site," in Tell el Hesi: The Site and Expedition Edited by B. T. Dahlberg and K. G. O' Connell, pp. 125-62. Winona Lake, IN: Excavation Reports of the Amer ican Schools of Oriental Research: Tell el Hesi 4. TOOMBS, L. E. 1983. Tell el Hesi, 1981. Palestine Exploration Quarterly 115: 25-46. TYKOT, R. H. 2004. "Stable Isotopes a nd Diet: You Are What You Eat," in Physics Methods in Archaeometry. Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi" Course CLIV Edited by M. Martini, M. Milazzo, and M. Piacentini, pp. 433-44. Bologna, Italy: Societ Italiana di Fisica. UERPMANN, H. P. 1978. "The "Knocod" System for Processing Data on Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites," in Approaches to Faunal Analysis in the Middle East Edited by R. H. Meadow and M. Ze der, pp. 149-67. Harvard University: Peadbody Museum Bulletin. VAN DER MERWE, N. 1982. Carbon, Isotope s, Photosynthesis and Archaeology. American Scientist 70: 596-606. WEINSTEIN, J. A. 1975. Egyptian Relations with Palestine in the Middle Kingdom. Bulletin of the American Sc hools of Oriental Research 217: 1-16. WOLFF, S. R. 1998. Archaeology in Israel. American Journal of Archaeology 102: 757807. WORRELL, J. E. The Evolution of a Holisti c Investigation: Phase One of the Joint Expedition to Tell el Hesi," in Tell el Hesi: The Site and Expedition Edited by B. T. Dahlberg and K. G. O' Connell, pp. 97-124. Winona Lake, IN: Excavation Reports of the American Schools of Or iental Research: Tell el Hesi 4. WORRELL, J. E., and BETLYON, J. W. 1989. "P hase One at Tell el Hesi: A Season-byseason Account," in Tell el Hesi: The Site and Expedition Edited by B. T. Dahlberg and K. G. O' Connell, pp. 97-124. Winona Lake, IN: Excavation Reports of the American Schools of Or iental Research: Tell el Hesi 4.

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81 WRIGHT, G. E. 1937. The Pottery of Palestine from the Earliest Times to the End of the Early Bronze Age. New Haven: ASOR. ZEDER, M. 1990. Animal Exploitation at Tell Halif. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 26: 24-30. ZEDER, M. 1991. Feeding Cities. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. ZEDER, M. 1996. “The Role of Pigs in Near Eastern Subsistence: A View from the Southern Levant,” in Retrieving the Past: Essays on Archaeological Research and Methodology in Honor of Gus W. Van Beek Edited by J.D. Seger, pp. 295-310. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns.

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82 Appendices

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83 Appendix A. Distribution of economically sign ificant animals in th e Levant by site and time period Site Region Time Ovis/Capra Bos taurus Ovis aries Capra hircus Tell el Hesi Shephelah EB II/ III 557 179 262 76 76% 24% 78% 22% Yaqush Jordon Vally EB III 215 113 14 5 66% 34% 74% 26% Tel Dan Galilee EB II/III 89 64 8 6 58% 42% 57% 43% Tel Megiddo Jezreel EB III 424 159 33 16 73% 27% 67% 33% Ai Hill Country EB III 100 14 9 6 88% 12% 60% 40% Halif Northern Negev EB III NR NR NR NR 93% 6% 63% 37% Tell el Hesi Shephelah Ir I 308 99 74 22 12th-10th cent 76% 24% 77% 23% BethShemesh Shephelah Ir I 220 64 34 32 77% 23% 52% 48% MiqneEkron Shephelah Ir I 226 186 NR NR 55% 45% 87% 13% MiqneEkron Shephelah Ir I 337 232 32 13 Str IV 59% 41% 71% 29% MiqneEkron Shephelah Ir I 807 954 71 39 Str V 46% 54% 65% 35% MiqneEkron Shephelah Ir I 596 518 28 31 Str VI 54% 46% 47% 53% MiqneEkron Shephelah Ir I 1385 921 93 89 Str VII 60% 40% 51% 49% Tell el Hesi Shephelah Ir II 55 10 13 6 9th-6th cent 85% 15% 68% 32% Tel Dan Galilee Ir II 238 279 28 22 9th-6th cent 46% 54% 56% 44% domestic

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84 A ppendix A: Continued Site Region Time Ovis/Capra Bos taurus Ovis aries Capra hircus MiqneEkron Shephelah Ir II 736 271 93 37 Str Ic/Ib 73% 27% 72% 28% MiqneEkron Shephelah Ir II 1192 346 79 50 Str II/III 78% 22% 61% 39% Tell el Hesi Shephelah Persian 346 55 55 27 86% 14% 67% 33% Tell el Hesi* Shephelah Persian 596 122 139 34 83% 17% 80% 20% Halif Northern Negev Persian NR NR NR NR 77% 16% 62% 38% Independent sample study. Results not included in this report.

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85 Appendix B: Stratigraph y of Tell el Hesi Period Date Stratum TNF *437 bones could not be assigned to a time period or strata Chalcolithic ca. 3500 B.C.E. EB I and II No clear evidence EB III 27th-24th cent. B.C.E. Stratum IV (non acropolis fields) 1088 EB IV and MB No clear evidence (a few ceramic sheds in fill) LB I No clear evidence LB II Limited stratigraphic evidence in Field I. Ceramics abundant in fills 25 Iron IA/ Iron II 12th cent. B.C.E. Stratum VIII Stratum VIIId Stratum VIIId (fill) Stratum VIIIc Stratum VIIIb Stratum VIIIa 10 121 332 108 6 4 Iron IC/ Iron II 10th cent. B.C.E. Ceramics abundant in fills Iron IIA 9th cent. B.C.E. ----------------------9th-8th cent. B.C.E. Stratum VII Stratum VIId ------------------------------------Stratum VIIc 2 1 Iron IIB 8th-7th cent. B.C.E. ---------------------7th-6th cent. B.C.E. Stratum VIIb ------------------------------------Stratum VIIa ASH LAYER Iron IIC 6th cent. B.C.E. Stratum VI 80 Persian Period ca. 525-198 B.C.E. Stratum V and IV 52 Early Persian ca. 525-400 B.C.E. Statrum V Stratum Vd Stratum Vc Stratum Vb Stratum Va 114 140 20 6 Late Persian/ Early Hellenistic ca. 400-198 B.C.E. Stratrum IV Stratum IVc Stratum IVb Stratum IVa 228 Late Arabic ? Stratum III Late Arabic ca. 1550-1800 C.E. Stratum II 29 Modern 1948 and after Stratum I 34

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database 86FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCulture ClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I2211106885PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeGazellaPHICOMMATR I1310718344PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeGazellaPHICOMMATR I13204612xxMammaliaPerissodactylaEquidaeEquusAsinusPHIICOMMATIND I232541945dPersianMammaliaPerissodactylaEquidaeEquusAsinusRADPXEMATIND I91163058Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaCervidaeAlcelaphusPHICOMMATR I1311634675PersianMammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisPHICOMMATR I1311027495PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaCamelidaeCamelusN/APHIDSEMATR I230127494LPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaCamelidaeCamelusN/AMAT I2220xxMammaliaArtiodactylaCamelidaeCamelusN/ACALCOMMATIND I11314762776Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusASTCOMMATR I91112449?Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusASTCOMMATR I413242131NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusASTCOMMATR I1310310144PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusASTCOMMATR I22244491358cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusASTCOMMATR I2222951418cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusASTCOMMATR I4130415358dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusASTCOMMATL I41238591788dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusASTCOMMATL I4130415358dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusASTCOMMATIND I2223132928cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusASTCOMMATIND I4130415158dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusASTCOMMATIND I71268.1581238dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusASTCOMMATIND I5122824598dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusASTCOMMATIND I4130513498dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADPXEMATIND I8154731598dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusSCAPGFMATIND I22253671798cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusSCAPGFMATIND I1122425xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeN/AN/ASCAPGFMATIND I13143771104 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusSCAPBLAINDIND I12231.125524PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusSCAPBLAINDIND I41308321068dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusSCAPBLAINDIND I232237845PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusSCAPBLAINDIND I3225224178dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusSCAPBLAINDIND I12231.438874PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusSCAPBLAINDIND I11324602346Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusSCAPBLAIMMDHIND I2222827838cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusSCAPCOMIMMDHL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 87FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I2200xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusTIBDSEMATL I91214997EBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusTIBDSEMATIND I22253711848cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusTIBDSEMATR I2122029848dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusTIBDSEIMMDHIND I1310822392OttomanMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusTIBDSEIMMDHIND I12231.128614PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusTIBDSEIMMDHIND I1314366964 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusTIBSFTNEOIND I22131101254xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusTIBDSEIMMEPIND I12301355NAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusTIBDSEIMMEPIND I91163058Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIPXEMATL I1222928dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHICOMMATL I112192564xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHICOMMATL I232133778dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHICOMMATL I7123988NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHICOMMATL I813017358dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHICOMMATL I8130.121508dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHICOMMATL I23028174 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHICOMMATR I11336471378dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHICOMMATR I4130844868dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHICOMMATR I71268.1581238dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHICOMMATR I1311735718dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIPXEMATR I11340992318dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHICOMMATIND I412082965xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIDSEMATIND I412081123xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIDSEMATIND I11340105928dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIDSEMATIND I2227212808dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIDSEMATIND I2227412808cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIDSEMATIND I13100818NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATL I232643995cPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATL I11314532086Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATL I23027174 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHISCMIMMDHL I222281262768cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaCervidaeCervusN/APHIICOMMATL I410213NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATL I11314672596Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATR

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 88FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I5123017528dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATR I23028174 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATR I3221927425dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATR I3225221588dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATR I112413361top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATR I815768dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIPXEMATR I23028174 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIISCMIMMDHIND I8148351808dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIISCMIMMDHIND I41229175dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaSuidaeSusScrofaPHIISCMIMMDHIND I2103343xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIPXEMATIND I222721312808dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIDSEMATIND I7268.158123xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATL I11314532086Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATL I3221945725dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATL I13144711055PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATR I222169315dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATR I22248551528cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATR I1222388NAPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATR I232337845cPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATR I41199521758dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATR I113343490NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATR I2320441038dFillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATIND I22248551528cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATIND I4130829608dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIPXEMATR I113343490NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATIND I41199581758dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATIND I22253671798cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADDSEMATL I22248551528cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATIND I91163365Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPATCOMMATIND I22253671798cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADDSEMATIND I11324642496Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADDSEMATIND I2325005dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMDSEIMMDHIND I431439146xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADPXEMATIND I11315.2371206Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMDSENEOIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 89FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I41302421398dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMDSENEOIND I1252161244xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMDSENEOIND I91163365Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADPXENEOIND I11314672596Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADPXEMATR I222285188cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADPXEMATR I4130513498dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADPXEMATR I122483484NaNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADSFTINDIND I1311431625PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADSFTINDIND I12231.124454PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADSFTINDIND I22228611688cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADSFTINDIND I221611135xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMDSEMATL I3225232758dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMDSEMATL I12231.123394PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMDSEMATL I12231.127594PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMSFTINDIND I11308.322678dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMSFTINDIND I322573275xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMSFTINDIND I3221924345dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMSFTINDIND I4130417408dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMSFTINDIND I1230811278dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMSFTINDIND I3225232758dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMSFTINDIND I12231.124454PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMSFTINDIND I12231.130704PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusTIBPXEIMMDHL I12231.123394PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusFEMDSEIMMDHIND I22228611688cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusFEMPXEIMMDHL I3223340675dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusFEMDSEMATIND I231615675PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusFEMHEDIMMEPIND I2222827838cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusFEMSCMNEOIND I113051222?fillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCALCOMMATL I91112241?Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCALCOMMATL I512268188dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCALCOMMATL I2020xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCALSCMIMMDHR I22238361078cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCALPXEMATIND I113031911NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCALPXEMATIND I12231.428614PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCALCOMMATR

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 90FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I8130.423548dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETCPXEMATL I7125642928dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETCPXEMATL I22228122768cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCALSCMIMMDHL I1230715xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETCPXEMATR I123016xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETTPXEMATIND I2222812448cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETTPXEMATIND I71265.1821938dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETTPXEMATIND I8159.1881878dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPSFTINDIND I4130415358dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETTDSEMATIND I22248551528cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETTDSEMATIND I212146138dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETTDSEMATIND I23016134LPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETTDSEMATIND I137126734PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETCDSEMATIND I912979156EBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETCDSEMATIND I41199531648dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETCDSEMATIND I4131131438dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETCDSEIMMEPIND I41199541688dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPDSEMATIND I11314762776Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPDSEMATIND I6116130998dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPDSEMATIND I322184105dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPDSEMATIND I11336471348dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPDSEMATIND I11336491448dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPDSEMATIND I12231.123394PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPDSEIMMEPIND I23018174LPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPDSEIMMEPIND I1130610195dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPSFTINDIND I41199531648dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPSFTINDIND I222138275dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPSFTINDIND I71273691508dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPSFTINDIND I41199501578dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusULNPXEINDIND I8130.3521148dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusULNPXEINDIND I2328451055cPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusASSCPCOMMATIND I9113631228dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusULNCPCOMMATIND I2122438NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusULNCPCOMMATIND I71270631348dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeN/AN/ASESCOMMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 91FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I4130421318dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusFIBTSCOMMATIND I32250.223618dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCUNTSCOMMATR I3152392194xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCUNTSCOMMATR I242101542xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCUNTSCOMMATIND I3215823325dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusNVCTSCOMMATR I3215823325dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusNVCTSCOMMATIND I811828258dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusNVCTSCOMMATIND I11301115aPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusNVCTSCOMMATL I32221551058cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusFSTCPCOMMATL I12231.428614PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusFSTCPCOMMATL I32158232325dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusULNCPCOMMATIND I231615335PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusSTCPCOMMATL I913068138dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusSTCPCOMMATL I11336471378dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusSTCPCOMMATL I41199581758dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusSTCPCOMMATR I22248551528cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNISHMATR I41199541688dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNISHMATIND I11336491448dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNISHMATIND I22238361078cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNILLMATIND I12231.224454PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNILLMATIND i13145751098dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNILLMATIND I122171211NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNILLMATIND I22248551528cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNPUBMATIND I12231.225524PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATL I137228775PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATL I5123219538dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATL I1311433655PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATL I11314451666Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATL I1130611275dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATL I1223115234PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATL I712747116LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATL I7029274261top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATL I4130414308dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATL I3222872418dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 92FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I3222126358cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATR I7127471163LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATR I71268.3611318dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATR I8159.3921948dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATR I5122926618dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATL I7127988215LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATL I7127025188dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATR I7029264241top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATR I32046128dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATR I6114812318dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATR I2211106715PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATR I2212406712OttomanMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATR I1314431625PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATR I11325722708dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL I11301115aPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesSCAPGFMATL I1310310144PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesSCAPGFMATL I22254731908dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL I3222126358cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATR I13100818NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesSCAPGFMATR I3225341438dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesSCAPGFMATR I12231.230704PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEMATL I1130531109?fillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEMATL I3225224178dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEMATL I12231.428614PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEMATL I1310310144PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEMATR I71268611318dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEMATR I4130622828dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEMATR I222285188cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEMATR I22424xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEMATR I8148831748dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATL I41238591788dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATL I8158771678dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATL I137028574 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 93FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I1310711354PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATL I8130.121508dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATL I4131620458dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATL I11314521956Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEMATL I413266317010Iron IAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR I1310719354PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR I2212563173xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR I5123017528dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR I911542848dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHICOMMATR I5122926618dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR I22228481248cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHISCMIMMDHR I2221015485dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEMATR II113031941xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHIND I7127675175LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHIND I11225131top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHIND I137431904PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATL I11324602346Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATL I137433914PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATL I23128175dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATL I13682254NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATL I230433975dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATL I6114322768dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATL I3215819195dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIISCMIMMDHL I512269298dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIISCMIMMDHL I8119982168dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATR I71258.1511138dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATR I41199381218dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATR I8158771678dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATR I12310429xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATR I41199361168dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATR I8148911958dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIISCMIMMDHR I137023574 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATL I8158771678dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATL I3221248338cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 94FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I413265714710Iron IAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATR I12301355PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATR I6115013398dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATR I112940928cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATR I71268.1581238dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATR I1310719354PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATR I6115626828dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATL I7127471163LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIICOMMATL I1310720374PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATR I9130801608dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATR I11320582198dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APATCOMMATIND I4118710428bIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APATCOMMATIND I137023574 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADPXEMATL I41199531648dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADPXEMATL I1314366964 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATL I122171211NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATL I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADPXEMATL I12231.123394PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADPXEMATR I4130528978dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADPXEMATR I41238591788dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADPXEMATR I11340992748dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeGazellaN/ARADPXEMATR I3221841645dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATR I22248551528cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADPXEMATR I12231.224454PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADDSEMATL I1310415332OttomanMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADDSEMATL I4130416338dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADDSEMATR I113354106Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADDSEMATR I2222827838cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADDSEMATR I137023574 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADDSEMATR I91163365Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADCPDSEIMMEPL I41338772168dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADDSEIMMEPR I12231.231754PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEMATL I123046135PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEMATL I11301115aPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEMATL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 95FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I1314355964 or5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEMATL I222281262768cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEMATR I222285188cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHUMDSEMATR I231312285dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHUMDSEMATR I231047NaNAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATR I321190383xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHUMDSEMATR I13591636NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHUMDSEMATR I12131.326544LPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHUMDSEMATL I51160511608bIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHUMDSEMATL I23027174 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHUMDSEMATL I1310719354PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHUMDSEMATL I222831493078dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHUMDSEMATL I1221821NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHUMDSEMATL I12231.428614PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHUMDSEMATL I811839268dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesFEMPXEMATL I1314366964 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHCN/AINDIND I1314366964 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHCN/AINDIND I11324632406Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHCN/AINDIND I11324602346Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHCN/AINDIND I11314431566Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesCALCOMMATR I113031941NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesCALCOMMATR I2328451055cPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesCALCOMMATR I137126734PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesCALCOMMATR I71268.3611318dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesCALCOMMATR I8148911958dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesCALCOMMATR I112411351top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesCALCOMMATR I4130416388dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesCALCOMMATR I811836298dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesCALCOMMATR I31130619xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesCALSCMIMMDHL I4130415358dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesCALCOMMATL I222283138cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesCALCOMMATL I13143671004 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesCALCOMMATL VI13705211821790-1820MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR VI4241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 96FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI131081335Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR VI32132645Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR VI144106119291Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR VI423442146Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR I231615335PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusASTCOMMATL I4130414308dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusASTCOMMATL I7127471163LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusASTCOMMATL I13145751098dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATL VI55255796Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR VI55255696Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR I122171211NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusASTCOMMATL I11325722708dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATL I71250511138dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusASTCOMMATL I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusASTCOMMATL I22255862128dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusASTCOMMATL I12231.128584PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusASTCOMMATR I11325722708dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusASTCOMMATR I43162686xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APATCOMMATIND I41199541688dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL I23028174 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaCervidaeGazellaN/ASCAPGFMATL I13591019NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusSCAPGFMATL I512343174?MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL I23016134LPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusSCAPGFMATL I8130.119438dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATR I12231.229664PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusSCAPGFMATR I137023574 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusTIBDSEMATL I22270117208dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusTIBDSEMATL I8164510xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusTIBDSEMATR I13146741075PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusTIBDSEMATR I11314762776Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusTIBDSEMATR I13146721065PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusTIBDSEMATR I12231.224454PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHICOMMATL I11314431566Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATL I91163058Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHICOMMATL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 97FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I2121412308dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATL I4123859788dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHICOMMATL I816888dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATL I41305288dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATL I413242131NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHICOMMATR I12231.229674PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHICOMMATR I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHICOMMATR I1221734NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR I41303491548dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR I231310245dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR I222821503098dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHIND I71265741788dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIICOMMATL I12231.127584PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATL I232237245PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATL I2122028808dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHIICOMMATR I7127471163LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHIISCMIMMDHR I71268.1581238dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIICOMMATL I2328461115cPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHIIICOMMATL I324511xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIICOMMATL I232237345PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHIIICOMMATR I413265714710Iron IAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHIIICOMMATR I5122613458dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHIIICOMMATR I230047NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADPXEMATL I1311431625PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusRADPXEMATL I811834278dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusRADPXEMATL I13591636NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusRADPXEMATL I122362031PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusRADPXEMATL I1311431625PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusRADPXEMATL I3215819195dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusRADPXEMATR I1222388NAPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusRADPXEMATR I222283138cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusRADPXEMATR I13591019NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEMATR I5112401418bIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEMATR I11336471328dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEMATL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 98FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I8148831748dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHUMDSEMATR I71265741788dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHUMDSEMATR I1311433655PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHUMDSEMATR I9122531098dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATR I113431103068dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHUMDSEMATR I41196571608cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHUMPXEMATL I11324602346Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHCSFTMATIND I232131728dFillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHCSFTMATIND I7028511101top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHCSFTMATIND I137126734PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHCSFTMATIND I1311431625PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHUMDSEMATR I41199541688dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHUMDSEMATR I123046135PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHCSFTMATIND I7028511181top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHCSFTMATIND I8130.119438dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHCSFTMATIND I12231.123394PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHCSFTMATIND I1131029965dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaN/AN/AN/AHCSFTMATIND I22253671798cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHCSFTMATIND I22238361078cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHCSFTMATIND I11314673636Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusCALSCMIMMDHR I1374351025PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusCALCOMMATL I222138275dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATIND I112414421top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATIND I12231.229664PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATIND I5123335848dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATIND I5112441268bIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATL I1131029965dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATL I11314451666Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATL I5112423828bIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATL I137125734PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATL I2109135dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATR I6115676828dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATR I7127470158LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATR I13591426NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATR

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 99FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I2221613445dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATR I3225229738dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATR I5121624268d fillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATR I12217314NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATR I1311431625PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATR I1221739NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATR I12231.428614PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL I22235361078cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL I3225232758dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL I222169315dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL I11327131?MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL I222283138cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL I1311431625PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL I22253671798cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL I1221734NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesSCAPGFMATR I6116135948dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusSCAPGFMATIND I22238361078cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusSCAPGFMATIND I3223033498dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATIND I22238361078cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATIND I813426618dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATIND I912511038dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATIND I1131445666Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATIND I71273.172648dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATIND I23128175dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATIND I22243461268cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATIND I11336471378dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATIND I1116964150xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATIND I5123334828dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATIND I41191321048cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPSCMNEOL I32233753xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPSCMNEOL I12231.123394PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPSCMIMMDHL I112410411top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPSCMIMMDHL I5122437358d fillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPSCMNEOR I22228611688cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesSCAPBLAINDL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 100FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I232237845PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDL I4135528xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDL I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDL I12231.229664PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDL I322245115dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDL I13682254NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDL I12231.435874PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDR I3225232758dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDR I221611135xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDR I32236581168dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDR I1314366864 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDR I3221841645dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesSCAPBLAINDR I11314341136Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDL I12231.229664PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDL I13114331655PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDR I23016134LPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I122171313NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I123068187Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I3222427395dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I222771402998dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I123233581xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I5123219538dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I4130838808dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I5123330718dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I12131.224454PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I81291062368dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I222563173xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I222771473018dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I1311843365xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I222169315dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusSCAPBLAINDIND I81291062368dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I13100818NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I1230715xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 101FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I11314521936Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I1311431625PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I32236581168dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I12231.224454PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I2122630758dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I11300816NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I1314366965PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I13591019NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I2328461115cPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I222821503098dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I231310245dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I11314521936Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I913280160EBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I2020xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I1311634675PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I2122131918dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I3215823325dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I1230715xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I1311431625PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I3225641928dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I913068138dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I22238361078cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I232335815cPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I22254731908dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I7127675175LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I12231.230704PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I12231.224454PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I12231.442614PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I122261025xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I2222827838cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I91113449?Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I1130611275dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND I41199541688dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 102FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAge I41305008dfillAvesN/AN/AN/AN/AULNPXEMAT I137126234PersianAvesN/AN/AN/AN/ADSEMAT I1131029965dPersianAvesN/AN/AN/AN/ADSEMAT I32511xxAvesN/AN/AN/AN/APXEMAT I413263617910Iron IAAvesN/AN/AN/AN/AMAT I121311516xxAvesN/AN/AN/AN/AMAT I122171313NANAAvesN/AN/AN/AN/AMAT I232541945dPersianAvesN/AN/AN/AN/AINNMAT I32027NANAAvesN/AN/AN/AN/ACRAMAT I12231.231754PersianAvesN/AN/AN/AN/AFEMDSEMAT I32051NANAAvesN/AN/AN/AN/AFEMDSEMAT I13682254NANAAvesN/AN/AN/AN/AMAT I12231.228584PersianAvesN/AN/AN/AN/ASCAPPXEMAT I137126734PersianAvesN/AN/AN/AN/AMAT I232335815cPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAIND I221611135xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAIND I812511271top soilAvesN/AN/AN/AN/AFEMMAT I12231.128584PersianAvesN/AN/AN/AN/ARADMAT I1223115224PersianAvesN/AN/AN/AN/ASTRNMAT I137126734PersianAvesN/AN/AN/AN/AMAT I12231.123384PersianAvesN/AN/AN/AN/ARADCOMMAT I12231.123384PersianAvesN/AN/AN/AN/ARADCOMMAT I11328381051NAOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I41302401298dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I12231.123384PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I2122029848dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I1315220xxOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I41238591788dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I8119982168dIron IIOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I811215138dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I41305148dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I413059308dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I2122131918dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I12231.123384PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 103FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I41305288dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I11336551578dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I11314532086Iron IIOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I2122614368dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I12231.128584PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I12231.128584PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I51205621988aIron IIOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I21213398dIron IIOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I413266617910Iron IAOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I11336471378dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I1223115234PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I12231.128584PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I4130512438dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I2122610258dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I113441163108dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I13143671004 or 5PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I2121822558dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I413267220010Iron IAOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I11303918NANAOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I12231.229664PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I5122824598dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I42854106xxOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I12231.428614PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I5222155105xxOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I2328451055cPersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I32236791568dIron IIOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I211224513xxOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I1223115224PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I313076148dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I41229175dPersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I12231.224484PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I322245115dPersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I11325722708dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I12231.230734PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 104FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I2112477xxOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I12231.128584PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I11335.1006Iron IIOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I4130514578dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I3217522335cPersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I4131620428dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I11336471378dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I232541945dPersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I136921514PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I11314341136Iron IIOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I41326428410Iron IAOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I11315.2371206Iron IIOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I4130519738dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I1311441625PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I12231.228584PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I1223115224PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I1223115204PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I232541945dPersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I41308301018dfill I12231.230734PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I11335.1006Iron IIOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I12231.123384PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I113401052928dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I7126754118?Iron IIOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I232237845PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I11335.1006Iron IIOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I4131620458dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I1223115234PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I1223115234PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I1132724?OsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I11335.1006Iron II I41334561438dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEIMMEPIND I22228481248cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEIMMEPIND I912976152EBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEIMMEPIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 105FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I1311431625PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETTDSEIMMEPR I231047NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETTDSEIMMEPIND I32350xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETTDSEIMMEPIND I11310772815dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETTDSEIMMEPIND I11314532086Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCCOMMATR I1230715xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCCOMMATL I22011NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATL I12231.229664PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaCervidaeGazellaN/AMETCDSEMATIND I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATIND I21225819?MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATR I13145751098dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATIND I12231.230704PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATR I12231.224454PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATR I2222921678cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATIND I12231.225524PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETTDSEMATR I220101254NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETTDSEMATL I231047NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETTDSEMATL I122171313NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETTDSEMATIND I512269298dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETTDSEMATIND I8158771678dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETTDSEMATIND I1310415332OttomanMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTDSEMATIND I2221015485dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETTDSEMATIND I3221929465dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETTDSEMATR I122171211NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETTDSEMATIND I2122131918dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETTDSEMATR I11319381286Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETTDSEMATIND I911254468dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETTDSEMATIND I2222813498cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATR I5122926618dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATR I11324632426Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCPXEMATR I1375361035PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATR I11314391466Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATR I12231.123394PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATR I1310310244PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATR

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 106FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I1220000NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETTPXEMATL I1310720374PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCPXEMATL I13143671004 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATL I12231.224454PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATL I1310415332OttomanMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCPXEMATL I11314381226Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATL I232232845PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATL I1131029965dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATR I41191341098cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETTPXEMATR I41300371198dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATR I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETCSCMIMMDHL I112021941xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETCDSEIMMEPIND I1314366964 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETTDSEIMMEPIND I2328451055cPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETTCOMMATR I7127470150LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETCCOMMATR I5110002397Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETCDSEMATR I13145751098dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETCDSEMATIND I7127985206LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETCDSEMATL I4130110238dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATR I11314762776Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETTPXEMATL I8130.4631398dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETCDSEMATIND I41199541688dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETCDSEMATL I123069247cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETTDSEMATIND I23129205dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETTDSEMATIND I1131029965dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETTDSEMATIND I32236791568dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETTPXEMATR I22093235NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETTPXEMATL I13100818NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATL I8129106368dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATL I1310923414PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETCPXEMATL I4130419438dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATL I137126734PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATL I32246821558dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATL I1310822392OttomanMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATR

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 107FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I1222388NAPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATR I32221551058cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATR I113441163108dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATR I41238591788dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATR I414512xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATR I8149.2504088dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATR I91220388dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATR I3221945725dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATR I1224732804PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATR I3222126358cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATR I1311538765PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATR I122171211NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATR I5123330718dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATIND I8130.119438dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATIND I21183427xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATIND I413242131NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATIND I413242131NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATIND I322245115dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATIND I412162048xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATIND I1314366964 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMDHIND I13109761054PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMDHIND I313076148dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMDHIND I1374351025PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMDHIND I1130921575dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMDHIND I232540915dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMDHIND I5123335848dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMDHIND I413053158dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMDHIND I12231.224454PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMDHIND I12231.224454PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMDHIND I232227845PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMEPIND I1130921575dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMEPIND I23129205dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMEPIND I1223620318dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMEPIND I13616142OttomanMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBPXEIMMEPIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 108FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I12231.230704PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBPXEMATIND I413242131NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATL I412162124xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATL I11314532086Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATL I71268.158238dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATL I173071025xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIPXEMATL I3223037618dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIPXEMATL I1133655478dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIPXEMATL I222701102638dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHL I13146721265PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHL I7128394229NaNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR I813115338dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR I5122827628dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATR I41308301018dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR I8158771678dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATR I1130921575dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIPXEMATR I11336461348dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIPXEMATR I12231.428614PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIPXEMATR I5198702148aIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIPXEMATR I922523275xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEMATR I1131029965dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBPXEIMMEPIND I1313034675cPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATIND I4119628908cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHR I220101254NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHR I71250.134778dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEMATIND I1131029965dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEMATIND I137024674 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEMATIND I5122437358dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEMATIND I11314341136Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEMATIND I113431103308dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEMATIND I137631865PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEMATIND I811829258dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEMATIND I113343490NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEMATIND I1223620318dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 109FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I41308301018dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEMATIND I22050134NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEMATIND I4132832508dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEMATIND I1230710258dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEMATIND I1311634675PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEMATIND I71268.1581238dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEMATIND I7127470158LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIPXEIMMDHIND I41199381218dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIPXEIMMDHIND I512269298dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIPXEIMMEPIND I113031941NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIPXEIMMEPIND I4994xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIPXEIMMEPIND I41191321048cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIPXEIMMEPIND I7127675175LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIPXEIMMEPIND I13593019xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATL I1230812298dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATL I3131214248dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATL I12231.229664PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATL I51457xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIICOMMATR I8158771678dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATL I71265.1581238dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATR I81291062368dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHIICOMMATR I4130514508dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATR I321316394 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIICOMMATR I8148972128dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIICOMMATIND I231616355PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIICOMMATIND I112413361top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIICOMMATIND I71250.134778dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIPXEIMMEPIND I7127470158LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIPXEIMMEPIND I512268188dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeN/AN/APHIIPXEIMMEPIND I71276.284201LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIPXEIMMEPIND I2222861698cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIICOMMATL I413185510710Iron IAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIICOMMATL I1311634675PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATL I7127675175LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIICOMMATL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 110FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I41199471408dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APATCOMMATIND I113343490NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APATCOMMATIND I131037155PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APATCOMMATIND I2020xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATL I8130.118408dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATL I123111510xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATL I11336471378dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATL I2230135xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATR I12231.435874PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATR I11314672596Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATIND I11314673636Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATIND I3215843115dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATIND I137431864PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATIND I51124008bIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADRMATIND VI5344383NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSCMNEOIND I41238591788dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADDSEMATL I814891958dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADDSEMATIND I13743414PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEIMMDHL I12231.231754PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEIMMDHL I91166533Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXENEOL I4131131458dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEIMMDHR I1222388NAPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADDSEIMMDHR I8158771678dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIICOMMATR I812511271top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIICOMMATR I810.11943xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEIMMDHIND I23129205dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADDSEIMMEPIND I22248551528cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I41199541688dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I11324642496Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I2122614318dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I232540915dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I122171211NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I13100818NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I11301115aPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 111FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I12231.230704PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I22253671798cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I41199511608dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I12231.225524PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I137024624 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I13143771104 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I813017358dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEINDIND I122171211NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I13146721065PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I1311431625PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I22253671798cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I4130115358dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I22238261078cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I13103785PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I231615335PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeN/AN/AINDIND I11314431566Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I12231.229664PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I1311431625PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I11324642496Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I813122508dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I12243416xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I122241111NAPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I813426618dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I71268.2601298dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I2020xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I41199541688dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I11314451666Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I3225450878dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBSFTINDIND I8130.224588dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I222281262768cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I12231.123394PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I137125734PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I1314366964 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 112FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I137433914PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I2122449NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I137120734PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEMATR I12301355NAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEMATR I13109761084PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEMATR I71265922258dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNSFTINDIND I1311431625PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNSFTINDIND I320012NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNSFTINDIND I511991083298dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNSFTINDIND I12231.435274PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNSFTINDIND I137431864PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAINDIND I813426618dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNSFTINDIND I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNSFTINDIND I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNSFTINDIND I22024NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNSFTINDIND I1311431625PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNSFTINDIND I22250802004PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINDIND I911346898dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNSFTINDIND I21210238dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINDIND I222138275dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNSFTINDIND I13144711055PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNSFTINDIND I1122425xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND I113401042988dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND I41237381258dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND I137228775PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I12161.12759xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND I31311135dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND I41238591788dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND I313076148dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND I137023574 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND I1311941625PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND I5122437358dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND I8130.121508dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND I2328451055cPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 113FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I5122613458dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND I41305288dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND I3221929455dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND I137023574 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND I11336491448dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEINNDIND I222821503098dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND I1131028905dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND I1311634675PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND I32221551088cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND I512269298dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND I322245115dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND I81581022268dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND I1221712NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND I41229175dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND I11314381226Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND I1314430585PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND I41326297310Iron IAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND I1310719354PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND I3221248838cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTSCMIMMDHIND I137125734PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I11314532086Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I48041430xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I1310822392OttomanMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I1221845NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I413242131NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I222771402998dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I222711132718dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I32236791568dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I1310822392OttomanMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I1310720374PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I7127025188dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I1131028905dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 114FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I12231.123394PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I11314341136Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I81100114xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I4130513498dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I222138275dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I2328451055cPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I5123330718dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I12231.127594PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I1311634475PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I12231.231754PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I3222539575dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I4130414308dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I13146721065PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I91162957Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I2328461115cPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I322245115dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I12231.224454PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEMATIND I7121421158dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEMATIND I8130.4631398dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEMATIND I4119951008dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEMATIND I5123219538dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEMATIND I8158771678dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEMATIND I232237845PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEMATIND I11310772315dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEMATIND I11314341136Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEMATIND I1311092443xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I22252681898dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND I41305288dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEMATIND I231310245dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEMATIND I9505183xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEMATIND I11314532086Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEMATIND I232101548xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEMATIND I11324602346Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 115FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I51151515xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEMATIND I2034xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATL I11314381226Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATL I4130415358dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATL I5123333798dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATR I8158771678dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATR I113401092988dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATR I232541445dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATR I12231.225524PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATR I222281152678cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATIND I22210235dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATIND I12231.123384PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATIND I13146721065PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATR I131426484NAPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATR I1131028905dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATIND I4130831698dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATIND I1314366964 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATIND I7127470158LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATIND I512269298dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATIND I7125981192?LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATR I22228611688cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATR I2221024755dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATR I3222126358cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATR I1311431625PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATR I1310310144PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATR I13591019NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATR I1314366964 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATR I11314712716Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATR I2221012405dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATR I5110702414aPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATR I11324602346Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATR I911346898dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSENEOL I5122437358dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSENEOL I51199103288dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSENEOL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 116FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I22260852148dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSENEOIND I1311452655PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSENEOR I511961003088dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATR I22141230xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATR I1330715xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATR I12231.225524PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATL I137126734PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATL I413267220010Iron IAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATL I231616355PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATL I1310719354PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATL I2222812448cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATL I321190383xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATL I22012280NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATL I1310044NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATL I13591636NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATL I221250675xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATL I222701172698dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATL I13231.229664PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I1310719354PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I13100818NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I32158005dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I13591426NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I1375361035PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I41199381218dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I1230811278dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I11319471646Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I231615335PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I4130838808dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I8159.3921948dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSENEOL I1310720374PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSENEOIND I91113449?Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I4130531158dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I23028174 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEMATL I5122437358dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEMATL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 117FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I7127675175LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusFEMDSEIMMDHL I13146721065PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEMATR I41308321068dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEMATR I3225212308dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEMATIND I1131028905dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEMATIND I3223447788dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEMATIND I11336491448dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNISHMATIND I3223447788dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEMATIND I222661002608dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEIMMDHIND I222831493078dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEMATR I7127675175LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusFEMPXEIMMDHL I212159218dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEIMMDHR I3215843715dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXENEOIND I8130.119438dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEINDIND I13145751098dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMPXEINDIND I232335815cPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEINDIND I7127675175LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEIMMEPIND I11314381226Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEIMMEPIND I11336551578dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEIMMEPIND I412295235dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEIMMEPIND I8119982168dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEMATIND I11324632426Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEMATIND I11314391466Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEMATIND I31311255dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEMATIND I1314366964 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHCINDIND I1314366964 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHCINDIND I2034xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHCINDIND I13682046NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaCamelidaeCamelusN/APATCOMMATIND I13143671004 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusSACCOMMATIND I7125743948dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AATLCOMMATIND I41199561728dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusATLCOMMATIND I262161423xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AATLCOMMATIND I1223128584PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AATLCOMMATIND I4131133558dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 118FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I8148831718dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I1230715xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I3215843715dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I1375361035PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I1392341xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I222169315dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I11314451666Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I136921514PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I811828238dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I5122437358dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I7121728208dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I3221251948cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusFEMPXEIMMDHIND I2122630758dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBPXEIMMDHIND I137125694PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBPXEIMMDHIND I11300516NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeSusScrofaHUMPXEIMMDHIND I13146741075PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeN/AN/AFEMSFTINDIND I232439905FillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBSFTINDIND I221611135xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBSFTINDIND I12231.229664PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBSFTINDIND I4130838788dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBSFTINDIND I11314672596Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMSFTINDIND I12231.225524PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBSFTINDIND I231310245dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBSFTINDIND I1311431625PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBSFTINDIND I12231.128614PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMSFTINDIND I11303918NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMPXEMATIND I3221251948cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMPXEMATIND I71258481078dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMPXEMATIND I8158801708dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMPXEIMMEPIND I11324602346Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMPXEIMMEPIND I813426618dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I8146431001top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND I1310214264PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesCALSCMIMMDHR I4119951168dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALCOMIMMDHL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 119FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I1223115234PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALCOMMATIND I4130520778dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALCOMMATL I4141634xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALCOMMATL I222283138cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALCOMMATL I12231.428614PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALCOMMATL I11300816NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALCOMMATL I13591636NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALCOMMATL I136921514PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALPXEIMMEPIND I231616355PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALPXEMATIND I137126734PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALPXEMATIND I1311431625PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALPXEIMMEPIND I1311634675PersianMammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisCALPXEMATIND I222281152678cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALPXEMATIND I30027xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALPXEMATIND I113401052428dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIPXEMATIND I222101585dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ANVCTSCOMMATL I1371004PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ANVCTSCOMMATR I232257845PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ANVCTSCOMMATR I232540915dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ANVCTSCOMMATR I4131620458dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ANVCTSCOMMATR I71268.1581238dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ANVCTSCOMMATR I13102142164PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ANVCTSCOMMATR I81481052328dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ANVCTSCOMMATR I12231.123384PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASTCPCOMMATR I1375261075PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASTCPCOMMATR I8158711078dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASTCPCOMMATR I1314366964 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASTCPCOMMATL I7127470158LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFSTCPCOMMATR I8158771678dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFSTCPCOMMATL I8158771678dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASESCOMMATIND I1310719354PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASESCOMMATIND I1314366964 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADCPCOMMATR I11314341136Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADCPCOMMATL I81095203NaNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADCPCOMMATL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 120FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I7121418138dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASTCPCOMMATR I32222633xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNCPCOMMATR I1314366964 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNCPCOMMATR I11314451666Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINTCPCOMMATR I113343490NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINTCPCOMMATL I32227591205dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINTCPCOMMATL I71268.3611318dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFIBTSCOMMATIND I3222427395dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASTRNCOMIMMDHIND I11314672596Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATR I13145751098dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLINDR I11314391466Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR I3225232758dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR I231310245DPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR I913280160EBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR I41130.51243xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR I1314366954 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR I321280381xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR I9118661338dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR I137126784PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR I11300816NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR I5122926618dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR I232540915dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR I22424xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR I2222432878cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR I12231.231754PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR I22238361078cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR I232234785PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR I11321481766Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATL I221250675xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATL I113031941NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATL I1314366964 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATL I2222531548cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNCPCOMMATL I131426494NAPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNCPCOMMATL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 121FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I12119454PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATL I11310772315dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATL I113343490NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATL I11314381296Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATL I320012NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATL I12231.231754PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATL I5122437358dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHIMMDHL I137434965PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHIMMDHL I137126734PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATL I113354106Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATL I131444105PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATL I13146741055PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATL I13146741075PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATL I22248551528cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATL I231047NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATL I8130.121508dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATL I232540915dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATL I2122449NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATL I4130827638dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLINDL I1132463426Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATL I2122610258dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATL I7127265143LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATL I8151611338dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATL I112413361top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATL I5122437358dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATL I13145751098dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATL I3222126358cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATL I222283138cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATIND I13100815NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATIND I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATIND I813115338dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATIND I220422NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATIND I3221228438cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATIND I813115338dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 122FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I137433914PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I1314366964 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I11310115dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I32236581168dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I137433914PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I2122612318dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I3225229738dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I137126734PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I2122614368dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I312321953xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLNEOIND I1132711?MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I22248551528cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINTCPILLMATIND I912511038dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I137228775PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I3215843715dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I22228611688cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I911346898dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I2121822558dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I11301115aPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I2222433978cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I912979156EBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I222283138cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I222281262768cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I212146138dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I23128175dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I1314366964 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I91163365Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I4130843838dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I2225301748cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I231719555dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I22248551528cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I2222433928cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I22266952408dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 123FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I7127265143LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I41305288dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I41305288dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I1311433655PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I5122926618dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I1310415332OttomanMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I1221945NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I222831493078dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I2122438NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I3221228438cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I11314672596Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I3223447788dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I11314672596Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I41334361438dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND I22242441228cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR I11225121top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR I1314366964 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND I12231.123394PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND I12231.478614PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND I135911NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND I1300816xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND I321280381xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND I8151611338dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND I12231.224454PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND I221250675xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND I2222432878cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND I1311431625PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND I11314673636Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND I7127215147LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND I4130867678dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND I137125694PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND I417911238aIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND I12343175xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeN/AN/AHYDCOMMATIND I2308461118dFillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHYDCOMMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 124FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I611424108dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAZYGMATR I320133NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAZYGMATR I7125028188dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAZYGMATR I422917xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAZYGMATR I12231.428614PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAZYGMATR I101171211xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAZYGMATR I1223620318dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAZYGMATR I1223115224PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAZYGMATR I4132460234NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAZYGMATL I122171313NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAZYGMATL I13100818NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAZYGMATL I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAZYGMATL I11314532086Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAZYGMATL I12231.428614PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAZYGMATL I23027174 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAZYGMATL I1310045NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAZYGMATL I12231.326544PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAZYGMATL I13100818NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHCIMMDHIND I113441163108dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHCIMMDHIND I231310245DPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAORBMATIND I232540915dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAORBMATIND I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAORBMATIND I22161115xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAORBMATIND I113431103008dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAOCCMATIND I1310719354PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAOCCMATIND I11336471378dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAOCCMATIND I1311430585PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAPMAXMATIND I137431864PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAPMAXMATIND I13108761082OttomanMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAPARMATIND I11314381226Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AATLCOMMATIND I13945xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AATLCOMMATIND I3221251948cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AATLCOMMATIND I1311431625PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AATLCOMMATIND I5123017528d fillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AATLCOMMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 125FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I11314431566Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AATLCOMMATIND I12231.225524PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AATLCOMMATIND I7125743948dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AATLCOMMATIND I262161433xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AATLCOMMATIND I12231.128584PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AATLCOMMATIND I71265791888dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AAXISCOMMATIND I1310719354PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AAXISCOMMATIND I13100518NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AAXISCOMMATIND I12301355NAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AAXISCOMMATIND I2300247NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AAXISCOMMATIND I123161533xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AAXISCOMMATIND II152020xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATIND III7183646xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeGazellaN/AUlnPxeMATIND III116115261top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesCALCOMMATL III107261712EBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALCOMMATR III1073127378dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATR III1073229351ModernMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATR III1073127378dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusSCAPBLAMATIND III107261712EBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATL III1161241top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATR III107213442EBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND III1171241top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHUMDSEMATR III1161241top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATR III10725106EBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATL III107213442EBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND III1161791top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND III107213442EBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND III1073127378dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANASRMATIND III116621378dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANINDIND III116621378dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANINDIND III1073127378dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANINDIND III116120341top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANINDIND III1073127378dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANINDIND III116113261top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusCALCOMMATL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 126FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide III1191111top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaCervidaeCervusN/ACALDSEMATR III1161111top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPPXEMATIND III1161111top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPPXEMATIND III1171591top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANINDR III1161001top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusASTCOMMATR III107722228dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATL III1171571top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANINDR III116113211top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETTPXEMATIND III1073127378dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANMATIND V351741MammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisPHICOMMATIND V35916MammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisMATIND V351741MammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisMETPCOMMATIND V351743MammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisMETPCOMMATIND V22142034OsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A V212411MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AHUMDSEMATIND V11321331MammaliaArtiodactylaCamelidaeCamelusN/AATLCOMMATIND V24358MammaliaArtiodactylaCamelidaeCamelusN/AHUMDSEMATL V22614MammaliaPerissodactylaEquidaeEquusAsinusPHIPXEMATIND V1131749MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusSCAPGFMATL I22314827xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCALDSEMATR V14534MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETCDSEIMMEPIND V31419MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusASTCOMMATR V12541108MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHICOMMATL V22142940MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHICOMMATIND V351241MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusULNDSEIMMDHIND V1132925MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusNVCTSCOMMATIND V1192140MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADCPCOMMATIND V1141224MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeN/AN/ASCAPBLAINDIND V24358MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNISHMATL V24358MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNISHMATL V24358MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNILLMATL V1132925MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNILLMATL V24358MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNPUBMATL V24358MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNPUBMATR

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 127FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide V11133481MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIDSEMATIND V35924MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALCOMMATIND V12138MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALCOMMATIND V1151031MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALCOMMATL V12228112MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATR V232213MammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisTIBDSEMATR V11134MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBPXEIMMDHR V1203654MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBSFTINDIND V23111MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATIND V1134614MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATL V351741MammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisTIBDSEMATL V3149MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCDSEMATIND V351741MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSCMIMMDHIND V351432MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSCMIMMDHIND V3621327MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATR V1193078MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATL V351741MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND V351741MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND V14222036MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND V351741MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND V13203654MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND V14113MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND V13621327MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND V35924MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATL V371635MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATIND V3590MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNSFTINDL V1132511MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEINDL V1151081MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEINDIND V1254168MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATL V1151031MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATL V3136MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATR V1205654MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIINDIND V1193078MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHIND V1192769MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 128FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide V1193078MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACUNTSCOMMATIND V1192260MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEINDIND V14101316MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEINDIND V221734MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMSFTINDIND V1321327MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDL V1193078MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND V13621327MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASESCOMMATIND V1193078MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ANVCTSCOMMATIND V1193078MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND V1192769MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND V1193078MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND V351741MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND V351741MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND V135924MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCPXEMATR V351741MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesFEMPXEMATL V351741MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATR V1183347MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADDSEMATR V1151031MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATL V2223250MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATL V1151031MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATL V1151331MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATL V1193078MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND V1132925MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND V351741MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND V35924MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND V1132614MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND V1211019MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeN/AN/AIND V351741MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusCALCOMMATR V35924MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETCDSEMATL V11153481MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusRADPXEMATR V113210MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHICOMMATL V1151031MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHUMDSEMATR V11321331MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHUMDSEMATL I22248551528cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusATLCOMMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 129FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I5122437358dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusATLCOMMATIND I41199561728dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusATLCOMMATIND I231047NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusATLCOMMATIND I23028174 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusATLCOMMATIND VI4241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusATLCOMMATIND VI13106916Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusATLCOMMATIND VI83174691Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI13106916Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI138993194Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI4490397205Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI13106714Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI21500Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI4241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI21113652Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI422051321790-1820MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI24112921790-1820MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI4493100214Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI4496101220Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI44108133334Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI4221120Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI449391190Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI44102115277Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI422035Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI534088189Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI4496101220Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI21500Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI42231772Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI42202163Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI534293205Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND I1374351025PersianMammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND I810510xxMammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND I12231.123384PersianMammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND I11335.1006Iron IIMammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND I32049NANAMammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 130FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI4213440130Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIIDSEINDIND VI42322688Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATR VI1389104225Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATR VI44108133339Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATR VI449341196Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATR VI132237NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATL VI4494117199Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATL VI125018Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeGazellaN/APHIICOMMATR I1223115224PersianMammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND I232540915dPersianMammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI444391190Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeGazellaN/APHIICOMMATR VI4493440Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeGazellaN/APHIICOMMATL VI21581338Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIICOMMATL VI4494130318Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIICOMMATL VI534078155Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIICOMMATL VI456617Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIPXEMATR VI21622364Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIDSEMATR VI534097228Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIICOMMATL VI534088189Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIICOMMATL VI645721Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIICOMMATL VI4494117299Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIICOMMATL VI6461349Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIICOMMATL VI44106119291Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIICOMMATL VI44106119291Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIICOMMATL VI53139NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIICOMMATR VI42103118252Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIICOMMATR VI44106176304Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIICOMMATR VI53122NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIISCMIMMDHR VI4499125125Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIISCMIMMDHL VI2113652NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIIPXEIMMEPIND VI31531630Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATIND VI22270130Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATIND VI12032237Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIDSEMATIND VI45613Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIDSEMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 131FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI13106715Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATL VI5573963Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATL VI541243650Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATL VI132237NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATL VI446756117Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATL VI111733821790-1820MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATL VI44960220Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATL VI5573963Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIPXEMATL VI1315954Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIPXEMATL VI13106916Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIDSEMATL VI5573963Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIDSEMATL VI32132436Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIISCMIMMDHL VI4497110251Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATR VI447470145Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATR VI5344078Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATR VI423440136Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATR VI21500Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATR VI52123673Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIPXEMATR VI4494117280Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATR VI527.1200Ph42800-2500OsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A VI4493420Ph42800-2500OsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A VI523.3100Ph42800-2500OsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A VI2228840Ph42800-2500OsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A VI524.1110Ph42800-2500OsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A VI529260Ph42800-2500OsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I1223115174PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I1223115184PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I1223115184PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I12231.229674PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I12231.224484PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I12231.230734PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I1224732794PersianOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I512262708dfillOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A I61146.229862OttomanOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 132FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide IX2227NoneOsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A VI5329620Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI5331640Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI529.3280Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI524.3130Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI422100Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI1310670Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI13106712Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI529.3280Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI1367400Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT IX222721790-1820OsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A IX23411Ph42800-2500OsteichthyesN/AN/AN/AN/A VI4293910Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI1293910Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI527.1200Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI4223150Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI5329620Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI524.1110Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI4223170Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI447470144Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI13106922Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI21504795Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI524.1110Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI5342950Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI528.1230Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI13891040Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI13891040Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI527.1200Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI4223150Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI5331640Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI1388790Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI523.180Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI528.3250Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI4223150Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 133FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI5342910Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI21112637Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI13891040Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI5342950Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI525.1140Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI4223170Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI529260Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI211304795Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI448890187Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI4496191225Ph42800-2500MammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT I122311524PersianMammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT I1223115914PersianMammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT I1223115164PersianMammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT I1223115174PersianMammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT I61146.229862OttomanMammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT I12231.128584PersianMammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT I1224732794PersianMammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT I137431884PersianMammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT I1223115194PersianMammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT I1223115164PersianMammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT I1223115174PersianMammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT I512262708dfillMammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT I1223115184PersianMammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT I1223115214PersianMammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT I12231.128584PersianMammaliaRodentiaN/AN/AN/AMAT VI422044690Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATR VI45617Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATIND VI44512876Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATIND VI534054171Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATIND VI4244170Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATIND VI215523Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATIND VI44100133334Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATIND VI31131432Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATIND VI531951104Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 134FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI136446104Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATL VI4241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATR VI13643978Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETTDSEMATIND VI24112921790-1820MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETTDSEMATIND VI4241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATR VI534291199Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATR VI449397207Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATR VI21113652Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATR VI131071026Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATR VI53133369Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATL VI4242752Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATL VI44106126164Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETTDSEIMMEPR VI31162452Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATL VI138993194Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATL VI2135115125Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEIMMEPIND VI53122661Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEIMMEPIND VI423440136Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEIMMEPIND VI217195120Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEIMMEPIND VI5344383Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCSCMIMMEPL VI22456118Ph42800-2500AvesN/AN/AN/AN/A VI12734252Ph42800-2500AvesN/AN/AN/AN/ADSEMATIND VI4496101220Ph42800-2500AvesN/AN/AN/AN/ADSEMATIND VI4496101230Ph42800-2500AvesN/AN/AN/AN/ADSEMATIND VI44103118282Ph42800-2500AvesN/AN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI534289192Ph42800-2500AvesN/AN/AN/AN/AIMMDHIND VI12734252Ph42800-2500AvesN/AN/AN/AN/ASCAPMATIND VI422035Ph42800-2500AvesN/AN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI53262321790-1820AvesN/AN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI4494117299Ph42800-2500AvesN/AN/AN/AN/AHUMPXEMATIND VI4494117299Ph42800-2500AvesN/AN/AN/AN/AULNDSEMATIND VI4494117299Ph42800-2500AvesN/AN/AN/AN/AFEMDSEMATIND VI1356821790-1820AvesN/AN/AN/AN/AULNPXEMATIND VI4496101220Ph42800-2500AvesN/AN/AN/AN/ARADCOMMATIND VI222268146Ph42800-2500ReptiliaSquamataN/AN/AN/AMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 135FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI4244690Ph42800-2500ReptiliaSquamataN/AN/AN/AMATIND VI44108133334Ph42800-2500ReptiliaTestudinesN/AN/AN/A VI534255Ph42800-2500ReptiliaTestudinesN/AN/AN/A VI423442146Ph42800-2500MammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisCALCOMMATL VI53184797Ph42800-2500MammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisULNPXEMATL VI404910Ph42800-2500MammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisHUMDSEMATIND VI4494125125Ph42800-2500MammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisASTCOMMATL VI534085175Ph42800-2500MammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisRADPXEMATL VI44194125135Ph42800-2500MammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisMETPPXEMATIND VI21611957Ph42800-2500MammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisMETPPXEMATIND VI534088189Ph42800-2500MammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisMETPPXEMATIND VI534087183Ph42800-2500MammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisMETPDSEMATIND VI44108133334Ph42800-2500MammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisMETPCOMMATIND VI4410813333421790-1820MammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisMATIND VI125018Ph42800-2500MammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisPHICOMMATL VI448045155Ph42800-2500MammaliaPerissodactylaEquidaeEquusAsinusMATIND VI18126029Ph42800-2500MammaliaPerissodactylaEquidaeEquusAriesPHIPXEIMMDHIND VI21113756Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeSusScrofaPHICOMMATL VI4496101220Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeSusScrofaPHISCMIMMDHIND VI122123163Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeGazellaN/AMETPDSEMATIND VI4437519Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeGazellaN/AHCMATIND VI4410010943Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeGazellaN/AHCMATIND VI131552127Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeGazellaN/APHICOMMATR VI449397205Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeGazellaN/APHISCMIMMDHIND VI21113652Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeGazellaN/AFEMPXEMATR VI44101111256Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaCervidaeCervusN/APHIICOMMATR VI13102460Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaCervidaeCervusN/APHIPXEMATL VI318470152Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaCervidaeCervusN/A VI13106916Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaCervidaeCervusN/A VI1310554Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaCervidaeCervusN/A VI28564123Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaCamelidaeCamelusN/APATCOMMATL VI5341945Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaCamelidaeCamelusN/AMETPDSEMATIND VI52123673Ph42800-2500MammaliaCarnivoraN/AN/AN/AINNILLMATIND VI31224292Ph42800-2500MammaliaCarnivoraFelidaeN/AN/AULNPXEINDIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 136FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI44193100214Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeAlcelaphusN/AFEMPXEMATL VI4419300Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeAlcelaphusN/ARADDSEMATL VI54284363Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeAlcelaphusN/APHIIICOMMATL VI21314386Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeAlcelaphusN/ASCAPGFMATL VI13572241Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaCervidaeCervusN/AASTCOMMATL VI521.234NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusASTCOMMATL VI13572241Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusASTCOMMATR VI26366125Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusASTCOMMATR VI534088189Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPDSEMATIND VI139879205Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusASTCOMMATIND VI133829205Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusASTCOMMATIND VI28564123Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusASTCOMMATIND VI21113652Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusTIBDSEMATL VI5573963Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusTIBDSEMATL VI54375782Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeAlcelaphusN/AMETTPXEMATIND VI313554112Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeAlcelaphusN/APHICOMMATR VI13501119Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusTIBDSEMATIND VI4241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusTIBDSEMATIND VI3134910621790-1820MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusTIBPXEIMMEPIND VI444597205Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCALCOMMATL VI5561120Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCALCOMMATL VI54375782Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCALCOMMATL VI21303983Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCALCOMMATR VI544375752Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCALDSEMATR VI54375782Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCALPXEMATIND VI112491107Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCALPXEMATIND VI645825Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCALPXEMATIND VI4493100214Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCALSFTINDIND VI112495112Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCALSFTINDIND VI44143100214Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusFEMPXEMATL VI238102196Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusFEMDSEMATIND VI1310554Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMATIND VI531951104Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMDSENEOL VI44109134335Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMDSENEOL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 137FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI42114794Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMDSENEOR VI32135285Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMDSENEOR VI44106126304Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPSCMNEOIND VI42400Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADPXEMATL VI424915Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusULNPXEIMMDHL VI13106713Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHCMATIND VI1389109239Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHCMATIND VI13643774Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHCMATIND VI13106713Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHCMATIND VI13106713Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHCMATIND VI442115277Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADDSENEOIND VI24915Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADPXEMATL VI42400Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADPXEMATIND VI132337Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADPXEMATIND VI4241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADPXEMATR VI5241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADPXEMATIND VI2136125Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADPXEMATIND VI13756139Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADDSEMATIND VI121314386Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADDSEMATIND VI1148600Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADDSEMATL VI1112338Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMDSEMATIND VI1123440136Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMDSEMATIND VI11713NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMDSEMATIND VI1316916Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMDSEMATIND VI3251013Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMSFTINDIND VI534289192Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMSFTINDIND VI13855399Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMPXEIMMEPIND VI4410833334Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMSCMNEOIND VI44511724Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusSCAPGFMATIND VI22251611Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusSCAPGFMATIND VI4220826Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusSCAPGFMATIND VI238102196Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusFEMDSEIMMEPIND VI6461349Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIPXEMATL VI119351Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIDSEMATL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 138FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI119633Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHICOMMATR VI444391190Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHICOMMATR VI6461349Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHICOMMATIND VI119351Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIPXEMATIND VI112713Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIPXEMATIND VI74231Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIDSEINDIND VI136922Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIDSEINDIND VI11713NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNISHMATL VI443312Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNISHMATL VI119351Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNISHMATR VI4493100214Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNISHMATR VI31374497Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNILLMATIND VI4220513Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNILLMATIND VI44401224Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNILLMATIND VI55114476Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNILLMATIND VI5573963Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNILLMATIND VI645825Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHICOMMATL VI1310554Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHICOMMATR VI132237NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNILLMATIND VI5573967Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNPUBMATIND VI64261349Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNPUBMATIND VI1389104225Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETCPXEMATL VI12130.42861Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETCPXEMATL VI12131.42861Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETCPXEMATL VI13634291Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETCPXEMATL VI112495113Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETCPXEMATL VI12734252Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETCPXEMATR VI534088189Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETCPXEMATIND VI447596201Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETCPXEMATR VI4472231Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETCPXEMATR VI449397205Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETCPXEMATR VI446561126Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETTPXEMATL VI11713NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETTPXEMATL VI44108133334Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETTPXEMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 139FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI217846123Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETTPXEMATIND VI42211241Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPSFTINDIND VI4485373Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPSFTINDIND VI1383104225Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPSFTINNIND VI42211241Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPSFTINDIND VI54375752Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPDSEIMMDHIND VI3149112189Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETTDSEIMMDHIND VI4497110257Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETTDSEIMMDHIND VI438.53954Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPDSEIMMDHIND VI44389103NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPDSEIMMDHIND VI534721Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPDSEIMMDHIND VI44108133334Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPDSEMATIND VI1389104225Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPDSEMATIND VI44108133334Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPDSEMATIND VI44108133334Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPDSEMATIND VI534088189Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETPDSEMATIND VI13332756Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETTDSEMATR VI534088189Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETTDSEMATL VI119351Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETCDSEMATIND VI28564123Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETCDSEIMMEPL VI4244043Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APATCOMMATR VI55255196Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATL VI4244063Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATL VI42114794Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATL VI55254882Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATL VI55254852Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATL VI5592031Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATL VI17050NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATR VI313749106Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATR VI334078155Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATR VI44992205Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATR VI21113652Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEMATL VI214466132Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEMATL VI13644185Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEMATL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 140FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI449391190Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEMATR VI449391190Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEMATR VI131071026Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEMATR VI112495113Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEMATR VI5343165Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEMATR VI1749391198Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEIMMEPIND VI4241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesCALCOMMAT VI13613067Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesCALCOMMATL VI44102113245Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesCALCOMMATR VI6461349Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusCALCOMMATL VI533815Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesCALSCMIMMDHR VI119683Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesFEMDSEMATL VI44401229Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesFEMDSEMATL VI4244170Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesFEMDSEMATR VI44102115270Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesFEMDSEMATR VI5524882Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesFEMDSEMATR VI645721Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesFEMDSEMATR VI4244170Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesSCAPFMATL VI448890188Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEMATR VI54375884Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEMATR VI5344383Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL VI4494123125Ph42800-2500MammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisSCAPGFMATR VI422035Ph42800-2500MammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisSCAPGFMATR VI52144180Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesSCAPGFMATR VI534721Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATR VI534078155Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesFEMPXEMATR VI13643568Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHCMATIND VI13106715Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHCMATIND VI13106922Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHCMATIND VI4248048Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHCMATIND VI531074691Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHCMATIND VI13251021Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHUMDSEMATR VI424490Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHUMDSEMATR VI1349115197Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHUMDSEMATL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 141FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI32135215Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHUMDSEMATL VI52144180Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHUMDSEMATL VI532412NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHUMDSEMATL VI54469Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHUMDSEMATL VI534088189Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHUMDSEMATL VI55114369Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHUMDSEMATL VI4244170Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesULNPXEMATR VI5341945Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesULNPXEMATR VI42114794Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesULNPXEIMMDHL VI52134084Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR VI21113652Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR VI52123673Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR VI438.53954Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR VI136457120Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR VI423440136Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR VI423440136Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR VI4496101220Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATR VI5341945NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATL VI42114294Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATL VI423029102Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATL VI52123673Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATL VI53122NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATL VI534079164Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATL VI533927NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHICOMMATL VI423440136Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATL VI423333128Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATL VI55733150Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATL VI54426493Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATL VI40617NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATL VI44102115277Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATL VI44102115277Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATL VI423440136Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATL VI4410611991Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATR VI13102440Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATR

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 142FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumCultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI21113796Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATR VI82139024Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATR VI4494125125Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATR VI42491521790-1820MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATR VI42302688Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATR VI539029134Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATL VI52123673Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATL VI21303963Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATL VI4444125125Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATL VI53241221790-1820MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATIND VI447470145Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATL VI4241138Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADDSEMATL VI53408471Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADDSEMATL VI42114394Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADDSEMATR VI3164486Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADDSEMATR VI5344076Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADDSEMATR VI55254882Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADPXEMATL VI424915Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADMATR VI4041638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCPXEMATR VI11241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETTPXEMATR VI21272144Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATR VI53174191Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIICOMMATR VI131071026Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCCOMMATL VI4204170NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusASTCOMMATR VI32132436Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusASTCOMMATR VI5573963Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusTIBDSEMATL VI13521531Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusTIBDSEMATL VI424612Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusTIBDSEMATR VI44101111256Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusTIBDSEMATR VI422035Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusTIBDSEMATR VI4242752Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusTIBDSEMATR VI6461145Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusTIBDSEMATR VI448133334Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusTIBDSEMATR VI4244063Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusCALCOMMATL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 143FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI423440136Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesCALCOMMATL VI27751108Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesCALCOMMATR VI32135285Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusFEMDSEMATL VI55224784Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusFEMDSEMATL VI44453393Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesSCAPGFMATL VI44543657Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusSCAPGFMATL VI6461035Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusSCAPGFMATL VI44109133353Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusSCAPGFMATR VI44106119291Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesSCAPGFMATR VI21113652Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusFEMPXEMATR VI68446Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHCMATIND VI13644593Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHCMATIND VI42201029Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHCMATIND VI13512241Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHCMATIND VI4220617Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHCMATIND VI534079184Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHUMDSEMATL VI28974136Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHUMDSEMATL VI14241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHUMDSEMATL VI142400Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHUMDSEMATR VI5342859Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHICOMMATR VI6410556Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHICOMMATR VI42201029Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHICOMMATR VI534084171Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHICOMMATR VI6461035Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHICOMMATR VI534097228Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHICOMMATR VI4244638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHICOMMATR VI534079169Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHICOMMATR VI136800Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHICOMMATR VI534084174Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHICOMMATL VI4241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHICOMMATL VI2157720NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHICOMMATL VI132237Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHICOMMATL VI4241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHICOMMATL VI52123572Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHICOMMATL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 144FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI5344178Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHIICOMMATR VI414915Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHIICOMMATL VI5573350Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHIICOMMATL VI521.3410Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHIICOMMATL VI21113652Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHIICOMMATL VI4493975Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHIICOMMATL VI449391140Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHIIICOMMATR VI44108133334Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHIIICOMMATR VI44101111256Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHIIICOMMATL VI449397205Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHIIICOMMATL VI534084171Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusRADPXEMATL VI64446Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusRADPXEMATL VI171545NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusRADPXEMATR VI53139Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusRADPXEMATR VI52123673Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETTPXEMATR VI52123673Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETTPXEMATL VI12572741Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETTDSEMATIND VI4241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETCSCMIMMDHR VI6461349Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETCPXEMATR VI6461349Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETCDSEMATR VI21500Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETCDSEIMMEPIND VI4410813337Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APATCOMMATL VI534078153Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHUMDSEMATR VI144104114274Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusPHIICOMMATR VI54243958Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATL VI11395980Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATR VI21113756Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATR VI32135235Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesASTCOMMATR VI13572241Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATR VI349115197Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATR VI26333107Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATR VI133172184Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATR VI21113652Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATR VI45617Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATR

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 145FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI4341638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATL VI1212413Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATL VI25499Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATL VI55254882Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATL VI131001026Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATL VI4241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATL VI55161412Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATL VI4117104231Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATIND VI3113554112Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATIND VI534078155Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATR VI44109144274Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATR VI2111352Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATR VI135722111Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATR VI531711691Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATR VI531711691Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATR VI424915Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATR VI424915Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATIND VI44103118202Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATIND VI4496101220Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATIND VI645510Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATIND VI4494117299Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATIND VI6461349Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMDHIND VI449391190Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMDHIND VI447877149Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMDHIND VI171545NOneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMDHIND VI55255196Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMDHIND VI52144180Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMDHIND VI534078155Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMDHIND VI424915Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMDHIND VI4241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMDHIND VI424915Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMEPIND VI534721Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMEPIND VI52144180Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEIMMEPIND VI449391190Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBPXEIMMDHIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 146FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI4247110Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBPXEMATR VI21500Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBPXEIMMEPIND VI44108133334Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBPXEIMMEPIND VI424915Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBSFTINDIND VI121061129Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBSFTINDIND VI44352046Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALCOMMATL VI55254572Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALCOMMATL VI137052116Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALCOMMATR VI44108133334Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALCOMMATR VI31131432Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesCALCOMMATR VI131131432Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALCOMMATR VI424915Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALCOMMATR VI4494125125Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALPXEIMMDHIND VI4494125125Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALPXEIMMDHIND VI4494117290Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALPXEIMMDHIND VI221222210Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALPXEIMMDHIND VI447366136Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALPXEMATIND VI4411255MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALPXEMATIND VI4494125125Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALPXEMATIND VI4371117Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALPXEMATIND VI554182168Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALPXEMATIND VI534182168Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALPXEMATIND VI53122Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALPXEMATIND VI44512876Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASACMATIND VI44108133309Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBPXEIMMDHIND VI423440136Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBPXEMATR VI44106119291Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASACMATIND VI32132638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL VI21254693Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL VI44103118282Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL VI4241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL VI534086177Ph42800-2500MammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisSCAPGFMATL VI4241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL VI4241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 147FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI44104114274Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL VI13106923Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL VI424400Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL VI534289242Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDL VI44533285Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDL VI551713Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATR VI4241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATR VI31704686Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATR VI44102115277Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATR VI21113652Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDR I1223128614PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDR VI1149397205Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDR VI449391190Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAIMMDHL VI214465126Ph42800-2500MammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisSCAPGFMATIND VI4410696304Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATIND VI12734250Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATIND VI44108133334Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATIND VI55146NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI44108133334Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI2123572Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI4244170Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI13644593Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeN/AN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI12572523Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI534087183Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI21252041Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI4496101220Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI6461349Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI42201029Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI21314386Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI12734252Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI4220513Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI44452260Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI52144180Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI423333128Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 148FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI53139Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI423440136MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI13644593Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI446857123Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI44106119291Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI44106126304Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI52144180Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI531291195Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI4494125125Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI13644593Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI44108133334Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI21702975Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI4494117299Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI318975167Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI4220513Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI53408647Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI44106119291Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI4496101220Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI222632344Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI336043165Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI44102115277Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAIMMDHR VI44108133334Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEMATL VI4493100219Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEMATL VI42114794Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEMATL VI4244170Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEMATR VI42400Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEIMMDHIND VI13166923Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI44685723Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPBLAINDIND VI4241038Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEIMMDHIND VI1380105231Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEIMMEPIND VI4241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEIMMEPIND VI4241024Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEIMMEPIND VI423440142Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEIMMEPIND VI4494117299Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEIMMEPIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 149FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI42949690Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEIMMEPIND VI423442146Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEIMMEPIND VI5214180NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEIMMEPIND VI217849133Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMDSEIMMEPIND VI521.3410Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEMATIND VI645510Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEMATIND VI21113652Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEMATIND VI44100109243Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEMATIND VI3781824Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEMATIND VI21794185Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEMATIND VI21611951Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEIMMEPIND VI21113652Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEIMMEPIND VI26366125Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEIMMEPIND VI21611846Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEIMMEPIND VI524.21230Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEMATIND VI21304290Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEMATIND VI4418177160Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEMATIND VI532457120Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEMATIND VI4241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEMATIND VI423440136Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEIMMDHIND VI21113652Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEIMMDHIND VI4220617Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEIMMDHIND VI423442146Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEIMMDHIND VI534079164Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEIMMDHIND VI4241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEIMMDHIND VI5341945Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSENEOL VI5573350Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSENEOL VI479915Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSENEOL VI8162813182Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSENEOL VI4220617Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSENEOIND VI13106714Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHCMATIND VI214445126Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHCMATIND VI4461924Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHCMATIND VI42201029Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHCMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 150FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI44108133334Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHCMATIND VI438.53954Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHCMATIND VI4494125125Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHCMATIND VI447569139Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATL VI137052118Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATL VI4242752Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATL VI54111628Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATL VI1241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATL VI1313172184Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATL VI21113652Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATL VI4242752Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATR VI131556138Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATR VI44106126304Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATR VI424915Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATR VI534078155Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATR VI4494117299Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND VI55159NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND VI21113756Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEMATIND VI5592031Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMSFTINDIND VI136676164Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMSFTINDIND VI5344181Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMSFTINDIND VI45613Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMSFTINDIND VI21113652Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMSFTINDIND VI21303983Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMSFTINDIND VI534087183Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMSFTINDIND VI4494117299Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMSFTINDIND VI4493100214Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMSFTINDIND VI4494117299Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMSFTINDIND VI4220513Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHCMATIND VI44108133334Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHCMATIND VI5342859Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMPXEMATIND VI4221124122800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMPXEMATIND VI4244690Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMPXEIMMEPIND VI4242752Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEMATL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 151FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI534291199Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEMATL VI5343165Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEMATL VI422012Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEMATR VI55123144Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEMATR VI31137460Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEMATR VI6461346Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEMATIND VI21112639Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEMATIND VI53420192Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEMATIND VI534086177Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEMATIND VI21113756Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEIMMDHIND VI17050Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEIMMDHIND VI42114794Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEIMMDHL VI53122NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATL VI21500Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATL VI534721Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATL VI44120152377Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATL VI52123673Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATL VI444452299Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATL VI6461349Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATL VI4220513Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEMATR VI424612Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATL VI5573350Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATL VI21611846Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATL VI54319871Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATL VI21500Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATR VI21113756Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATR VI52144180Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATR VI449391140Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATR VI54345178Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATR VI21251627Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATR VI695828Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATR VI21500Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATR VI5555196Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATR VI4105617Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 152FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI449380183Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEINDR VI4494117299Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEINDL VI533815Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEMATL VI44104114274Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEMATL VI55224784Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEINDL VI534084171Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEINDL VI4494125125Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHL VI55123144Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHL VI44115148313Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHL VI1149391190Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHL VI445825Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMMATL VI2111362Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHL VI532457120Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHL VI423442146Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHL VI21113657Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHR VI6461349Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHR VI17050Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHR VI4493100214Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHR VI423440136Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHR VI42114794Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHR VI423440136Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHIND VI645825Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHIND VI44106126304Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHIND VI44106126304Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHIND VI21113652Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIPXEIMMEPIND VI21113552Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIPXEIMMEPIND VI13644593Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATR VI4244170Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATR VI423336124Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR VI5512540Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR VI44102113265Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATIND VI3844073Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATIND VI424915Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR VI4494112259Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATR

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 153FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI44108133334Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLNEOIND VI47330124Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI13113370Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI6461347Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI1348712Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI4496161270Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI449391190Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI55123144Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI534086174Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI5344078Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI31131432Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI4494105115Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI4410611929Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI1214175150Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI44462566Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI44103118282Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI4493107250Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI1252512Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI424224Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI5342059Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI534098228Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI45612Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI449389183Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI1348712Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI31072883Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI21203677Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI442610Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNPUBMATIND VI534291199Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADDSEMATL VI42201029Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADDSEMATL VI21113652Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADDSEMATR VI137052118Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADDSEIMMDHIND VI12693945Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADDSEIMMDHIND VI4220227Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND VI21252551Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 154FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI4494125125Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADDSEIMMDHIND VI45617Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADDSEIMMDHIND VI424412Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADDSEIMMDHIND VI265011Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADDSEIMMDHIND VI534289192Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADDSEIMMDHIND VI4493100214Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADDSEIMMDHIND VI42114794Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADDSEIMMDHIND VI42292477Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADDSEIMMDHIND VI4220617Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADDSEIMMDHIND VI42201029Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADDSEIMMDHIND VI211303677Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATL VI534097228Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATL VI21113652Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATL VI21113652Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATR VI4494130318Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATR VI1212410Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATR VI13582654Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATIND VI31162452Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATIND VI64100.5721Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATIND VI424915Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATIND VI4496101220Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND VI42302688Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND VI21303773Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND VI21611957Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND VI53174691Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND VI53623162Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND VI44109138353Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND VI311162452Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND VI6461349Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND VI42329102Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND VI4494125125Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND VI534029164Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND VI534182168Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND VI534182168Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 155FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI42323516Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND VI44103118282Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND VI527.22153Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND VI42231757Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTSFTINDIND VI5343165Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND VI39380171Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND VI55254882Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND VI4241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND VI131671026Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND VI44109138353Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND VI131071026Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND VI31313577Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND VI131071026Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND VI534721Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPSFTINDIND VI318472154Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND VI44920214Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND VI21113652Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEMATIND VI4220722Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEMATIND VI44108133334Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEMATIND VI21611951Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND VI217545128Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND VI44103118282Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND VI131886138Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND VI44109128353Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND VI3114051109Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND VI4241024Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND VI44108133384Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND VI5331815Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND VI53139Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPDSEIMMDHIND VI53139Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATIND VI44103118282Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATIND VI21500Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATIND VI74231Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATIND VI534293205Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 156FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI645510Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATL VI4241024Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATL VI44102113265Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATIND VI112491107Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATIND VI133172154Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATIND VI4494117294Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATIND VI39380171Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATIND VI424910Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATIND VI438.13450Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATR VI534293205Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATR VI21113652Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATR VI5573963Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATR VI422023Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATR VI136676164Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATR VI211723685Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATR VI42436Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATR VI171545Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATR VI4242752Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTDSEIMMDHIND VI221222210Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATIND VI5341945Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATIND VI32132138Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATIND VI53176191Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATIND VI52134084Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATIND VI4241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATIND VI13532447Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATIND VI443075155Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATIND VI6461349Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATIND VI138993194Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATIND VI39380174Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATIND VI424915Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATIND VI54324971Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATIND VI532558126Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATIND VI2157720Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATIND VI447771147Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 157FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI21692872Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATL VI55254882Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATL VI21307364Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATR VI131071026Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATR VI6461349Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AAXISCOMMATIND VI131071026Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AAXISCOMMATIND VI449341196Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AAXISMATIND VI5353471113Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AAXISMATIND VI74251Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusAXISMATIND VI424915Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AAXISMATIND VI424915Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusAXISMATIND VI56245196Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AAXISMATIND VI534078185Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AAXISMATIND V55924MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AAXISMATIND VI534047228Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AATLMATIND VI5343773Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AATLMATIND VI534079114Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AATLMATIND VI3111621192Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AATLMATIND VI6461349Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AATLMATIND VI421.1915Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AATLMATIND VI1236NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAOCCMATIND VI1389107235Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAINDIND VI533023Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAINDIND VI4220722Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAZYGMATR VI449389183Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAZYGMATR VI318472154Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAZYGMATR VI522.2616Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAZYGMATR VI522.2616Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAZYGMATL VI241129Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAPETMATIND VI214975150Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAPETMATIND VI19307821790-1820MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAPETMATIND VI19307821790-1820MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAPETMATIND VI19307821790-1820MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAPETMATIND VI52144180Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAMAXMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 158FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide IX22513Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeSusScrofaFEMSFTINDIND IX23411Ph42800-2500MammaliaPerissodactylaEquidaeEquusAsinusRADDSEMATR VIII3064EBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETTPXEMATIND VIII2055EBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADDSEIMMEPIND IX12412158Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesSCAPGFMATR IX1101123NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATR IX124122213Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusSCAPGFMATL IX11151050Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATL IX11151010Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATIND IX124122213Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ASCAPGFMATIND IX3133NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AFEMPXEIMMDHR IX124152818Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMPXEMATR IX281356Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMDSEINDIND IX124121611Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBSFTINDIND IX124152818Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHUMPXEMATIND IX24122213Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AHCMATIND IX23411Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATL IX286832Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATL IX3133NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATR IX24525Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHICOMMATR IX281556Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHIDSEMATR IX1224Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/APHISCMIMMDHIND IX124121611Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEMATL IX3133NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADDSEMATL IX124122213Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADPXEIMMDHL IX124122213Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADDSEIMMDHIND IX13561314Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ARADSFTINDIND IX13561012Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEIMMDHR IX2229Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AULNPXEIMMDHL IX357810Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALCOMMATR IX281356Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATIND IX13561012Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATL IX110141923Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBDSEMATL IX22513Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBPXEIMMEPIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 159FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide IX24121611Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBSFTINDIND IX13561012Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ATIBPXEIMMDHIND IX10013187Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTPXEMATIND IX100172827Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETCPXEMATR IX281356Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETTDSEMATIND IX2229Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND IX11151113Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND IX271252Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND IX26034Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND IX56934Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND IX271147Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMETPPXEMATIND IX13561314Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNISHMATL IX1224NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATIND IX12452199Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AINNILLMATR IX110173032Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesFEMDSEMATL IX281356Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHUMDSEMATL IX2226NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesHUMDSEMATR IX1224NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesPHIIICOMMATL IX3133NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesRADPXEMATL IX3133NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACALCOMMATR IX124341Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AASTCOMMATL IX135252Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEMATR IX110183135Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEMATR IX13561314Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEMATR IX110141922Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesTIBDSEMATR IX11151113Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvisAriesMETCDSEMATIND IX110172827Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusFEMPXEMATIND IX124122213Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusHCMATIND IX11151010Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusRADPXEMATR IX110469Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusRADDSEMATR IX22513NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusASTCOMMATR IX12412199Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETTPXEMATL IX110172827Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeCapraHircusMETCDSEMATIND IX124122213Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusFEMDSEIMMEPL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 160FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide IX11151215Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATL IX11151215Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIIICOMMATL IX1351810NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusRADPXEMATL IX2229NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCALCOMMATR IX11151010Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusHUMDSEINDIND IX3433Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusPHIICOMMATL IX3133NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCALSCMIMMDHR IX110173032Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETTDSEMATIND IX1352810Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETCDSEMATIND IX124122213Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMETCCOMMATR IX10013187Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNILLMATIND IX111568Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNILLMATIND IX281356Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusINNILLMATIND VI1211019NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeN/AN/AMATIND IX1224NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaCervidaeN/AN/APHIIICOMMATR I23127175dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCRAZYGMATIND I1310822392OttomanMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCRAORBMATIND I1310719354PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCRAORBMATIND VI424915Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCRAORBMATIND VI1310554Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusCRAOCCMATIND I22253711848cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANMATIND I41326397310Iron IAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I31085303NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMADMATIND I22253671798cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANMATIND I3130911208dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I137228775PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANMATIND I11308.322518dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANMATIND I1311634675PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I1310718344PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I2308451058dFillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANMATIND I1314366964 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I4130844898dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANMATIND I22024NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I1223115234PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOCIS/N/AMANMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 161FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I1310310144PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I13109761054PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I1310310144PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I220100247NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I236747xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I11314762776Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I1311634675PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I1314366964 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I1131028905dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANMATIND I4131625618dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I137228775PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANMATIND I12231.224454PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I1222388NAPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANMATIND I1311431625PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I1311634675PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I43083270xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I22211375dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I5123017528dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I41199481538dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I12231.224454PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I1230466135PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I231310245dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANMATIND I13109761054PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I1314366964 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I5121531308d fillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I22253671798cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I137433914PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I231310245dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I137432914PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAMAXMATIND I1131028905dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I122171313NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I230047NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I41199561728dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 162FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I1223115224PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I1230715xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I137433914PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I231615335PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I137431904PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I4994xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I13109761084PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I135924NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND I1310310144PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I122171211NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I1311634675PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I12224109NAPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I22081203NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAMAXMATIND VI31161837Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I137126734PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I8130.224588dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I2221520678cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I222781362898cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I212146138dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I2328451055cPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I31311135dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I22228611688cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I811226218dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I137433914PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I3224427398cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I1311538765PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I5198214708aIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I230047NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND VI54224264Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I1310718344PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANSYNMATIND I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I222281262768cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I813426618dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I22253671798cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 163FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I22221378cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I2328451055cPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I1310310144PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I1314366964 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I1223621338dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I1310214204PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I21226008dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND I11314672596Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATR I222283138cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATL I212268188dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I41199381218dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATR I41199381218dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATL I122171211NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATL I232227845PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATL I1310045NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATL I51057NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATL I12231.224454PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I1314433655PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATL I423242131xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATL I2034xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I222771473028dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I11336471378dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I7127265143LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I41199561728dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I11321481766Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I231615335PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATR I3217522335cPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATR I22228611688cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATR I1310719354PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATL I22211375dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I222771342908dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I9117171top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATR I2311510NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATL

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 164FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I7127265143LBAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I232237845PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATL I81291002368dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATR I232541945dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATL I12231.229664PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATR I41199431538dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATR I1222388NAPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I231310245dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I32236791568dIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATR I811825238dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATR I41199381218dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I911346898dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I22210235dPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATL I23028174 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATR I2121412308dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I1375361035PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I412083169xxMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I122171211NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATL I1310310145PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I137433914PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATR I13591636NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATR I1222388NAPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATR I8148851808dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATL I41199511608dNaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I12231.428614PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I11314122386Iron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I23028174 or 5PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I13591636NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I1375361035PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I122171211NANAMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I413242329NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I41191311008cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND I702849141top soilMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANASRMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 165FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide I2328461115cPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANASRMATL I32221551058cIron IIMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANASRMATIND I81481052328dfillMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANASRMATIND I12231.2219664PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANASRMATIND I22024NANaMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANASRMATL VI534291199Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND VI55255092Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND VI534291199Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATL I2328471125cPersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANASRMATIND I137434965PersianMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANASRMATL VI4242752Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND VI449391190Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATL VI424915Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND VI4242752Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND VI55255796Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATR VI21581338Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND VI4494117299Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND VI13532756Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND VI6461035Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND VI4241638Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATR VI534088189Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND VI44108183334Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRIMMDHIND VI534291199Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATL VI42642752Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATL VI4244690Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND VI21113652Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND VI5342155Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND VI422035Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND VI4494125125Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND VI21113652Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND VI534079164Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATL VI534078155Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATR VI53122661Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND VI4410213165Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 166FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI4494115209Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAMAXMATIND VI645825Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/ACRAMAXMATIND VI5342155Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND VI534888189Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND VI21500Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATL VI4494125125Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND VI21604317Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATR VI534700Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATL VI534087183Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND VI4220513Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANASRMATIND VI3191120Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND VI3162290Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND VI534291199Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND VI13643978Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND VI13623163Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND VI2111025Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND VI115617Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANMATIND VI31354293Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANSYNMATIND VI44103118282Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANSYNMATIND VI314544Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANSYNMATIND VI64446Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANSYNMATIND VI54284363Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANSYNMATIND VI13106916Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANSYNMATIND VI4446Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANSYNMATIND VI449341196Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANSYNMATIND VI44452260Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANSYNMATIND VI13106916Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANASRMATIND VI534182168Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANSYNMATIND VI31354293Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANASRMATIND VI31354293Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANASRMATIND VI4241170NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANASRMATIND VI4423349NoneMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANASRMATIND VI1389109239Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANASRMATIND VI45617Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANASRMATIND

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Appendix C. Tell el Hesi Database Continued 167FieldAreaLocusPBMCStratumcultureClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesElementPortionAgeSide VI12131.42861Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANMATIND VI12131.42861Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANMATIND VI13106916Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANMATIND VI13106916Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANMATIND VI6464613Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANMATIND VI4410215277Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANMATIND VI1223122161Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANMATIND VI14244690Ph42800-2500MammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisFamiliarisMANSYNMATIND VI13644593Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANMATIND VI6481349Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANMATIND VI13106416Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANMATIND VI6461346Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBosTaurusMANMATIND VI122323163Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATL VI13623163Ph42800-2500MammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeOvis/CapraN/AMANSYNMATIND


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Peck-Janssen, Shannon Marie.
0 245
Animal husbandry at Tell el Hesi (Israel) :
b results from zooarchaeological and isotopic analysis
h [electronic resource] /
by Shannon Marie Peck-Janssen.
260
[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
2006.
3 520
ABSTRACT: Located in today's Southern Israel, Tell el Hesi provides archaeologists with important clues to political and social changes in the ancient Near East. Zooarchaeological and stable isotopic analyses were conducted to evaluate shifts in animal husbandry practices during changing socioeconomic and sociopolitical conditions in the Southern Levant. During the Early Bronze Age, Tell el Hesi thrived as an agricultural grain producing center for the southern Levant. The acropolis served as both a storage and redistribution center for the inhabitants of Tell el Hesi. Coinciding with the collapse of the southern Levant, Tell el Hesi was abandoned throughout the Middle Bronze Age and Late Bronze Age. Socioeconomic relations collapsed between the southern and northern Levant as foreign cultures swept into the region. The Iron Age and Persian Period represented constant sociopolitical change as Assyrian and Persian armies battled against Egypt for territory and natural resources, u sing Tell el Hesi as a military outpost and storage facility for soldiers and equipment. Unsystematic excavations at the site make it difficult to interpret how animals were used at Tell el Hesi over time. Zooarchaeological analysis suggests, however, that amidst constant societal changes at Tell el Hesi, the inhabitants of the site used animals in similar ways throughout time. Statistically, there seems to be little difference in the quantity of animal species represented during the Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Persian Period. This suggests that the once common specialized pastoralism found in the Early Bronze Age survived into the Persian Period at Tell el Hesi and was an effective herd management strategy for small populations living in ever changing societies. Future excavation and analysis would be able to further assess this hypothesis. The stable isotope results suggest that domesticated animals at Tell el Hesi were consuming both C3 domesticated grain along with C4 wild grasse s. Economically significant animals appear to have been foddered within the city boundaries of Tell el Hesi but predominantly grazed in the surrounding foothill area. Wild animals such as deer, gazelle and antelope share similar d13C values with the domesticated animals at the site.
502
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2006.
504
Includes bibliographical references.
516
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
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System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
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Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 167 pages.
590
Adviser: Robert H. Tykot, Ph.D.
653
Near Eastern Archaeology.
Zooarchaeology.
Archaeozoology.
Animal domestication.
Early Bronze Age.
690
Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x Applied Anthropology
Masters.
773
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.1437